Page 1

I Official Journal of the AUSTRALIAN WATER AND j

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0310 - 0351

WM-ii=l!.!M i=i;Mi-i•XeJrtiit•J~1

IVol. 7, No. 1, March, 1980 Registered for posting as a periodical -

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EDITORIAL

Chairman, C. D. Parker F. R. Bishop Mary Drikas E. A. Swinton T. M. Smyth Joan Powling B. S. Sanders T. Fricke W. Nicholson J. H. Greer W. E. Padarin B. J. Murphy P.R. Hughes J. Bales H. Wilson Editor: Publisher: G. R. Goffin A.W.W.A. BRANCH CORRESPONDENTS

CANBERRA A.C.T. W. E. Padarin, P.O. Box 306, Woden, 2606. 062-81-9111 NEW SOUTH WALES T. M. Smyth, G. H. & D. Pty. Ltd., P.0. Box 219, Neutral Bay Junction, 2089. 02-908-2399 VICTORIA J: Bales, E.P.A., 240 Victoria Parade, East Melbourne, 3002. 03-651-4685 QUEENSLAND P. R. Hughes, P.O. Box 120, Kenmore 4059. 07-378-7455 SOUTH AUSTRALIA Mrs. M. Drikas, State Water Laboratories E. & W. S. Private Mail Bag Salisbury 5108. 08-258-1066 WESTERN AUSTRALIA C. M. Tucak, 18 Ventor Ave., W. Perth 6005 092-321-2421

TASMANIA R. Camm, Cl· Met. Water Board, Macquarie St., Hobart. 002-30-2330 NORTHERN TERRITORY H. Wilson, Water Div. Dept. of Transport & Works, P.O. Box 2520, Darwin NT 5794. 089-81-2450 EDITORIAL & SUBSCRIPTION CORRESPONDENCE G. R. Goffin, 7 Mossman Dr., Eaglemont 3084, 03-459-4346 ADVERTISING Mrs. L. Geal, Appita, 191 Royal Pde., Parkville 3052. 03·347-2377

WATER

[ ISSN 0310 0367

P

j

Officil Journal of the

!AOSTRALI N WATER AND)

!WASTE WATEJfA$SOCIAIION I Vol. 7, No. 1 March 1980

CONTENTS Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Association and IAWPR News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water the Indestructible Resource 8th Convention Address - Harry Butler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Investigation of Estuarine Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen in the Brisbane River - R. 0. Rankin and S. N. Milford............ . ...... . .. Developing a Toxicity Testing Capacity for Australia -JohnCairnsJr.. .. . . . ... . . .... . ............ . ..... Time Distribution of Slug Contamination in Lagoon Effluents and Flow Equalization - B. W. Gould...... . ... . ..... . . Control Engineering Theory in .Water Treatment - B. W. Gould. . ..... ....... ... . ........... . ...... .

17

AWWA-IAWPR-WPCF-IWSA-AATS-AWCC Guide to the Alphabetical Array - C. D. Parker . . . . . . . . . . Two New Treatment Processes, Review - D. Chirmuley. . . . . . Conference Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter to Editor ... . .. . ... . .. .......... ........ . . .. ,. . . . . .

19 21 23 23

' PAPERS REQUIRED FOR 'WATER' Members and others are Invited to submit artlcles or proposals for such for publication In this Journal. Articles should be of original thought or reports on original work of interest to the members of the A. W. W .A. In the range of 1000 to 5000 words and accompanied by relevant diagrams or photographs. Full Instructions are available from Branch Correspondents or the Editor. CSIRO style Gulde will assist.

COVER STORY The 140 m high concrete double curvature arch Gordon Dam which has helped create Australia 's largest inland fresh water storage. A focal point in Tasmania's Gordon River hydro electric development stage 1, the dam created Lake Gordon. Smaller dams on the Serpentine and Huon Rivers created the associated Lake Pedder storage. Linked by canal the Lakes Gordon and Pedder cover an area of more than 500 sq. km and are putting more than 3 200 million tonnes of water a year through the underground power station . Gordon Dam has a crest length of 192 m and a crest thickness of 2. 7 m. At the base it is 18 m thick. The volume of concrete in the Dam was 157,500 cubic metres. It was designed and built by the Hydro-Electric Commission workforce.

7 8 10

12 14 16


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The Donkin valve range includes gate, butterfly and non-return valves for the control of fuel gas mains, air, coke oven hot gases, corrosive sulphurous gases, or process gases in industry. Units are available from 600 to 1200 mm, even to 1800 mm pipe bore size.

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R~~ MINIATURE CONDUCTIVITY METER Conductivity measurements can be made easily by relatively unskilled personnel and the instrument can be held and operated in one hand. It is calibrated in a reference so lu tion of sodium chloride and measures conductivity in the range 0 to 10 000 uScm·1 • Portable, battery operated • Digital readout • Moulded, inductive type sensing head with a constant cell factor • Waterproof case . The Aimco miniature conductivity meter is suitable for testing laboratory water samples as well as numerous field applications such as measuring the conductivity or salinity of water In reservoirs, dams, irrigation channels and industrial cooling and rinsing systems .

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.EDITORIAL

!AUSTRALIAN WATER AND! !WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION!

FEDERAL PRESIDENT A . Pettigrew, P.O . Box 94, Rocklea, 4106. FEDERAL SECRETARY P. Hughes, Box A232 P.O . Sydney South, 2000. FEDERAL TREASURER J. H . Greer, Cl- M . M . B.W., 625 Lt. Collins St., Melbourne, 3000 . BRANCH SECRETARIES Canberra, A.C.T. D. Coucouvinis, C/ - Dept. of Construction, ¡P.O. Box 306, Woden , 2606. (480-177) New South Wales R. M. Lehman, Sinclair Knight & Partners, 2 Chan dos St., St. Leonards, 2065. (439-2866) Victoria R. Povey , S.R.W.S.C. , Operator Training Centre, P.O . Box 409, Werribee , 3030 . (741 -4171) Queensland J. Ryan, C/ - Gutteridge Haskins and Davey, G.P.O. Box 668K, Brisbane, 4001. South Australia A. Glatz , State Water Laboratories, E. & W.S. Private Mail Bag, Salisbury, 5108. (258-1066)

Western Australia C. M. Tucak , 18 Ventnor Ave., West Perth, 6005. (321-2421) Tasmania P.E. Spratt, C/ - Fowler , England & Newton, 132 Davey St ., Hobart, 7000. (237-591) Northern Territory K . Sajdeh , Water Div . Dept. of Transport & Works, P.O . Box 2520, Darwin , N.T. 5794. (895-511) WATER

RESERVOIRS AND RECREATION The water and waste-water industry, quite properly is better known for its structures and normal services than for the recreational facilities it provides . The structures themselves, their complexity and costs are frequerftly published , photographed and locally admired , particularly where their design and location is in harmony with their surroundings. However there are very significant secondary benefits which follow directly from the achievement of the primary objective, a major feature being the possibility of multi -purpose use of man-made lakes and large reservoirs . Usually located in delightful settings they provide centres for aquatic activity including both sailing and power boating, sporting, f:i sheries, picnicking, camping and the provision of holiday resorts . Because of the topography and high rainfall in Tasmania the development of these facilities has been dominated by the hydro power industry. Since the early 1920's the Hydro-Electric Commission has built some 750 kms of new roads into previously inaccessible areas and enlarged or created some 33 major lakes of which 10 have a capacity greater than 124 mega cubic metres, including Lake Gordon with a volume of 11 360 mega cubic metres . Now under construction are three large lakes for the Pieman River Power Development on the West Coast of .the island . Providing tourist facilities at these lakes involves the Hydro-Electric Commission with its statutory and property interests, local Councils and other authorities such as Inland Fisheries Commission which has had a significant role in the development of fisheries . Government funds over the past few years for this work have been directed to valuable improvements. At Strathgordon over $650 000 has provided a caravan and camping park facilities including a jetty for launch operation on Lake Pedder, shelters , and picnic facilities . The H.E.C. also contributes in providing features such as the attractive and unusual Visitors Reception Shelter at the Gordon Dam . Accessibility and convenience have opened up areas previously available only to the hiker and bushwalker, to a much larger segment of the public. The Gordon River Power Development alone attracts in' the vicinity of 100 000 visitors a year. Reservoirs and their associated recreational activities are such a feature of the Tasmanian scene that they figure largely in the literature about the State. 'Tasmania's Wonderland Inland W~ters' is a typical example and provides good reading . A more analytical approach is the report by Laurie Montgomerie and Pettit for the Water Resources Commission , " Benefits of Large Water Storages in N.S.W ." which , whilst directed specifically to that State has considerable general application . A man-made lake can offer the same attractions as nature's handiwork. Water and mountains, reflections from the verge and sky, the calm of the dawn and the evening and the stimulation of the storm and scurry of rain across the water. The flooding of valleys is not without its environmental hazards, particularly for those proposing these works . It is true and realised that the concern and involvement felt by many requires work and study and investigation to avoid unrealised commitments and unacc.e ptable environmental damage. To quote Sir Angus Paton in "Dams and their Interfaces", " The engineer responsible is required to reach conclusions and make recommendations, but is unable to obtain clearcut information from many branches of science as to the likely result of forming man-made lakes . .. the time factor for researching such matters is critical." This and similar problems highlights a vital possible inter-disciplinary role of AWWA, in bringing together a wide range of viewpoints and ensuring that the advice from all parties is not only available, competent and timely , but that each one fully accepts his or her share of the responsibility for the decisions made, popular of otherwise . Henry McFie, COUNCILLOR AND PAST FEDERAL PRESIDENT 7


el

ASSOCIATION NEWS PRESIDENT'S REPORT 'Water for the 80's' was the theme of the recent A.W .W.A. Summer School in Adelaide. Perhaps we also need to think 'A .W.W .A. IN THE 80's ' There is an increasing feeling that our Association should be expressing an opinion and presenting an informed view on water resources and usage. A ' Role in decision making ' is undoubtedly our objective. Our training ground for this role should be increased communication , and the creation of public awareness of the increasing need to utilize our water resources carefully . For example - there is considerable media accent on the use of agricultural sprays etc . and their effect on water supplies - do we really need to use such methods? What are the alternatives? Just how disastrous will be the effects on our country if we do not shepherd our water resources more carefully? It is encouraging to see an increase in accent on water reuse, and the energy potential of wastewater (Dec . Issue). The technical expertise within the Association has a considerable contribution to make in this area and the scope for development of new technologies in this energy conscious decade is not confined to the large or Government funded organisations. The smaller, tightly integrated organisations also have a vast and vital potential. The above are but a few of the items we as members of AWWA should be co~sidering - a few pebbles cast at ran dom to promote thought and encourage participation. If we as an Association wish to be leaders we wil l have to act as leaders to stand up and be counted .

The Federal Council Executive meeting has endorsed the proposed 9th Federal Convention , to be held in Perth in April 1981. This is the first time the Western Australian Branch has undertaken to stage an A.W .W.A . Conference , and we trust the whole Association will make a concerted effort to support it. Make this a commitment for 1981 ! Allan Pettigrew Federal President 8

A.C.T. In February, Dr. B. Commins of the Water Research Centre, U.K., on his way home from the A .W.W .A . Summer School, passed through Canberra and talked to the Branch on 'Public Health and Water Use '. Dr. Commons spoke on the methodology of developing standards for drinking water and considered some particular problems including the corre lation of soft water with the incidence of heart disease. He also discussed the newer philosophy of substituting guidelines for water quality in li eu of absolute standards. The theme of water quality criteria will be continued in next month 's meeting scheduled for 3rd April, 8 p.m. at the Institution of Engineers Building in Barton at which Dr. Alan Wade of the Public Health Division of the Australian Department of Health will speak on the proposed Australian Drinking Water Standards. Branch president David Philp was a guest speaker at the N.S.W. Branch week-end Regional Conference 7-9 March in Goulburn. His address covered the c ommissioning of the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre the recently completed treatment works designed to treat sewage from the whole of Canberra, to a tertiary level. The Branch has under discussion the formation of the Standing Committee on Legislation and Government. This is an important component of the Federal structu re of the Association and Members interested in making suggestions to the Committee or in serving on the Committee are asked to contact the Branch Secretary.

