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WWW.ACBR.COM.AU • MAY 2018 • ISSUE 07

2018年五月 · 第7期

Call to business Get on board with Belt and Road Page 14 投袂而起

参与“一带一路”建设 第14页

Building for success Benefits to flow from Far East’s projects Page 6 构筑未来

获益于远东项目 第6页

China on world stage Analysis and opinion from our experts Starts, page 34 世界舞台上的雄狮

共享权威人士的解析与箴言 第34页起

Rod Jones StudyPerth chairman Photo: Philip Gostelow 罗德·琼斯 StudyPerth主席 照片:Philip Gostelow

Higher education Industry pioneer Rod Jones leads international effort

言传身教

行业先锋罗德·琼斯领航国际合作


CONTENTS | 目录

contents 目录

10

6

Cover story | 封面故事

10 Industry pioneer Rod Jones targets new era in education

行业先锋罗德·琼斯瞄准教育领域新时代

From the editor’s desk | 主编的话 4

Australia can’t afford to miss out on Belt and Road 错失“一带一路” ,澳大利亚将得不偿失

News | 新闻

14 Call to business – get on board China’s Belt and Road

投袂而起-加入中国′一带一路′建设

24 China’s small-town kids come out to play 2

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

中国小城镇年轻人的影响力


目录

| CONTENTS

20 30 Property | 地产 6

Opinion | 观点

If you build it, they will come

28 Big duo reshaping bricks and mortar retail

酒店建成,自有客来

Tourism | 旅游

34 New attitude and approach to China needed

20 Chinese tourism hits new heights, but is business ready?

中国游客数量节节高升,可我们的生意场准 备好了吗?

Technology | 科技

30 China programs to lead rise of the robots

双巨头重塑实体零售业

中国引领机器人崛起计划

接近中国的捷径-全新的态度与措失

36 Maritime push on greenhouse emissions

海洋行业推动温室气体减排

38 Business has eye on calmer waters

企业发展需静水流深

40 Drive for a more sustainable future

推动更加可持续性的未来

32 It’s well documented – Perth’s Docmosis on world stage

言之凿凿 —— 在世界舞台上的珀斯Docmosis公司

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2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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Publisher DDK IN THE ZONE PTY LTD trading as Australia China Business Review Editor in chief Dan Wilkie

主编: 丹•威尔基

E: dan.wilkie@acbr.com.au

from the

Managing director Ken Meng

董事总经理: 孟敬亭

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Disclaimer While all care has been taken to ensure the information included in this publication is accurate and has come from sources deemed to be reliable, Australia China Business Review takes no responsibility, unless expressly indicated, for any inaccuracies. Inclusion of opinions, statements and comments does not constitute endorsement by Australia China Business Review. Content within this publication is protected by Australian copyright law and may not be reproduced without express written permission by Australia China Business Review. 免责声明: Australia China Business Review已经采取所有措施来确保本刊 物所包含的信息是准确的,而且是来自 确认可靠的消息来源,除非明确指出,对 于任何不准确的信息Australia China Business Review 不负任何责任。刊物 中意见、声明和评论不代表 Australia China Business Review 立场。 本刊 物的内容受澳大利亚版权法保护,未经 Australia China Business Review 的书面许可,不得转载 4

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

DAN WILKIE | 丹·威尔基

错失“一带一路

Australia can’t FROM an Australian perspective, it is easy to understand scepticism, misunderstanding and questioning of a trillion-dollar infrastructure plan that stretches over decades, not years. With federal elections held every three years, the Australian political system simply is not designed to handle the scale of major, game-changing projects such as what China has proposed through its Belt and Road Initiative. While China has its five-year plans, President Xi Jinping has ensured his grip on power won’t be released any time soon, allowing him the political leeway to commit to long-term nation building at a level far surpassing the ability of any Australian prime minister. And with Australia being the sole country on its continent, there’s also no potential for international engagement on mega projects like what China is doing on Belt and Road. Adding to that lack of familiarity with projects of the scale of Belt and Road, is the fact that Australia’s long-term strategic and security relationship is with the United States. With China’s status as Australia’s biggest trading partner, and the country’s economic prosperity inextricably linked to the People’s Republic, the federal government has been faced with the challenge of how to balance growing tension between its two most significant allies. Looking forward, it is becoming clear that Australian business simply cannot afford to be complacent and wait for the government to act on Belt and Road. The resources industry is expected to get a natural boost in demand from the mammoth initiative, however, the whole point of Belt and Road is to enhance connectivity between the countries involved. One potential outcome is that iron ore miners with deposits in locations such as Africa


主编的话

| FROM THE EDITOR’S DESK

editor’s desk 主编的话

路”,澳大利亚将得不偿失

t afford to miss out on Belt and Road or Kazakhstan could become more attractive trading partners for Chinese steel manufacturers than the Australian miners, which operate in a much higher-cost environment than their potential competitors. In the services sector, many European countries have already launched comprehensive delegations, particularly in the areas of finance and law, areas in which Australian companies have significant capability, as well as operational experience in the region. Chinese enterprises have already awarded more than 1,800 Belt and Road-related contracts in 61 countries, valued at more than $US32 billion ($42.5 billion). If business keeps waiting for government to react, China’s opportunity of a century may just pass Australia by. Building on existing relationships with China and seeking out new collaborative opportunities would seem the only way to ensure Australia is not left behind on Belt and Road, which after five years is rapidly transitioning from vision to reality. While Australian business may prefer to wait for government guidance on the initiative, it would seem the economy would be better served by embracing the opportunities that are available without waiting for an official green light.

对澳大利亚而言,若一项万亿美元的基建项 目持续数十年,而非短短几年,这难免会引 起澳大利亚怀疑、误解、甚或是质疑。 澳大利亚联邦选举每三年就会举行一次, 而中国“一带一路”倡议提出的项目规模巨 大,足以改变一场博弈,难以与澳政治体制 相吻合。

然而在中国,主席选举五年一次,习主席长 期拥有话语权,在政治上有足够回旋的余 地,可以长期进行国家建设。这些能力,澳总 理只能望其项背。 同时,澳大利亚作为大洋洲唯一的大国,不 可能像中国一样在国际社会发起“一带一 路”这样大型的项目。

一方面,澳大利亚对“一带一路”缺乏认识, 另一方面,澳美之间长期战略安全关系相 互牵绊。 中国是澳大利亚最大的贸易伙伴,而且澳大 利亚经济的繁荣发展与中国密不可分,联邦 政府一直面临着如何平衡其两个最重要盟 友之间日益紧张关系的挑战。 展望未来,显而易见,澳大利亚企业不能故 步自封,不能等待政府在“一带一路”上采 取行动。

中得到更多需求,然而, “ 一带一路”重点在 于加强沿线国家之间的联系。

在非洲或哈萨克斯坦等地拥有矿藏的铁矿 石生产商,与澳大利亚矿业公司相比,可能 会成为对中国钢铁制造商更有吸引力的贸 易伙伴,因为澳大利亚企业拥有非常显著的 优势,以及在亚洲区丰富的运营经验。 中国企业已在61个国家中签署超过1,800 份“一带一路”相关合同,总价值超过320亿 美元。

如果企业一直等待政府行动再做出反应,那 么这个百年一遇的机会可能就会和澳大利 亚擦肩而过。

在现有的对华关系基础上,寻求新的合作机 会,似乎是确保澳大利亚不会在“一带一路” 上落后的唯一途径,五年后这一倡议将迅速 从构想转换成现实。 虽然澳大利亚企业可能更愿意等待政府在 该倡议上给出指导,但是如果它们不等待官 方批准,而是抓住现有的机会,似乎能更好 地服务于经济。

能源行业预计将自然地从这一庞大的倡议

It would seem the economy would be better served by embracing the opportunities that are available without waiting for an official green light 要想经济发展,切勿坐等官方开道, 自己抓住机遇才是王道。

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2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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PROPERTY | 地产

If you build it, they will come Dan Wilkie FAR East Consortium expects its Western Australian activities to provide a welcome boost to the state’s tourism and education sectors, as the development giant progresses up to five inner-city projects highlighted by its $500 million Ritz-Carlton build at Elizabeth Quay. After having operated in Australia since the early 1990s, Hong Kong-headquartered Far East Consortium made a grand entrance to the Perth property market in 2014, when it announced it was bringing the ultra-luxurious Ritz-Carlton hotel chain to Elizabeth Quay. Along with the Ritz-Carlton, and its two associated luxury apartment towers, Far East Consortium was more recently been selected by the state government to develop five lots at Perth City Link. Plans are in motion to develop a Dorsett Hotel, several apartment towers and a student accommodation project at the City Link land, with the company taking a precinct approach to the projects. The developments, part of an international 6

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

pipeline worth $HK47.2 billion ($7.98 billion), are in line with Far East Consortium’s overarching strategy of “targeting Chinese wallets” in each of the regions it operates in globally. Far East Consortium WA manager Dan Sweet told Australia China Business Review that reintroducing the Ritz-Carlton brand to Australia after a 15-year absence was a coup for Perth, and that the project would emerge as a key attraction for Chinese travellers. “Ritz-Carlton has got great brand awareness in China, particularly southern China and Hong Kong, so we thought it was a great opportunity to be the catalyst for inbound Chinese tourism, which as a group we try to capture and be a part of,” Mr Sweet said. “Chinese travellers are brand loyal and, if they feel comfortable and familiar, they will stay there. “With the Ritz-Carlton for instance, they have extreme brand loyalty. Someone may choose to go to Perth because they see it’s got a new Ritz-Carlton, rather than stay at the Ritz-Carlton because they are going to Perth. “That’s really interesting, you’ve got these

Ritz-Carlton junkies that will travel around the world, purely staying and holidaying in locations where there is a new Ritz-Carlton.” Far East Consortium had originally planned to build and sell the Perth Ritz-Carlton, appointing commercial agency JLL to run an international sales campaign in late 2016. While the campaign attracted several offers, Mr Sweet said the group decided to keep the hotel in its portfolio, which includes three other Ritz-Carlton properties either under construction or in the planning process in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane.

NEW FACE The under-construction RitzCarlton is expected to deliver a new wave of Chinese tourists to Western Australia. Photo: Philip Gostelow 崭新面貌 在建的丽思卡尔顿酒店预计将为 西澳大利亚带来新一波的中国游客。照片: 菲利普·葛斯特罗


地产

| PROPERTY

Someone may choose to go to Perth because they see it’s got a new Ritz-Carlton, rather than stay at the Ritz-Carlton because they are going to Perth – Dan Sweet

有的人发现珀斯开了一家新的丽思卡尔顿酒店而选择去那里, 但他们不会因为要去珀斯就留在丽思卡尔顿。——丹·斯威特。

酒店建成,自有客来 丹·威尔基

远东财团预计,其西澳大利亚的活动将推 动该国的旅游业和教育业的发展。因为该 公司在伊丽莎白码头修建的5亿美元丽思 卡尔顿酒店的建设项目促进了五个内城 项目的发展。

20世纪90年代早期,总部位于香港的远 东发展有限公司将业务拓展至澳大利 亚。2014年,该公司宣布将在伊丽莎白码 头营建顶级豪华的丽兹卡尔顿连锁酒店, 自此,该公司开始在珀斯房地产市场大显 身手。 除了丽兹卡尔顿连锁酒店以及两座相关 的豪华公寓大楼之外,远东发展有限公司 最近还被州政府选中开发珀斯City Link 项目中的五处地段。 计划包括在City Link项目的土地上开发 一家多赛特酒店、几栋公寓大楼和一栋学 生住宿楼,公司将对整个项目采取分区管 理的方式。

作为价值472亿港元(79.8亿美元)的国际 销售管道的一部分,该项发展计划符合远 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

东发展有限公司在其全球运营区域内的“ 针对中国财富”的总体战略。

远东财团西澳大利亚分公司的经理丹·斯 威特在接受《澳中商讯》采访时表示,离澳 15年后,将丽思卡尔顿品牌重新引入澳大 利亚,对珀斯来说是个绝妙之举,而该项 目也将成为吸引中国游客的主要因素。

“丽思卡尔顿在中国,特别是华南地区和 香港,拥有非常高的品牌知名度,由此我 们认定,这正是个绝佳的机会使其成为中 国入境旅游的催化剂,而中国游客正是我 们努力想抓住并融入的群体,”斯威特先 生说。 “中国游客的品牌忠诚度较高,如果他们 感觉舒服又熟悉,他们就会留下。

“以丽思卡尔顿为例,他们对这个品牌的 忠诚度就极高。有的人可能因为发现珀斯 开了一家新的丽思卡尔顿酒店而选择去 那里,但他们不会因为要去珀斯就留在丽 思卡尔顿。 “很有趣得是有许多丽思卡尔顿酒店迷游 遍世界只为了入住新开的丽思卡尔顿。”

远东发展曾于2016年末计划建成售卖珀 斯丽思卡尔顿,并委任仲量联行面向全球 售卖。

“虽然当时已吸引到好几个买家”,斯威 特先生说道, “最终集团还是决定将酒店 作为投资组合中的一员与其他三座在墨 尔本、悉尼和布里斯班在建或规划中的丽 思卡尔顿一同保留。”

据斯威特先生所言,珀斯丽思卡尔顿酒店 的保留同Perth City Link项目中帝盛酒 店的开发,不仅是对西澳大利亚地产市场 基础充满信心的体现,也是看好旅游业发 展潜力的体现。

“我们认为珀斯越来越受欢迎,这里与 众不同,可提供优质产品。”斯威特先生 表示,

“我们想通过明智的投资来获取一些项 目,但是很显然这离不开政府继续进行营 销并支持商远东发展以及BGC公司,这些 公司曾是威斯汀的建造商。 ”在珀斯建造酒店的这些人信任珀斯官方 可以给予的支持,但是政府亟需提高其推 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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PROPERTY | 地产

Mr Sweet said the retention of the Perth Ritz-Carlton, alongside the development of the Dorsett property at Perth City Link, was a show of confidence in the fundamentals of not only the WA property market, but also the potential of its tourism sector. “We see Perth becoming a really popular location and having points of difference, and a great product to offer,” Mr Sweet said. “We want to invest our money wisely to capture some of that, but obviously it’s super important that government continues to market and advertise and support people like Far East and BGC, who have built The Westin. “People who are building hotels in Perth believe in what Perth has to offer, but government really needs to be effective in the way they market WA, because in China it’s all about Sydney and Melbourne. “If Perth is going to be successful, then we really need to get out there and push that message.” The student accommodation component of Far East Consortium’s City Link developments is also designed to lift Perth’s profile in the international education sector. 8

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

Over the five lots it has been selected to develop, Far East Consortium is planning to build between 700 and 1,000 apartments and retail amenities, including a supermarket and several hospitality offerings. Those developments will be alongside a 550bed student accommodation facility, which Far East Consortium is developing in partnership with Brisbane-based Cedar Pacific. Student accommodation is an emerging asset class in Perth property, as developers seek to fill a gap in WA’s international education market by creating inner-city properties where students prefer to stay. Local developer Stirling Capital is building a 571-bed, 24-storey student tower on Stirling Street, near Gaw Capital Partners’ 500-bed repurposing of the former Telstra headquarters into student housing. Another student accommodation tower has been approved to be built on Wellington Street, a 713-bed, 30-storey proposal by listed investment company Blue Sky. Curtin University is also planning to construct up to 1,000 new student beds at its

Bentley campus, further diversifying the upcoming options for student housing. Mr Sweet said despite the looming competition, student accommodation at City Link would be a vibrant addition to the upcoming precinct. “We saw the opportunity there to build something, own it and run it,” he said. “It will activate the restaurants and the bars and the cafes, but also it’s an emerging asset class in Perth. “If I’m frank, we’re a long way behind Sydney and Melbourne in terms of international students but it’s something we see increasing and something that we’d like to foster. “In terms of it being an emerging area in Perth, it’s also untested, so it’s a little bit scary, but we think by having a hotel next door, apartments, restaurants and cafes, it will be a very safe and vibrant area for students to live, so it just makes sense to us to add it into the mix. “Also, Far East Consortium has got a really healthy balance sheet so we’re able to do these things and take a risk where we see a return and an opportunity.”


