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FIELD CONSERVATION REPORT 2013 – 2014

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Auckland Zoo and the support of wildlife conservation in the wild Zoos play an increasingly important role in the conservation of species and habitats in the wild. Members of the World Zoo and Aquarium Association (WAZA) currently collectively spend an estimated $425 million per year on conservation actions in the wild. Zoos are therefore the third largest supporter of wildlife conservation globally. Auckland Zoo’s mission is to, ‘Bring People Together to Build a Future for Wildlife’. One of the five strategies identified to help deliver on this mission is, ‘Conserving wildlife in wild places’. Two of the key ways in which Auckland Zoo supports wildlife conservation in the wild – both in New Zealand and around the world – is by providing financial support to conservation projects through the Auckland Zoo Conservation Fund and by providing Zoo staff to work in conservation projects in the wild. In 2013/14 the Auckland Zoo Conservation Fund supported 36 projects and awarded $323,865.94 of grants. This support included 10 small grants, 11 category 1 and 2 international projects and 15 category 1 and 2 domestic projects. A total of $34,327 from the fund was directed to facilitating Zoo staff spending time in the field on conservation projects by covering the cost of equipment, transport and other logistic support. Details of these grants and the projects they supported are contained in part 1 of this report. Additionally, 85 Auckland Zoo staff spent a total of 10,113 hours working outside of the Zoo on 28 field conservation projects during this reporting period. This equates to 4.86 full time members of Auckland Zoo staff in the field for the entire year – with an equivalent financial value of $373,335.00. Sixteen of the 28 projects (57%) also received financial support from the Auckland Zoo Conservation Fund. Details regarding Zoo staff work in the field are contained in part 2 of this report. Just over half of the field work undertaken by Auckland Zoo staff in 2013/14 was on the Rotoroa Island project in Auckland’s Hauraki Gulf. This project contributes to the Rotoroa Island Trust’s aims of establishing Rotoroa as an arts, heritage and conservation park. The Zoo and Aquarium Association of Australasia and the Association of Zoos and Aquariums of North America include additional categories of support in their definition of Field Conservation.

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These include: • • • •

conservation breeding as part of wildlife agency (e.g. Department of Conservation) mandated breed-for-release programmes veterinary support for threatened species in the wild and those held as part of approved conservation breeding programmes (above) field conservation advocacy (not including on-site interpretation) providing staff time to manage and coordinate the Zoo’s contribution to field conservation

According to this definition, Auckland Zoo provided $1,411,561.78 of financial and in-kind support to field conservation projects in 2013/14. This represents approximately 11% of the Zoo’s annual operating expenditure. Auckland Zoo believes that the best place to conserve wildlife is in the wild. Our objectives and activities – both in the zoo and beyond the perimeter fence – reflect this priority of supporting and delivering effective field conservation.

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Contents Part 1: Auckland Zoo Conservation Fund Support

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1.1. Domestic Portfolio - Category One and Two Projects

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Monitoring Kakapo on Hauturu o Toi using Sky Ranger- DOC

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Protecting Western Otago skinks- DOC

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Survey for Chesterfield and Rangitata Skinks (stage 1) - DOC

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Survey for Chesterfield and Rangitata Skinks (stage 2) - DOC

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Developing a meta-population strategy for Takahe – DOC

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Protecting Short-Tailed Bats in the Waiohine Gorge– DOC

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Protecting Whio in Egmont National Park– DOC

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Translocation of Pacific Geckos - Motuora Restoration Society

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Black & Cooks Petrel monitoring - Glenfern Sanctuary

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Weed control on Motutapu Island – Motutapu Restoration Trust

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Predator control at Ark in the Park - Forest & Bird

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Wetland Restoration and predator control at Te Henga - Forest & Bird

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Survey of Freshwater Fauna & Flora – SOTM

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Assessment of Burrow-nesting Seabird Translocation Potential – SOTM

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Strategic plan for Kea conservation - Kea Conservation Trust

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1.1.2. Summary of Domestic grants

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1.2. International Portfolio - Category One and Two Projects

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Giraffe Conservation Foundation Giraffe conservation – education, awareness & conservation

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Red Panda Network Community-based monitoring and awareness-building for red panda conservation in Taplejung district of Eastern Nepal

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The Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme Operational costs and post release monitoring at Jantho release site

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Biodiversity & Elephant Conservation Trust (Sri Lanka) Schools awareness programme

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Lowveld Rhino Trust Supporting transport for rhino monitoring in the Lowveld region, Zimbabwe

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Friends of the Galapagos New Zealand Locating the breeding grounds of White-vented Storm Petrel

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Cheetah Outreach Trust Conservation of South Africa’s free-ranging cheetah through farmer-wildlife mitigation, Territory West

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Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie Saving the Fatu hiva monarch from the brink of extinction

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TRAFFIC/ ZAA Supporting an intelligence-led approach to wildlife trade in Southeast Asia

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1.2.1. Summary of International Grants

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1.3. Small Grants Programme

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1.3.1. Round 1

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Research of endangered frog Telmatobufo bullocki (Anura) – Chile

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Human-elephant conflict mitigation program- Nepal

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Research and education awareness programme for endangered species of Abronia lizard from Guatemala

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Population assessment of endangered orange-fronted parakeet in NZ

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1.3.2. Round 2

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Conservation of Burmese pythons in Bangladesh

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Research of oriental small clawed otter in Nepal

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Human - Lion Conflict mitigation project in Masai National Park, Kenya

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Expand ‘headstart’ programme for the black soft shell turtle in North-East India

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Survey of jeweled gecko - North West Otago – NZ

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Incidence of Chytridiomycosis on frog in Pet Trade – NZ

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1.3.3. Summary of Category 3 Small Grants

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Part 2: Auckland Zoo Staff in the Field

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2.1. Introduction

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2.1.1. Auckland Zoo staff involvement

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2.1.2. Geographical distribution and project location

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2.1.3. Field time distribution across geographical locations

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2.1.4. Project focus and time distribution

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2.1.5. Scope of commitment and relationship longevity to field projects

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2.2. Summary of Auckland Zoo’s 28 field conservation projects

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2.3. Domestic Projects

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Rotoroa Island

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Lizard surveying and monitoring on Rangitoto and Motutapu

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Habitat restoration on Rangitoto and Motutapu

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Fresh water fish surveying on Rangitoto and Motutapu

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Kiwi release on Motuora island (ONE)

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Wetapunga releases on Motuora and Rangitoto islands

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Gecko monitoring on Motuora and Tiritiri Matangi islands

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Red crowned kakariki research on Tiritiri Matangi island

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Lizard surveying on Little Barrier island

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Kiwi surveys on Coromandel peninsula

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Pest control advice For Tuff crater, Birkenhead

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Pest control at Matuku reserve

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Track clearing at Matuku reserve

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Population monitoring of Dactlyanthus

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Lesser short tailed bat conservation in Pureora forest

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Kokako monitoring at Ark in the Park

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Predator control at Ark in the Park

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Archey’s frog population monitoring

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Grand and Otago skink protection

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Captive facility installation for Cook Straight striped gecko

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Long tailed bat monitoring on D’Urville island

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Kakapo recovery programme support

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Kakapo recovery programme support

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Takahe management

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Keeper mist net training

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Invertebrate identification and cataloguing

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2.4. International Projects

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Kiritimati Island wildlife protection

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Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme quarantine centre

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Part 1: Auckland Zoo Conservation Fund

The Conservation Fund supports conservation efforts in the wild in two main ways: • •

Supporting our field conservation priorities by providing financial resources to initiatives and projects carried out by external organisations and individuals By supporting our own staff to develop or utilise specialist skills and participate in field conservation initiatives – this can include both projects led by Auckland Zoo and those led by other conservation organisations.