TASMANIA For its first meeting of the year, Tasmania took advantage of the visit of Dr. B. Commins for a Branch meeting on February 11. Dr. Commins , from the U.K. Water Research Centre has also visited other Branches and was the Keynote Speaker at the Adelaide Summer School. He spoke on research currently pursued in the United Kingdom into health hazards associated with drinking tap water and the progress towards the establishment of criteria and standards . Branch officers and committee for the coming year are: President, B. Healey; P. President , J. Stephens; Secretary, P. Spratt ; Treasurer, A. Young ; Committee: E. England , R. Camm, J. Lawrence , W. McEwan , W. Nicholson , H. McFie , D. Walters , J. Bowen.

NORTHERN TERRITORY A mulit-discipli17'ary audience of 35 Branch Members and members of the N.T. Dental Association and I.E. (Aust.) on February 11 h¡eard a joint presentation on 'Fluoride ' in Preventative Dentistry '.

The speakers , Professor Des Kai I is, Head of Dental Scienc~ and Associate Dean of the faculty of Dentistry at the W.A. University and Dr. Peter Gregory, Registrar of Pediatric Dentistry at Perth 's Princess Margaret Hospital were introduced by Dr. Don Anderson who is head of the N.T. Dental Services in the Department of Health . The speakers dealt with many aspects of the subject , particularly th e importance of water fluoridation and the very topical application of fluorides and fluoride toothpastes. Professor Kailis compared before and after fluoridation results from several Western Australian and Northern Territory Communities . At a further February meeting on the 18th , Dr. Commins of the U.K. whose visit to other Branches has already been mentioned in these 'notes ', took time off from his Darwin stop-over to provide a lecture to some 35 members on water quality and its effect upon health.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA As with other Branches, Western Australia benefitted from the transit of overseas speakers visiting to attend the Association Summer School in Adelaide. On February 14th , thirty -eight members enjoyed a talk by Professor K. J. Ives on 'Water in the 1980's'. He discussed the micro-micro studies necessary to further progress in viral studies, the more sophisticated and refined treatment necessary to meet such problems and the economics of dual water supplies a possible approach to solution of supply problems on a national basis. For March, a combined meeting with the Institution of Engineers Environmental Branch will hear a talk on environ mental study ot, the Cockburn Sound project and before the summer evenings lose their attractions , an afternoon site inspection of interest is proposed .

SOUTH AUSTRALIA The first meeting of the year was combined with a public lecture organised by the A.W.W .A. Summer School held in Adelaide. The speaker was Professor K. J. Ives, Professor of Public Health Engin eering of the University Col lege London . Professor Ives talked on dual water supply systems, his theme being that only the small proportion of water supply actually ingested necessitates ultrapure quality standards , this representing perhaps 5% of total consumption . He envisaged three categories of comple xity in supply: Drinking/Washing , House/irrigation, House/industrial and quoted a number of examples of dual systems in the United Kingdom and the U.S.A. For the houshold division , conven tionally treated water would be used for washing and gardening with the more elaborate measures of reverse osmosis WATER


or activated carbo n for drinking and food preparation for consumption. To avoid abuse of the potab le water supply, Professor Ives suggested the adoption of metered charge rates penalising usage above certain consumption levels. Supply systems discussed included a separate pipe network for potable water (not practicable in estab lish ed communities), insertion of the potab le lines within the existing reticulation pipelines and operating at higher pressures or even daily delivery 'with the milk! ' The evening and the discussion were of great interest and the opportunity provided by the Summer School was appreciated . The Bran c h meeting programme for 1980 includes: March 28: Sirofloc Process for Water Treatment - Mr. A. Priestly, Melb. May 30: Heavy Metals and Health - Dr. A. McMichael , Adelaide. Jul y 28: Recreational Use of Reservoirs - Prof. Burton , Armadale, N.S.W. ·september 29: Water in the Food industry - Panel. November 11 : Guest Night , speaker Mr . W. Bonython.

QUEENSLAND The Branch year opened with a meeting on March 5th to hear John Ryan of G.H. & D. on oxidation ditches for the treatment of domestic sewage. His talk covered design aspects, costs and operational features of several recent installat ions in south-eastern Queensland and in N.S.W. Cholera organisms have increased in the Brisbane River and the chlorine con tent of water from the Mt. Crosby water treatment plant has been raised. The Branch proposes a session in the near future on the increased presence of cholera in the river water - where does it originate? - is it dormant for a period - what activates the fluctuation . As result of discussions and with a realisation of shared interests , the Branch will , in the coming year, pursue joint activities with other bodies including the Australian Institute of Chemists, the I.E. (Aust .), the Clean Air Society and the Petroleum Institute the objective is to maintain liaison and cooperation in matters of mutual interest through joint activities , papers and projects. It is pleasing to report that a well known and esteemed member of the Branch, John Ridley has been awarded ·the King-Scott Memorial Prize for 1980 as top Graduate Student of the Graduate Diploma of Environmental Engineering at the Queensland Institut e of Technology.

VICTORIA The year started on February 26th, with a field inspection by some sixty members which combined plenty of the technical with a little of the social. The technical component was a visit to Victoria 's latest sewage treatment WAT ER

plant at Melton , forty kilometres west of Melbourne. The plant is a conve ntional activated s ludge design with fine bubble diffused aeration and heated sludge digestion (when fully operating). The present stage is designed for a 30 000 populat ion with a contribution today from 5-6000. At present one tank provides extended aeration , primary sedimentation is by-passed, and one secondary tank is in operation. The site area is very extensive and present plans envisage total retention of the effluent on the site and usage for irrig ation. The party closed the day with a visit to the nearby Lake Melton , a rock-fill dam of early vintage and part of the State Rivers and Water Supply system. This dam is on the Werribee River and provides regulation of irrigation water for downstream users in the Werribee area. The evening closed with a pleasant session , overlooking the dam and sustained with well organised chicken, champagne , dessert and conversation . Victoria ' s very active Branch Secretary, Robin Povey will be overseas for the next six or seven months having been granted a scholarship by the Con federation of British Industries. He will spend the greater part of his t ime in the U.K. with Hawker Siddeley Engineering P/L on various projects.

NEW SOUTH WALES The Branch 's Christmas Party is now old history of course,. but its worth recording that some forty members with wives and sweethearts made the most of the occasion at North Kamaraigal Room. 1980 activities commenced on January 30 when 40 members were given a special display of oil spil l mopping up on Botany Bay , viewed from M.V. Mussman with boom control of oil spread and breakdown by sprayed dispersant. Branch members attended segments of a five day course where Professor K. J. Ives (ex-Summer SchQol) discussed aspects of filtration processes inc ludin g operation and problems and recent developments. The Branch also took advantage of the visit of Dr. B. T. Commins at a meeting on February 14th where he spoke on drinking water health effects. His presentation included the effects of metalliferous and other inorganic and organic contaminants and showed a pragmatic approach and a tendency to discount the current U.S. trihalomethane bogey. He and his team are establishing environmental perspectives for better correlations of soft water-lead-cardiovascular diseases. At the meet ing of the 14th, W. J. (John) Fleming of the Newcastle Sub-branch tabled a programme of solid activity for 1980 including April 15: Water uscige in S.E. Asia Mr. D. Price. June 17: Urban Run-off Problems - Mr. P. Bliss .

NEWS The establishment and organisation of the International Association on Water Pollution Research is described in Guy Parker's article in this issue and needs no duplication here. From the inception of the Australian National Committee of IAWPR, cooperation and liaison with AWWA has been very close, to serve common interests , and further the causes and objectives of both Associations assisted by considerab le common membership. To the activities of AWWA with its regular conferences, seminars, training schools and branches throughout the Commonwealth, IAWPR has added access to its international conferences and activities. It was successful in bringing to Australia the successful 8th Internatio nal Conference of 1976 in Sydney and the International Conference on Land Methods of Wastewater Treatment held in Melbourne in 1978. The excellent co-operat ion of the two bodies and the realistic appreciation of common objectives is evidenced by IAWPR's decisions to contribute financially to the production of 'Water' as reported in the December issue. This column in the AWWA Journal is tangible evidence of the parallel paths of the two Associations arid the expression of their mutual interests. Conflict in the activities of programming and conduct of educational and technical meetfngs can be destructive to the common causes . Goodwill and many disc1,1ssions between the Associations have avoided this pitfall. Another tangible result of this cooperation is the creation of the Australian Water Co -ordinating Committee, also covered by Parker's paper. This marks a significant step towards a united approach to the • matters of great importance in the water field and the community. June of 1980 will see the 10th International Conference of IAWPR to be held in Toronto, June 23-27. Advanced programmes and invitations to register have been issued and are available from the Australian National Committee's Secretary, Mr. P. Hughes, Office of the Secretariat , cl- M.W.S. & D. Board, Cnr. Pitt and Bathursts Sts., Sydney, 2000. Of 178 papers submitted to referees 68 have been selected for the technical programme. Pre and post seminars are also programmed together with technical excursions. Toronto in the summer has much to offer. Follow up through the Secretary. 9


'WATER THE INDESTRUCTIBLE RESOURCE' ADDRESS TO THE EIGHTH FEDERAL CONVENTION Harry Butler M.B.E. I sincerely hope that nobody believes the title of this address . Perhaps in its ultimate state water may be indestructible but in the various use states it is probably one of the most vulnerable natural resources existing on the face of the earth . Waste, mis-use, pollution , salinity, status change, Ph change, nutrient change, chem ical change, eutrophication, all make water unavailable for various life forms. To revert to the title, I would indicate that water is not an indestructible resource. Mars once had a climate like earth 's. There was water that formed rivers. There were plants, and now this is all gone. Water is destructible as water. Perhaps in the future man may unl ock the water secrets of Mars and recombine the elements of hydrogen and oxygen and so make water available again . Life has as its basic drives , survival and growth. In order to survive and grow each living thing endeavours to modify its immediate environment to one more suitable for growth and surviva l. Such environmental changes, of necessity , lead to the destruction of other life forms which are dependent upon the pre-change conditions. These life forms in their turn are endeavouring to change the environment to their satisfaction and specific requirements. In closed eco-systems, there is a dynamic fluxing of change which , over a period of time, returns to the initial status. Th is is what is call ed the balance of nature. However natural catastrophes in the form of fire, earthquake, flood, volcanism , tidal wave, whatever, often so modify the closed environment as to alter the dynamic balance beyond the capacity to recycle to the original condition . The most significant universal element in life's survival is water. So, I would prefer the title of this talk to be 'Water the Indispensable Resource '. Now there is a phrase that conjures images. Without water, life cannot exist. Without life there is not much point in this convent ion. Because I am a man I am motivated by exactly the same biological drives as every other living thing . Survival and growth. (Of course on the cold nights there is some additional biological motivation). There are many people in today's world who regard the survival and growth syndrome as a form of self interest. If that is so, I am certainly self-interested. As a Naturalist however, I recognise an intrinsic right to life of other living things. I personally see no conf lict in talking about the right to life of living things , having just downed a gallant dinner which was totally composed of living things, brought together by culinary expertise. Unfortunately man is not able to eat anything that is not living, no matter how humanely he may kill it first, and for those of you who are vegetarians and sneer at yo_ur neighbours, the scream of a carrot pulled from the ground is a very anguished sound, and the mournful bellow of a cut cabbage will haunt your dreams for many nights to come. Even the shrill screams of peanuts thoughtlessly chewed before dinner! - I hope I have not put you off everything you want to eat. Do not light up that cigarette sir! Think of those tobacco plants writhing in agony as they burn. The right to life includes the right of man to his life. In the old days when man was humble and regarded his role in the universe as no more and no less than those other living things around him , then there was no problem. Man ate and was eaten, destroyed and was destroyed . But modern man, this proud, pale, biped, recognises no master and ruthlessly cuts down those other life forms which oppose or are not subjugate to his rule of the planet Earth. The impact of modern man on the environment is too well documented to have me explore it fully here . Each one of you here is a product of that impact, and Harry Butler, conservationist and naturalist is well known for his writing and his television appearances in Australia. He is an Honorary Life Member of A WWA .

10

we all tend to be somewnat two-faced; we pay our lip service to conservation of the environment , while we firmly believe that our particular way of lif e should be continued. It will probably come as a surprise to some delegates here to hear me say that the lack of water in Australia is probably the best thing that could have happened to this country . That lack of water, and I am of course referring to water usable by man , has limit ed his destruction of the very fragile arid land ecosystems, and in fact, there are sti ll parts of Australia which are largely untouched , but only due to the lack oi water. The first pioneers and explorers perished in the back country. Technology developed , and artesian wells and bores were sunk, so man pressed further out. Once there was water, there was life. Strangely enoug h at the same time this also brought death because with the water came al l the water dependant plants and animals of man. If by chance the waters failed or changed , al l of these things died.

