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I 1ssN 0310 - 0351 I Official Journal of the AUSTRALIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION Vol. 6, No. 2, June 1979 - $1.00 Registered for posting as a periodical -

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IISSN 0310

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE Chairman

C. D. Parker Committee F. R. Bishop R. L. Cllsby B. S. Sanders Joan Powllng A.G. Longstaff W. Nicholson W. E. Padarin J. H. Greer B. J. Murphy P.R. Hughes J. Bales A. Wade G.F.Scott Editor: Publisher: E. A. Swinton A.W.W.A BRANCH CORRESPONDENTS

CANBERRA A.C.T. W. E. Padarin, P.O. Box 306, Woden, 2606. NEW SOUTH WALES G. F. Scott, James Hardie & Coy. Pty. Ltd., P.O. Box 70, Parramatta, 2150. VICTORIA J. Bales, E.P.A., 240 Victoria Parade, East Melbourne 3002. QUEENSLAND P. R. Hughes, 46 Tucker St .. Chapel Hill, 4069 SOUTH AUSTRALIA R. L Clisby, C/- E. & W. S. G.P.O. Box 1751, Adelaide, 5001 . WESTERN AUSTRALIA B. S. Sanders, 39 Kallnda Drive, City Beach, 6015. TASMANIA W. Nicholson, 101 Acton Road, Lauderdale, 7021. NORTHERN TERRITORY A. Wade, P.O. Box 37283, Winnellie, N.T. 5789. Editorial Correspondence E. A. Swinton, Box 310, South Melbourne, Vic. 03 - 699-6711 Or to Branch Correspondents. Advertising Enquiries Mrs L. Gaal, C/- Applta, 191 Royal Par., Parkville, 3052. Phone: (03) 347-2377. Subscriptions Manager: F. R. Bishop, C/- Camp, Scott & Furphy, 390 St. Kilda Rd., Melbourne. WATER

036 1

j

Official Journal of the

!AUSTRALIAN WATER ANDI !WASTE WATER ASSOCIATION I

Vol. 6, No. 2 June 1979

CONTENTS Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Association News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 8

Effect of Filtration Rate Changes - K.J. Hartley and J.B. Vowles............ .

10

Computer Simulation of Brisbane River Part 2 Dissolved Oxygen/Biological Oxygen Demand - R.O. Rankin and S.N. Milford . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

Biological Monitoring in Aquatic Environments - W.G. Jones and K.F. Walker . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

Water Reuse - From Research to Application - M.A. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Conference Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS Articles should be of original thought or reports on original work of interest to the members of the A.W.W.A. in the range 1000 to 5000 wor~s. Diagrams or photos would be appreciated. Full instructions are available from Branch correspondents or the Editor. CSIRO Style Guide preferred.

COVER STORY The Anstey Hill Water Filtration Plant, 17 km. north east of Adelaide will clarify and filter River Murray water delivered to the city by the Mannum-Adelaide pipeline. It will be the second of seven plants proposed ultimately to filter all water supplied to metropolitan Adelaide and will have an initial capacity of 313 megalitres per day. Design was by James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Inc. in association with Hosking, Fargher & Oborn Pty. Ltd. for the Engineering and Water Supply Department, which is managing the construction of the plant. Completion is due in late 1979.


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that 20 years, they may be frozen, or corroded to the point of being ineffective. It's then he'll wish you'd used a EUROVALV.E. EUROVALVE has been designed and manufactured for long life, and to withstand the stresses that disuse puts on a gate valve. A EUROVALVE may need to be used only once in its whole lifetime, but when it's needed ... it works, and that's where you can make this little boy a very happy man. For all of the engineering specifications, call us and we'll turn you on to EUROVALVE.

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dro en peroxide can trea aspectrum of industrial wastes, chemical Leaving you ree. C

Lers face it - all the time you spend worrying about the wastes you produce is time better spent elsewhere. Chemical treatment with hydrogen peroxide is efficient, reliable and simple to apply. And it introduces no secondary pollution problems. So if your waste problem involves phenols, sulfides, sulfites, cyanides, mercaptans, COD or other oxidisable species you should talk to us. ' We offer world-wide technical back-up and on-site assistance. We'll leave you with more time to worry about the things you wish to produce rather than the things you wish you didn't.

Hydrogen peroxide.The natural solution. INTEROX CHEMICALS PTY LTD. NEW SOUTH WALES. 20-22 McPHERSON STREET, BANKSMEADOW, NSW 2019. PO BOX 18, BOTANY, NSW 2019. TELEX 20628. CABLE PEROXIDE SYDNEY NSW TELEPHONE 6668000. VICTORIA. 480 SOMMERVILLE ROAD, WEST FOOTSCRAY, VICTORIA 3012. TELEX 33512. TELEPHONE 3146899. QUEENSLAND. HEDLEY AVENUE, HENDRA, QUEENSLAND 4011. PO BOX 502, HAMILTON CENTRAL, QUEENSLAND 4007. CABLE PEROXIDE BRISBANE QUEENSLAND TELEPHONE 2686000 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 195 GRENFELL STREET, ADELAIDE, SA 5000. CABLE PEROXIDE ADELAIDE SA TELEPHONE 2234046. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 643 MURRAY STREET, PERTH, WA 6000. TELEX 92490. TELEPHONE 3225991. NEW ZEALAND. BUCKLEY & YOUNG LIMITED. 17-21 MAIDSTONE STREET, GREY LYNN, AUCKLAND NZ. TELEX 742546. TELEPHONE 762127. LAP2972W


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R~Mreo MINIATURE CONDUCTIVITY• METER Conductivity measurements can be made easily by relatively unskilled personnel and the Instrument can be held and operated in one hand . It is calibrated in a reference solution of sodium chloride and measures conductivity in the range O to 10 000 uScm·1 • Portable, battery operated • Digital readout • Moulded, inductive type sensing head with a constant cell factor • Waterproof case. The Almco miniature conductivity meter is suitable for testing laboratory water samples as well as numerous field applications such as measuring the conductivity or salinity of water in reservoirs, dams, irrigation channels and industrial cooling and rinsing systems.

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!AUSTRALIAN WATER AND! !WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION!

FEDERAL PRESIDENT A. Pettigrew, P.O. Box 129, Brisbane Markets, 4106. FEDERAL SECRETARY P. Hughes, Box A232 P.O. Sydney South, 2000. FEDERAL TREASUAER J. H. Greer, Cl- M.M.B.W., 625 Lt. Collins St., Melbourne, 3000. BRANCH SECRETARIES Canberra, A.C.T. D. Coucouvinis, P.O. Box 306, Woden, A.C.T. , 2606 New South Wales P. J. Mitchell , Ci- John S. Willcox , G.P.O. Box 5222, Sydney, 2001. Victoria R. Povey, P.O. Box 409, Werribee, 3030. Queensland J . Ryan, C/- Gutteridge Haskins and Davey, G.P.O. Box 668K, Brisbane 4001. South Australia A. Glatz, C/- Engineering & Water Supply Dept. Victoria Square , Adelaide, 5000. Western Australia R.J. Fimmel, P.O. Box 356, West Perth, 6005. Tasmania P.E. Spratt, C/- Fowler, England & Newton, 132 Davey St., Hobart, 7000. Northern Territory A. Wade, C/- Dept. of Construction, Mitchell St., Darwin. WATER

EDITORIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY In his Report establishment of review of matters Association. This undertaken by the

(See P. 8) the Federal President refers to the Standing Cornmittees to provide an on-going fundamental to the aims and objectives of the is one of the most important initiatives ever Association .

Of special significance is the establishment of a Committee on Science and Technology responsible for the maintenance of the technical standards of the Association. The duties of this Committee will include the review of Scientific Papers and the preparation of informed statements on significant water and wastewater issues. The Australian Water and Wastewater Association is the major organisation on water technology in Australia, a position which has been enhanced by closer affiliation with international bodies. Maintenance of this position will require the presentation of a professional viewpoint on national water issues, particularly to government . In the past the Association has been unable to take a stand on technical issues. This has not been due to a lack of expertise - the Association with its multi-disciplinary membership, is competent to advise on all aspects of water technology. However, this reservoir of knowledge has been available only at the individual member or Branch level - there has been no mechanism for a considered viewpoint to be presented at the national level. Membership of the Science and Technology Committee will be drawn from within the Association on the basis of the . best talent available. For special investigations , sub-committees may be formed. Council considers that this Committee st1ould be closely associated with the Federal Executive and I have been appointed as its first Chairman . I believe that the Committee has a vital role to play in the future of the Association. D. J. Lane, FEDERAL VICE PRESIDENT

A.W.W.A. MEMBERSHIP Requests for Application Forms for Membership of the Association should be addressed to the appropriate Branch Secretary.

Membership is in four categories: 1. Member- qualifications suitable for membership in the In st . of Eng in eers, or other suitab le professional bodies . ($12 p.a.)* 2. Associate -ex perience in the W.&W .W . Indu stry , without formal qualifications . (~~2 p.a.) * 3. Student. ($5 p.a.) 4. Sustaining Member-an organisation involved in the W.&W .W . Industry wishing to sustain the Association . ($65 p.a.) *P lu s State levy of $3 in N.S.W. and Vic .


el

ASSOCIATION NEWS PRESIDENT'S REPORT · The President's report in the last issue of 'Water' advised our members of the Federal Council decision to allocate some of the responsibilities and authority of administration to State Branch level, by the formation of active Standing Committees to cover the main functions of our Association . Following the same topic I am pleased to report to members that a . number of these -Standing Committees have already been formed, and are in the initial stages of activity. I feel that all members will be interested to know the Standing Committees and the branches responsib le. Executive Committee - Federal President, Vice-President; Past President , Federal Secretary and Treasurer. Science and Technology - South Australia - Chaired by Doug Lane. Budget and Finance - Federal Treasurer with all State Treasurers . Administration and Policy - Tasmania. Publicity and Education - New South Wales. Legislation and Government Policy Canberra . Committee on Conferences - South Australia . Future relations with Other Bodies Queensland . Membership Services - Western Australia . Relations with W.P.C.F . - New South Wales. Relations with I.W .S .A. To be continued . Future Role of A.W .W.A. - Victoria . Relations with I.A.W .P.R. - Federal Executi ve. Journal - Victoria. The Federal Council feels sure that once these Standing Committees become fully active and operational, then the efficiency and "grass roots" contacts of the Association will be much improved by involving · our members more fully, with much greater opportunity to contribute to administration and policy. ' · ALLAN PETTIGREW, Federa l President.

A.C.T. "General meetings were held as follows: On 1st March Prof. Jim Garton gave a slide show concerning his work in the U.S. with low energy methods of reservoir destratification. 8

On 3rd April the meeting concerned water quality at the Ranger Uranium project. There were two presentations : "Water Quality Aspects of the Ranger Report", was presented by Mr. Graeme Kelleher who was a Commissioner on the Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry. Mr. Kelleher is presently performing the functions of the Supervising Scientist for the Al ligator Rivers region for a brief period. "Problems of dispersion of releases of contaminated water from the Ranger Mine. A preliminary field investigation using fluorometric dye techniques", was presented by Mr. David Ing le Smith who has recently returned from a visit to the Alligator Rivers region during the wet season. Mr. Smith is a Senior Fellow in the Centre for Resource and Environmental Stud ies at the Austral ian National University and is currently engaged to study dispersion of water pollution from the Ranger Mine."

SOUTH AUSTRALIA Prof . Williams of the Zoology Department, The University of Adelaide, addressed the Branch meeting held on Friday, 25th May, 1979, on the subject, "Sewage as a Resource". He emphasized that sewage should be regarded as neither waste not nasty, but rather as a potential resource. He structured his address under six methods of realising this potential : 1. Algae and fungi. 2. Bacterial synthesis. 3. Large aquatic green plants . 4. Fish. 5. Invertebrates . 6. Agriculture . Whilst algae use energy and provide aeration , they are difficult to harvest. Hydrophytes have attractions no pests, simp le technology , easily harvested , c limate favourable , easy to extract protein and fibre. Prof. Williams underlined the Rumanian work on hydrophytes at the mouth of the Danube - about 30% of GNP is based on hydrophytes. In Japan, 3 to 4 tonnes of carp per Ha per year is grown in sewage effluent and supp lies oet food. Fish provide fertrliser in Peru and in Germany. Invertebrates could be considered as a potential use of sewage via sea water enrichment of nutrients. Oysters are a case in point. In Australia sewage has gained some use of its resource in the agricu ltural area where sludges and effluents have been explo ited .