Financial support through grants from the Auckland Zoo Conservation Fund are divided into three categories; • Category 1 projects are those that have been supported by the Zoo for at least three years. They are usually relatively large projects to which the Zoo makes a significant financial contribution. • Category 2 projects are either one-off projects or projects which the Zoo has supported for less than three years. Selection of category 1 and 3 projects often reflects the Zoo’s animal collection – providing an opportunity for the Zoo to directly support the conservation of species we hold. The Zoo also supports category 1 and 2 projects in other ways such as providing Zoo staff to work on the project or through additional fundraising through sale of merchandise in the Zoo shop etc. Applications for category 1 and 2 projects are solicited by Zoo staff. Category 3 grants are derived from a contestable fund where grants toward small projects (with a total project budget no more than NZ$20,000) are awarded for a maximum of NZ$5000. They are usually one-off projects and may be awarded to anyone in New Zealand or a developing country (i.e. outside the first world)

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1.1. Domestic Portfolio - Category One and Two Projects The Conservation Fund Working group and the Conservation Fund Committee approved 15 separate domestic grants to 7 organisations including 7 in partnership with the NZ Department of Conservation for projects in 14 different locations around NZ.

Organisation: Department of Conservation

Website: http://www.doc.govt.nz Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/wildsidenz Organisation profile: The Department of Conservation manages all New Zealand's conservation land and waters, including recreational opportunities in these areas. We manage more than one-third of New Zealand's land including our 14 National Parks, 34 marine reserves and six marine mammal sanctuaries. We want New Zealand to be the greatest living space on Earth. This means ensuring New Zealanders gain a wide range of benefits from healthy functioning ecosystems, recreation opportunities, and through living our history. DOC has a leading role in conservation work that contributes to our prosperity, including: • Managing natural and historic heritage on roughly one third of New Zealand’s land area, as well as marine environments • Doing hands-on work with species and ecosystems • Managing national parks, high country parks, forest parks, reserves, offshore islands, and historic sites • Building and maintaining outdoor recreation facilities • Working with tourism operators and others running businesses on public conservation areas • Leading conservation research and science • Sharing information and partnering with others including iwi, communities, nongovernment organisations, businesses, conservation boards, and central and local government • Advocating for the conservation of natural and historic heritage

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Department of Conservation Project 1: Kakapo Sky Ranger

Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/siroccokakapo Project Outline: The Skyranger project enables the Kakapo Recovery team to monitor the health and activity of the kakapo population on Hauturu Island through the use of a fixed wing plane and new transmitter technology. The “smart” transmitters report the Kakapo position; whether they are alive or dead, whether the females are nesting and, if so, for how long. The males’ transmitters provide information about which females they have mated with and when. Until now, kakapo rangers have had to physically track the birds to get the transmitter signal and data. This is more achievable on Codfish Island but difficult on Hauturu due to its size (3100 ha) and steepness. The “Sky Ranger” project will allow effective monitoring of this very important Kakapo population on Hauturu. Species Information and threat status: Kakapo = Critically Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22685245/0 This species only survives as a tiny population on four offshore islands. With the instigation of intensive management in 1995, numbers are now increasing, but the population decline over the last three generations has been extremely rapid. In early 2012 there were 126 individuals, including 78 breeding adults. Threats: On Stewart Island, over 50% of monitored adults were killed each year by cats. Abnormally low egg fertility and exceedingly low natural reproductive and recruitment rates are major 10


concerns. In 2004, three juveniles died of septicaemia caused by the bacteria Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (erysipelas), a disease which had not previously been reported in the species.

Amount awarded 2013/14:

$12,500

Amount awarded to date:

$25,000

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Department of Conservation Project 2: Last chance for the western Otago skink

Project Outline: Otago skinks are listed as Nationally Critical. Endemic to Otago, they were once widespread across the tussock and schist rock landscape but are now restricted to remnant populations at the eastern and western edges of their former range. The widely-separated eastern and western populations of the skink are genetically distinct and are considered separate evolutionary significant units for management purposes. Effective protection is currently in place in the Macrae’s Flat, where a large-scale DOC predator control operation is resulting in an increasing in skink numbers. There is currently no in-situ protection of western populations, which are thought to be dangerously close to catastrophic collapse and extinction. A recently established and as yet rather modest, captive-breeding programme has been initiated which may have the potential to produce juvenile animals for re-stocking the wild in the future if required. This project aims to establish a network of traps and draw upon community resources to manage the trap-lines in order to reduce predator impact on the most significant remaining 12


skink population in the west. It is hoped this will divert imminent extinction and buy time to develop, plan and raise sufficient funds for a long-term/permanent predator eradiation/control programme. Species Information and threat status: Otago Skink = Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15260/0 Oligosoma otagense has been assessed as Endangered as it has an estimated extent of occurrence of approximately 2,200 km², which consists of two isolated populations and is undergoing decline in quality of habitat and in the number of mature individuals. This species has been estimated to have 2,000 individuals, which are mostly found at one location. Although this lizard has been threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and mining in the past, these particular threats have presumably stopped. However, introduced mammals are still present within the species' range, causing habitat degradation and species mortality by predation. Furthermore, despite a large scale recovery plan being undertaken, including predator proof fences and captive breeding, introduced predators are still very common and continue to threaten this species. The top research priority is to conduct a study to determine that the skink populations are recoverable in situ by removing the mammalian predators, as well as the implementation of conservation measures. Threats: The 90% loss in range over the past century has been attributed to heavy predation as well as degradation of the grassland habitat by grazing and agricultural development. A change in farming practices from extensive pastoralism of native grasslands to over-sowing with exotic grasses and intensive grazing is thought to be one of the driving forces in this species decline. This habitat modification resulted in a series of impacts, such as the removal of shrub cover around the outcrops, which had provided a food source of berries for the skinks, a reduction in cover and therefore increased vulnerability to predators, disturbance of habitat by livestock, and the removal of vegetation by rabbits. Furthermore, with the arrival of humans in the region around 150 years ago came introduced predators such as cats and ferrets. Avian and mammalian predators that are known to prey on the Macrae’s population of skinks include magpies, Australasian harriers, New Zealand falcon, feral cats, ferrets, stoats, weasels, ship rats, Norway rats, mice, and European hedgehogs. Other contributions to the decline of this species may be poisoning from pest control efforts and habitat degradation from mining. Amount awarded 2013/14:

$2,000

Amount awarded to date:

$19,650

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Department of Conservation Project 3: Survey for Nationally Critical Chesterfield and Rangitata skinks (Stage 1)

Project outline: Chesterfield skink This un-described species has a conservation status of Nationally Critical with Data Poor, Range Restricted and Sparse qualifiers (Hitchmough et al. in press). Recent survey effort confirms that much of the original habitat at Chesterfield has been lost to agricultural intensification for dairy and deer farming. No Chesterfield skinks were found there during a recent (2013) survey for the species. The Reefton population has consequently become the priority site for more survey, particularly the area around Soldiers Road. Skinks have been seen in this area but their identity has not been confirmed. Rangitata skink This species has a conservation status of Nationally Critical with Data Poor, Range Restricted and Sparse qualifiers (Hitchmough et al. in press). It is currently known from two small scree systems on the Mt Harper and Mt Somers Ranges in the mid-Canterbury high country. It appears to be present in low numbers at both sites, is likely to be restricted to scree habitat and has not been found below 1000 m a.s.l. Amount awarded 2013/14:

$10,000

Amount awarded to date:

$10,000 14


Department of Conservation Project 4: Research on Nationally critical skink species to determine management options: Chesterfield and Rangitata skinks. (Stage two)

Chesterfield skink This un-described species has a conservation status of Nationally Critical with Data Poor, Range Restricted and Sparse qualifiers. Recent survey effort confirms that much of the original habitat at Chesterfield has been lost to agricultural intensification for dairy and deer farming. No Chesterfield skinks were found there during a recent (2013) survey for the species. The lizard TAG is now at a stage where we believe urgent management is required for this species. In order to identify the best management tool, more detailed information is needed from the population including delimitation of the populations, determining how to identify the species in the hand and estimating the remaining population size. Rangitata skink This species has a conservation status of nationally critical with data poor, range restricted and sparse qualifiers. It is currently known from two small scree systems on the Mt Harper and Mt Somers ranges in the mid-Canterbury high country. It appears to be present in low numbers at both sites, is likely to be restricted to scree habitat and has not been found below 1000 m. A 2014 summer survey failed to find new populations. Further survey of the extensive habitat is required so that management can be targeted to the best population. Amount awarded 2013/14: $15,000 Amount awarded to date:

$ 25,000 15


Department of Conservation Project 5: Developing meta-population strategies and management tools for Takahē

Project Outline: This goal of this project is to enable DOC to contract the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group to develop tools that will allow takahē managers to identify key takahē population parameters, evaluate proposed population goals and manage population genetics so as to reduce inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity. This will include allowing the current studbook for the pedigreed portion of the species to provide an objective basis for genetic management, and better integration of the captive and wild parts of this sub-population, potentially including the breeding of takahē in captivity for release in the wild. Species Information and threat status: South Island Takahē = Endangered North Island Takahē = Extinct http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22692808/0 This species is listed as Endangered because it has an extremely small, albeit slowly increasing, population. The recovery programme in place aims to establish a self-sustaining population of over 500 individuals. If the population continues to increase, the species will warrant downlisting to Vulnerable in due course. The total population is currently estimated to number 227 adult birds, roughly equivalent to 340-350 individuals in total.

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Threats: Introduced red deer Cervus elaphus competing for tussock were a major factor in the post1940s decline, while a series of unusually harsh winters appears important in the recent fluctuations. Recent research has confirmed predation by introduced stoats to also be a key threat. Other potential competitors or predators include the introduced brush-tailed possum and the threatened weka. The level of inbreeding in females appears to be related to the low hatching and fledging success exhibited by small island populations. Radio-tags have been shown to increase daily energy expenditure, which may influence mortality, particularly in hard winters. On some Tiritiri Matangi at least there is probably some predation by Swamp Harrier. The small island populations may be close to carrying capacity: on Tiritiri Matangi the 20002001 breeding season was largely unsuccessful, primarily due to the increase in territorial disputes among proximal family groups. The small island populations have also been shown to be threatened by inbreeding depression. Habitat quality on some of the islands is probably in decline as reforestation reduces the area of foraging habitat. Hunting by humans is likely to have contributed historically to its decline. Amount awarded 2013/14: $5,000 Amount awarded to date:

$5,000

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Department of Conservation Project 6: Waiohine short-tailed bats

Project Outline: This project aims to evaluate the population status of the southern North Island short tailed bat at Waiohine Deep Creek: Four known roosts existed in 2002 when the last telemetry work was undertaken. Weather damage in subsequent years reduced this to 2 roosts in 2012, and both of these roosts were found not to be occupied in 2013. The current trapping regime is focussed around 20 hectares of the Deep Creek catchment in which the population was recorded as being between 200 -300 bats in 2009. Aerial telemetry supported by ground staff will confirm new/current roost location(s) and provide valuable information about the Waiohine bat populations’ status. This will allow for more efficient and effective animal pest management and protection of this ‘at risk/declining’ species. Species Information and threat status: New Zealand Lesser Short-tailed Bat = Vulnerable http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/14261/0 Listed as Vulnerable, because its extent of occurrence is less than 20,000 km2 and the area of occupancy is less than 2,000 km2, the population is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in: the extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, quality of habitat, number of locations and subpopulations, and the number of mature individuals. Additionally, further 18


research is needed to determine whether or not the area of occupancy is <500 km2, which would qualify this species as Endangered. Threats: Old-growth roost trees are very important to the species. Lesser short-tailed bats are thought to have declined through forest clearance following human settlement of New Zealand. Predation by introduced stoats and rats has also been, and continues to be, a major threat to this species. This is evident from the increase in bats on Codfish Island following the removal of Pacific rats, as well as increases in the Eglinton Valley following the initiation of comprehensive rat and stoat control. Stoats and rats are also known to visit colonial roosts, and are suspected as the reason for the critical status of the Tararua, Oparara, and Northland subpopulations in areas where no logging has occurred. Furthermore, these bats disappeared from the southern Titi Islands when ship rats were introduced. Populations of this species also appear to be minimally impacted by poisoning through consumption of bait distributed in New Zealand forests to control invasive vertebrate species, and also through secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of invertebrates that have fed on poisoned bait. Amount awarded 2013/14: $10,140 Amount awarded to date:

$ 10,140

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Department of Conservation Project 7: Egmont National Park whio reestablishment programme

Project Outline: The Egmont National Park whio Re-establishment Programme is unique as it is the only whio population in the country which has been established at a site where this Nationally Vulnerable species was previously extinct. Stoats have been identified as the primary agent of decline. As a result an extensive stoat trapping network was established from 2003 to 2007. The stoat control network comprises 1,160 double set DOC-200 trap boxes, covering 7,500ha. The establishment of the network has resulted in two partnerships forming between the Department of Conservation and the East Taranaki Environment Trust (ETET) as well as the Taranaki Kiwi Trust (TKT) for the protection of whio and kiwi, respectively. The Central North Island Blue Duck Conservation Charitable Trust (CNIBDCCT) and the Department have provided funding to support monitoring which has been valuable to track progress of this whio recovery site. The CNIBDCCT also provide funding for predator control. Increased whio survival, due to predator control, has provided for the establishment of a population. Monitoring from this season has thus far resulted in the most successful yet with 30 pairs, 53 ducklings and 27 fledglings. As the trap network was first installed 10 years ago the traps have significantly degraded. The Department began upgrading the stoat traps in 2009; progress has been slow due to limited 20


funding. The upgrade involves replacing each trap with a stainless steel trap. Funding is sought to continue upgrading the stoat traps. The growing number of whio pairs and increasing productivity success should continue providing the stoat control network is maintained and upgraded. Species Information and threat status: Blue Duck = Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22680121/0 This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small and severely fragmented population which is undergoing a rapid decline owing to a variety of factors, most notably the effects of introduced predators. Threats: Predation of eggs, young and incubating females by stoat Mustela erminea was found to be the most significant threat to the species at least in Fiordland, but also probably across the rest of the species range. Eggs are also taken by brush-tailed possum Trichosurus vulpecula and occasionally by Weka Gallirallus australis (Adams et al. 1997). The greatest predation pressure occurs in cycle with beech mast years, as rodent populations explode, causing a lagged increase in stoat populations which seek alternative prey when rodent numbers crash (Whitehead et al. 2008). A male-biased sex-ratio has been observed throughout the range, indicating that predation during incubation (which is almost exclusively carried out by the female) is significant. Previously, grazing and clearance of waterside vegetation decreased water quality and led to the speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; disappearance from lowland rivers. Hydroelectric dams have altered the flow of some rivers, reducing available habitat (Heather and Robertson 1997), but increases in flow rates implemented from 2004 have mediated some of the impacts. Poor dispersal reduces recolonisation and prevents mixing of nearby populations. Introduced trout may compete for food, and birds caught in discarded fishing line have been reported. Human activities on the rivers often cause significant disturbance, and sub-division of land for development has recently occurred adjacent to rivers occupied by the species. The introduced alga Didymo may reduce habitat quality, and avian diseases have the potential to significantly impact populations if introduced. Amount awarded 2013/14: $5,000 Amount awarded to date:

$ 5,000

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Organisation: Motuora Restoration Society (MRS) Project: Translocation of Pacific geckos from Hauturu/|Little Barrier Island to Motuora Island

Website: http://motuora.org.nz Organisation profile: Registered as a charity with the Charities Commission since 2007 the Motuora Restoration Society is an entirely voluntary group set up to undertake the restoration of the forest and to assist with re-establishing native birds and insects on this island in the Hauraki Gulf. We are recognised by the Department of Conservation as the lead community agency for this task, and since 2003 the Motuora Restoration Society has taken responsibility for the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s day-to-day management. Project outline: The project is the translocation of approx. 40 Pacific geckos from Hauturu/Little Barrier Island to Motuora Island to start a population of this species on Motuora. Motuora is currently undergoing restoration, a process begun in earnest with the foundation of the Motuora 22


Restoration Society in 1995. Pacific geckos are classed as At Risk â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Relict. There are currently none present on Motuora. They have been identified in the Motuora Native Species Restoration Plan (DOC, 2007) as a suitable species for translocation as part of the process of restoring the ecology of Motuora to its natural state and making the island a publicly-accessible sanctuary for endangered or rare wildlife. Species Information and threat status: This taxon has not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List NZ Classification = At Risk â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Relict This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small and severely fragmented population which is undergoing a rapid decline owing to a variety of factors, most notably the effects of introduced predators. Amount awarded 2013/14:

$7,260

Amount awarded to date:

$13,760

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Organisation: Glenfern Sanctuary Project: Black and Cooks Petrel monitoring on Kotuku Peninsula

Website: http://www.glenfern.org.nz Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/friendsofglenfern Organisation profile: In 1992 Tony Bouzaid planted the first few trees in his property in Port Fitzroy that was later to become known as Glenfern Sanctuary. 20 years later the area of restoration has been expanded to include the entire 260 hectare peninsula and the Kotuku Peninsula Sanctuary was created. This area is now protected by a 2km Xcluder Pest Proof Fence and is intensely managed and monitored. The sanctuary is providing a safe habitat for many endangered native species including the black petrel, brown teal, chevron skink and the recently re-introduced North Island Robin. The Glenfern Team is responsible for not only "Glenfern Sanctuary" but the biodiversity management of the entire Kotuku Peninsula. This unique area is administered by the Kotuku Peninsula Charitable Trust, consisting of landowners and passionate individuals with specific skill sets. Project outline: The aims of the project are to promote and re-establish breeding colonies of Black and Cooks Petrel respectively within Kotuku Peninsula Sanctuary, a 240 ha pest controlled habitat located on Great Barrier Island, one of only three remaining locations of these vulnerable NZ endemic species. We will use acoustic attraction devices to attract Cooks and Black Petrels to Kotuku Peninsula Sanctuary where they will have the opportunity to breed within an environment with low to no rat densities and no other introduced pests. Trail cameras are vital to optimising field efficiency to record birds prospecting, establishing in the area and for monitoring breeding progress. Burrow locations will be identified and breeding success monitored, with fledglings banded for future reference. Funding for monitoring equipment and labour was provided by Forest and Bird and ASB last season, and we are hoping to continue the monitoring work this season.

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Species Information and threat status: Black Petrel = Vulnerable http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22698150/0 This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it breeds on just two very small islands where introduced predators are a potential threat. The population is assumed to be stable, but if a decline is detected, the species should be up-listed to Endangered. Threats: Introduced cats decimated the Little Barrier population, killing up to 100% of fledglings in some years, and taking adults. Introduced cats cause minor interference on Great Barrier, but breeding success is high (77% in 2007/2008). Pacific rat Rattus exulans is present on Great Barrier Island but has little effect on this species. Pacific rats were eradicated from Little Barrier Island in 2004. Black rat R. rattus, stray dogs, feral cats and feral pigs may also be a threat on Great Barrier. The species is a common scavenger of fishing boat waste, and is caught by commercial long liners and recreational fishers in New Zealand waters, and may be at greater risk during migration to the east Pacific off Ecuador and Peru where it is a near-obligate associate of small crustaceans. Birds have been caught on long lines in this region. El Ni単o fluctuations may also affect the population in this zone. The species is potentially threatened by climate change because it has a geographically bounded distribution: its altitudinal distribution falls entirely within 1,000 m of the highest mountain top within its range (621 m). Cook's Petrel = Vulnerable This species is listed as Vulnerable because, although there have been rapid declines in the past, the improving status of the population and habitat, in particular following the successful eradication of the last introduced predators (Pacific rat) on Little Barrier Island (where by far the largest numbers breed), leading to an increase in fledging success from 5% to 70%. This key step in turning the fortunes of the species followed the earlier eradication of cats from Little Barrier Island in 1980, and Weka from Codfish Island in the early 1980s. Although tiny numbers still occur on Great Barrier Island it may have been effectively extinct as a reproductively viable population for several decades. Threats: On Little Barrier, introduced cats were a major predator of chicks and adults. Although cats were eradicated, the number of petrel burrows with chicks declined from 32% when both cats and rats were present to just 9% following cat eradication because the population of Rattus exulans (also a predator of petrel chicks) increased dramatically. On Great Barrier, the population is severely threatened by cats, black rat R. rattus and Pacific rat R. exulans. On Codfish, the population declined owing to severe predation by the introduced Weka Gallirallus australis.

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Amount awarded 2013/14: $ 5,310 Amount awarded to date:

$ 5,310$

Kaka pictured in petrel burrow during survey

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Organisation: Motutapu Restoration Trust Project: Weed control in Central Gully next to the Watershed planting in the Home Bay Forest.

