Page 1

j 1ssN 0310 - 03 67


Official Journal of the

, tml#ii;JM m~mi:hE1~1,1 rffi.1-iN:\'i'[Ai•=l;*l-i-1•BJtt.ilt•J~1 !Vol. 2 No. 3 · Sept. 1975 Registe red for posting as a periodical - Category C.

Price $1-00 \

Nature and man build a forest Since the late 1950's Austral ian Paper Manufc!,Cturers Ltd . has been engaged in a long-range programme to replant marginal and run-down farmland in the Strzelecki Ranges of Gippsland, Victoria, with the mountain ash forest which originally covered the hills. Our picture shows a corner of this area (planted 1956) on which the Company's subsidiary, A.P.M. Forests Ply. Ltd. , has already planted more than eight million eucalypt trees. And this-is in ad dition to the six million eucalypts of sub-tropical species planted by the Company so far in the Coifs Harbour region of N.S.W. Large areas of this land were cleared in the late nineteenth century to supply man's agricultural needs at the time. Changes in the

economy made agriculture or graz ing in th ese steep windswept hill s uneconomic and mu ch of the land reverted to stu nted scrub, infested with weeds and rabbits. A.P.M.'s re-afforestation programme is recreating the beauty of the native forest. In due time this will be harvested in small patches and again replanted to form a perman ent forest mosaic of different ages.

g .


Austral ian Paper Manufacturers Ltd . 1331 /88

Printed by St ockland Press Pty Ltd 329-7300

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE Chairman: C. D. Parker Committee: G.R. Goffin F.R. Bishop Joan Powling A.G. Longstaff W. Burnett A. Macoun Hon. Editor: A.H. Truman

M. Dureau L.C. Smith R.L. Clisby B.S. Sanders W. Nicholson A.F. Herath Publisher: John G. Craig

BRANCH CORRESPONDENTS CANBERRA A.C.T.: A. Macoun, P.O. Box 306, Woden, 2606. NEW SOUTH WALES: M. Dureau, Envirotech Australia Pty. Ltd., 1 Frederick Street, Artarmon. VICTORIA: A.G. Longstaff, Gutteridge Haskins & Davey, 380 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, 3000. QUEENSLAND: L.C. Smith, 24 Byambee Street, Kenmore, 4069. SOUTH AUSTRALIA: R. L. Clibsy, C/- E. & W.S. G.P.O. Box 1751, Adelaide, 5001. WESTERN AUSTRALIA: B.S. Sanders, 39 Kalinda Drive, City Beach, 6015. TASMANIA: W. Nicholson, 7 Swansea Court, Lindisfarne, 7015.

NORTHERN TERRITORY: A. F. Herath, 59 Allwright St., Casuarina, 5792. Editorial Correspondence: Hon. Editor, A.H. Truman, Cl- Davey-Ashmore Pty. Ltd., P.O. Box 4709, Melbourne, 3001. Or to State Correspondents. Advertising Enquiries: John Craig, 'Water' P.O. Box 100, Caulfield East, 3145. Phone: 211-7978 - 874-2133


!ISSN 0310 - 03671



Official Journal of the !AUSTRALIAN WATER ANDI


• •

Vol. 2 No. 3

September 1975

CONTENTS Editorial- Thoughts on the Environment ...............7 Retiring President's Report.. ...................:··· ............. 8 Association News...........................................................9 Pump Station Treatment Plant Googong Water Supply Project pt. 2- R. F. Goldfinch ....... 11 History of Water Pollution and Its Control- Colin Porter .................................................. 16 Water Research in South Africa ............................... 17 Stormwater Drainage Without Pipes-A. J. Bonham ............ ......................................19 Conference Calendar ...................................................20 New Products and Projects .......................................22


The Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Work's multi-million dollar south-eastern Purification Plant is one of the most modern in the world. The Plant is an essential part of the south-eastern Sewerage System which commenced operation in late 1974. The first stage capacity of the plant is 64 million gallons a day and it will serve a population of approximately 900,000 in 175 square miles or almost one-third of the Board's area of sewerage responsibility. Humes Limited supplied over 3000 precast or prestressed concrete plenum units, tie beams, walkway units, Y beams and single T units, Plastiline P.V.C. sheet for the protection of insitu concrete structures, and 66" diameter Humespun Plastiline pipes to the project. Humes sub-contracted to Lewis Constructions Co Pty Ltd, and Fluor Aust Pty Ltd.





MUD CAT dredges have been specifically designed for the economical removal of pollutant substances from waste settling ponds, weed-i nfested lakes and streams and for channel clean-out. Their unique features permit the removal of deleterious matter, weeds, silt, sand, sludge and industrial wastes with the minimum of water turbidity, thus allowing the pond, lake, stream or channel Developed by the National Car Rental System Inc. , of U.S.A. AUSTRALIA WIDE DISTRIBUTORS:

to operate or flow normally during the clean-up operation. Two machines are available, the MC10 which will operate to a depth of 10'6" and the larger MC15 which operates to a depth of 15'0". Both machines are propelled in both the forward and reverse directions by winching along a wire rope which is furnished in the form of a harnessing kit.



:~~:1:~~~iTP~~; ~~~;ic~~:ex




Rocla awarded its 20th prestressed concrete pressure pipeline in Australia Since 1952 over 2000 km of Roel a prestressed concrete pressure pipes have been used in important projects throughout Australia and 15 other countries . Now Townsville City Council has chosen Rocla for the Ross River Dam Water Supply Pipeline. Talk to Rocla's major contracts people about the ever increasing advantages of Rocla prestressed concrete pressure pipes.

Rocla Industries Limited-Major Contracts Division

.Rocla RPCP/3372

Branches in all States



SPECTROPHOTOMETER For accurate analysis of water, wastes and process fluids A revolutionary new spectrometer with unprecedented features for accuracy - speed - convenience.

MODEL 2260-01 SPECTROPHOTOMETER, Pre-Calibrated Excellent for easy analysis of water, wastes and process fluids, and for general purpose testing. Completely pr&calibrated for 46 tests. The individually-prepared calibration charts are provided in the 180 page Water and Wastes Analysis Handbook supplied with the instrument. R&agents for all tests are available. Complete with 2 precision absorbtion cells. For operation on 240V, 50 hz, and in the field from internal r!)chargeable battery.

Fast multiple testing of 200 readings per hour . 15 EXCLUSIVE FEATURES ASSURE YOU OF HIGHEST ACCURACY AND CONVENIENCE.

1. Anti-parrellex mirror 2. Spectre memory 3. Wave length range

400 to 700 nm. 4. 8" meter


6. Internal re-chargeable batteries for field or 240V operaPrecision Pyrex Cell tion.

JOHN MORRIS PTY. LTD. P.O. Box 80, Chatswood, 2067. Phone: 407-0206.

1. J. M. Scientific Pty Ltd, Melbourne: 2 Beaumont St, Vermont, Phone: 873-2711

2. J.M. Scientific Pty Ltd Queensland: SO Campbell St, Bowen Hills, Phone : 52-4072.

3. John Morris Pty Ltd , Adelaide: 30 Aquamarine Drive, Salisbury East, Phone:


EFFUJEITT problems? liE getsn under ,antral

Kent Instruments (Australia) Pty. Limited


Sydney (02 I 525 281 1 Melbourne (03) 874 1233 Adelaide (08) 352 1455 Brisbane (072 I 78 5761 Perth (092) 65 5377 Kent Instruments (NZ) Ltd. Auckland (NZ) 59 7071 Wellington (NZ) 4 3173 Christchurch (NZ) 6 4743

The George Kent Group 4

Save time, trouble and money with go-anywhere E.I.L. • pH/redox control systems . If effluent is your problem you could need ... Model 6320 pH/redox indicator controllerweatherproof, corrosion resistant Model 2867 electrode system- simple, ruggedconnects directly to controller Model 1630 slurry valve- unblockable, reliablefor low cost ac id neutralisation The cost of the system? .. . Less than $600- and of course, ex-stock ... why consider others! And we haven't mentioned KENT pollution control know-how and nationwide after -sale s service *

a GEORGE K ENT Group Company


The H2S·Attack-Proof Sewer: Humes Plastiline Sulphuric acid attack in sewers, the result of a bio-chemical process.will affect the cement gel leading to the possible collapse of the sewer. But not with Humes Plastiline. Plastiline is a tough P.V.C. lining actually keyed directly into the wall of the pipe or to the wall of a manhole or any in-situ structure, permanently protecting it from attack by H2S and aggressive wastes. Tens of thousands of square metres of Plastiline have been used in Australia and Asia since 1963, and regular and rigoruus inspection of these projects has shown itllas given complete satisfaction in service, even under the most severe conditions. For mains sewers, trunk sewers and industrial waste pipes from 300 mm upwards, or as plasticised P.V.C. sheet for in-situ application, find out about Humes Plastiline - Ask the man from Humes. Because we make a better product, it does a better job.



185 Wi lliam Street, Melbourne 3000. Phone 60 0221




Sirs : Please send full information on Humes Plastiline pipes . O Tick it for school project . NAME ..






WaUace and Tiernan Australia G-Series Precision Metering Pumps This range of Australian manufactured Heavy Duty Metering Pumps is designed to fulfil the requirements of industry for metering liquids and suspensions at precisely controlled rates. All are continuously rated, rugged, positive displacement variable output reciprocating pumps with liquid ends available in three types of construction. { 1) Plunger. (2) Mechanical Diaphragm. (3) Piston-Diaphragm. The output of all pumps is variable from zero to maximum while running or stopped by adjustment of the stroke length. For a given stroke length and stroking speed, the output is constant and essentially independent of discharge pressure. Each metering pump is mounted on a baseplate together with its TE electric drive motor and separate or integral worm-reduction gearbox. output control by adjustment of stroke length The compact Wallace & Tiernan Variable Stroke Reciprocating Movement gives precise stroke length regulation and positive (not spring actuated) suction stroke. This enables W & T pumps to handle all types of fluids from corrosive free flowing liquids to slurries and viscous compounds with equal ease and reliability. The entire movement operates in an oil bath within an enclosed crankcase. The stroke adjustment mechanism may be regulated either manually or by an electric or pneumatic actuator responding to an analogue or digital control signal from commercial instrumentation. Manual stroke adjustment mechanisms provide either digital or micrometer indication of stroke length to enable accurate, repeatable setting of pump output.

package units Installation costs may be reduced by specifying package G-series pump/solution tank assemblies.

accessories When specified, G-series metering pumps may be supplied with constant load valves, relief valves, anti-syphonic valves, hydraulic accumulators, strainers and withdrawable injection fittings.

installations G-series metering pumps are to be found operating in the majority of Australian Chemical Process Plants and Power Stations and are utilised throughout the Food and Water Treatment Industries.

blending and proportional control Control signals for Metering Pumps, Wallace & Tiernan Dry Feeders and Vareameter Flowmeters may be interlinked to provide automatic proportioning of liquids and solids. Where pump output is to be proportional to two variables it is often convenient to vary both drive motor speed and stroke length.

liquid end materials Grade 316 Stainless Steel is the standard material of construction for the wetted parts of all pumps. All Diaphragm and some Plunger Liquid Ends are also available in polypropylene. Other alloys or plastics are available for handling particularly aggressive liquids. Ceramic and hard-faced components are provided for service with abrasive suspensions and whenever exceptional operating life is required.

multiple head pumps Pump movements may be interconnected so that a single motor drives a series of liquid ends, with simultaneous or independent control of output. The G70 is particularly versatile as it may be arranged in a multiplicity of combinations of liquid ends and output controls. 6

G 70VM/16P Simplex Plunger Metering Pump in SectioP, Manual Stroke Control




- - - - - - - - - P T Y . LIMITED 89 -93 RESERVE ROAD, ARTARMON, N.S.W. 2064 4 PAR K RO AD, 0 AK LE I G H, VI CT OR I A 316 6

FEDERAL SECRETARY: R.F. Goldfinch, P.O. Box 359, Canberra, 2601 BRANCH SECRETARIES: Canberra, A.C.T. D. Butters, C/- Dept. of Housing & Construction Phillip, A.C.T., 2606 New South Wales: Dr. D.T. Lacey, 16 Fairy Dell Close, Westleigh, 2120. Victoria: R. Povey, C/- S.R. & W.S. Commission, 590 Orrong Rd., ¡Armadale, 3143. Queensland: A. Pettigrew, P.O. Box 129, Brisbane Markets, 4106. South Australia: A. Glatz, C/- Engineering & Water Supply Dept. Victoria Square, Adelaide, 5000. Western Australia: B.S. Sanders, P.O. Box 356, West Perth, 6005. Tasmania: P.E. Spratt, Cl-¡ Fowler, England & Newton, 132 Davey St., Hobart, 7000. Northern Territory: N.R. Allen, 634 Johns Place, Nightcliff, Darwin, 5792. A.W.W.A. SUMMER SCHOOL, CANBERRA, FEBRUARY, 1975 "Water in the Urban Environment" Copies of lecture notes are still available and may be obtained from Hon. Secretary, A.W.W.A. Summer School, P.O. Box 359 Canberra City, 2601 Payment of $20 should accompany orders. This includes postage and packing.