地产

MISSING LINK A diverse residential precinct has been proposed in Perth’s inner city. Image: Far East Consortium 相得益彰 在珀斯的市中心拟建一个多样化 的居住区域。图片:远东发展 广西澳大利亚州的有效性,因为中国所了 解的到的只有悉尼和墨尔本。

如果珀斯正在飞速发展走向成功,那么我 们真的需要走出来并告诉世界这个消息。 远东发展的City Link项目中的学生住宿 部分也是为了提升珀斯在国际教育行业 中的形象。

远东发展计划在它被选中开发的五块地 段中建设700-1000套公寓和零售设施,包 括一家超市和几家休闲饮食零售店。 这些项目将与550个床位的学生宿舍项目 同时进行,该学生宿舍是远东发展与布里 斯班的雪松太平洋(Cedar Pacific)公司 合作开发的。 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

学生宿舍是珀斯的一种新兴资产,开发商 们为了填补西澳大利亚州的国际教育市 场的空白,开始在学生喜欢住的市中心兴 建房产。 当地开发商斯特灵资本(Stirling Capital)正在斯特灵街(Stirling Street)建造一栋24层的学生宿舍楼,可 提供571个床位。该楼靠近原澳大利亚电 讯公司总部,基汇资本提议将前总部大楼 改建为提供500床位的学生住宅。 另一个获得批准建造的学生住宿楼位于 威灵顿街(Wellington Street),是由上 市投资公司蓝天公司(Blue Sky)提议建 造的,共30层,可提供713个床位。

科廷大学也计划在其本特利校区新增加 1000个学生床位,进一步丰富学生住宿选 择的多样性。 斯威特先生说: “尽管竞争越来越激 烈,City Link项目中的学生宿舍在未来 的区域也是十分活跃的组成部分。

“这是一个机会,我们要去建造些什么, 拥有它、经营它。”他说。

| PROPERTY

“这将促进餐馆、酒吧和咖啡馆的发展, 同时这也是珀斯的一种新型资产。

“坦白说,在国际学生方面我们已经比悉 尼和墨尔本落后很多了,但我们正在努 力,也愿意对此心怀希望。”

“作为珀斯的新兴产业,这个项目未曾经 过检验,因此对此会有些未知的恐惧。但 我们相信,地处旅馆附近,有公寓、餐馆 和咖啡馆林立周围,这里对学生来说很安 全,也充满活力。所以我们将该项目加入 其发展队伍是个明智的决定。” 同时,远东发展的资产负债表表现良好, 所以我们有能力做这些,为我们所看到的 回报和机遇冒一次险。

MARKETS Far East Consortium’s Dorsett Hotel will be targeted at both business and leisure travellers. Image: Far East Consortium 精准定位 远东发展的多塞特酒店的客户 目标将定位于商务人士及游客。图片:远东 发展 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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COVER STORY | 封面故事

行业先锋罗德·琼斯 瞄准教育领域新时代

Industry pioneer Rod Jones targets new era in education

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AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯


封面故事

| COVER STORY

Dan Wilkie INSTEAD of riding off into the sunset after building a billion-dollar juggernaut, international education pioneer Rod Jones is embracing one of his biggest professional challenges. In June, Mr Jones will transition from running global education group Navitas, which was named by Forbes in 2014 as one of the world’s top 25 most innovative growth companies, to become chairman of StudyPerth, a Western Australian government-backed entity entrusted with reversing an alarming trend of falling international student numbers. At the same time international education has become a boon for eastern states economies, with the most up to date data indicating 2017 was a record year for the sector nationally, WA recorded its lowest number of foreign students since 2014. Data from the Department of Education and Training showed enrolments by foreign students in WA fell by 3.5 per cent in 2017, while rising by 12.6 per cent in Queensland 10.8 per cent in New South Wales and 7.1 per cent in Victoria over the same period. Despite the overall fall, the number of Chinese student enrolments in WA rose by around 700 in 2017 to 5,811. However, the numbers were a stark contrast to Chinese enrolments in NSW, which increased by more than 10,000 to 62,395. Mr Jones said one of the contributing factors to the low level of Chinese students choosing WA was the lack of a coordinated approach by the state’s educational institutions. “They’ve been each out trying to do their own thing, and I think there’s been a recognition that these institutions working together to promote this state is an extremely important way in assisting to turn around the situation we’ve got at the moment, where students are basically not coming here,” Mr Jones told Australia China Business Review. “You can see evidence of that in what has happened in other states, Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland all have very strong policies around the attraction of international students and have been prepared to fund it.

丹·威尔基

革故鼎新-国际教育先驱罗德·琼斯正在 迎接最大的职业挑战之一,而不是在建造 了一个价值10亿美元的商业巨头后日渐 式微。

今年6月,琼斯先生的身份将从经营全球 教育集团纳维教育集团(Navitas)向西澳 政府教育推广署主席过渡,纳维教育集团 在2014年被《福布斯》评为世界最有创意 的25家成长型企业之一,而西澳政府教育 推广署是西澳大利亚政府支持的机构,琼 斯先生担任该机构主席是临危受命,致力 于扭转国际留学生人数下降的惊险走势。 澳洲政府教育培训部的数据显示,2017 年西澳大利亚外国留学生的入学人数下 降了3.5%,而同一时期,昆士兰州的留 学生人数增加了12.6%,新南威尔士州 和维多利亚州的留学生人数分别增长了 10.8%和7.1%。

尽管留学生人数总体下降,但2017年西澳 大利亚的中国留学生入学人数增加了约 700人,增至5,811人。 然而,这些数字与新南威尔士大学的中国 留学生入学人数形成了鲜明对比,其入学 人数增加了1万多人,增至62,395人。

琼斯先生表示,选择西澳大利亚的中国留 学生人数较少,原因之一是州教育机构之 间缺乏协调方案。

“一直以来,他们各自都在尽力做自己的 事情,我认为,我们已经认识到,这些教育 机构合力推进本州发展,是帮助扭转当前 形势的一个至关重要的办法,现在学生基 本上不来西澳大利亚留学,”琼斯先生告诉 《澳中商讯》记者。 “其他州的情况可以证实这点,维多利 亚、南澳大利亚、新南威尔士州和昆士兰 州拥有强有力的政策来吸引留学生,并已 准备为其提供资金。

“在这些州中,各州每年的资金总额在 2,000万澳元到3,000万澳元之间,因此这 些州提供大量资金来支持国际教育产业。 “事实上,维多利亚州的国际教育是该州 最大的出口收入来源,而且在新南威尔士 和昆士兰,国际教育也创造了巨大的附加 价值。 即使是在南澳大利亚,在人均留学生人 数上,他们能和更高重量级的州进行竞 争,而西澳大利亚比我们的人群少大约 3-4%。

LEADER Rod Jones has played a key role in attracting thousands of international students to Australian universities. Photo: Philip Gostelow

PRESTIGE The University of Western Australia’s ranking among the top 100 institutions worldwide is testament to the quality of educational facilities in the state. Photo: Shutterstock.com

一马当先-罗德·琼斯在吸引成千上万的留学 生到澳大利亚的大学留学上发挥了关键作 用。照片:菲利普•葛斯特罗

誉满全球-西澳大学在全球排名前100,这是 该州教育设施质量的有力证明。照片:矢量 图库(Shutterstock)

WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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COVER STORY | 封面故事 INNOVATOR One of Rod Jones’ first strategies at StudyPerth will be to establish a new funding model for international education marketing. Photo: Philip Gostelow 开山鼻祖-罗德·琼斯在西澳政府教育推广 署提出的第一个策略是为国际教育营销建 立一个新的融资模式。照片:菲利普•葛斯 特罗。

“The funding in general has been between $20 million and $30 million each year in each of those states, so there is significant money being put in by the states to support the international education industry. “In fact, international education in Victoria is the largest export earner for that state, and it’s a huge value add also in New South Wales and Queensland. “Even if you look at South Australia, they are punching above their weight in terms of international students per capita, whereas WA is about 3 or 4 per cent below our demographic.” Mr Jones, whose first role in education was working within the state government to assist universities in attracting foreign students, said the lack of collaboration between educational institutions was a stark contrast to the early days of Australian educational exports. The current era of international education began in the mid to late 1980s, with WA’s institutions at the forefront of what was to become a revolution for the sector. “If you look back at those early days, the way we worked together as a group of Western Australian institutions was really quite exciting, in that we were able to work together in a cooperative yet competitive way,” he said. “We ended up in those early days having about 25 per cent of the international students in Australia studying in Perth. “There were a number of things that have changed that. “One was that when Melbourne and Sydney, the two biggest cities, began marketing themselves hard, they could offer a big-city experience that Perth couldn’t, and for many of the Chinese that was an interesting thing. “Perth was seen as a bit of a backwater in the sense that it didn’t have the big-city lifestyle that many of these students were used to. “It seemed to be quiet, certainly the quality of the education was never in question, nor the quality of the state itself in terms of facilities etcetera, but it certainly was not the bigcity experience.” Mr Jones hailed the McGowan government’s moves to revitalise international education, saying it had already shown a greater commitment to the sector than any previous government, but said the situation would be difficult to overcome without additional commitments by the state’s universities. 12

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

“I think it’s now more of a marketing problem, there is no question that Perth’s profile is not well understood in China and, in fact if anything, it’s probably gone backwards,” Mr Jones said. “Generally what students will do is they will make a choice of which country they want to go study in, then they look to find the institution within that country that meets their needs, generally it’s a city then an institution. “What we are seeing at the moment is the only thing that they are really being presented with as options are institutions in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. “But South Australia has demonstrated that you can, if you put in the right effort, lift your profile and attract more students. “Not everybody wants to go to a big city, and South Australia has outperformed by doing things in an appropriate, structured way, with a good strategy, and sufficient funding. “Secondly there were some changes made around 18 months ago to the migration scheme, and that, no question, has had a significant impact on students coming here. “One of the benefits that we did have through that scheme, is if students were interested in migration as part of their future plan, staying in Perth and studying in Perth gave them additional points towards migration. “I think we have lost out significantly because of that change.”

One of Mr Jones’ first moves when he joins StudyPerth will be to work with WA’s various educational institutions to develop a new non-government funding model to ensure as many resources are available to promote WA in countries such as China as there are in other states. “(Educational institutions) are the beneficiaries of the funds that are being paid, so it is worth their while to invest more in a cooperative, coordinated way through an entity such as StudyPerth, to lift the profile of the state, because in the end if we can build the pie, then everybody will win,” Mr Jones said. “There is a genuine interest being shown by universities at this stage to be able to commit to a level of funding, and if we are able to achieve that then I believe we will also achieve additional funding from government. “The aim will be to build up an amount of funds that will allow us to achieve what needs to be done and really match what is happening in other states. “In saying that, this is not going to be something you can just throw money at and turn it around in just three months, it’s probably a two-year exercise. “But if we can achieve it, if we can build up the numbers of international students to meet our demographic profile, that would add something like $1.5 billion to the state, it would increase international students by about 30,000 and would create another 5,000 jobs.”


封面故事

| COVER STORY

The aim will be to build up an amount of funds that will allow us to achieve what needs to be done and really match what is happening in other states – Rod Jones 我们的目标将是设立一笔基金,使我们完成应做之 事,并能真正与其他州一较高下。-- 罗德•琼斯

琼斯在教育领域扮演的第一个角色是在 州政府协助大学招收留学生。他表示,教 育机构之间缺乏合作,与澳大利亚早期教 育出口形成鲜明对比。 当代国际教育始于二十世纪80年代中后 期,当时西澳大利亚的教育机构正处于这 一行业革命的前沿。

“回顾早期的日子,西澳大利亚各个教育 机构合作的方式令人兴奋不已,因为我 们能够以一种团结而又有竞争的方式合 作,”他说。

“在早期,澳大利亚25%的留学生在珀斯 留学。 “很多事情改变了这一局势。

“一件事是,两个最大的城市——墨尔本 和悉尼开始大力推销自己,它们可以提供 珀斯无法提供的大城市体验,而许多中国 人对此非常感兴趣。 “珀斯被视为一潭死水,因为它不能提供 很多学生习惯的大都市的生活方式。

“珀斯看起来是座宁静的城市,当然,教 育质量也从来都不是问题,州政府提供的 教育设施等的质量也完全没有问题,但是 珀斯肯定无法提供大城市的生活体验。

琼斯称赞麦高文政府重振国际教育的举 措,称其对该行业的付出比往届任何政府 都要大,但他表示,如果没有州里各个大 学的额外付出,这种情况将难以改变。 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

“我认为现在更像是一个营销问题,毫无 疑问,珀斯的形象在中国没有得到很好的 解读,事实上,中国人对珀斯的印象还停 留在过去,”琼斯表示。 “一般来说,学生们会选择想去学习的国 家,然后寻找那个国家里能满足需求的 教育机构,通常先选城市,然后再选教育 机构。

“我们目前所看到的唯一的情况是,真正 供其选择的是悉尼、墨尔本和布里斯班的 教育机构。 “但南澳大利亚已经证明,如果努力的方 向正确,就可以提升自己的形象,吸引更 多的学生。

“不是所有人都想去大城市,南澳大利亚 表现得异常优异,在拥有良好的策略和充 足的资金的情况下,用一种合适的、结构 化的方式做事。 “其次,大约一年半前,移民计划发生了 一些变化,毫无疑问,这些变化深深地影 响了来这留学的学生。

“这个移民计划所带来的好处之一是,如 果学生们有兴趣将移民列为他们未来计 划的一部分,那么留在珀斯、在珀斯学习, 会为他们的移民加分。

第一个举措是与西澳各教育机构展开 合 作,发展一种新的非政府融资模式,以保 证像其他州那样有足够的资源在中国等 国家推广西澳。

“(教育机构)是这一正在缴纳的基金的受 益人,所以,通过西澳州政府教育推广署 这样的机构,以合作协助的方式增加投资 来提升西澳形象是值得的,因为如果最后 我们可以做好这个蛋糕,那么每个人都是 赢家,”琼斯先生说。 “目前,各个大学对于能为融资做一份贡 献兴趣盎然,如果我们能够得到大学的资 助,那么我相信,我们也会获得政府的额 外资助。 “我们的目标将是设立一笔基金,使我们 完成应做之事,并能真正与其他州一较 高下。 “说到这一点,不可能仅仅通过投入资 金,就在短短三个月内扭转状况,扭转形 式可能需要为期两年的努力。

“但是如果我们能筹到资金,如果我们能 增加留学生人数来满足人口统计特征概 况,那就会为州政府增加15亿澳元的收 入,留学生将增加约3万人,并将再次创造 5,000个就业机会。”

“我认为,因为这一改变,我们已经损失 惨重。”

琼斯先生加入西澳州政府教育推广署的

2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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NEWS | 新闻

Call to business –

get on board China’s Belt and Road Australian business has been urged to stop waiting for government and engage directly with the vast range of commercial opportunities available under the once-in-a-century infrastructure build. Dan Wilkie FOR many countries, China’s ‘project of the century’ – the mammoth Belt and Road Initiative – also represents the opportunity of a century. Hundreds of billions of dollars are flowing into developing nations across Asia, the Middle East and Africa, as China embarks on its ambitious plan to revive its historic Silk Road trading routes. China’s grand plan is to link economic growth strategies across a large swathe of the globe by improving infrastructure and connectivity, and boosting trade and collaboration across borders. To date, around 70 countries have officially signed up to the BRI plan, which was unveiled by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013. The initiative involves the redevelopment of transport and energy infrastructure along the old Silk Road Economic Belt, stretching from the east coast of the People’s Republic, through South Asia and the Middle East to Europe. Complementing the ‘belt’ component of 14

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

the plan is a new Maritime Silk Road, establishing port infrastructure from China’s south coast to South-East Asia, Africa and southern Europe. For those countries along the route, participation in the BRI is logical, and it brings obvious benefits. China Import and Export Bank has committed to support more than 1,000 BRI-related projects worth up to $US100 billion ($133 billion), while China Development Bank has committed credit loans worth around $US130 billion for more than 600 BRI-related developments. Private investment has also been substantial, with more than $US18.5 billion spent by Chinese enterprises in 56 economic trade cooperation zones across 20 BRI countries. And last year, the Chinese government announced it would import $US8 trillion worth of goods and services over the next five years as part of its trade connectivity plans, opening its markets further. But for Australia, which sits tantalisingly close to the maritime component of BRI, the

potential benefit to business has not yet been well understood or articulated. The BRI investments come at a time when China is increasingly restricting enterprises from investing outside the country’s borders, following a sustained outflow of billions of yuan as firms such as Dalian Wanda Group and Anbang Insurance Group sought foreign exposure. International news agency Bloomberg reported last year Chinese outward direct investment had dropped by 45 per cent in the first six months of 2017. In Australia, the restrictions resulted in Wanda Group selling off its planned Sydney and Gold Coast mega-developments, leading many to question whether the good times were over for a country that has relied on Chinese investment to boost its economy for decades. Those fears have been exacerbated by the fact that the Australian government is yet to officially sign up to participate in the initiative, and has made little indication that the BRI is something it seeks to be involved in.