Website: http://www.motutapu.org.nz Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/MotutapuRestorationTrust Organisation profile: The island is experiencing an exciting, large scale and long term transformation. Our project is the largest ecological restoration endeavour in New Zealand. Motutapu is only 30 minutes by ferry from downtown Auckland, New Zealand's largest city and is linked by causeway to Rangitoto Island in the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park. Motutapu and Rangitoto are now pest free islands - please, we need your help to keep it that way. The Motutapu Restoration Trust is committed to restoring the natural and cultural landscapes of this beautiful and very special island Project outline: The forest planted by volunteers (the Home Bay Forest) has reached an area of remnant bush (Central Gully) closely associated with the Watershed Wetland area. The project is to clear mothplant (Araujia sericifera) and associated weeds from the remnant bush area and intervening pasture. If left unchecked, moth plant will grow in the newly planted forest inhibiting the growth of native species and interfering with natural ecological processes. While volunteers are used extensively for moth plant control on Motutapu, contract support is required for chainsaw and herbicide use to clear gorse and kikuyu harbouring mothplant so that the volunteer effort can be as efficient as possible. Amount awarded 2013/14: $10,000 Amount awarded to date: $30,000

27


Organisation: Forest and Bird

Website: http://www.forestandbird.org.nz/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ForestandBird Organisation profile: Originally formed to protect our native forests and birds, our role has since grown to include protection of all native species and wild places, – on land and in our oceans, lakes and rivers. We give nature a voice. We speak for all our threatened species and fragile places - from endangered Maui’s dolphins to high-country tussock-lands. New Zealand’s territory covers an area of ocean many times greater than our land mass, and is home to many itinerant species, such as sea-birds and marine mammals. We work with other environmental organisations, such as BirdLife International, on environmental issues in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone, the wider Pacific and in Antarctica. We are not a government organisation and do not receive government funding – we rely on the generosity of our members’ subscriptions, donations and bequests to carry out our conservation work. Forest & Bird is New Zealand’s longest-serving conservation organisation, formed in 1923 in response to widespread extinction of native species and destruction of our native forests. Since it was formed Forest & Bird has played an active role in preserving New Zealand’s environment and native species. We have helped establish protection for a third of our country’s land in parks and reserves, put an end to logging of our native forests and helped bring species such as the kakapo and kokako back from the brink of extinction. By enlisting the support and environmental vision of our members, our staff work to bring about better legislation and policy that supports environmental protection.

28


Forest and Bird Project 1: Predator control at Ark in the Park

Website: http://www.arkinthepark.org.nz/ Organisation profile: Ark in the Park is a partnership between Forest and Bird and the Auckland Council. It is a conservation project in northern New Zealand rain forest, at the Cascade Kauri Park in Auckland's Waitakere Ranges Regional Park. By controlling non-native pests and predators, we help restore the ecology of the area to its natural state. Project outline: Volunteers lie at the heart of the success of the Ark in the Park project with around 9000 volunteer hours per year being put into activities such as trapping, baiting, monitoring and survey work, clearing, planting and public awareness. There are also two full time staff members â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a manager and a volunteer coordinator. The Ark is currently 2100ha of original and regenerating native forest. It is an unfenced sanctuary, allowing for further expansion in future and free access to the public. There have been successful translocations of Whitehead/Popokatea, North Island Robins and Kokako and we are working to consolidate these populations and prepare for further reintroductions. Monitoring of rat numbers, geckos, birds, invertebrates and seed fall is also undertaken. Data is recorded and analysed to evaluate the success and future focus of the project. Amount awarded 2013/14: $10,000 Amount awarded to date:

$ 65,666

29


Forest and Bird Project 2: Te Henga wetland restoration

Project outline: By controlling predators in this, the largest wetland in Auckland, the existing rare and uncommon species such as bittern, marsh crake, and fern birds can thrive and species once part of a mainland wetland can be returned. In June 2012 approval was given by the pateke Recovery Group for a translocation to the Te Henga wetland / Lake Wainamu complex contingent on the establishment of predator control. Stoat and feral cat control are the requirements for establishing pateke but other species will benefit also with this control. Some sections of the area have rat control also. Since then the majority of traps needed have been purchased; & permission gained from the many landowners whose properties extend to the wetland. Whereas smaller sections of the predator control array are manageable by volunteers and in some cases have already been in existence, two major circuits are too long so contractors will be needed long term. Amount awarded 2013/14: $12,600 Amount awarded to date:

$ 12,600

30


Organisation: Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi

Website: http://www.tiritirimatangi.org.nz/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/TiritiriMatangiIsland Organization profile: Tiritiri Matangi Island is a wildlife sanctuary and one of New Zealand's most important and exciting conservation projects. It is located 30km north east of central Auckland and just 4km from the end of the Whangaparaoa Peninsula. A hundred and twenty years of farming had seen this 220-hectare island stripped of 94% of its native bush but between 1984 and 1994, volunteers planted between 250,000 and 300,000 trees. The Island is now 60% forested with the remaining 40% left as grassland for species preferring open habitat. In conjunction with this planting programme, all mammalian predators were eradicated and a number of threatened and endangered bird and reptile species have been successfully introduced, including the flightless takahe, one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rarest species, and the tuatara. There are few places in New Zealand where you can readily see and walk amongst so many rare species. The Tiritiri Matangi Island sanctuary is a partnership between the Department of Conservation (DOC) and the community, through the Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi (Inc.), a non-profit community conservation organisation.

31


Tiritiri Matangi - Project 1: Survey of fresh water fauna and flora

Project outline: One of the recommendations from our recently published Tiritiri Matangi Island Biodiversity Plan 2013 was to ‘Consider translocating appropriate seabird species (little shearwater, fleshfooted shearwater, Pycroft’s petrel) to the Island within the next ten years.’ Burrowing seabirds are an essential component of New Zealand ecosystems and can have a significant impact through burrowing activity, vegetation modification and, critically, through the massive transference of nutrients via guano deposition, regurgitations and adult, egg and chick mortality. Given this critical role, it is desirable to re-establish populations on islands such as Tiritiri Matangi. Natural colonisation of seabird species not currently breeding on Tiritiri Matangi is unlikely. We wish to engage an expert contractor to carry out an assessment of candidate species for attraction or translocation to the Island. The assessment will include: • confirmation of the value of breeding seabirds to the Island’s ecosystem, • the suitability of Island habitats • the appropriateness of candidate species • availability of source populations and impact on those populations • practicality and costs • timing • likelihood of obtaining permits and access • potential clashes with other projects • Impacts on species already present. Amount awarded 2013/14: $6,053 Amount awarded to date:

$ 20,588 32


Tiritiri Matangi Project 2: Assessment of the potential for translocation of burrow-nesting seabirds to Tiritiri Matangi Island

Project outline: The drains, streams and dams on Tiritiri Matangi Island provide scarce (on the Island) freshwater habitats, but no study has been carried out on the range and quality of species present. Our recently published Tiritiri Matangi Island Biodiversity Plan 2013 makes four recommendations for freshwater habitats: undertake a comprehensive survey of Tiritiri Matangi’s freshwater flora and fauna to establish the species composition on the Island. • Assess the access routes for fish migrating from the sea to the ponds, and whether it is possible to improve such access to those ponds/streams that provide suitable habitat for native fish. • Assess the quality of the ponds’ marginal and aquatic vegetation. Suitable aquatic/wetland plants are necessary to provide shade and cover, which will in turn lower the water temperature during summer, provide habitat for native fish and ultimately improve water quality. • Measure water quality parameters in each of the ponds. This could be a good opportunity to implement a regular monitoring programme in order to assess freshwater ecosystem health and trends. We propose to employ a consultant freshwater ecologist to carry out an initial study and provide a report on the current status of our freshwater habitats Amount awarded 2013/14: $1,835 Amount awarded to date:

$ 20,588

33


Organisation: Kea Conservation Trust Project: Development and delivery of a strategic plan for Kea conservation