EDITORIAL. Thoughts on the Environment In a democracy, policies regarding the environment should becdetermined by the elected representatives of the people and should reflect the wishes of the majority of the people. This principle is being challenged by protest groups and individual crusaders, but it is a principle which a public servant is bound to honour - one may recommend policy, one may influence policy, but one does not determine policy. On the other hand, in the administration of policy, one may be called upon to make a multitude of decisions, many of which can have far reaching effects on the environment and some of which are made with apparently conflicting objectives. Social group pressures, intuitions and emotions play a very large part in determining policies on the use of the environment. It is not always easy to have informed and unbiased recommendations accepted by the community, even when public health and welfare or the economy is at stake. It is not always possible to secure the necessary time and resources to obtain a mimimum of factual information to compare alternative courses of action. There is constant conflict as pressure groups lobby all levels of government and criticise every action or inaction . To a conservationist or a fisherman, a mangrove swamp is a priceless asset; to nearby residents, it may be a breeding ground for midges and mosquitoes; to a developer, it appears as useless land which should be reclaimed and subdivided. Industries which wish to use resources, and conservation groups which want to preserve them have seldom any appreciation of the real cost to the community and the environment of their proposals. ' There is thus a need for the acceptance by the community of a sensible policy towards the environment, which will provide for our physical and spiritual needs. Such a policy was stated recently in the United State of America - "to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony, and fulfil the social, economic, and other requirments of present and future generations". The implementation of such a policy will entail education and some regulation of every person in the community. It will entail considering the present and future effects on man and nature of every decision, whether personal or corporate. It will involve an understanding of the behaviour of man and nature, the collection of a great deal of data and the development of methods of using this data to predict the effects of alternative courses of action. The attainment of "productive harmony" will require many compromises and concessions. Unfortunately, time will not permit waiting for ideal circumstances before dealing with some of the most pressing problems of the environment and the decision makers will have to accept the risks and criticisms implicit in applying interim solutions in the absence of clearly defined policies and essential technical information. The A.W.W.A., which represents a wide cross-section of people involved with the watery environment, has a very important role to play not only in influencing government policy and promoting standards of excellence for its members, but also in shaping public opinion and countering some of the extreme and impractical demands of pressure groups. L. Henry. 7

Retiring President's Report PRESIDENTIAL PRESENCE

At a meeting of Federal Council on the 2nd May this year , several Councillors expressed the opinion that the President of the Association should endeavour to visit all Branches during his term of office. While agreeing that such visits are highly desirable financial considerations in the year 1975 have not encouraged the writer to embark upon these activities this year. The use of Federal Council's funds for this purpose or other vavelling expenses by the President was not considered to be justified at this time. On the other hand this journal is an excellent medium for communication between all members of the Association and although I sincerely regret the lack of enjoyable experiences involved in attending branch meetings or branch dinners I h ope that I will be excused and that this report wi II be a partial substitute. I have decided to accept an invitation, extended by the Water Pollution Control Federation of the United States to represent the Association at executive meetings of the Federation at Miami Beach during October and to present an address on water pollution control in Australia at the Federation's annual meeting there (not at the Association's expense I). Reg Goldfinch, our Honorary Federal Secretary/Treasurer wilt also be attending the Miami Conference in October and perhaps such formal links between the Association and the Federation will be extended in the future to similar organizations in other countries. Our attendance at this Conference will hopefully advance the objectives of our Association and play a part in promoting attendance of Americans at the Eighth International Conference on Water Pollution Research to be held in Sydney during October of 1976 and at forthcoming Federal conferences of the Association . Members wlio attended the Association's Federal Conference of 1974 in Melbourne will recall the presence at that very successful Conference of Federal President, John Parkhurst and Federal Secretary, Robert Canham of the Water Pollution Control Federation.

The steadily increasing membership provides scope for much confidence in the future of the Association. THE ASSOCIATION'S INFLUENCE ON GOVERNMENT AND COMMUNITIES

The influence of the Association upon administration, governments and community affairs generally, should become a matter of increasing concern to the Federal Council, to Branch Committees and indeed to all members. The status of the Association is such that there is no difficulty in communicating with administrators at appropriate levels of government, and Branch Committees could consider seeking representation on advisory committees increasingly used by governments. It is considered that the accountability of the Association's representatives to Branch Committees or to Federal Council, as the case may be, is a very good qua Iification for representation on government advisory committees in appropriate fields. There are substantial grounds for an Association such as ours to use its collective knowledge and experience in order to catalyse sound progress and to be a stabilizing influence in an increasingly unstable environment. Subjects to be considered by the Association in the future are - research activities, education and methods of administration applied to the management of water resources. THE FEDERAL COUNCIL

The Federal Council comprises representatives of the Branches (two from each) affording co-ordination and a voice at national and international levels. Its Presidents and Vice.Presidents are elected in rotation, consistent with any special requirements. The Council's function is to further the objects of the Association in accordance with the collective wishes of the Branches. Probably the most important persons in the Association are the secretaries and treasurers of the Branches and of Federal Council. I have been fortunate during my term as President to be associated with Reg Goldfinch, the Honorary Federal Secretary-Treasurer since 1972, he has continued to be a stimulating influence for Federal Council and a tireless worker for the Association. I offer to him many thanks for many things. To Vice-President, Henry McFie, to my fellow councillors and to many members with whom I have been closely associated, I extend thanks for making my term as President a period in which the privilege and enjoyment of friendships have outweighed, by far, the tasks of the Office. T. L. JUDE LL


It is thought that most members of the Association will be pleased with the manner in which development of the journal is proceeding and will join in congratulations to the Honorary Editor, Tony Truman, the editorial committee and the publisher. The journal is currently costing the Association more than three thousand dollars per annum for production and distribution. Therefore there is a need for members to promote membership of the Association and the use of the journal for advertising. Also members should use their journal to the maximum extent for the expression of opinions, publication of technical papers, transmission of information such as branch activities and in many other ways. THE FINANCIAL SITUATION The Association's balance sheet for the year 1974/75 shows little scope for expansion of money-consuming activities at the Federal level based on income derived from subscriptions. Substantial income resulting from the excellent Summer Schools of 1973 and 1975, organized by the Canberra Branch, has been a significant factor in avoiding a Federal deficit in recent years. The Association's strength springs from activities within the Branches where most of the planning, financing and control of operational activities occur. Those Branches which are carrying out secretarial functions on a voluntary basis, completely, appear to be avoiding budget deficits and are to be commended. In a multi-disciplinary organization such as ours in which members have¡ commitments to other associations, it is desirable to maintain subscriptions at the lowest possible levels, this policy has been applied during the 13 years of the Association's existence. However, we must be resigned to frequent reviews of our financial situation and the unpleasant consequences of these reviews. MEMBERSHIP

The membership of the Association is, of course, a significant factor in relation to its financial position. It is considered that the publication of the journal has been responsible for a substantial increase in membership, occurring currently at the rate of more than 10 per cent per annum and there is now a total membership exceeding 1200 persons and 70 sustaining members.


SYMPOSIUM '75 WASTEWATER -WHAT TO DO WITH IT Papers delivered 17th April, 1975 to the Queensland Branch. "B.C.C. PROCEDURES ON DISCHARGE OF TRADE WASTE TO SEWER" . .. Bob ROSKAMS, Brisbane City Council "THE CLEAN WATERS ACT - HOW IT IS APPLIED" (Paper not published) ... . H. DESMOND, Water Quality Council "IRRIGATION OF THE TOWNSVILLE GOLF COURSE" . .,.. John WILLI AMS, Mcintyre & Associates "MET HODS OF DISPOSAL OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES" . .. John BRISTOW, M.A. Simmonds Consultants ."TREATMENT and RE-USE OF WASTEWATER IN METAL PROCESSING INDUSTRY" ... Col. GILMOUR, Industrial Chemist "DISPOSAL OF ALUM SLUDGE" . . . Geoff COSSINS, Brisbane City Council "WASTEWATER - A SUGAR MILL BY-PRODUCT" .. . Ron BROOKS, Millaquin Sugar Co. _Bound sets are available from the 0. Branch Secretary (address, page 7) for $6, plus 50c postage.



NEW SOUTH WALES At the Annual General Meeting on the 23rd July, the new committee for the N.S.W. Branch was elected and comprises J. K. Knight President: Vice-President: J. E. Mccann E. A. Scribner Secretary: D. D. Moore Immediate Past President: J. E. Oliff Treasurer: Committee: P. J. Mitchell K. G. Aubrey G. W. Montgomerie M. B. Dureau, K. Mostyn M. J. Flynn T. W. Sargent J. Gilbert J. G. Spence T. L. Judell K. Waterhouse D. T. Lacey

VICTORIA ENVIRONEMNT '75 ADDRESS BY MR R. GOLDFINCH Mr Goldfinch, the Association's Federal Secretary, gave a most interesting and detailed description of the Proposals for Googong Water Project.

ADDRESS BY DR P. TYLER Dr Tyler's address was a quite entertaining session on trophic status; role of plant nutrients; statrification and sedimentation in inland waters. I am sure a number of those attending increased their vocabulary while improving their understanding of the various topics mentioned.

ADDRESS BY MISS LUCEY ALFORD The address by Miss Alford on Microbiology was a timely one in view of her imminent retirement from practise at the M.M.B.W.'s Water Quality Testing Laboratory. Miss Alford's well. prepared address was appreciated by the large number in attendance.

ADDRESS BY DR J. STANDER Probably one of the highlights of the year's meetings was the address by Dr Stander on the activities of the South African Water Research Commission. Watch the Journal "Water" for an abstract and comments on Dr Stander's address. Ladies Night is being planned for a mid-November evening. We will pass on the usua l mundane information regarding venue, date, cost, etc., as soon as detailed arrangements have been completed.

COMMITTEE 1975-6 President : Mr K. Chiller Mr R. Turner Vice-President Past President Mr A. Strom Mr R. Povey Hon . Secretary Mr K. Wood Hon. Treasurer Committee: Dr D. Weiss, Mr F. Bishop, Mr W. Dul fer, Mr A. Longstaff, Mr C. Parker, Ms J. Pawling, Mr G. Goffin, Mr J. D. Lang, Mr J. S. Rogerson, Mr E. Sorenson, Mr A. Swinton, Mr I. Lowther, Mr M. Walker, Mr P. Olsen.

SPRING CONVENTION Final arrangements are now being completed for the Spring (Break Out) Convention at Lorne. The program looks to be both interesting and controversial. ·

On the 1st July, the Hon. Sir John Fuller, M.L.C., N.S.W. Minister for Planning and Environment opened the 2nd International Environment Conference which was held in conjunction with Environment

'75. Four hundred and sixty-six delegates from al l parts of Austra lia and overseas attended sessions on planning, solid waste, water, noise, work ing environment, air and management of internationa l resou rces during the three day conference. The conference was a truly international one with speakers from the United States, Great Britain and Sweden including Peter Cashman from the Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Many of the stands at the Exhibition were equal to any that the writer has seen inother parts of the world. Unfortunately the general publ ic were kept away by inclement weather and other factors.

