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!1ssN 0310 - 0367 j Official Journal of the AUSTRALIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION

IVol. 4, No. 3, Sept. 1977 Regis tered for posting as a periodica l -

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EDITORIAL COMMITTEE

te

1,ssN0310

0367 1

Chairman: Offic-Jal Journal of the C. D. Parker !AUSTRALIAN WATER AND I Committee: ASSOCIATIQ~ I G. R. Goffin G. R. Scott • • Vol. 4, No. 3, F. R. Bishop M. B. Dureau September 1977 R. L. Cllsby Joan Powling A.G. Longstaff B. S. Sanders E. A. Swinton W. Nicholson J. H. Greer A. Macoun Editor: Publisher: 5 Editorial .. ... . ... . . .. . . ....... . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. ..... . B. J. Murphy A.W.W.A Association News . ............ .. . . ...... ..... ...... . ... . 6 8 Report on AWWA 7th Biennial Convention . . . . ....... . .. . . . BRANCH CORRESPONDENTS CANBERRA A.C.T.: Letters to Editor ...... . .. . . . ..... . ... . ..........8 A. Macoun, Report on 40th Annual Conference of Sewerage P.O. Box 306, Woden, 2606. Engineers and Operators . . . . ......... : . .. ... ......... . . . 8 NEW SOUTH WALES: G. R. Scott, Water Resource Structures in Japan James Hardie & Coy. Pty. Ltd., 9 -H. Bandier ............... . ......... . . ... ........ . . P.O. Box 70, Parramatta, 2150. Dunder Treatment by Carbon Adsorption and VICTORIA: U ltrafiltration M. Smith, Ministry of Water Resources 12 -C. B. Chow, K. A. Buckle, C. J. D. Fell ....... . ...... . and Water Supply, Capital Funds for Water: Prospects & Policies 9th Floor, 100 Exhibition St., -N. Fisher. . . . ..... .. ................ .. ........... 16 Melbourne, 3000. Use of Reclaimed Water in Victoria-1 QUEENSLAND: P. R. Hughes, Virus Studies 46 Tucker St., -M. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Chapel Hill, 4069. Conference Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 SOUTH AUSTRALIA: R. L. Clisby, Industry News. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

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l'ASTEWATER

CONTENTS

C/- E. & W. S.

G.P.0. Box 1751, Adelaide, 5001 . WESTERN AUSTRALIA: B. S. Sanders, 39 Kalinda Drive, City Beach, 6015. TASMANIA: W. Nicholson, 7 Swansea Court, Lindisfarne, 7015. NORTHERN TERRITORY: C/- N. R. Allen, 634 Johns Place, Nightcliff, Darwin, 5792. Editorial Correspondence: B. J. Murphy, Box 125, Chelsea, 3196. Or to State Correspondents. Advertising Enquiries: Mrs L. Geal, C/- Appita, 191 Royal Par., Parkville, 3052. Phone: (03) 347-2377.

INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS Articles should be of original thought or reports on original work of Interest to the members of the A .W.W.A. In the range 1000 to 5000 words. Full Instructions are available from Branch correspondents or the Editor.

COVER STORY The New South Wales Electricity Commission burns nine million tonnes of coal each year in its thermal power stations to generate power for Australia's most industrialised State and allow amenities to keep pace with increasing living standards. The residue from the coal burning produces approximately three million tonnes of clinker-ash and fine fly-ash which the Electricity Commission must transport to disposal areas effectively and economically. Asbestos cement pipes by James Hardie have carried millions of tonnes of slurried fly-ash from the Electricity Commission Power Stations at Liddel and Munmorah. The photograph depicts the discharge of slurried fly-ash.


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FEDERAL SECRETARY: P. Hughes, Box A232 P.O. Sydney South, 2000.

FEDERA.L TREASUnER: J. H. Greer, Cl- Melbourne & M.B.W., 625 Lt. Collins St., Melbourne, 3000. BRANCH SECRETARIES:

Canberra, A.C.T. D. Henley, P.O . Box 306,

Woden, A.C.T., 2q06

New South Wales: P.J. Mitchell, C/- Envirotech Australia Pty. Ltd., P.O. Box 220,

"Artarmon, 2064. Victoria : R. Povey, C/ - S.R. & W.S. Commission, 590 Orrong Rd., Armadale , 3143. Queens land: A. Pettigrew, P.O. Box 129,

Brisbane Markets, 4106. South Australia: A. Glatz, C/ - Engineering & Water Supply Dept. Victoria Square, Adelaide, 5000. Western Australia: R.J. Fimmel, P.O . Box 356,

West Perth, 6005. Tasmania: P.E. Spratt,

C l - Fowler, England & Newton, 132 Davey St., Hobart, 7000.

Northern Territory: N.R. Allen, 634 Johns Place, Nightcliff, Darwin, 5792.

THIS ISSUE

Thank you to the Vi ctorian Branch for your contributions to this issue.

EDITORIAL OUR SEVENTH BIENNIAL CONFERENCE Can the economy sustain and can the community meet the costs of services required to satisfy the community's demands or should these demands be 'managed' to conform to economic and resource limitations? Do we limit demands by suitable pricing policies and, even more to the point, can we? How much of today's needs should be self financed from Authorities' internal sources and how much from .external? The Conference theme, 'Public Aspirations and Realities in Water Resource Management' was thoroughly aired on the opening day by papers in the above vein and given a flying start by N. W. Fisher saying, in effect, the demanded capital resources will just not be available , financial restriction is not a passing phase-like it or lump it, a theme also pursued by the Banquet speaker, the Rt. Hon. A. E. Adermann. The Seventh Biennial in Canberra marked our fifteenth year and two departures from the approaches of previous Conferences. Firstly, the nature of the theme and the allocation of the bulk of the first day to the overall financial and administrative aspects of Authority activities. Secondly, in the adoption of a two stream format for the remainder of the programme. The opening economic salvos, the calls for 'demand management' through pricing policies, were of dire portent to all sections of the industry at the Conference. With the exception of strong rebuttal by part of the Metropolitan Authority representation, they evoked surprisingly little general reaction during the discussion session closing day one. Why?, because they received little credence and so were not worth contesting? Or, if not talked about, perhaps they will go away? or again, because of acceptance that economic gloom is here to stay? Possibly concentration of all discussion at the 'end of the day was inhibiting. The two stream approach is a mixed blessing and with the reduced attendance (214 delegates-another ecolilomic indicator?) of questionable value. It's a good thing for an Association to explore new avenues and for a multi-disciplinary organisation to provide a forum for discussion of overall matters important to a broad spectrum of the membership. It's for the Members to take advantage of it. G. R. GOFFIN Councillor-Victoria

A.W.W.A. MEMBERSHIP Requests for Appllcatlon Forms for Membership of the Association

should be addressed to the appropriate Branch Secretary.

Membership is in four categories : 1. Member-qua lif ications suitable for membership in the Inst. of Engineers, or other suitable professional bodies . 2. Associate-experience in the W. & W. W. Industry , without formal qualifications. 3. Student. 4. Sustaining Member-an organisation involved in the W. & W. W. Industry wishing to sustain the Association .

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le) . ASSOCIATION NEWS FEDERAL COUNCIL ELECTIONS For the coming year, Officers of the Federal Council are : (Elected) President: Mr Don Montgomery, Eng ineer, Sewerage, Drainage, M.W.S. & S. Board, Perth . (Elected) Vice President : Mr Al lan Pettigrew , Principal, Allan Pettigrew Consultants, Brisbane . Past Pres ident: Mr C. J . Price. (Appointed) Hon . Federal Secretary : Mr Peter Hughes, M .W .S. & D Board, Sydney . (Appointed) Hon . Fed . Treasurer: Mr James Greer, M.M.B .W., Me lbourne.

NEW SOUTH WALES The Branch 's Annual General Meeting was held on Thursday, 18th August and was we ll attended . After the meeting, Professor R. G. H . Prince, Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering , University of Sydney , gave an address on "Computers as Tools in Water Pollution Contro l Decision Making" . We apologise for the gremlins who removed th is vital piece of information from the June issue of the journal. The Committee for 1977 /78 is as fo llows :President Mr K. A. Waterhouse Vice president Mr R. R. Ash Immediate Past President Mr J. K. Knight Hon . Secretary Mr P. Mitch el I Hon . Treasurer Mr J . E. Oliff Committee : Mr H. Band ier Mr D. Barnes Mr J. R. Es lake Mr M. J. Flynn Mr P. W. Hughes Mr T. L. Judel l Mr J. E. Mccann Mr G. J. Montgomerie Mr K. Mostyn Mr G. F. Scott Prof . A. Herzog Mr D. M. Stevens Mr T. J. Twymann Sub-Committees: Programme Messrs G. Montgomerie, D. Barnes , J . Es lake, K. Mostyn, R. Ash . Publicity Mr G. F. Scott. Membership Messrs T. Twymann, J. Es lake, J . Oliff. Reg ion al Conference Messrs H. 6

Bandier , D. Stevens and a representative from Newcastle Sub- Branch. It is pleasing to report that our drive for new members is proving quite successful and two ordinary and three sustaining membership applications were approved at the Committee meeting held on 24th August . This Committee meeting was chaired by our hard working immediate Past President, Mr Jack Knight, as both the President , Mr Ken Waterhouse , and Vice President , Mr Dick Ash , were overseas . We understand they were pursuing different aspects of water and not conspiring to give the incoming Committee a hard time . The Annual Dinner held on 10th September was enjoyed by all at the very pleasant North Sydney Club . Professor A. J. Carmichael , Presi dent of the Hunter District Water Board , addressed members and their wives . He offered some challenging remarks which will provoke further discussion within the Association. In the absence of the President , Mr Walder , Mr N. G . Klamus , Engineer-in Chief of the Metropolitan Water SewerSydney , age & drainage Board, presented the Board's gold medal to Mr K. V. Plummer . The D. K. Thistlewaite Memorial Prize will be awarded to Mr K. A . Munroe at our next General Meeting on . 12th October. That gremlin was also responsible for the misreporting of this event in the June issu~ of the¡ journal. Our Sydney spy attended the annual dinner of the Newcastle Sub-branch and vaguely reports (after an extremely good dinner) as follows : a) The dinner was held on 19th September . b) ..... . Professor A. Herzog has been elected Chairman of the Newcastle SubBranch . As yet, programmes for 1978 are not complete but full advice for both Sydney and Newcastle will be given in the next issue .

WESTERN AUSTRALIA The Annual General Meeting of the Branch was held on 15th August, 1977 and was addressed by Mr Peter Johnson of Consoer Townsend and Harris International who presented a paper on Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plants in the U.S.A. Don Montgomery completed his year as Branch President and is succeeded by Dr Gordon Hill, a consulting engineer in Perth . The new Vice-President is Jack Katric , Senior Chemist at the Perth Water Board whilst Bob Fimmel continues as Secretary/Treasurer. The Branch 's Federal Councillors for the coming year are Don Montgom erie and Bob Fimmel. Arrangements are well in hand for the Annual Christmas function to be held in late November.

VICTORIA Melbourne's nor"1ally chilly winter has been warmed somewhat for those members who are regular attenders at branch meetings by two " fiery " discussions . One hundred and twenty people packed the auditorium to hear Messrs Robertson and Wimpole of the M.M. B.W . explain the Board 's proposed new trade waste policy . In view of the new philosophy upon which the proposed policy is based and its major effect on industries discharging to the Board 's sewerage system , it is hardly surprising that the discussion following the talk proved so lively . You would hardl~ expect a discussion on the design of a water treatme¡nt plant (at Sugarloaf Reservoir) to generate the same enthusiasm - but anything can happen in Melbourne . After their comprehensive and informative talk Messrs, Dulfer and Payne from the M .M .B.W ., and Mr May of W . Boby and Co . faced a barrage of searching questions relating to design standards . Perhaps the fact that , when completed , this will be the largest conventional water treatment plant in Aust ralia could have been one reason for the interest . 60 stalwarts of the Victorian Branch braved a particularly bleak evening to attend the annual general meeting . Those who did attend were rewarded by a particularly interesting address by the retiring President , Mr Bob Turner . I am still not certain how the ,r got into his talk on " A Matter of Source". I should also praise Bob for this fine art work: the slides depicting the finer art of engineering were excellent. Just for the record the 1977 /78 Committee was also announced at the meeting . Th ere are many familiar faces but I am ple. sed to see some new ones. The Committee is : President : J. S. Rogerson Vice President : W . J . Dulfer Hon. Sec . R. Povey Hon. Treasurer: K. Wood Members: J . L. Anderson , F. Bishop , K. Chiller, G. Goffin , K . Levey , A . Longstaff, I. Lowther , J . Powling, E. Sorenson , A . Strom, A . Swinton , R. B. Turner (immediate past Pres. ), M. Walker . Special mention should be made of the retirement of Mr J . D. Lang from the Committee after a long period of continuous service including a term as Branch President.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA Si x general meetings and an evening visit were held during the year . The average attendance of 55 m embers reflects the high interest of the programme . A Working Party has been appointed to draft initial plans for the fourth A.W.W . A. Summer School to be held in Adelaide in early 1980.