新闻

| NEWS

CONNECTION China is seeking to unlock major trade benefits by upgrading transport infrastructure from Asia to Europe. Photo: Shutterstock.com 秉轴持钧 中国正加强建设亚洲至欧洲的运 输基建,以此开放与促进主要贸易利益。照 片:矢量图库(Shutterstock)

丹·威尔基

于众多国家而言,由中国牵头宏伟的“一 带一路”倡议,不仅是中国的世纪工程,而 且也代表了这个时代对机遇的诉求。 随着中国不断拓展其雄心勃勃的复兴“丝 绸之路”愿景,数以千亿的美元正流入亚 洲、中东和非洲等发展中国家。

投袂而起-

中国的宏伟计划是以基础设施建设为契 机,借以推进“一带一路”互联互通、促进 跨境贸易和合作,将世界大部分地区紧密 联系起来,带动全球经济增长。

加入中国′一带一路′建设

迄今为止,约70个国家正式签署参与“一 带一路”战略倡议,该倡议于2013年由中 国国家主席习近平首次提出。 该倡议将重建古丝绸之路经济带沿线的 基础交通设施,辐射范围东起中国东部沿 海,横跨南亚中东地区,沿西覆盖整个欧 洲国家。

“澳大利亚企业不应一味沿袭政府引导的市场机 制而裹足不前,相反应主动参与,尤以时下以基础 建设拉动的巨大商机,而这样的机会常常是千载难 逢,失不再来。”

该战略倡议的“一带”指的是重新开辟一 条“海上丝绸之路”,东起中国南部沿海, 途径东南亚、非洲和南欧等地,重点建设 沿线港口的基础设施。 因为“海上丝绸之路”为沿线国家和人民 带来福祉,因此沿线国家参与到该倡议来 顺应了时代需求的,

中国进出口银行已为“一带一路”提供了 超过1,000多个项目,并提供相应总金额 超过1,000亿美元(约1,330亿澳元)的贷 款,同时中国国家开发银行为600多个“一 带一路”相关项目提供约合1,300亿美元 的贷款。

大量民营资本投资的介入,也发挥了相当 可观的作用,中国企业在20个“一带一路” 沿线国家和地区的56个经济贸易合作区 投资金额超过185亿美元。 时,作为贸易规划的一部分,去年中国政 府宣布将在未来5年内将进口价值8万亿 美元的商品和服务,并由此进一步提升市 场开放的程度。

然而,尽管澳大利亚与“海上丝绸之路” 的相距可谓一衣带水,但是却始终作壁上 观,从未充分理解或阐明“海上丝绸之路” 对其商业的潜在获益。 正当中国不断加强限制企业在境外投资 的时候,诸如大连万达集团和安邦保险集 团等公司纷纷寻求海外投资,其投资量始 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

终保持在人民币数十亿元人民币。

据彭博社国际新闻社报到,截止2017年 上半年,中国对外直接投资金额下降了 45%。

因受到对外投资的限制,万达集团抛售其 在澳大利亚规划的悉尼黄金海岸大型开 发项目,这让许多人不免产生怀疑,过去 几十年来依赖中国投资推动经济增长的 国家的好日子是否已宣告结束。

澳大利亚政府尚未正式签署参与该倡议, 也没有迹象表明澳大利亚政府正主动寻 求参与该项规划,这些情况进一步加剧了 人们的担忧情绪。 不过,据澳中“一带一路”产业合作中心首 席执行官董瑾声明,任何有关中国对澳大 利亚商业或项目投资将暂停的说法都是 没有根据的。

澳中“一带一路”倡议于三年前首次提出, 并获得了联邦政府启动资金。 澳中“一带一路”设立了高级顾问委员会, 其主要代表为前贸易与投资部部长安德

鲁·罗布及中国国家发展和改革委员会国 际合作中心主任刘建兴。

董女士在最近一次的亚联商业论坛上说, 澳中“一带一路”规划旨在帮助澳大利亚 企业理解、并广泛参与“一带一路”所带来 的商机,从而获得收益。

“从我们的角度来看,这些都是商业机 会,作为企业可以在政府出台市场引导机 制之前采取行动,从而获得市场收益。”董 女士说 。

ENGAGE Jean Dong says there are myriad ways for Australian business to engage on BRI, but the opportunities are not yet well understood. Photo: AsiaLink Business 不失时机 董瑾说,澳大利亚本土企业有很 多参与“一带一路”的机会,但他们似乎还并 未理解这些契机。 照片: AsiaLinkBusiness( 《亚联商业》 ) 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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NEWS | 新闻

Reviving the Silk Road 振兴丝绸之路

Announced by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013, the Silk Road Initiative, also known as China’s Belt and Road Initiative, aims to invest in infrastructure projects including railways and power grids in central, west and southern Asia, as well as Africa and Europe.

2013年,中国国家主席习近平首次提出建设新丝绸之路经济带战略构想,又名“一带一路”倡议。旨在同沿线各 国分享中国发展机遇,共同繁荣。包括投资建设西亚,南亚,非洲和欧洲的中央铁路网和电网等基建项目等。

As of December 2015 截止2015年12月

Source: Mercator Institute for China studies. 图片来源:墨卡托中国研究中心。

However, any suggestion Chinese investment in Australian business or projects is in danger of drying up completely would be unfounded, according to the chief executive of the Australia-China Belt and Road Initiative, Jean Dong. The Australia-China Belt and Road Initiative was established three years ago, receiving startup funding from the federal government. ACBRI has a high-powered board of advisers, highlighted by former Liberal-National government trade minister Andrew Robb, and Liu Jianxing, a director of China’s National Development and Reform Commission’s International Cooperation Centre. The aim of ACBRI is to enable Australian businesses to understand, participate and benefit from the wide range of commercial opportunities under Belt and Road, Ms Dong said at a recent AsiaLink Business forum. “From our perspective, this is all about commercial opportunities, so business could get ahead of government to secure commercial outcomes,” Ms Dong said. “That’s why we have taken 60 Australian CEOs to China over the past two years to ac16

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

tively understand the opportunities and find great partnerships. “Right now, there are some great Australian companies actively involved in the projects and from the business level, there is lots of effort being done to understand and engage in the initiative.” Former national president of the Australia China Business Council, Duncan Calder, said it made no sense for business to wait for an official green light from government to engage in the BRI. “My sense is it’s almost easier for businesses to do it themselves without government, because that’s just creating more problems and more tension,” Mr Calder said at the forum. “Engagement with government is best done back in Australia behind closed doors, rather than going up to China hat-in-hand with government, because there is a real sense that there has been a slap in the face to China for not engaging in this initiative. “There is a huge opportunity for Australian business in Belt and Road, and the reason that there is a huge opportunity is because this isn’t primarily a geopolitical play.

“The main reason is the Chinese government’s first priority is to have internal harmony within its own borders and to maintain employment. “Of course, there is a silver lining in terms of increased trade and geopolitical influence, but that’s never been the driver. “The reason I am confident that Australia can still benefit through business is that Australia has some terrific projects that will fit in very well with the Belt and Road Initiative and will provide the employment opportunities back in China to generate the steel and the products that we need here in Australia.” Ms Dong said that for the foreseeable future, the only way to secure substantial outbound investment from China would be through BRI-approved companies and BRI-approved projects. In the resources sector, Ms Dong said there would be ample opportunity for Australian involvement in BRI, particularly for iron ore miners to supply an expected 150 million tonnes uptick in demand over the next decade for Chinese steel to support BRI projects. “The opportunity is not only increased de-


新闻

| NEWS

KEY

倡议

Silk Road Economic Belt 新丝绸之路经济带

My sense is it’s almost easier for businesses to do it themselves without government – Duncan Calder

New Maritime Silk Road 海上新丝绸之路

我认为,没有政府干涉,企业发展业务更顺利 -邓肯•卡尔德

PROJECTS SUBSUMED UNDER CHINA’S BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE

中国“一带一路”倡议的重大项目 Gas pipelines 天然气管道

Oil pipelines 石油管道

Railroad 铁路

Proposed economic corridors 经济走廊倡议

Ports with Chinese engagement 港口口岸

Planner or under construction 规划与在建项目

“在过去两年里,我们邀请了60名澳大利 亚CEO前往中国考察访问,目的是让他 们更有机会了解中国的商业市场,并寻求 合作。”

“目前,一些有影响力的澳大利亚公司更 加务实地主动参与′一带一路′规划的项目 里来,但要想更多了解并参与到“一带一 路”的项目里来,还有很多的工作要做。” 澳大利亚中国商业委员会前国家主席邓 肯•卡尔德说,企业无需等待政府的官方 政策出台,可直接参与“一带一路”项目。

“我认为,企业在没有政府干涉的情况 下,发展业务更容易;如果政府干涉,可能 会制造更多的问题和紧张情势。”邓肯• 卡尔德在论坛上如是说。 “在澳大利亚,其实低调行事才是与政府 打交道最好的做法,而不是与澳洲政府一 起公然向中国政府讨价还价,因为对中国 政府来说,消极对待该倡议,会让中国政 府感到并不舒服。 “′一带一路′为澳大利亚企业带来了巨 大商机,因为这并不是在搞地缘政治的 游戏。 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

“中国政府的首要任务是保持国内政清 人和,并持续保证就业。

“当然,在增强经贸和地缘政治影响力方 面,这也许有些作用,然而这并不是该规 划倡议的初衷。

“澳大利亚定会从′一带一路′倡议中受益 匪浅,对此我信心十足,因为澳大利亚有 很多可以对接的好项目,非常符合′一带一 路′倡议的要求,能为中国钢铁产业链及生 产领域提供更多就业机会,而这些也正是 澳大利亚所需要的。” 董女士说,想要从中国获得大量的投资, 唯一方式便是与“一带一路”参与企业所 合作,或直接参与”一带一路”项目。

在能源行业,董女士表示,澳大利亚将有 许多适宜的商机参与到′一带一路′项目里 来,尤其是对铁矿石生产商而言,未来10 年,中国用于′一带一路′项目建设需要的 钢铁量将达到1.5亿吨。

“不仅是大宗商品的需求量会有所增加, 而且用于澳中两国合资共建的现有以及 新建矿山的资金支持也将有所增加。”董 女士告诉《澳中商讯》记者。

随着市场对矿石产品需求的增加,促使开 发出了一座座新矿,而对现有矿业的投资 也不断攀升。

“澳大利亚采矿领域和开发商利用′一带 一路′倡议的基金,吸引对相关项目的投 资,同时降低了政治和金融风险。

“在采矿领域,由于受基础设施和矿产品 的需求不断增长影响,相关的服务产业和 设备制造业也从中受益,尤其是来自澳大 利亚的公司,是中国公司打开第三国家市 场的天然伙伴。 “在蒙古、中亚、中东以及英国的投资,澳 大利亚有着得天独厚的优势。”

然而,尽管澳大利亚资源行业正按部就班

地从市场对商品大幅度需求增长中获益, 但亚联商业中国业务主管尼克•亨德森 提醒,在从事其他经济领域业务的企业不 要盲目暗自窃喜,也不要被动等待“一带 一路”项目带给自己的受益,应主动参与“ 一带一路”项目。 亨德森说,尽管中国是澳大利亚能源和农 产品最大的买家,但是”一带一路”倡议的 宗旨是将为商品的原产国或原产地,提供 更多的商业机会。

“我们需要引起注意的是要始终保持自 己的竞争力,并确保我们真正参与到市场 活动中,而不是被动地采取应对性的措施 来和这些项目扯上关系,比方说“一带一 路”倡议”。亨德森告诉《澳中商讯》记者 “从更高层面来说,很多澳大利亚上市公 司越来越明智,并意识到′一带一路′规划 带来的机遇,但仍然有许多澳大利亚商业 团体需要提高积极主动参与度,否则很多 美国、英国或德国的中型公司将抓住这些 机遇,超过我们。 “与国有企业进行相关的战略对话,并与 其研究潜在的合作领域,让这些企业意识 到与澳大利亚合作的可能性,没有意识到 机遇的企业,最明智的做法是继续寻找 ′ 一带一路′沿线的合作机会。 “有相当多的澳大利亚公司与中国国有 企业或大型中国企业有战略合作或合资 关系,这种形式也值得进行调研或战略讨 论。” 亨德森说,寻求参与中国“一带一路”项 目的澳大利亚企业,如果能理解中国政府 五年计划的政策,将会更好地从中获得 收益。

由于投资和政策重点受到相对集中控制, 亨德森表示,由行业和地理区域绘制的五 年规划图,为机会参与提供了一个路线 指导。 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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NEWS | 新闻 mand for commodities, but also in tapping into BRI funding for jointly developed new and existing mines,” Ms Dong told Australia China Business Review. “More demand for mining products will lead to more demand for new mines and increased investment in existing mines. “The Australian mining sector and developers could utilise BRI funding to attract investment into a project and also to use BRI funding to reduce political and financial risk. “And also in the mining sector, services and equipment will also benefit from the increased demand from the infrastructure and mining products, especially as Australian companies are seen as a natural partner for Chinese companies to open this third market opportunity. “In Mongolia, Central Asia, the Middle East and the UK, that’s a unique advantage that Australian companies could capitalise on.” However, while the Australian resources sector is poised to benefit from an uplift in commodities demand, AsiaLink Business China Practice director Nick Henderson warned businesses in other parts of the economy not to be complacent and wait for the benefits of BRI to simply trickle down to them. Mr Henderson said while China was a large buyer of Australian resources and agricultural products, the intention of the BRI was to give it more choice in terms of where it produced and where it procured from. “We need to be on the ball as it were to make sure that we maintain our competitiveness, and to ensure that we are actually engaging with the market and not taking a reactive approach to realisation of some of these projects like Belt and Road,” Mr Henderson told Australia China Business Review. “At a high level, at the top end of town, a lot of larger ASX-listed corporates are getting more informed and are more aware of the opportunities, but there is still a large swathe of the Australian business community that needs to be a little bit more proactive, otherwise it will be the same mid-sized US, UK or German companies that are going to take the opportunities rather than us. “Having those strategic conversations and working out potential areas of collaboration with those state-owned companies and making them aware of the possibilities on the Australian side, which they may not be aware of, and to continue to explore collaborative opportunities along the Belt and Road is the clever approach. “There are quite a few Australian companies that have either strategic or ownership relationships with Chinese state-owned enterprises, or large Chinese enterprises, which certainly would be worth having an investigation or strategic discussion of that.” Mr Henderson said Australian businesses looking to engage with China on BRI would be well served by understanding the policy 18

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

narrative provided by the Chinese government’s five-year plans. With investment and policy focus relatively centrally controlled, Mr Henderson said the five-year plans, which were broken down by sector and geographic regions, provided a roadmap of sorts for opportunities for engagement. “The more that Australian companies understand the policies and the agenda framework in China, whether that’s Made in China 2025, whether that’s five-year plans or whether that be Belt and Road Initiative, the more targeted those conversations are going to be and the chance of finding those opportunities is going to be higher, because it’s a very complex market,” he said. “Australia is going to benefit significantly from the Belt and Road and we need to think of this as much broader than just a line going through a map.

The Australian mining sector and developers could utilise BRI funding to attract investment into a project – Jean Dong 澳大利亚采矿领域和开 发商可搭上′一带一路′项 目基金顺风车,以此来吸 引投资-董瑾

“If you look at some of the projects that some of Australia’s largest engineering and construction firms are engaged with, they are not only big road rail and tunnel projects in Australia, they are also very large infrastructure projects in Indonesia, in Singapore and in other parts of the world. “There are companies already engaged in those regions, and Belt and Road enables a lot more of those types of projects which Australian companies are going to benefit from, first hand from the services side of things, then again from materials.” Part of ACBRI’s mission, Ms Dong said, was to assist in dispelling some misconceptions around BRI, with many Australian businesses not yet understanding that the initiative was much more than investment from China into Australia, or Australian businesses operating in China. Ms Dong said the most effective way for

Australian business to embrace the BRI would be to cooperate, collaborate and partner with their Chinese counterparts, whether state-owned enterprises or otherwise. “Interestingly, when we took our first study to China two years ago, we met with Chinese vice-minister Wang Shouwen, he made two interesting points,” Ms Dong said. “One, he said there is no one asking companies to go to risky regions for BRI projects, and from the Chinese company perspective, they don’t see that Australian companies would be very strong going to a region like Kazakhstan for example, which is a very risky region. “What Chinese companies want is to partner with Australian companies to go to English-speaking regions, and that’s where Australian companies know best about the legal systems, the operating systems and are very familiar with the culture and the language, where Australian companies have a unique operating advantage. “There are so many countries that are all very risky, but if you think about where Australia has a very strong competitive advantage, so business can leverage that to work with China.” Ms Dong said Mr Wang’s second point was that Australian services companies needed to be proactive to dispel typical Chinese thinking that the country was purely a provider of mineral resources or agricultural and food products. “Chinese companies looking at Australia, they think about commodities, they think about milk powder, but they don’t necessarily think about looking for services and knowledge,” she said. “That’s a wake-up call because Australia has world-leading engineering companies, risk management companies and excellent legal firms. “How do we get a better profile for the services sector and how do we raise the profile of Australia as a knowledge economy? “Normally when Chinese companies look for services, they go to the US, Germany, the UK straight away, they don’t necessarily put Australia on the radar. “Australia needs to better articulate its global capability as a service industry to unlock new opportunities.” Mr Henderson said another frontier for BRI involvement would be in education, leveraging Australia’s status as a preferred destination for Chinese students. “As you embark on such a large project like this there is going to be a need for skills, there is going to be need for training, and one of the elements of Belt and Road is on cultural and educational exchange,” he said. “Bearing in mind that one of Australia’s top services exports is education, and that includes research and collaborations between Australian universities and Chinese companies, there are huge areas of opportunity to explore.”