Harry Butler, guest speaker and star attraction at the Convention dinner.

In today's world we are looking at tecnnologies for the future. Most of these rely on raw power and we are exploring renewable resource energies. When that eve ntuates, and it surely will, then the deserts of Australia are doomed because with raw energy available, water conversion to usable water will mos1 certain ly take place. However, if as we look at new technologies we retain our new awareness ot envIronmentaI needs there Is sti ll hope! Today's people are not ignorant about the ,values of so litude; of the wonders of space; and of freedom of other life forms - these values transcend the crass commercial values, although those values are certainly involved and intimately extend into the intrinsic aesthetic values of truly civi lised people. There is a divine spark that separates man from the other animals - the ability to anticipate the

WATER


future! To plan for it in such a way that he may deny himself in one generation in order to allow the next generations to persist. So we will probably have a compromise of ideas . Already the signs are obvious on the Australian landscape - the battle for the use of the Barrier Reef i.s just one example. I am dealing too much with the future. Look at now. Water is a basic national resource like land , and it is an odd thing in our society where we condemn criminals who steal food or destroy property , that the water criminal is not recognised as such. Some of these , such as the polluters are seen dimly, but the water wasters, the people who create the water changes , are for the most part regarded as the saviours of our society. The people who dam rivers and thus destroy the water status, the waterlife and water table; the people who over-c lear the land and create massive salinit y problems; the people who sink the wells and extend flocks and herds beyond the range of natural precipitation and in doing so , destroy the fragile lands. These people get medals ana recogn1t1on in our so1.;1 ety. wnereas in fact they are merely common criminals who are stealing the water heritage of today and tomorrow from every Australian who is and will be. Our standards must change. We have social problems which are deeply rooted. An example is Western Australia where I live. A huge state, one third of the Australian Continent, with a basic population of one million clustered tightly in the south west corner where the wint er rainfalls and the summer drought give a semblance of conform it y to the things we learn in s¡choo l, spring , summer, autumn , winter. It is a f lat land with a limited and mostly sporadic rainfall. All the rivers possible to dam are dammed ; those that are not are too salty to be of any use. We are creating a water shortage as more and more people seek the 'State of Opportunity ' but retain their water use customs, there is less and less water available for the increasing population. A couple of years ago due to low rainfall this was seen to be serious and the State Government made a public appeal to people to conserve water. They backed this with force , the user of a sprinkler could be fined and other forms of restriction. But the Perth people are typically Australian . "Yeah! give it a go. " was their response, and they did , and what was once a garden city, the green city of Perth , became a seared area of no gardens. The response did ensure that there was enough water for people to drink, and for sewerage and the like. A side result was that people like myself became involved in the large scale planning of native plant use; plants which could survive without artificial watering . Today the grass lawn has considerably diminished in Perth and original native greens have started to come through as people accommodate to the changed water availability . It is a lovely story and it is quite true , but our leaders, in stead of accepting that the people of Western Australia had responded marvellously in the emergency, became aghast at the success . Aghast, because the revenue from sales of water dropped dramatically. It is a very simpl e proposition: if you use less water, you pay less money. By some incredible stroke of genius water prices were increased and changed until the Authorities cou ld regain the original water income. The private response to that action is stil l simmering in the minds of the public, but it is so significant that it could become a m"ii:" point in the next State election. So water is very involved in politics, at least in one part of Australia. I mentioned native plants and my involvement. For many years people regarded Britain as home and their ideals were roses, cabbages, carrots, fruit trees, vines and all the good things of the earth that man has inherited . The Eucalypts, the v,,attles, the bottlebrushes and the multip le native plants were regarded as potential curiosities, but certainly not worthy of a place in the garden . Gradually that concept has changed over the years as pride in being an Australian has developed. Our national identity is characterised to some degree by the use of native plants in the streets and gardens. Australia is current ly undergoing a change in the thrust of national identity, partly brought about by the migrant influx following the Second World War. The peop le who came to Australia in that period brought their own cu ltu res, their own awareness of home, and thes formed part of their concept of home in Australia. Luckily there are enough Australians to counteract total ethnic influence, and the Australian ethos or WATER

awareness , or whatever term you wish to use in today compounded of the most acceptable aspects of many national it ies . During the catastrophe of water shortages in the West there was an opportunity1o develop the native plant theme. Western Australia used to be called the Wildflower State before the massive development destroyed the wildflowers almost completely. With a range of 10 000 species to choose from, or to be nationalistic, 15 000 across Australia, whatever variety of plant life you wish to grow , there is a native plant that can do it better: a plant which has been moulded into its natural environment by 1 000 000 years of harsh evolutionary se lection. There are certai n plants which come from similar environments in other parts of the world , which also do very wel l in Australia. For example, the jacaranda comes from dry South America, transported to a similar environment but without its natural controls , it has done extremely we ll here. In the same way Australian Eucalypts transported to Spain and California do better than they do in Australia, not because of soil or the climate is better, but because the control aspect of the environment, the predators, the competitors, are missing. Another problem which needs some mention is that of sal inity and its effect on our "indestructible resource " . As the farms are cleared and the evolved inland vegetation removed, the ground water containing dissolved salts comes to the surface and evaporates. During evaporation the sa lts are left on the ground while the water as vapour passes into the atmosphere. With following rainfalls the deposited sa lts are dissolved and salt solutions result until the time comes when the salt levels in the groundwater exceed the usable criteria. But just because people no longer can use the water, does not mean that the process stops. Once this process is set in action it is self perpetuating and with a flat arid land like much of Australia thE!re is not sufficient rain or runoff to wash the salts away. As a result vast areas of Southern and Western Australia are subject to massive impacts of salinity. But the problem is not restricted to those states. It also occurs in New South Wales and Victoria to a much greater extent than many city people believe possible. I mentioned earli er the problem in Perth of the in creased population and the demand on water. This is something wh ich takes place all over Australia. Those lucky states , Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland which have mountain country and heavy rainfall really have little problem with water catchment and yet, even within the catchment system, there are difficulties for future population development , as in Sydney. Who would have imagined that Sydney could be strangled by its very resource areas. Water catchments and national parks originally located at rE1sonable distances from the city, have now become the city 's boundaries and permit no expansion , except upward. As the land is developed and the cit ies press the perimeters the valuab le possible water source decreases. Sydney at the moment has in store some 7 years water, excellent forward plann ing on somebody's part. Tasmania has much more, but South Australia, the bulk of New South Wale s, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, particularly the central areas, are all subject to quite desperate water shortages already. Luckily these have low populations. Thus without new technologies water will become once again the inhibiting factor on survival and development for man. I have already mentioned a need for new technology. The sort of things which are probable and certainly feasible are salt water conversion using renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power; river flow reversal, particularly those rivers which flow into the Pacific Ocean , to be diverted down the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range; the f looding of the Lake Eyre region by opening a canal from Spencer Gulf through Lake Torrens into Lake Eyre; and iceberg transmission, the bringing of Antarctic icebergs to Australian ports for mining as water. These are all probable things that will happen in the next few decades of Australian ex istence. It seems to me that the Australian Water and Wastewater Association is an essential component body to the assessment of water problems, the regulating water uses and users, and most importantly in the provision of answers for the future. I close th is address by saying , " don 't spend water like it was money". 11


INVESTIGATION OF ESTUARINE SALINITY AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN THE BRISBANE RIVER R. 0. Rankin and S. N. Milford INTRODUCTION

Thi s paper desc ribes data co ll ection methods used in a fie ld program to monitor sali nity and dissolved oxygen levels in the Brisbane and Bremer River Estuary. The information collected was used in a compu ter simulation model of this estuary as previously described . (Rankin and Milford , 1979a, b). The type and extent of data collected was dependent upon the requirements of the simulation program selected (p lan view Eulerian category) and the natural behaviour of the parameters investigated. In particular, the fluctuations (excl uding short term tidal effects) in salinity and dissolved oxygen leve l with time at a part icular river position were at such a slow rate that co ntinu ous fie ld recordings of not less than a month were desirable to regis t er a sig nifi can t change in co ndit io ns.

the profi le required. Also , th e t;ixtent of any field program will be governed by the manpower available to co nstruct and maintain the monitors, and th e fi nan cial costs of the instrumen tat ion . In this st ud y, five field monitors were installed to give a reasonably representative coverage of the Brisbane River system. Fig ure 1 shows typical longit udinal P. of il es in salinity and dissolved oxygen while Figure 2 is a plan of the estuary showing the locat ions ot the monitors . so,.---------------,---------,

ll

INITIAL INVESTIGATIONS :

The Brisbane River Estuary meanders for 75 kilometres from the mouth in Moreton Say, across the coas tal plain to its jun ction with the Bremer River. Above this confluence, the Brisbane River is tidal to approximately College's Crossing (14 Kilometres above the jun ct ion) and the Bremer River is tidal for about 22 kjlometres (j ust west of the City of Ipswich). Ini t iall y, longitudinal river profiles were invest igated using a high-speed boat travelling on either the high or low tide in ord er that th e river-water wou ld be as stati onary as possible . Thi s gave i;l near-instantaneous distribution as it avoided , to a large ex ter:it, 0IstortIons in the parameter proti les caused oy tidal flow . At oth er tidal periods t hese distortions wo uld have been signifi cant due to the movem ent of the river water dur in g flood and ebb periods. River traverses took approximately two hours to complete. . During these longitudinal river studies, concentrat ions at approximately thirty sites were investigated . At each , the vertical and transverse profiles were measured initially to obtain a true representation of the concentration at that cross-section . At al l locations it was found that variations transversely in both salinity and dissolved oxygen were ins ig nificant with in the accuracy of the investigat ion . Vertical profiles in dissolved oxygen were also quite constant, rarely varying by more than a few percent of sat uration . Howeve r, a marked vertical sa linit y gradient exis ted, especially in times of in creased fres hwat er f low. Three surveys con ducted by the Department of Local Government (Queensland) in August , September, and October 1974 show average vertical salinity gradients of 0.08, 0.07, and 0.15 g L路1 m路1 for the top six metres within 52 kilometres of the river mouth (the ex tent of salt in trus io n at that time) . The maximum gradient measured showed a change of 2.8 g L路1 salt in 6 metres , from 19.0 to 21.8 g L路1 . During these near steady-state conditions there was no occurrence of a discontinuity in the salinity gradient, which would signify a salt wedge . It was conc lud ed that di stinct ju.mps in conce ntrati on with depth can be expec ted in the Brisban e River only du ring periods of very high freshwater flows experienced during floods.

STORY BR ID G ~ ~ 12,km ) ..___ "

~

------ ----------

z

TENNYSON

::::; 1

~

---------

1200 8/8/74

(40-Skm) ~ ~ -.. ~ "'-.../

.........

0000

0000

0000

1/917'

lM/7<

111\nI,

FIG . 1. Typical river profiles in sa lini ty and dissolved oxygen taken by University of Queensland on approximate low water, 25/10/7 4.

Four of the monitors (numbers 1-4, Figure 2) were capable of measuring temperature, sal in ity, and dissolved oxygen at one point , and are discussed in the next section. Jdeally their best locatio n would be mid -c hannel, but wi th an above-s urface housing , this was not practical. ,

N

t X

TIDE GAUGE SITES

e

OUAUT'f FIELD STATION

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BISHOP ISLAND

I.

MOGGILL

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STORY BR IDGE TENNYSON

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SELECTION OF CONTINUOUS MONITORING SITES:

Th e number of monitoring sites req ui red depen ds on the comp lexity of the profile investigated and also th e accuracy of

FIG. 2. Location and Recording Sites on Brisbane/Bremer Rivers .

Robert Rankin is now Education Producer, Australian Broadcasting Commission, Brisbane. Dr. Nevil Milford is Reader, Department of Physics, University of Queensland. This paper is derived from Robert Rankin 's Master's thesis under Dr. Nevil Milford.