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S.A. continued The Branch A.G.M . was held on Friday 16th September 1977. In his Secretary's Report for the 1976/77 year, Mr Glatz referred to the slow growth rate in Branch membership over recent years . The membership growth of 19 members (all classifications) for the five year period ending 30/6/77 indicated a need for a membership drive in the coming year. The membership at 30/6/77 stood at 162 members. It is with pleasure that we record the award of Honorary Life Membership conferred on Dr G. H. McOueen during the year. Dr McOueen becomes the fourth Hon . Life Member of this Branch joining Mr H. Hodgson, Dr J. Dwyer and Mr J. Johnston. The Hon . Treasurer (Mr R. Walters) presented the Accounts for the year showing a small surplus of $109 thus maintaining a healthy Branch financial situation of Accumulated Funds being in excess of $5,700 at year end. The Committee for 1977/78 was announced as follows:President : Dr . C. 0 . Fuller Vice President : Mr M. C. Sanders Immediate Past President: Mr D. J. Lane Secretary: Mr A. Glatz Treasurer: Dr J. Rolls Committee: Mr R. L. Clisby, Mr P. A. Norman , Mr K. 0 . Trevarton, Mr N. V. Blesing, Mr A. D. Greenhough, Mr S. Lewis . Mr D. Orchard was elected Auditor. The Meeting was addressed by Mr N. V. Blesing, Senior Scientific Officer, AM DEL, on the subject "Treatment of Water for Industrial Use". Mr Blesin.9 began with a list of major users of industrial water in South Australia who draw water from both surface and underground sources . He then gave a broad brush discussion on the water quality problems associated with evaporative coolers, boiler water treatment and process water. Regarding evaporative coolers it was noted that Langelier Factors applied to Adelaide water at its best wou ld allow a concentration of some five times. Boiler water treatment was discussed under the headings: -Base Exchange Units -Deakalisation Units -Demineralisation Units Sirotherm Process using thermal regeneration - Reverse Osmosis

CANBERRA The Canberra Branch General Meeting on 30 June , 1977 was addressed by Prof . Bill Williams of the Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide . The title of his address was: "Ecological Aspects of Water Resource Management in Australia". The 9th Annual General Meeting was held on 18 August, 1977. The Sacre-

tary's report was tabled and election results for office bearers for 1977 /78 were declared as follows: President : Mr C. Speldewinde Vice-President: Mr W. . Higgins Hon . Secretary : Mr D. Henley Hon . Treasurer: Mr P. Samara-Wickrama Committee Members: Mr P. Cu llen, Mr A. Hatfield, Mr A. Macoun, Mr C. Price, Mr P. Rudd . The meeting was then addressed by Professor Frank Fenner, Director of the Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies (CRESS) at the Australian National .University. Prof. Fenner spoke on : " The Role of Science in Environmental Policy" , and later spoke on the development of CRESS and plans for the centre in the future . Prof. Fenner Is also Australian representative on the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) of the International Council of Scientif ic Unions (ICSU) .

QUEENSLAND The Old . Branch over recent years has been endeavouring to project the image of AWWA throughout the State, and in particular the technical inspirations of the Association to all levels of the community to wherever they are throughout the State- some sort of "lateral thinking" . Co-operat ion on technical matters and joint efforts between the AWWA and Aust. Assn. of Treatment Plant Operators has high1ighted the prob lems confronting treatment plant operators in remote areas, and to this end an "open line forum" has been proposed where operators can write in with their problems and queries, and to which an expert panel comprising operators , engineers, chemists and biologists hope to give return mail answers . All problems are invited and should be sent to : "Operators Forum", C1 - AWWA, PO Box 129, Brisbane Markets, Old . 4106 . The next branch meet ing wi ll also be along the line of our "lateral thinking" theme and will be a joint meeting with the institution of engineers, water branch , hosted by AWWA at Majestic Hotel, George Street, Brisbane on Wednesday, October 19 at 5.30 p.m. This will , as always, be a dinner meeting . The paper to be presented is "Recreational Use of Urban Water Supply" by C. S. Cook. Use of drinking water supply reservoirs for recreation has been wide ly debated, but not we ll stud ied. This paper examines research wh ich has been conducted and makes recommendations on those activities which may be considered acceptable . Methods of administering activities are examined and reference is made to

mathemat ical planning aids by means of which, reservoir attendances may be estimated, and an e~nomic value placed on reservoir recreation. Chris Cook graduated in Civil En gineering from Old. University in 1970 and has since then been employed by the Local Government Department, Old. He was invo lved in the preparat ion of an extensive report on recommended f uture land use for the North Pine Dam catc hment area, and in the superv ision of construction of Hinze Dam in the Go ld Coast Hinterland. The Seventh Bienn ial Conference of AWWA held in Canberra from September 21-24 was attended by some 30 "banana-bending de legates" from up north accompanied by o,any of their good spouses. Not only were the Oueenslanders attending the conference as delegates but they also were having a "look see" on how to organise a "very well organ ised" conference. Congratu lat ions to Charles Speldewinde and his Canberra committee for a job very wel l done . We just hope that we in Old. can justify our being se lected to present the eighth conference at the Gold Coast and Brisbane in 1979. We will all see you there, and again meet old acquaintances. The new Old. committee for 1977-78 elected at the AGM in August is : President Geoff Cossins Vice President Jim Cockerell Secretary and Fed . Cclr. Alan Pettigrew Treasurer Brian Rigden Imm . Past President Dick Hopkins Branch Correspondent Peter Hughes Federal Council lor Murray Allan Committee John Bristow. E. L. Boggiano, Bill Garsden , Neville Jones, Clive Norton, John Ryan, Leo Rosseler.

INDUSTRY NEWS • Construction of Victoria's new 'Operator's Training Schoo l ' is well advanced and it Is expected to start the first course early in 1978. The schoo l, which is expected to cost $350,000, wil l provide f irst class facilities for the training of Sewerage Plant Operators from Victoria and Tasmania. • Mr J. D. Lang, who will be known to most members, has retired from the Victorian Water Commission and his place has been taken by Mr M . Gillard. Just prior to his ret irement Mr Lang com plated a comprehens ive report on the 'Re-use of Wastewater' . • Dr A. L. Tisdall officia ll y retired as Chairman of the State Rivers and Water Supp ly Comm iss ion on 30th September, 1977. The new Cha irman is Mr W . E. Bromfield, with Mr J . S. Rogerson assuming the position of Deputy Chairman and Mr D. J. Constable becoming the new Commissioner. 7


AUSTRALIAN WATER & WASTE WATER ASSOCIATION 7TH FEDERAL CONVENTION, CANBERRA, 1977

Mr Geoffrey Cosslns was presented with a service plaque in recognition of his distingu ished contribution to the development of water supply and hydro logy in Queensland for more than thirty years.

"PUBLIC ASPIRATIONS AND REALITIES IN WATER RESOURCES MAN AG EM ENT"

Dr George McQueen was made an Hon. Life Member of the Association in recognition of his outstanding service and support of the Association and the South Austra lian Branch .

The 7th Convention was he ld in the Great Lakes Ballroom of the Lakeside Internat ional Hotel, Canberra, from Septem ber 20th to 24th, 1977 and was attended by 215 de legates from Australia and Overseas and 55 Ladies. The Convention was opened by His Excell ency Sir John Kerr, GovernorGeneral of Aust ra li a, and our overseas guest speakers were Mr Eric Gill iland of Thames Water Authority and Professor Steve Hanke of John Hopkins University who presented papers on the Convention topic. The Technical Sessions were in two streams on the general topics "Advances in Treatment Methodology and Standards" and "Water Quality Management", and a total of 35 papers were presented. The two technical inspections were to t he Googong Water Project on Friday afternoon and t he Lower Mo long lo Water Quality Contro l Centre on Saturday morning. The Convent ion inc luded an Industrial Exh ibition which was well supported by the trade. The soc ial programme of the Convention opened with an ice-breaker Cocktail Party on Tuesday even ing and on Wed nesday even ing the Convention Comm ittee was Host to Federal Counci llors, State Branch Representatives and Authors of the papers at the Canberra Yacht Club . The banquet on Thursday night was very we ll attended and the Guest Speaker was the Hon. E. Adermann, M.P., Minister assisting the Minister for National Resources. The farewe ll lunch was on Friday and there was a¡ barbeq ue at the Lower Molonglo for those who attended this inspection. The ladies had a full programme, both morning and afternoon, which covered points of interest such as Embass ies, Carillon, Sydney No lan paintings at Lanyon, Lake Cruise, Pastral Gallery of Harde Swen as weH as the technical visits and the other functions. The weather was glorious and the Convention Committee was more than happy with the way things turned out.

Dr Michael Flynn was presented with a Service Plaque in recognition of his distinguished serv ice in the field of pub li c health, and awarded Hon. Life Membership in recognition of outstanding service to the N .S .W. Branch of which he was a foundation member and to the Association as a who le to whic h he twice served as Federal Pres ident.

AWARDS PRESENTED AT BIENNIAL CONFERENCE T he fo llowing Honorary Life Memberships were awarded and Service Plaques were presented at the Conference: 8

Mr Reginald Goldfinch was presented with a Service Plaque in recognit ion of hi s d ist ingu ished service in the investigat ion and design of water supply, sewerage and stormwater drainage for the City of Canberra, and awarded an Hon . Life Membership in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the A .C .T. Branch and to the Association as a whole to which he was Federal Secretary for six years. Mr Guy Parker was presented with a Service Plaque in recognition of his dist inguished service in the water supply and pollution control f ields, and awarded an Hon. Life Membership for outstanding service to the Vic. Branch and the Association as a whole to which he has been both Federal Pres ident and Federal Secretary.

LETTER TO THE EDITOR Dear Sir,

RE: ARTICLE ENTITLED "RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN HYDRAULICS WITHIN THE HYDROELECTRIC COMMISSION OF TASMANIA" As the representatives of N EYRPIC Division of A lsthom At lantique, we feel we must comment on the article by the late P. T. A . Griffiths which appeared in the March 1977 issue of the Journal 'WATER '. The art icle describes some special modifications effected on spring loaded pressure relief valves, as applied to the control of pressure surge on hydroelectric power station penstocks. It must be pointed out that the comments in the article were intended to apply exclusively to the application of these valves on hydroe lectric power stat ion penstocks. It is the view of the Hydroelectric Commission that requ irements unique to this application indicate that stops should be fitted to

Ii m it the travel of the self centering disc of the valve . NEYRPIC engineers at the Grenoble laboratories do not feel this is an essential modification even under the circumstances described . However, it must be noted that the operating pressures involved are far in excess of the normal range encountered by this type of valve (i.e. 700 M sealing pressure) and therefore special care is being exercised . It is noteworthy that despite initial fears arising from early studies the Commission were impressed with the features of the Neyrpic Pressure Relief Valves and wrote to Neyrpic indicating their intention to purchase further valves for a number of Hydroelectric Stations. Vibration has never been a problem with N EYRPIC Pressure Relief Valves , and the subject as discussed in Mr Griffiths' article corroborates this fact.