Website: http://www.keaconservation.co.nz/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Kea-Conservation-Trust/139532942749463 Organisation profile: The Kea Conservation Trust was set up in 2006 to assist in conservation of wild Kea (Nestor notabilis) in their natural habitat and to increase the husbandry standards and advocacy potential of those Kea held in captive facilities within New Zealand. The Kea Conservation Trust was registered as a charitable entity under the Charities Act 2005 (registration number CC29701). The Kea Conservation Trust aims to assist in conservation of wild Kea in their natural habitat through; • establishing positive working relationships with associated conservation groups/individuals; • raising of funds to allow research on Kea issues; • provision of an easily accessible information resource on Kea. The Kea Conservation Trust also aims to increase the husbandry standards and advocacy potential of those Kea held in captive facilities within New Zealand through; • provision of information on best practice management; • raising of funds to conduct research into advocacy strategies, optimum enclosure design, and how best to maintain the physical/psychological health of captive kea; • provision of a support network for all Kea holders Project Outline The project as a whole aims to i) trial a management model in which data collection by volunteers and community groups is co-ordinated by an over-arching community group, the Kea Conservation Trust (the KCT), and ii) secure enough funding for the KCT to employ a parttime coordinator to support field workers and conduct data analysis and reporting. Funding for this project was initially sought from Department of Conservation (DOC) for an initial 3 years. 34


The first year of the project, funded by the previous 5 South Island DOC conservancyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s was completed successfully. This first year enabled development of a draft Strategic Plan for Kea Conservation Document as well as three aims documents and project plan. The second and third years seek to complete these documents with our project partners (DOC) and to initiate management plans which action each of the Strategic Plan aims. In addition to this, DOC is planning to hand over all resources related to kea research to add to the pool of equipment already purchased by the KCT and to commit to a low level of ongoing support (in-kind and funding). This is an extremely important project which will define and action the direction of kea conservation over the next 5-10 years. The project is a direct collaboration between the KCT and DOC and will aim to develop additional relationships nationally to ensure delivery of all stated projects. Amount awarded 2013/14: $15,000 Amount awarded to date:

$ 46,550

35


1.1.2. Summary of Category One and Two Domestic Grants Project

Amount

1

Department of Conservation. Kakapo

$13,000

2

Department of Conservation. Otago Skink

$2,000

3

Department of Conservation. Chesterfield and Rangitata Skink

$10,000

4

Department of Conservation. Chesterfield and Rangitata Skink

$15,000

5

Department of Conservation. Takahe

$4,000

6

Department of Conservation (short tail bats)

$10,140

7

Department of Conservation (whio)

$5,000

8

Motuora Restoration Trust

$7,260

9

Glenfern Sanctuary.

$5,310

10

Motutapu Restoration Trust

$10,000

11

Ark in the Park

$10,000

12

Forest and Bird habitat te Henga

$120

13

Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi

$6,053

14

Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi

$1,835

15

Kea Conservation Trust

$15,000

Total

$114,718

36


1.2. International Portfolio - Category One and Two Projects Organisation: Giraffe Conservation Foundation (GCF) Project: Giraffe conservation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; education, awareness & conservation

Website: http://www.giraffeconservation.org Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Giraffe-ConservationFoundation/213643668667273 Category 1 Organisation profile: The Giraffe Conservation Foundation mission is to: - Establish the current status of all giraffe populations and (sub) species to support and inform their conservation and management, - Identify key threats to giraffe and innovative ways to mitigate these, - Increase awareness about the plight of giraffe, - Support dedicated and innovative research to better understand giraffe ecology, conservation and management, - Promote and support giraffe conservation initiatives and work collaboratively with local communities to develop a sustainable future for both people and wildlife, - Promote the importance and profile of giraffe conservation on the international stage, - Provide a platform and forum for giraffe related research, conservation and management discussion, - Develop a world class network of individuals and organizations dedicated to securing the future of giraffe, - Secure viable, and protect existing, habitat for giraffe and other wildlife, - Maintain a close working relationship with the IUCN SSC Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group (GOSG) to provide comprehensive educational and technical support, - Establish GCF as the key focal organisation for giraffe conservation and management. Project outline: Unlike most other large mega fauna, giraffe remain largely under-studied and under-researched in the wild. Giraffe populations are in decline across Africa, with an estimated population of less 37


than 80,000 remaining â&#x20AC;&#x201C; down from 140,000 in the late 1990s. GCF and several associated researchers have established themselves at the forefront of giraffe conservation in Africa. While giraffe as a species are not considered threatened according to the IUCN, mostly due to data deficiency, two (sub) species are already listed as endangered and others have alarmingly low numbers and are in urgent need of a review of their conservation status. Giraffe conservation and management are poorly understood, and GCF works on collating data from across the continent to help develop new profiles, materials and status reviews leading to new IUCN Red Listing for giraffe. GCF will also continue to take DNA samples from giraffe populations across Africa to clarify (sub) speciation of giraffe for the continent. Preliminary analysis of the Auckland Zoo supported research in Namibia indicates new and exciting results, which might change our view on giraffe taxonomy and distribution in Africa, and highlights more sampling is required to fill the few remaining gaps. IUCN Status and presentation: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/9194/0 Giraffe: Least Concern A number of subspecies classifications have been proposed for Giraffe. There is considerable uncertainty surrounding the geographic and taxonomic limits of all described subspecies. Furthermore, recent genetic work suggests that several subspecies may even represent distinct species. Here, only the forms peralta from West Africa, which recent genetic evidence has confirmed is indeed distinct and rothschildi are assessed at the subspecies level. This species is provisionally listed as Least Concern as it remains widespread, with a total population numbering more than 100,000 individuals. However, a recent preliminary population estimate suggests a decline in the total population has taken place which, if substantiated, could mean that the species will warrant listing in a higher category of threat. Some populations remain stable or are even increasing, but others are clearly in a more precarious position (and may well be threatened). Ongoing efforts to census the continent's giraffe populations will allow more accurate assessment of the species' overall conservation status, as well as described subspecies in future. Rothschildâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Giraffe: Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/174469/0 Current estimates of population size are well below 2,500 mature individuals, numbers are declining overall and no subpopulation is estimated to contain more than 250 mature individuals. Niger Giraffe, Nigerien Giraffe, West African Giraffe: Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/136913/0 38


Listed as Endangered as the total population size of this subspecies is estimated at less than 200 individuals although currently increasing under targeted conservation programmes. Threats: While southern populations are increasing in abundance, northern populations have been decreasing due to habitat degradation and poaching. For example, poaching and armed conflict across the range of the Reticulated Giraffe in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya has reduced numbers to perhaps fewer than 5,000 individuals. Grant Amount: Amount awarded 2013/14:

$15,000

Total amount awarded to this project to date:

$30,060

39


Organisation: Red Panda Network Project: Community-Based Monitoring and Awareness Creation for Red Panda Conservation and Development of the Red Panda Network Community Conservation Resource Centre in Taplejung District of Eastern Nepal