A.W.W.A. MEETINGS On the 20th August, Prof. J. Burton of Armidale University sparked off a stimu lating discussion when he spoke on "Recreational Use of Water Supply Reservoirs". The venue for the annual dinner was changed this year to the Crows Nest Club and this combined with an interesting talk on future planning for the City of Sydney proved a winning combination. ·

FUTURE EVENTS 15th October, 1975 - Meeting at M. W.S. and D. B. iDr John Frank'lin of D.U.R.D. wi ll speak on "The National Sewerage Programme". 12th November, 1975 - Meeting at M.W.S. and D.B. Panel Session on "Computing in the Water and Wastewater Industry". 5th December, 1975 - Christmas Social at the Kirribilli Ex Servicemen's Club. February, 1976 - Annual Regional Conference at The Entrance with a conference theme of ''Water".

NEWCASTLE SUB-BRANCH 22nd September, 1975 - Annual General Meeting was held and the President of the Hunter District Water Board, Prof. A. J. Carmichael presented the Board's medal for outstanding performances in Hydraulic and Water Resources to Mr L. C. Begg and P. W. Millington. 20th October, 1975 - 25th General Meeting with talk by M. W. S. and D. B. on Sydney's Pollution Control Works.

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY "Ms Judith Rees, B.Sc. (Econ.), M. Phil., addressed the 25th General Meeting of the Canberra Branch on 21st August, 1975 on 'Urban Water Supply Demand Management'. Ms Rees gave an economist's viewpoint of the subject and discussed such aspects as cost/benefit studies of new schemes, extrapolation of demand to forecast future requirements, the very low risk drought normally al lowed for water rating policies and second class water supplies." Th is was an excel lent paper and lively discussion followed its presentation. It is hoped to forward a copy with the next branch news for publication. "The 7th A.G.M. will be held at a date to be fixed in October."

QUEENSLAND Queensland Branch Officer Bearers 1975-76: Mr R. G. Hopkins President Mr G. Coss ins Treasurer Mr L. Roessler Immediate Past President Mr A. PettigrewSecretary & Federal Councill Mrs M. Pettigrew Treasurer Mr W. Volk Federal Councillor Mr L. C. Smith Journal Liaison Mr M. E. Allan Committee Member Mr J. L. Bristow Committee Member Mr J. Cockerell Committee Member Mr W. L. Garsden Committee Member Mr R. E. Macintosh Committee Member Mr B. Rigden Committee Member Mr J. J. Ryan Committee Member Annual General Meeting 3rd September, 1975. After 'llany years of holding branch meetings at the Majestic Hotel the venue has been changed to the Polonia Club, Marie Street, Milton. Members appreciated the improved standard of the Buffet Dinner although the space provided was somewhat limited. Guest speaker for the night was Dr Andrew Porteous of the open university Milton Keynes, United Kingdom. Dr Porteous is at present visiting Australia to attend the Third National Chemical Engineering Conference at Mildura and kindly consented to a break in his short hol iday in Queensland to address the meeting on the subject "Environmental Science & Pub lic Health". Dr Porteous spoke strong I y on the necessity of examining the "Energy Budget" of new proposals including waste management and provoked some lively discussion on this topic. LYNDSAY SMITH & PARTNERS,

L. C. Smith.

TASMANIA The Annual General Meeting of the Branch was held at the Townhouse Motor Hotel, Hobart on Friday, 5th September, 1975. The meeting was attended by 21 members and three visitors. In his Annual Report, the retiring President, D. R. Walters referred to. the pleasing increase in membership during the past year. From 37 members 12 m0,:iths ago, the ,- membership now stands at 52, ~onsisting of · 40 members, three associates, four students and five sustaining members.



OFFICE BEARERS 1975/76 President: Immediate Past President: Secretary: Treasurer: Committee:

P. G. Crawford D. R. Walters P. E. Spratt W. Nicholson E. R. England H. H. McFie J. F. Pottinger J. R. Stephens All the officers were elected unopposed. It is hoped that next year more members will nominate for the positions with the healthy result of requiring a ba llot. Following the Annual General Meeting an address was given by Dr Andrew Porteous, Reader in Engineering Mechanics at the Open University of Walton Hall, Mi lton Keynes, U.K . The title of his address was "An Assessment of Energy Recovery Method from Domest ic Refuse". Dr Porteous has been in Australia as a speaker at the 3rd Nationa l Chemical Engineering Conference.

RECENT MEETINGS 1. Symposium - Recycling of Water in Industry Representatives of A.P.P.M. and Repco discussed water recyling in their industry whilst Dr Grantham of Camp, Scott and Furphy spoke of his experiences in the U.S. researching the recyc ling·of water in town supplies. Particular attention was drawn to the problem of chemical colour and its removal . The attendance at the symposium was 23 members and 11 visitors. 2. "Investigation of the Estuarine Environment" presented by Mr W. G. Ball, Chief Environmental Officer, Electrolytic Zi nc Coy, Risdon. This meeting was attended by 13 members and one visitor: Mr Ba ll's subject is a topical one in Hobart at present as applied to the Derwen't Estuary. Of particu lar interest to those present were the methods which have been developed for obtaining samples from a large area at vary ing depths and in minimum time.

SUMMER SCHOOL, 1978 The next A.W.W,A. Summer School is to be held at the University of Tasmania in the first week of February, 1978. Planning of the proceeedings has already commenced.

Make a note now of the time and place and plan to oe there! The Annual General Meeting was held on Friday, 22nd August, 1975. The meeting was addressed by _ Dr Z . Seglenicks of the Department of Public Health and Mr B. S. Robinson of the Engineering & Water Supply Department who spoke on aspects of the water borne disease amoebic meningitis. Their address was supported by a short film presented by Miss A. Jamieson of the Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science which showed viable forms of the amoeba, naegleria, observed through the microscope; At the A.G.M . the . following office bearers were elected for 1975/76: Pres id net: Mr D . J, Lane Past President: Mr K. 0. Trevarton Vice President: Dr C. 0. Fuller Secretary : Mr A. Glatz Treasurer : Mr R. P. Walters Committee : Mr R. L. Clisby Mr A. D. Greenhough Mr A. D. R. Marlow Mr M. C. Sanders Mr K. J. Hartley Mr R. C. Williams The final Branch meeting for 1975 will again take the form of a ladies night which has been very popular in past years. This meeting will be held on Friday, 31st October and will be addressed by a panel of three speakers on the subject "Weather i n Monarto". The three speakers will be: Prof. P. Schwertzfeger of Flinders University Mr I. Lees of the Monarto Development Commission Mr A. G. Robin of the Bureau of Meteorology

AN APOLOGY In the list of Sustaining Members published June 1975, we omitted the Tasmanian members and do apologise for this lapse. Current Sustaining Members are: Glenorchy City Council Humes Ltd. Hydro-Electric Commission Hobart City Council Department of the Environment Metropolitan Water Board

SECOND WORLD CONGRESS ON WATER RESOURCES The Second World Congress on Water Resources will be held in New Delhi, India on 12-16 December 1975. 'Water for Human Needs' is the theme of the Congress. The papers contributed for the Congress have been grouped under : Water for Human Needs: Energy Food Health General In the 'General' group, the papers spects of water deal with various resources p I an n i ng, development, management, technology, ecology, instrumentation, education and information and meteorology. A list indicating the papers that will be discussed at the various technical sessions will be mailed to the partici pants separately.

CONGRESS VENUE The Congress will be held in Vigyan Bhavan on Maulana Azad Road, New Delhi.

LANGUAGE English will be the official language of the Congress.

REGISTRATION Registration is personal. The participants will be registered at Vigyan Bhavan from 11 December onward. For preregistration, application should be made to: C. V . J. Varma, Organising Secretary, Second World Congress on Water Resources Care: Central Board of Irrigation Power, Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi, 110001, India .


REGISTRATION FEE fee per participant is as fol lows: Members

S PA lii!.fC.L.OJG

ct,.., f.A.RWATe.j2.

Full participants Students Accompanying ladies, and persons below the age of 18

US$120 US$ 50 US$ 15


Tf:aAtvSFE,R TH E:. M/XE.D UQU62· lt.JTO ~ t..,Ai:.?G e. FL-AGON. • • • At...,L.,OW TO SGT TL-E. • • • • •


W H E..Jv S&TTL.cD 1 D€CAtJ T THE; SPA~ U t-JG C L,EA F'Z. t...lGUJD l~TO A G L-A.'5$ .

Full participants Students Accompanying ladies, and persons below the age of 18

US$150 US$ 50 US$ 15

Water drawn from the Googong Reservoir will be delivered to the pump stat ion thro ugh tw in 1280 mm diameter suct ion pipes. The pump station wi ll contain initially four pumps each driven b y an electric motor of 800 kw. Using any comb ination of the four pumps, depending on the demand and the water level in the Googong Reservoir, water wil I be pumped through twin 1280 mm diameter raw water pipelines to the treatment p lant. Pump operation will be remote co ntrol led from the operation building at the treatment plant.


R. F. GOLDFINCH This is part 2 of a paper presented to the Victorian Branch of the Association on 13th May, 1975. Part 1 was published in 'Water' Vol. 2 No. 2 June 1975. Design and documentation of the Googong Pump Station and Treatment Plant was undertaken by the Department of Housing and Construction for and on behalf of the National Capital Development Commission. The Department will supervise conitruction of the works also on behalf of the Commission. The Consulting Engineering firm of Caldwell Connell Engineers was engaged to advise the Department on conceptual design of the treatment plant and to design and document the mechanical and electrical components. Permission of the Department and the Commission to present this paper is acknowledged.

The treatment plant will use a number of conventional treatment processes to produce a water whi ch will meet t he permissible requirements of the Inter¡ national Drinking Water Standards set down by the World Health Organisation.

PUMP STATION The Pump Station wi l l be located about 700 m northwest of the dam and the Treatment Plant wi l l be built on high land 1.6 km northwest of the dam. From th is position water can flow by gravity to distribution service reservoirs in Canberra.


TREATMENT PLANT ii Hydraulic Design

The plant is designed to operate at rates between 45 and 364 Ml/day. The hydrau lie profile of thpla nt after comp letion of second stage construction will be as shown on f igure 2. Within this range the plant wi ll operate w ith flow changes of 45 Ml/day. Plant operators will be able to control the Googong Pump Station remotely . Plant production rates will be var ied as required to suit t he demand. Hydraulic contro ls in t he plant are designed to adju st automatically to changes in incoming f low.

Figure 1: indicates the location of the dam , pump station, treatment plant, pipelines connecting the pump station and treatment plant, and the single 1740 mm (68") nominal diameter pipeline from t he treatment plant to the A.C.T. border. The Pump Station and Treatment Plant wil l be constructed in two stages: the maximum capacity for thyinitial stage will be 182 Ml/d (40 MGD). Subseq uently the capac ity of both elements wi ll be doubled to provide maximum discharge of 364 Ml/d (80 MGD).


-...... '.....'....., ,,,


'' \\







11 II

11 11 \I





..............._ ......





I\ \\

FIG Na 1 11

ii).Treatment Process ·To meet the water quality objectives it has been necessary to provide for disinfection of raw water from Googong Reservoir foll owed by coagulation, fl occulation, sedimentation, filtration, pH adjustment, carbonat ion and fluoridation. The processes and chem ical feed systems are shown diagrammatically in F igure 3. Under normal operating co nditi ons the water will be :a. Pre-Chlorinated b. Coagu lated with alum inium su lphate, and cationic polyelectrolytes c. F locculat ed and settled emIca Chlorine Prechlorination Postchl or i nation Aluminium sulphate Polyelectrolyte cationic Polyelectrolyte nonionic (a) Lime Carbon dioxide Sodium silico fluoride

Detention time at minimum rate Detention time at maximum rate Filters Number Filtration area Maximum unit flow rate Filter media Depth Effective size Uniformity coefficient Granular activated carbon Depth Effective size Uniformity coefficient Filter Wash Facilities Maximum unit wash rate Maximum wash rate Volume required for one filter wash Wash water reservoir Size Maxi mum water depth Volume Wash water pumps Number Capacity of each Air agitation system Unit rate at 35 kPa Capacity of 35 kPa Wash Water Reclamation Number of basins Size Capacity of each basin Reclaimed water pumps Number Capacity of each Clear Water Storage Reservoir Size Maximum water depth Volume Sludge Drying Beds Number Total area Maximum depth Chemical Storage Chlorine, 860 kg containers Aluminium sulphate liquid Number of tanks

with non-io nic or an ionic d. Dosed polyelectrolyte filter aid. e. F il tered f. Lime treated g. Carbon diox ide treated h. F luoridated j . Post chlorinated Special treatment processes will probably be required occasionally to dea l with excessive colour, or abnormally high manganese content. This process can require use of hydrochloric or su lphuric ac id , ferric chloride or ferric su lphate, sodium hydroxide and potassium permanganate. Estimated dosage rates for chemicals is given in table 1.