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Yours sincerely, G. HORSNELL, Marketing Manager

REPORT ON FORTIETH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF SEWERAGE ENGINEERS AND OPERATORS [VIC] The Fortieth Annual Conference of Sewerage Engineers and Operators (Victoria) was held in Bendigo on Thursday 15th and Friday 16th Septem ber, 1977. Mr A lbert Roy, Chairman of the Bendigo Sewage Authority welcomed 160 delegates including engineers and 120 operators representing some Sewerage Authorities , and visitors from New South Wales , Queensland and Tasmania. The Conference was opened by Councillos T. Flood of Bendigo. A bus tour of Bendigo was arranged in the afternoon of Thursday 15th and this included inspections of Mayfair Ham and Bacon processing plant and the Bendigo Sewage Treatment Works. The Conference was he ld in the Go lden Twin Cinema and the following papers were presented:Treatment Plant Operation-EPA Viewpoint-Ian Coles (EPA) • Extended Aeration (Two papers) -Reg Clarke (Pub lic Works, NSW) -Ray Olliffe (Gutteridge Haskins & Davey) Plant Testing (Two papers) -B. Quinn (MMBW) -M . Cook (MMBW) Operators Papers on Treatment Plant Operation -L . L. White law (Mooroopna) -H. Wakefield (Maffra) -J . James (Melton) -D . Williams (Leongatha) Mr J. Lang former Chief Engineer, Town Water Supp lies and Local Authorities (SR & WSC) spoke on the progress of the Operator Training School being set up at Werribee .

j


WATER RESOURCES STR.UCTURESINJAPAN 9th-13th December, 197 5 by H. BANDLER, Vienna, Dip.Civ.Eng. Sydney, Dip.Env.Studies Macquarie, M.I.E. Aust. The Author: Mr Hans Bandier is a design engineer who has worked for water resources authorities for many years . During the last 23 years he has been engaged by the Metropolitan Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board , Sydney , Australia. He presented a paper to the I.A.H.S. symposium on "Environmental Implications of a Dam and Man-Made Lake . . . in the Sydney Area" . Following the Symposium he visited a number of hydrau lic structures in Japan.

JAPAN-THEBACkGROUND The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (1.A.H .S.) held an International Symposium in Tokyo , Japan , from 1st to 5th December, 1975. This symposium was the third of a related to "Representative series Basins ". The next symposium will be on "The effects of urbanisation and industrialisation on the hydrological and regime and on water quality" to be he ld in Amsterdam in October, 1977. A total of 90 papers was presented by authors from all over the world to more than 260 international de legates includ ing 5 Australians. Japan as a dambuilding nation is second only to U.S.A. in number of high dams; this may have influenced the choice of Tokyo for the location of the symposiusm . Fo llowing the Symposium , the Water Resources Development Corporation of Japan arranged visits to a number of hydraulic structures on the Yoda and Tone River Systems. These two important river valleys are part of the five major river systems in Japan being developed by the Corporat ion (see Map 1). The Corporation is responsible for the maintenance and operation of completed structures as we ll as planning and construction of facilities for water resources and development such as dams, salinity barriers, weirs and sluices, multipurpose canals, etc. within the five river systems. Table 1 provides an overview of the Corporation's activities and shows that in 1975 they controlled 43 projects which provided water for municipal and industria l use, irrigat ion and flood control. Four projects on the Yoda and three on the Tone River were inspected ; although this cannot be claimed to be ful l coverage, the inspection of the works gave a clear indication of their features , the methods of control and the hydrological and environmental aspects of these works. This paper has

Map 1. Flva Ma/or Riva, Systems of Japan. Administered by Water Resources Development Corporation.

been prepared to convey some of the impressions gained during this short visit. PROJECTS WITHIN THE YODO RIVER RIVER SYSTEM About 20km north -east of Kyoto, the beautiful ancient former capital , lies Lake Biwa, the largest natural lake in Japan (Map 2) . Lake Biwa used to cover an area twice the present lake and was subject to considerable fluctuations. The lake level was lowered and the first weir on the Seta River, the only outlet of Lake Biwa, was completed in 1907 . This was replaced by the present Seta Weir in 1961, a structure with ten double-leaf vertical lift gates , which are remotely controlled from the Biwa Works Office . Current projects in the area are the extension of levees and roads along the shores and improvement of the discharge channels of tributary rivers to the Lake . From 1964 to 1974 the Hydrology and Water Resources Research Group of Kyoto University carried out a programme of research aimed at clarifying the hydrological phenomena in the area of Lake Biwa . The investigation was connected with almost all the research projects of scientific hydrology carried out al l over the world under the auspices of UNESCO International Hydrolog ical Decade (1.H .D.).

Lake Biwa is important for flood control ; it provides water for Kyoto and some smaller towns and villages in the vicinity; water from the lake is used for irrigation, agricu lture and industrial purposes as we ll as -, ydro -electric power. Opportunities are avai lable for a great number of recreational activities with in the Lake area. The Lake is an important source of many varieties of fish and is used for the culture of fresh-water pearls. Amagase Dam, a curved-arch dan. completed in 1964 , lies 12km down stream from Seta Weir . It is used for flood control, munic ipal and industrial water supply, serves two hydro-electric power stations and is a source of water for a pumped storage scheme using Kisenyama Dam at an ~levation of 230m above Amagase . Further sourth, the Kitzu River joins the Yoda . In the upper reaches of this river three dams are in operation: Takayama Dam (completed in 1969), (Fi(f. 1) Shorenji Dam (1970)° and Muroo Dam (1974) . All of them contribute to hydro-power generation, irrigation and municipa l and industrial water supp ly and flood control. , An average of ten typhoons per year approach and pass over Japan, particularly over the catchment of the Yoda River. Conseque~t flooding used to

Map 2. Yodo River System.

9


RMll

TO£ RIVER DRAINAGE AREA AtHJA,l

""'

RlH-CFF

1o6.'

n I!!~

p~~ ~~~

ffi~; ~~ !~~~

ti~

ACCCM'\.ISl-£0

I~- -~~!f'U?'.100 TOTAL

14.NICIPAL WATER

IRRIGATIO,,

KJSO RIVER

YOOO RIVER

9,100

8,240

3,650

2,860

39,850

9,700

4,500

!',000

48 ,200

'

2

5

3

l

17

7

5

3

3

26

8

14

9

10

l,420

530

880

670

'

160

770

20

190

1,300

900

860

1,770

2,520

WATER TOTAL

H..NICIPAL

SYSTEMS

l!,000

1,580

IRRIGATION

=

RIVER

16,CXJO

TOTAL WATER

CHIJQK;() RIVER

13,000

WATER

t-1..NI CIPAL

SYSTEMS

YOSHI~ RIVER

4

43

30

3.530 1,140

30

4,670

1,330

130

5,750

20

380

150

6,130

310

50

2,080

2,570

1,330

3,190

3,050

2,210

670

160

9,280

WA=R

470

820

20

190

20

1,520

TOTAL

3,~

3,870

2,230

860

180

10,800

WATER IRRIGATICN

'

Table 1. Fire Ma/or R/rer Systems. R/rer Character/st/cs and Useage, 1975.

cause much human suffering, loss of life and much property damage. The existing and planned works will. enhance utilisation of river water and provide a means of security for the population . The extensive control of the dams weirs, hydrological and other observ: ation stations within the Yodo River System was apparent at the Kinki Regional Construction Bureau. Here integrated control has been established in a relatively short time (it started in 1969). Hydrological data such as rain fal I, snowfall, water levels, river flow and water quality for the whole of the catchment area are received by telemeter, recorded and stored by banks of computers . Based on this information and behaviour of previously observed typhoons, the Bureau is aware at an early stage of possible threats to the Yodo River System . Computers predict the path and intensity of the oncoming typhoons and the Regional Bureau gives direction for the operation of the gates and power stations at the weirs and dams via its telemetering system. During the passage of the typhoon the instructions can be adjusted as required. The Bureau issues warnings of anticipatf!d floods to the peop le livmg and working in the valleys by signs and sirens, to prevent disasters which used to occur frequently in the past . A staff of forty persons and several banks of computers cope with the task set by the Bureau.

FIG. 1-Takayama Dam.

10

The Yodo River discharges into the sea at the Bay of Osaka . It plays an important role in the activities of Osaka City, a highly industrialised , commercial metropolis some 515 km from Tokyo, with over 2.75 million inhabitants. Within the industrial area of Osaka the Shorenji River Development provides industrial water through an intake structure, twelve gates and four pumps , either drawing from the Yodo, qr discharging to the river depending on the season . The wate~ courses have been replaced by box cu lverts below rec laimed ground level making surface areas available which are at a premium in this highly developed part of the city. Further downstream the Kema Sluice discharges wate.r from the Yodo River into the Okawa for stream purification. The adjacent Kema Lock maintains the water level for navigation between the Okawa and the Yodo Rivers. In each of the three channels of the Sluice dual fixed roller gates are provid~ as regulating and emergency gates. Similar gates are provided for the 107 m long lock. Construct io n of the New Yodo Weir sa linity barrier is currently in progress compr ising six vert ical, steel drop gates, each 55 m long by 7.8 high. (Fig. 2) This will replace the Nagara Movable Weir used at present , which was installed in 1951, to do away with manually placed timber stop-logs . Within the watershed boundary of the Yodo River the multipurpose application of water resources structures for !lood a~d drought protection, irrigation, in dustrial and municipal water supply, hydro-power production and navigational faci lit ies make this river a valuable resource for an area that includes the impo rtant cities of Kyoto, Nara, Osaka . THE TONE RIVER SYSTEM The Tone River is the major river in close proximity to Japan 's capital and through the adjoining Ara River, it

supplies most of the city ' s industrial and drinking water . (Map 3) Si xty (60) km fr'em Tokyo the Tone Diversion Weir , 692 m long , controlled by twelve gates , is the commencement of a great number of canals which provide water for local and distant !rrigation , diluation , municipal and industrial supply . Adjoining the lake created by the weir is the Suka Desilting Basin which discharges into several of the canal systems . With the aid of ?om puters the status of the complex intake and outlet facilities with many pumps, dams, canals , gates and weirs is recorded and their operation directed from the Control Centre located near the stilling basin (Table II) . Upstream of the Tone River Diversion is Shimokubo Dam on the Kanna River , a tributary of the Tone . The appearance of Shimokubo Dam is quite unique . As one approaches the dam site , it becomes apparent that the dam is. L-shaped in plan view , with a- !}o• angle being fcirmed by the wall. This unusual configuration is created to make the most economic use of the valley's topography and geology . The dam stores water for hydro-electric power generation , flood control !rrigation , local supply , domestic and industrial water for Tokyo . Further north in the narrow valley of the Watarase River, another tributary of the Tone River, Kusaki Dam is under construction . (Fig. 3) The 140 m high wall will store water for a multistage hydro-electric power development and provide domestic , industrial and irrigation water and flood control. Sluice gates at two levels , a 3 m diameter penstock and several galleries are incorporated in the dam . A complex layout of borrow areas , storage and treatment of concrete aggregate and extensive di versions of the existing

• I!

DAM OR l'l'EIR CCM'LETED

CAM lJ«R CONSTRLCTION

I

~

I

~

80.NJARY CF BASIN

O

LOCA TIOO VISITED

D

l

~

RIVER SALirllTY

BARRIER AXIGASE 0IVERSIOO OAM

WATER RESCl.ACES WATER OEHAl'O

TCl<YO 14.NICIPAL WATER TOKYO 1/0JSTRIAL WATER SA.IT~ ~ICIPAL WATER SAITAMA UOJSTRIAL WATER TOTAL VO..lK

YAGISAWA SHII-O<leO SALitUTY 0.AM OA.M BARRIER 4 .00 12.60 10 . 63 3.38 1.60 1.15 1.80 4.00 16.00 15.16

Map 3. Tone R/rer System.

TOTAL VO.lME 27 . 23 3.38 2.1s..:S1,ec 1.80 35 16


SANUKI CONTROL SYSTEM TONEKA IRRIGATION CANAL

1-----------------1. 91 m3/ sec

1

OflA

I

Pl.1-\PING STATION

I I

TONEKA Pl.M'ING STATION

p TONE RIVER TOI-IE DIVERSION WEIR CONTROL SYSTEM

DESIL Tlt-13 BASIN CONTROL SYSTEMS SAITAMA MUSASHI CANAL so.a m3/ sec

CANAL

KASAI CONTROL SYSTEM MINLW.DAI IRRIGATIO'l CANAL 44. 63 m3/ sec

FIG. 2- Pumplng units, Sharen/I Rl'ler De'lelopment.

ARA

RIVER

36 . 87 1113/ sec

KASAI IRRIGATIO'l CANAL 25 . 47 m3/ sec llUNICIPAL & INDUSTRIAL YIATER FOR SAITAMA PREFECTURE 4. 55 m3/ sec AKIGASE DIVERSION WEIR

-

Y:ATER FOR DILUTION 23 . 4 m3/ sec (MAX 30 . 0 m3/ sec)

ASAKA CANAL 54 . 01 m3/ sec

MUNICIPAL WATER 27. 23 m3/ sec INDUSTRIAL YiATER 3 . 38 m3/ sec FOR TOKYO METROPOLIS

FIG. 3- Kusakl Dam under construction , 1975.

road and railway system with many tunnels showed much ingenuity in this restricted construction area . More new projects are under consideration and construction within the Tone River System than for any other. It has a drainage area larger than the other rivers controlled by the Water Resources Development Corporation and with its prox imity to Tokyo , supplies more municipal water than any of the other system s. CONSIDERENVIRONMENTAL ATIONS The inspect ion of th e installations clearly conveyed the fact that maximum utilisation of the water resources is a significant feature of all projects. Where agricultural activities have been terminated due to submergence by storage lakes , the displaced farmers have been compensated . Another social aspect is the deep concern for the safety of life and property if threatened by disaster due to typhoons . Important control installations using highly sophisticated methods and modern technology are installed to ensure the most eff icient and safe use of the river intake and outlet works.