TASMANIA The Branch held a weekend Seminar on 'disinfection and sterili sation of waters' at the East Coast resort township of Swansea on the 19th and 20th May, 1979. Guest speakers at the Seminar included Kevin Mostyn of Wallace and Tiernan (Sydney) and Bruce Pyke of the Tasmanian Government Analytical Laboratories (Mount Pleasant).

The Sem inar got off to a good start on Saturday morning with an inspection of the Woodchip Qli ll at Triabunna, operated by Tasmanian Pulp and Forest Holdings Pty. Ltd. During the inspection delegates were told how high pressure jets of sea water are used to remove bark and debris from the outside of the log s prior to the chipping operation. After removing the bark the contaminated sea water is treated in sett ling ponds before being returned to the bay. On Saturday afternoon Kevin Mostyn delivered a paper on 'Practical Application of Chemical Dosing' and Bruce Pyke covered the 'Microbiological Aspects' of water treatment. A spirited discussion and question time concluded the afternoon's session. Some seventeen delegates and families attended the Seminar and everyone agreed that the venture was a great success with both delegates and wives looking forward to a similar function next year. Members who attended the Annual General Meeting last year will be pleased to know that a similar function is being planned for later this year, probably in late August. It is hoped that those who have missed previous A .G.M.'s will make a special effort to attend what promises to be another en joyable get together. Details will be circularised in the usual manner after finalization.

NEW SOUTH WALES At the General Meeting held on 26th April, a lecture on "The Clarification of Water Supplies with Magnetic Partic les (The Sirofloc Process)" was presented by Luis 0. Kolarik and Tony Priest ley of C.S .I.R .O. Melbourne. The results of the pilot plant in stalled at Mirrabooka for the Perth Water Board were discussed , together with an indicat ion of future plans . Lively discussion followed the "resentation of the paper . Forty members adjourned to the Bow lers' Club after the Meeting for dinner. On the 23rd May a near-record number of 60 members journeyed south to Caringbah to visit Kent Instruments Laboratories . For the past 100 years Kents have been supplying instruments to the Water Industry . The incredible technological advances of the ?O's were • reflected in the wide range of newgeneration instruments on display. After the visit, Kent Instruments kindly invited those present to attend a delicious smorgasbord . All agreed it was a very pleasant General Meeting. On Friday , 15th June, eighty happy sou ls attended Len Evans' cellars for our, now, annual wine tasting . Planning for our 1980 Regional Conference is well under way . Hans Bandier and David Stevens are convening the Conference and, at the present time, it is planned to hold it at Gou Iburn on 7th, 8th and 9th March , 1980. It has been decided that no spec ial theme for the Conference shou ld be chosen but the speakers be obtained on the basis of interesting WATER


topics . There is much new indust ry in the area directly related to the water industry , including a large cement plant , a new pipe factory and the Pejor Dam near Goulburn. The N .S.W . Branch is considering a proposal to act as joint sponsor with the Australian Pump Manufacturers' Association to hold a symposium on pumping , using the Handbook on Pumping as a basis for the symposium .

VICTORIA Over 50 people attended a half-day seminar held in May , on the subject of "Water in Energy Production". The topicality of the subject was emphasised by the full and fervent discussion which followed the dinner break. The first speaker, Dr . Dick Mccann , of Sydney University , described the various alternatives for production of power alcohol from crops , discussing their relative feasibility and economics. Dr . Charles Barnes , of C.S.R., then we¡nt into the details of likely water use, and waste disposal , for fermentation routes , drawing on the experience of present-day production of alcohol from sugar and molasses. If a significant percentage of Australia's transportation fuel is to be produced in this manner, there emerges a picture of city-sized water supply and waste disposa l problems , the latter compounded by the intractable colour of the wastes. These two comp lemen tary papers were followed by one from the other end of the fuel spectrum, that is , oil -from-coal. Mr. David Evans of Melbourne University presented estimates of the water balance of the Latrobe Valley, sett in g in perspective the impact of a possible oil -from-coal industry on the necessary massive scale. When taken in conjunction with the expansion of electricity generation , such an industry would impose critica l strains on the water economy. In June, Mr. George Archer, Officerin-charge of Melbourne's South Eastern Purification Plant described , very graphically, the commissioning of this massive plant. He spoke on the administrative network which was evolved to facilitate the take-over from the various subcontractors, proving and modifying where necessary. He fo llowed this by the details of bringing the plant on line, and building up the active biomass . The comple x system was then steadily plugged into the computer with all systems now operated from the central console . The July meeting will be addressed by Dr . Louise !riving of the Fairfield Infect ious Diseases Hospital , on the sub je ct of virus isolation and occurrence . The annua l Dinner Dance will also be held in July , free from the hassle of pre-Christmas schedules. Planning for the Weekend Regional Conference , to be held in Traralgon on 12-14th October is well advanced , the theme being " Wastewater Management in Australia's Ruhr Valley ". WATER

QUEENSLAND The Queensland Branch, in addition to its normal activities of arranging general meetings and field days, has also been organizing for the 8th Federal AWWA Convention fn November, 1979 at the Gold Coast . Arrangements for both activit ies have been progressing steadi ly . Branch activities this year have included the fo llowing dinner meetings at the Majestic Hotel in Brisbane. 7th March Mike Lever, manager of the B.C.C. Luggage Point Wastewater Treatment Plant spoke on "Problems Associated with Commissioning of a Major Wastewater Treatment Plant ." Mr. Lever's address was very interesting and together with his numerous slides of the construction, was very well received by those present. 2nd May A panel of speakers from the B.C.C. Water Testing Lab., led by the Chief Chemist Bill Solly, spoke on and illustrated a number of varied topics . These included : "Actinomycetes in Water and Sewage Treatment" by microbiologist Harry Ferguson, "Heavy Metal Removal at Brisbane's Two Largest Sewage Treatment Plants : An Analysis of Potential Use of Anaerobically Digested Sewage Sludge as a Fertilizer," by chemist Peter McKinnon, and not to be out-done Bill Solly presented a film on "Dam(n) Problems" as associated with the Enoggera Reservoir Pondage . Quite a remarkable evening! 27th June This was our annual Treatment-Plant Operator Certificate presentation evening which was again very well attended especial ly by visitors and potential members. The certificates for the three sections of Water, Swimming Pool and Wastewater were presented on behalf of AWWA by former DLG Chief Engineer Vince Schmidt . This was followed by a very enlightening talk by Bernie Keefe, a lecturer in Health Surveying at the Q.I.T. who previously spent 37 years in the Queensland State Health Department as Chief Inspector of Environmental Sanitation. Mr. Keefe's talk was entitled "The Health Surveyor's Involvement in Water Supply and Sewerage." 18th July At this meeting (which will be attended by treatment-plant operators attending a course at Q.I.T.), Norm Clarke of John Holland (Constructions) Pty. Ltd . will address the masses with a talk on Pumping Equipment in Water Supply and Sewerage Schemes . Mr. Clarke's considerable experience and expertise in this field will provide some food for thought for both the pump designers and operators as what to do and what not to do! The Annual General Meeting of the Queensland Branch has been scheduled for early September, with details of the meeting date, speaker and the 1979-80 Committee being sent to Branch members during mid August.

8th FEDERAL CONVENTION NEWS Planning for the Convention is now fina lised! The Convention Centre and accommodation have been booked at the Chevron Hotel , Surfers Paradise, social functions and tours arranged and the technical papers are progressing to the pu~lication stage (see page . .. ...... ) Registration forms will be mailed in mid-August to all those who reply on the cut-out slip in this edition of 'Water.' Remember also the "Munic ipal Engineers Water and Wastewater Workshop " straight after the Convention at Tweed Heads . Registrants to both will be able to maintain accommodation , and transport will be organised . See you at the Convention in November!!!

LIFE MEMBERSHIP TO JACK LANG Mr. J . D. Lang has been presented with a Service Plaque and Honorary Life Membership of the Association in recognition of his long and meritorious service and contribution to the Association and to the fields of water supply and sewage . Jack was a Foundation Member of the A .W.W .A ., and served on the Victorian Branch Committee from 1967-77, being Branch President in 1970. He played a major role in organisation of Operator Training , first with the A .W .W. A., then later with State and Federal Governments . He graduated from Melbourne University in 1937-8 with B.C.E., and after a year in Papua-New Guinea on a geophysical investigation, he joined the Victorian State Rivers and Water Supply Commission as an assistant engineer. Except for War Service , he served the Commission right through to his retirement as Chief Engineer for Town Water Supplies and Local Authorities in 1977. He was involved in design and investigation and operation of irrigation and urban water supply districts , as well as the direction of Local Authorities involved in town water supply and sewerage schemes. Jack was presented with his Plaque at the Victorian meeting of 26th Jun e. Two meetings previously he was presented with a framed portrait, a facsimile of the one that now hangs in the Entrance Hal I of the Operator Training Centre at Werribee, a tribute to the leading part he plaxed in its foundation. 9


EFFECT OF FILTRATION RATE CHANGES ON FILTERED WATER QUALITY K. J. Hartley and J. B. Vowles INTRODUCTION The quality of filtrate produced by a granular filter can deteriorate temporarily following a rapid change in filtration rate. This is often mentioned in the technical literature, but quantitative data useful for plant design purposes is scarce. The best available is that of Cleasby, Williamson and Baumann (1963) which was published along with an illuminating analysis and discussion by Hudson. The present paper reanalyses the data of Cleasby et al, and discusses the results of pilot plant and full -scale plant tests carried out by the Engineering and Water Supply Department to determine a design basis for changes in filtration rate. FILTER BEHAVIOUR The follow ing qualitative description of filter behaviour is useful is envisaging what happens when the filtration rate is increased . In a granular filter , suspended solids are removed from the water by attachment to the surfaces of the grains. This can only occur when the forces of attachment are greater than the forces of removal. In a clean filter, solids are removed rapfdly near the top of the bed, causing progressive narrowing of the waterways and increase in the water velocity between grains . Eventually the hydraulic shear on the particles equals the attachment force and the top of the bed has reached its solids storage capacity at that filtration rate . Thereafter suspended solids entering the filter must pass through the saturated zone before finding attachment points further down . During a filter run the saturated zone gradually increases in depth until there is insufficient granular surface area left to provide an acceptable filtered water qua I ity, resulting in " turbidity breakthrough" . Now consider what happens when the filtration rate is increased during a run . In the saturated part of the bed there is balance between the attachment forces and the hydraulic shear. If the water velocity is increased the shear force will exceed the attachment force and solids will be removed; solids will continue to be removed until the waterways have been opened sufficiently to reduce the shear force to the value of the attachment force. If the increase in filtration rate were to occur before the top of the bed had reached saturation, no solids would be removed unless the increase were of sufficient magnitude for the velocity to exceed the shearing value . Some of the solids removed may re-attach t~emselves lower down in the filter , however the extent to which this occurs probably depends on the remaining depth of the filter, the total mass of solids which are removed , and the agglomerated form in which the solids are sloughed off . The deterioration in filtrate quality resulting from an increase in filtration rate can be measured in two ways, the total mass of solids leaving the filter, and the peak concentration of solids in the filtrate . From an operational viewpoint, the latter measure is of more consequence because of its utilisation for monitoring performance and initiating backwash . The following three variables affect the degree of deterioration in filtrate quali t y. (1) The maQnitude of the increase in filtration rate. This determines the total mass of solids removed from their original attachments. (2) The rate of increase in flow. This has a significant effect on the concentration of solids in the water, and probably on the extent of re-attachment.

Ken Hartley is Planning Engineer, and Jeff Vowles , Engineer, in the Water and Sewage Treatment Branch , Engineering and Water Supply Department, South Australia .