新闻

“不管是′中国制造2025′,还是“五年计 划”亦或是′一带一路′倡议,澳大利亚企业 对中国的政策和议程框架理解得越多,与 中国对话的目标就越明确,找到商业机会 的概率就会越高,因为需要解决市场问题 本身就一个非常复杂的问题“他说。 “澳大利亚从将从′一带一路′中受益匪 浅,我们要以更开阔的视野去理解这项政 策,而不局限于地图上的一条线。 “澳大利亚最大的工程建设公司,不仅参 与建设在澳大利亚的大型铁轨和隧道项 目,在印度尼西亚、新加坡等其他国家也 有大型的基础设施建设项目。

“有些公司已经在那些地区把业务做的 如火如荼,而′一带一路′则能提供更多参 与此类项目的机会,从服务行业到材料供 应,澳大利亚企业都将会从中获益。

董女士表示,澳中“一带一路”倡议的当务 之急是帮助普通民众消除对“一带一路“ 倡议的误解偏见,许多澳大利亚企业还不 明白,该倡议的初衷不仅仅局限于惠及在 澳投资的中方企业,或是在华经营的澳大 利亚企业。 董女士表示,对于澳大利亚企业而言,参 与“一带一路”倡议,最值得提倡的方式是 与中国业内同行采用合作、协作的方式, 无论对方是国有企业还是其他企业。

“有趣的是,两年前第一次去中国的时候, 我们会见了中国商务部副部长王守文,他 提出了两个有趣的观点,”董女士说。 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

“第一,他说,没有人要求企业到有风险 的地区去参与′一带一路′项目,从中国公 司的角度来看,他们不认为澳大利亚公司 强大到可以去像哈萨克斯坦这样的地区 开发项目,因为哈萨克斯坦是一个非常危 险的地区。

“中国企业想要的是与澳大利亚企业合 作,前往说英语的国家和地区,澳大利亚 企业最了解这些国家和地区的法律体系、 商业运作模式以及文化和语言,并且在这 些国家和地区,澳大利亚企业拥有先天的 合作优势。 “我们不会这那些非常危险的国家做项 目,相反,你可以想想澳大利亚在哪些国 家和地区有很强的竞争优势,那么企业就 可以利用这一点来与中国合作。 董女士表示,王守文的第二个观点是,澳 大利亚的服务公司需要积极主动地消除 中国人对澳大利亚的固有思维,即澳大 利亚只是矿产资源、农产品和食品的供 应商。

“中国企业提到澳大利亚,第一反应是奶 粉,但他们并不会想到澳大利亚可以提供 跨国服务和知识型产业。”她说。 “这给澳大利亚敲响了警钟,事实上澳大 利亚拥有世界领先的工程公司、风险管理 公司和优秀的法律公司。 “我们如何才能更好地了解跨国服务,我 们如何提高澳大利亚作为知识经济体的 形象?

| NEWS

“通常中国企业需求跨国服务时,他们会 直接去找美国、德国、英国的公司,他们不 太会考虑澳大利亚的公司。 “澳大利亚需要更好地阐明其向全球提 供跨国服务的能力,以促成并拥抱新机 遇。”

亨德森先生表示, “一带一路”涉及到的另 一个领域将是教育行业,提升澳大利亚成 为中国学生首选留学目的国的地位。

“当你开始这样一个大项目时就需要技 能、需要培训,而′一带一路′倡议的要素之 一就是文化和教育交流,”他说。 “我们要记住澳大利亚的顶级服务出口 项目之一是教育,这包括澳大利亚大学和 中国企业之间的研究和合作项目,这其中 有很多机会可以研究探索。”

FRONT FOOT Nick Henderson says business should not be complacent, but instead seek out collaborative opportunities flowing from BRI. Photo: AsiaLink Business 远见卓识 尼克·亨德森说,企业绝不应固步 自封,而应竭力寻求追随“一带一路”的合作 机会。照片:亚联商业 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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TOURISM | 旅游

Chinese tourism hits new heights, but is business ready? Striking the right nuance is essential when it comes to meeting visitors’ needs.

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AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯


旅游 Nick Henderson AsiaLink Business UNDERSTANDING the needs and wants of Chinese visitors and, most importantly, using this knowledge to create better quality tourism experiences, are essential to ensuring they get the most from their trip. Chinese tourists have officially leapfrogged their New Zealand counterparts to become the top source of inbound visitors to Australia. New data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics released in April showed there were 1.39 million Chinese visitors in the year ending February 2018, an increase of 13.2 per cent. New Zealand moved into second place, with 1.36 million visitors over the year. China has also become Australia’s most valuable inbound tourism market, with visitors spending a record $10.4 billion last year. And with consumption and domestic wealth growing continually, this trend is set to continue, fuelling a trebling of numbers of Chinese travellers to Australia over the next decade. So how can tourism businesses ensure they are prepared for this phenomenal growth and build long-term connections with Chinese tourists in a competitive global travel marketplace? Chinese tourists are increasingly well travelled and are seeking authentic and sophisticated local products, experiences and services. This is especially the case with the country’s millions of travelling millennials, who are claiming an increasing share of the tourism market. This new generation of ‘free and independent travellers’ is upwardly mobile and adventurous, actively seeking unique holiday experiences. Established attractions—the Great Barrier Reef, Sydney Opera House and other mainstays—are still popular, but travellers are looking for unique and memorable natural, dining and cultural experiences. Destinations like Kangaroo Island in South Australia, and Tasmania, are rising quickly in popularity. But to unlock this potential, local Australian tourism businesses need to offer distinct, ‘sticky’ and above all authentic experiences that facilitate independent travel. They need to proactively tailor their products, offerings and experiences to strike the right chord with Chinese travellers.

| TOURISM

中国游客数量节节高 升,可我们的生意场准 备好了吗?

在满足游客需求的同时,能提供无微不至的服务是 非常关键的。 尼克•亨德森(Nick Henderson) 亚洲纽带

了解中国游客的需求和想法,最重要的是利 用这些知识创造更好的旅游体验,是确保他 们从旅行中获益的关键。 中国游客数量已正式超越新西兰,成为澳大 利亚入境游客的首选来源地。

澳大利亚统计局4月份发布的新数据显示, 截至2018年2月,该年中国游客数量为139 万,增幅为13.2% 新西兰排名第二,该年有136万游客。

中国已成为澳大利亚最具价值的入境旅游 市场,去年游客消费达到创记录的104亿美 元。

随着消费和国内财富的持续增长,这一趋势 将持续升温,在未来十年里,前往澳大利亚 的中国游客将增加两倍。 那么,旅游企业如何确保准备面对极速增长 的中国游客,并在竞争激烈的全球旅游市场 与中国游客建立长期的联系? 中国游客的旅行频次越来越高,并正在寻找 正宗的、成熟的本地产品、体验及服务。 这是中国数百万“千禧一代”的旅行情况,他 们占有越来越大的旅游市场份额。 新一代“自由和独立旅行者”具有冒险精神 的,且在不断追求更多独特度假体验。

尽管著名的景点——大堡礁、悉尼歌剧院和 其它主要景点仍然很受欢迎,但游客们正在 寻找独特而难忘的自然、餐饮和文化体验。 像南澳大利亚州的袋鼠岛及塔斯马尼亚州 这样的旅游目的地正迅速流行起来。

为了发掘这种潜力,澳大利亚当地的旅游企 业需要提供独特的,具有“粘性”的,尤其是 能促进自由行的真实体验。 他们需要主动调整其产品、客户需求和体 验,以便与中国游客产生共鸣。

以维多利亚州的大洋路为例,那里的旅游企 业一直在与地方议会合作,以确保他们能够 接触到中国的市场,并参与其中。 越来越多的本地运营商认识到,有必要对消 费者的行为、旅游文化、沟通方式和服务给 予关注,以及消费者最为关注的内容上大 展拳脚。 这使得这些企业能够更好地服务和迎合当 代中国游客,为优化客户体验量身定制产 品。 下一个基本要素是了解旅行者的旅程。

梦想、计划、预订、体验、分享——这些都很 关键。了解他们旅行旅程的每个阶段的触 点,这样你就能更好地接触到中国游客。

中国消费者的智能手机上是否可以查看您 的项目产品,这是和您本身业务同等重要的 关键所在。

DRAWCARD While Sydney’s famous Harbour Bridge and the Opera House remain popular, a growing number of Chinese travellers are seeking more unique experiences. Photo: Reuters 高堂满座 虽然悉尼著名的海港大桥和悉尼 歌剧院仍然很受欢迎,但越来越多的中国 游客正在寻求更独特的体验方式。图片:路 透社 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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TOURISM | 旅游 Take Victoria’s Great Ocean Road, where tourism businesses have been working with local councils to ensure they can reach, engage and capitalise on the inbound Chinese market. A rising number of local operators have recognised the need to equip themselves with insights into consumer behaviour and travel culture, communication styles, and service expectations, as well as the types of authentic attractions that will be of most interest along the road. This enables these businesses to better service and cater for the contemporary Chinese traveller, tailoring products to optimise customer experience. The next essential element is to understand the traveller journey. Dreaming, planning, booking, experiencing, sharing –these are all key components. Understanding the touch points at each stage of their travel journey allows you to best reach and engage with Chinese travellers. Just as important as the physical presence of your business in Australia, is its presence on the smartphones of Chinese consumers. Chinese tourists plan and manage every aspect of their trip on their phones, through apps such as WeChat, which has more than 1 billion monthly users. Having a properly translated website, tailored social media messages and channels, and quality Chinese-language marketing content is critical. Offering payments via the extensively used UnionPay, Alipay or WeChat Pay also makes your business attractive to Chinese tourists. A well-placed sign indicating the availability of these payment platforms can also help increase walk-ins from the street. Once you’ve got these important measures in place, you can consider giving your online presence a boost by connecting with key Chinese influencers. Like Bridestowe’s Bobbie doll, a number of Australian products have exploded in popularity following a well-placed plug by a Chinese influencer. Weetbix prices, for example, went through the roof after the product was featured on Chinese TV drama. Connecting your business with these influencers – or ‘Wang Hong’ as they are known – builds recognition and helps to distinguish your business in a saturated market. Social media channels like WeChat are also vital. Chinese travellers will share photos and videos of your products, and in turn, inform and influence travel decisions of their family and friends. Ensure your business can benefit from this by providing travellers with a memorable customer experience and plenty of photo-worthy opportunities. Offering up free Wi-Fi on your premises is also a good way to make sure they can share their experiences instantly. 22

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

Obviously, a level of understanding of Chinese culture is a must have. Your business can better serve Chinese travellers not only by understanding Chinese consumer trends, but also through a deeper understanding of Chinese culture and behaviour. Doing so will help to develop rapport and create a positive customer experience. Make sure your workers understand the basic cultural cues and faux pas. Taking some immediate simple steps can go a long way. For instance, if dealing with a travelling family group, make sure to give extra respect to the more senior family members. And pay attention to simple details, like ensuring hot water and tea-making facilities are readily available. An understanding of Chinese communication styles is also important. Chinese people generally favour indirect communication and will make all attempts to avoid open conflict where possible. Learn some basic Chinese greetings, translate signs and menus, and have talking points about Chinese history and geography up your sleeve. As with other elements of your travel offer-

ing, you don’t need to overdo it by attempting to make your product or experience look or feel Chinese. But it is essential to find a tasteful nuance and strike the right chord that will appeal to your sophisticated and worldly Chinese customers. Above all, authenticity and originality remains the key to ensuring travellers return and recommend Australia to their families and friends. Nick Henderson is director of the China Practice at Asialink Business, Australia’s National Centre for Asia Capability. Nick has more than 17 years’ experience in assisting diverse businesses to enter and grow in China, particularly with the Australian tourism sector to get China-ready. AUTHENTIC Australian hospitality operators that tailor experiences for Chinese travellers are experiencing success. Photo: Reuters 入乡随俗 为中国游客量身定制的正宗澳大 利亚酒店运营商正在走向成功。图片:路 透社


旅游

| TOURISM

Chinese tourists are increasingly well travelled and are seeking authentic and sophisticated local products, experiences and services

越来越多的中国游客来到这里旅游, 他们正在寻找正宗的、成熟的本地产 品、体验以及服务。

中国游客通过像微信这样的APP来计划和 管理他们旅行的方方面面,微信的月活跃用 户数量超过10亿人次。 拥有一个经过适当翻译的网站、量身定制的 社交媒体信息和渠道,以及优质的中文营销 内容至关重要。 通过广泛使用的银联、支付宝或微信支付来 提供支付,也会让你的企业对中国游客有 吸引力。 支持这些支付方式的标志也会有助于进店 游客数量的增长。

一旦您具备这些重要的部署,您可以开始考 虑通过与中国具有影响力的名人建立联系, 以提升你的在线影响力。 就像Bridestowe的芭比娃娃一样,许多澳 大利亚产品在深受中国名人欢迎之后,也开 始流行起来。 例如,在中国热播连续剧中出现了WeetBix麦片后,它的价格就一路飙升。

将您的业务与这些有影响力的人(或称他 们为大众所熟知的“网红” )相结合,可以获 得认可并有助于在饱和的市场中区分您的 业务。 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

像微信这样的社交媒体渠道也是至关重要 的。中国旅客将分享您的照片与视频,同 样,您也可发布消息来潜在地影响他们及家 人朋友的旅行计划。 通过为旅行者提供难忘的客户体验和大量 值得拍照的机会,以确保您的企业可以从 中受益。 在您的经营场所提供免费的无线网络,也 是确保游客能够在社交软件上及时分享的 好方法。 显然,必须要对中国文化有充分的了解。

您的企业不仅需要了解中国消费者的趋势, 也需要更深入地知晓中国文化和习俗,为中 国游客提供更好地服务。 这样将做有助于建立融洽的关系并创造正 面的客户体验。

确保工作人员了解基本的文化礼仪和禁忌。 采取一些即时且简单的策略可以让您走的 很远。 例如,如果要和家庭型旅游团打交道,一定 要给予其中的长辈以更多尊重。

了解中国的沟通方式也很重要。中国人更 喜欢较婉转的沟通语气,并尽可能避免公 开冲突。

学习一些基本的中文问候语,特殊符号和中 餐菜谱,以及有关于中国历史地理方面的谈 话要点。 就像您的其他旅行产品一样,并不需要过度 包装而完全中国化的产品。 需要找到具有独特品位的细微差别,并引 起共鸣,这将吸引成熟精明的中国客户如 约而至。

至关重要的是,真实性和独创性仍然是确 保游客来访并向其亲朋好友推荐澳大利亚 的关键。 尼克•亨德森(Nick Henderson)是澳 大利亚国家亚洲能力中心的亚洲智库 Asialink中国业务主管。尼克拥有超过17年 的协助多元化企业进入中国市场及后续发 展的经验,尤其针对澳大利亚旅游业面向中 国市场相关业务。

并注意一些简单的细节,如确保随时可用的 热水和沏茶设施。

2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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NEWS | 新闻

China’s small-town kids come out to play Rising purchasing power in second-tier cities is the latest indicator China’s ‘smaller markets’ are big opportunities for Australian exporters.

Stella Qiu and Elias Glenn Reuters THE bright lights of Beijing or Shanghai have never held much allure for Wu Tongxu, a 24-year-old civil servant earning a modest salary in the nondescript city of Xinxiang in China’s central Henan province. But his lifestyle is anything but parochial. Mr Wu drives a 370,000 yuan ($77,000) Cadillac sedan, owns a downtown apartment and dines out at restaurants. He can sometimes be found at rock concerts in Hong Kong or on jaunts up Mount Fuji in Japan – financed by his doting parents. “If I were to live in Beijing or Shanghai, I’d never be able to afford the lifestyle I’m having now,” Mr Wu said. Until now, China’s consumption has been led by residents of the capital and free-spending coastal cities. But the hinterland has been catching up fast, transformed by industrialisation and rapid urbanisation in the past 10 years. In 2016-20, around 50 million households 24

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

will enter the middle and upper classes, with half of them likely to be located outside China’s top 100 cities, according to a report by The Boston Consulting Group and AliResearch, a unit of the e-commerce giant Alibaba. That transformation has already helped spur a spending surge in the hinterland. In a report by UnionPay/JD.com, consumption in third- and fourth-tier cities, generally cities with gross domestic product of less than $US70 billion ($93 billion), soared 58 per cent last year. Taken together, the cities have a total population of nearly 700 million. Much of that spending is happening in cities like Xinxiang, a city of 6 million that has benefited in recent years from the rapid development of nearby Zhengzhou, Henan’s capital. The rise of cities like Xinxiang has coincided with soaring living costs in big metropolises, particularly over the past 18 months as rents hit historic highs. Beijing and Shanghai are also tightening controls on migrants in an effort to control urban sprawl and curb the growth of their 20 million-plus populations.

As a result, so-called “small-town kids” around the country are increasingly staying in their hometowns. They are splurging on cars, fashion and entertainment, reshaping China’s consumption landscape as their peers in Shanghai and Beijing contend with high living costs. Retail sales in Xinxiang soared 12 per cent last year, exceeding Beijing’s growth of 5.2 per cent. Xinxiang’s gross domestic product was about 240 billion yuan last year. For decades, migrants from smaller cities headed for large urban centres where the country’s economic boom first took root. That is changing.