TONE

INTAKE FACILITIES LEt-13TH OF WEIR OR INTAKE m

Nl.1-\BER OF GATES

TONE DIVERSION WEIR

692

12

SUKA DESILTING BASIN I NTAKE REGULATING GATES INTAKE EMERGENCY GATES OUTLET CONTROL GATES

127 (TOTAL ) 127 (TOTAL) 127 (TOTAL)

CANALS ORA SAITAMA MUSASHI ASAKA

AREA OF STI~LING BASIN

12 700 m2

LEl!GTH km

lf .E; 1â&#x201A;¬ . 7 14 .5 1.8

3 3# 3 CAPACITY m3 / sec 5 . 46 36 . 87 50 . 0 5'. .01

Tabla II. Tha Tone canal Syatem.

Computer programmes have been developed to record data on water quality, water level , flow, operating positions of gates etc . and power generation, also providing constant monitoring of possible threats to crops and populations in the river valleys under control. The data collected are also applied for the design of new structures and their multi-purpose uses. No detriment to the qua lity of life could be observed in the structures completed or in process of construction . Adequate consideration is devoted to retain and improve facilities such as rai lway lines, roads , riparian rights, etc . The local anti-poll ution movement 'J ishu Koza' has not made any mention

of adverse effects of structures under the control of the Water Resources Development Corporation in their publicat ions 'Kogai' and ' Pol luted Japan' over several years . Thus by implication the policy adopted by the Corporation appears to be environmentally favourable. However, the most significant overall impression was the complete integrat ion of river contro l structures and the ful l multip le usage of these works . Dams , weirs, gates , canals, pumping stations , etc . are deliberately designed for multi-usage. They serve not only a single purpose , like water supply , or irrigation , or flood control, or hydroelectric power generation , but invariably have many applications . 11


DUNDERTREATMENTBY CAR·BON ADSORPTION AND UL TRAFIL TRATION by C. B. Chow, K. A. Buckle and C. J. D. Fell Schools of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, University of New South Wales, Kensington, N.S.W. INTRODUCTION Dunder, or vinasse, is the waste product derived from the distillation of fermented molasses in the sugar industry. It is a dark brown liquid of high refractive index, with a solids content of approximately 10%. A typical analysis is given in Table 1. Components not listed in this analysis include carbohydrates (sugars) and as yet unspecified colourants such as caramels, melanoidins and plant pigments. The quantity of dunder produced in a medium size,d , di~tillery is high, amounting to some 900 m3 per day. In the Sydney region, dunder is discharged (after pH adjustment) directly into the municipal sewerage system, doubling the BOD in the treatment works eff luent , and contributing greatly to the noticeable discolouration of the ocean around the works outfall. It also involves the company concerned, C.S.R. Limited, in the payment of a substantial discharge levy, the amount of which is expected to escalate as effluent discharge standards are increasingly t ightened. Whilst the aesthetic objections to dunder discharge via the municipal system could be overcome by the use of an extended submarine outfall, there are obvious advantages to the treatment of dunder at its source . Optimally, such treatment would lead to a purified effluent which could be reused within the refinery I distillery complex. Failing this, the treated effluent shou ld be suitable for discharge to the sewer with · a minimum excess strength penalty. Against this background, two new possible treatment processes are investigated below. The first involves the use of activated carbon to remove colour and BOD from dunder to allow plant recycle of the treated eff luent , and second is a variant of this in which ultrafiltration is used to remove a portion of the solids present prior to the act ivated carbon treatment. Because of the high concentration of solids present in dunder, both processes rely on regenerat ion and reuse of the activiated carbon. TREATMENT USING ACTIVATED CARBON To establish the feasibility of an activated carbon adsorption process to

12

treat dunder, it is necessary to determine the preferred type of activated carbon to be used, and to establish design parameters which will allow an industr ial sca le unit to be sized . This has been done by a series of experiments using dunder from C.S.R . Limited and locally availab le activated carbons. Table 2 gives typical characteristics of suitable carbons including the colour removal achieved. In all cases some dissolved solids remained even when the supernatant was colourless . Fixed Bed Experiments Fixed bed experiments simulate _the situation in an industrial batch adsorpt ion column, and the results of such experiments can, together with adsorption isotherms , be used to size indu strial sca le units. The laboratory scale fixed bed adsorption column used2 had· a diameter of 25 mm, a packed height of from 1 .27 to 1 .45 m for a carbon charge of 200 g and was control led at 25 .0 :j: 0.1 ·c by a heating jacket . Liquid flowed upward through the bed, and the bed pressure drop was in the range 0.2 to 0.7 kPa . Typical breakthrough curves for each of the three activated carbons considered are given in Figure 1. These curves suggest that colour breakthrough from the column will occur when 50 to 300 ml of eff lu ent have passed , the actual figure depending on the particular adsorbent and solution flow rate. OPT ICAL

DENSITY

OPTICAL

DENS ITY

Figure 1. Breelcthrough curves for DRK, SGL end CAL et different flowretes through pecked column. Tempereture: 25°C. Numbers on curves ere f/owretes In ml/min.

TABLE 1 Properties of Dunder Total solids 10% (wt.) 6-9% Dissolved solids Suspended sol ids 1-4 % Volatile matter 4-7% Specific gravity 1 .05 pH . 4-5 BOD 30,000-50,000 mg/I Total nitrogen 0.14-0.2% Organic nitrogen 0.19% 20-100 mg/I Protein Invert sugar 0.01 % 0.5-5% Phosphate (P2O5) 0.002-0 .03% 0.04-0.4% Su lph ate (SO4) 0.003% Chloride (Cl) 0.05-0.11 % Magnesium 0.012% Calcium 4.5-120 mg/I Iron 6.0 mg/I Copper 0.67% Potassium

The experiment showed that large open pores at the surface, coupled with small internal pores , are desirable for high loadings and less concentrated effluents are bette r absorbed by carbons with uniform smal l pores. The eff luent obtained from the column prior to break-through is colourless , but does contai r, residual solids and hence BOD. After breakthrough the effluent becomes increasingly coloured with con corn itantly higher sol ids content and BOD . Figure 2, which is a comparison of the eff luent BOD and the measured optical density , can be used in conjunction with Figure 1. to predict effluent quality after breakthrough . The effluent prior to break-through contain ~ approximately 8% of the incoming BOD and has a solids content of 1 % . It is free from suspended solids . The reuse of this material within the refinery complex would appear feasible , and certainly worthy of further investigation . Regeneration of Spent Carbon The regeneration of spent carbon from the adsorpt ion bed is an essential part of the successful development of an activated carbon process for dunder treatment . According ly , a series of exper im ents was carried out in which spent carbon was regenerated by firing in a porcelain crucib le at various tern peratures and the adsorptive capac ity of the regenerated material

1

l l


measured·. ft was found2 that the best conditions for regeneration were a duration of firing of 22 min at a temperature of 600°C. An ash loss of ~ % by weight of the charge was noted , and · the performance of the regenerated material was slightly inferior to that of fresh carbon . However, it maintained its original granular shape and was clearly satisfactory for recycle . Design of Industrial Adsorption Plant to Treat 900 m3/day of Dunder

Th'e design of an industrial adsorption column from the results reported in th e preceding sections requires that an adequate model be developed !o predict the column breakthrough curve. For the adsorbents studied, the equilibrium is ' favourable' , and a number J>f alternative models are available3. Clearly , however, those mode ls based on loca l equil ibrium are not valid as the quantity of dunder processed before breakrnrough occurs is low . Accordi'ngly, a model due to Allen et al4 was adopted , in which intraparticle diffusion is considered to be the rate lim iting mechanism. This model considers the adsorption column to consist of sections stacked one on the other , in each of which the following equation applies: .6. y ... (1) - - = - K cav 1 n y .6. t where Y = fractional saturation of the carbon, averaged over the particle. t = residence time in section cav = average solution concentration K = constant defining intraparticle diffusion for the extent of absorption in each section . From a material balance on the section : Y = C,Of V ... (2)

q*W where V = volume of section q = capacity of carbon in equilibrium with local concentration W = weight of carbon in section ,0 f = density of solution Hence .6.c = tq * KW1ny .. . (3) c V.Of or, after integration : c .'=- tKq * W1ny 1n -

1

high) , is 20.5 hours for a dunder feed rate of 37 .5 m3/h (i.e . 900 m3/day) . It is envisaged that the full -scale plant would have two such columns, each operating on a twenty hour cyc le. A flowsheet of the proposed plant arrangement including regeneration facilities is shown in Figure 3.

OPTICAL DENSITY t-.J w 0

TABLE2 Properties of Adsorbents

Dense packed density (g / cc) Densed packed voidage (%) Mean particle diameter (mm) Abrasion number, minimum Time required to attain 95 % equilibrium (rate of adsorption) (h) Adsorptive capacity (Maximum % colour reduction) Economics Plant

of

Industrial

0

O

,t-..

O

(.J1

0

0

0.34-0.48 35 .5-38 0.8-1 .6 70-90

CD

0 0

-

><

20-40

0

tJ.._W

0

97-99 .5 Adsorption

Using standard methods of cost estimation , and approximate equipment costs from suppliers, the fixed and operating costs for an activated carbon adsorption system have been calculated2 and are summarised in Table 3. Also shown in this table is the cost of the present (1976/1977) effluent levy, based on excess strength charges proc laimed by the Metropolitan Water, Sewerage & Drainage Board , Sydney. In est imating this cost, dunder has been assumed to contain 2% by weight of suspended so lids, and have a BOD of 50 ,000 mg/I. To enable a comparison of plant costs with the like ly savings from avoidance of the levy, all future costs have been discounted back to the present worth at time zero, assuming a 15 year plant life and a discount factor of 0.10. Comparison is made of plant costs and savings, both for 75% internal recycle of the treated efffluent (this also saves on process water charges) and for disposal of the treated effluent directly to tfie sewer. The co·mparisons suggest tti'at there is a

... (4)

Cf V..,of where Ci and Cf are the entering and leaving concentrations from the section . By fitting this model to the experimental results, a value of K = 0.0172 min-1 (g/ml)-1 was obtained. This compares with a figure of K = 0.0065 min-1 (g/ml)-1 reported by Allen et al4 for more viscous sugar solutions, and thus appears reasonable . Using this K value, the predicted breakthrough time for an industrial scale adsorption column having a diameter of 4.57m and a height of 9.14m (i .e. 15 ft. diameter by 30 ft.

distinct advantage to the Company in treating the effluent rather than paying the discharge levy. Th8" process is clearly sufficiently attractive in economic terms to warrant further and more detailed investigation .

<..n~~-~-~-~-~-~ Figure 2. Quallty of column 1fflu1nt 1ft11 bretlctllrougll for CAL runs. A comparison Is med• of optic.I d1nslty and BOD.

TREATMENT USING

ULTRAFIL TRATION FOLLOWED BY ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION

From the studies to date it Is apparent that although act ivated carbons can be used satisfactori ly in the treatment of dunder, a large inventory of adsorbent is required . Ultrafiltration affords a possible method of pre-treating the effluent to reduce the load on the treatment plant, and hence the carbon inventory required. Its use was therefore investigated . Ultrafiltratlon experiments on raw dunder were carried out us ing an Amicon CH3 ho llow fibre concentrator, fitted with a membrane having a mo lecu lar weight cut-off of 10,000. This particular membrane was chosen as the alternative 50,000 mo lecular weight cut -off unit proved unsat isfactory In terms of colour removal.