10

(3) The age of the filter when the increase occurs . The age is a measure of the degree of so lids saturation of the bed and can be measured either as run time re lative to ru n time at breakthrough, or head loss relative to head loss at breakthrough. The run time or head loss at breakthrough will depend, of course, on the character of the suspended solids . It is apparent from this conceptual isation of the process that the in itial filtration rate has litt le influence on any deterioration in f iltrate quality. DATA OF CLEASBY. WILLIAMSON AND BAUMANN Cleasby , Wiiliamson and Baumann operated three pilot sand filters at 2 US gpm/ft 2 (4.9 m/h) and 4 US gpm/ft 2(9.8 m/h) and applied increases in filtration rate of from 10% to 100% over various time periods, ranging from instantaneous to 10 minutes. The f ilters were operated in the direct fi ltration mode using two types of f loe, ferric hydroxide and a copper-catalyzed ferric hydrox ide. The filtration rate was he ld constant until the head loss reached 3.5 - 5 feet (1.1 - 1.5 m) when the increase was applied. Eff luent quality was monitored by measuring the iron concentration. The results of the pilot plant tests were confirmed qualitatively on the full-sca le Ames Municipal Water Treatment Plant. The authors presented a f ull tabu lation of experimenta l results allowing Hudson to contribute a usefu l analysis in his discussion of the paper. Figure 2 in the paper, drawn by Hudson, is reproduced here as Fig. 1. Cons idering the Fe/Cu line, the correlation between peak iron concentrat ion in the filtered water and rate of increase in flow appears to be good. The data relate to in itial f low rates of both 2 and 4 US gpm/ft 2 (4.9 and 9.8 m/h), and increases in f low rate rangi ng from 0.2 to 2 US gpm/ft 2 (0.49 to 49 m/h) . The corre lation suggests that the peak concentration of so lids in the eff luent 60

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+

Rate of Increase in Flow -gpm/s q it/mi n

Fig . 1. Graph presented by Hudson in discussion of Cleasby et al , 1963: peak iron concentration in the filtered water as a function of rate of increase in f low. Circles indicate Fe/Cu f loe , crosses Fe f loe. (m/h = US gpm/ft2 X 2.44) .

WATER


is dependent on rate of change of f low only and not on the magnitude of the change or initial flow rate . The authors pointed out in their closing remarks that a difficulty with Fig . 1 is the inab il ity to plot the points re lated to an instantaneous change in f iltrati.on rate . This can be remedied by replotting the data as in Fig. 2, with the inverse of the rate of change in flow on the abscissa . Instantaneous changes, corresponding to an infinite rate of change , now plot at zero . A further refinement has been made in Fig. 2. The maximum increase in iron concentrat ion , rather than the max imum iron concentration, has been plotted on the ordinate; th is has been calculated by subtracting a steady state concentration of 0 .1 ppm from the peak concentration . If the points representing instantaneous changes are ignored, a sing le li ne (shown dashed) could be drawn through the data, as was done in Fig . 1. However, if the who le set of data is studied, it becomes evident that a series of lines (shown sol id) can be drawn , each representing a different magnitude of increase. The crosses , represent ing an increase of only 0.2 US gp m/ft 2 (0 .49 m/h), are more scattered than the other data. Cleasby et al attributed the scatter of Fe f loe data in Fig . 1 to inaccuracies in measuring the low concentrations of iron and the same woul d app ly to the data for sma ll changes with the Fe/Cu floe . Differences in stead y state iron concentrations from the average 0.1 ppm would also cause large errors in the plotted values at low iron concentrations. Another factor co ntributing to the scatter is the age of the fi lter at the t ime of the rate change . In the data of Cleasby et al, these ages were quoted for most runs , as li tres of fi ltrate passed before the change took place . They varied from 940 to 2230 litres , and were not quoted for runs with the smallest rate of increase. For a test in which on ly a small mass of solids is removed, a small difference in filter age cou ld have a signif icant effect on the resu lt . This wou ld also apply, in lesser degree, to all the other runs . The data in Fig . 2 can all be made to fall on one line if it is rep lotted as in Fig . 3 . Here, maximum increase in iron concentration relative to the increase occurring with instantaneous change has been plotted, and an approximate straig ht line re lationsh ip has been found to resu lt from the raising of the inverse of the rate of change to the 0 .5 power. The data for the Fe f loe is shown in Fig . 4 , and although it is wide ly scattered, it is not inconsistent w ith the Fe/Cu f loe relationship.

~

~

"-~ -~

0.2

t

u 0./

I

<l_

~

~ 0.05 -----

RY~~ 1 ~ ~

C

-

0.0 I 3

0

(R ate- of Iner=,<.,.., Flow

10

I O

~~"' v.s"'"'-,, \ •

1 I 6

~,t

~\

I;

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,,

~

0,/

~

0

/0

(Rat. of ;nerea,,. ,..,

20

r1owT'

30

(

40

SO

U59pm/f1 '/min _,)

Fig. 2. Cleas by et al data for Fe/Cu f loe, replotted . Open symbols represent an initial flow rate of 2 US gpm/ ft2 , closed symbols 4 US gpm/ft 2. Circles represent an increase in f low of approximately 2 US gpm/ft 2; triang les 1 US gpm/ft 2 ; squares aRoroximate ly 0.5 US gpm/ft2 ; crosses 0 .2 US gpm/ft 2. WATER

5

(USgpm /Ft ' jm,r,-0.5)

·•

+ +

+

+ + +

+ 0.1

u u ---<l <l

+

3 of

/ncrc,03e, ,.,..,

Flow )-os

.,

4

5

(US9pm /ft' /mn -o.•)

'

Fig. 4 . Data for Fe f loe, together with li ne for Fe/Cu f loe , Fig. 3 .

\~~

l

y

0

4

Fig . 3. Cleasby data for Fe/Cu f loe rep lotted again . Points for f low change of o·.2 US gpm/ft 2 not inc luded . Symbols as in Fig . 2. 6.C = Maximum increase in iron concentration at given rate of change of f low 6.C i = Maximum increase in iron concentration for instantaneous change of flow

(Rat<.

.Q

j

~

CJ

0.02

0

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~

0

0.01

0

100

~........_ t:,

<I

,ooor ?

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In Fig . 5 the max imum increase in iron concentration fo llowing an instantaneous change in f iltration rate is plotted against th e magnitude of the change . The better performance of the Fe floe could be exp lained on the basis that the fi lter had a younger age relative to the age at breakthrough when the f i ltration rate was changed with Fe f loe than with Fe/Cu floe . It might be hypothesised that the Fe floe had greater attachment forces, or that it had a sma ller volume (was more dense) than the Fe/Cu floe . Fig . 4 indicates that the Fe floe responded to d ifferent rates of change of f low sim i larly to the Fe/Cu f loe , wh ich suggests that reattachment forces were similar for both f loes. This in turn suggests that the main difference between the two f loes was vo lume (density). The extent of reattachment in a fi lter may be gauged from the data of Cleasby et al by analysing runs having the same magnitude of increase in fi ltrat ion rate, but different rates of increase. In each case , as the time over which the increase was made changed from zero to 5 to 10 minutes , the tota l iron subsequent ly lost from the filter decreased substantially (e .g.: 321 to 109 to 59 mg) . This provides evidence of signif icant reattachment within the filter fo llowing shearing of the so lids . 11


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<-,'{' si ,"(;

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)

Magnifuck of Change in Flow

/0

( m/h)

Fig. 5. Maximum increase in iron concentration resulting from an instantaneous increase in flow . Symbols as in Figs . 2 and 4. Fe/Cu points for flow change of 0 .2 US gpm/fl2 not included.

Fig. 6. Pi lot plant test results showing the maximum increase in filtered water turbidity resu lting from an instantaneous increase in flow .

The following conclusions may be drawn from the data of Cleasby et al : (1) The maximum increase in suspended solids concentration in the filtered water is dependent on both the magnitude of the increase in filtration rate (as shown in Fig. 5) and the rate of increase (as shown in Fig. 3) . (2) The initial filtration rate apparently has no influence on the maximum increase in suspended solids concentration . (3) Reattachment within the filter is significant and increases as the rate of change of filtration rate decreases; a slower rate of change therefore results in the loss of a smaller mass of solids , as well as a lower peak concen tration in the filtrate . (Lower concentration also results from distribution of the solids through a larger volume of fi It rate) .

waters and settled water turbidities in the two plants were such as to result in different head losses at turbidity breakthrough under steady-state conditions . Head loss at breakthrough for the operating conditions prevailing in the full -scale plant at the time of t he tests is unknown because filters were being washed prior to breakthrough , however it was clearly much higher than in the pilot •plant tests. In the full -scale plant, therefore, the age of the filters when the filtration rate was increased was young , which provides a qualative explanation for the lack of response of the filtered water turbidity . .,

TABLE 1 E. W .S. PILOT PLANT TEST RESULTS

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN DATA Pilot Plant

Both pilot plant and full-scale plant tests have been conducted on dual media filters by the Engineering and Water Supp ly Department. The effects of instantaneous changes in filtration rate were tested at the Terminal Storage pilot plant in February and March 1977. The anthracite/sand filters were operated at 14.7 m/h for varying times and then subjected to instantaneous increases of 12 ½ % and 25 % . The fi lters were treating settled River Murray water, and alum was being used for coagulation . Turbidity of the filtered water was monitored . Test results are set out in Table 1. The pilot plant data are plotted in Fig . 6 in the same form as Cleasby's in Fig . 5. It is evident that as the filter run progresses (the age increases) there is an increase in th e peak turbidity occurr'lng after an instantaneous increase in flow. Full-Scale Plant

Confirmatory tests were conducted on the full -scale filters at Hope Valley Water Filtration Plant. Test results are shown in Table 2. Large and rapid increases in flow caused negligible change in filtered water turbid ity . This resu lt can be reconciled with the pilot plant results by reference to Fig . 7. The different 12

Test

(% )

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

12.5 12.5 12.5 12. 5 12. 5 12.5 12.5

1 2 6. 5 12 17 18 20. 5

0.55 0.62 0.73 0.80 0.87 1.2 1.0

0.20 0.35 0.55 0.60 1.1 1.3 1.5

0.20 2.1 4.3 9.4 14 7.8 10

0 5 27 42 N.C. N.C. N.C.

4.5 6.5 5.5 5.0 3.5 4. 5 3.5

25 25 25 25

1 6 18 20

0.66 0.76 1.2 0.76

0.35 0.40 1.7 1.4

4.5 9 22 18

2.5 57 .5 N.C. N.C.

5.4 4. 5 4.8 4.5

8 9 10 11

Head Loss (m)

Settled Steady Peak Recovery Water State Turbidity Turbid ity Time Turbidity (NTU) (min) (NTU)

Run Time (h)

Flow Increase

Recovery Time: Time to recover to Initial fi ltered water turbidity , or less than 1 N.T. U. N.C. ind icates that recovery was not complete. In itial filtrat ion rate was 14.7 m/ h. In these tests River Murray water was used and pH of coagulation and filtration averaged 5.8. Under steady state conditions , turbidity breakthrough (fi ltrate turbidity = 1 N.T.U.) occ urred at a run time of about 15 h, and a head loss of about 0.8 m.

WATER


TABLE 2. HOPE VALLEY WATER FILTRATION PLANT TEST RESULTS

Test No.

Run Time of Filter Monitored (h)

1 (2/11 /77)

Initial Head Loss (m)

Flow Increase (%)

Rate of Increase in Flow (m/h per m inute)

lntitial Steady State Turbidity (NTU)

Maximum Turbidity (NTU)

Settled Water Turbidity (NTU)

2.8

355

6.8

0.065

No change

<0.5

0.10

No change

<1

Initial Filtration Rate (m/h)

6

2 (18/11 /77)

0 .75

10.6

13

5.3

3 (18/11 /77)

1.05

10.6

29

12.1

0.04

2.9

275

3.6

106

4 (30/5/78)

0 .11

0.15

<1

0.122

0.134

<1

Water was from Hope Valley Reservoir, pH of coagulation and fi ltration was above 7.0.

DESIGN BASIS

5

I

t

-f

1

4

.3

<C

./:> '§

There are commonly three circumstances under which f low increases can occur in a fi ltration plant . (1) When one filter is taken off-line for washing. (2) When the plant flow needs to be increased to follow demand.