Since tr/msve rse profi les vari ed littl e in all three parameters riverside focations were used and th e monitors were mounted on piers close to the river bank. This gave accurate readings in temperature and dissolved oxygen, but due to some vertical stratification in salinity and the lack of depth near the bank, some loss in accuracy must be accepted in salinity readings. In

12

WATER

1


all three parameters, some degree of phase lag between measurements at the bank and mid-stream could also be attributed to the velocity profile across the stream, the edge water lagging behind that at the river centre. The fifth station used a submersible E.I.L. Water Quality Monitor. This sampled temperature and dissolved oxygen only, so was placed in the fresh-water zone in the Bremer Estuary. At the chosen site the water depth averaged 2 metres. To prevent th e in strument from shifting on the sloping bottom of soft mud , a 50cm pointed shaft was attached to its base which speared into the mud when the instrument was lowered . Computer simulation methods required inputs at the river mouth . A site was chosen at a pier on Bishop Island , very close to the river cen tre and adjacent to the main shipping channel. The site at Tennyson (40.5km upstream) was chosen because of its proximity to the limit of salt intrusion and the location at the Story Bridge (24km) was selected for its position intermediate between Bishop Island and Tel)nyson. The Ipswich site (84km) marked the approximate low of the oxygen sag in the Bremer River, while the Moggill site monitored the leve ls of the mixed waters from the Bremer and Upper Brisbane Rivers. No monitor was considered necessary on the Upper Brisbane as upstream of the confluence, the dissolved oxygen levels gradually approached saturation. FIELD STATION DESIGN:

The temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen monitors .were designed and built in the workshop of the University of Queensland Physics Department. The field station consisted of circuitry and probes for sensing temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen , together with an accurate crystal timer and multiplexer to feed anologue information to a Rustrak chart recorder. The three parameter probes were combined with a stirring mechanism to agitate the water surrounding the dissolved oxygen probe. Both the oxygen and salinity probes were commercially obtained (Titron and TOA Electronics respectively) while the temperature sensor and thermi sto r bridge were espec ially constructed and balanced for the temperature range of the estuary. In this way more accurate temperature data was obtained. The oxygen probe water agitator is necessary since th e probe consumes oxygen from the surrounding water it is sampling. A fresh supply of water must therefore always be assured. The mechanism consisted on an astable multivibrator delivering a slow pulse (?Hz) to a solenoid which operated a paddle. Since the monitors were to be installed on an open jetty, and in general no more than two metres above high water, the shelter had to be waterproof (in case of flood), ventilated to keep internal temperature variations minimal in full sunlight , and easy to dismantle for maintenance. The circuitboards and recorder were mounted on a circular perspex base covered by a water-tight PVC dome sealed with an O-ring around the circumference. A galvanised outer housing , with flow-through ventilation surrounded the entire unit keeping direct sunlight off the inner container. Monitors were checked approximately every seven days. This was considered necessary in the case of salinity and dissolved oxygen where calibration drifted due to fouling of the probes necessitating application of, a correction factor to the data. To compensate, it was assumed that the drift was linear and uni-directional during the period between serviceings . Considering all intrinsic errors, accuracy for the three parameters was estimated to be : Temperature ± 0.2C Conductivity ± 0.5mmho cm ·1 Dissolved Oxygen ± 3% The salinity was determined by a computer program for two fifth degree equations connecting the conductivity and temperature with th e salinity (Rankin, 1976 thesis). TRENDS IN THE DATA:

Figure 1 shows typical longitudinal profiles in salinity and dissolved oxygen. As result of tid al ebb and flow, monitors measured concentrations in the river water over several kilometres. This resulted in an oscil lating record at each site with an average period of 24 hours 50 minutes (Lunar Day) . WATER

The distributions in Figure 1 appeared to be representative of conditions throughout the year. Deviations will occur in periods of large flooding or during high photosynthetic oxygen production . The former flushes salt from the estuary, so the salinity profile und ergoes a shift towards the river mouth causing a reduction in magnitude of salinity all along the river. Oxygen blooming was observed in localised volumes of water which move slowly downstream and shift the localised supersaturation peak accordingly. Decay rate of this peak was a function of continued blooming, reaeration, and BOD levels. The river temperature levels remained almost constant (±I °C) over the whole estuary at one time. However, seasonal variation showed obvious trends. In February 1974, the river water had a mean daily temperature of approximatel-y 25°c whilst in August the level dropped to 17•c. ' Figure 1 shows salt int rusion to be 45-50 km from the· mouth at low water. Measured on the high tide five days later, the salt ex t ended to 55 km. August and September 1974 were reasonably dry (average net flow from the Brisbane and Bremer Rivers was 2.6 m 6 s·1), and the maximum salt intrusion on low tide was 54 kilometres. (L.G . Departmen t Su rvey). Figure 3 shows average dai ly salinity values at Tennyson 40.5 km from the mouth and the Story Bridge 24 km over a period of several months, plotted with combined river flows. The rises and dips in more detailed curves reveal that a change in flow at the head of the estuary shows its effect at Tennyson after one or two days .

I z

w

"'> X 0 C

25

~

5 ~

"' ~

0

3

...z

r 0

Salinity

2"1

.9 >>-

z

:J <( rt)

z

~

5

.

!!J

*

Dissolved Oxygen

ii:

"' ~

:;;

iii

15

8

DISTANCE

ALONG

'

~ 45

JO

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60

15

Bremer River

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l.1

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~

90

RIVER (km)

FIG. 3. Average dai ly salinity levels at two field stations. Streamflow data (Irrigation and Water Supply Commission) is also plotted. (Brisbane and Bremer Rivers combined). CONCLUSIONS:

'

The fie ld program was successful in achieving fairly continuous monitoring of the river estuary from mid-August to mid-November 1974. The effects of high and low flow , changing tidal boundary conditions, photosynthetic blooms in oxygen , and temperature variations between winter and ear ly summer were recorded. Other short periods of several weeks duration recorded during different periods of the year at iso lated sites tended to reinforce the general conclusions drawn. The main factor in obtaining reliab le recordings is maintainance of the probes in the harsh river environment. All other components of the monitor, the amplifier, chart recorder and housing proved intrinsically reliable. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

The authors wish to thank the Water Quality Counc il and the Irrigation and Water Supply Commission of Queensland, and the Brisbane' City Council for providing assistance and helpfu l informat ion, and for their assistance with this work, Mr. l:ieorge cairn, Mr. t:1111 l:irove; Mr. Clyde Croskel l, Mr. David Johnston, and Mrs . Dahna Dearden . This paper is based upon part of the thesis "Salinit y and Dissolved Oxygen Investigations and Simu lations in the Brisbane River " submitted by R. 0 . Rankin to the Department of Physics of the University of Queensland for the Master of Science Degree . Continued on page 23

13


DEVELOPING A TOXICITY TESTING CAPABILITY FOR AUSTRALIA John Cairns, Jr. SYNOPSIS

The paper outlines an Australian strategy for coping with toxic chemicals in the aquatic environment so that ecosystems are not degraded but industry can continue to function . In formulating his proposals the author draws upon extensive experience in North America and in Europe . INTRODUCTION

These recommendations are based on two visits to Australia, one in October, 1976 , in conjunction with the meetings of the International Water Pollution Research Association in Sydney and the special symposium which followed, on biological monitoring held at the University of Melbourne, and a second visit for part of January and most of February, 1978, which included meetings with various groups interested in bioassays in New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, the latter being the Summer School Workshop of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association in Hobart . . The 1978 trip conc lud ed with a meeting sponsored by the CSIRO at which participants from all over Australia met for the specific purpose of discussing bioassays in the Australia context. The Australian Water and Wastewater Association Workshop provided an entire week of discussions on water problems including those related to chemical to xicants. An overseas visitor has severe information limitations, particularly of a site specific nature, but has the advantage of an outsider's ability to form a broad view before becoming engrossed in detail. The discussion which follows is meant to be helpful in establishing an adequate bioassay capability suited to Australian needs . The United States is still working on this problem and has a long way to go . However, experience in that Country may well be helpful , if only in avoiding mistakes. All of the meetings I have had with individuals during the workshop in Hobart , made it abundant ly evident that there are a number of highly professional , perceptive, and dedicated individuals involved in water pollution problem solving in Australia. The Australian Water and Wastewater Association is to be commended for bringing together the various discipl ines concerned with water quality in a setting which enhanced information exchange . PRIORITY TASKS

One cannot assume that appropriate information on which to base decisions and policy on toxic chemicals will appear without a plan of approach. Protocols for doing this were provided at the Australian Water and Wastewater Summer School in Hobart (Cairns and Dickson, 1978). However, without a capabi lity consisting of facilities, coupled with the ability to culture native species In the laboratory, the protocols cannot be implemented fully . The following suggestions may be of some assistance In this regard . 1. Tests on common Australian fish species should be run with various common toxicants (e .g ., zinc, phenol) to determine the reaction differences between Australian and European-American fishes . This will provide "K" factor relationships to facilitate the transfer and use of information from the literature on other toxicants . The first objective is to make literature generated in North Arr.erica and Europe more readily transferable to the Australian situation. It is accordingly important to run a few tests with Australian fish species that can be maintained in the laboratory with minimum difficulty . Simultaneously, . tests should be run on the rainbow trout or some other species now in Australia but also in other countries to determine two things: first, how different is the response of those Australian John Cairns Jr. is a University Distinguished Professor, Biology Department and Director, Center for Environmental Studies , Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA .

14

species which can be maintained in the laboratory for use in preliminary bioassay experiments, from other species used elsewhere for bioassays ; second, are the bioassay results obtained in Australia using rainbow trout the same as those obtained in North America and Europe using similar toxicants? The first would determine the difference between Australian species and other species commonly used . The second would determine the operator difference . With this information Australians should be able to make judicious use of information generated elsewhere. 2. A capability for acute tests with at least three trophic 1eve1s (algae, invertebrates, tishes) should be developed. Selected Australian laboratories should quickly develop the capability to run short-term toxicity tests or bioassays with three trophic levels . The suggestions are ; one of the standard test species of algae, Daphnia pulex for the invertebrate , and the rainbow trout for the fish . For acute testing, it is not essentia l to use native species in the initial stages because these tests are to determine priorities for further testing , the general degree of waste treatment necessary , and the like . They are also used to determine whether one waste treatment system is better than another. For relative or comparative toxicity testing , one can use nonnative species for which culture conditions are known . As soon as possible, native species should be developed for these purposes , but it is considered inadvisable to delay until this capability is established. One can determ ine with these screening tests which component of the food web is most vulnerable to a particular toxicant and design waste treat ment facilities and field monitoring accordingly. Since the criterion is comparative for relative to xic ity among trophic levels, non native species may be used . 3. Standard " white rat " species (rainbow trout, flathead minnow) shou ld be used until methods for laboratory maintenance of Australian species are well in hand . Since one must always extrapolate from a few test , species to the large numbers to be protected in natural systems, at this stage, confidence in the results is more important than is the species used in eva luat ing the toxicity of substances . There is always a temptation to postpone¡ bioassays until one has the capability of using nativf! species even though years may be requ ired to develop to the stage of laboratory culture:,, even for a short-term test . With some species, such as the gizzard shad in the United States, it is virtually impossible to use them as laboratory bioassay organisms under any conditions . The difference in response from one species to another is often substantially less than is realised by those who have not run bioassays . Even if the difference is great, this difficulty can be overcome by the use of an appropriate application factor. In th e interim tests can be used to show which chemicals or effluents are more toxic than others and thus establish priorities for add itional waste treatment , in creased restriction of chemical discharge, etc . Wh en establishing relative differences in toxicity, it is almost irrelevant which test species is used as long as the test species is reliable, i.e., the controls do not die. Overlooking these factors can result in the postponement of tests for many years, and co ntinuanc e of ignoran ce as to the to xicity of a chemical or ef fluent. The "wh ite rat" test species have the additional advantage that their laboratory culture conditions are well known, and their responses to a wide variety of potential toxicants are well documented so that the handling of bioassay procedures can be checked against a well-established standard . This strategy is designed for short-term or screening problem solving only . " Fine tuning " a discharge to an ecosystem is only possible with the use of native species and local water quality. Otherwise industry may be penalized by use of an excessive application factor requiring treatment from wh ich there are WATER