ULTIMATE 28,000 1.5-2.0 0.8-1.0 5-40

1.5 0.8 20







0.1-0.2 10-80 8.60 1.7(c)

0.15 24 13 1.7(c)

1,700 250,000 55,000 44,000

1,700 250,000 55,000 44,000

kg kg l(b) kg

Table 2 - Googong Water Treatment Plant Item UNIT INITIAL Plant Flow Ml/d Minimum rate 45 Maximum rate Ml/d 182 Ml Contact Mixing Basin 1 2.6 2.6 Ml Volume Detention time at minimum rate 80 min 20 Detention time at maximum rate min Clarifiers 4 Number each 27 X 27 Size m Average Water depth 5 m 0.85 Surface loading at max. rate l/s/m2 Contact Mixing Basin 2 Ml Volume 1.15


364 2.6 80 10 8 27 X 27 5 0.85 1.15





711·650 1



708 · 000 r

707 ·000 MAX .

7 7 ·600


699 · 940 699 ·800


700 ·000




min min

37 9

37 4.5

each m2 l/s/m2







mm mm less than

450 0.8-1 .0 1.6

450 0.8-1.0 1.6

mm mm less than


0 .8-1.0 1.8

1,200 0.8-1.0 1.8

l/s/m2 Ml/d Ml

16 97

m m Ml


each lps





1/s 1/s

22 1500

22 1500

each m JI

2 26

each 1/s





m m Ml

81 7 45

each m2 mm

17 15,000 550

17 15,000 550







Capacity of each tank Cationic polyelectrolyte 200-1 drums Nonionic polyelectrolyte Lime Number of bins Capacity of each Sodium silico fluoride Fuel oil for carbon dioxide production Number of tanks Capacity of each Auxiliary chemical storage Liquid chemicals Tank 1, capacity Tank 2, capacity Dry storage area Chemical Feeders Chlorinators Number Capacity of each Aluminium sulphate feeders Number Capacity of each Cationic polyelectrolyte feeders Number Capacity of each Nonionic polyelectrolyte feeders Number Capacity Li me slake-feeders Number Capacity of Unit 1 Capacity of Unit 2 Carbon diox ide feeders Number Capacity of Unit 1 Capacity of Unit 2 Capacity of Unit 3 Capacity of Unit 4 Sodium silico fluoride feeders Number Capacity of each Auxiliary liquid feeders Number Capacity of Unit 1 Capacity of Unit 2 Auxi I iary dry feeder Number Capacity

16 97 1.4

1.4 X









26.5 4 3.0



2 26 X 50 1.8

81 7 45





711 -900



/ -T · 940







712 -100

97,000 45 2.0

97,000 45 2.0

each t t I each I

2 122.5 45.0

2 122.5 45 .0

2 27,500

2 27,500

1 1 m2

20,000 40,000 70

20,000 40,000 70

each kg/d

2 1,800

2 1,800

each 1/h

2 750

each 1/h

2 20

2 20

each m 3 /h

2 0.25

2 0.25

each kg/hr kg/hr

1 475


each kg/d kg/d kg/d kg/d

3 770 1,770 3,760

4 770 1,770 3,760 4,540

each kg/h

2 30

2 30

each 1/h 1/h

2 100 500

2 100 500

each kg/h




number t


2 750




712 · 350


712· 500 /

712 ·800


713 ·000


707 ·500


708 · 500







FIG. No. 2 0


Architectural Considerations The N.C.D.C. laid down clear requirements for architectural considerations. In brief it was required that construction of the plant cause minimum of change to the topography and vegetation of the site .. In particular changes to the ridge line are to be minimized and creation of unnatural silhouettes are to be avoided.

Functional Description of Plant Components The Water Treatment Plant consists of the treatment facilities, a wash water reservoir. wash water reclamation basins, a clear water reservoir and sludge drying beds. Treatment facilities include inlet works, contact mixing basins, clarifiers, filters, fil tered water mixing basin and the operations building.

a. Inlet Works The inlet works will be located at the southeast corner of the clarifiers and consist of the raw-water pipeline, meter and chemical application systems. The meter will be of the venturi type with a maximum differential of 2400 mm and maximum head loss of 330 mm. Flow signals transmitted from the meter . will automatically pace chemical feeders.

b. Contact Mixing Basin No. 1 Contact Mixing Basin No. 1 extends along the south side of clarifiers 2 and 4 and between clarifier 4 and future clarifier 5. It is sized to provide 10 minutes for ch lorine contact at the maximum flow rate of 364 Ml/d and at the minimum flow rate of 45 Ml/d, the chlorine contact time will be about 80 minutes. Provision has been made for future installation of a flash mixer at the inlet of the Contact Mixing Basin No. 1 and for a series of slow mixers along its length. This equipment will be installed and used to improve clarifer performance, if found necessary following commissioning of the plant. The plant overflow weir will be constructed along the south wall of the basin. This functions only in the event of concurrent failure of the automatic shut down systems without the knowledge ~f the operator. Such an occurrence 1s highly unlikely , but should it occur the

water would discharge to a smal l creek west of the plant.

Sludge settling to the floor of thytank will be scraped to a central hopper by a rotary collector. The co llector arms will be equ ipped with hinged corner sweeps. Sludge will be automatically removed from the hopper, gravitated and/or pumped to the sludge drying beds. Sludge pumps of the rotary positive displacement type will be located in the clarifier gallery. It is anticiapted that sludge densitie~ as high as 10% may be obtained by use of cation ic polyelectrolyte as a coagulant and for design purposes an average density of 4% has been assumed.

c. Clarification Works The clarification works consist of two flash mixers, a channel to convey coagulated water to the clarifier, eight square clarifiers and a channel to convey clarified water to contact mixing basin No. 2. In the initial stage only four of the clarifiers will be constructed. Chlorinated water from Basin 1 will pass through two 1300 mm square ports to the channel which distributes flow to the clarifiers. Each port will be equipped with two diffuser grids designed to inject liquid chemicals uniformly over the cross-section of flow. The grids are removable and mounted on the upstream and downstream faces of the ports. Dispersion and coagulation of the chemicals will be accomplished by two variable speed mixers as the water enters the channel. Under normal operating conditions aluminimum sulphate, and cationic polyelectrolyte will be added. An auxi liary feed system will be provided to permit substitutions of other coagulants for special treatment requirements. In the initial stage four square flocculation -clarification units will be constructed. The units will be of reinforced concrete construction being 27 m square each with a depth of 5 m. The overflow rate at peak capacity will be 0.85 1/s/m2. The flocculationclarification process will be of the solids contact type with continuous circulation and mixing of solids with incoming by upflow solids water followed separation. Coagulated water will be delivered to a centra l flocculation tank for slow mixing and contact with recirculated solids. Flocculated water from the top of the tank will discharge downward under a metal skirt into the clarification zone. In this zone sludge will settle on the floor of the tank and the clarified water will rise and be collected by submerged orifices in t he sides of the effluent troughs. The water will then be delivered to the clarified water channel and be conveyed to the mixing basin No. 2.

d. Contact Mixing Basin No. 2. Clarified w ater will enter and leave contact mix ing basin No. 2 through two sets of ports identical to those at the outlet of Basin No. 1. The outlet ports will be equipped with chemical diffuser grids through which nonionic or anionic polyelectrolyte will normally be fed as a filter aid. An auxiliary system will be the in let ports for provided at application of sodium hydroxide when pH correction is needed for manganese removal. The Basin has a volume of 1.15 Ml and will provide five minutes detention at 364 Ml/d and 37 minutes at 45 Ml/d. A normally closed penstock separating the coagulated water and clarified water channels will provide the capability of by-passing the clarifiers and delivering water from Basin 1 to Basin 2.

e. Filters Water from contact mixing basin No. 2 will flow to the filters through the applied water channel between the filters and clarifiers. Initially four filters will be constructed with provision for future addition of four more units. Each filter





N° 2












will be an open reinforced concrete tank divided longitudinally by a central gulley or channel. Each filter half will be 4.5 m wide by 15.5 m long. At the maximum capacity of each filter (45.5 Ml/d) the unit loading rate will be 3.8 I/s/m2, 1-ilter media will consist of a bottom layer of sand and a top layer of granulated activated carbon. The sand will have an effective si ze in the range 0.5-0.6 mm and a thickness of bed of 450 mm. The activated carbon will be coarser than the sand, with an effective size of 0.8-1.0 mm and a thickness of ·1200 mm. It will remove most of the solids while sand will act as a polishing· filter. The activa t ed carbon media will absorb taste and odour producing constituents and dechlorinate. It is anticipated that activated carbon will require re-activation in five to 10 years and the most convenient system at present available for re-activat ion will be by means of a small multiple hearth furnace which will heat the material to a temperature of 800°C. As the furnace may not be required for a period of up to ten years it has been omitted from inclusion in the current construction programme but provision has been made for its installation at the west end of the filter battery. Filtered water and wash water piping are arranged along the north face of the filter battery. Filter valves are of the butterfly type with electric motor operators. Flow rate control for each filter half will be provided by a modulating valve responding to signals from a controller which senses and maintains water level in the filter and equally distributes flow among all

operating filters. The automatic filter washing cycle will be initiated either manually or automatically in response to filtered water turbidity, loss of head or elapsed time. Each pair of filters will be equipped with an- operating console on the operating floor for manual control of either the filtering or washing functions. Filtered water will be conveyed through a 1829 mm tapering header to the filtered water basin where lime, carbone diox ide, sodium silico fluoride and chlorine will be applied. A mixer will be installed in the inlet to the basin to ensure complete dispersion of lime and sodium silico fluoride. Filtered water flows from the basin through a 1829 mm pipe Ii ne to the clear water storage:

f. Chemical Storage and Feeding Facilities will be provided for storing and feeding both wet and dry chemicals. In general storage is provided to meet the expected average chemical dosage requirement at maximum flow rate for approximately 30 days. Chlorine evaporators, chlorinators and ejector pumps will be installed in the Chlorinator room. Chlorine solution will be fed to the inlet pipe at the upstream end of contact mixing baxin No. 1, for prechlorination and to the mixing and recarbonation basin for final chlorina1 tion. Dosages are manually set with feed rates controlled by the plant's flow meter.

The reservoir will be of the open cut type concrete lined with sloping walls and base. It will be covered with a sheet metal roof. An overflow system will also be provided on this storage.

h. Sludge Drying Beds The sludge drying beds will be located to the north-east of the clear water storage. The beds will be terraced down the hillside and of irregular shape to conform closely with the existing terrain. Areas will remain between the beds to permit tree planting and to screen the beds from view of the vicinity of the dam embankment. A drying bed area of 15,000 m2 will be provided. It is expected that average reservoir turbidities will be equivalent to 5 mg/I of suspended so1ids and with the use of .1 mg/I of polyelectrolite and 20 mg/I of equivalent clry alum sludge production will be 9.5 kg/Ml of treated water


Sludge will be applied to the beds at depth of about 2500 mm and dried sludge will be removed during the year.

Costs of Treatment Cost of treatment based on November' 1973 costs are dependent on annual production of potable water at the plant and are set out in Table 3.

g. Clear Water Storage Storage of final treat ed water will be provided in a 45 Ml reservoir located approximately 300 m north-east of the plant site. The reservoir will be 81 m x 97 m with a max imum effective depth of 7 m.