Website: http://redpandanetwork.org/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/redpandanetwork Category 1 Organisation profile: The Red Panda Network saves wild red pandas and preserves their habitat through the empowerment of local communities by community-based research, education, and carbon mitigation. Research: Our objective is to conduct non-invasive, cost-effective status surveys in all five range countries by the end of 2020. Our flagship community-based monitoring program is called Project Punde Kundo. In this program, we train village stewards in our â&#x20AC;&#x153;forest guardianâ&#x20AC;? survey and monitoring methodology and provide technical assistance after the program is operational. Education: We are community-based and focus on partnering with local non-profit partners in each of our working areas to implement our programs. Conservation: We are community-based and focus on partnering with local non-profit partners in each of our working areas to implement our programs. Project outline: Red Panda Network targets communities surrounding forest habitat in the Panchthar-IlamTaplejung Corridor that supports approximately 25% of Nepalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s red panda population. The habitat is under threat from various anthropogenic activities. The proposed project addresses such threats by making local community feel responsible for conservation initiatives. The project will train 16 community forest guardians (FGs) for regular red panda monitoring and data collection, sensitize local people via workshops and media campaigns and form red panda conservation committees in each of the 8 village communities, covering 14 community forests. Through the development of Red Panda Network Community Conservation Resource Center (CCRC), the project aims to build red panda conservation awareness by introducing eco-friendly lifestyles into the community. The components of CCRC will demonstrate environmentally 40


sound components and help local community adopt sustainable living and resource management practices, through which RPN will reduce their impact on the local forest land and fauna. Additionally, the CCRC will serve as a living advertisement for red panda habitat conservation and provide a central hub for conservation education through a variety of methods. These include community consultation sessions, hands-on workshops on biodiversity awareness, and experiential learning activities such as planting and harvesting a non-timber forest product nursery. IUCN Status & presentation: Red Panda: Vulnerable http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/714/0 This species is listed as Vulnerable because its population is estimated at less than 10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline of greater than 10% over the next 3 generations (estimated at 30 years). The distribution of red panda in the wild is poorly known, but its range is known to include Nepal, India, Bhutan, Myanmar, and southern China, with a disjunct population on the Meghalaya Plateau of north-eastern India. Threats: The Red Panda is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, and inbreeding depression. Habitat loss is considered to be the biggest threat to this species, while poaching is the next biggest threat in the Indian portion of its range and some localized areas, whereas poaching and hunting pose a greater threat in areas of China and Myanmar. The ultimate cause of these threats to the red panda is the high growth rate in human populations within the species' range and in surrounding nearby areas. The growth rate of the local human population has almost doubled between 1971 and 1991, causing increased pressure on land for both housing and farming, as well as increased demand for firewood. The major causes of habitat loss are commercial logging, demand for firewood, clearing for habitation and farming, jhum (slash-and-burn shifting cultivation) by hill tribes, grazing of domestic stock, monoculture forest plantation, and various developmental activities. Due to human encroachment in suitable forest habitat and the unusual biology of bamboos, the red panda may be near extinction in the western part of its range, especially in Nepal. Deforestation, which causes fragmentation, is the fundamental threat to this species long-term survival. Between 1980 and 1995 the number of tourists visiting Sikkim annually rose from 1000 to 100,000, causing increased pressure on this species due to accelerating habitat loss for firewood (for cooking and heating). Similar threats are occurring in the Singalila area of Darjeeling and in Nepal. Habitat is effectively stable in northernmost Myanmar (Renner et al. 2007), but elsewhere in Kachin where the panda might occur there are indications of rapid habitat degradation through deforestation in this area. Hunting does not appear to be as serious a threat to the Red Panda as habitat loss, since hunters do not appear to deliberately hunt this species, but rather is shot opportunistically and caught accidentally in snares during hunting for wild pig, deer, goat-antelopes (serow, goral, 41


and takin) and primates. In China, Red Panda pelts can be found in many local markets. Poaching is considered one of the most serious threats in China. Grant Amount: Amount awarded 2013/14:

$10,000

Total amount awarded to this project to date:

$40,456

42


Organisation: The Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme

Website: http://www.sumatranorangutan.org Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/sumatranorangutan Category 1 Organisation profile: SOCP is endeavouring to conserve viable wild populations of the Critically Endangered Sumatran Orangutan. We do this by habitat protection, reintroduction of confiscated pets to the wild, education, survey work and scientific research. - To ensure all remaining viable wild Sumatran orangutan populations and their habitat are fully protected and safe from destruction, - To establish new viable populations of the species in the wild via reintroduction of confiscated illegal pets, serving as a safety net for the original wild population, - To increase knowledge of wild orangutan distribution, status, threats, behavior and ecology, - To change perceptions among Indonesian citizens in terms of animal welfare, understanding of sustainable development, and natural resource management. Project outline: This release site in the Pinus Jantho nature reserve, Aceh has been operational since March 2011 and thirteen animals from the quarantine station in Medan have now been successfully released there proving it to be of enormous value and potential. All released animals at Jantho are implanted with radio transmitters and monitored following release. A further 30 animals are planned to be released in the next 12 months from this site, however to do this investment is required to increase the release capacity of the facility. Surveys carried out during 1990-2009, found no existing wild orangutan population in the region of the Pinus Jantho Nature Reserve despite the fact that the forest is indeed very similar to those elsewhere in Aceh where wild orangutans do live. Jantho is a pristine site that has most of the mega fauna of Sumatra â&#x20AC;&#x201C; including elephants, tigers, sun bears, macaques and a huge diversity of bird and herp fauna. The release site was chosen for numerous reasons; it contained suitable wild orangutan habitat including many favored food tree species, it is a protected area and it does 43


not contain existing wild orangutan populations. The establishment of the new centre and the release of orangutans in Jantho was also discussed and planned with local communities surrounding the nature reserve, together with the District government of Aceh, the local NGO and the Ministry of Forestry. The new Jantho release site and the Bukit Tigapuluh site in Jambi provide hope and a second chance at living in the forest for confiscated and displaced Sumatran orangutans. IUCN Status & presentation: Sumatran Orangutan: Critically Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39780/0 There has been an estimated decline of over 80% over the last 75 years (assuming a generation length of at least 25 years). This decline continues, as forests within its range are under major threat. Most orangutans are outside of protected areas, including within potential logging areas and conversion forests. After a period of relative stability, pressure on these forests is increasing once again as a result of the recent peace accord, and a dramatic increase in demand for timber and other natural resources after the December 2004 tsunami. Threats: This species is seriously threatened by logging (both legal and illegal), wholesale conversion of forest to agricultural land and oil palm plantations, and fragmentation by roads. Animals are also illegally hunted and captured for the international pet trade but this appears to be more a symptom of habitat conversion, as orangutans are killed as pests when they raid fruit crops at the forest edge. A new threat is the Ladia Galaska road network in Aceh province, which if legitimized by the government will rapidly fragment most of the populations listed above. Another major concern is the re-issuing of logging permits for large tracts of forest in Aceh. An assessment of forest loss in the 1990s concluded that forests supporting at least 1,000 orangutans were lost each year within the Leuser Ecosystem alone. These loss rates subsequently dropped dramatically during major civil conflict in the province, and the imposition of a moratorium on logging in Aceh. A peace deal negotiated in 2005 led to political stability and many new applications to open up logging concessions and palm oil estates in orangutan habitat. In parts of North Sumatra orangutans are also still hunted on occasions for food. Grant Amount: Amount awarded 2013/14:

$50,000

Total amount awarded to this project to date:

$338,000

44


Dr Ian Singleton, Director SOCP

45


Project: Schools Awareness Programme Organization: Biodiversity & Elephant Conservation Trust

Website: http://www.elephantsinsrilanka.org/ Category 1 Organisation profile: The Biodiversity and Elephant Conservation Trust (BECT) Sri Lanka, formed in 1998, is a nonprofit organization, which is active in the conservation of elephants in Sri Lanka and also its biodiversity. The BECT identifies the importance of dealing with the social issues of Human-Elephant conflicts (HEC) in order to facilitate conservation of elephants. One such strategy is creating awareness, amongst the school children in the rural areas of Sri Lanka where there are ongoing HEC. HEC causes untold hardships to the poor people living in those areas. Educating the younger generation is an effective way of controlling the peoples' negative attitude towards conservation, especially elephants. Project outline: Human- elephant conflicts have been a growing problem in Sri Lanka. A 20-year average recorded by the Department of Wildlife shows that in a year 150 elephants and 65 humans are killed. Due to the reduction of elephant habitats, these conflicts are inevitable. The creation of awareness is one of the conservation strategies that have been adopted, especially for those living in the areas of human-elephant conflict. Awareness creation is an integral part of the conservation plan for the wild elephant. The Biodiversity & Elephant Conservation Trust has launched an awareness program in schools in the areas that have been affected by these conflicts. Through our interactive program, we address the value of elephants, the causes of conflict, how to minimize the conflicts and stress the need for conservation. The sessions have been successful in changing childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attitudes. The Schools Awareness Program has covered, in the last ten years, at 150 schools per year, around 1,500 schools. The year 2012 is our tenth year. The success of our efforts has spurred us to continue and expand this program which is having a very positive impact.