no biological benefits. A large application factor is necessary when the information is imprecise in terms of local conditions as can be the case when data used was generated elsewhere e.g ., North America or Europe or when a " white rat" test species is used. Very frequently, the environmental concentration of the chem ical (Cairns 1978) as determined by various estab lished techniques wil l be so much lower than the concentration causing adverse biological effects that the use of native species w ill not be requ ired . However, when the two are close together, it would be most advi:.:able to use various life history stages of native species. Therefore, the development of this capability shou ld be given the highest priority and could be carried out while the other suggestions are being implemented. 4. Several Australian species should be in laboratory cultures so that the sensitivity of toxicants of life history stages can be determ ined . Work should staft on this immediately so that it becomes possib le to use Australian fish for routine bioassay . Ult imate ly the work should include invert ebrates as we ll. Since this development usual ly takes a substantial period of time, sometimes five to ten years, such work should begin immediate ly. The deve lopment can be carried out at a laboratory (e.g. at a fish hatchery) quite remote from industrial sites since this work is entirely biological. The first step is to developing the capabil ity of maintaining a spec ies in the laboratory. This should be accomplished relatively quickly within a year or so and would then provide one or more native test species for acute or short-term bioassays. As the capability for more extensive life cyc le activities, such as growth, spawning , etc. , are developed , life history stages can be tested and, thus determine the relative sensitivity of these to a toxicant or an effluent . Hence the programme has both immediate and long-term benefits . However, the ult imate test of the safety of a concentration of a toxicant depends both on the survival of species and the ability of the spec ies to 1unct Ion normally throughout the lite cycle. As this cannot be determined easily from fie ld work, the development of life cycle culture techniques for native species should be instituted at the earliest possible moment. 5. A mobile laboratory or caravan should be developed for the " on site" evaluation of unstable and/or highly variable industrial effluents. In the United States much attention is being given to mobile toxicity testing units , specifically for continuous flow bioassays . These virtually eliminate prob lems associated w ith alterations of effluent quality or d ilution water quality in transit . For continuous flow experiments requiring enormous quant it ies of f luid , t he sav ings in transportation costs alone justify the expense of a mobi le unit . A further advantage is the confidence in estimating toxic effects arising from the knowledge that no degradation or alteration has occurred in either the effluent or river water quality. These mobile units need not be very large and literature on them is now available (Gerhold 1973). 6. It is of course important to have good quality water for a

bioassay laboratory, but this can be ensured by various treatment processes. Where industrial waste testing is involved, proximity of the testing facility to the industries, to ensure the waste samples are representative is a top priority item. Certain types of bioassays cannot be conveniently or eco nomicall y carried out in a mob ile unit . In plann ing the siting or a permanent faci lity , it is often tempting to consider an area of extremely good quality, where fish may be raised and land for bu ild ings and other faci lities is relat ively inexpensive . Generally, although not invariably, such sites are far from the centres of industry producing the effluents to be tested . There is no question that a high quality test water in which test species will thrive is the devout wish of most biologists . But , location of the laboratory some d istance in the country can introduce serious disabilities arising from the necessity to transport the effluent to be tested over large distances w ith consequent risk of significant changes in characteristics in transit . During such transport, some materials may comb ine; WATER

some, particularly organics, may degrade; some of the consituents may be volatile. Also, the effluent may change from aerobic to anaerobic with profoun<il effect upon its toxicity . A ll th is can lead to totall y fa lse est imation of the actual toxicity of the effluent . Thus there can be direct conflict between the opt imum maintenance of the orig ina l eff luent quality and the accessability of superior dilut ion water. Of the two, it is considered that reduced transport of the effluent is by far the most important . There are many ways of producing a superior dilution water such as ion exchcinge etc . Whilst these processes can be expensive , so is the transport of eff luent in large volume . Furthermore, if the di lution water quality is extremely poor, this will be indicated by the distress or death of the control organisms wh ich may become more sensit ive to the eff luent thus adding a further safety factor. Summarising, it seems reasonab le to locate the test faci lity near the source of the effluent rather than near a source of good di lution water . For research efforts involving tests with pure chemicals or the estab lishment of spec ies in cu lture so that different life history stages can be tested , it is best to place emphasis upon the superior dilution water and the abi lity to eas ily raise the test organisms on site. For th is type of faci lity the remote field laboratory is clearly the most desirable option . 7. Standard short-term acute bioassays, shou ld be carried out using "production" methods to keep costs down and because scientific creativ ity is not an important factor. In contrast , long-term chron ic tests shou ld be carried out by skilled people alert to subt le changes in response . Although both operations can be housed in the same bui lding , it is often des irable to keep them separate . There are significant differences between the Tier I testing (Cairns 1978) described at the AWWA Workshop in Tasmania and the Tier Il l tests. The Tier I short-term batch tests are production tests carried out by persons with technical competence but not necessari ly research competence . The Tier II and Tier Ill methods are at this juncture not standardized . They will not be found in standard methods books and therefore, are unlikely to be widely used. They are general ly carried out in a nonproduction fashion and research compentence is necessary, particularly for those at the Tier Ill level (long -term, sophisticated tests). . In the production laboratory carrying out Tier I testing, great efficiency is possible since the methods are fairly well standardized and the important factor is a high rate of product ion and a low cost. The work styles of personnel on Tier I work and those in the Tier Ill laboratories are likely to be quite different. It is more than prudent to keep therrf separate, because the loss of experiment in a production lab not nearly as seri'Ous an event as the much longer tests of the Tier Ill laboratory. CONCLUDING STATEMENT

No overseas visitor can have the detailed knowledge of needs possessed by an on -the-site professional. It would be presumptious to make detailed suggestions or to venture comment on which agencies should be responsible for particu lar activities. However, hav ing watched the recent evo lution of bioassay capabilities in the U.S.A. and following it with interest in other countries, I can see that Australi a, might benefit from fo llow ing some of the approaches and prior ites being considered in the various States in the United States. It was an interesting experience to participate in the summer workshop and to form some appreciat ion of your problems. Your opportunity to cope with these is probably better than in any technologically advanced country. But because of your rapid techno logical progress , delay in imp lementing the development of a bioassay capability may have serious consequences. I wish you luck and success in this endeavor ! REFERENCES CAIRNS, J., Jr. and Dickson , K.L. , (1978) Field and Laboratory Protoco ls for Evaluating Effects of Potentially Toxic Wastes on Aquatic Life . Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 6(2) : 85-94 . CAIRNS, J., Jr., (1978) Hazard Evaluation . Fisheries , 3(2): 2-4. GERHOLD, R.M., (1973) Mobile Bloassay Laboratories . Pages 242-256 in J. Cairns, Jr. and K.L. Dickson , eds ., Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality, STP 528 , American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadephia , Pa .

15


TIME DISTRIBUTION OF SLUG CONTAMINATION IN LAGOON EFFLUENTS AND FLOW EQUALIZATION B. W. Gould INTRODUCTION

maximum pollutant concentration in the stream will be much less than that from an uncontrolled effluent stream. An appendix to a paper on Tertiary treatment of sewage , presented at the Adelaide 1980 AWWA summer school (Gould, 1980) considers these two problems in detail. If there were a number of equally-sized , well,mixed ponds in series (Fig . 1), the time-distribution of effluent concentration would be as shown in Fig. 2. The active concentration is the ratio of the effluent concentration to the concentration which would be attained by mixing the pollutant evenly with the total volume of the ponds. It is to be noted that the minimum of the peak value of contaminant concentration occurs with only two ponds. An increase in the number of ponds leads to a fl ow that more closely resembles plug flow. Figure 3 was derived by assuming that the two ponds were of differing sizes. It can be seen that the minimum value of the maximum effluent concentration occurs when the first pond is 0.5 of the total volume (i.e. the two ponds are of equal size).

When lagoons are used for secondary treatment of sewage, the critical design criteria are the avoidance of anaerobiosis (with its undesirable odours) the control of insect infestation (particularly chironomids) and production of an acceptable effluent (the quality needed depending on the method of disposal). The combined requirements of effici ent BOD reduction and avoidance of anaerobiosis dictate the size required for the first pond in a system giving further treatment to primary treated sewage. But with maturation (or polishing) ponds, used for tertiary treatment after sewage has undergone biological secondary treatment , the influent BOD is too low to induce anaerobiosis, and other criteria must be used to assess the desirable size(s) of the lagoon(s); these criteria can be: • reducing bacterial concentration • spreading the effect of slugs of contaminant (such as wet weather overflows, or accidental spills) • equalizing effluent flows • reducing BOD by biological action and SS by prolonged settling.

a

1

Volum ec==V~nt--~; ·

a

2

~ ~;~

1 I=

a

·1C2

3

a

1-~ ~;·-· 1Cs 1-"

4

~j

100..-----""'T""--r--""'T""--r--""'T""--r--""'T""- -r - - ~

a C4

Series of n ponds with a total volume V receiving an instantaneous slug dose of pollutant at the inlet at time t = 0. Note, the inlet concentration of pollutant is zero except during the dose at the start. Q = flow rate Ci = concentration in and leaving the pond at time t Co = average concentration of pollutant in first pond immediately after addition and initial mixing

~

;i §

§

60

40 ,__...., _ _, - ,- - - - - - - ~ - - - - ' - -

>

<

~

co f-r-,r-,F--- - - - - - --+- - - - --=-e-a:::...i

0.4

Figure 1. Definition Diagram for a series of n ponds.

Conditions which will give optimum performance for reducing bacterial concentration will not give optimum spreading of brief slugs of contaminant. It is therefore necessary to compromise, having regard to the possible consequences of accidental spills of contaminants, or brief wet weather overflows, and to the necessity for reducing bacterial contamination. A mathematical model of both these types of contamination is needed as an aid to judgement when making a compromise. In addition , a flow of sewage to a treatment plant has a marked diurnal variation - for small towns the peak hourly flow in dry weather can be up to three times the daily average, while the minimum hourly flow can be very low. The worst conditions occurring in a stream may be improved greatly merely by equalizing the flow over the hours of each day, so that the Bernard Gould is Associate Professor and Head, Department of Water Engineering, University of New South Wales . This paper formed an appendix to ' Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater' presented by Prof. Gould at the A WWA Summer School, Adelaide in February. The succeeding paper is based on notes prepared by Prof. Gould for a Workshop session at the School.

16

0. 6

0.8

1 .8

Qt / Vtot

Figure 2. Time-distribution of conservative contaminant concentration in effluent from a series of mixed porl'ds. FLOW EQUALIZING

If a lagoon system has the level controlled by an outlet weir, then the surface level varies by only a small amount, and dlrunal flow variations in the influent can cause a marked diurnal variation in the effluent flow . Ecological quality in a stream may be affected by the peak effluent flow during dry weather (low stream flow) conditions. The flow can be equalized reasonably efficiently if an orifice is placed in an outlet structure at some vertical distance below the normal or average lagoon surface leve l. With an orifice placed at a depth below the nominal water level (and adjusted so that is maintains the level at its nominal value when discharging the average flow) the variation in effluent flow rate can be greatly reduced. For example, with an outlet structure such as that shbwn in Fig. 4, on a pond system in which the influent varies sinusoidally each day from 20% to 180% of average flow (i.e., average flow ± 80 %),. and passes through a lagoon system with a nominal depth of 1.0 m, a detention time of 8 days, and the outlet orifice is 0.5 m below the nom inal top level, the dry weather peak flow to a stream will be reduced from 180 % of average flow to less than 102 % of average flow. WATER


This represents a substantial improvement in the critical conditi ons in the stream , quite apart from any purification in the lagoons as a result of either biological action or prolonged settlement.

80 - - -......- - - - - . - - - - . . . - - - -......- -...... LL.

0

flow of the influent. This arrangement does not however, give optimum bacterial removal. To reduce the effec t of slug pollutant cor'fcentrat ion in the po nd system, the first pond should be made a little larger than the second, thus providing a greater volume for initial dilution , without greatly reducing the overall efficiency. It is therefore recommended that for slug contamination distribution , the first pond should be about 60 % of the total volume. The effect

1-

z w u

a:: w~ 0..0

~z

I~

z

ow

-z I- 0

c,:

:=::::; zz

75

1--------,--------1--------1

WO

u

z:i::

01-

u -3

1Z ::£ w::::, =>::£

'm

_,_

0.50

LL.X LL.C,:

W::£ ::£

::::,

-

::£ X

~

____._____._____._____.

70 ..._ 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

____

0.8

1. 0 Figure 4 Lagoon outlet structure with weir boards and orifice.