Table :J Annual Production 31,100MI 40,200 Ml 72,900 Ml

Annual Cost


970,000 1,023,000 1,220,000

$/Ml 31 .20 25.45 16.74

c/1000 gals 14.2 11.6 7.6

sir-\ - - -- -- - - - - - - ~ - - - - ---, POLYELECTROLYTE ALUMINlUM

- ·




N" 2 j







HISTORY OF WATER POLLUTION AND ITS CONTROL 路 By Colin Porter, B.Sc., M.I.E. Aust., Director of Operations, Environment Protection Authority, Victoria. It is now several years since I first found myself in what we laughingly referred to as the 'dirty water business'. At that time the practice of pollution control has not acquired the status and public support that it has today. I did,

however, discover that I was joining a very long lived, if not distinguished, calling. Indeed, perhaps not far short of the oldest profession of all. Excavations at Mohenjodaro, North of Hyderabad, disclosed the ruins of a civiljsation of 4500 years ago where the bathrooms and latrines were placed on the same side of the house so that the waste water was conveniently collected. Bath and kitchen wastes ran into separate brick chambers whence they overflowed into brick 路 drains with access points for cleaning them out. However, subsequent civilisations often failed to achieve the same standards, the extensive sewerage system of ancient Rome being a notable exception. Leg islation restrict ing the discharge of wastes into waterco urses also dates from many centuries ago. In 1388, Richard I I passed an Act prohibiting the fo ul ing of watercourses in and around the town, however the lack of know ledge of any successfu l means of treat ing or steril ising sewerage prevented t he leg islation from being effective. Henry V I 11 made a f u rther attempt, particu larly in re lation to the effect that London was having on the Thames. His statute of 153 1 which imposed a severe fine on anyone who po l luted the R iver was equall y ineffective for the same reason. In 1710 Jonathan Sw ift penned the fol lowing I ines to descri be t he effect of a heavy rainstorm on London's streets: "Now from all parts the swelling kennels flow, And bear their trophies with them as they go : Filth of all hues and odour, -seem to tell What .street they sai/'d from, by their sight and smell, They as each torrent drives with rapid force, From Smitherfield and St Pu!chre's shape their course, And in huge confluence join 'd at Snowhill ridge, Fall from the conduit prone to Ho/born bridge Sweeping the butcher's stalls, dung, guts and blood, Drown'd puppies, stinking sprats, all drenched in mud, Dead cats and turnip tops, come tumbling down with the flood." It is a litt le alarming to rea l ise that th is same River which was the recip ient of the City's waste was also used as the main source of domestic water supp ly. Fifty years later t he d ist inguished su rgeon , Tobias Smo llett observed: 路 "If I would drink water, I must quaff the mawkish contents of an open aqueduct, exposed to all manner of defilement; or swallow that which comes from the river Thames, impregnated with all the filth of London and Westminster - Human excrement is the least offensive part of the concrete, which is composed of all the drugs, minerals, and poisons used in mechanics and manufacture, . enriched with the putrefying carcasses of beasts-and men; and mixed with the scourings of all the wash tubs, kennels and common sewers, within the bills of mortality. " The growth of the popul ation co up led with the lack of any so rt of sewerage reticulat ion system led to increasing ly offensive co nd itio ns and frequent and more severe outbreaks of cholera. The streams wh ich fed the River in the Metropolitan area came td co nsist largely of sewage and trade waste, together with f loating refuse, and be ing an offence both to the nose and the eye were covered over and in many cases bu ilt upon. These were the so-called lost rivers of London now incorporated into t he sewerage system. In spite of the unsightly and , from a hea lth point of v iew, dangerous cond ition of the water, fish sti ll fl ourished p lentifu ll y during t he 18t h century. As late as 1757 the Water Bai lif f of the City of London stated: "There is no river in all Europe that is a better nourisher of its fish and a more speedy breeder, particu larly of flounder, t han is the Thames." Salmon and other migratory f ish


were so common during the 18th century that the apprentices drew up a petit ion at that time that they should not required to eat sa lmon more t han three t imes a week . A las, the last sa lmon to be caught for nearly 140 years was taken in 1833. As a none too serious side- light on the condition of the drink ing water during th is period when the first-fleeters and convicts were popu lating Austral ia, one may speculate whether the typica l Australian predilection for beer may not have arisen from quite noble motives! George Watk ins in h is 'Treatise on Brew ing' published in 1768 recorded "No water can be fou ler than that of the Thames, yet the clearest porter is brewed w ith it." Let me hasten to add that porter is a dark and slightly bitter ale and has no co nnection with the author! The connection between epidemics of cho lera and the drinki ng of sewage poll uted water was not estab li shed for a surprisingly long time. Indeed, it is on record that the transfer of the pumping intakes of the private water compan ies from the pol luted tidal reaches to the relatively clean upland river was based more on aesthet ics than on healt h grounds. Yet in 1832, 5275 deaths occurred from As iatic cholera, t he f igure rising to 14,137 deaths in the epidemic of 1849 . The latter gave rise to the Metropo lis Water Act of 1852, which prohibited the abstraction of drinking water from the Thames below Tedd ington Weir; however it was not until 1866 that the Act was fu l ly complied with . It is interesting to note that the Report of t he River's Po llut ion Prevention Commission published in 1874 referred to t he causes of disease bei ng propagated by germs which multiply in t he bodies_ of animals. The report states "This view is as yet far from be ing establ ished upon a firm scientific basis; the germs or spores themse lves have never yet been isolated or individual ly recogn ised." Further deterioration during the middle of the nineteenth century was even more rapid. The smel I from the River ad jacent to the Houses of Parli ament had become intolerable and the Metropoli s Act of 1855 charged t he Metropolitan Board of Works w it h "preventing all or any part of the sewage with in the Metropol is from flow ing into the River Thames in or near the Metropol is". The absence of any know n method of treating sewage sat isfactor ily at that time meant t hat the solution had to be the co llection and p iping of sewage from London, both north and south of the Rive(, downstream to a point where the tide cou ld no longer bring it back. The sewer construction was started in 1858 , beginn ing w ith the interception of the sewers and streams wh ich discharged to the River at t he nea rest point , and finished in 1864. A lthoug h路 t he tida l excursion, that is the average lateral movement of water per tide, is about nine miles, the net movement.under average freshwater f lows is on ly half a mile in the m idd le reaches. Horizonta l and vertica l mixing ensures some displacement upstream, so arrangements were made to store the waste water in large reservoirs for release on the f irst few hours of the ebb tide. At the same time the first ser ious efforts were made to develop satisfactory methods of treatment, primari ly chemical dosing and irr igation on land or fi ltration by coke f il ters. i Have dealt at some length with t he early history of pollution in relat ion to the R iver Thames because it is well documented, however, sim il ar histories can be traced for other rivers and estuaries in Europe and North Amer ica which suffered sim ilar stages of degradation for simi lar reasons. The continued growth of popu lation in London not matched by comparable expenditu re on sewerage and sewage treatment resulted in the frequency of anaerobic conditions increasing du ring the twent ieth centu ry, to the point where as much as 20 miles of estuary from Woolw ich to Gravesend were completely anaerobic for the w ho le of the summer quarter during the 1950s. It is perhaps interesting to note that the cr isis situat ion that developed at t hi s point was d ue to a combinat ion of events, first ly the steadily increasing load brought about by the growth of populat ion and industry in the Metropolitan area at a time when the post-war reconstruct ion programe li mited funds for sewerage, and second ly t he introduction of synthetic detergents during the early 1950s. The ma intenance of dissolved oxygen levels in a po lluted watercou rse, or treatment plant for that matter, relies both on the oxygen demand of the wastes discharged to it and on the rate at which water absorbs oxygen from the air-water interface. Th is rate is known as the exchange coefficient. Re-oxygenation is greatly improved by water trubu lence, which rep laces the oxygen deficient air surface layer, and more specifical ly by the generation of w ind waves which does both. However, the exchange coefficient is also affected by d issolved' substances and even very low concentrations of synthetic.detergent cause a marked reduction. Tlius tests have shown t hat as little as 0.5

Cont. Page 18.

WATER RESEARCH IN SOUTH AFRICA On 25th July, 1975 the Victorian Branch A.W.W.A. was privileged to have as their guest Dr. G. J. Stander, Chairman and Chief Executive of the Water Research Commission, Republic of South AFrica. Dr. Stander has been visiting Australia in his capacity of President, I.A.W.P.R., in connection with arrangemen~ tor the 8th International Conference on Water Pollution ; Research to be held in Sydney in October 1976. , ; Dr. Stander's address dealt / with the water research outlook in South AFrica, together with the function and operation of that country's Water Research Commission. Copies of the Commission's 1974 Annual Report were made available to those attending. Dealing first with water resources development gener_ al ly, Dr. Stander indicated that this involved decisions at three maJor levels of organ ization • Long term planning (which embraced the collection and processing of data). * Implementation . * Research and development. These activity levels and the decisions they require are all ¡ interdependent. Attention was drawn to a basic principle of research and development which must never be lost sight of - viz. that there is always more than one solution to every problem, and any investigative program must cover the extremes of choice. The most advantageous solution changes with location, time, and circum stances. Many groups of organizations are interested in various aspects of water, all of which affect the knowledge and development of a country's water resouroes. Dr. Stander grouped the South AFrican organizations roughly as fol lows * Authorities concerned with water supply, wastewater disposal, Health, Forests, Mines, Weather. * C.S . I.R., Bureau of Standards, Agricultural Boards, Municipalities. * Statutory bodies whose activities may be affected by stream flows, rainfall etc. * Universities, Industries. Research is a very expensive activity, and duplication of effort must be avoided. South African endeavours to achieve this through consultative and study groups dealing with the specific problems, and including personnel at all levels. Coordination starts at the bottom, and the man performing the task and facing the problem must have a say in its solution . The value of university research for teaching and training is well recognized . However, a survey of South Africa's research facil ities identified specific centres of competence which cou Id be used to carry out water research and development work, and this potential for solution of problems should be used . Much of the research work is necessarily oriented to current prob lems, but at the same time needs to be associated with higher educationa l qualifications as a reward . Dr. Stander suggested that the most important principle in research and development is to choose the right situation in which to app ly the results. Industria l water requirements in the Johannesburg area represent about one-half the local resources available. As industrial requirements are likely to grow ten-fold in the foreseeable future, the. provision of sufficient supplies is a very real problem. Dr. Stander sees mineral pollution of available resources as the No. 1 problem in South africa, and considers that demineralization generally has been under researched. The problem appears in water use for agriculture, mining, and industrial processes. He also sees desalination as a "mass production" process and suggests that much could be done to collectivise and isolate activities produc ing saline eff luents so as to better handle the problem. Desa i in at ion of effluents is seen as more productive than seawater because of their usually lower mineral content and their closer proximity to points of demand.