LIFESTYLE Residents in second-tier cities such as Nanning are driving an emerging new era of Chinese consumption. Photo: Shutterstock.com 生活方式 南宁等二线城市的居民,正在推 动着中国消费新时代的形成。


新闻

| NEWS

中国小城镇年轻 人的影响力

二线城市上升的购买力是最新的指标。对于澳大利亚的出口商来说, 中国’规模较小的市场’是巨佳的机会。

斯特拉·邱(Stella Qiu) 和伊莱亚斯·格伦(Elias Glenn) 路透社

In 2016-20, around 50 million households will enter the middle and upper classes, with half of them likely to be located outside China’s top 100 cities – The Boston Consulting Group

北京和上海繁华的都市生活对吴同旭 (Wu Tongxu)来说,并没有太多诱惑 力,他今年24岁,是中国中部河南省一个 普通城市新乡市的公务员,薪水不高。 但是他的生活方式却一点也不狭隘。

吴先生开着一辆价值37万元人民币(约 7.7万澳元)的凯迪拉克轿车,在市中心有 一套公寓,经常在外面的饭店吃饭。

他有时候去观看香港的摇滚音乐会,有时 候去日本富士山短途旅行——费用由宠 爱他的父母提供。

到2016年至2020年,大 约5000万家庭将进入中 上层阶级,其中的一半 很可能会居住在中国百 强城市之外 ——波士顿咨询集团

“如果我在北京或者上海生活,我就不可 能负担得起现在的生活了,”吴先生说。

直到现在,中国的消费还是由省会城市和 肆意消费的沿海城市的居民带动的。

但是,过去十年间,内陆地区经过了工业 化和快速城市化的转变,一直在快速追赶。 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

根据波士顿咨询集团和电商巨头阿里巴 巴下属的阿里研究院的报告,在2016年至 2020年间,大约5000万家庭将进入中上 层阶层,其中的一半很可能会居住在中国 百强城市之外。 这种转变刺激了内陆地区的消费增长。

一份中国银联/京东的报告显示,三四线 城市,也就是普遍国内生产总值不到700 亿美元(930亿澳元)的城市的消费,在去 年飙升了58%。总的来说,这些城市的人 口总数接近7亿。

很多这样的消费发生在像新乡这样的城 市。新乡是一座拥有600万人口的城市,近 年来受益于邻近城市河南省会郑州的快 速发展。 新乡此类城市的崛起,与大城市的生活成 本飙升相吻合,尤其是在过去的18个月 里,房租达到了历史最高水平。

北京和上海也在通过收紧对外来人口的 控制来控制城市扩张,抑制现有的2000万 人口的增长。 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

25


NEWS | 新闻

In Xinxiang, some 90 per cent of millennials are staying put in the city, mayor Wang Dengxi said. That sort of shift has attracted companies like H&M, Fast Retailing, JD.com, China Evergrande Group and Dalian Wanda Group. Magnus Olsson, country manager for H&M China, said in March the fashion retailer was looking to improve brand recognition in cities where it was not present. Morgan Stanley expects China’s private consumption market will more than double to $11.8 trillion in 2030, from $4.7 trillion currently, with two thirds of the increase coming from third- and fourth-tier cities. A survey of more than 3,300 households showed that compared with big cities, residents in lower-tier cities are more inclined to spend on leisure travel, cars and online entertainment, according to Robin Xing, chief China economist at Morgan Stanley. He said much of the spending was led by millennials. More than 32 per cent of General Motors’ Cadillac sales in China in the first quarter were in smaller cities while about 45 per cent 26

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

of its customers were between 25 and 34 years old, the company said. “Many locals here drive Cadillacs,” said Mr Wu in Xinxiang, sporting a pair of trendy black-rimmed glasses. “Now, I want to buy a Tesla.” Small-town kids also spent more money on online games and live-streaming websites than their peers in first-tier cities, a report by the internet giant Tencent showed. This has also led to a cinema boom in lower-tier cities. Box office receipts in third- and fourth-tier cities rose 22 per cent last year, surpassing the 11 per cent growth in first- and second-tier cities, according to calculations by Reuters, based on data from the online ticketing service provider Maoyan. China Evergrande Group is aiming to build 200 cinemas nationwide in the next five years. In Xinxiang, millennials are also swarming new western-styled bars and clubs at night. Tian Zeng, a coffee shop owner, frequently hits the bars with his wife and their friends after a night out at the movies. “My philosophy towards life is to enjoy it to the fullest, so I spend money as long as it makes me happy,” the 30-year-old said.

Much of the spending power in China’s lower-tier cities comes from rising property values over two decades, analysts say. An analysis of 45 Chinese cities of all tiers by Haitong Securities showed a 1 per cent increase in property prices in relatively cheap markets brought about a 7.9 per cent increase in local consumption growth in 2016. Rising property prices have also enriched older Chinese people, like Mr Wu’s parents, many of whom are happy to finance the lifestyle of their often only child, according to interviews with over a dozen young people in Xinxiang. Many young people are also finding their own business opportunities at home. Li Jiao, who owns four apartments, started renting them out under Airbnb last year. Ms Li, 24, who holds a master’s degree from the University of Manchester, said business was so brisk that she was considering lifting rental fees to 300 yuan a night from 250 yuan, almost on par with prices in cities like Beijing. “A lot of my renters are local students here who have been longing to try something new and different,” she said.


‘Small town’ Spending

“小”镇消费实情 • Consumption in lower-tier cities rising faster than Beijing, Shanghai • 二三线城市消费比北京、 上海增长得更为显著 • Millennials increasingly staying put in hometowns

• 越来越多的千禧一代愿意 留在家乡 • High property prices in large cities have pushed up living costs • 大城市的高房价抬高了生 活成本

• Small-town kids splurge on brands, entertainment, and services • 小城镇的年轻人在品牌、 娱乐和服务上一掷千金 其结果是,全国各地越来越多所谓的“小 城镇的年轻人”留在了自己的家乡。

他们在汽车、时尚和娱乐上大肆挥霍,正 在重新构建中国的消费格局,而此时生活 在上海和北京的同龄人正在与高昂的生 活成本作斗争。 去年,新乡的零售销售额猛增了12%,超 过了北京5.2%的增长。新乡去年的国内 生产总值约为2400亿元人民币。

数十年来,从小城市来的移民都奔向经济 首先繁荣的大城市。 这种现象正在发生改变。

新乡市市长王登喜说,在新乡,90%的千 禧一代留在了这个城市。

这种转变吸引了H&M、日本迅销、京东、

中国恒大集团和大连万达集团等公司。

时装零售商H&M的中国区经理马格纳 斯·奥尔森(Magnus Olsson)说,三月 份,该品牌正努力在尚未入驻的城市提高 品牌认知度。

摩根士丹利预计,到2030年,中国的个人 消费市场将会翻一番,由目前的4.7万亿 澳元增加到11.8万亿澳元,其中三分之二 来自三四线城市。

据摩根士丹利的首席中国经济学家罗宾· 邢表示,一项对超过3300户家庭的调查显 示,与大城市相比,二三线城市的居民更 倾向于把钱花费在休闲旅游、汽车、在线 娱乐上。 他说,很多消费是由千禧一代带动的。

通用汽车称,一季度凯迪拉克汽车在中国

新闻

| NEWS

的销量中,有超过32%是在小城市完成 的,而其中45%的消费者年龄介于25到34 岁之间。

“这里很多本地人开凯迪拉克,”在新乡 的吴先生说,他戴着一副时髦的黑框眼 镜。 “现在,我想要买一辆特斯拉。”

互联网巨头腾讯的一项报告显示,和一线 城市的同龄人相比,小城镇的年轻人还把 更多的钱花在网络游戏和流媒体直播网 站上。

这还推动了二三线城市电影院的繁荣。路 透社基于在线票务服务商猫眼的数据计 算,去年,三四线城市的票房收入增加了 22%,超过了一二线城市11%的增长。 中国恒大集团计划未来五年内在全国建 200个电影院。

在新乡,千禧一代也会在晚上聚集在新式 西方酒吧和俱乐部里。 田璔是一家咖啡店的老板,他经常和妻子 及他们的朋友们晚上看完电影后泡在酒 吧里。

“我的生活哲学是尽情地享受生活,所以 只要能让我开心,我就会花钱,”30岁的 田璔说。 分析师说,中国二三线城市的很多购买 力,来自过去二十年上涨的房价。

海通证券的一项对中国45个各级城市的 分析显示,2016年在房价相对较低的市 场,房价1%的增长带来当地消费7.9%的 增加。

通过对新乡十几个年轻人的采访得知,不 断上涨的房价也使吴先生父母这辈人获 益匪浅,大部分中式父母非常乐意为他们 的独生子女提供生活费用。 许多年轻人也在家里寻找商机。

去年,李娇开始在爱彼迎(Airbnb)出租 自己的四套公寓。

拥有曼彻斯特大学硕士学位的24岁的李 女士说,租房生意如此兴旺,她在考虑将 一晚的租赁费由250元提高到300元,这 几乎和北京等城市的价格持平。

“我的很多租客是当地的学生,他们一直 渴望尝试一些新鲜事物,”她说。

ENTERTAINMENT Cinema complexes are booming in cities such as Xinxiang. Photo: Reuters 娱乐方式 在新乡等城市,综合电影院正在 蓬勃发展。图片:路透社 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

2018年五月 | MAY 2018

27


OPINION | 观点 Mark Tanner, China Skinny Mark Tanner is founder and managing director of Shanghai-based China Skinny. Through his agency, he has worked with over 150 international brands such as IKEA, Colgate, Tourism Malaysia, ANZ, Westpac and IHG on their China market entry and growth strategies, trend analysis, branding and new product development. 马克·唐纳, 灼见商务咨询(上海)有限公司 马克·唐纳是上海市灼见商务咨询公司的创始人和总经理。他的机构与 宜家宜居、高露洁、马来西亚旅游局、澳新银行、西太平洋银行和洲际酒 店等150多个国际品牌都有合作关系,帮助他们进入中国市场,推进业 务增长战略,分析市场趋势,推广品牌和开发新产品。

MARK TANNER | 马克·唐纳

Big duo reshaping bricks and mortar retail SOMEONE who has read sci-fi novels over the past few decades would likely find today’s China quite familiar. In Hangzhou city almost everything you do is monitored, traced and scored through a combination of online behavioural tracking, CCTV, facial recognition and artificial intelligence, mostly administered through Alibaba’s ‘City Brain’ project. In the countryside, government-licensed drones will soon take flight delivering online purchases to willing customers. And beyond the cities, towns and villages, millions of consumers are living much of their lives in another dimension, as avatars playing e-Sports or supporting their favourite e-Sports celebrities. Yet from a consumer brand standpoint, the most interesting sci-fi trend out of China is happening in the good old-fashioned retail sector. In most parts of the developed world, we’ve already seen the wave of small retailers being wiped out by bigger, more efficient global retailers using economies of scale and outsourced labour. The next wave is likely to see many of those global retailers swallowed up or wiped out by the Alibabas, Tencents and Amazons. Why will this happen in China before anywhere else? It comes down to two things: data and the current retail fragmentation. Chinese consumers use their smartphones for more of life’s moments than anyone else on the planet, feeding data to those who control them. We only need to look at the value of China’s mobile payments, which is 60 times larger than in the US. 28

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

Every time someone pays or transfers money on their mobile, Alibaba and Tencent are gifted a little more insight about them. Almost every time they search, browse, buy, comment, watch, play, share or use a cloud computing service, Alibaba and Tencent glean some insights. When consumers are offline, in addition to their payments, their bike sharing, food delivery, taxi trips, even some of the football matches they watch are adding to the vaults of data. That’s before we’ve even considered the enormous insights from the City Brain-type projects. There is not a single company in the West that comes close to tracking consumers’ daily lives like Alibaba and Tencent and, with China’s lax attitudes to privacy and equally liberal laws, it makes that data even more valuable. Cambridge Analytica is a caveman with a club compared with China’s laser gun-wielding tech behemoths. The second driver is China’s bricks and mortar retail market, which is among the most fragmented in the world. While America’s top 100 retailers accounted for more than 40 per cent of its retail market last year, China’s top 100 retailers made up just 6.4 per cent of total sales of consumer goods. In a market dominated by regional chains and mom and pop stores there are no leaders with true market scale – enter Alibaba and Tencent. Alibaba may have historically been an e-commerce company, but it has realised e-commerce will never supplant bricks and mortar retail. People still need immediate convenience, and the experience of social interaction,

touching, smelling and feeling, which does not quite get there with screens or virtual reality. This has led Alibaba and Tencent to invest in stores such as Hema and 7Fresh. A mature Hema store makes around four times more revenue per square metre than a conventional supermarket. It is attributable to a richer, more personalised experience that inspires upselling, extra sales through a seamless delivery option and, most importantly, a carefully considered product mix, layout and set of promotions based on the wealth of Alibaba data. We’re starting to see the early signs of Alibaba and Tencent’s quest for retail domination in China, both online and offline. Alongside Hema, Alibaba has invested in RT Mart, Suning Fresh and Auchan, just in the grocery category. Tencent has JD’s 7Fresh stores, Carrefour, Yonghui and is working closely with Walmart. There are also investments in furniture chains, department stores, auto manufacturing and shopping malls. Alibaba is even creeping into mom and pop stores: before Singles’ Day last November, it had installed its cloud system in 600,000 independent retailers – 10 per cent of China’s total. In addition, Alibaba and Tencent/JD’s extensive logistics networks also enable it to reach every corner of China to help create a truly national retailer. Welcome to the future folks. Agencies like China Skinny can help you best prepare to take advantage of it, and not be swallowed up by it. This article was originally published on www. chinaskinny.com


观点

| OPINION

We’re starting to see the early signs of Alibaba and Tencent’s quest for retail domination in China, both online and offline

我们注意到阿里巴巴和 腾讯开始抢占中国线上 和线下零售的主宰地位。

双巨头重塑实体零售业 在过去几十年里读过科幻小说的人可能会 感到如今的中国似曾相识。 在杭州,你在公共场合的一举一动几乎都 处于监控之中。整个监控系统结合了在线 行为跟踪,闭路电视,人脸识别和人工智 能,主要由阿里巴巴的“城市大脑”项目进 行管理。 在农村地区,持有政府牌照的无人机在不 久的将来为客户运送网购产品。

在城市、城镇和乡村之外,还有成千上万的 消费者生活在另一个次元,如化身为电子 竞技玩家或者是电子竞技明星的支持者。 然而从消费者品牌的角度来看,科幻小说 的情景正在老式的零售业中悄然上演。

我们发现,在大多数发达国家地区,大型高 效的国际零售商凭借规模经济和劳动力外 包正在逐步取代小型零售商。 未来的趋势很可能是这些国际零售商被阿 里巴巴、腾讯和亚马逊所取代。

为什么这种情况会最先出现在中国?主要原 因包含两方面:用户数据和零售“碎片化”。 与其他国家相比,中国消费者在生活中使 用智能手机的频率更高,他们时时向服务 商传送数据。只从中国的移动支付即可管

LEADER Alibaba Group has been a driving force in the transformation of China’s innovative and advanced retail sector. Photo: Alibaba Group 领袖 阿里巴巴集团一直是中国创新和先 进零售业转型的推动力量。照片:阿里巴巴 集团 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

中窥豹,其总额是美国的移动支付总额的 60倍。

每次用户发起手机支付或者手机转账,阿 里巴巴和腾讯就会获得更多的数据信息。

一般情况下,一旦用户进行网站搜索、浏览 信息、购买商品、发表评论、、播放视频、分 享信息或使用云计算服务,阿里巴巴和腾 讯就会收集到相关信息。 线下消费也是如此,除了付款记录,客户 的共享单车记录、外卖记录、打出租车记 录,甚至观看足球赛的记录都会被导入了 数据库。

那时我们还没有考虑到来源于“City Brain”项目(阿里巴巴交通管理系统)的巨 大数据信息。 在西方国家,没有一家公司像阿里巴巴和 腾讯这样追踪消费者的日常生活。

中国法律对隐私保护和个人自由的标准, 使得这些数据更加珍贵。 剑桥分析公司(Cambridge Analytica) 是一家政治AI公司,堪比中国激光武器科 技巨头。

人们仍需要即时的便利和社交互动的体验 以及触感、味道和感受,而这些在屏幕或者 虚拟现实里没办法实现。 这也是阿里巴巴和腾讯投资盒马鲜生和 7Fresh这类实体零售店的原因。

一家成熟的盒马鲜生商店平均每平方米的 收益是传统超市的四倍。

这归因于更丰富,更个性化的体验,通过无 缝交付选项促进了额外销售,最重要的是, 基于阿里巴巴丰富的数据,促进了产品细 化组合、陈列和促销。 我们注意到阿里巴巴和腾讯开始攻占中国 线上和线下零售业的主宰地位。 除盒马鲜生超市以外,阿里巴巴还投资了 大润发超市、苏宁生鲜和欧尚的食品杂货 业务。