PROPORTION OF TOTAL VOLUME OCCUPIED BY FIRST OF TWO PONDS Figure 3 Showing effect of varying the proportion of volume in the first pond of a two-pond system. RECOMMENDATION

For optimum reduction of peak discharges of co nservative pollutants , a maturation lagoon system shou ld consist of two equally-sized ponds each with inl ets that promote circulation and mi x ing , and a system outlet with an adjustable orifice (e.g., penstock or gate valve) suitably positioned in the middle third of the nominal pond depth. This arrangement will not only spread the discharge of pollutant over time to prevent high co ncentrations in th e effluent as a result of occasional slugs of pol lutants in the influent, but also reduce the peak rate of fl ow of eff lu ent to a value qu ite close to t he average rate of

of this on peak effluent concentration can be deduced from Figure 3. To cope with the occasional prolonged high flows which may occur during wet weather a spillway or overlfow weir should be provided ; this wil l limit the max imum height to w hi ch th e pond surface wi ll rise under ex treme conditions. At such times , the additional pollutional load released would normall y be partially compensated for by the natural increase in th e assimilative ca pacity of the stream, as a result of its increased flow . REFERENCE

GOULD, 8 . W. (1980) Tertiary treatment of wastewaters,

AWWA Summer School Notes , Adelaide, February 1980. f

CONTROL ENGINEERING THEORY IN WATER TREATMENT B. W. Gould INTRODUCTION

in s pite of the avai labl e knowledge of co ntrol engineering theory, not only in electonic co ntrols, but also in water flow contro l (e.g. Takai , 1966; Daneker, 1969/70), ther e are problems in the proper co ntrol of the flow through water treatment plants. It often happens that flow control is co nsidered as a trivial matter, easily designed as a minor appurtenance to the treatment processes ; flow cont rol problems, such as instabilit y and oscillation sometimes occur as a result. It is important , however, t hat flow shou ld be co ntroll ed in an acceptable way to avoid excessive flu ctuati ons and corresponding loss of efficiency in cla rifi cation and f iltration , or other processes. Sometimes some theoretical, practi cal ly irrel evant, tradiWATER

tional criteria are chosen as the design targets for automatic flow co ntrol , while more re levant criteria may be disregarded . For example, in a clarifier-filter combination, the target chosen may be to maintain some particular water leve l as close as possible to some pre-determined level, for no particular reason; whereas one important relevant criterion is to avoid fluctuating flows in the clarifer, regardless of the exact level in the filt er feed channel. The des ign cr it eria for control systems should be critically examined for relevance to process efficiency. EXAMPLE OF CONTROL THEORY APPLICATION

The following example outlines a common configuration for 17


control of the flow through the treatment plant illustrated in fig. 1. A water treatment plant consisting of sedimentation and filtration facilities has the throughput controlled by manual setting of the filter outlet rate control valves. To maintain the level of the water in the distribution channel and the filters within reasonable bounds, the inlet flow rate is controlled by a sig nal from the level of a float in the distribution channel. The inlet valve is positioned to a setting that depends only on the level in the channel. IN LET FLOW CONTROL SIGNAL

SIGNAL W <V ERTER

SIGNAL CON VERTER

a result of wind waves , as well as being unduly sensitive to errors of construction , and to uneven settlement of foundations. These factors place practical constraints i,n the value for k1 , The only other physical parameter involved in determining w is the value of k 2, the sensitivity of the in let control value to changes in leve l in the distribution channe l, in terms of Lis per millimetre change in level . This value can usually be adjusted by changes in linkages or signal converters, or by placing fixed throttling valves or orifices in series with the main inlet control valve. In this type of system , the resulting " droop " in water level at high flows will have to be allowed for when channels, filter inlets, and maximum total head on the filter are being designed.

290 fLOCCU LATOR CLARI FI ER

Ac = Af = Ho = He ·= Hf = Qi = Qt = Qo =

FI LTER

280

area of clarifier combined area, filters and settled water channel filter water level for inflow cutoff water level in clarifier water level in sett led water channel and filters rate of inflow rate of transfer from clarifier rate of outf low clarifiers

Figure 1. Diagram showing flow control in treatment plant. The mathematics of this system has been considered by Gould (1980). It can be shown that the inflow to the clarifer when the filter outflow, Q0 , is changed from Os to Qd is given by Qi = Qd + (O s -

Qd)e·at (Cos wt + a

~ 2 b sin

k1 = k2 a = 0.01605 5·1 b = 0.033005 5·1 - - + -- - - - - - - - 1 w = 0.03253 5·1

270

k1 = 4k2 a = 0 .01605 5·1 260

b = 0 .0082 5·1 w = 0.0164 5·1

I ·"

250

0

3 ~

240

230

wt) 220

where a, b, and w are parameters• depending on control sensitivity of the inlet valve and clarifier weir, and the relative area of the clarifier and filters. This equat ion indicates that the inflow, Qi, wi ll vary from Os at time t = 0 to Qd at t = a:, , with a damped oscillation (see Fig. 2). As shown in fig. 2 the cho ice of the control parameters can cause marked differences in performance. It is necessary to choose parameters which will avoid excessive overshoot of flow , while not being too sluggish in operation .

200 l/s

Q

Qd

•' 250 l /s

5

200 .__ _ _ _ _ _...__ _ _ _ _ _~ ~ - - - - - - - - ' 0 100 , 200 TI/I E (S ECON DS)

Figure 2. Transient inflows for different values of k1/k 2 .

CONCLUSIONS

Large or rapid fluctuations of flow are not desirable in a clarifier because they cause turbulence which interferes with the balance of the tiny forces that control the flow. This interference persists for some time after the flow variation has stopped . Therefore, it is desirable to avoid'Osc ill ation of inflow, and to arrange the controls so that its changes are not too rapid. In design, the areas of the clarifier and filters , Ac and A 1, are fixed by the adopted loading rates, and cannot be varied after construction . The value of the clarifier weir coeffecient , k 1 , is fi xed by the design of the overflow weir on the clarifi er. A high value of k 1 in the case of weir overf low is obtained by provision of plain circumferential weir, or multiple weirs, with a low design weirloading-rate. This is normally impracticable because such an arrangement is very sensitive to production of uneven flows as • Weir Charac teri stics . . . In let cont ro ller .

Qi

=

k2(H0 -

a = k 1/2Ac; b = k 2/2A 1; w 2 = 4ab - a2

18

near operat in g

Ot c::::: k1J c Ht)

] point

Every control system should be checked in the design phase, either analytically, or by computer simulation . If there are non-linear elements in the control loop-as there usually are in water flow contro l systems-simulation will be needed , because the analysis would otherwise become far too com plex . Many types of simulations can be effected on hand-held programmable calculators such as the Tl.58, Tl.59, or HP.41, thus enab ling the calculations to be done in alm ost any design office. An analytical sol uti on of a simplified system could indicate the effects of altering the values of the major parameters .

REFERENCES DAN EKER, J. A. (1969170) Automat ic Control (an eig ht-part d iscussion of 1. Applicat ions; 2. measurements ; 3. charac teristics of meas uring means; 4. controllers and con trol modes; 5. level and flow con t ro l; 6. fi lte r rat e of flow co ntrol; 7. fl oat ing cont rol ; 8. floatin g co ntro l of wa ter level) Wat. & Sew. Wk s J our., (Au g 1969-Jan 1970 , Jun-Ju l 1970) Vol. 11 6 Nos 8-12, Vol. 117 Nos 1, 6 and 7). GOULD, B. W. (1980) Notes fo r work shop on Aut oma t ic cont rol, AWWA Summer Sc hool, Adelaide, Feb. 1980. TAKAI , H. (1966) Theory of Automatic Control, Tra ns. by Scripta Techn ica, Il iffe Books (London) 1966.

WATER


AWWA-IAWPR-WPCF-IWSA-AATS-AWCC GUIDE TO THE ALP.HABETICAL ARRAY C.D.PARKER Today the use of 'short titles ' and reference to organisations by initials is commonplace and our water field is no exception . To the initiated few, the above reference to the bodies mentioned conveys c learly the full title of each and with this an understanding of their respective functions and their activities and interrelationship with A.W.W.A .. But to a number of our members this is not so and your Editorial Committee felt that a service cou ld be rendered to the general body of members if some description of these matters was made clear. These notes and explanations have been prepared atter consultation with the appropriate Australian executives of the various organisations but full responsibility for errors of omissio n and commission is with the writer. AWWA - AUSTRALIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION

. Our Association was estab lish ed in 1964 as an Association of (then) four State Branches - Queensland , New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. Today it is an Association of Branches in al l si x States, the Northern Territory and the A.C.T. and is a 'Registered ' organi sat ion in the A.C.T. Membership is at the ful l professional level (Member) over the range of disciplines related to its function as defined in the Constitution which also provides for semi professionals as Associate Members, Students and Sustaining Members. Membership is currently abo ut 1,600. The AWWA is governed at the Federal level by the Federal Council to which each Branch annually elects two members as Councillors , an Executive of that Council and appointed Standing Committees . Current office bearers and Standing Committees are as follows Executive

President: Mr. A. Pettigrew (Q ' ld .) Vice President: Mr. D. J . Lane (S.A.) Hon . Secretary: Mr. P. Hughes (N .S.W.) Hon. Treasurer: Mr. J . Greer (Vic.) Branch Councillors

S.A.

A.C.T.

Mr. D. J. Lane Mr. M. Sanders

Mr. A. Hatfield Mr. C. Price

W.A.

N.S.W.

Mr. D. Montgomery Mr. R. Fimmel

Dr. T. Judell Mr. K. Waterhouse

Tas.

Vic.

Mr. H. McPhee Mr. D. Walters

Mr. F. R. Bishop Mr. A. Strom

N.T.

Q'ld.

Mr. R. Lloyd Mr. A. Wade

Mr.' A. Pettigrew Mr. M. Allan

Standing Committees

Science & Technology Budget & Finance

Publicity & Education Administrative

C. D. (Guy) Parker has been a prime mover in the initiation and development of much of the organised effort described in this article. He is accordingly very well informed upon objectives and operations. WATER

Legislation & government policy Future externa l relations W.P.C.F. relations

k:~~t

relations }

Conferences Membership services Information

being formed

Each Branch is semi-autonomous with its own elected officers, committee and programme activities . The Association holds a Biennial Conference on a rotating ven oe basis and has run Summer Schools two yearly over the last several years. The Association 's official publication is the Journal 'Water ' published quarterly under the guidance of an Editorial Committee appointed by Federal Council, with a part time paid Editor Mr. G. Goffin . It may not be generally known by the membership that AWWA has developed associations with the other organizations listed above and as described later. The scope of AWWA activities as implied in its name and spelt out in its constitution covers sc ientific, public health and engineering aspects of water quality and water management as it affects clean water collect ion storage and distribution and wastewater collection treatment management and disposal. IAWPR - INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH, AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE

The International Association held its initial International Conference in London 1962 when an ad hoc governing Board was established with one representative from each of the countries represented at the meeting. C. D. Parker being in attendance became the representative for ' Australia. The In ternational Secretariat was established in South Africa under Dr. G. J. Stander as President. In 1968-69 the affairs of the Assoriation were formali zed with a Constitution and by-laws which established the Governing Board as of elected representatives from properly constituted National Committees from countries conforming to certain requirements and requesting membership. The membership fee for each country was determined by the number of representatives nominated and the eco nomic status of the country . In Australia unsuccessful attempts were made to have AWWA be the Australian National Committee. Approaches to the Royal Australian Chemical Institute and the Institution of Engineers Australia were also unsuccessful. Eventually a National Committee was established representing a broad range of interests in Water Pollution Research in the country and so ¡conform ing to IAWPR requirements . This consisted of some 60 member organizations covering Government and Semi Government Departments, Universities, Consulting Engineers and Scientists and other interested persons. Each member organization pays an annual fee and nominates one member to the Australian National Committee. This committee has an Executive Committee of Chairman, Secretary , Treasurer, Past Chairman and four Directors. An annual general meeting is held and biennially the Committee elects an Executive Committee and members to represent Australia on the International Governing Board . The composition and constitution of the Australian National Committee are today as originally established . Currently the Directors of the Executive Committee are: 19