The Water Research Commission of South Africa was established by legislation in 1971 . Its creation was not a crisis measure, but the result of many years of consideration . Its function, broadly, is to coordinate and promote all data collection and research activities affecting water resources and their use. Two basic principles of the Commission's establishment were that it should be provided with sufficient funds to do its job, and that these funds shou Id be as free as possible. The Commission receives no normal Government allocations its funds are derived from taxes and levies on water consumption by industry, farming and munic ipal service authorit ies. This revenue is collected by the usual rating and tax ing organisations but paid directly into the Water Research Fund administered by the Commission. The Commission's recent Annual Report show a revenue of about $M2.25 p.a. and a current accumulated reserve of some $M6. The levy for irrigation water is 40c/hectare from channels in Government schemes and 20c/hectare on all other irrigation on the basis of 6 megal itres per hectare - .0067 c and .0033 c per kilolitre respectively. (When the writer was in South Africa in 1973 ftl e general levy for water research was given as 0.2c/kl (0.9c/1000 gall) on all consumption. For the Rand Water Board, supplying the urban and industrial requirements of the Johannesburg-Pretoria area, the levy for 1972-73 amounted to some $850,000.) Since its formation the Water Research Comm ission has given special attention to the compilation of a National Master Research Plan and the establishment of a National Information Centre on Water, and has seen the four main aspects of its work as follows : (1) The identification of constraints and problems in the water economy of the Republic requiring research priority. (2) The promotion and acceleration of priority research by (a) activating research authorities to modify their internal research programs; and (b) their judicious funding of water research projects (the Commission itself does not carry out research). (3) The co-ordination of al l water research in South Africa. (4) The promotion of communication, publication, and application of information in the field of water conservation and water resources development. The Commission's survey of the water and effluent problems of industries, municipalities, m ining and power generation showed that there was a real need for co-ordinated identification of problems on a national basis, and the implementation of scheduled priority research and development programs with responsibility allocated to those agencies best able to carry out t he work . The W.R.C. was therefore given very wide powers to direct or change research programs throughout the country. However, it avoids the use of those powers as far as possible, preferring to "use a carrot" for persuasion. The Commission's experience with regard to support and co-operation during the few years it has operated has exceeded all ex pectat ions. Water Research programs carried out by various authorities with Government funds have not been elim inated, but these can be supplemented by the Commission as it sees fit. Using the National Masters Research Plan as a guide, a National Priority Research Program has been drawn up to cover a) appropriate on-going projects as shown by the Commission's survey; and b) projects the Commission finances itself or intends to finance. The Commission considered that for the efficient uti l izafion and management of the country's water resources the collection and processing of al I reliable data with reference to the hydrological cycle was of key importance. Whilst this function was already performed on a continuous basis by various Government departments, it was found that a mass of potentially useful data was stored away in records. Its processing into a useful form is now enab ling it to be gainfully employed in numerous areas of water research and development. The W.R.C. has no limitations on its recruitment of research personnel from anywhere in the world. It can take over patents, and can hire overseas expertise. With regard to communication wit h overseas activities in the water field, and overseas publication of its research results, the Commission believes in personal contact, and during the course of its work pursues an active information exchange program relating to its research projects even before completion and publication of their resu lts. Current research projects in South Africa include * The reclamation of wastewater. * The incidence of carcinogens in water (and food).


* T he pollution of wate r by minerals - t he policy is to keep cl ean water clean and reclaim polluted water before mixi ng them with better class waters. The trend in meeting industrial requirements is towards a closed cycle. * Ground water research - much of the country's groundwater is highl y mineral ized, but better for desalination than seawater. Research by private organizations is encouraged . The Windhoek reuse project was not a temporary emergency measure but a deliberate long-term development. Its implementation invo lved a three-fold approach over some years to sell the proposal successively to the municipalCouncil, the medical Authorities, and the pub I ic. Epidemiological research of possible effects on community health was a feature of this project which is still proceeding. In developing a National Information Centre the Commission already has established a high quality technical journal, a newsletter and a public relations program.


Some two years ago the writer was privileged to visit South, Africa in connection with the reuse of wastewater. He has found t hat few people in Australia appreciate the position of South Africa in relation to its water resources and requirements. The remainder of these notes is therefore devoted to a few facts which could be compared with the Australian scene. The Republic of South Africa, together with Southwest Africa w hich it administers, covers almost 800,000 square miles between latitudes corresponding to Sydney in New South Wales and Mackay in Queensland. The average annual rainfal I is 17½ inches, falling mostly during the summer months. Its incidence is unreliab le and lo'ng periods of drought can be expected except in the Southern Cape area where it is also distr ibuted more evenly throughout the year. Abo ut 30% of the country receives less than 10 inches. Southwest Africa rainfall varies from 2 inches in the south near the mouth of the Orange River to 24 inches in i.ts north-eastern corner. Few rivers are perennial and seasonal shortage of water is the greatest hardship in most of the country. The Orange River is the largest river system with an average discharge of about 9 million acre feet per annum to the Atlantic Ocean. This flow comes from just over 200,000 square miles. (The River Murray in Australia discharges about 12 million acre feet per annum from a 408,000 square miles catchment.)

History of water cont ppm of detergent, typically the level found in the Thames water, reduced the coefficjent by as much as 20%. The effect both on sewage treatment works and on the river was equivalent to a sudden addit ional load of 20% in polluting discharges. Fortunately t he Thames story is not one of unabridged gloom. Li ke several rivers which were the f irst to suffer man's despoi lation, t he Thames has shown marked signs of recovery during the last decade. Approximately 100 million dollars spent since 1960 have red uced t he po ll uting load reaching the Estuary. By 1964 anaerobic condi tions had disappeared notwithstanding that the wastes from m ore t han 10 m ill ion people entered the estuary at that time . In 1967 a su rvey showed the presence of some 57 species of fish in the w orst 40 mi le sect ion of the River between Richmond and Gravesend w here on ly eels had been found 10 years before. The first m igrator y fish to pass the pol luted middle reached for 140 years was ca ught, for its pains, on the intake screens of Fu lham Power Station. Since t hen severa l sea trout rave been caught together with a number of smelt and flounder, all f ish wh ich must have navigated t he worst sections of the River. Perhaps even more surprising has been the large sca le return of birds to the lower reaches of the estuary. Orn ithologists have noted w ith del ight many species not observed on Thames-side w ith in living memory, includ ing Tea l. Tufted Duck and Packard. During one survey of the Thamesmead area in 1969-70 no less t han 1600 Shelduck and 330 Pintail Duck were counted by the London Natura l History Society in a sing le day. This is a far cry from the bar.ren marshes of just a few years ago. Happi ly A ustralia boasts no such history of degradation. The nomadic patterns of the aboriginal people, well suited to the low summer rainfa ll and low flow rivers of A ustralia, imposed no significant environmenta l burden and it was not until the European arrived and started close sett lement that our water pol lution history beg ins. Even now our largest cities boast no greater popu lation than London of a ce ntury ago and in the meantime both t he technology of wast e water treatment and the socia l values of the community have progressed. While we sti ll have some sore spots and watercourses of w hich we can on ly be ashamed, ne11ertheless, we ca n read t he histor of London's R iver w ith t he re lief t hat it coul dn't happen



The Environment of the count ry is greatly influenced by its elevation which is mostly over 3000 feet with more t han 40 per cent above 4000 feet. The country's overal l popul at ion is so me 22 mi l lion with about 0.75 mill ion in south-west Africa. Ab out one-third of the total population is urba ni sed. About half of the farms in the country obt ain the ir supp l ies from bores and very few of the streams are perenni al. The Johannesburg-Pretoria area - often refe rred to as the Vaa l Triangle - is the most important cent re of popul atio n. Within a radius of about 50 miles from Johannesburg is found 20% of the country's population (one-third of the w h ites and one-seventh of the non-whites) and 60% of t he manufactu rin g industries. The principal water source fo r th is area is t he Vaa l River (a tributary of the Orange) w hich has an average y ield of some 4000 Ml/day (880 mgd or 1.8 m il l ac.h./ann) and w hich is now almost fully developed for urban, indust r ial and irrigat io n su ppl ies (t he amount drawn from this river in 1972/73 averaged 3800 Ml/d ay ). This river has also shown a great variation in sa linity. Furthermore, due to the drainage from the u rban and rural area s of it s catchment, the average T.D.S. increased by 70% between 1960 and 1969. Against this background the great interest of t he Government in its water reso urces, their co nservat io n and reclamat ion, w il l be appreciated. The initial reclamatio n and reu se ex peri ment at Windhoek has been followed by fu rt her ex per imental p lants at Pretoria and at Capetown, and plann ing for the fut u re use of wastewaters to augment the general ~ p lies in t hese areas is being pursued as a matter of some urgency.• (J . D. La ng. ) 6.8 .75

6TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON METALLIC CORROSI ON WENTWORTH HOTEL, SYDNEY, 3RD-9TH DECEMBER, 1975. Every three years co rros ion eng ineers and sc ient ists from al l over the wor ld gather togehter in one of the 20 member countries of the Internat ional Corros ion A ssoc iat ion to d iscuss the latest advances in corros ion resea rch and technology. T h is year the Austra las ian Cor rosion Associat ion has t he honour of being host to the sixth of these gatherings w hich w ill be held at the Wentworth Hotel in Sydney from 3rd to 9th December, under the presidency of Professor H. H. Uh lig - a househo ld name in the corrosion f ield . Over 800 delegates are expected t o attend t hi s Congress at which 220 orig inal techn ica l papers will be presented in person by the authors - over 90% from overseas. Such famous names as Professor M . Pourbaix of Belgium and Dr. H. Buhl of Germany appear among the authors and t he· papers wi ll cover the fo ll owing subject s: Electro-Chemical Processes and Passivity Corrosion Cracki ng Inhibitors Cath odic and A nodic Protect ion Protecti ve Coati ngs - Meta llic and Non-Metall ic High Temperature Oxidatio n Atmospheric Corrosion Marine Corrosion Fresh Water Corrosion Underground Corrosion Biologica l Corrosion Pollution and Corrosion Corrosion in Power Industries Corrosion in Process Indust ries Corrosion in Special Envi ronment s including Sewerage, Concrete and Liquid Metals Corrosion in Non-Meta ll ics - Polymers and Ceram ics Material Selection, Design and Productivity Corrosion Testing Corrosion Education The program has been arranged to all ow ample discussion of papers, pre-pri nted extended extracts of whi ch wi ll be d istr ibu ted to al l reg istrants before t he Congress. Ampl e time will also be allowed for informal discussions and socia l meeting between the delegates, presenting t he opportu nity for estab lishing valu ab le technica l contacts w it h overseas experts to help yo u w ith your corrosion problems. In effect by attendi ng the Congress you wi ll be able to avai l yourse lf of t he techn ical benefits of an overseas study to ur at a fraction of t he expense.

STORM WATER DRAINAGE WITHOUT PIPES· by A. J. Bonham AKC, BSc(Eng), MEngSc, CEng, MICE, MIWE, MIEAust. SUMMARY: Suburban development is frequently located on fairly permeable soil where the topography may be suitable for the drainage of stormwater through grass and other natural ground cover by infiltration to the sub-soil and by overland flow to the natural creeks. A case study is presented of suburban drainage design where it has been possible to eliminate the need for a pipe network system, with cost savings and environmental benefits. INTRODUCTION : Impermeable areas such as roads and carparks are usually designed to drain with the least possible delay through wide inlet structures to large diameter concrete pipes thus preventing even the very temporary local ponding of flood waters. These conventional stormwater pipe systems may cost as much as 20% of the public cost of a suburban development. In steep and moderate I y steep catchments further cost ly probl ems may arise · because t he large diameter pipe storm drainage systems will promote high velocity flow, thereby reducing the time of concentration and consequent ly increasing the instantaneous peak flood discharges downstream. (refs 1 and 2). It must be remembered that the water draining away from the valley was the principle agent of erosion which formed the natural valley environment, and the natural stream channel so formed is stable only under natural stream discharges. The changes in catchment response caused by systems of large stormwater pipes may well destroy the stability of the natural alluvial stream channels further downstream. The destruct ion of these channels may require expensive stabilisation and maintenance works to promote the restoration of a stab le but changed stream regime. In practice it may be difficult to predict in advance the new stream geometry which will remain stab le under a hi storical sequence of greatly increased stormwater discharges after urbanisat ion, and the situation may arise in a steep catchment w here an adequately stable channel cannot be achieved without a complete channel lining and a designed floodptain. ( Refs 3, 4 and 5)

In suitable catchments the urban development may sometimes be designed in such a way that the stormwater response of the catchment to rainfall remains almost the same after urbanisation. When suburban development is at a fiarly low density and when suitable soil and topographical conditions exist then retardation techniques may be used to avoid the need for large stormwater drainage pipes and existing streams will remain stable and may be retained in their existing state. In systems terms this is the minimum disturbance concept so far as storm water drainage is concerned, whereby the minimum change made to disturb the natural hydrologic equilibrium of the stream enivronment requires the minimum of works to restore adequate stab ii ity to the stream regime. CASE STUDY: A comparatively simple and inexpensive so lution to the problem of stormwater drainage has been devised by the writer and his colleagues Laurie Virr architect and James Weirick landscape consultant for the Beagle Bay Housing Society at Beagle Bay north of Broome in Western Australia.