2

-Q

\~~...

CONCLUSIONS

~ ..-.!.....

L

1-,

0

0

0 ~

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• - -• 0

Rrvc.r "11.,1rray

O

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0 0

:r: 0

4 Sut!Gd

10

lv"at<,r Tu r b,d1:_y

(N

/2

/4

ru.)

Fig. 7. Dependence of terminal head loss on sett led water turbidity under steady state conditions for River Murray and Hope Valley waters. This data was gathered at two Engineering and Water Supply Department pi lot p lants using dual media fi lters at a filtration rate of 14.7 m/h; turbidity breakthrough is defined as a rise in filtered water turbidity to 1 N.T.U. The main causes of high settled water turbidities are high raw water turbidity in the case of River Murray water and high raw water co lour in the case of Hope Valley . (3) On plant startup. This will not pose a problem with clean

filters, and when they are dirty no problem will occur unless the fina l flow rate is greater than the flow prior to shutdown. Rates of change of flow through the filters must be considered for both of the f irst two cases, bearing in mind the expected frequency of such flow changes and the acceptab le limit on filtered water turbidity under these circumstances. An approximate design chart may be devised from Figs. 3 and 6 and is shown in Fig. 8 . The relationships shown assume that the f loe behaviour displayed in Fig. 3 app lies equally to iron and aluminium floe. In addition, for practical use to be made of the chart it must be assumed that the run times shown represent relative filter ages for varying conditions of settled water turbidity and filtration rate ; with turbidity breakthrough under steady state conditions in the pilot plant tests occurring at a run time of approximate ly 15 hours, the 18-20.5 hour lines represent the fully c logged filter condition. Regardless of its accuracy, however, the chart does illustrate the sensit ivity of filtered water turbidity to rate of change of flow, magnitude of flow change and filter age . It might be noted here that Hudson has utilised a design value for rate of change of filtration rate of 0.06 US gpm/ft2 (0 .15 m/h/minute), which appears to be a real istic value based on Fig . 8 (Cleasby et al, 1963). WATER

The effects of filtration rate increases on filtered water quality have been clarified by analysis of previously pub li shed data, together with more recent pilot and p lant scale data . The analysis indicates that the deterioration in filtrate quality depends on the age of the filter when the flow increase occurs, the magnitude of the increase, and the rate of increase in flow . The relative effects of these three parameters have been quantified in Fig. 8, and it is suggested that the approximate relationships shown may be usefu l for design purposes . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The permission of the Engineering and Water Supply Department to publish this paper is gratefu l ly acknowledged. REFERENCE

Cleasby J.L., Wil liamson M.M., and Baumann E.R., 1963, "Effect of Filtration Rate Changes on Quality", and discussion by Hudson H.E., J. AWWA, 55, 869 .

-

zo

::5

RrJative, ~

h

<

of f;ft,r

10

'--C.

18- 20.5 hour

~5

f"'IHI

]

fime

( {ulty c/099,d f;/tu- )

~

j ]

2

run I-

tim t.

2 '1our

f"'Vf""lfim c,

I

---

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"

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(ruri""'1y

clean f;ft<r)

02

~

:.;: 0. / 0

0.2

Q4

Rate.. of Chang,, o f h ltrotion f<ot•

o.s

1.0

( m / h / m inute)

Fig. 8. Sensitivity of f iltered water turbidity to rate of change of flow , magnitude of change and filter age .

13


COMPUTER SIMULATION OF BRISBANE RIVER ~ PART 2: Dissolved Oxygen/Biological Oxygen Demand by R. 0. Rankin and S. N. Milford INTRODUCTION This paper discusses the modelling of particular pollutant levels in the Brisbane/ Bremer Rivers using a quality model whose dispersion parameters have been previously calibrated in Part I of this paper (Rankin and Milford, 1979). The ecolog ical concept of a river is a natural watercourse containing dissolved and suspended constituents that are necessary or beneficial to life in the stream and in the surrounding environment . In nature , a stream will act as a self-purifying system , and will , if waste levels are low , eliminate any organic waste material added to it . But if the input of organic pollutants is too great, natural oxygenation systems cannot cope and oxygen concentrations d rap to a low level. A major difficulty in estuary-pollution predictions is that it is difficult to establish an accurate inventory of effluent sources, since even if their location on the estuary is known it is not usual to have continuous and accurate monitoring of the magnitude of the effluent flow into the estuary. Thus , in this paper a technique is explored for estimating the strength of organic effl uent sources in the absence of actual monitoring . This is performed by adjusting the magnitude of pollutant inputs at known locations until the model simulates the prototype dissolved oxygen profile, both dissolved oxygen and organic pollutant levels being closely linked. Pollutant levels are measured in terms of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) . In the present investigation the term BOD is used to represent, approximately, the oxygen demand from both chemical and biochemical processes . Previous theory is used to arrive at values for the decay coefficient for the BOD pollutant , and the reaeration coefficient for the air-water interface . Pollutant inputs are adjusted until the model prediction agrees with the prototype DO curve. In this way , the sources of BOD and their intensities can be estimated. CECA Y OF POLLUTANT The FWQA model (Feigner and Harris 1970) uses the classical Streeter-Phelps equation (Sawyer and McCarthy 1967) for the decay of biochemical pollutants. The BOD remaining at any time t, BOD 1, is given by

BODt = Lo (1 - e -k1 t)

(1)

where Lo = the ultimate BOD, and k, = decay constant for organic material . The decay coefficient was kept as a constant throughout a modelling period in the case of the FWQA model . In the Brisbane/ Bremer Model, this coefficient was made dependent upon the ambient water temperature . It has been found that this rate constant varies markedly with temperature over the range 0-30°C. Streeter and Phelps presented the emp irical relation for the variation (Zanoni, 1967) ,

_ kl - kl (20) where T = temperature in •c,

e e=

(T-20) (2)

temperature coefficient .

Robert Rankin is now tne Education Producer, Australian Broadcasting Commission, Brisbane. This paper is derived from his Master's thesis under Dr. Neville Milford who is the Reader, Department of Physics, University of Queensland.

14

A value of 0.23 day·1 was used for k• at 20°C . For domestic sewage, Zanoni (1967) found that in the range 15-32°C, the temperature coefficient e was 1.047 . This temperature range is comparable with that found in the Brisbane/ Bremer System , and so equation 2 was incorporated in the model with these values. REAERATION The class ical equation for reaeration across an air-water interface , as suggested by Streeter and Phelps (Dobbins , 1964) is (3)

where k, = reaeration coefficient, C is the concentration of oxygen , and D = Csaturati on - Cactual is the oxygen deficit . The value of the reaeration coefficient used in the Brisbane/ Bremer Model was obtained from the widely accepted Thackston/Krenke! equation (Thackston and Krenkel, 1969),

k 2 = 0. 000287 (l+v'F)

*-

(4)

where F = Froude number u· = gSy where g is gravity and y is depth S = slope of the energy line In the present calculations a value of 0.11 day ·1 was used for the reaeration coefficient. Although this coefficient fluctuates with temperature and the level of impurities, it was decided not to include these components in the model, consid ering the wide variation of k, possible by its derivation from other empirical formulae. Effects of photosynthetic production of oxygen from plankton and benthic plants are not specifically represented in the model , so that allowance for this can only be incorporated in the reaeration coefficient. However, using th is technique does not allow for the possibility of oxygen levels rising above saturation due to equation (3) . The equation does however allow for rundown of DO level s from above saturation - a condition allowed for and tested in the present Brisbane/ Bremer Model. The solubility of DO in sea water is a function of its salinity and temperature. The FWQA model made no allowance for this. Using data of many workers in the field, Weiss (1970) established an equation of the form , lnC (DO) = A + A (100 / T) + A l n(T/100) 3 1 2 501 S(B 1 + B2 (T/100) + B3 (T/100) 2)

+

A4 (T/ 100)

+

(S)

to calculate saturation concentrations of DO as a function of T and S. A ; and Bi are empirical constants. As an examp le of the effects of temperature and salinity, the solubility of oxygen varies by 22 % for a change of salinity from zero to 20 ppt at 20°c, and at zero salinity, a change of 1 • C alters the saturation value by approximately 2%. These changes in T and Sare typical of those expected in the Brisbane/ Bremer Estuary . This variability of C 501 (DO) was incorporated in the solution of equation (3) in the Brisbane/ Bremer Model. WATER


INPUTS TO THE MODEL Inflows from effluent outfalls or creeks (the model makes no distinction) are speci(ied at each junction along with associated constituent concentrations. The model terminates with the tidal limit on the Brisbane and Bremer Rivers and . inputs here are only the freshwater inflows from upstream. The small creeks entering the system are not specifically represented as branches in the chain but are incorporated as water storage flats by increasing the area of the junction into which the creek flows. Any effluent entering the system v ia one of these creeks is therefore assumed to enter the system directly at the appropriate junction. Initi al estimates of the flow rate of pollutant entering the river were made from estimates of the effluent concentrations and estimates of the flow rates. These quantities are discussed in more detail in the next section.

-

Pred1ct1ons

+ Tennyson

10

Story Br. X Mogg1ll A Ipswich

o

z

lJ.J

"I!)

+ + + + ~ + + + + + + +Tennyson (Jn14 ½) + + + • ++

>-

~5

0 lJ.J

~o

~

0

0

ooooo

Story Bridge (Jn9)

O 0 0

(/) (/)

+

ooooo 0 0

0

10

Ea.

TABLE 1. Discrepancies In DO predictions at four sites. Two 21 day periods. (Units: g 1 1 ). Time

Site

30/8/74

Story Bridge Tennyson

to

Mean Dev

S.D.

RMS Dev

% RMS Dev of pred lcted

0.15

0 .40

0.52

9%

-1.33

0.68

1.53

20% 21%

Mogg ill

0.89

0.70

1.16

20/9/74

Ipswich

- 0.15

0 .21

0.31

18%

16/10/74

Story Bridge

0.61

0.33

0.69

17%

Tennyson

- 0.38

0.27

0.50

10%

Mogg ill

- 0.28

0.44

0.68

14%

Ipswich

0.03

0.10

0.19

11%

to

7/11/74

Since measurements of BOD were not employed in the present investigation , the BOD leve l at the boundary was arbitrarily c hosen to have a fixed value of 2 g 1-1, which is a reasonab le figure for this part of the estuary. These initial and boundary conditions enabled the computer model to be run to predict the resulting DO profile along the river. The initial BOD estimates were then adjusted in order to obtain improved correlation between the predicted and prototype DO levels. Figure 1 shows the relation between predicted and prototype levels of DO at four sampling sites for the second 21 day period invest igated. Table 1 shows a summary of the magnitudes of the discrepancies between the predicted and prototype levels . Figure 2 compares the predicted and measured dissolved oxygen profiles along the river for low water and high water on particular dates. The resultant longitudinal BOD river profiles predicted for both periods are shown in Figure 3. Comparison of the orig in al estimates and predicted mag nitudes of BOD inputs is shown in Table 2. The general trend is a decrease in the original BOD estimates. It is to be noted that in the lower reaches of the river, particularly for junction 2 where the main sewerage eff luent for Brisbane occurs, the initial estimates were based on actual data and therefore required little or no adjustment.

a.

z

lJ.J

~ 05 0 lJ.J

X X X X ~

X X X

z

x x Mogg1ll Un 25)

~ X X

10

(a) LOW WATER

X

~

X

Bremer River

X

0

~

~

0

Fig. 1. Comparison between predicted and measured levels of DO at four field sampling sites. ESTIMATING BOD EFFLUENTS FROM THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN DISTRIBUTION · Initial estimates of the magnitude of the BOD inputs to the river system were es tab I ished by a consideration of the nature of the source (James , 1971 ; Southgate , 1948; Lund, 1971) and the flow rate. This latter quantity was estimated in some cases , from actual recorded flow data (for examp le at junction 2) , whilst for unmonitored sources, an est imate was derived from the freshwater supply rate to the respective industry. BOD inputs were placed at the nearest junctions to positions along the river where known outflows existed. The boundary condition of the DO was obtained by a Fourier analysi s of DO meas urements near the mouth of the river, in a -similar fashion to the tides and salinity (see Part I).