Chairman: Dr. N. E. No rman Vi ce Chairman : Mr. L. Henry Past Chairman: Dr. D. E. Weis s Hon. Sec.: Mr. Peter Hugh es Hon. Treas.: Mr. E. Wald er Direc to rs: Dr. T. Judell Mr. J. E. Mccann Mr. C. D. Parker Prof . J. D. Laws o n Governing Board Members : Dr. N. No rm an, Dr. T. Jud ell , Mr. C. D. Parker, Mr. E. Wald er (Member of In te rn ati o nal Exec uti ve). Th e IAWPR hol ds majo r Internati o nal meetin gs every two ye ars, th e next of t hese is to be in Toront o, Canada, June 23-27, 1980. It also sponso rs small er spec ial To pi c and Reg ional Con fe rence s held in co njun cti on w ith a parti c ul ar Nati o nal Co mmitt ee and app ro pri at e local bod ies. Th e o ffi c ial publi cati ons of this As soc iation are th e Jo urnal 'Wat er Res earc h' publi shed tw o-mo nthl y and ' Progress in Wat er Tec hn ology' in whi ch th e proceeding s of th e bi ennial co nference s and spec ial topi c and regi o nal co nfe rences are published. Th e fun ction and activit y of th e Au stralian Nati onal Committee (ANC) is to act as a vo ice for Au st ralia at th e Intern ati o nal As soc iati on and t o spear-head such ac ti viti es of th e Assoc iation as may be carried out in Au st ra li a. To thi s end th e Australian Nati onal Committ ee w ith AWWA and oth ers sponso red t he 8th Bi ennial Inte rn ati o nal Co nference of th e Associ ati o n in Sydn ey in 1976 and with AWWA , th e Melbo urn e & Metro politan Board of Wo rk s and oth er spo nso rs a Spec ial Topi c Co nf erence o n Land Treatm ent meth ods of Was tewat er Di sposal in Melbourn e, 1978. Th e Offi cer beare rs o f th e ANC have been close ly assoc iat ed w ith th e exec uti ve of AWWA sin ce th e in ce pti on of th e fo rm er. Over th e last year or so offi cial di sc uss ions have been held betwee n th e Exec uti ve of AWWA and th e IAWPR Au stralian Nati onal Committee to ensure full and eff ec ti ve co-o rdin ati o n of th e fun ct io ns and acti viti es of th e t wo bodi es. To thi s end , a representati ve of t he ANC att ends meetin gs o f th e Federa l Coun c il of AWWA and a represe ntati ve of AWW A att ends t he Exec uti ve meeting s o f th e AN C o f IAWPR . Th e form ati o n of th e Au st ralian Wat er Co-o rdination Committee (see later) is a furth er out co me of t hese deliberati o ns. Furth er info rm ati on abo ut IAWPR is ava ilabl e f rom Mr. Peter Hu ghes, Hon. Sec ret ary, Au strali an Nati onal Co mmit tee, I.A.W.P.R., Cl- Met ropolitan Water Sewerage & Drain age Board , Pitt St. , Sydn ey. WPCF - WATER POLLUTION CONTROL FED ERATION U.S.A., AUSTRALIAN SECTION

Thi s Federati o n has bee n in ex ist ence und er vari ous names sin ce 1928. Origin all y and for a length y peri od it was a Fed erat io n o f vari o u s U.S.A . Stat e Sewage W o rk s Assoc iati o ns, in rece nt years it has es tabli shed affili ati o ns with o rganizat io ns in oth er co untri es . In 1967 an app roac h was made by AWWA to es tabli sh suc h an affili ati o n th ro ugh th e establi shment of WPCF Sec ti on w ithin o ur Assoc iati o n . Thi s was ap prove d and th e arrang ement still stand s. Th e exact relati ons hip is rath er diffi cult t o defin e but in general it can be said that AWWA is an affili ated orga ni zati on recognize d by WPCF . Membership of AWWA and paymen t of it s du es does not aut omati ca ll y co nfer membershi p of WP CF. A member of AWWA by appli cat io n and pay ment of th e add iti o nal WPC F du es throu g h th e Au strali an Sec ti on can beco me a member of WPCF with rece ipt of th e monthl y Jo urnal and oth er reg ul ar publi cati o ns and with th e right to purc hase oth er publi cati o ns at redu ce d membership rates. Th e WPCF Sec ti on of AWWA has th e ri ght t o elec t o ne Direc tor to th e WP CF Board of Control and thi s proced ure is a fun cti o n of AWWA Federal Coun cil. Currentl y th e Au st rali an Sec ti o n Direc t or is Dr. T. Jud ell. Th e Au strali an re prese ntati ve to th e Board of Contro l prese nt s Au strali an view po int s to th e Board . To date t he Au strali an Sec ti on has had no ac ti viti es 20

in depe nd ent of AWWA and is full y id ent if ied w it h AWWA fun ct io n and act ivit ies. At the las t th ree AWWA Bie nni al Co nfere nces t he th en Current Pres iden t ~ f WPCF has att end ed. Furth er informati on rega rd in g me mbershi p and oth er detail s are avail abl e and ca n be had fro m Dr. T. Ju de ll or t he Federal Sec retary AW W A. IWSA - INT ERNATIONAL WATER SUPP LY ASSOCIATION

This Intern at ional Assoc iati on has bee n lo ng es tabli shed. It has t raditi o nally been an intern ati onal mee ti ng pl ace for th ose prim aril y interested in Pu bli c Wate r Suppli es alth oug h more rece ntly it has w id ened it s int eres t s. Th e IWSA ho ld s Int ern ati o nal Meet in gs w here in vi ted reports are prese nted fro m member co unt ries toget her with offered sc ient ifi c and engin eerin g papers. AWWA has recent ly become a member of IWSA. Fu rt her inform at io n is avail ab le from t he Hon. Secretary AWWA. AATS - A USTR ALIA N ACADE MY OF TECHNOLO GICA L SCI ENC ES

Th e purpose of th e Au st ra li an Acade my of Tec hn o log ica l Sc iences is t o pro mot e t he appli cati o n of sc ient ifi c know ledge to pract ical purposes and to pro vid e, in Au stra li a, a fo rum for di sc uss ion and adv ice to Gove rnm ent and t he co mm uni ty in re lat io n to th e app li cat io n of scienti f ic kn ow ledge ge nera ll y. In parti c ul ar it is co nce rn ed, amo ng ot her t hin gs, w ith th e deve lo pm ent and pract ice of existi ng and new tec hno log ies, espec ially as ap pli ed to th e manage ment of nat ural reso urces , and t o th e effec ts of tec hn o logy o n t he qual ity of life. Th e Acade my co nsists of 140 Fe llows. Elec ti on to th e Academy is by exist ing Fe ll ows and is based o n clear demonst rati o n of ac hi eve ment s in th e tec hn o logica l sc iences to th e benefi t of t he communi ty. Th e Fell ows of th e Academy have been d ivid ed into fo ur gro ups cover in g twe lve Di visio ns. Thi s di st rib ut io n is take n int o acco unt in t he elec t ion of new Fell ows and utili ze d in th e deve lop ment of wo rk programm es eac h year. Th e ac ti vi ty part ic ularl y re levan t to AWWA is Di vision XI Enviro nm ental Sc iences, within t he gro up , Indu stry an d th e Communi ty. AWC C - AU STRALI AN W ATER CO- OR DIN ATIN G COMMI TTEE

Thi s Commi tt ee was es tabli shed in 1;)79 fo r t wo purposes 1. To im prove th e co mmuni cat io n between t he vari ous wate r ori ente d profess io nal bod ies in Aust rali a, parti cu larly wi th regard to t he prog rammi ng of Co nference. 2. To es tabli sh a Panel whi ch co uld , hopefull y, speak wit h a jo in t vo ice on matt ers of moment upo n whic h Fede ral and State Govern ment s and Depart ments m ig ht be seeking t ec hni cal o r po li cy advice. Initiall y t he membership of th e Co mm ittee co nsists of represe nt ati ves of AWW A AWWA (W PCF Secti o n)

AWWA (IWSA Secti o n) IAWPR Au st. Nat io nal Comm ittee Austraian Academy of Tec hn olog ical Scie nces. Th e prese nt int ent io n is th at th e Commit tee w ill meet tw ice yearl y. Th e Secre tary is M r. Pet er Hug hes (AWWA Hon. Sec retary). Thi s Commi ttee is a furt her st ep in th e move to c lose r coordin ati on w hi c h co mme nce d wi th th e dec isio n for att endance of AWWA and IAW PR re prese ntati ves at mee tin gs of th e to p exec uti ve bodi es of eac h organi sati on. Th e writer o r any of th e so urces ment io ned shoul d be co nsulted fo r qu eri es ra ised but not answe red in th e above

co ntri bution. It is hoped t hat thi s exp lanati on w ill be re tained as a refere nce and will serve a use ful purpose in d ispellin g t hat feeling of exas perated bew il derm ent we all suffer when we encounter an asse mblage of 'short titl es' . WA TE R


TWO NEW PROCESSES FOR WASTEWATER A BRIEF REVIEW D. Chirmuley DEEP SHAFT ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS Eco Research Limited of Canada, under licence from ICI, developed this process in 1975. The approach adds to the activated sludge process the ability to withstand severe cold weather, pH variations and transient shocks lin BOD 5 and extreme pH . The process entails in essence a continuous circulation of the mixed liquor and bio-oxidation of the wastewater in a vertical shaft of U-tube form , with a depth 90 to 250m and diameter 3m. This is followed by a flotation tank for solids separation . (Figure 1.) For wastewater not containing a large percentage of inert suspended solids, coarse screening and grit removal only is required as a primary stage, otherwise primary sedimentation is.necessary. In the shaft itself, the high level of mixing is sufficient to maintain normal solids in suspension . For industrial wastewaters some equalization may be necessary to smooth out large variation s in pH and in hydraulic and organic loadings. WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE

~ fi ..........,~

F

Volume of the shaft is 1/5-1/20 that of a conventional activated sludge reactor and the rate of treatment is 3-5 times that of the conventional process. The overall energy consumption in the deep shaft process is reduced provided the shaft diameter is larger than one metre. The high concentration of active biomass is responsible for high oxygen transfer. Solids concentrations in the floated sludge are 3-4 times greater than those obtained in a gravity clarifier but in order to reduce the solids level in the flotation tank effluent to below 30 mg/I the addition of one kg of cationic polymer per tonne of dry solids is necessary. Operating data on plants suggest that the process is suitable for high strength wastes because the aeration intensity of the process is 3000 mg/I-hr compared to 70 mg/I-hr for surface aerators. Due to the very high D.O. sludge bulking is avoided even in wastes prone to bulking . The process is ideal for extremely cold climates such as those in the U.S. and Canada where temperatures can be detrimental to biological processes. The small surface area of the shaft minimizes heat loss thus maintaining a constant influent and effluent temperature differential.

TABLE 1 OPERATING PERFORMANCE

(After Kuslikis)

DEEP SHAFT

Figure 1: Deep Shaft Actlvatlvate Sludge Process (flow diagram).

The primary effluent flows to the shaft head which is surrounded by a circular tank where it is mixed with the recycled sludge. Circulation is started in the shaft by injecting compressed air at a depth of 60m in the rising side of the shaft. After attaining the operating velocity of between 1-2 m/s, air is diverted into the downflowing side. At the bottom of the shaft the mixture of air and the wastewater is pressurized by the weight of the liquid above to between 880 and 2450 kPa, depending upon the depth of the shaft. As the mixed liquor rises to the top of the shaft the sludge floe, which with its entrained air has a size of about 100 microns, floats naturally to the surface. Effluent from the tank is discharged into a flotation tank where the sludge is skimmed off as shown in Figure 1. A mean D.O. concentration of 10 mg/I can be maintained in the shaft. This high oxygen concentration ensures the presence of ample oxygen in the sludge floe. The mixed liquor cycles once every 3-4 minutes and the desired treatment efficiency is achieved by a very high internal recycle. Typically, municipal wastes will need to recycle 6-10 times, whereas a high strength industrial wastewater will need up to 50 recycles before being discharged to flotation . This continuous dilution of the influent to the shaft helps to protect the biomass from extreme variations of pH and BOD. D. Chirmuley is a lecturer at the South Australian lnsistute of Technology, Adelaide. WATER

Place

Waste

Flow ML/d.

Influent 8OD 5/SS

Effluent 8OD 5/SS

Paris Ontario (R&D) Barrie Ontario Bon Conseil (R&D) Virden Manitoba Portage Le Prairie

10% Mun. 90% Tex.

0.45

141/270

24/29

Brewery

0.13

2613/498

110/262

Dairy

0.002

498/676

93/253

Mun.

2.2

170/

under const.

Mun.

13.62

400/

under const.

An important feature is the saving of the site area required. For a municipal wastewater treatment plant the land required is halved, and the costs of drilling and constructing a deep shaft in suitable ground are comparable with conventional plant costs. Currently, three plants are in operation in Canada and two are under construction and expected to be operational in early 1980.