TABLE 3 Economic Evaluation of Carbon Adsorption Process

(Present Worth Basis for 15 Year Plant Life) Amount In Dollars

Item

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Plant capital investment Yearly maintenance Annual fuel and power Annual adsorbent replacement Annual labour cost Depreciation (7%)

Present worth of capital and future costs 7. Savings on effluent levy a. 75% recycle b. no recycle

Estimate

Total Present Worth for 15 year llfe

1,200,000 72,000 4,200 27,000 24,000

1,200,000 559,000 32,500 209,800 186,500 621,600

80 ,006

2 ,810,000 456,000 400,000

3,544,000 3,108,000 13


Results of an experimental run with a raw dunder as feed to the uitrafilter at · 25°C show that at a flux of 4 ml (m in on the nominal 0.1 m2 CH3 membrane, a 50% reduction in the feed optical density is obtained in the permeate. In a batch run in which solids were allowed to accumulate in the retentate side of the ultrafilter system, the ratio of permeate to retentate at the end of a one-hour run was 5.5:1 v i v, with the retentate side concentration being increased from 10% to 53% solids w/w . The bulked permeate concentration was 2.5% solids w/w . Using the ultrafilter, a 2.5:1 batch of permeate was prepared and fed to an adsorpt ion co lum n fil led with 200 g of activated carbon. The resulting breakthrough curve is plotted in Figure 4 (curve A). Breakthrough of colour occurred at an effluent volume of 550 ml compared with approximately 200 ml when untreated dunder is processed (curve B). Also shown in Figure 4 is the predicted breakthrough curve (curve C~ using a va1ue of K = 0.0172 min(g.ml)-1 in Allen's method2. Column effluent prior to breakthrough is colourless, contains no suspended solids, and has a BOD of 1-2% of that of dunder. Again, it wou ld appear attractive for inp lant recyc le. Design of lndustrlal Plant using Ultraflltratlon and Carbon Adsorption It is envisaged that an industrial ultrafilter-activated carbon adsorption plant would operate with the ultraf ilter concentrating the dunder feed to approx imately 50 wt% solids, with the permeate (2.5wt% solids) passing on to be treated in the carbon adsorption column. The concentrate would be

l==l

u

A:>SORPTIO!-1

ADSORPTIO:i

COLUMN 1

COLU!ffl

SUClCET

2

TABLE 4 Economic Evaluation of Carbon Adsorption Process with Ultraflltratlon Pretreatment

(Present Worth Basis for 15 Years Plant Life)' Amount In Dollars Estimate Total Present Worth for 15 years llfe 1,011 ,000 1,011 ,000 Plant capital investment 474 ,000 61 ,000 Yearly maintenance 10,000 78,000 Annual fuel and power 7,700 50,000 Annual adsorbent replacement 186,500 Annual labour 24 ,000 Depreciation 68,000 528,000 389,000 Membrane replacement 50,000 Item

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Present worth of capital and future costs 8. Savings on effluent levy a. 75% recycle b . no recycle

WCOMI:-IG DUNOE!t

Figure 3. FlowahHt of plent for dunder treatment by act/rated carbon adsorption.

14

457,000 405 ,000

3,553 ,000 3,147,000

DISCUSSION

ultrafiltration followed by carbon adas possible treatment sorption methods . Both are found to be sufficiently attractive from an economic viewpoint to warrant further detailed study . This would necessitate the use. of much larger scale equipment than has been possible in the present investigation , but would lead to design data on which profitability or otherwise of both processes could be determined unequivocally . It is strongly recom mended that such a study should proceed . One feature of the economic analysis that deserves comment is the apparent lack of strong dependence of the profitability of the process on the abi lity of the treated effluent to be recycled . Whilst total recycle Is In the end desirable, the economic analysis suggests that it m'ay be possible to install a treatment process which did not rely on recycle, with the view of later recycling the effluent as the properties <>f the treated effluent became better known . A further consideration, not taken into account in the present article , is that dunder is produced at 90°C. Were dunder to be sent to the ultrafllter and the adsorption columns hot , mass transfer would be more efficient and the size of these units could be reduced. This could have an important bearing on the overall profitability of the treatment and should be cor.isidered in future studies .

Dunder is an unusual effluent in that the level of potentially biodegradable and suspended solids present in it is very high . As a consequence, the disposal of dunder to a metropolitan sewage system incurs a heavy excess strength penalty. The magnitude of this penalty (in the present case, approximately $1 .30 per kilolitre) is sufficient to warrant the consideration of effluent treatment techniques which would not normally be considered appropriate for such a large scale waste. In the present investigation we have examined carbon adsorption alone and

CONCLUSIONS Based on the present experimental investigation, activated carbon adsorption alone and ultrafiltration followed by activated carbon adsorption appear to be technically feasible processes for the treatment of dunder. The treated effluent has a higher residual solids content in the activated carbon process than in the combined process , though in both cases it is colourless and has potential for plant recycle .

disposed of by incineration (It is sufficiently concentrated to be incinerated without a net fuel demand), or cou ld be further concentrated to recover so lids if a market could be found for these. By use of Allen 's method , the required size of adsorption column is 2.44m dia. x 9.14m high . Two such columns would be required . Sizing of the industrial scale ultrafilter is somewhat more difficult , as scaling fluxes directly from laboratory scale hollow fibre ultrafilters Is not especially accurate. However, based on previous experience of scale up from ho ll ow fibre and th in channel ultrafilters5, 6 for a wheat starch system, it is estimated that a mean flux of 25 l/m2 sec will apply . This gives a membrane area of 1600 m2. Economics of Industrial UltraflltratlonAdsorptlon Plant Fixed and operating costs for the ultrafi ltration-activated carbon adsorption system are presented in Table 4, and the present worth of future costs and savings are calculated as in Table 3. From Table 4 it would appear that the economics of treating dunder ~Y .the combined scheme are sufficiently ·encdurag ing to warrant a much more detailed study. This would Involve the use of a large scale modular ultrafilter from which accurate flux data could be obtained.

ELEVATOR

SPr.fr CA.RBON HOPPER

2,717,000

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DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROBE FOR BOD TESTING

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Considerably more work needs to be done in refining design parameters for both processes in order to arrive at an accurate economic evaluation of their feasibility. On the basis of the economic analyses carried out in the present investigation, it would appear t hat further study of both processes is warranted .

The new E.I.L. Model 8012 Dissolved Oxygen Probe now available from Kent Instruments (Australia) Pty Ltd gives a direct readout of dissolved oxygen concentration on a conventional pH/ mV meter. Using a simple setting-up procedure the probe can be calibrated to measure concentrations in the range 0 to 14ppm directly on the O to 14pH or O to 1400mV scales of a pH/mV meter. The new probe can be used for laboratory dissolved oxygen measurements , and is particularly suited for the BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) test which is now undertaken on a routine basis in sewage treatment and water qual ity laboratories. The Model 8012 probe comprises an oxygen sensor capsule (a silver/ lead galvanic cell) connected to a miniaturised circuit within the probe body . This circuit converts the current output of the capsule , produced by the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen diffus ing into it from the sample, to a millivolt signal compatible with the input requi rements of the pHmV meter.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank C.S.R Lim ited for provision of the dunder used in the experimental programme . Financial support for the project from the N.S.W. Department of the Environment (1973) and the State Pollution Control Commission is also gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES

1. Mattson , J . S. and Kennedy, F. W., "Evaluatlo~ Criteria for Granular Activated Carbons", J. Water Pollution Control Federation, 43, 2210 , (1971) . 2. Chow , C. B. , "Aspects of the Treatment of Wastes from Biological Industries", M.Eng. Thesis, University of New South Wales , 1974. 3. Perry , R. H. and Chilton , C. H., " Chemical Engineers' Handbook", 5th Edn ., McGraw HIii , New York, 1973, Section 16, p.16-1 . 4. Allen , J. B. , Joyce, R. S., and Kasch , R. H., " Process Design Calculations for Adsorption from Liq uids in Fixed Beds of Granular Activated Carbon", J. Water Pollution Control Federation, 39, 217 (1967). 5. Fane, A. G. and Fel l, C. J . D., "Recovery of Soluble Protein from Wheat Starch Factory Effluents", Presented at 68th Annual Meeting of A.I.Ch.E. , Los Angeles , California, 1975, 35: 1-15. 6. Bambridge, M., Chudacek, M., Fane, A.G . and Fell, C. J. D. , " Starch Waste Concentration with Ultraliltration" , Proc. 3rd Natnl. Chem. Eng. Conf., Mildura, Victoria, 1975, T198-200.

MEM8AANE

MAGNETIC STIRRER--~ ATTACHM ENT

Figure 1. Ell Model 8012 dlssolred oxygen probe construction.

The circuit is powered from four tiny rechargeable nickel/cadmium cells contained within the . p~be body and the probe cable serves the dual function of connecting the probe in operation to the pH/ mV meter and of connecting the probe when not in use to the battery charging unit . Thus the ce lls can be recharged without removing them from the probe . Automatic temperature compensation is carried out by means of a thermistor mounted on the probe stem close to the sensor capsule . An adjustable control at the top of the probe body is used to calibrate the probe and meter combination . The Model 8012 dissolved oxygen probe is supplied as par . of a kit which includes a charger unit , two clip-on sti r rer attachments , four rechargeable cells, a spare sensor capsule and a displacement funne l (with adaptor) for a BOD bottle.

LATROBE VALLEY EFFLUENT TO IRRIGATE TREES A radiata pine forest growing at Dutson Downs Sewerage Farm is to be irrigated with effluent. The ability of the trees to renovate effluent, the effect on tree growth and soil properties will be investigated. The project will be a co-operative effort between the CSIRO , the Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage Board and the Forests Commission of Victoria, Australian Paper Manufacturers and the Water Research Foundat ion wil l also contribute funds for the experi mental work . The Forests Commission have already planted a number of species trials on sewerage farms in northern Victoria , but this will be the first experiment in an older stand. The project w~I be co-ordinated by the CSIRO, Division of Forest Research at Traralgon . The Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage Board wi ll arrange the engineering aspects of eff luent supp ly and irrigation . Samples of water and effluent wi ll be analysed at the Board's Traralgon laboratories. The overall response of the trees to irrigation will be examined by the Forests Commission. This will involve sampling complete trees to determine dry weight and nutrient concentrations in all components before and after treatment. Soil moisture, irrigation, rainfall, litterfall , tree growth and other features will be monitored by CSIRO . The chemical constituents of the fo liage from the trees will also be anal ysed regu larly to ensure the stand is maintained in a healthy condition. If effluent is found to promote tree growth without harmful side effects it will give the Board another option for ut ilizing Latrobe Valley wastes in an environmentally safe and useful way .

15


CAPITAL FUNDS FOR WATER; PROSPE'C TS-AND POLICIES by Norman W. F. Fisher, First Assistant Secretary [Development] Department of Environment, Housing and Community Development My paper is directed very much at the gap between expectations and reality which exists within the water industry . My particular focus is on two views that are usually implicit rather than explicit: • that the economic, political and financial problems of recent years will pass, and we will soon return to the steadier path of the 1950s and 1960s • that the policies that have evolved and been refined in the water industry over 20 years, will need only modest variations to match and cope with the current and prospective scene. I believe these expectations to be naive and probably dangerous to this industry, and the community it serves. The rea li ty of the future requires major , even drastic, revisions . in our pol icies and professional approach . The New Reality

The dominant characteristic of the real world we now inhabit is summed up in the title of John Kenneth Galbraith's latest book The Age of Uncertainty. This is a new world to those of us who gained our professional competence and experience in the 1950s and 1960s. Decades in which steady growth-demographic and economic - and relative social stabil ity were taken for granted. In those years , 'risk free planning' was supreme. In recent years , however, in Australia and developed countries generally , unexpected economic and social changes have destroyed our confidence in forecasting the long term , or even the med ium term . Three major factors have underlain these developments : • economic Instability . For reasons and by processes far from properly understood , the economies of the world have this decade suffered the most severe bout of inflation and depression for nearly fifty years . The realisation is growing that international economic linkages are critical to recovery in Australia, and that economical recovery will be a slow and painful process . • energy. The deliberate move by the Australian Government towards international parity in domestic energy prices will gradually but inexorably change the way we move, how we live , and what we do in our jobs . I believe the structure of our cities will change significantly, often in ways we cannot anticipate, in response to the new energy context . • social and polltlcal. Social changes in our society during the last few years include women's role in society, a widening array of life styles, alienation of youth, and conservation movements. Most expect these and similar developments w ill continue to change our society, even if in indefinable ways, as we move into the next decade. In looking ahead, I will generally adopt a ten year spanthis may be inadequate to water planners who have concentrated on longer horizons, typica lly the end of the century, but the '.lncertainty now attaching to such long term forecasts makes them of dubious value . Prospects for Capital Funds