++

~5 > ....J

++

0

(/) (/)

0

WATER

25/10/74

lJ.J

- Pred1ct1on + F1etd Data

++

E

a. .9-

10

z

Cl/

u

(b) HIGH WATER 30/10n4

C

~ Bremer

lJ.J

I!)

>~

+ + +

~5 > ....J

c0

+

River

+ u +

0

~

0

15

20

26 Junction

Fig. 2. Comparison of model predictions with longitudinal field surveys of DO.

15


800 (ppm) 0

....

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wou ld l ike to thank the Water Qua lity Counci l of Queens land for providing ass istance and he lpf ul information , and a number of individua ls who he lped with th is work: Professor Ed Ho l ley , Dr . John Stee le, Mr. John Church, Mr . George Cain , Mr . Bil l Grove, Mr . Clyde Croskell, Mr . David Johnston, and Mrs . Dahna Dearden. This paper is based upon the thesis "Sa lin ity and Dissolved Oxygen Investigations and Simu lation in the Brisbane River" submitted by R. 0. Rankin to the Department of Physics of the University of Queensland for the Master of Sc ience Degree.

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The predicted BOD loadings can be close to the prototype val ues on ly if correct values for the decay and reaeration coefficients are chosen. The va lue of the reaeration coeff icient is certain ly very approx imate since its derival'ion using other methods than that of the Thackston/ Krenke I equation yie lded a var iation of 35 % . The decay coefficient chosen was the generaly accepted va lue for sewerage effluent , and made no all owance for the presence of other po ll utants; an error must also be attached to th is decay coeff icient . It is concluded that for many practical prob lems the present mode l co ul d give adequate informat ion about the effects of a variety of stream f lows , tides and eff luent loadings . Thus it cou ld be used advantageous ly to investigate the effects on the water q uality of the Brisbane/ Bremer River system of proposed new housing, industrial or agricu ltural deve lopments with their concomitant effluents .

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REFERENCES Oobbins, W. E. 1964. BO O and Oxygen Relat ionsh ips in Streams. J. o f Sanit ary Engi neerin g Oi vision, ASCE , Vol. 90, No. SA3, pp . 53-78. Feigner, K. D. and Harris, H. S., 1970. FWQA Dynamic Estuary Model

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Documentation Report , Environmental Protection Agency , Washington D.C.

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James, G. V., 1971. Wate r Trea tm ent. Tec hni cal Press. Lu nd, J . F., 1971. Indu st ri al Pollution Cont rol Handbook . McGraw- Hil l, New York. Rankin , R. 0 . and Milf o rd , S. N., 1979. Comput er Si mulation o f t he Bri sbane Rive r. 1. Sal inity. Aust ralian Water and Was tewa ter Assoc iati on J ourn al.

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IPSW ICH

- --- - - -- -----=======:::::;;::;;~~:::::::::==-~-~-~-~-:=:=_ ___J

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Fig. 3. Predicted longitudinal BOD river profiles for the two modelling periods.

Sawyer, C. W. and McCa rt y., P. L., 1967. Chemi stry for Sanitary Engineers. McG rawHil l, New York. Southgate, B. A. , 1948. Treatment and Di sposal of Indust rial Was te W aters. Depart ment of Scien ti fic and Indus t rial Researc h, His Majes ty's Stationary Off ice . Thackston , E. L. and Krenkel , P. A., 1969. Reaeration Prediction in Natural St reams. J. of Sanitary Eng in eers, ASCE , Vol. 95, No. SA 1, pp. 65-9~. Weiss, R. F. , 1970. The Sol ubil ity of Nit rogen, Oxyge n and Argon in Wa ter and Seawater. Deep Sea Research, Vol. 17, pp.72 1-735. Zanon i, A. E., 1967. Was tewater Oeoxygenati o n at Di f ferent Tem peratu res. Water Resea rch , 1, p.543.

TABLE 2. BOD inputs at specified locatlons. (Junction 1 being at the mouth) (Units: gs -1 ).

JOURNAL SUBSCRIPTIONS Junction 2 4 5 6 8

11 13 15 25 31 32 33 34

BOD LOAD (origina l estimate)

BOD LOAD (Mode l )

900 45 45 150 20 60 74 100 27 40 3 1 23

900 45 45 90 3 0 0.5 3.5 42 40 3 1 42

CONCLUSIONS Bas ic trends in DO and BOD leve ls can be modelled satisfactori ly by choos ing appropriate values for the decay and reaeration coeff icients and the BOD input loadings , and us ing dispersion values computed from the mode lling of a long itudina l sa linity profi le under the same cond itions . 16

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AN OUTLINE OF BIOLOGICAL MONITORIN.G IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS By W. G. Jones and K. F. Walker INTRODUCTION

BIOASSAYS

Water quality usually is determined by monitoring a number of physical and chemical factors, such as temperature, salinity and oxygen content. Frequently, certain biological factors, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand or faecal coliform content, may be added to the monitoring program. The results are then compared with an appropriate set of criteria (e.g . Hart, 1974) to assess the suitability of the water for any of the variety of possible human uses. However, these conventional indicators of water quality must be interpreted in terms of biological requirements and responses . Rarely are the data adequate to assess fully the ecological impact of changes in water quality. It follows that direct observations of the organisms themselves must provide this information . Such observations underlie the concept of biological monitoring. Biological monitoring has potential applications for many forms of resource management, but its most effective development has been in relation to water resources . Particularly since the 1950's, there has been considerable interest in these resources and many different methods have been described in an extensive literature. Although several authors (Westman 1974, Wilhm 1975) have derived schemes for categorizing methods these have often not united studies with common approaches . Such schemes therefore may be a source of confusion . There are , we suggest, five distinct approaches underlying the methods of biological monitoring . These afford a logical means of categorizing studies. Each approach has i.t s own virtues relative to physlco-chemical methods, and its own particular application. This paper lists the five categories and outlines their salient features.

Bioassays involve measurement of a biological response to a toxicant or mixture of toxicants . They differ from toxicity tolerance tests in that the response is sublethal , and may be used quantitatively to assay waters of unknown toxicity . Several types of response have been studied. Enzyme systems

Many toxicants have inhibitory effects 'upon enzymes, and the degree of enzyme inhibition , measured as activity relative to normal activity , may be used as an assay (for one or more toxicants). The effects of pesticides on cholinesterases have been particularly well studied (Thomas et al. 1973), and the inhibition of other enzymes by trace metals and cyanide also has been investigated. ¡ However, there have been few attempts to apply these findings directly to water quality monitoring. Weiss (1961 , 1965) and Davis & Malaney (1967) proposed that acetylcholinesterase assays be used to monitor waters contaminated by organic insecticides, and Sridhar & Pillai (1969) showed that catalase activity could be used to measure organic water pollution . Cell Cultures

A fundamental biological response to toxicants is a reduction in the growth rate of cells. Polluted water reduces the growth rates of standard cell cultures, and this response has potential for monitoring contamination by pesticides (Li & Jordan 1969) and trace metals (Rachlin & Perlmutter 1968).

TOXICITY TOLERANCE TESTS

Toxicity tolerance tests generally involve determination of the pollutant concentration lethal to 50% of the test organisms after long term exposure (e.g. 96 hours) . This concentration is known variously as the LC50, LTso or Tlso , and is taken to represent the tolerance of the average organism. Standard procedures have been developed (e.g . Sprague 1969, 1970, 1971) to allow comparisons between studies, to establish the relative toxicities of pollutants, to compare the sensitivities of different organisms , or to estimate the pollutant concentration that will have no sublethal effects. The latter estimate is arrived at using " application factors" or "toxic units" or chronic toxicity tests . An application factor is that fraction of the incipient LCso considered to have " no effect" on the test organism. It is a guess, although not completely arbitrary, and not surprisingly there is variation in the values suggested by different authorities for each pollutant (Westman 1974). Toxic units are calculated as (concentration in the test water)/(incipient LCso). Again, a decision as to the maximum acceptable number of toxic units is a matter for prudent judgement. Chronic toxicity tests are a more reliable ¡ means of establishing the concentration of pollutant which has no effect on an organism . Sublethal effects are investigated by long term exposure (weeks or months) to low concentrations of the pollutant . Mr Warren Jones is now Tutor in Ecology and Natural Resource Management at Canberra College of Advanced Education. This paper introduced his thesis on 'The potential of the freshwater mussel, Velesun/o amblguus, as a biological monitor of heavy metals ', at the University of Adelaide. Dr Keith Walker is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide.

WATER

The freshwater mussel , Vetesunio ambiguus, Is one species that may prove useful as a bloaccumulator monitor In Australla . Whole organisms

. In using whole organisms for toxicity bioassays many different behavioural, physiological and biochemical responses have been investigated . Fish have been popular test organisms, and responses such as general movement, strength of combat drive, changes in reflex actions and conditioned responses have been considered. Warner et al. (1966) used a conditioned response apparatus to analyze fish behaviour in pesticide-contaminated water. Pollutant effects on physiological functions like breathing rate and oxygen consumption have been another popular subject for study. Cairns et al. (1974) and Cairns (1975) demonstrated that measurements of the activity and respiration of fish offer a rapid response test system for monitoring the effects of Industrial effluents . Abel (1976) studied the effects of several pollutants on the filtration rate of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis, and suggested the development of a standard toxicity bioassay along similar lines. 17


Others have been concerned to establish a measure of the overall health of organisms or, alternatively, the degree of stress to which they are being subjected . Spoehr & Milner (1949) and Wilhm (1971 , cited by Wilhm 1975) measured the energy content of organisms, and Bayne et al. (1976) and Widdows (1976), working with M . · edulis, developed a physiological measure of health termed the "scope for growth". Bayne et al. (1976) also considered cytochemical and biochemical indices of stress in this species. In bioassays the living system acts as a "black box" to integrate the effects of all factors influencing the biological toxicity of a pollutant. Those which measure the overall health of organisms similarly take account of the interactive effects of many pollutants, but do not allow separation of individual contributions . Bioassay results may be expressed quantitatively, but inevitably there will be variation in individual responses to a given pollutant level. This complication should be minimized by a careful choice of test organism .

INDICATOR ORGANISMS An indicator organism is one whose tolerance to a particular pollutant in known, and whose distribution and abundance therefore indicates the extent of contamination by that pollutant . The mere presence of an organism is an indication of certain environmental conditions, for it implies that at least the ·minimal needs of that species are met. Absence is a less useful criterion as it may reflect any one of a number of factors and therefore cannot unerringly be attributed to a known pollutant concentration . The use of indicator organisms (sensu stricto) generally has been confined to studies of organic pollution tolerance and to compare sites in terms of the numbers of spec ies of each tolerance level represented. Kolkwitz & Marsson (1909) employed this concept in their "saprobiensystem", whereby streams are classified into pollution zones on the basis of the biota present. Their ideas have been subject to much modification and criticism (Sladecek 1965), but remain the basis of many modern studies (see Wilhm 1975, Sladecek 1972, for examples) . Conventional water quality measurements and bioassays provide information about conditions only at the time of sample collection. Indicator organisms are exposed continually, and hence offer information about the long-term quality of their environment . Their presence shows that certain minimal conditions have been met continuously over a time period (one that varies with their mobility and generation time) . However, studies of indicator organisms cannot yield quantitative information about specific pollutants, and require supporting information about the biology of the species in question .

COMMUNITY STRUCTURE Community structure and composition will change as a consequence of pollution (e .g. Forbes & Richardson 1919, Cairns 1974) , and thus may provide a basis for monitoring changes in water quality . Most studies in this area have concerned measures of diversity. A number of methods have been developed . Patrick (1954) plotted numbers of individual diatoms against numbers of diatom species to provide lognormal curves representative of polluted and unpolluted streams . Wilhm & Dorris (1968) employed the familiar Sha"nnon-Wiener diversity index to establish a scale ot stream pollution. To overcome the need for taxonomic expertise, and the problems of calculating such indices, Cairns & Dickson (1971) developed the simple, easily-used Sequential Comparison Index . As with indicator organisms, community structure is a response to continued exposure to the environment . Although it may be quantified, there remain doubts on interpretation (e.g. Wuhrmann 1974) . Also, although it provides an integrated response where more than one pollutant is present, the individual contributions cannot be separated .