FLUIDIZED BED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS Ecolotrol Incorporated of New York developed this high rate proprietory process in the early 1970's. Dorr-Oliver also has a similar process, the Oxitron system which has teen used successfully to treat municipal wastewater in three pilot plants of 0.14-0.28 MUd capacity. In these plants BOD removal and denitrification has been achieved in a total detention time of 50 minutes. 21


In essence the process consists of passing wastewater upwards through a vessel containing a fine grained medium , such as sand, at a velocity suffient to expand or 'fluidize ' the bed . Biomass, which includes organisms typically found in a trickling filter, grows on the extensive surface of the media and degrades the waste as it flows past . See Figures 2 and 3 for flow diagrams. Primary effluent is pumped through a pressure tank where it is oxygenated by liquid oxygen. The tank is si zed to provide the required long contact time. From the tank the wastewater flows upward through the fluidized bed reactor and is discharged at the top into a sand separation tank. SANO SEPARATION

TABLE 3 COMPARISON OF LOADING RATES

(After Jeris J.S.) kg BODs removed/d/m 3 of reactor vo lume

Process

Pure oxygen activated sludge Conventional activated sludge Fluidized Bed

1.2 · 2.4 0.48- 1.2 8.03-16.06

TANK

BED ·

RECYCLE SANO RETURN

DISTRIBUTOR PLATE

The fluidized bed reactor is based on well formulated engineering princip les and has shown sound operating performance, it is according ly readi ly acceptab le as a process for full scale app lication. A large scale wastewater tr.ea tm ent plant using this technology is being considered for construction in the United States. A full-scale operational plant wi ll provide comparison of operating performance with that of conventional treatment processes. REFERENCES

Figure 2: Fluidised Bed System for BOD Removal (flow diagram).

The entry to this tank is tangential to separate sand particles which are returned to the reactor. The effluent then passes into a recycle tank from which part of the final effluent is pumped back to the oxygenation tank, the balance to a secondary clarifier. A vibrating screen for wasting solids simplifies the solids handling by eliminating the clarifier. The flow sequence described as modified for denitrifaction as shown in Figure 3. SAND SEPARATOR

1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

JERIS, J. S. , and OWENS, A. W., " Pilot Plant High-Rate Biological Denitrifaction" . Journal WPCF, 47, 2043-2057 (1975). JERIS, J. S., BEER, C ., and MUELLER, J. A., "Hi gh-Rate Biological Dentri ficati on Using a Granular Flu idized Bed " , Journal WPCF, 46, 2118-2128 (1 974). JERIS, J. S., " Biological Fluid Bed Technology" , University ot Toronto , Workshop 79, o n New Developments in Wastewater Treatment. KUSLIKIS, B. P., " Deep Shaft Activi ated Sludge Process". University of Toronto Workshop 79 on New Developments in Wastewater Treatment. FINN , B. Knud sen , Brewery Effluent Treatment by a Deep Shaft Process, Brewers Diges t Vol. 53, No. 5, p. 46-53 (1975).

SETTLING

AWWA 9TH FEDERAL CONVENTION PERTH, W.A. 6-10 APRIL 1981

AERATION

CLARIFICATION

N ITRI FI ED IN FLUENT

DE NITR IFI ED EFFULENT

CALL FOR PAPERS

FLUIDISED BED REACTOR

Figure 3: Fluidised Bed Reactor for Denitrifaction (flow diagram).

Pilot plant studies have shown 90% carbon removal and 99% nitrogen removal in 50 minutes . The concentration of active biomass in this system is of the order of 8000-40 000 mg/L which results in considerable savings in space , cost and treatment time. At a recycle ratio of two the efficiency of BOD 5 reduction and suspended solids removal is 90% . Oxygen utilization rate is 1.1 kg of 0 2 use per kg of BOD 5 removed . The sytem seems not adversely affected by power fa ilures, low temperatures or diurnal flow variations.

• •

Water resources Water treatment, supply and analysis • Wastewater collection, treatment and analysis • Eff luent disposal • Water rec lamation and re-use

• •

Industrial wastes treatment, re-use, recycl ing Water quality publ ic health aspects and eff luent disposal.

TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF MEDIA SURFACE AREAS

(After Jeris J.S.) Process

Trickling filter R.B.C. Fluidized bed 22

Surface Area m 2/m 2 reactor volume

0.039-0.098 0.13 -1.64 2.62 -3.93

TITLES AND SYNOPSES OF PROPOSED PAPERS OF NOT MORE THAN 250 WORDS SHOULD BE SUB MI TTED BY MAY 30th, 1980. Correspondence and enquiries to: Convention Secretariat, AWWA Fed eral Convention, 1 C/- W.A. Division, Inst. of Engineers, Aust., 712 · Murray St., W . Perth, 6005.

WATER


CONFERENCE CAL EN DAR 1980

LETTERS

Manchester, U.K. April 14·17

International Conference on Biological Fluidized Bed Treatment . April 14-18, Adelaide

Engineering Conference. I.E. Aust. April 15-19, Oxford England

.

.

International symposium on application of recent developments in hydrological forecasting to the operation of water resource systems. IASH, WMO , UNESCO. May 12-16, Adelaide

ANZAAS jubilee conference. May 12-16, Melbourne

.

.

Biennial Symposium, Ecological Society of Aust. May 14-21, Melbourne

Water Engineering Workshop on Urban Hydrology (AWRC) May 20-23, Dunedin, N.Z.

Aust. Soc. for Microbiology and N.Z. Microbiology Soc iety June 18-20, Waterloo, Ontario

2nd Int. Symposium on Waste Treatment (U. of Waterloo). June 23-27, Toronto, Canada

International Water Pollution Control Federation conference and exhibition. June 28, Toronto, Canada

Seminar on Non Point Source Pollution (IAWPR). July, Melbourne

Environment symposium . I.E. Aust. July 7-16, Sydney

Course on Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Uni. of N.S.W. July 14-18, Townsville

Groundwater recharge conference. AWRC. July 14-24, Edmonton, Alberta

Third

international

symposium

on

water/rock interaction. Alberta Research

Council.

·

July 21-25, Uni. of ClermontFerrand, Fral')ce

Third WMO scientific conference on weather modification. WMO. August 18-22, Brisbane

Seventh Australasian hydraulics and fluid mechanics conference. I.E. Aust. August 24-3f, Kyoto, Japan

Congress of Int. Assoc . of Theoretical and App lied Limnology (S .I.L.) September 1-4, Paris

Thirteenth international water supply congress antj exhibition. IWSA. September 23-27, Amsterdam

Aquatech '80, Int. Water Technology Exhibition and Symposium of Fresh Water from the Sea. October 13-18, Velderhoven Netherlands

Seminar on Economic Instruments for National Utilization of Water Resources . WATER

The Editor, As a member of AWWA, the Institution of Engineers' National Committee on Hydrology and Water Resources and the Canberra Hydrological Society, I wish to comment on the views expressed in the recent editorial of 'Water' (Sept 1979). Over a period of several years, myself and some others have tried to generate the interest of members of AWWA, the Canberra Hydrological Society, the Sou,th Australian Hydrological Society ancf the Institution of Engineers (National Committee on Hydrology and Water Resources) to join forces in some way, in order to speak with a united voice on water matters in Australia. Our moves have been unsuccessful and received with little enthusiasm. While in no way wishing to detract from the excellent professional activities of AWWA in the water field, I believe it is an extravagant and inaccurate claim to say that the new ly formed Australian Water Co-ordinating Committee will ensure that interests in water in this country are not duplicated, etc. Contrary to the view expressed in the editorial, fragmentation of professional groups concerned with water already exists, as is evidenced by my own membership of three water associations. Your members should note, if they do not already know, that most of Australia's developed water resources are utilised in rural not urban areas and yet AWWA has no active interest in rural water use. On the other hand the Institution of Engineers' National Committee on Hydrology and Wat er Resources does not take an interest in water or sewerage treatment. It is therefore apparent that both these expert bodies have deliberately chosen to exclude certain, undoubtable, important areas of 'water' from their area of expertize. In these circumstances neither groups can speak with total authority on all water related issues. By chance, also in the September 1979 issue of 'Water' , a brief article appears on the Institution of Engineers Annual Symposium on Hydrology and Water Resources, in Western Australia. The article states that over 200 delegates attended. It may interest your members to know that while very few of these delegates are members of AWWA most would feel that they are part of a group which acts as the 'mouthpiece of all water activities in Australia '. Quite obviously, we can't both make this c laim. The acc~rate position , I believe, is that both groups concentrate their activities in different areas within a very broad field dealing with the science and engineering of water. Both groups provide a real service to different groups of professionals and the community but let's not be extravagant and make claims

that any one group will, or can be, the 'mouthpiece for all water activities in Australia'. Also contrary to the implied Editorial viewpoint, water resources development, pollution of water supplies and rivers, sewerage treatment, etc., are all State responsibilities which are already fragmented not only between seven different States and the Commonwealth but also within the States. For example, in New South Wales the 'interested bodies' in a particular river could include the Water Resources Commission, the Public Works Department, the Metropolitan Water Sewerage and Drainage Board, the Soil Conservation Service, the State Pollution Control Commission, the Maritime Services Board, the Planning and Environment Commission , etc. Another of the 'interested bodies' is the Australian Water Resources Council. A few years ago I would have believed that this body came close to being 'the mouthpiece for all water activities in Australia' . In recent times, however, its role in water has diminished quite noticeably. Irrespective of any possible merit in the ambition of AWWA to become 't he mouthpiece for all water activities in Australia' I believe the realistic situation is that advancement in the water area can only be achieved through the already established diversity of interests and not by unification of these interests. A. P. Aitken, Cooma Nth. Mr. Aitkens letter covers matters of considerable interest and the views of other members are invited. The subject has been referred by the Federal Presi· dent to the Executive Committee of Council for comment which will appear in a subsequelft issue. Editor

RANKIN AND MILFORD Continued from page 13 REFERENCES: RANKIN , R. 0 ., and MILFORD, S. N. Computer simulation of Brisbane River - Part 1 Salinity. Journal of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association,

1979, 6, 1, 9. RANKIN, R. 0 ., and MILFORD, S. N. Computer simu lation of Brisbane Ri ver - Part 2 Dissolved Oxgyen. Journal of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association, 1979, 6, 2, 14. RANKIN , R. o. Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen Invest igations and Simulation in the Brisbane River. Master of Science Thesis, University of Queensland , 1976.

SUBSCRIPTIONS Now due for Year 1980 Address to 'The Editor' 23


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Thermal Sludge Conditioning Plant Chemical Sludge Conditioning Plant T.C. Incinerator for Screenings • Multiple Hearth Incinerator Fluidised Bed Incinerator Static Grate Incinerator Rotary Drum Incinerator Dissolved Air Flotation Complete Industrial Effluent Treatment Plants Carbon Regeneration Chemical Dosing Equipment Clarification Rapid Gravity and Pressure Filtration Plants

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~SI-IARPLES

You cannot compare the Sharples Sludge Dewatering Centrifuge with other conventional sludge dewatering systems because a centrifuge has so many 'plus factors ' in its favour.

Nil

Centrifuges are totally enclosed . No offensive smells .

NI.I

Centrifuges occupy much less space than other sludge dewatering systems .

NII

Centrifuges don't suffer from screen blinding they have no screens.

111\1 Centrifuges.can accept wide variations in 'feed' concentration .

.., . .I

Centrifuges can operate in the open - no costly housing - reduced 'civils '. Centrifuges handle over 80% of sludge dewatering duties in the United States of America of which more than 50% are SHARPLES installations.

.., .....,

Sharples have more experience - more municipal centrifuge installations in the UK than any other centrifuge supplier.

NII

Sharples have the widest range of sludge dewatering centrifuges - to suit any sludge and any capacity . Sharples SOC Centrifuge standard construction is stainless steel eliminating corrosion problems .

Sharples have perfected a new and revolutionary hard surfacing technology to protect wearing parts which in operation out lasts other hard surface treatments by as much as 30 times.

-.a

....

Sharples Centrifuges are backed by a fully trained Service Team and a comprehensive Spares facility. British built with British labour. Faced with all these facts and we have plenty more to support our claim that the Sharples SOC Centrifuge is the oniy completely cost effective answer to sludqe dewatering or ~fudge concentration.

SHARPLES-STOKES PTY. LTD. MAIL: BOX 367, ARTARMON. N.S. W. 2064 PHONE: SYDNEY 439-3378/4458 CABLES: PENNWALT SYDNEY

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Water Journal March 1980  

Water Journal March 1980