Beagle Bay is about 10 kilometers from the coast in the remote west Kimberly area. The land system to the south consists of an extensive wooded sand plain. To the north are coastal flats with sandy dunes and paperbarks grading to saline muds with mangrove forests in the tidal creeks. The suburban development at Beagle Bay is located in the limited space availab le on an old sand hill, and is partly surrounded by floodplain. The ground surface consists of permeable, fine sand and this material extends down to some depth although in places the sand hill core consists of fine sand mixed with silt and clay and is quite impermeable. The depth of the general ly permeable subsoil is evidenced by the fresh water springs which occur far out in the tidal creek and by the level surface of the ground watertable which flows with a uniform slope. Heavy rainfall is generally conf ined to the humid summer months from October to March and although the level of the watertable may rise only a fraction of a metre this may be sufficient to inundate the low lying flats. The annual rainfall is 725 mm. Much of the existing ground surface is covered with couch grass, and during intense rainfall events the stormwater quickly soaks into the grass and infiltrates through the sand. Where impermeable surfaces exist the stormwater is concentrated by overland flow . This flow then generally runs into the grass and overland unti I the flow is sufficinetly distributed for complete absorbtion by infiltration . During very intense short rainfall events general overland flow may occur over both permeable and impermeable areas but this will happen for only five or 10 minutes once or twice each year. A problem arises where small depressions occur because silt, clay and peaty material may be carried into the surface of the depressions forming small impermeable basins which contain small perched waterables and puddles for pe,haps days after the rainfall has ceased. The control of storrnwater has been effected as shown in the figure which is a d iagramatic cross-section of residential development at Beagle Bay. Impermeable areas have been kept narrow in width and the flow from impermeable areas is dispersed over adjacent permeable areas further





l I









down the slope. The entire urban area is domed in a continuous convex curve to ensure that no low pockets of land exist to attract the collection of silt, clay and peaty material, allowing puddles to form and muddy hollows. The hip roofed buildings are designed without gutters and rain runs directly from the roof onto a low step and is dispersed into the surrounding couch grass turf. The roads and parking areas are genera ll y narrow and with crossfall at the natural slope of the ground so that nof ormation grading is required . The road construct ion consists of stabilised soil with hardened shoulders and a low cost bitumen surface is provided which is roughened especially to retard the overland flow of storm water. Where impermeable areas form a fairly small fraction of the total land area the stormwater drainage will be mainly by infiltration. Where impermeable areas of roofs and road surfaces are concentrated they may cover some 50% of the total land area and overland flow will inevitably occur frequently in these specific locations, over the bitumen and also over the grass. During extreme rainfall events overland flow may reach the nearby floodp lains. A further problem is the need to control the high ground watertable levels, in the wet summer months on the nearby floodplain which is required for a sports oval. This is achieved by the use of a flat vee drainage channel, lined with local couch grass and draining into the nearby tidal creek . This open channel is shown in the figure. COMMENT: It can be seen that the need for an expensive stormwater pipe system has been avoided at Beagle Bay. The need for curbing and guttering to channel away stormwater has also been avoided. Stormwater has been dispersed as widely as possible through the grass and other ground cover thereby mak ing the infiltration process as efficient as possible , and the excess rainfall has been directed through the grass by a long route to retard the runoff by slow overland flow. This will minimise the effect of urbanisation on the peak flood discharges in the creeks further downstream . Stormwater may often contain a high concentration of suspended sediment particles, and it has been shown by Wilson (ref. 6) that suspended sediment may be removed by grass filtration , Wilson found in Arizona that Bermuda grasses were the most effective vegetative filters and removed 90% of the suspended sediment, Austral ian couch grasses are very similar to American Bermuda grass. It can therefore be expected that urban drainage by overland flow through couch grass will remove suspended sediment by grass filtration and also remove the nutrient enrichment which adheres to the suspended sediment particles. Couch grass has the ability to grow up through the vertical accretion and be fertilized by the nutrient enrichment. This will minimise the effect of urbanisation on the water quality in the creeks further down stream , On the debit side a need has been created for hardening of the road shoulc;lers to prevent rutting by vehic les wandering from the road and there is a requirement for the provisions of extensive areas of smooth mown couch grass or other ground cover suitable for armouring the ground surface and retarding the overland flow of stormwater. However, considerable overall savings are shown in the cost of civil engineering works.


Very many suburban streets in fairly low density residential developments are located on permeable subsoil with gentle slopes, in all Australian states, and the methods of street construction and urban stormwater drainage outlined in this paper would show substantial cost economies and environmental benefits. Aesthetic judgements are essentially subjective, but it is believed by the writer that the use of roads and paved areas at grade with the surrounding grassy lawns is greatly to be preferred to the conventional wide suburban streets with curbs, gutters and stormdrains which are generally out of line· and level with the natural slope of the land, The aesthetic benefits to be derived would seem to be most obviously we lcome in sandy coastal locations of high environmental value, such as exist in all states espeically in coastal residential develop'. ments.

REFERENCES 1. Bonham, A, J., "The influence of Alternative Stormwater Drainage Systems on Flood Discharges" Hydrology Symposium Papers, I.E. Aust., Armidale May 1975 pp 188-192. 2. Fitzgerald, 8. J., "A Key Station Approach to Rural and Urban Flood Frequencies in the ACT", Hydrology Symposium Papers, I, E. Aust ,, Armidale May 1975 pp 173-177. 3. Bonham, A. J., "Valley Design in Urban Growth Centres", Water, Journ.

A.W.W.A., Vol. 2, No. 1, March 1975 pp 21-23. 4. Bonham, A. J., "Urban Stormwater Drainage Planning and Environmental Design", Royal Aust. Planning Inst. Journal Vol. 12, No. 3, Ju ly 1974, pp 86-89, 5. Bonham, A. J., "Storm Drainage System Design and New City Planning", Civ, Engg, Trans, I.E. Aust., Vol, C.E . 16, No, 1, 1974, pp 67-70, 6. Wilson, L.G., "Sediment Removal from Flood Water by Grass Filtration" Trans.

American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Vol. 10, No. 1, 1967 pp 35-37. •

TOP CHANGES FOR ROCLA IN AUST. Mr F. J. Brewer will take up the position of Australian operations manager of Recla Industries in October, Mr Brewer was formerly general manager and a director of Recla Pipes Limited, Great Britain . Mr D. A. Timmins will transfer to Britain in September to become general manager of Recla Pipes Limited. Mr Timmins, 33, has been with Recla for nine years and has held the position of marketing services manager at head office, Melbourne, for the last three years. He was previously sales manager for Rocla in New South Wales and works manager, Sydney. Mr Brewer, 47, became general manager and a director of Recla Pipes Limited in 1967 when the company was first established in Britain . His 20-year Recla career includes terms as Australian masales manager, contract manager and assistant Victorian manager,

UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA MASTER STUDIES COURSE A new study program leading to the degree of Master of Environmental Studies has been introduced by the University of Tasmania. The course is designed to extend over two calendar years on a full time basis. Students wi ll study two units in the first year: Population, Prod uct ion and Ecosystems. The remaining unit, Man and his Environment, toget her with a research project wil I comprise the work of the second year. Part-time students may undertake t he degree as a unit-by-unit progression , Many variations are open to part-time students to best meet the needs of their employers, Application for further inforamtion should be made to : The Registrar, Univers-ity of Tasmania.

THE UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE Beginning on 1 February , 1976, the University of Ade laide will offer a new two-year interdisciplinary course of postgraduate study leading to the degree of Master of Environmental Studies. The course wi II be under the direction of Dr. J. R. Hails, The main aim of the course is to present an integrated approach to environ· mental problems so that graduates, regardless of their previous training, can gain a wider knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the environment which will enable them to apply their basic discip lines to the solution of environmenta l problems. During the first year, all students w ill take a general course of lectures, opt iona l and compulsory units, seminars and t utorials covering scientific, socia l and human aspects of, for example, pollution and conservation, environmental psychology, urban and regional planning, eco logical resource management, population distribution and food production, water, energy and mineral resources, and the nature of decision making processes in environmental management. On completion of the first year of the course, the second year will be devoted to research . It is expected that some projects evaluating the managmenet of physical, biological and high ly modified systems will be conducted by two or more graduates from different disciplines, The University will be particularly interested to receive applications from persons holding professional qualifications, including diplomas, in the hope that they will bring to the course a wide diversity of interests in environmental problems, drawing upon their own expertise and training and thereby making a significant contribution to this new interdisciplinary course. Mature students with experience in the Public Service, in commerce or industry are particularly encouraged to apply, although it is stressed that candidates will be selected entirely on their merit, tak ing into account their interest in environmental stud ies. While the closi ng date for app lications of Monday, 14th July, 1975, has passed, interested persons should make contact with The Academic Registrar, The University of Adelaide, Box 498, G.P.O., ADELAIDE, S.A. 5001.

CONFERENCE CALENDAR 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON METALLIC CORROSION Two hundred North Americans have already registered for the 6th International Congress on Metallic Corrosion to be held in Sydney, 3rd-9th December, 1975. The recent North American Corrosion Engineers Annual Meeting of 2500 delegates showed great interest in Australia and a further promotion in Japan has resulted in 40 delegates to date . Two hundred and thirty Scientific contributions from 28 countries will be presented plus six major plenary lecturers, Though scientific, the Congress has much to offer the Architect, Engineer, or persons interested in any practical application of Corrosion Protection or control. Mr Keith Herbert , secretary of the Congress, said that ' diminishing metal resources has given new impetus to the urgency of controlling corrosion, which in Australia alone costs in the region of $600 million annually. For further details and a copy of the registration brochure giving full details of the Conyress and li st of papers to be pre¡ sented write to:

Corrosion Secretary, 6th International Congress on Metallic Corrosion, P.O. Box 391, Darlinghurst, N.S.W. 2010 AUSTRALIA

INTERNATIONAL WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION SECOND WORLD CONGRESS ON WATER RESOURCES . The Second World Congress on Water Resources will be held in New Delhi, India on 12-16 December, 1975. "Water for Human Needs" is the theme of the Congress. The papers contributed for the Congress have been grouped under : Water for Human Needs: Energy Food Health General In the "General" group, the papers deal with various aspects of water resources planning, development, management, technology, ecology, instrumentation, education and information, and meteorology.

REGISTRATION Registration is personal. The participants will be registered at Vigyan Bhavan m 11 December onward. For pre-registration they may fill in and mail the enclosed Form A to: ' C. V . J' Varma Organising Secretary Second World Congress on Water Resources Care: Central Board of Irrigation and Power Kasturba Gandhi Marg New Delhi 110001, India

8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA 17-22 OCTOBER, 1976 SPONSORS Elec. Commission of NSW A.W.W.A. Hematite Petroleum. Vic. Government of Aust. Humes Ltd., Vic. Government of N.S.W. Electrolux, Vic. Government of Sth. Aust . Shell Oil (Aust.) Sydney Water of Board Aust. Paper Mills Melb. Board of Works Brambles Industries E. & W.S. Adelaide Wallace & Tiernan Brisbane City Council I.C .I. (Aust .) Newcastle Water Board Petroleum Information Bureau Broken Hill Water Board Qantas Perth Water Board T .A.A. S.E.C., Vic. SOCIAL PROGRAMME The social programme wil I include events crateri ng both for delegates as well as for those who accompany them¡- the ladies will be especially provided for to make Conference week a memorable experience. STUDY TOURS A sp~ial selection of study tours or technical inspections will be made available to all delegates. Post Conference Continuing Education Seminars are to be held in Melbourne. SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME 1. Chemical Uuality Standards and their Determination. 2. Biological Monitoring Parameters and their Characteri zation. 3. Public Health Aspects, Virology, Disinfection. 4. Biocides, Pollutant Accumulation in Macro-o rganisms. 5. Fish Studies . 6. Stream Analysis - Modelling - River Management . 7. Eutrophication - Chemical and Biological Aspects. 8. Marine Ecology. 9. Estuarine Pollution - Surveys. 10. Pipeline Disposal to Sea. 11. Pollution from Oil and Offshore Materials Resources Development. 12. Groundwater Quality Studies. 13. Sewerage overlows, Storm Water Storage and Treatment. 14. Sedimentation, Sludge Characteristics and Thickening. 15. Sludge : Dewater ing, Incineration, Land Disposal. 16. Anaerobic Processes, Digestion, Septic Tanks. 17. Practical Aspects of activated sludge process, Nitrification, Denitrification, simultaneous phosphorus removal. 18. Aeration Systems, Oxy(len plants. 19. Trickling Filter, High rate plastic media, rotary discs. 20. Advanced Wastewater treatment, Physicochemical Processes, case studies of operation. 21. Large Treatment Plants. 22. Small Treatment Plants, Rural problems, Land Treatment, Lagoons, Transient population communities . 23 . Industrial Wastes - Farm, Agricultural, Food Process. 24. Industrial Wastes - Petrochemical, Syn th etic Organics, Paper pulp. Toxicants Non 25. Industrial Wastes Inorganic Biodegradable. 26. Water Quality Network Control. 27. Miscellaneous - Papers of Wide General interest not covered within above Specific Categories. The Conference will arrange two streams of concurrent technical sessions on each of eight half days as well as a Reception at the Sydney Opera House, and Opening and Closing Ceremonies at the Wentworth Hotel. Simultaneous interpretation in Eng li sh, German and French will be provided. Included are T ech nical Tours, Workshop Sessions and Panel Discussions with World Spec ialists. Authors must submit papers by September 15. 1975 in accordance with the Rules for Submission of Papers. CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT Enquiries concerning the 8th Conference may be addressed to : 1.A.W.P.R. 8th International Conference G.P .O. Box 2609, Sydney. 2001. Australia Cables to "Conventions". Sydney, telephone: (cod e 27-6940.