18

BIOACCUMULATIONS Many species accumulate trace pollutants from the surrounding water (Portman 1976). The extent of accumulation varies both with organisms an cfpollutants , but may be as high as five orders of magnitude over the amb ient level (Brooks & Rumsby 1965, Butler 1971, Risenbrough et al. 1976) . Studies to these bioaccumulator organisms represent a fifth approach to biological monitoring . Bioaccumulators offer at least three potential advantages over physical and chemical methods . One , a bioaccumulator will accumulate, and give a measure of , only those chemical forms of the pollutant that are biologically available . These are often a small fraction of the total pollutant load (Stumm & Bilinski 1973, Gibbs 1973, Jenne 1968, Hem 1972) . Two, a bioaccumulator is present in the environment continuously and may integrate the effects of concentration fluctuations. Three, for trace pollutants near the limits of analytical detection , the magnification afforded by bioaccumulators may be advantageous in respect to the accuracy and expense of ana lysis. 4 Unlike stud ies of indicator organisms and community structure, bioaccumulator monitoring yields quantitive data, although there may be considerable variability amongst the responses of the test organisms to the same pollutant regime. Bioaccumulators have been used to monitor pollution by radioisotopes (Nelson 1961, 1962, Harrison 1969, Foulquier eta/. 1973) , pesticides (Butler 1966, 1971) and heavy metals (Daracott & Watling 1975, Chow et al. 1976, Bryan & Hummerstone 1977, Bernhard 1976, Jones 1978). Molluscs and plants have been popular subjects. CONCLUSION In some cases the attributes of biological monitoring techniques may be duplicated by a combination of physical and chemical methods. For example, daily analysis of water samples might show fluctuations in pollutant concentrations, and there are elaborate sensitive methods for ultra-trace detection of many substances . Further, biological availability might be predicted from analyses of chemical speciation of pollutants (e.g . Hart & Davies 1977) . In most cases, however, the expense of such methods precludes their routine use. Physical and chemical methods and biological monitoring techniques complement one another, and water quality is best safeguarded where both approaches are in service. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ·t Our thanks to Professor Bill Williams, Department of Zoo logy, University of Adelaide, for comments on a draft manuscript.

REFERENCES ABEL , P.O. (1976). Effects of some pollutants on the fi ltration rate of Mytilus . Mar. Poll. Bull. 7, 228-231. BAYNE, B.L. (1975) . Aspects of physiological condition in Mytilus edulis L., with special reference to the effects of oxygen tension and salinity. in: Proc. 9th European marine biol. Symp. (ed. BARNES, H.) 213-238 (Aberdeen Univ. Press, Aberdeen). BAYNE, B.L. , LIVINGSTONE, D.R., MOORE, M.N. and WIDDOWS , J. (1976). A cytochemical and biochemical index of stress in Mytilus edulis L. Mar. Poll. Bull. 7, 221 -225. BERNHARD, M. (1976) . Manual of methods in aquatic environment research. Part 3. Sampling and analysis of biological material. F.A.O. Fish. Tech . Pap . No. 158. BROOKS, R.R. and RUMSBY, M.G. (1965) . The biogeochemistry of trace elements in some New Zealand bivalves . Limnol. Oceanogr. 10, 521 -527. BRYAN , G.W. and HUMMERSTONE, L.G . (19772. Indicators of heavy metal contamination in the Looe Estuary (Cornwall) with particular regard to si lver and lead . J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 57 , 75-93. BUTLER, P.A. (1966). The problem of pesticides in estuaries . In: 'A symposium on estuarine fisheries' (ed . SMITH, R.F.) 110-115. American Fisheries Society, Spec. Public. No. 3. BUTLER, P.A. (1971) . Influence of pesticides on marine systems. Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B. 177, 321 -329. CAIRNS, J. Jr. (1974) . Indi cator species vs the concept of community structure as an index of pollution. Wat . Res. Bull. 10, 338-347 . CAIRNS, J. JR. (1975). Quality contro l systems. In : 'River Ecology' (ed . WHITTON , B.A.) 588-611 (Blackwell , Oxford) .

WATER


CAIRNS, J. Jr. and DICKSON , K.L. (1971) . A simple method for the biolog ical assessment of the effect of waste discharges on aquatic bottom-dwelling organisms . J. Wat. Poll. Cont. Fed. 43 , 755-772. CAIRNS, J. Jr. , SPARKS, R.E. and WALLER , W.T. (1974). The design of a continuous flow biological early warning system for Industrial use. Purdue Univ. Eng. Bull. 141, 242-255. CHOW, T.J ., SNYDER, H.G. and SNYDER, C.B. (1976). Mussels (Mytilus sp .) . as an indicator of lead pollution . Sci. Tot. Env. 6, 55-63 . DARRACOTT, A. and WATLING , H. (1975) . The use of molluscs to monitor cadmium levels in estuaries and coastal marine environments. Trans . R. Soc. Sth . Africa 41 , 325-338. DAVIS, T.J ., and MALANEY, G.W. (1967). Acetylchollnesterase Inhibition, a new parameter of water pollution . Wat. Sew. Works 114, 272-278. FORBES, S.A. and RICHARDSON , R.E. (1919) . Some recent changes In Illinois River Biology . Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 13, 139-156. FOULQUIER, L., BOVARD, P. and GRAUBY, A. (1973). Resultats experlmentaux sur la fixation du zlnc-65 par Anodonta cygnea (Linnaeus) . Malacologia 14, 107-124. GIBBS, R.J. (1973). Mechanisms of trace metal transport In rivers. Science 180, 71 -73 . 54 65 HARRISON , F.L. (1969) . Accumulation and distribution of Mn and Zn In freshwater clams. Proc. 2nd Nat. Sympos. Radioecology, 198-220. HART, B.T. (1974) . A compilation of Australian water quality criteria. Aust. Wat. Res. Council Tech . Paper No. 7. HART, B.T. and DAVIES, S.H.R. (1977) . A batch method for the determination of Ion exchangeable trace metals In natural waters. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 28 . (3) 397-402. HEM , J.D. (1972) . Chemistry and occurrence of cadm ium and zinc In surface water and groundwater. Wat. Res. 8, 661 -679. JENNE, E.A. (1968) . Controls on Mn , Fe, Co, NI, Cu and Zn concentrations In soils and water: the significant role of hydrous Mn and Fe oxides . In: 'Trace inorganlcs In water' . Adv. Chem. Ser. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73 . 337-387 . .JONES, W.G. (1978) . The freshwater mussel, Ve/esunio ambiguus (Phillippi), as a biological monitor of heavy metals. Master of Environmental Studies , thesis, University of Adelaide. KOLKWITZ, R. and MARSSON , M. (1909). 5kologle der tlerlsche Saproblen. Bletrage zur Lehre von der blologlsche Gewasserbeurtellung . Int. Rev. ges. Hydroblol . Hydrog. 2, 126-152. LI, M.F. and JORDAN , C. (1969) . Use of spinner culture cells to detect water pollution . J. Fish . Res . Bd Can . 26 , 1378-1382. NELSON, D.J. (1961). The strontium and calcium relationships In Clinch & Tennessee River mollusks. In : 'Radloecology' (ed . SHULTZ, V. and KLEMENT, A.W .) 203-211 (Reinhold , New York) . NELSON, D.J. (1962) . Clams an Indicators of Strontlum-90. Science 137, 38-39. PATRICK, R. (1954) . Diatoms as an Indication of river change. Proc. Ind. Waste Conf. 9th , Purdue Univ. Eng. Ext. Serv. 87 , 325-330. PORTMAN , J.E. (ed .) (1976) . Manual of methods In aquatic environment research . Part 2. Guidelines for the use of biological accumulators In marine pollution monitoring. F.A.O. Fish . Tech . Pap. No. 150 . RACHLIN, J.W. and PERLMUTTER, A. (1968) . Fish cells In culture for study of aquatic toxlcants. Wat. Res. 2, 409-414 . RISEBROUGH , R.W., de LAPPE , B.W. and SCHMIDT, T.T . (1976) . Bloaccumulatlon factors of chlorinated hydrocarbons between mussels and seawater. Mar. Poll. Bull. 7, 225-228. SLADECEK, V. (1965). The future of the saproblty system . Hydrobiologia 15, 518-537. SLADECEK, V. (1972). The reality of three British biotic Indices. Wat. Res. 7, 995-1002 . SPOEHR, H.A. and MILNER, H.W. (1949) . The chemical composition of Ch/ore/la ; Effect of environmental conditions . Pl. Phys/of. 24, 120-149. SPRAGUE, J.B. (1969). Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish . I. Bloassay methods for acute toxicity . Wat. Res. 3, 793-821 . SPRAGUE, J.B. (1970). Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish . II. Utilizing and applying bloassay results . Wat. Res. 4, 3-32 . SPRAGUE, J.B. (1971) . Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish. Ill . Sublethal effects and 'safe' concentrations. Wat. Res. 5, 245-266. SRIDHAR, M.K.C. and PILLAI, S.C. (1969) . Catalase activity In polluted streams . Effluent Wat. Treat. J. 9, 81-86 . STUMM , W. and BILINSKI, H. (1973). Trace metals In natural waters; difficulties of Interpretation arising from our ignorance on their speclatlon . Adv. Wat. Poll. Res. 8, 39-52 . THOMAS, W.A., GOLDSTEIN , G. and WILCOX, W.H . (1973) . Biolog ical Indicators of environmental quality: a bibliography of abstracts. (Ann . Arbor Science: Ann Arbor) . WARNER , R.E ., PETERSON, K.K. and BERGMAN , LL. (1966) . Behavioural pathology In fish: A quantitative study of sublethal pesticide toxlcatlon . J. Appl. Ecol. 3, 223-247. WEISS , C.M . (1961) . Physiological effect of organic phosphorus Insecticides on several species of fish . Trans . Am. Fish . Soc. 90, 143-152. WEISS , C.M. (1965) . Use of fish to detect organ ic Insecticides In water. J. Wat. Poll. Cont. Fed. 37 , 647-658. WESTMAN, W.E. (1974). Bloassays and biological monitoring. In: 'A compilation of Australian water quality criteria' (ed . HART, B.T.) 275-282. Aust. Wat. Res . Council Tech . Paper No. 7. WIDDOWS , J. (1976). Physiological adaptation of Mytllus edulis to cyclic temperatures . J. Comp. Physiol. B. 105, 115-128. WILHM , J.L. (1975). Biological Indicators of pollution . In : 'River Ecology' (ed . WHITTON , B.A.) (Blackwell, Oxford) . WILHM , J.L. and DORRIS, T.C. (1968) . Biological parameters of water quality. Bioscience 18, 447-481. WUHRMANN, K. (1974) . Some problems and perspectives In applied llmnology. Mitt. Internal. Vereln. Llmnol. 20, 324-402 .

WATER

MUNICIPAL ENGINEER'S WATER AND WASTEWATER WORKSHOP 17-18th November 1979. Tweed Heads , Ne\i South Wales. Further information from Ross Anderson , cl- Tweed Shire Council , P.O. Box 816 , Murwillumbah , NSW 2484 (066-72-2444). DRAFT PROGRAMME: Saturday 17th November OPENING ADDRESS 9.00 Mr. Allan Pettigrew , Federal President, Australian Water & Wastewater 'Association. 1ST SESSION 9.15 Water Transmitted Diseases . Chlorination, Mr. Bielz, I.C.I. of Aust. & N.Z. Ltd . 2ND SESSION 11 .00 Treatment of Potable Water, Mr. R. E. Macintosh , G.H . & D. Pty. Ltd . 11 .30 - Fluoridation of Water Supplies, Mr. J. Cantwell, Fluoridation Officer, Health Commission of N.S.W. 3RD SESSION 2.00 Micro Processor Usage, Mr. J. Carrier, Honeywell Pty. Ltd . Flow Metering , Mr. G. Bouden, Kent Instruments (Aust) Pty. Ltd . 4TH SESSION 3.45 Pumps, Mr. G. Gray, Kelly & Lewis Pumps . Submersible Pumps, Flygt (Aust) Pty . Ltd. Sunday 19th November, 1979 1ST SESSION 9.00 Intermittently-operated Activated Sludge Plants, Mr. S. Jones , Bio-Jet Industries Pty. Ltd. Microbiology in Sewage Treatment, Mr. Wright, Southern Cross Laboratories Pty . Ltd. 2ND SESSION 11 .00 Trade Wastes and the Municipal System, Mr. J. Harland, State Pollution Control Commission. 11.30 - Hydrogen Sulphide Control in Sewer Rising Mains. 3RD SESSION 2.00 Vacuum Sewage Transportation, Electrolux (Environmental Systems Div .) 4TH SESSION 3.00 North Coast Hospitality.