腾讯旗下有京东的7Fresh生鲜超市、家乐 福、永辉,并与沃尔玛有密切合作。还投资 了家具连锁店、百货公司、汽车制造商和购 物中心。

第二个驱动因素是中国的实体零售市场是 世界上最分散的零售市场之一。

阿里巴巴则将目光放到了夫妻店上:去年 11月光棍节前,它已经在60万个独立零售 商中安装了云系统,这些零售商占中国总 数的10%。

在一个由区域连锁店和夫妻店控制的市场 中,缺少像阿里巴巴与腾讯投资拥有真正 市场规模的导者。

欢迎来到未来。像中国灼见这样的机构可 以帮助你做好准备,从中获益,避免被未 来淹没。

去年美国百强零售商占据了整个零售市场 份额的40%以上,而中国百强零售商只占 据了消费品零售总额的6.4%。

尽管阿里巴巴生来是一家电子商务公司, 但是它已经意识到电子商务永远取代不了 实体零售。

此外,阿里巴巴和腾讯/京东的广泛物流网 络能够将货品送达中国的每个角落,帮助 创建真正的全国性零售商。

本文最初发布于www.chinaskinny. com 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

29


TECHNOLOGY | 科技

中国引领机器人崛起计划

China programs to lead rise of the robots Staff reporter CHINA is expected to become the world’s largest single market of industrial robots in 2018, as the country’s Made in China 2025 strategy transitions from vision to reality. Historically, industrial robotics has been dominated by Japanese and European vendors, while United States and European companies have gained a reputation as market leaders in commercial robotics. However, analysis by ABI Research indicates Chinese vendors are moving up the value chain in robotics technology. “The top four Chinese industrial robotics vendors reported a top-line growth of 20 per cent year on year in 2016 and similar figures are expected for the next few years,” ABI Research principal analyst Lian Jye Su said. “Their Japanese and European counterparts were either contracting or experiencing low-digit growth in the same period. “Two factors have spurred their growth: China-based warehousing robot companies have been actively expanding their overseas 30

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

operations and China’s overall heavy push into 5G and AI.” ABI Research has predicted China to become the world’s biggest market for industrial robots later this year, with total shipments of more than 134,000. The rise of China’s robotics suppliers has been driven largely by a 2015 commitment by the Chinese government to raise the stature and quality of the country’s manufacturing sector. Part of the strategy is development of the robotics industry, for which the Chinese government released guidance in 2016. Following that commitment, Chinese companies have made heavy investments in research and development, with Shanghai Siasun and Geek+ among the market leaders. Other major players include Shanghai Step Electric, Estun and Guangdon Topstar Tech. However, ABI Research’s analysis indicated Chinese suppliers were still lagging European, Japanese and American counterparts in terms of key components. “Chinese robotics vendors are still sourcing key components from international companies,” Mr Su said.

“Top reduction gear vendors, for example, mainly come from Japan, while German firms have been in the leading position of gripper and machine vision technology. “Meanwhile US startups have been introducing innovative solutions in actuator, LiDAR and soft material handling. “All these key components are essential to the competitive advantage and cost margin of robotics manufacturers. “There will be a long road ahead before Chinese robotics suppliers fully develop inhouse solutions but given what we have observed from other technology sectors, it is a matter of when, not if.” The rapid rise of robotics is indicative of the effects of the Made in China 2025 strategy, which has also resulted in the country moving into second position globally in terms of international patent applications filed through the World Intellectual Property Organisation in 2017. Technology companies Huawei and ZTE were the top-ranked companies worldwide in patent applications in 2017, the WIPO said. WIPO director general Francis Gurry said China would likely overtake the US as the


科技

| TECHNOLOGY

China-based warehousing robot companies have been actively expanding their overseas operations – Lian Jye Su

PIONEER E-commerce leader JD.com is utilising robotics technology to push the boundaries of automation at its warehouses across China. Photo: JD.com

中国仓储机器人公司一如既往地积极拓展海外业务 -- Lian Jye Su

先锋 中国电子商务领导者京东正使用机器 人技术推动中国各地仓库自动化的发展。图 片来源:JD.com

largest source of patent applications within three years. Patent applications in China have grown at an annual rate of more than 10 per cent every year since 2003. “This rapid rise in Chinese use of the international patent system shows that innovators there are increasingly looking outward, seeking to spread their original ideas into new markets as the Chinese economy continues its rapid transformation,” Mr Gurry said. “This is part of a larger shift in the geography of innovation, with half of all international patent applications now originating in East Asia.”

China is also moving to develop its domestic semi-conductor market, as the fallout from the trade war posturing with the US filters throughout industry. International news agency Reuters reported that senior Chinese officials met recently with industry bodies, regulators and the country’s powerful chip fund about accelerating plans to develop the sector. China’s reliance on imported microchips from manufacturers such as Qualcomm and Intel has caused concerns, exacerbated by the trade dispute with the US. The semi-conductor market was a key priority under the Made in China 2025 strategy,

with 40 per cent of all smartphones in China to feature locally-made chips by 2025. However, a US ban on the sales of technology products, including microchips, to ZTE has given the goal fresh urgency, Reuters said. E-commerce giant Alibaba Group recently acquired Chinese microchip manufacturer Hangzhou C-SKY Microsystems late last month, as it seeks to develop its cloud-based internet of things business. Terms of the acquisition were not disclosed, however, Alibaba had previously invested in Hangzhou C-SKY to advance its microchip ambitions.

本刊记者

化有限公司和极客+机器人智能物流专家在 内的一批市场领头人。

自2003年以来,中国国内专利申请也以每年 10%以上的速度增长。

中国预计将在2018年成为世界上最大的工 业机器人单一市场,届时, “中国制造2025” 将从愿景转变为现实。 从历史上看,日本和欧洲的供应商一直在工 业机器人领域占据主导地位,而美国和欧洲 的公司则在商业机器人领域赢得了市场领 导者的声誉。 然而,ABI研究公司的分析表明,中国厂商 正在提升自身机器人技术的价值链。

ABI研究公司首席分析师Lian Jye Su表 示, “中国四大工业机器人供应商在报告中 称,与去年同期相比,其2016年顶线增长速 度为20%,未来几年也将保持相似的增长 速度。”

“而日本和欧洲的同行在同一时期要么萎 缩,要么处于低水平增长。

“推动中国四大工业机器人供应商增长的因 素有二:一、中国仓储机器人公司一如既往地 积极拓展海外业务;二、中国大举进军第五代 移动通信技术领域和人工智能领域。” ABI研究公司预测,中国将在今年年末成为 世界上最大的工业机器人市场,总发货量超 过13.4万台。 中国机器人供应商崛起的主要驱动力是中 国政府在2015年作出的提高中国制造业的 地位和质量的承诺。

该承诺战略的一部分是关于机器人产业的 发展,为此,中国政府在2016年发布了相应 的指导意见。

紧随2015年的“承诺”,中国公司在研发方面 投入了大量资金,包括上海新松机器人自动 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

还有包括上海新时达机器人有限公司、南京 埃斯顿自动化股份有限公司和广东顶星科 技有限公司在内的其它主要参与者。 然而,ABI研究公司的分析显示,在关键零 部件方面,中国供应商仍落后于欧洲、日本 和美国的供应商。 苏女士表示, “中国机器人供应商仍从国际 公司采购关键零部件。”

“例如,顶级减速齿轮供应商主要来自日 本,而德国公司在夹具和机器视觉技术方面 处于领先地位。 “与此同时,美国的创业公司也不断提出驱 动器、激光雷达和软材料处理方面的创新解 决方案。 “所有这些关键部件对于机器人制造商的 竞争优势和成本优势而言至关重要。

“全面开发内部解决方案对中国机器人供 应商而言,可谓前路漫漫,但考虑到我们从 其它科技行业观察到的情况,这是一个时间 问题,而不是一个是否问题。”

机器人技术的迅速崛起表明了“中国制造 2025”战略的影响。在向世界知识产权组织 提交国际专利申请方面,该战略还使中国的 专利申请排名在2017年上升至全球第二位。 世界知识产权组织表示,华为和中兴两大科 技公司在2017年成为全球专利申请中排名 最高的公司。 世界知识产权组织总干事也弗朗西斯•高 锐表示,中国很可能在三年内超过美国,成 为最大的专利申请源。

高锐先生表示, “中国国际专利体系使用的 快速增长表明,随着中国经济持续快速转 型,中国的创新者越来越多地向外扩张,寻 求将他们的原创想法传播到新的市场。”

“这是创新地理格局发生更大变化的一部 分,目前,有一半的国际专利申请来自东 亚。”

中国也在努力发展国内半导体市场,因为, 与美国的贸易战争所造成的影响渗入了整 个行业。

国际新闻机构路透社报道称,中国高级官员 最近曾与行业机构、监管机构和国内有影响 力的芯片基金的负责人会面,讨论加快发展 该行业的计划。 中国对高通和英特尔等进口芯片制造商的 依赖,引发了一系列担忧,加剧了与美国的 贸易争端。

在“中国制造2025”战略背景下,半导体市场 可谓重中之重,到2025年,中国40%的智能 手机将使用本土制造的芯片。 路透社称,美国禁止向中兴通讯销售包括 微芯片在内的技术产品,使这一目标变得更 加紧迫。 电子商务巨头阿里巴巴集团在上月末收购 了中国微芯片制造商杭州中天微系统有限 公司,该公司正寻求发展其基于云计算的物 联网业务。 收购条款并未披露,不过,阿里巴巴此前曾 投资过杭州中天,以推进其芯片业务。 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

31


TECHNOLOGY | 科技

WORLDWIDE Graham Hughes (left) and Paul Jowett have gone global with their document-generation innovation. Photo: Startup News 在全球范围内,格雷厄姆·休斯(Graham Hughes)(左)和保罗·乔伊特(Paul Jowett) 的文档生成创新已经走向全球。图片:创业 新闻(Startup News)

It’s well documented – Perth’s Docmosis on world stage Document generation software company Docmosis has continued to see strong demand for its services with customers now located in more than 30 countries. Charlie Gunningham Annual usage of the Docmosis-Cloud document generation solution doubled again year on year, with more than 20 million pages generated in 2017, compared with almost 10 million pages in the previous year. This continues a run of usage doubling every year since 2011. The Docmosis team is made up of software professionals based in Perth, who focus on the development, enhancement and support of their template-based document generation products. Co-founders Graham Hughes and Paul Jowett set up the business six years ago and swiftly won major clients in Western Australia, such as the Department of Education. Their document generation software is used around the globe to generate documents in industries such as finance, law, health, education, HR, transport and manufacturing from its custom software applications. In 2017, conversion of trials to paid subscriptions and new software licence sales in32

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

creased across all key regions, including the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and Europe with sales split evenly across the three main products: Docmosis-Java, Tornado and Docmosis-Cloud. Technical director Paul Jowett believes the exponential growth in sales across the globe is testament to the international appeal of the Docmosis solution. “Almost every organisation, no matter where it’s located or what industry it’s in, faces the same dilemma – how to efficiently get information out of their custom software applications,” Mr Jowett told Startup News. “The challenge has always been that codebased solutions are owned by the tech teams – but it’s the non-technical business teams that usually decide the look and feel of the finished documents. “Docmosis makes it easy for both teams to control how content appears in the finished documents.” The main premise behind Docmosis is that documents should be generated from templates.

We can let Docmosis speak for itself and can rely on inbound inquiries rather than a more expensive outbound sales model – Graham Hughes 这意味着我们可以让 Docmosis证明自己,只 需借助入站查询即可,而 不是更昂贵的对外销售 模式 ——格雷厄姆·休斯 (Graham Hughes)


科技

| TECHNOLOGY

This article was originally published online at http://www.startupnews.com.au 本文最先发表于澳大利亚创业新闻网,网 址:http://www.startupnews.com.au。

查理·康宁翰 : Charlie Gunningham 初创新闻 : Startup News

言之凿凿 —— 在世界舞台 上的珀斯Docmosis公司 总部位于珀斯的文档生成软件公司Docmosis已注意到超过30多个国家或地区的 客户对其服务的强烈需求。

查理·康宁翰

Docmosis云文档生成解决方案在2017年 生成了2000多万页,相比上一年的近1000 万页,其年度使用量同比增长了一倍。 Also, those templates should be created using editors that people already know, like Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. Finally, it had to be a solution that was easy to integrate with existing in-house software. “In the early years we spent a lot of time studying the success of companies like Atlassian and how they marketed software from Australia to an international audience,” business director Graham Hughes told Startup News. “We’ve adopted a similar model where people can have an extended trial of the complete product, with support, to determine if it will meet all of their needs. “This means we can let Docmosis speak for itself and can rely on inbound inquiries rather than a more expensive outbound sales model.” Upgrades are in the pipeline for all three product lines in 2018. The most significant change will be seen by Docmosis-Cloud users, with the planned mid-year launch of the new-look Cloud console, which will enable easier editing and testing of document templates. There is quiet optimism among the Docmosis team that the doubling pattern will continue in 2018. WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

自2011年以来,使用量每年都在成倍增 长。

Docmosis团队是由在珀斯的软件专家组 成的,他们专注于对基于模板的文档生成 产品的开发、优化和支持。 联合创始人格雷厄姆·休斯(Graham Hughes)和保罗·乔伊特(Paul Jowett) 六年前创办了这家公司,并迅速赢得包括 西澳州重要客户的信任。比如西澳州教 育部。 他们的文档生成软件出类拔萃被广泛用 于在诸如金融、法律、卫生、教育、人力资 源、运输和制造等行业的定制应用软件中 生成文档。 2017年,包括美国,英国,澳大利亚和欧 洲在内的所有关键区域的试用转为付费 订阅次数和新软件许可证销售额均有所 增加,销售额在以下三大主要产品中均 匀分配:Docmosis-Java,Tornado和 Docmosis云。 技术总监保罗·乔伊特(Paul Jowett) 认为,全球销售的指数增长证明了 Docmosis解决方案的国际吸引力。

乔伊特先生告诉《创业新闻》 (Startup News): “几乎每个组织,无论其位于何 处或属于何种行业,都面临着同样的困 境——如何有效地从他们定制的应用软 件中获取信息。”

“一直以来的挑战是,基于代码的解决方 案是由技术团队解决的,但决定完成文档 的外观和感觉的却通常是非技术业务团 队。” “Docmosis使得两个团队都可以轻松控 制内容在完成文档中的呈现方式。” Docmosis的主要前提是文档应由模板 生成。

此外,这些模板应该使用人们已经知 道的编辑器来创建,比如微软 Word 或LibreOffice。最后,它必须是一个易 于与现有内部软件结合的解决方案。

“初期,我们花了很多时间研究像 Atlassian这样公司的成功经验,以及他 们如何将澳大利亚的软件销售给国际用 户,”业务总监格雷厄姆·休斯( Graham Hughes)告诉《创业新闻》 (Startup News)。

“我们采用了类似的模式,可以支持人们 对整个产品进行扩展试验,以确定它是否 能满足他们的所有需求。 “这意味着我们可以让Docmosis证明自 己,我们可以借助入站查询,而不是更昂 贵的对外销售模式。” 2018年这三种产品线都将升级。

Docmosis云的用户将看到最显著的变 化,公司计划在年中推出新型云控制台, 这将使文档模板的编辑和测试变得更加 容易。 Docmosis团队对于2018年使用量将持 续翻一番保持乐观态度。 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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OPINION | 观点 Jieh-Yung Lo is a Chinese-Australian writer, policy adviser and commentator. He tweets at @jiehyunglo. 罗介雍是一位中澳作家、政策顾问和评论 员。他于@jiehyunglo发表推特。

JIEH-YUNG LO | 罗介雍

New attitude and approach to China needed FOR many years the China-Australia relationship has been a largely one-dimensional one based on economies and trade. Since the establishment of formal diplomatic relations in December 1972, and China’s subsequent growth, Australia has struggled to find the appropriate balance within the bilateral relationship between economies, trade, geopolitics and security. On the one hand Australia wants to expand trade opportunities, on the other it sees China as a major national security threat. This point was exacerbated in last year’s foreign policy white paper, when Australia called for the United States to retain a central role in Asia and identified its concerns of China’s growth and expanding influence in the region. Such an approach causes confusion with the Chinese leadership, because they see Australia place value on its trade relationship with China but seemingly look towards the US for guidance on geopolitical matters. Until we can find and strike that balance, our relationship with China will never improve. Even before the media investigation into and reporting of Chinese influence and Communist Party of China (CPC) interference came to light, fears of China’s growth and presence featured prominently in the Australian public. For example, the Australian union movement’s campaign against the China-Australia free trade agreement was seen by many, including the then Abbott coalition government, as racist and xenophobic. The union movement, led mainly by the CFMEU (Construction, Forestry, Maritime, Mining and Energy Union), opposed the free trade agreement because it claimed it would allow Chinese companies to ‘steal’ Australian jobs by bringing in their own workers. 34