Over the period 1952-53 to 1972-73, gross fixed capital expenditure by pub lic authorities in Australia grew at some 3.6% per annum, faster than growth in population (2% per annum) but slower than the economy (5% per annum) . Within this overa ll situation, capita l expend iture on water fac il ities has generall y held its own, except that in the last decade to 1975-76, water and sewerage capital expenditure has increased its proportion of total public works expenditure from just over 10 per cent to around 15 per cent. This 16

proportion , and the low ratio of operating/maintenance expenditure to total industry outlays , confirms this industry as especially capital intensive. The prospects for capital funds are therefore of particular importance. The major sources of capital funds for the public sector in recent years have been : 10% • ·internal funds (including depreciation) . • loan funds (both direct borrowing and loan allocations) 30% • funds from governments budgets 60% The major points to note are the importance of budgetary allocations to sustain public works programs , and that some 70 per cent of these allocations have come from within the Commonwealth budget. The only data readily available on the sources of funds for capital expenditure by water authorities, relates to larger capital city agencies , but confirms an impression that loans funds are more , and Commonwealth allocations less, important sources of capital finance . The principal hypothesis I put forward with respect to capital finance prospects can be simply expressed: Community expectations of rising standards of urban service and elimination of backlogs, are firmly bedded and continuing . These expectations, are enhanced and reflected by professional groups and public agencies, even when circumstances have changed . The recent moderation of population and household projections, is therefore not likely to dampen significantly growth in demand for capital expenditure on urban infrastructure and services. On the other hand the supply of capital finance is not likely to grow at a commensurate pace . There are therefore, prima facie, good grounds for considering the recent shortfalls in capital funds to reflect a more basic trend, and for the gap between demand and supp ly of funds for public capital works to widen markedly. The major factors underlying the current squeeze on capital funds have been : • • de liberate constraint on pub lic sector outlays as part of the Commonwealth government 's anti-inflation strategy • slower growth in revenues reflecting both slow and hesitant economic activity and indexation of tax rates • faster growth in certain current expenditure areasespecially health, education and welfare-where outlays are at least partially outside government control • the tendency for capital funds to be determined as a budgetary residual and thus bear the brunt of expenditure cut -backs . The last three of these factors - which also operate to a degree in State budgets-are of continuing nature and as a consequence we expect a continuation of capital rationing . Water may not be as directly or as severely hit as some other sectors , but this is small comfort in such a capital intensive industry . The forecasts of demand for capital works are such as to represent a serious gap between community expectations and governments' abilities to satisfy them . Resolution of this conflict will be the essence of water policy for the coming decade . Polley Implications

The traditional response in public sector authorities to shortfalls in capital funds, has been to cut the works program by deferring less pressing projects to later years . Such a response was both appropriate and acceptable if the financial shortfall was likely to be a passing phase . However, when the problem is not a passing shortfall but a continuing scarcity

I


of capital funds , the traditional response is a recipe for creation of a whole new set of public sector backlogs and associated political difficulties . The situation is sufficiently serious , and the water industry sufficiently responsive, to now identify and advocate an array of new policy responses. These responses will , and should , include :

Demand Management-The capital rationing prospect indicates that forecasts of likely capital funds should be inserted into an early stage of planning. The availability of capital finance would set the 'ball park' within which capital facilities must be planned, and demand managed. By demand management, I mean the conscious identification and implementation of various measi.Jret to change demand (In scale, type or distribution) so that it requires less capital facilities and thus expenditurei; . The measures include pricing policy, information and education campaigns , and encouragement of demand control technologies . Urban Containment-I believe we will need to meet the costs of urban development with two thrusts: first , to make more intensive use of existing facilities and second to concentrate remaining urban expansion to achieve maximum economies in servicing . Such an emphasis is already apparent in some parts of the public sector, e.g. the NSW URTAC report and Melbourne 's Preferred Development Areas . Service Technologies and Technical Standards-The technical options to water supply, waste-water collection and drainage needs of our communities are in fact much broader than the centralised systems which currently dominate professional and institutional thinking . In so far as current choices on options and standards reflect conditions of relative plenty for capital , and certainty as to the future, they are now inappropriate and need revision to match the new reality. · Over the next five years or so , the water industry will probably display a new interest in old fash ioned technologies, e .g . septic systems, rain water tanks , in mixed system solutions, and a more careful precision in standards of service specified for materials, equipment and systems . Self-financing-some Australian water authorities have funded a respectable proportion of their capital works from internal sources, but for the industry as a whole , internal generation of capital funds has been modest, lf not minor. Now is the time for chang~. We have recently seen the Report of the U.K. National Water Council Paying for Water which, inter alia , proposes that the British water industry reduce its dependence · on borrowing and increase depreciation charges to reflect replacement costs , so that self financing rises from 20 per cent towards 50 per cent . This proposal cannot be simply translated into Australian terms , but it is worth emphasising that 'Paying for Water' does raise the right policy questions for Australian authorities. Planning or Management. A major change needed within water authorities is transformation of their approach to planning . The new style will have several unique characteristics : • a substitution of single dimension forecasting, by multiple likelihood scenarios. • A much greater emphasis on flexibility in water system development. That is, identifying the options for future action that are available with each major development step, and preferring for implementation those which maintain most options open . • A greater insistence on economic assessment of capital expenditure proposals . • More thorough examination of the scope for supplying services from existing capacity, by more efficient management, or management of demand . • The use of forecasts of capital funds to guide choices between different standards, projects, and system plans. • Recognition that the successful implementation of long term projects depends as much on community participation and government support in the assessment and imple-

mentation phases, as on technical excellence in 'one-off planning' .

Summary There are three important threads to be drawn from this array of new policy responses . First, the switch in emphasis from building bigger to managing better will pose some serious problems for those institutions and professions with strong construction orientations . There will need to be deliberate consideration of the allocation of staff , their motivation and training if the industry is to move surely in the new world. Second , the industry will have to develop from a relatively low level, a policy competence to complement its impressive 'doing' skills . This development will occur mainly , and properly in water ministries rather than in statutory agencies, for closer reading of political developments and community attitudes will be vital to successful management. Third , two criteria will gui9e investment decisions - economic merit and flexibility-rather than technical need or excellence . By way of summary I note : • the certainties of the 1960s are gone , and water industry will need to come to terms with a world whose only sure feature is uncertainty; • a particular problem in the new world will be capital rationing which will continue to impact on the water industry well into the 1980s; • tract itional policies of water authorities are quite inappropriate to sustained capital rationing and new policy responses are needed ; • the directions of change in policy are several and represent a major challenge to the industry and its professions. The final question is critical: has the industry the capability to make these policy expectations a reality? This is an abridged version of a paper presented to the 7th Federal Convention of the A. W. W.A . held in Canberra, September 1977.

CONCERN OVER CATCHMENTS PROPOSAL The Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works Is to advise the State Government that it does not agree with a Land Conservation Council recommen.-d atlon concerning the use of Melbourne's water catchments. The council wants recreation to be the primary use of the principal catchment areas as part of a multi- purpose park in the Yarra Valley. However, the Board's Water Supply Committee has expressed alarm at the proposal, and the Board has unanimously decided at its last meeting to inform the State Government that it is against the recommendation because It does not take into account the health risks that would be involved , the additional cost of implementing the proposal, or the availability of recreational facilities already provided by the Board . In addition, the recommendation pre-empts the results of the current scientific studies being undertaken In the catchment areas .

PUMP TEST FACILITIES "Large Industrial Pump Test Faclllti~~" is the title of a new illustrated report from the industrial pump division of the Allis Chalmers Corporation . The division, a designer and builder of a wide range of industrial pumps, in late 1976 completed construction of a new test facility . Built as part of the divlslQn's total quality assurance program, the facility more than triples testing capability. :rhe bulletin describes in words and schematics the arrangement and capability of the unit , which can handle , flows up to 40 000 gpm and heads up to 920 ft . Components , including instrumentation, electrical systems and mechanical drive equipment, are detailed. 17


USE OF RECLAIMED WATER IN VICTORIA I. VIRUS STUDIES by Mr M. A. Smith, Projects Engineer, Ministry of Water resources and Water Supply The use of reclaimed water for a variety of purposes has been gaining momentum throughout the world over the last decade. In Israel 2½ % of all water used throughout the country is reclaimed. It is used mainly for agricultural purposes. With 95% of the available water resources of the nation already being utilized, the Israeli Government has instigated an ambit ious programme to increase re-use of water by 1980 to 70% of water supplied for domestic and industrial consumption . Fortunately Victoria does not experience the critical water shortages that are common to Israel. Nevertheless, Victoria's · water resources are nearing the stage of maximum acceptable utilization, having regard to economic and environmental constraints, and it is anticipated that by the end of the century water supplies will have reached a critical situation in many parts of the State. With this problem in mind, the Government of Victoria has instigated a number of programmes to meet the water requirements of the State in the twentieth century. One of the most significant steps was the establishment of a 'Reclaimed Water Committee' to carry out investigations and co-ordinate research into use of reclaimed water throughout the State. The basic aim of this Committee is to ensure that the necessary information and expertise is available in Victoria so that water may be re-used for any purpose (including domestic supp lies) by the year 2000. Notwithstanding this aim, it is the philosophy of the Committee that reclaimed water should be used for secondary purposes wherever possible thus releasing 'natural' waters for domestic use. Several investigations are already completed and many more are in progress . This is the first of a series of articles which will appear from time to time in 'Water' . The public health implications of water re-use are of major concern and hence the early work of the Committee has concentrated on th is aspect. Since John Snow's classical investigations into cholera outbreaks in London in 1854, there has been no doubt that water can serve as a most efficient carrier of human pathogenic organisms. Sewage usually carr ies a whole range of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoans and helminths associated with enteric diseases endemic in the community. The concentrations and types of viruses vary widely . The infective dose of some enteric viruses has been ·shown to be very small (in a susceptible host), so that even the lowest concentration of virus is potentially pathogenic. The detection of virus in high quality water requires extremely sensitive techniques and involves large volumes of water. Because of the importance of viruses in the re-use of water the Reclaimed Water Committee initiated an investigation into the viral content of Melbourne sewage and the efficiency of various treatment processes in virus removal . This study is being carried out at the Fairfield Hospital for Communicab le Diseases; a preliminary report on the study having just been released (ref. 1 ). Since minimal amounts of virus are considered potentially dangerous it is therefore essential to be able to detect small numbers of virus in large volumes of water. Many methods have been described by various overseas research workers . At Fairfield Hospital equipment has been developed based on the membrane adsorption technique; that is the adsorption 18

of virus on to a membrane or microfibre filter (0.45u porosity) and its subsequent elution. The equipment is shown diagramatically in figure 1. The small sample of sewage or effluent left after elution is then treated to remove bacteria and fungi before being inoculated into cell cultures. Phials containing the inoculated cell cultures are incubated on a revolving drum in a warm room (33°C). Growth of virus, which is recognized by changes in the cells, may take several weeks.

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Results

All the human enteric viruses, with the possible exception of reoviruses, are potential pathogens. Viruses known to be present in wastewaters are:Enterov iruses -polio virus types 1-3 -coxackievirus types A 1-24 -coxackiev irus types B1-6 (upper respiratory tract infections, meningitis, occasionally paralyt ic disease) -echovirus types 1-33 (aseptic meningitis, respiratory tract infections , non specific fevers and rashes) -enterovirus types 68Hepatitis A virus Adenovirus types 1-33 (pneumonitis, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis) Reovirus-(no proven disease) Rotavirus- (gastroenteritis) .


Tests have been carried out on raw sewage and effluent at:Kew Treatment Works South Eastern Purification Plant (SEPP) Werribee Sewage Farm Bendigo Sewage Treatment Plant M ildura Sewage Treatment Plant. The results of these tests may be summarized as follows :1. Raw sewage entering all treatment plants investigated, contained a wide variety of potentially pathogenic viruses. The estimated concentration was in the range of 50-6000 infective units/ litre with a mean value of 1600 infective units/ litre. 2. The types of virus isolated from raw sewage at Kew and the South Eastern Purification Plants varied throughout the year. There was a relationship between the most common virus in sewage and the virus isolated from patients at Fairfield Hospital for Communicable Diseases -a 2 to 3 week time lag followed the emergence of a prevalent virus in clinical specimens and isolation of the same virus in sewage. (See figures 2 and 3.) 3. The trickling filter process used at the Kew Treatment Works is ineffective in removing virus from sewage. 4. Despite the long detention time, sewage reaching the South Eastern Purification Plant has a high concentration of virus. 5 : Activated sludge processes, such as that of South Eastern Purification Plant remove only a proportion of virus present in raw sewage. Further tests are proposed to determine removal efficiency. 6. Persistence of virus after chlorination of the final effluent at the South Eastern Purification Plant has to be further investigated by large volume sampling. 7. The viral content of raw sewage from the provincial towns studied (Bendigo and Mildura) exhibited similar characteristics to raw sewage in Melbourne. 8. The process of extended aeration in oxidation ditches as used in Bendigo does not significantly reduce the virus content of sewage. 9. The activated sludge plant operating at Mi ldura has little effect on the virus content of sewage. This agrees with the findings at South Eastern Purification Plant. 10. Eff luent from the lagoons at both Bendigo and Mildura did not yield virus from the single samples tested . Detention in lagoons appears to be a promising means of eliminating virus from sewage effluents. Additional tests on large volume samples are required to verify this observation and to investigate the die-off rate of virus in lagoon systems .