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WATER REUSE - FROM RESEARCH .TO APPLICATION by M.A. Smith

Between 25th and 30th March, 1979, some 500 people gathered in to attend a Washington, D.C., symposium dealing exc lusively with the reuse of water. The importance of this topic and the worldwide interest in the re-use of water is demonstrated by the fact that delegates attending the symposium came from Canada, Great Britain, Netherlands, Israel, Republic of South Africa , Indi a, Hong Kong, and most States of the U.S.A. The author and Dr. Bob Eld ridge, of the CSIRO Division of Chemical Techno logy , attended from Australia . The symposium concentrated on practical aspects of the use of reclaimed water and covered such topics as: . • water re-use po li cy • water supp ly augmentation • policy implementation, programs and potential • planning for re-use • industrial recycl in g and re-use • aquacu lture, wetlands and ecosystems • international developments • institutional factors • research a·nd development • municipal re-use • modelling and instrumentation • agricu ltura l re-use • health effects research. While the symposium did not develop any formal conc lu sions or recommendations, three points seemed to stand out Mike Smith has recently transferred back to the S. R. W. S. C. as Senior Executive Engineer, Planning · and Development Branch , after a stint as Project Engineer with the Victorian Minister of Water Resources and Water Supply.

(a) Direct Re-use of Water for Domestic Purposes

It was unanimously agreed that direct re-use of water for potable purposes was not presently feas ibl e and it is unlikely to be practicable within the foreseeab le future. It is particularly interesting that this conclus ion has been accepted in thA U.S.A. , where there has been considerab le interest in direct re-use of water in the past. (b) Possible Health Effects

The possible health effects associated with the re-use of water is seen as the major obstacle to its general adoption . Throughout the world health authorities appear to be showing in creasing · concern at the possible long -term health effects of using reclaimed water for such purposes as irrigation of edib le crops and groundwater recharge. In some ways this is surprising, as there are no recorded instances of illness resu ltin g from the contro ll ed re-use of water. Perhaps this attitude ref lects the lon gstanding prejudice that has been built up in people that sewage is the mixing pot of al l things dangerous to manki-nd. Whatever the reason , it is a fact that must be faced as demonstrated by ·the restrictions placed on the use of groundwater recharged with reclaimed water in the Dan Region of Israel and in the Los Angeles area , in California. Severa l people at the sympos ium reported on research that is being undertaken to show the safety of re-use of water, but it is clear that it wi ll take many years before sufficient ev id ence can be col lected .

At a visit to the MMBW Farm at Werrlbee, Messrs. J. B. MacPherson and I. G. Mitchell entertain Ms. Wu, Ms. Huang, Mr. Liu, Mr. Gao and Mr. Hu.

20

(c) Costing of Re-use Projects

Projects involving the use of reclaimed water will not be accepted unless they can be shown to be economical ly competitive with schemes based on the use of " conventiona l" sources of water . Th'e symposium revealed cons id erab le concern over methods of cost ing and financial ass istance provided for re-use projects . For example , in the U.S .A., there is current ly doubt as to whether re-use projects will, in future , be elig ible for grants from the E.P .A . for pollution contro l works . If they are not eli gib le for such grants (which amount to 75 % of the· capital cost of works), obviously it is unlikely that they wil l be ab le to compete with basic treatment and disposal options. In Austra lia, there is also a comp li cated system of financial assistance for works of water supply and wastewater treatment. The eli gibi lity of re-use schemes for such assistance and equitable means of comparin g the costs of various alternatives must be reso lved as a matter of urgency . The financial aspects of the use of recla im ed water was probably the most hotly debated subject .during the symposium . The sponsors of the symposium are considering holding a second symposium, in 2-3 years time . Any person involved in this field of activity is urged to attend the symposium to keep abreast of the latest worldwide developments. '

., STUDY VISIT BY CHINESE SCIENTISTS . Five scientists from the People's Republic of China visited Victoria and South Australia in April/May, 1979, under the Scientific Exchange Agreement between the Academia Sinica, Peking and the Australian Academy of Science . The group's interest was In the use of reclaimed water, particularly in irrigation . They visited a number of organisations and research laboratories in the two states, the resulting discussions proving mutually beneficial. The leader of the group was Mr. Gao Zheng-min, who is Deputy Director of the Institute of Forestry and Soi l, Shen Yang . He was accompanied by Ms. Wu Yan -yu, a Departmental Chief and Mr. Liu Qi-song, a Research Fellow in that In stitute, together with Ms . Huang Yin-xiao and Mr. Hu Rong-mei, Research Fe ll ows in the Institute of Botany, Peking and the Institute of Soil Science, Nan king respectively. WATER


Bulletin No. 2

AUSTRALIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION FOURTH SUMMER SCHOOL: 4-8 FEBRUARY, 1980, FLINDERS UNIVERSITY - ADELAIDE

''WATER FOR THE 1980's?'' The School will provide a forum at which the expected 100 to 120 participants will be presented with the opportunity to expand their knowledge of the fundamentals of the science and technology of the water and wastewater industry. Case studies will also be presented to illustrate the application of principles. THE PROGRAM A series of lectures and technical workshops will take up the five days of the School. The workshops will cater for groups of 10 to 15 people. A broad range of topics will be covered by speakers from the engineering, science, medical and legal professions. Visits are planned to be made to the State Water Laboratories and a recently commissioned water filtration plant. THE SPEAKERS Included amongst the fifteen speakers w_ho will present sessions are:K.J. Ives, Professor of Public Health Engineering at University College, London, U.K. Dr. B.T. Commins, Research Chemist (Environmental Health), Water Research Centre, U. K. Dr. M. Taylor, Research Chemist (Water Quality Assessment), Ministry of Works and Development, N.Z. B.W. Gould, Associate Professor of Public Health Engineering, University of N.S.W. Sandford D. Clark, Harrison Moore Professor of Law, University of Melbourne. THE VENUE The technical sessions will be convened at the Flinders University of South Australia located 10 kilometres south of the city of Adelaide . ACCOMMODATION Arrangements have been made for visiting registrants to stay in the residential college on the University Campus. FURTHER INFORMATION can be obtained by contacting Dr. J. Cugley, Secretary, A.W.W.A. Summer School Steering Committee, on telephone (08) 258-1066, or by writing to him at the State Water Laboratories, C/- Private Bag, P.O. Salisbury, 5108, Australia.

WATER

21


CONFERENCE CALENDAR 1979 July 2-11, Sydney

Municipal Wastewater Treatment Course . Enquiries: Mr. P.J . Bliss , School of Civil Engineering , University of New South Wales, P.O. Box 1, Kensington , N.S.W . 2033. July 12, Sydney Symposium on Aerobic Processes In Wastewater Treatment. Enquiries: Dr. David Barnes, School of Civil Engineering , University of ,New South Wales, P.O. Box 1, N.S.W . 2033 . August 12-17, Perth Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy conference. Enquiries: Mr. J. Hayton., Secretary, Al MM Perth Branch, Clo AMDEL, 182 Wittenoom Street, East Perth, W .A. 6000. August 20-24, Perth 5th Australian symposium on analytical chemistry. Enquiries: Mr. B. J. Coding, Clo Government Chemical Laboratories, 30 Plain Street, Perth , W.A. 6000 . August 26-31, Canberra "Evolving Ecosystems", 4th international symposium on environmental biochemistry. Enquiries : The Conference Secretary , Australian Academy of Science, P.O. Box 783 , Canberra City , A.C.T. 2601 . September 3-7, Vienna Treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters in large plants . Workshop organised by the International Association on Water Pollution Research . Enquiries : Prof . Ing Wilhelm vd Emde, TU Wien, Karlsplatz 13, A-1040 Wien , Austria. September 10-12, Perth

Hydrology and water resources symposium . Enquiries : Institution of Engineers Australia, Science House, 712 Murray Street, West Perth, W.A. 6005. September 10-15, Cagliari, Italy 18th International congress of the International Association for Hydraulic Research . Theme 'Hydraulic Engineering in Water resources development and management' . Enquiries : IAHR , Rotterdamseweg 185, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft, Netherlands. September 18-21, London

Heavy Metals in the Environment. Enquiries: Dr. D. Barnes, School of Civil Engineering, University of N.S.W. , New South Wales , P.O. Box 1, Kensington , N.S .W . 2033. October 7-12, Houston U.S.A. Water Pollution Control Federation Annual Conference. Enquiries: R. A . Canham, Water Pollution Control Federation, 3900 Wisconsin Avenue, Washington, DC 20016, U.S .A.

22

October 2-5, London

Water Resources- a changing strategy? Enquiries : The Institution of Civil Engineers, Great George Street , London , SW1 P 3AA. October 4-5, Minneapolis Reverse OsmosislUltrafiltration for the production of Pure Water. Enquiries : Mrs. Patricia A. Letson , Osmonics, Inc. , 15404 Industrial Road , Hopkins , Minn . 55343 . October 25-26 , Ballarat Victorian Sewage Engineers and Operators - 42nd Annual Conference . Enquiries : R. Povey , Operator Training Centre, Box 409, P.O. Werribee 3030 . October 28-November 2, Colorado 3rd conference on Water chlorination : environmental impact and health effects . Enquiries: Mr. Robert L. Jolley, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37830 . October 28-November 2, New Delhi 13th congress of International Commission on large dams . Enquiries : CVJ Varma, Central Board of Irrigation & Power, Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi 110001, India. November 12-16, Surfers Paradise 8th Federal Australian Water and Wastewater Association convention. Enquiries : Convention Secretary, Australian Water and Wastewater Association , P.O. Box 129, Brisbane Markets, Qld ., 4106 . 1980 January/February, Sydney

Municipal Water Treatment Course . Enquiries: Prof. B. W . Gould, School of Civil Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington , N.S.W. 2033 . February 4-8, Adelaide Australian Water and Wastewater Association 4th summer school. Water for the 1980's. Enquiries : Dr. J. Cugley, State Water Laboratories , Private Bag, P.O . Salisbury, South Australia 5108. May 12-16, Adelaide Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science, 50th Congress . Enquiries : Executive Officer, Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science, 157 Glovester Street, Sydney , N .S.W . June 23-27, Toronto International Association on Water Pollution Research, 10th International Conference. Enquiries : IAWPR , Chichester H.ouse, 278 High Holborn , London WC1, U.K. July 7-16, Sydney Special Course on Municipal Wastewater Treatment for qualified engineers in Local Government, or other authorities. Enquiries: Mr. P. J . Bliss , School of Civil Engineering, P.O. Box 1, Kensington , N.S .W. 2033. Phone : 662-3015 (direct) , 662-3023 (messages) .