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Other examples included banning telecommunications giant Huawei’s access to the NBN, and opposition to Chinese foreign investment despite the relatively low amount ($87.2 billion in 2016) compared with Australia’s largest foreign investment source, the US, at $861 billion. These factors, and the increased presence of foreign ownership of Australian property from overseas Chinese buyers, have ignited fears of a ‘Chinese takeover’ and fuelled anti-Chinese attitudes. The fallout of the public discussion and debate on Chinese influence and CPC interference has resulted in Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull proposing to introduce legislation aimed at preventing foreign interference in politics. In an attempt to justify the new laws, Mr Turnbull awkwardly borrowed a quote from Mao Zedong and put it in an Australian context by claiming the Australian people “will stand up”, thereby causing an exchange of political rhetoric from both sides. The perceived singling out of China when discussing the laws has angered China, which has consistently denied allegations of interference and influence in Australia’s domestic matters and institutions. Rather than discussing these issues openly with its Australian counterparts, the Chinese government has responded with threats to trade and issued a public safety warning for Chinese students living and studying in Australia. The rhetoric continued with the Australian Minister for International Development Concetta Fierravanti-Wells accusing China of funding useless infrastructure projects in the Pacific region. Australia’s reaction and response to reports of China’s intention to construct a military base in Vanuatu demonstrated Australia’s lack of sense

when it comes to dealing with China. Instead of condemning China outright and wedging Vanuatu to choose between its two bilateral partners, Australia could have used this opportunity to reach out to China and Vanuatu to identify joint research and investment partnerships. Such actions would ensure Australia has a say and place at the decision-making table to ensure our regional interests are not jeopardised, and to hold China accountable if it ever steps out of line. The fallout and ongoing exchange of words in the media illustrates how fragile the bilateral relationship is. It has deteriorated to the point where both sides are accusing each other of delaying and refusing visa applications for students, ministers and diplomats. When it comes to our relationship and engagement with China, the focus now is not just a change of tone and narrative but also a change of attitude and approach. The relationship needs to be multi-dimensional (not just about economics and trade), with the intention to move beyond the surface type level of engagement we are witnessing. Both sides need to identify shared values and experiences and find common ground. China needs to recognise and respect Australia’s role and strategic interests in Asia and the Pacific while Australia should recognise China’s growing role as a global rule-maker that needs its own strategic space and cease relying on an increasingly protectionist and withdrawn US to guide its China engagement strategy. Australia’s China engagement strategy should focus on getting closer to the Chinese leadership and build greater mutual trust, respect and confidence. A higher level of trust and respect is need-


观点

A higher level of trust and respect is needed if we want to be in a position to positively influence China’s bilateral and multilateral behaviour

ed if we want to be in a position to positively influence China’s bilateral and multilateral behaviour. Australia should strive towards establishing enough trust with China where any pushback on China would not be seen by the Chinese leadership as a direct attack or criticism. A starting point would be more consistent high-level annual strategic dialogues from our political leaders and working in tandem with our business, education and community representatives to build connections at multiple levels. We need to shift the relationship from the current one-dimensional approach to a

如果我们想要对中国的 双边和多边行为产生积 极影响,就需要更高层次 的信任和尊重。

| OPINION

multi-dimensional one where all facets of the relationship from economies to geopolitics to national security and aid can be discussed openly without judgment and condemnation. There is no reason why the prime minister and government officials can’t pick up the phone to contact their Chinese counterparts when the relationship runs into obstacles and challenges. The fact of the matter is China will continue to work towards increasing its role in the Asia-Pacific and, with the decline of US influence, getting our China engagement strategy right should be a key priority for Australian foreign policy making.

接近中国的捷径-全新的态度与措失 多年来,中国和澳大利亚很大程度上处于一 种基于经济和贸易的单向关系。

多中国买家所购,引发了澳大利亚人对于“ 中国收购”的担忧,同时也改变了对华态度。

一方面,澳大利亚希望扩大贸易机会,另一 方面却认为中国威胁到了其国家安全。

为了证明新法律的合理性,特恩布先生尴尬 地借用了毛泽东的一句话,并将其置于澳大 利亚的背景之下,声称澳大利亚人民“将站 起来”,从而引起双方的政治对话。

自1972年12月与中国建立正式外交关系, 且随着中国的发展,在经济、贸易、地缘政治 和安全的双边关系中,澳大利亚一直在努力 寻找恰当的平衡。 去年的外交政策白皮书激化了这一点,当时 澳大利亚呼吁美国保持在亚洲的中心地区, 对中国在该地区的发展和日益扩大的影响 力表示担忧。 这种做法令中国领导人很困惑,因为他们 认为澳大利亚重视与中国的贸易关系但是 却貌似在向美国寻求关于地缘政治问题的 指导。

在我们找到并实现这一平衡之前,我们与中 国的关系永远不会改善。

甚至在媒体对中国的影响和中国共产党 (CPC)的干涉曝光之前,对中国经济增长 和存在的担忧在澳大利亚公众中占据了显 著位置。

例如,澳大利亚工会运动反对中澳自由贸易 协定的运动被许多人认为是种族主义和排 外主义,包括当时的阿博特联合政府。

主要由CFMEU(建筑、林业、海事、矿业和 能源联盟)领导的工会运动对自由贸易协定 持反对态度,因为他们声称该协定会允许中 国企业通过引进中国工人来“窃取”澳大利 亚人的工作机会。

其他的例子还包括禁止电信巨头华为进入 NBN,以及反对中国对外投资。尽管与澳最 大外国投资方美国相比,中方投资量要相对 较低(2016年为872亿美元),而美国投资量 高达8610亿美元。 除了这些原因以外,澳大利亚房产被越来越 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

关于中国的影响力和中国共产党干涉的公 开讨论及辩论的影响使得澳大利亚总理马 尔科姆•特恩布尔(Malcolm Turnbull) 提议引入旨在防止外国干政的立法。

在讨论法律问题时把中国作为例子的做法 激怒了中国,中国始终否认对其干涉和影响 澳大利亚国内事务和机构的指控。 中国政府没有与澳大利亚政府公开讨论这 些问题,而是以贸易威胁作出了回应,并对 在澳大利亚生活和学习的中国学生发出了 公共安全警告。 澳大利亚国际发展部部长埃斯特•菲拉瓦 夫•费里维尔指责中国资助太平洋地区无 用的基础设施项目,这番说辞仍在继续。 澳大利亚对中国打算在瓦努阿图建立军事 基地的报道的反应和回应表明,澳大利亚 在与中国打交道时缺乏理性。澳大利亚原 本可以利用这个机会向中国和瓦努阿图寻 求共同研究和投资伙伴关系,而不该直接 谴责中国,并迫使瓦努阿图在两国之间做 出选择。

这样的行动将确保澳大利亚在决策表上有 发言权和地位,以保证我们地区的利益不会 受到损害,同时如果中国的行为超出了底 线,能追究其责任。 媒体对此事的影响和持续的言论表明了两 国关系是多么的脆弱。

它已经恶化到双方互相指责对方拖延甚至 拒绝学生、部长和外交官签证申请的地步。

当谈到我们与中国的关系和交往时,现在的

重点不只是语气和叙事的改变,而是态度和 途径的改变。

为了超越我们目前所看到的表面型的接触, 这种关系应该是多维度的(而不仅仅是有关 经济和贸易的)。 双方都需要确立共同的价值观和经验,并找 到共同之处。中国需要承认并尊重澳大利 亚在亚太地区的角色和战略利益,而澳大利 亚应该承认中国作为越来越重要的全球规 则制定者的角色,需要自己的战略空间,同 时澳大利亚应该停止对不断增长的贸易保 护主义的依赖,以及撤销美国对其与中国交 往的战略指导。 澳大利亚对华战略的重心应放在与中国领 导人建立更为紧密地联系以及增进互信、尊 重和信心。 如果我们想要对中国的双边和多边行为产 生积极影响,就需要更高层次的信任和尊 重。

澳大利亚应努力与中国建立足够的信任关 系,在这样的信任关系下,对于中国的任何 拒绝将不会被中国领导人视为一种直接的 攻击或批判行为。

新的起点将是双方政治领导人在高层年度 战略对话中达成更为一致的意见,以及双方 商业、教育和社会各界代表的广泛合作,双 方以期建立多层次的联系。 我们需要将双方关系从当前的一维转变为 多维的关系,从经济到地缘政治再到国家安 全和援助,所有方面都可以在没有判断和谴 责的情况下公开讨论。当双方关系出现障碍 和挑战时,首相和政府官员们没有理由不主 动拿起电话和中国同行们进行对话。 事实上,中国将继续加强其在亚太地区的影 响,同时随着美国影响的衰微,澳大利亚在 制定外交政策时,获得中国参与战略权是必 须优先考虑的重点。 2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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OPINION | 观点 Captain Walter P Purio CEO of LNG Marine Fuel Institute Walter P. Purio船长–液化天然气 船用燃料机构(LNG Marine Fuel Institute) CEO

Dr Colleen Harmer Senior research officer, P and H Marine Australasia Pty Ltd Colleen Harmer博士– P and H Marine 澳大拉西亚私人有限公司高 级研究员

Maritime push on greenhouse emissions WITH regulations in place to reduce sulphur emissions from ships globally, the International Maritime Organisation turns its gaze to a new horizon – the reduction of greenhouse gases. In early April, the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) held its 72nd session with the aim to address the future of emissions reduction in the maritime industry. “As a member of the United Nations family, IMO is encouraged by the spirit of the Paris Agreement (on climate change) and fully committed to further limit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from shipping,” IMO Secretary General Kitack Lim said. Only a handful of countries, including Saudi Arabia, the US and Panama, strongly opposed the ambitious emissions goals. A compromise was reached which will see greenhouse gas emissions cut by at least 50 per cent by 2050 (compared with 2008 levels). This, to some, is still too ambitious and potentially too onerous a goal. To others, it is not enough. The results of MEPC 72 are critical to the development of marine transport in the future. Adding the need to reduce emissions further complicates the process of ship conversion. However, the results of MEPC 72 should be seen as an opportunity, especially for the burgeoning LNG market, as ship conversion now needs to focus on future-proofing their green shipping initiatives. Innovation and development in ship 36

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

conversion has been propelled almost exclusively by the need to develop solutions to address the 2020 cap on sulphur emissions. These solutions have largely been focused on creating sulphur abatement technologies (such as scrubbers) and switching to lowsulphur fuels such as marine fuel oil, marine gas oil and liquid natural gas. Although costly, scrubbers are seen by many to be a relatively quick and painless compliance measure. However, only 2 per cent of ships globally are projected to be fitted with scrubbers by January 2020 due to congested dry-dock space, financial limitations and scrubber manufacturing capacity. More to the point, scrubbers do not cut the emission of CO2. Fitting scrubbers is therefore unsustainable in the long term. Other popular alternatives, such as using marine gas oil and ultra-low sulphur fuel oils, are equally as unsustainable, not because they do not reduce emissions, but because their cost is projected to balloon as we approach the 2020 emissions reduction deadline. According to consultants Wood Mackenzie, global shipping fuel costs for marine gas oil and similar fuels are likely to rise by about $24 billion as demand increases. This is a potential boon for China, as shippers will look for alternative bunkering locations with a surplus of compliant fuels, according to forecasts by Wood Mackenzie.

That aside, LNG offers a sustainable alternative to both scrubbers and low-sulphur fuel alternatives such as marine gas oil if clean production processes are developed. Not only does LNG reduce CO2 emissions by 10 per cent to 25 per cent (depending on the composition of the gas), but also if LNG infrastructure development projects and downstream LNG distribution are intelligently designed and implemented, then LNG could be insulated from market price fluctuations. LNG Marine Fuel Institute’s project, the Port Hedland Liquefaction Bunkering Facility Facilitation Study, is designed to ascertain how a small-scale liquefaction plant in Port Hedland could support LNG as a marine fuel supply chain in this way. We are attempting to determine how to best mitigate the risks associated with LNG as a marine fuel and ascertain the best way to build LNG dual-fuel powered Newcastlemax and Very Large Ore Carriers plying the Green corridor trade between northern Western Australia and North Asia. The IMO’s greenhouse gas regulations shake up the maritime industry at a time when some already feel overwhelmed by sulphur emissions compliance. But they are nonetheless timely in the sense that conversion plans can now take these new compliance standards into consideration as the industry intelligently designs innovative technological, economic and business solutions.


观点

| OPINION

LNG offers a sustainable alternative to both scrubbers and low-sulphur fuel alternatives such as marine gas oil if clean production processes are developed

若清洁生产工艺得到开发,液化天然气则 可成替代洗涤器以及船用轻柴油之类低 硫燃料的一项可持续性措施。

海洋行业推动温室气体减排 今年4月初,国际海事组织海洋环境保护 委员会举行了第72次会议,旨在讨论未来 海洋行业的减排问题。

国际海事组织秘书长林基泽表示, “ 作为 联合国大家庭的一员,国际海事组织深受 《巴黎气候变化协定》精神之鼓舞,当全 心致力于进一步限制和减少航运造成的 温室气体排放。” 只有少数几个国家强烈反对这一系列雄 心勃勃的减排目标,包括沙特阿拉伯、美 国和巴拿马。 目前,各方已达成一个折中方案,即到 2050年,温室气体排放量与2008年相比 至少减少50%。

对一些国家和地区而言,这一折中方案 仍要求过高,甚至可能过于苛刻。而对另 一些国家和地区而言,这一方案还远远 不够。

对未来海洋运输的发展而言,海洋环境保 护委员会第72次会议所达成的各项成果 至关重要。减排必要性这一内容的补充也 加剧了船舶改装过程的复杂化。

然而,我们也可将这些成果视为一个契 机,特别是对蓬勃发展的液化天然气市场 而言。因为,这样一来,船舶改装的重心就 需要放在主动实现适应未来发展的绿色 航运上。 船舶改装方面的创新和发展几乎完全受 制定2020年硫排放上限解决方案的需要 所驱使。 WWW.ACBR.COM.AU

这些解决方案很大程度上侧重于创新硫 减排技术(如洗涤器),以及向低硫燃料( 船用燃油、船用轻柴油和液化天然气)转 变。

尽管洗涤器代价颇高,但仍被多数人认为 是一种相对快速且不费力的符合措施。

25%的二氧化碳排放(比例大小取决于天 然气的构成),而且,若液化天然气基础设 施开发项目和下游液化天然气分配得以 明智设计与实施,那么,液化天然气就可 以免受市场价格波动的影响。

然而,由于干坞空间狭小、经费有限以及 洗涤器制造能力等问题,预计到2020年1 月,全球只有2%的船舶能够安装洗涤器。

作为液化天然气船用燃料研究所的项目 之一, “黑德兰港液化燃料供给设施便利 研究”项目,旨在探知位于黑德兰港的一 个小型液化工厂如何以这种方式支撑液 化天然气作船用燃料的供应链。

其它受欢迎的备选方案,如使用船用轻柴 油和超低硫燃料,同样不是可持续性措 施。这并不是因为前述备选燃料不能减少 排放,而是因为随着2020年减排大限的 临近,预计这些燃料的生产成本将会大幅 度增加。

当一些人感觉要被硫排放达标率压垮的 时候,国际海事组织制定的温室气体排放 标准让整个海洋行业再次大吃一惊。

更重要的是,洗涤器并不会减少二氧化碳 的排放。因此,从长远来看,安装洗涤器并 不是一项可持续性措施。

伍德·麦肯兹能源咨询公司表示,随着需 求的增加,全球海运花在使用船用轻柴油 和类似燃料上的燃料费可能会上升约240 亿澳元。 这对中国来说反而是一个潜在的利好,因 为根据伍德·麦肯兹的预测,船运公司将 会另行寻找合规燃料充足的“加油站”。

目前,我们正试图弄清如何才能最好地降 低与使用液化天然气作船用燃料有关的 风险,并确定构建澳大利亚北部和北亚之 间、液化天然气双燃料动力纽卡斯尔型散 货船和超大型矿砂船往来其上的绿色贸 易走廊的最佳方案。

但是,由于更具创新力和更经济化的商业 解决方案已被整个海洋行业成功列入,这 些人还有充足的时间地将新达标标准考 虑到改装计划内。

除此之外,若清洁生产工艺得到开发,液 化天然气则可成替代洗涤器以及船用轻 柴油之类低硫燃料的一项可持续性措施。 使用液化天然气不仅可以减少10%至

2018年五月 | MAY 2018

37


OPINION | 观点 Darryl Daisley is a trade expert at Pitcher Partners in Perth.

700 words

达里尔•戴思丽是珀斯佩屈会计师事务 所的贸易专家。

DARRYL DAISLEY | 达里尔•戴思丽

Business has eye on calmer waters China has asked Australia to ‘increase mutual trust’ but what does that mean for Australian business?

FOR China-watchers in Australia, interpreting the public messages sent by Chinese leaders can be an art as much as a science. Take the recent comments by Chinese Ambassador to Australia Cheng Jingye, who reportedly criticised the state of Canberra and Beijing’s relationship, warning that Australia needs to do more to “increase mutual trust”. Ambassador Cheng Jingye told The Australian newspaper in April the risk of “a growing lack of mutual trust” between the countries could impact on trade relations. “Unfortunately, over a certain period, especially starting from the latter half of last year, we have seen a kind of systematic, irresponsible, negative remarks and comments regarding China which has caused adverse impact on bilateral relations,” he was quoted as saying. “It is detrimental to the image of Australia in the eyes of the Chinese public. It is something that neither side would like to see.” It’s a worrying concern to be expressed by such a major trading partner — Australia’s largest for both imports and exports. China has dominated our discussion of trade since 2009, when it became our top trading partner, taking over from Japan. And, despite the imbalance in our size, Australia matters to China too.