RECOMMENDATIONS Further studies on the SEPP final effluent, before and after chlorination, are needed. Large volume samples should be processed, at regu lar intervals , for a prolonged period, as virus content may vary. The percentage reduction of virus concentration by the SEPP treatment process should be recorded taking into account the temporal variations in virus load and t ime required for sewage to pass through the plant. Since v irus has been detected in effluent passing into the first holding lagoon at Bendigo Treatment Works, a series of investigations are recommended to show the effect of holding time on virus content and the suitabi lity of the water for irrigation . It is necessary to keep abreast of developments in the f ield of Virology . Technical knowledge and expertise are essential for monitoring reclaimed water for microbiological safety, environmental surveys and investigation of waterborne disease. Ref:1. Fairfield Hospital. 'Viruses in Sewage and Treated Effluent' Melbourne, Reclaimed Water Committee-Ministry of Water Resources and Water Supply, July 1977. Ref: 2. 'Recyc ling of Waste Water for Agricultural and Industrial Uses'. Proceedings of a joint Israeli -South Afr ican Symposium, Herz liya, Israel , November 1975.

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19


CONFERENCE CALENDAR A.W.W.A. Summer School HOBART 6th-10th FEBRUARY, 1978

"Water Quality-Objectives, Management, Achievement and New Horizons" In response to a continuing demand for post graduate instruction in the water and waste water field , the Tasmanian Branch of the Australian Water and Waste Water Association will conduct a residential Summer School on the theme 'Water Quality'. An intensive five-day programme of lectures and workshops will be presented for the purpose of disseminating the latest available information on the objectives, management, achievements and the future of water quality control. The programme will afford the opportunity for participants to learn from and exchange Ideas with eminent researchers, teachers and practitioners in the water and wastewater field. New concepts policies and practices will be examined and discussed. Topics to be considered will include objectives and criteria of water quality from the viewpoints of environmental control, public health, irrigation , industrial and municipal usage ; biological criteria, economic optimisation and strategies aimed at maintaining water qual ity through the hydrologic cycle . The Principa l Overseas Lecturers at the School will be : . John Cairns Jnr., who is presently the Director of the Center for Environmental Studies and is University Distinguished Professor at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia . He was awarded his Ph .D . in 1953 from the University of Pennsylvania and has since been actively engaged in teaching and research in the fields of limnology, zoology, aquatic biology, ecology and environmental sciences. He is the author of a large number of academic publications . Br ian J. Ford, of the Sc ience Unit in Card iff , who is a well-respected lecturer and broadcaster in the U. K. and has written several books and many technica l papers concerned with microbiology and public health matters . His special interest is the microbial eco logy of slow sand and trickling filters . Attendance at the Schoo l will be limited and priority will be given to early applications. P.ersons interested in partic ipating in this Summer Schooi can obtain registration forms by writing to Mr B ~"Healey , Hon. Secretary, Summer School 1978, P.O. Box 336 , SANDY BAY , Tas . 7005.

I am interested in obtaining registration forms for the A .W .W.A. Summer Schoo l 1978. NAME: . . . . ... . . .. . .. .. . ...... .. .. ... . . . . ... .. . . MAILING ADDRESS: .. . . ... ..... . . .. .. . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . , . ... .. . . . . .. ...... Postcode . .. . ......... . . EMPLOYER : . .. .. . . .. . . ... . ............. . .. . ... .

20

SYMPOSIUM ON WATER SERVICES: FINANCIAL, ENGINEERING AND SCIENTIFIC PLANNING To be held in London on Thursday and Friday, 1st and 2nd December 1977 Enquiries and registration formsA.G. STROM Gutteridge Haskins & Davey Pty . Ltd. 380 Lonsdale Street , Melbourne. Vic .

N.S.W. BRANCH A.W.W.A. WEEK END CONFERENCE TERRIGAL, MARCH 17-18, 1978 For the first time the conference is to be devoted entirely to contributions from manufacturers who are sustaining members of the Association . The theme will be 'Manufacturer's Recent Developments in Treatment Processes '. Tentative subjects selected for papers are: Sludge Handl ing Instrumentation Chemical Handling Use of Polyelectrolytes Dissolved Air Flotation Turnkey Treatment Plants

The University of New South Wales School of Civil Engineering

SYMPOSIUM ON THE TREATMENT & DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER LIQUIDS & SLUDGES It is proposed to hold a one-day symposium on the treatment and disposal of wastewater liquids and sludges at the University of New South Wales on 'January 20th, 1978. The symposium will deal with aspects of domestic wastewater sludges and industrial liquids and sludges. Lecturers will discuss techniques for dewatering sludges and liquids, ultimate disposal, discharge to the sewer and the characterisation of sludges. 'rhe anticipated cost would be $28 per head inc luding preprinted papers and lunch. Further details and application forms can be obtained from Dr. D. Barnes, School of Civil Engineering , The University of New South Wales , P.O. Box 1, Kensington, N.S.W. 2033 .

INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY ASSOCIATION

KYOTO CONGRESS 2nd - 6th OCTOBER, 1978 A programme covering all aspects .of water supply is being arranged . Further enquiries at this stage may be directed to any of our Federal Councillors, who have received a draft programme .


INDUSTRY NEWS YERING GORGE TAKES SHAPE

SHARPLES SOC CENTRIFUGES

One of the first stages in the $118.5 million Lower Yarra Scheme, the Yering Gorge Pumping Station, rises from its concrete foundations on the wooded slopes of the Yarra River . The scheme is scheduled to deliver water to Melbourne 's water supply by 1979-80. Local pump manufacturer Kelly & Lewis Pumps of Springvale , Victoria will supply over $5 .2 million of pumping equipment for the station , which will pump water from the 20 metre diameter concrete well 19 metres deep, to a storage reservoir on Sugarloaf Creek, about 30 kilometres north-east of Melbourne. It is Melbourne's first scheme to draw water from an inhabited catchment area. The most up-to-date water purification scheme will be used to ensure the elimination of any contaminants . Kelly & Lewis will install four 900/1050 mm KL SOS-OV vertical split case pumps and ancilliary equipment in the pumping station . The pumps will each have a 2900 1/s maximum capacity at a head of 130 metres .

Evolved from proven designs the Sharples SOC (Sludge Oewatering Centrifuge) is a second generation development of the well tried and widely accepted Sharpies Super-0Canter solid bowl scroll discharge centrifuge used by the chemical processing industry for many years. The Sharples SOC system is totally enclosed employing no screens or filter cloths. Oewatering is achieved by applying centrifugal forces to the feed stock, which accelerates the settling rate of the solids by magnifying the density difference between the solids particles and the liquid in which they are suspended . The continuous operation of the SOC achieves capture rates within the range 90/99% with low polyeiectrolyte dosing . The SOC range comprises 11 models covering the capacity range from 2 to 40m3/hr (440/8800 gph).

UOUIDS

SOLID S

DISCH.U GI

DISCHA•GI

MEASURING WATER HARDNESS Foss Electric (Aust .) Pty. Ltd. are promoting a single ionselective probe for calcium and magne,iium determinations from their Radiometer range of products .

THE NEW HELIX 2000R INDUSTRIAL METER RANGE HOECHST EXHIBITS HOSTALEN Hoescht Australia Ltd. had a stand at the Ausplas Exhibition, held at the Wentworth Hotel, Sydney, In September. This company is Australia's largest manufacturer of rigid polyolefins marketed under the trade names of Hostalen (high density polyethylene) and Hostalen PP (polypropylene). A feature of the Hoechst stand was a working model of a sewerage treatment plant situated in Auckland, New Zealand . This biological treatment plant was one of the first in the southern hemisphere to replace rock with Fllterpak, a scientifically designed random-packed medium moulded from Hostalen PP . Using the Filterpak medium, this treatment plant has been able to dramatically increase the capacity and efficiency of its reactors without the need for exoensive foundations .

The Davies Shephard Group are pleased to announce the introduction of the Kent Helix 2000R Meter Range . Based on the proven Helix 2000 range, it offers 2 major advances. Firstly, a wide range of readouts can be obtained, including rate of flow, with analogue output, remote totalizer, batching unit , chart recorders and various combinations of these facilities . Secondly, it is possible to obtain these readouts at considerable distances from the meter. The system comprises 3 modules , flow measurement transducer, signal pre-amplifier and main amplifier incorporating a percentage flow rate indicator. In operation the low torque probe containing a magnetic dependent resistor is used to derive a voltage change dependent upon the proximity of the magnets fitted to the rotor blades . These fluctuating voltages are first preamplified before transmission to the main amplifier for conversion to an analogue output . These outputs are suitable for input to the wide range of ancillary instruments. All meters are suitable for water temperatures up to 50°C (122° F) and working pressures up to 1620 kPa (16.2 kg/ cm2 or 230 p.s.i.) subject to appropriate flange drillings . 21


INNOVATION BY AUSTRALIAN PUMP MANUFACTURER The latest innovation from Hanson Sykes, a flame-proof, low profile, high head , centrifugal pumpset which was about to be delivered for field trials to one of New South Wales' major collieries. This unit, designated UVA4E HH (for high head), stands less than 1 metre high.

Hanson Sykes low profile, high head UVA4E HH centrifugal pumpset, designed speclflca/ly for below ground mining use.

The need for the unit sprang from a requirement for a pump which could be used safely down the mine, In a very restricted area, to pump seepage water from a lodgement to the surface. The Hanson Sykes UVA4E HH is described as a high head, underground mine dewatering pump, driven by a 75 h.p. flame-proof electric motor. The unit is fitted with a heavy duty, nodular iron pump casing and a bronze impeller, Is automatically vacuum selfpriming, which enables it to run indefinitely on "snore" (air/ water mix) . It has a maximum capacity of 2273 litres per min. against a head of 61 metres. Maximum head is given as 128 metres _but the design duty point is 1591 litres per min. against a head of 107 metres, the total head corresponding to the depth of the mine shaft. Since Hanson Sykes decision to phase out the British made range of Univac high head pumps and replace them with units designed and manufactured in Australia, the company has met with steady success in servicing the needs of the local mining industry . In New South Wales alone, the company has sold six of its big high head pumps to operators of open-cut coal mines . Here the units are used principally . for the dewatering of the large open cuts to enable efficient winning of coal without the problems of water seepage. The familiar orange units can also be seen in the sand, gem and metalliferous mines around the state. In keeping with the company's philosophy of meeting need with appropriate unit, Hanson Sykes also distributes specia lised electric submersible pumps from Sweden and Japan , all of which are designed to handle solids and slurries. Further information is available from: Hanson Sykes Pumps Pty. Ltd., 20 Waltham Street, Artarmon, N.S.W., 2065. Telephone: 43 3015. 22

Barely recognizable under a thick coating of coal fines, a Toyo electric submersible pump from Hanson Sykes Pumps Pty. Ltd. sees the light of day for routine maintenance. An agitator/cutter In the foot whips up so/Ids and delivers them to the big open Impeller.

â&#x20AC;˘ NEW PUBLICATION FROM KENT New 12-page brochure described Aqualarm range of Water Purity Monitors and Controllers.

Aqualarm Water Purity Monitors, Controllers and Measuring Cells are described in a new 12-page illustrated brochure which is now available from Kent Instruments (Australia) Pty. Ltd . Many applications of the Aqualarm range of instrument are detailed in the brochure including the monitoring and control of the quality of ultra-pure and distilled water, boiler feed and condensate, raw- and potable-water, mineral waters and rinse water used in electro-plating. Copies of this brochure can be obtaineJ from:Mr D. J. (Australia) Caringbah, contact the

Rickard, Marketing Manager, Kent Instruments Pty. Ltd ., 70-78 Box Road, (P.O . Box 333), N.S.W. 2229 . Telephone: (02) 525 2811, or Kent office in your State.


l<ENT flowmeter 41!! Ji!li~°ii"''''"''~~.si,;.,.filmt~ ~

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A general view of the pumps and in -ground storage tank of the Kent, ·caringbah, Flowmeter Calibration Laboratory.