PACKAGED MICRO-ORGANISMS Diversey (A'Asia) Pty. Limited ¡ announce that they are now Australian distributors of a range of packaged , mutant micro-organisms for waste treatment developed by Warne Biochemicals U.S .A. These have been manufactured in the U.S.A. and Dublin, Republic of Ireland, since 1976, and have rapidly gained acceptance in Europe and North America . Each of the four main products contains a number of different strains , selected from nature, adapted by force feeding and mutated to fix the adaption . The strains are unusual because they are not generated from spores . Sporous bacteria are hardy , but are not as effective in attacking complex molecules . One or more of the products are used to suit the type of waste and can provide a rapid and convenient means of starting a new plant or after cleaning or breakdown in biological activity . Regular addition maintains a population of mutant bacteria which can greatly improve B.O.D., C.O.D. and suspended solids by faster degradation of inhibiting, resistant or toxic components in the waste. Plant capacity can be upgraded without capital outlay by improving oxygen transfer efficiency and improved sludge characteristics. The products , which are in the form of a stable, freeze dried powder, are as follows : Polybac is an all purpose product for municipal and food industry waste where it will provide fast start-up, better stability to shock loads, greater capacity and improved effluent quality . Lipobac will free build-ups of grease iri waste water treatment hardware and , in combination-, with Polybac , handle high lipids waste such as from dairy and meat industries. Phenobac is specifically active against mineral oils , aromatic hydrocarbons , phenols, cyanides, dyestuffs and a wide range of other toxic chemicals found in the petrochemical, steel, coal conversion and chemical industries . Thermobac degrades cellulose , lignin, paper and vegetable waste and can also be applied direct to solid waste accumulated in garbage tips , food processing, canneries, etc. Details are available of a number of trials carried out overseas and some of the results achieved and savings in power , sludge handling , not to mention fines, can only be described as spectacular . Local trials have been commenced and have already shown excellent results . Enquiries: John Abery, Dlversey Victoria, P.O. Box 84, Bayswater 3153 - (03) 729 5600.

WATER


Carthew, G.A., Macoun, A.J . (Caldwell, Connell , Vic .). Googong water treatment plant and pump station. Wallis , I.G. , Carthew, G.A. (Caldwell , Connell , Vic.). High rate primary treatment. Parry, I.G . (MMBW, Vic.) . A practical scheme for -.,toxicity assessment in sewage treatment processes . Giles, J. (P .W.D., NSW) . Development of the 'B4000' - a single vessel , sequentially-operated extended aeration sewage treatment plant . Lawson , T.U. (Envirotech , NSW) . Experience with the Carousel system in Australia . Nadebaurn, P.R., Van Nguyen, H. (Davy Pacific, Vic., I.C.I. Aust ., Vic.) . The Slrofloc process for turbidity and colour removal - commercial applications . Ho, G.E. (Murdoch U, WA) . Acid waste neutralisation using 11mestonebearing sand . Hutchings, D.C. (C. I.G. , NSW). Oxygenation of wastewater. Stone, B., Waterhouse, K.A. (Montgomery , NSW). Water reuse In Southern California. Jones, N.D., HlJghes, P.G. (Munro , Johnson, Old.) . Disposal of saline minewaters by dilution in stream floodflows. Jones, N.O., Parry , W.L. (Munro , Johnson, Old .). Evaluation of mechanical dewatering plant for aneroblcally digested sludge at Nambour. Bandier, H. (H . Bandier, NSW) . Influence of an Intake structure for water 0 supply on its environment. Campbell , L., Lambert , G. , Fulford , D. (La Porte , NSW) . The control of sept icity in a long rising main. Sommerville, P.J ., Stewart , I. (MMBW, Vic .). Consumer perceptions of water qual ity - a pract ical basis for determining the level of response to consumer compl aints. Sommerville, P.J., Stewart , I. (MMBW, Vic.) . Techniques for evaluation of polyelectrolytes for use in upflow clarlflers In water treatment plants . Sommerville, P.J., Stewart, I. (MMBW , Vic.) . The influence of specific conductance on corrosion of galvanised domestic plumbing service by soft waters . Wallace , H. (Local Govt. Dept. , Old.). Water quality study of pumlcestone passage . Brady, O.K., Koe , C.C .L. (U of Old .). Sewage odour problems:- are some large plants too big? Bliss, P.J., Barnes, D. (U of NSW). Biological nitrogen control In wastewater effluents. Bliss, P.J. (U of NSW). Significance of storm run-off In determining quality of surface waters. De Lange, R.W. (M .P.A.B ., Old.). Case Study: Abattoir Waste Treatment Plant.

AWWA EIGHTH FEDERAL CONVENTION 12th-16th October, Queensland Papers accepted for presentation (Co-ordinator: Robin Black, 07-221-2411) Drew , W.M., Graham , W.A.E ., Waite, T.D. (State Rivers , Vic.). The influence of water quality information on water resources management practice. Piggot, T.L. , Jones, N.D. (OIT, Old .). Hydraulic Model Study for Beardy Waters Dam . Scribner, E.A. (N .S.W. Fisheries) . Sewage Effluent Disposal to a temperate coastal dune wetland - a case study . Vaughan , G.M. (Victoria Parliament) . A study of a packed bed anaesetic digester. Hartl ey, K.J. (EWS - S. Aust.) . Least-cost design of water treatment processes . Carson, P.J. (D . Local Govt. , Old .). The removal of algae from wastewater lagoon effluent. Simmons , M.W. (Coats-Patons , Tas .). The economic use and reuse of water In the textile processing industry. Holder, G.A., Vaughan , G.M. (Monash , Vic.) . A rat ional approach to trickling filter design . Jackson , J.O. (N .S.W.I.T.). The effect of a storm-induced freshwater discharge into a saltwater harbour. Priestly. A.J ., Anderson, N.J., Blasing , N.V., Kolarik , L.O.. Raper. W.G.C. (CSIRO, Vic.) . The Sirofloc process for turbidity and colour removal : process development and pilot plant operation . Parker, J.G., Rosenthal , C.R. (Water Sc. Lab., Vic .). The composition , treatment and disposal of animal saleyard wastes . Atherton , J., Bell , S. (U of Old.) . Use of magnetite for removal of virus in water and wastewater . ¡ Moses , P., Thomsen, G. (J . Wilson - Old .). Land disposal of sewage effluent . Crockett , J.A. (G .H. & 0 ., Vic.). Use of the oxidation ditch as the aeration stage in major activated sludge plants . Strom, A.G . (G .H. and 0 ., Vic .). Some practical aspects of water treatment for Australian towns . Mood ie, S.P., Greenfield, P.F. (U of Old .). Indu strial wastes and domestic treatment systems - pricing and administrative policies. Brunner, R., Greenfield , P.F. (U of Old .). Added Enzymes as a means of controlling effluent in aerobic waste treatment systems .

EIGHTH FEDERAL AWWA CONVENTION THEME: WATER -THE INDESTRUCTIBLE RESOURCE 12th to 16th NOVEMBER, 1979 CHEVRON HOTEL, SURFERS PARADISE, QUEENSLAND

-

Conference Secretary - Allan Pettigrew , P.O. Box 129, Brisbane Markets 4106 . Telephone : (07) 200- 1176 Technical Displays: Leo Roessler (07) 52-8866 . Telex: AA 42129

PRE-REGISTRATION NOTICE If you are interested in attending the 8th Federal AWWA Convention and you would like more details and registration forms , please return the cut-off slip to the Convention Secretary immediately. ------ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -

To : Convention Secretary , 8th Federal AWWA Convention, P.O. Box 129, Brisbane Markets 4106.

CUT HERE

o

Tick Squares D Applicable D

I am interested in attending the Convention and would like the following information please.

D

-- ---- -- -- - ---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

8th AWWA Convention Registration Forms . Details of Ladies Programme for Convention . Details of Accommodation Available . Municipal Engineers Water & Wastewater Workshop, 17th and 18th November, Registration Forms.

NAME : ........... ... ... ... .. ... ......... ... ....... ... ........ ...... ..... ..... .. .. .. .. .. .... .... ... ... .. . ORGANISATION : ....... ... ... .. .... ... ...... .... ................. ........ ... ....... ... .... ... ... .... . POSTAL ADDRESS : .......... ....... .. ... ....... .............. .. .. ............ ......... ......... .. .. POSTCODE: ........... . Do you receive a personal copy of 'Water' Journal? Yes/No . SIGNED : .... . ... ..... .. .............. .. .......... . . WATER

23


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Kent Instruments (Australia) Introduce New E.I.L. Model 7055 pion/pH Meter The new Model 7055 Selective Ion Meter is the latest and most advanced instrument in the well-established E.I.L. 70 Series avai lab le from Kent Instruments (Australia) Pty Ltd. Designed primarily for use with ionselective electrodes, the 7055 sets new standards for accuracy, flexibility and convenience. The Model 7055 can also be used as an expanded scale pH meter or as a sensitive redox/mV meter. When used as a selective ion meter concentrations can be read directly on a logarithmic scale which can be set by the operator to read directly in mg/litre, p.p.m. or moles/litre. Two decades are displayed on the 200mm long sca le and by use of the unique shift-up/shiftdown switc,. ~i,is scale can be extended

24

to display another decade at either end - giving effective ly a 4-decade sca le 400mm long . Electrodes whose output characteristics deviate from the theoret ical valu e can be accommodated using the slope control which is accurately ca librated from 75% to 110% of that value . The Model 7055 has switching to enable measurements to be made of monovalent or divalent an ions or cations using the appropriate ionse lect ive electrodes . The Model 7055 includes a 'set standardisation point' feature which is a breakthrough that provides simple, quicker setting up and ca libration. Using this feature calibration can be carried out using only one standard so lu t ion if the slope factor of the electrode is known. For more accurate

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work two standard solutions are required . These should span the range of the expected sample concentrations, but direct reading can:;be made over any convenient concentration . range where the slope factor of the electrode is constant . Coarse and fine standardisation (buffer) controls are provided for easier, accurate adjustment of the scales . For pH measurement the Model 7055 combines ease of reading and simplicity of operation with a specification designed to meet research requirements. Routine measurements in the range 0-14pH are displayed on the upper linear scale 200mm in length. Where measurements of greater accuracy are required , the preset back-off and scale expansion faci Iity allows spans of 2pH to be displayed across the full scale length without recalibration . The discrimination of the instrument is ± 0.004pH on any 2pH scale and ± 0.02pH on the 14pH scale - the indicator accuracy is ± 0.5% of f.s.d. Choice of manual or automatic temperature compensation is avai lable from -20° to ± 140°C on al l pH ranges. Fully variable isopotential control is provided to enable the temperature compensation characteristics to be accurately matched with , those of diff~rent electrode pairs in varying applications. Millivolt measurements in the range ± 0 to 1400mV are displayed on the upper scale of the instrument. Greater sensitivity and discrimination are provided by the switched 200mV spans. The Mode l 7055 is supplied in a tough, modern, chemical-resistant case . A voltage output for a chart recorder is available at the rear of this mains operated instrument. A ll accessories necessary for accurate pH measurement are supplied with the Model 7055 in a convenient pack - these include the comb in ation pH electrode complete with f illin g so lution, laboratory electrode stand and holder, jack plug for chart recorder, millivolt adaptor plug, 6 sachets each of 4- , 7- and 9-oH buffer oowders and two wander plugs . information please For further contact: - Mr. D.J. Rickard, Marketing Manager, Kent Instruments (Australia) Pty Ltd, 70-78 Box Road (P.O. Box 333), Caringbah, N.S.W. 2229 Australia. Telephone: (02) 525 2811; or contact the Kent Office in your State. WATER


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Study the basic features of a solid-bowl, continuous-discharge Sharples Super-D-Canter ® centrifuge. 1· Internal design and operating G level selected for optimum performance on sludge to be handled. Wide range of sizes. 2 Torque overload release is simple and can be reset without tools . 3 Provision for coagu lant additions (internal or external) where optimum use can be made of them . 4 Selected hard surfacing provided where needed most - feed port::w:if conveyor, feed zone, discharge ports, housing , flight edges and faces of conveyor. 5 All components designed to highest standards for operation over a wide range (up to 3100 x G) of G forces . G level selected according to type of sludge. 6 Replaceab le liners protect casing in solids-discharge area, and in the bowl opposite feed ports. 7 One-piece, heavy, cast-i ron base reduces vibration. 8 Conveyor and bowl -s peed differential infinitely controlled to optimize process performance. 9 Forced-feed oil circulating system is floor mounted and connected to the centrifuge by flexible connections. 10 Heavy-duty bearings , designed for long life , support rotating assembly . 11 High throughput and cost/performance because of many internal designs and G leve ls available. Highest Sigma (pool surface area x G) available .

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The Sharples Super-D-Canter centrifuge is built to the highest standards with no-compro mise design. Our philosophy is to give water and wastewater treatment plants a cost..:effective, rugg ed, and adaptable thickening and dewatering centrifuge. As a result the Super-D-Canter centrifuge is not limited by de-

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Profile for australianwater

Water Journal June 1979  

Water Journal June 1979