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AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

We are China’s seventh largest trading partner, with two-way trade valued at more than $155 billion in 2015. Chinese investment in Australia has been growing strongly in recent years, reaching $87.2 billion in 2016. So what should Australian business make of the latest comments? As with many aspects of our complex relationship with China, there are a number of geopolitical forces at play. Firstly, the comments have been interpreted as reflective of Chinese concerns about the Federal Government’s plan to initiate laws to limit foreign interference in politics. China considers these laws to be aimed at the Chinese influence in politics both at state and federal levels. In what would be a significant revision of our espionage and intelligence laws, the proposed set of laws would, among other things: • Ban foreign donations to political parties. • Set up a “foreign influence transparency scheme” of lobbyists working for foreign governments. • Expand definitions of sabotage, treason, treachery and secrecy offences. • Increase penalties for the theft of trade secrets. While Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull says the laws are not aimed at any one nation, he

also cited concerns about Chinese influence when announcing the package — a red rag to Beijing. The second issue that has been linked to the Chinese ambassador’s comments relates to Australia’s involvement in monitoring South China Seas issues. Australia’s concerns about freedom of navigation have been well reported. It was only a day after the ambassador’s statement that Chinese naval vessels challenged Australian warships passing through the area. Where does this leave Australian businesses? As with any international debate, what transpires between governments has little immediate impact on the ordinary operation of trade. For most importers and exporters, it will be business as usual — for now at least. The ties between the countries are strong, the China Australia Free Trade Agreement is working well, and the opportunities for investment in both directions remain positive. But it is a good reminder for businesses on both sides that just as trade enhances bilateral relations, good relations boost trade. Investors in Australia and China will be hoping the ships of state sail into some calmer waters.


观点

| OPINION

Just as trade enhances bilateral relations, good relations boost trade

贸易促进双边关系,良好双边关系也同样可 以带动贸易

企业发展需静水流深 中国已要求澳大利亚增进互信,但这对澳大利亚企 业意味着什么? 对于澳大利亚的中国观察家来说,解读中 国领导人公开披露的信息不仅是一门科 学,也是一门艺术。

就拿中国驻澳大利亚大使成竞业最近发表 的言论来说,据报道他曾批评堪培拉政府 和北京的关系,他警告说澳大利亚需要做 更多的努力来增进互信。

今年四月,成竞业大使对《澳大利亚人报》 报纸的记者说,两国之间日益缺乏互信可 能会影响贸易关系。

“但是,在一段时期内,特别是从去年下半 年开始,我们看到了澳大利亚对华系统性 的、不负责任的负面评论,这对双边关系 造成了不利影响,”在报纸上他如是说。 “这损害了澳大利亚在中国公众眼中的形 象,双方都不愿看到这种情况。”

作为澳大利亚最大的贸易伙伴发表这样的 言论,令人非常担忧。中国是澳大利亚最 大的进出口贸易伙伴。 自2009年以来,中国一直是我们贸易讨论 的主题,当时中国取代日本成为我们最大 的贸易伙伴。 尽管澳中两国贸易规模不同,但澳大利亚 对中国同样重要。

我们是中国第七大贸易伙伴,2015年双边贸 易额超过155亿澳元。近年来,中国对澳投资

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保持强劲增长,2016年达到872亿澳元。

那么,澳大利亚企业应该如何看待最新的 评论呢? 澳中关系复杂,其中很多方面有许多地缘 政治力量在发挥作用。 首先,这些言论被解读为反映了中国的担 忧,担心联邦政府计划启动法律来限制外 国干涉政治。

中方认为这些法律针对的是中国在州和联 邦层面的政治影响力。 我们将在这些方面对间谍和情报法进行重 大修订,提议的法律将会涉及以下问题: • 禁止国外机构或个人向澳大利亚政党 捐款 • 针对为国外政府工作的说客,设立一 个“外来影响透明度计划”。

• 扩大对蓄意破坏、叛国、背叛和侵犯秘 密的定义。 • 加大对窃取商业秘密的惩罚力度。

尽管澳大利亚总理马尔科姆•特布尔表示 这些法律并非针对任何一个国家,但他在 宣布激怒北京的一揽子方案时,也表达了 对中国影响力的担忧。 关于中国大使的言论的第二个问题涉及到 澳大利亚在监视中国南海问题上的参与。

澳大利亚对航海自由的担忧得到了充分报 道。在澳大利亚大使发表声明仅仅一天后, 中国海军舰艇对途经该地区的澳大利亚军 舰进行了礼貌但态度“强硬”的交涉。 这些事件将对澳大利亚企业产生怎样的 影响?

像任何国际争辩一样,各国政府之间发生的 事情对贸易的正常运作几乎没有直接影响。 对于大多数进口商和出口商来说,贸易和 往常一样,至少现在没有发生变化。

两国关系牢固, 《中澳自由贸易协定》运行 良好,双边投资的机会仍然积极向好。

但这对双方企业来说都是一个很好的提 醒,正如贸易能促进双边关系,良好的双边 关系也能促进贸易。 澳大利亚和中国的投资者都将希望双边关 系进入波澜不惊的状态。 DIPLOMACY Malcolm Turnbull last met in person with Xi Jinping at the G20 Summit in Hangzhou in 2016. Photo: Rueters 百折千回 习近平上一次会见马尔科姆·特恩 布尔还是在2016年杭州G20峰会上。照片来 源:路透社

2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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OPINION | 观点 Dr Alex Junru Zhang School of Business and Law Edith Cowan University 张君如博士 埃迪斯科文大学商学及法学院

Associate Professor Hadrian G. Djajadikerta Associate Dean Research, School of Business and Law Edith Cowan University 哈德良·伽伽迪卡达(Hadrian G. Djajadikerta)副教授 埃迪斯科文大学(Edith Cowan University)商学及法学院副院长

Drive for a more sustainable future CHINA’S rapid economic growth and modernisation since its 1978 open-door reforms have powered the country to the status of second biggest economy in the world but it has come at an environmental and social cost. But there are signs the country is making progress towards a more sustainable future that benefits all. In tandem with the significant boost in its economy in the past 40 years, there has been a severe deterioration in the environment and it has raised significant social issues. While the boost in economy has attracted both domestic and international investors, growing public concern about environmental protection, work safety and the associated social issues has become one of the most serious problems facing Chinese companies. A classic example is the serious milk powder corporate scandal in mainland China that raised extreme concerns about companies’ social responsibilities. In this particular case in 2008, Sanlu Group added melamine to the formula of milk powder to boost the protein content. The revelation of the scandal caused the failure and bankruptcy of Sanlu, and destroyed people’s confidence in the Chinese milk powder industry. The 300,000 victims triggered considerable social pressure, which consequently affected thousands of workers who lost their jobs and who were redistributed in the labour market. In terms of environmental concerns, more than 90 per cent of rivers close to cities are heavily polluted. 40

AUSTRALIA CHINA BUSINESS REVIEW | 澳中商讯

Air pollution in many cities is so serious it leads to health consequences. China’s greenhouse gas emissions are also a concern. Companies have been increasingly pressured by numerous stakeholders and by the public to engage in social and environmental sustainability actions. The notion of sustainable development was first formulated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1980. The concept flowed from ecology and referred to a management strategy for resources. Rather than solely related to economic responsibility to shareholders, sustainability included also the inter-relationship among environmental and social perspectives. The Chinese government adopted this concept after the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. It was later included in the national strategy, and has been comprehensively promoted for implementation since 1994. The development of the idea on corporate sustainability was further carried on in 2002 by the inclusion of it as part of the company law. In 2006 and 2008, the two stock exchange markets in the country established ‘Corporate Environmental Responsibility Reporting Guidelines’ and ‘Corporate Social Responsibility Guidelines.’ A series of controls were later announced in 2010 particularly about the mandatory requirements for sustainability reporting. We did a study recently to investigate corporate stakeholders’ perceptions about the importance of corporate sustainability and sustainability information in China.

We found that corporate stakeholders rated the importance of environmental issues and information higher than social and economic issues and information. Interestingly, companies’ responsibility towards shareholders was perceived to be the least important. These perceptions might have been influenced by the successful implementation of the Chinese government’s efforts to ensure sustainable development and in building a harmonious society. In particular, environmental information on energy consumption, water waste, carbon emissions, effluent treatment, and compliance were ‘highly weighted’ due to the impact of industrialisation. CO2 emission was also listed as the primary pollution to be reduced. Social responsibility, product responsibility, customer health and safety, customer privacy, and compliance were also perceived as important. This suggests consumers and investors have increased their awareness on maintaining personal rights, particularly on the ‘postsale product services’ and privacy. In all, our study shows some indications the traditional idea of sustainability based primarily on the long-term economic goals in China is now perceived as less important. This is a positive sign, which is also in line with the national policies on sustainability. China still has a long way to go, and Chinese companies are working to meet the expectation of the stakeholders in terms of sustainable development, but the first steps in the right direction appear to be working.


观点

| OPINION

The traditional idea of sustainability based primarily on the long-term economic goals in China is now perceived as less important 当今中国,主要基于长期经济目标的传统发展理念 已退出首要发展任务。

推动更加可持续性的未来

自1978年改革开放以来,快速的经济增长 和现代化使得中国成为世界第二大经济 体,却付出了环境和社会成本。

企业日益受到众多股东以及公众不断增 加的压力,被要求参与到社会与环境可持 续的行动中。

过去40年经济迅速增长的同时,环境严重 恶化,且引发了重大社会问题。

这个概念发源于生态学,并对资源的管理 策略也有所提及。可持续性不仅与利益相 关者的经济责任有关,还包含了环境与社 会方面之间的互动关系。

然而有迹象表明,中国正朝着更加可持续 的未来迈进,并造福全球。 尽管经济腾飞吸引了国内外投资者,但公 众对环境保护、工作安全和相关社会问题 的担忧日益增长,这成为中国企业面临的 最为严重的问题之一。

可持续发展的概念是国际自然保护联盟 于1980年首次提出。

典型案例是中国内地的奶粉企业重大丑 闻,引发了对企业社会责任的极度担忧。

中国政府在1992年联合国环境与发展大 会后采用了这一概念。随后,这一概念被 纳入国家战略方针,并自1994年开始得到 全面推广实施。

这一丑闻的曝光导致了三鹿集团的垮台 破产,也摧毁了人们对中国奶粉业的信 心。

在2006和2008年,中国两个证券交易所 发布了《企业环境责任报告指南》和《企业 社会责任指南》。

早在2008年,三鹿集团向配方奶粉中添加 三聚氰胺以增加蛋白质含量。

30万受害者引发了巨大的社会舆论,结果 导致成千上万的工人失业,在劳动市场上 再就业。 就环境问题而言,在邻近城市的河流中, 超过90%都受到严重的污染。

许多城市的空气污染同样非常严重,从而 引起了各种健康问题。中国的温室气体排 放也是一个问题。

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2002年,作为公司法的一部分,进一步提 出企业可持续概念的发展。

随后在2010年,其宣布了一系列控制措 施,特别是对于可持续发展报告的强制性 要求。 最近我们在中国做了一项研究,调查企业 股东对企业可持续性和可持续发展性信 息的重要性的看法。 我们发现,企业股东对环境问题和信息的 重视程度高于社会经济问题和信息。

有趣的是,公司对股东的责任被认为是最 不重要的。 中国政府确保社会持续发展和构建和谐 社会的有效尝试,可能已经改变了这些 观念。

特别是在工业化的影响下,能源消耗、水 资源浪费、碳排放、污水处理和依从性的 环境信息“高度加权”。二氧化碳也被列 为需要减少排放的主要污染物。

社会责任,产品责任,客户健康和安全、客 户隐私和遵从性也被认为是至关重要的。 这表明消费者和投资者已经提高了个人 维权意识,特别是在“售后产品服务”和隐 私权方面。 总之我们的研究表明,当今中国,主要基 于长期经济目标的传统发展理念已退出 首要发展任务。

这是一个积极的信号,也是符合国家可持 续发展政策的。

中国未来还有很长的路要走,中国企业努 力满足可持续发展的利益相关者的期望, 但朝着正确方向迈出的第一步似乎正在 发挥作用。

2018年五月 | MAY 2018

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CHINA INTERNATIONAL IMPORT EXPO SHANGHAI NOV 5-10, 2018

The Australia China Business Council (WA) and China Chamber of Commerce in Australia (CCCA) (Perth Branch) invite you to exhibit at the China International Import Expo in Shanghai from November 5 to 10, 2018. CIIE is a Chinese Government backed event, with hosts the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China (MOFCOM) and the Shanghai Municipal People’s Government. This is unique in China, it signifies their view of firmly supporting trade liberalisation and economic globalisation, opening the Chinese market to the world. STRONG PURCHASE DEMAND, A LARGE NUMBER OF PROFESSIONAL PURCHASES: • •

150,000 domestic and foreign professional purchasers will participate in the Expo; and Chinese enterprises from across China and Merchants from across the globe will be there to do business.

LARGE EXHIBITION, DIVERSIFIED & TARGETED SUPPORTING ACTIVITIES: • •

Enterprises from over 100 countries and regions are expected to participate in CIIE. The following supporting activities will be held during the Expo: • Supply-demand matchmaking meetings; • Seminars; and • Product releases.

CIIE HAS THREE PARTS:

1. Country Pavilion for Trade and Investment, this is exclusively for country exhibitions, not business transactions. The Australian Government will be exhibiting in this Pavilion. 2. Enterprise and Business Exhibition a) Trade in goods: 1. High-end Intelligent Equipment; 2. Consumer Electronics & Appliances; 3. Automobile; 4. Apparel, Accessories & Consumer Goods; 5. Food & Agricultural Products; and 6. Medical Equipment & Medical Care Products. b) Trade in services: 1. Tourism; 2. Emerging Technologies; 3. Culture & Education; 4. Creative Design; and 5. Service Outsourcing. 6. International Trade Forum

Please see the China International Import Expo information pack and application forms for further details. For further information and to submit applications please contact Lucy Palermo, ACBC (WA) Events and Communications Manger on (08) 6189 7844 or email lucy.palermo@acbc.com.au (WeChat Lucy_Clare_Palermo).


Corporate and Professional Development Corporate and Professional Development at ECU specialises in applied learning, providing theory informed practical solutions to the challenges of today’s workplace. We understand that your success does not rest solely on your technical expertise, but also on your capacity to leverage this expertise through the ongoing training and professional development. Our team of expert facilitators combine academic and industry experience in the private, public and not-for-profit sectors. Some of our course offerings include: Supply Chain Management (SCM) SCM and the closely related concept of logistics underpin business and corporate strategy. SCM can guide decisions on market share, investment, continuous improvement processes and assets. Effective SCM is vital to business health and so should be understood by not only the business owner but also employees within the organisation.

303ML 10968675 | CRICOS IPC 00279B

Date: 31 May 2018 Time: Full day Location: Busselton Community Resource Centre

Introduction to Design Thinking Design Thinking is a newer approach to problem solving in the corporate world, providing the tools to enhance creativity, innovation and outcomes. This solution-focused process equips you with skills that can be used to achieve significantly better results for your business or organisation. The design thinking methodology can be applied to any issue, and is the perfect tool for thriving in a fast-paced, rapidly changing environment. Date: 25 June 2018 Time: Full day Location: Core Innovation Hub, Perth Strategic Networking Have you ever wondered why some people’s careers progress further and more rapidly than yours, despite you being better qualified or having more experience? It could be that others are unaware of your capability, skills, experience and capacity. Your professional network is vital to your career progression and can catapult your career in ways you didn’t imagine. With evidence that in the future, most human jobs will be soft skill intensive, it’s more important than ever to be able to network strategically. Date: 10 July 2018 Time: 2 hours Location: Edith Cowan University, Joondalup

Dynamic Presentations Three things are inevitable in life; death, taxes and public speaking. As business professionals we have all listened to presentations that have left us uninspired or haven’t piqued our interest. This one-day course helps participants build the skills needed for the art of public speaking and the format for dynamic and professional presentations that will engage your audience. Date: 21 August 2018 Time: Full day Location: State Library of WA, Perth The Mind of an Entrepreneur Have you ever wondered what it takes to be an entrepreneur? Or perhaps you are an entrepreneur but find that you aren’t as effective as you’d like to be with certain aspects of your business. The Entrepreneurial Mindset workshop will help you discover your personality characteristics and motivations as well as your behavioural skill dimensions, against a series of typical traits displayed by entrepreneurs that have been identified through extensive research. Our expert coaches will guide you through how to improve your mindset to surpass your business goals.

For more information about Corporate and Professional Development at ECU please visit our website at www.thelink.space/cpd or contact Lisa Smith, Business Development on +618 6304 2446


Lake Clifton Western Australia Photo: Ken Meng

ACBR Issue 07 May 2018  
ACBR Issue 07 May 2018  
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