. .. -- NEW PRODUCTS AND PROJECTS M/P FLOW TRANSMITTER (a metering pump output transmitter) The Wallace & Tiernan M/P Flow Transmitter, Type EA47-100 is a variable area liquid meter that can hand le pu lsating flows. It gives a continuous non-inferential measurement of actual flow through the pump. It converts this flow to a proportional mA de signal in a separate demodulator. Its input is the pump delivery; its output is a 1-5, 4-20, or 10-50 mA de signal. One body size accommodates all capacities. There are five interchangeable stemand-orifice comb inations to give five maxi·m um capacity increments. These are 250-350, 350-625, 625-1500, 1500-3000, 3000-5000 gpd. The unit is capable of being spanned for any value within a capacity increment . Once spanned, the unit will measure flows over a 10 : 1 range for that capacity. The M/P Flow Transmitter can be used with single-or double-head pumps with pulsating rates between 12 and 390 pulses per minute. It is installed in and supported by the suction piping. Wetted parts are made of type I grade I PVC. Easy access to· zero and span adj ustments make fie ld ca libration of this unit a simple operation. Zero and span adjustments let the unit accommodate a wide range of fluid viscosit ies and densities. Good range and linearity are obtained for many liquids with specific gravity other than one when their characteristics remain resonab ly constant. The transmitter can handle a wide range of chemical solutions and slurries.


OIL SPILL DETECTION SYSTEMS Now released in Australia, is the range of Durham Oil Detection Buoys and Alarm Systems marketed by Tecalemit (Australasia ) Pty Limited. These systems have applications in harbours and ports, drainage canals, etc., for fast detection of spilled oil. The detector membrane is specifically designed so that it is both hydro-phobic and lip-philic. This means that water is repelled from the membrane and oil passes through. Once the oi I has passed through the mesh , it flows into a storage receptacle and is detected by means of a float activated · switch. The Alarm is transmitted by cable to the monitor. The Alarm threshold is about eight mis of collected sample and is preset. When this quantity has been accumu lated , the monitor registers an alarm. Power supply for the monitor is 110-220v, 50-60Hz. Range of the radio transmitter if used is up to 25 miles. Full details can be obtained from Tecalemit (Australasia) Pty Limited, Sheffield Street, Woodville North, South Australia 5012, and branch offices in Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne.


ferrous su lfate fluosilicic acid glycerine lime slurries nitr ic acid organic polymers organic biocides








Enquiries: Wallace and Tiernen Pty. Ltd., 89 Reserve Road, Artarmen, N.S.W. 2069.

A flowmeter using so nic principles has been developed to measure the rate and volume of any "pumpable" liquid, including fluids heavily laden with sed iment and grease. It can be used as portable test equipment or can be permanently installed and equipped with an automatic wiper assembly to keep it free of rags, grease or other obstructions. A slender, cylinderical acoustic probe is inserted into the pipe or stream. The probe em its sound waves, which bounce back from sediment or turbulence in the moving stream of fluid and is captured by a sensor on the probe. Price of the flowmeter ranges from US$3,300 to $11,000. Contact EDO Corporation, 13-10, 111th Street, College Point, N.Y. 11356. 0



At Manakua Harbour, New Zealand, the Auckland Regional Authority is solving a severe pollution threat with the aid of plastics. At its Mangere Sewerage Treatment Plant more than 130 million Hoechst plastic· filtering media in the , world's largest fixed growth reactors will form domiciles and breeding grounds for billions of microorganisms that feed on organic sewage waste reconstituting stabi lsing and finally purifying it.

ferric ch loride ferric sulfate

crhomates diatomaceous earth slurries ethylene glycol

Used in BOD and Temp test too. The Model 1010 DO Meter has dual purpose probe to quickly and accurately measure dissolved oxygen as well as temperature. This greatly reduces time and trouble of making measurements when doing 5-day BOD tests. It comp letely eliminates tedious Winker! titrations in the laboratory and can be used for instand D/T tests in aeration tanks, waste effluents and streams. [ Model 1010 covers the full 0- 15 mg/1 scale and -5 to +50°C with 1% accuracy. The novel cable windup plate detaches to permit the probe to be easi ly flushed clean. Fur further information , please co ntact: JOHN MORRIS PTY. LIMITED, CHATSWOOD, NSW 2067 Phone: 407-0206


M/P Flow Transmitters give excellent results with such chemicals as: acetic acid alum boric acid carbon slurries caustic soda


Kent Instruments (Australia) Pty. Ltd. have been awarded the contract to supply the instrumentation and control system for Stage 11 of the Hunter District Water Board's Grahamstown Water Treatment Works now being built at Tomago, 15 km north of Newcastle, N.S.W. When completed, Stage II will double the treatment capac ity of the Grahamstown works and will make availab le a further 35 million gallons of water a day to the City of Newcastle and its surrounding district. Kent instrumentation was also chosen for Stage I of the Grahamstown Treatment Works which went into service in 1970. In order to maintain uniformity throughout the whole works and to min im ise· servicing and spare-parts stock holding problems, the instrumentation being supplied by Kent for Stage II is, in general, the same type as that supplied for Stage I. However, where technological progress or operational experience has dictated that different equipment be used on Stage 11, the correspondi ng equ ipment on Stage I will be updated.

The control system being supplied by Kent utilizes the Kent-Tieghi Minimec 2 range of miniature pneumatic recorder/ controllers, integrators and indicators work ing in conjunction with field-mounted Kent Deltapi N-Series pneumatic transmitters -for variables such as flow level etc. Flow measuring primary elements include Kent Dall tubes and inserts and Kent Veriflux magnetic flowmeters - all of which are being manufactured at the Kent, Caringbah, llJ .S.W. plant. Other instrumentation includes FosterCambridge Clearspan P120L electronic records, E.I.L. Model 2836 pH monitors and Kent pulse-to-pneumatic and pneumatic-toelectronic converters. For further information please contact: Mr D. J. Rickard, Kent Instruments (Australia) Pty Ltd, 70-78 Box Road (P.O. Box 333), Caringbah, N.S.W . 2229.



A problem frequently encountered in the measurement of water pollution is that the impurities to be determined are present in extremely low concentrations whi le the water also contains numerous other pollutants. This makes direct determ¡ination al most impossible. Liquid-liquid extraction is one means which can be adopted to obtain the impurity in a more concentrated form in another solvent. So far as the monitoring of water is concerned, there is a growing need to automate the extraction process. Conventional automated extractors, however, are usually found to operate optimally with only one particular extraction medium . It is therefore impossible to effect all the desired extraction processes with a single test apparatus. A universal liquid-liquid extractor has now been successfully developed in the Philips Research Laboratories at Eindhoven, the Netherlands. In th is extractor elongated, droplets of water separated from each other by columns of the extraction solvent are forced through a narrow tube, while there is also a very thin film of the extraction liquid between the droplets and the wall of the tube. The two liquids are thus brought into intimate contact while firction against the wall gives rise to vigorous internal stirring in the drops and the co lumns. The two effects combined lead to optimum extraction, whatever the pair of liquids chosen.


I enclose herewith the sume of $ . . . . . . (Australian) as repayment for supply of the following issues of 'WATER' March





Note: All subscriptions conclude with the December issue, renewals are due by the end of February for a full year's subscription. Price, including surface mail to all countries, is $1.00 (Aust.) each issue, made payable to the A.W.W.A. - 'WATER'.


Name ........................................ ...... . Address ............................................ .

................................................... Mail this form to: John Craig, 'Water', Box 100, Caulfield East, 3145, Victoria, Australia.

A.W.W.A. MEMBERSHIP Request for Application Form for Membership of the Association To the Hon. Secretary, Australian Water & Wastewater Assoc., Mr. R.F. Goldfinch, P.O. Box 359, Canberra City, A.C.T., 2601

I, ................................................. . (Name)

Of, ................................................ .

(Address) do hereby request an application form for membership in your Association.

Membership is in four categories. 1. Member - qualifications suitable for membership in the Inst. of Engineers, or other suitable professional bodies. 2. Associate - experience in the W. & W.W. Industry, without formal qualifications. 3. Student. 4. Sustaining Member - an organisation involved in the W. & W.W. Industry wishing to sustain the Association. 23

Reliable and Rapid Detection of Bacteria Sartorius membrane filter methods have been adopted in many countries as the standard method for the detection of bacteria .


Sartorius supply nutrient pads, nutrient media and other equipment for bacteriological controls and microbiological testing in research and quality control laboratories

Please contact Se/bys for a catalogue and any further information.


Sartorius Membranfilter















¡ donkin Frontrunners in gas compression and control

Two major Australian public authorities recently chose Bryan Donkin compressors for their new sewage treatment plants. The equipment is being installed at the South Eastern Purification Plant of the M.M.B.W. at Carrum, Victoria and the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre of the National Capital Development Commission in the A.C.T.

acked by over a hundred years of manufacturing experience, the Bryan Donkin Company is dedicated to continued development of ga, handling technology. For more information, contact the Australian machinery age.its Hawker Siddeley Brush Pty. Ltd.


VIC. 262-284 Heidelberg Road , Fairfield , 3078 . Tel. 489 2 511 . N .S .W. 12 Frederick Street , St. Leonards, 2085 . Tel. 4398444. QLD. 193 Mary Street, Brisbane , 4000 . Tel. 21'2926. W.A . 113 Kew Street , Welshpool , 6106 . Tel. 61 7944 . Hawker Slddelev Group supplies mechanical, electrical and aerospace equipment with world-wide sales and service.


6009 HSBD

If clean water is an essential part of your process pl ant .. . or the economic separation of suspended, entrained or dissolved material s such as chemi cals, minerals, oi Is, sp irits, etc .... then you need the spec ialised skills and equ ipment available from Permutit. De-ionisers/ Filters Reverse osmosis



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Nobody treats water more cleanly than Permutit!

IPERMUTITI The Permutit Company of Austra lia Pty. Ltd. A subsidiary of The Permutit Company Ltd., England, A member of The Porta ls Group.

Cnr. Wattl e Road and Short Street, Brookvale, N.S.W. 2100. Telephone : 93-0311. Telex : AA24742. Cables : Thepermutit, Sydney . P.O. Box 117, Brookvale, N.S.W., Austra lia, 21 00. 44 Koornang Road, SCORESBY, Victor ia. 3179 Te lephone: 763-8988 Telex: 31868

Permutit treats



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SOLVING A PROBLEM "ON THE NOSE" Tannery wastewater effluent is an odorous problem with high organic suspensions. The illustration shows the pretreatment stage of the overal I system designed to produce a final water acceptable to both Air Pollution and Water Pollution Authorities.


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Water Journal September 1975  

Water Journal September 1975