A unique facility available to all flowmeter users throughout Australia Registered for the calibration of flowmeters with the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia.

Kent Instruments· (Australia) Pty. Ltd. Sydney (02) 525-2811 Adelaide (08) 35 2- 1455 Melbourne (03) 874 -1233 Perth (09) 277-5377 Brisbane (07) 36-1311 Launceston (003) 31-6733 Townsville (077) 79-3730 Hobart (002) 23 -2648 plus service centres at Canberra (062) 54 -5258 and Morwell, Vic. (051) 34-4931

calibration laboratory • IS NATA registered PJ89 1 7

For lnline Metering of water and other fluids THE DAVIES SHEPHARD GROUP BATCHING UNI T

REMOTE TOTALISER MECHANICAL REGISTER

SLOW SPEED PULSE UNIT

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RATE OF FLOW INDICATOR

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HELIX 2000R METER Pulse Transmission -

Rate of Flow -

Batching

Contact: MELBOURNE Davies Shephard P.O. BOx83 Reservoir. 3073. 460-3744

SYDNEY Davies Kent P.O. Box261 Carlngbah. 2229 . 524-0251

ADELAIDE DobbleDlco 126 Sturt St. Adelaide. 5000. 51-9891

I

'

: RE M OTE : CHART RECORDER/ INDICATORS

BRISBANE Kent Instruments P.O. Box343 Toowong. 4066. 36-1311

PERTH Evans Deakin P.O. Box109 Melville. 6156. 37-4122

23


Measure conductivity anywhere with Beckman laboratory and field conductivity bridge.

This versatile general purpose conductivity bridge, accurate to within 1 % , can cover the entire range of electrolytic solut io ns from ultra-pure water to concentrated strong acids. Outstanding resolution is assured with a dual colour-coded scale which provides for over 183 cm simu ltaneous resistance, conductance readings in six overlapping ranges. The RC-16C can be operated using any of three convenient types of power so urces (dry cells, rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries, AC line). Reliable, so lid state c1 rcu1try prov1oes 1ong, maintenance-Tree serv ice, ens ures low current drain on batteries. Tough, shock resistant, molded ABS plastic case w_ith protective cover allows you to carry RC-16C anywhere conductivity measurements are made.

BECKMANÂŽ New Beckman Model RC-16C Portable Conductivity Bridge for use In Laboratory or Fleld.

For full inform ation on Beckman Mode! RC-16C laboratory¡ and fie ld conductivity bridge, contact the Selbys office in your state.

SELBYS SCIENTIFIC LTD. Melbourne 544 4844

Sydney 888 7155

Brisbane 3711566

Perth 21 9431

INDUSTRIAL WASTE - A PRACTICAL SOLUTION Recognising the need for skilled technologists trained to antic ipate and so lve problems of indu strial waste disposal, The New South Wales In stitute of Technology will introduce for the first time in 1978, an Associate Diploma in Waste Technology. The basic aim of this course which is unique in Austra lia, is to produce trained techno logists with a positive attitude to the eco logical problems of an industrial society, and the abi lity to initiate and implement suitable controls, remedies and alternatives . The course is primarily designed to meet the educational needs of people whose occupations demand specific scientific knowledge and technical sk ill s necessary to so lve the problems of waste disposal in a soc ially .acceptab le manner. The Faculty of Science in tends to offer the Associate Diploma on a part-time basis over 4 years and it is anticipated that only a restricted number of places will be avai lab le next year. Students will undertake basic science train ing in the first stage of the course in preparation for the industrial, environmental and biological subjects studied in the 2nd and 3rd stages. Waste and pollut ion problems in air, water and so lid s will later be analysed in the final stage of the course . 24

Students will have the use of modern control laboratory equipment at The Institute and the opportunity to visit observe current organisations to methods of waste disposal and to discuss specia li st aspects of the course with guest lecturers from industry. The Institute has received a number of enqu iri es from government and industrial organisations concerned with was t e managemen t . F urth er .in f ormat ion can be obtained by writing to Dr. J. Boow, Facu lty of Science, The New South Wales Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 123 Broadway, 2007.

Pettigrew Engineering Co. Pty. Ltd. Pollution Control & Water Treatment Engineers For Full Turnkey Projects 34 Reginald Street, Rockies. 4106 Telephone: 275-3322

Adelaide 51 4651

44 Koornang Road, Scoresby 3179

Hobart 28 4691

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Telephone 763 8988

BOBY ANALYTICAL LABORATORY SERVICES

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KEITH ENGINEERING (SALES) PTY. LTD. For design manufacture & installat ion of Indu strial Waste Water Treatment Systems . Australia - P.O. Box 11, Mascot 2020. Phone (02) 666-9042 . New Zealand - P.O. Box 124, Manurewa South Auckland - Phone 69005 Manurewa

ALLAN PETTIGREW CONSULTANTS PTY. LTD. Consultants in Pollution Control & Water Treatment P.O. Box 94 - ROCKLEA 4106 TELEPHONE: Business 275-3322 Private 200-1176


O Tough, flexible, leak-free nylon eleven tube up to 3" dia.also ideal for lining existing reticulation systems. D Approved brake hose and suzi-coils made to SAE 1402/G. D Money saving, nylon eleven, self store hose. D Safe, low maintenance nylon eleven air brake tube. D Quiet running, long-life graphite filled nylon eleven bushes. D Economical, easily installed vapour emission control and fuel lines. D Hydraulic hose made to SAE 100R7. D Hydraulic and pneumatic packings to 9" dia. D Bellofram rolling diaphragms. Just released . .. D Custom bundled tube for piezometer and control systems.

II Flavell Pty Ltd

81 -89 Tulip Street, Cheltenham, Vic. 3192 Telex AA31914 Melbourne 93 3321 Sydney 736 1933

Precision engineering in plastics and rubber.

JPS 1001

25


The Strzelecki forests - tall trees grow again Neu.• Mountain Ash fo resc planced on former farmland .

Reforestation in the Strzelecki Ranges which form the southern rim of Victoria's Latrobe Valley is a major project being carried out by the Forests Commission of Victoria and AP.M. Forests Pty. Ltd. Pioneer settlers cleared most of the steep slopes of the ranges for agriculture during the latter part of the nineteenth century. O.,er two generations many of the settlers moved on to more suitable land and the farms gradually reverted to scrub, bracken and noxious weeds. Today the Forests Commission and AP.M. Forests are replanting the area IAlith trees. To date the company has established about 5(XX) hectares each of eucalypt and pine plantations and is continuing to plant additional areas every year.

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AUSTRALIA PAPER MANUFACTURERS LIM ITED

26

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an advanced concept

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.

RECOATTIMEUPTO30DAYS CURING BELOW O DEG. C MOISTURE TOLERANT CURE HIGH VOLUME SOLIDS - 80% IMPROVED CHEMICAL RESISTANCE FLAKE REINFORCEMENT FOR IMPROVED PERMEATION RESISTANCE

FOR FURTHER TECHNICAL DATA CONTACT

Oeilcoie CEILCOTE PTY LTD SYDNEY 521 8211

MELBOURNE 90 9155 DEVONPORT 27 8461

PERTH 46 6244 ADELAIDE 269 1111

BRISBANE 52 3331 27


Filte_r_pak~ a new dimension in effluent treatment Wherever there is industry or dense population, there is also effluent. Effluent which if left untreated would turn our rivers , lakes and harbours into vast cesspools , no longer capable of selfpurification and unable to support life. The process involved in a biological treatment plant is provided by nature itself - micro-organisms which feed or. organic waste, reconstituting , stabilising and finally purifying it. Fixed growth reactors in a treatment plant simply accelerate nature's process: creating an environment in which microorganisms can survive in far greater numbers than they would in the natural environment by providing them with a continuous supply of oxygen and a medium in which they can live and breed.

28

In the past, the use of rock as a medium was established practice. But today, plastics have enabled the development of Filterpak <!' - adding a new dimension to effluent treatment. As a random packed medium fo,· fixed growth reactors it offers many advantages . The geometric design µrovides a much greater surface area to volume ratio enabling it to accommodate the maximum number of microorganisms. The larger voids ensure a fast flow rate and transfer of oxygen and make it less prone to channelling or blocking . Thus it not only greatly increases efficiency but also drastically reduces malodours . Moulded from a quality plastic, Hostalen PP (polypropylene), Filterpak 8 has high mechanical strength yet is extremely lightweight so it is possible to increase the height and capacity of media reactors without the need for expensive foundations .

F11terpak • made from Hos tal en PP pr ovid e a bree ding ground for m1 cro -o rgan1sm s, nature s o wn purif iers

For further information on Filterpak @ please contact Hoechst Australia Limited, 606 St. Kilda Road, Melbourne 3001. Tel: 51 0321 Name Company Address

"I , ________________ Postcod e ~,1

Hoechst

Filterpak " made under exclusive licence arrangement in South Pacific and areas in South East Asia by A.H.I. Chemical Engineering Services to Mass Transfer Limited United Kingdom .


filtering is our cup oftea We don't sell filtration equipment like tea-bags. Over the counter!

Your process - any process which uses or produces a liquid is a precise and exacting one which has very little margin for error. Permutit will carry out an expert evalu ation of your filtration needs - and then recommend the best technical and economical solution. No one understands filtration better than Permutit! If you haven' t tried us yet - Why not do it now?

PERMUTIT

PERMUTIT filtration products include:

world wide water treatment The Permutit Company of Australia Pty, Limited A subsidiary of THE PERM UT IT COMPANY LTD. , ENGLAND A Member of the Portals Group Cnr Wattle Road and ' Short Street, Brookvale. N.S.W. 2100 Tel~phone: 93-0311. Telex: AA24742 . Cab les: Thepermutit, Syd ney . P.O. Box 117, Brookvale, N.S.W ., Australia 21 00

44 Koornang Road, Scoresby, Victoria, Australia 3179 Telephone : 763 -8988 Telex: AA31868 50 Liechhardt Street, Spring Hill, Queen sland. Australia 4000 Telephone: 229 -5800 Telex: AA41049

'Precipitator' clarifier tanks 'Graver Reactivator'* clarifier tanks Vertical flow settling tanks Coagulant Chemical Dosing plant Pressure Sand Filters Activated Carbon filters 'Graver Monovalve'* Sand filters 'lmmedium'* up-flow sand filters Gravity sand filters 'Stelmet' replaceable cartridge filters 'Stellar' candle-element pre-coat filter 'Meta" ring-pack element pre-coat filter 'Industrial' * leaf and tube pre-coat filters Reverse Osmosis - ultra filtration â&#x20AC;˘ Made by PERMUTIT - AUSTRALIA under li cence,

PT004PRM


Study the basic features of a solid-bowl, continuous-discharge Sharples Super-D-Canter ® centrifuge.

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Internal design and operating G leve l se lected for opt imum perform ance on sludge to be handl ed. Wide range of sizes. Torque overload release is simple and can be reset without tool s. Provi sion for coagulant ad ditions (internal or external) where optimum use can be made of them . Selected hard surfac ing provid ed where needed most - feed ports of conveyor, feed zone , discharge ports, housing , flight edges and faces of conveyor. All components designed to highest standards for operation over a wide range (up to 3100 x G) of G forces . G level selected according to typ e of sludge. Replaceable liners protect casing in solids-discharge area, and in the bowl opposite feed ports. One-piece, heavy, cast-iron base reduces vibration. Conveyor and bowl-speed differential infinitely controlled to optimize process performance. Forced-feed oil circulating system is floor mounted and connected to the centrifuge by fl exible connections. Heavy-d uty bearings, designed for long life , support rotating assembly . High throughput and cost/performance because of many internal designs and G levels avai lable. Hig hest Sigma (poo l surface area x G) available.

12 Tung sten-ca rbid e feed-port inserts for long wear. 13 Heavy duty plan etary gear boxbs. 14 Autom ati c operationa l monitoring systems. 15 Tungsten-carbide tiles in beach area, if required , for particular ly abrasive sludges.

The Sharp les Super-D-Canter centrifuge is built to the highest standards with no-compromise design. Our philosophy is to give water and wastewater treatment plants a cost-effective, rugged, and adaptable thickening and dewatering centrifuge. As a result the Super-D-Canter centrifuge is not limited by de-

Operat ion of a hori zo ntal Super-D-Canter centrifuge.

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Profile for australianwater

Water Journal September 1977  

Water Journal September 1977