46


Species Information and threat status: Asian Elephant: Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/7140/0 Listed as Endangered because of a population size reduction inferred to be at least 50% over the last three generations, based on a reduction in its area of occupancy and the quality of its habitat. Although there are few accurate data on historical population size, from what is known about trends in habitat loss/degradation and other threats including poaching, an overall population decline of at least 50% over the last three generations seems realistic. A recent estimate (2003) for the global population size of the Asian elephant was 41,410– 52,345 animals. The estimated population size for Sri Lanka 2,500–4,000. Asian elephants still occur in isolated populations in 13 states, with a very approximate total range area of 486,800 km². The species occurs in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka in South Asia and Cambodia, China, Indonesia (Kalimantan and Sumatra) Lao PDR, Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah), Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam in South-east Asia. Feral populations occur on some of the Andaman Islands (India). Threats: The Asian elephant is hunted for ivory, food, leather and other products. Live animals are also removed from the wild and used in forestry operations and for ceremonial purposes. The pre-eminent threats to the Asian elephant today are habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation, which are driven by an expanding human population, and lead in turn to increasing conflicts between humans and elephants when elephants eat or trample crops. Hundreds of people and elephants are killed annually as a result of such conflicts. The longterm future of elephants outside protected areas, as well as in some protected areas, is therefore inextricably linked to mitigating such human–elephant conflicts, and this is one of the largest conservation challenges in Asia today. Asian elephants live in the region of the world with the densest human population, growing at a rate of between 1–3% per year. Because elephants require much larger areas of natural habitat than most other terrestrial mammals in Asia, they are one of the first species to suffer the consequences of habitat fragmentation and destruction and because of its great size and large food requirements; the elephant cannot co-exist with people in areas where agriculture is the dominant form of land-use. Poaching is a major threat to elephants in Asia too, although reliable estimates of the number of elephants killed and the quantities of ivory and other body parts collected and traded are scarce.

47


Grant Amount: Amount awarded 2013/14:

$15,000

Total amount awarded to this project to date

$44,000

48


Organisation: Lowveld Rhino Trust Project: Support for rhino translocation in Zimbabwe 2014.

Website: http://www.lowveldrhinotrust.org Category 2 Organisation profile: The Lowveld Rhino Trust (LRT) is a conservation organization operating primarily in the SouthEast Lowveld of Zimbabwe. LRT works to increase both black and white rhino numbers and range in the Lowveld region. Zimbabwe has been facing a rhino poaching crisis and in the last five years over 300 rhino have been poached. To help reduce poaching LRT translocates rhinos from high-risk areas to safer locations; treats rhinos with snare and bullet wounds; assists authorities with prosecuting poachers; and intensively tracks and monitors rhinos to confirm their ongoing wellbeing. LRT is also working to engage rural communities more closely in rhino conservation. This is important work as the long term survival of rhinos depends on the people who live with them. Unless rhinos are seen as having value to these communities they will have little reason to help protect them or maintain land for rhinos to live on. Project outline: The Lowveld Rhino Trust is a stakeholder-based Zimbabwean-registered trust which is supported by a consortium of donors in its rhino conservation activities in the Lowveld region of Zimbabwe. These activities commenced in 1990 as the WWF/Beit Trust Rhino Conservancy Project to facilitate an enabling environment (in terms of habitat, land-use, security, stakeholder attitudes, etc.) for the growth of rhino populations in the Lowveld. This project catalysed the formation of large Lowveld conservancies through technical and funding support in the early 1990s, and varied forms of technical and logistical support have been provided by the project since then with this support being especially significant for rhino conservation during the last decade of political and economic strife in Zimbabwe. After 2008, the project was converted into the Lowveld Rhino Trust (LRT). LRT does intensive monitoring of rhinos in Lowveld conservancies, as well as hands-on management (veterinary interventions, translocations, etc.); within two main areas containing 300 black rhinos and 100 white rhinos, 49


and is also involved in anti-poaching, intelligence gathering and other law-enforcement activities in these areas. Through these activities, the proportion of the national rhino herd in the Lowveld has increased from 4% at the start of the project to over 85% today. The proposed sub-project is to support the need to translocate rhinos in 2014 through the provision of reliable tyres for the specially built rhino translocation truck. Species Information and threat status: White Rhino: Near Threatened http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/4185/0 As of 31 December 2010, there were an estimated 20,170 White Rhino in the wild. As of Dec 2008 there were an estimated 750 in captivity worldwide. The majority (98.8%) of White Rhino occur in just four countries (South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Kenya). Threats: The reason for rating this species as Near Threatened and not Least Concern is due to the continued and increased poaching threat and increasing illegal demand for horn, increased involvement of organised international criminal syndicates in rhino poaching (as determined from increased poaching levels, intelligence gathering by wildlife investigators, increased black market prices and apparently new non-traditional medicinal uses of rhino horn). Current successful protection efforts have depended on significant range state expenditure and effort and if these were to decline (especially in South Africa) rampant poaching could seriously threaten numbers (well in excess of 30% over three generations). Declining state budgets for conservation in real terms, declining capacity in some areas and increasing involvement of Southeast Asians in African range states are all of concern. In recent years poaching levels have increased in major range states South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Kenya. Black Rhino: Critically Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/6557/0 Species is listed as Critically Endangered as the population of Black Rhino has declined by an estimated 97.6% since 1960 with numbers bottoming out at 2,410 in 1995, mainly as a result of poaching. Since then, numbers have been steadily increasing at a continental level with numbers doubling to 4,880 by the end of 2010. Current numbers are however still 90% lower than three generations ago. Threats: The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new nontraditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional 50


use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness. In areas where both African species co-exists, the White Rhino acts as buffer against Black Rhino poaching as White Rhinos are more likely to be poached given they are easier to find given their preference for more open habitats and the fact they cluster in small groups. Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s. The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions. Grant Amount: Amount awarded 2013/14:

$5,000

Total amount awarded to this project to date:

$9,200

51


Rhino translocations

52


Organisation: Friends of the Galapagos New Zealand Project: To locate the breeding grounds of White-Vented Storm Petrel

Website: http://www.galapagos.org.nz Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/FriendsOfGalapagosNZ Category 2 Organization profile: Friends of Galapagos NZ (FOGNZ) is a not for profit organisation set up to enable people from NZ, Australia and elsewhere to play part in the conservation of the Galapagos Islands. Mission: to provide assistance for the conservation of the natural environment of the Galapagos Islands and to help ensure that all economic development there is sustainable and for the benefit of the people there. Objective: - providing information to New Zealanders about the islands, - Raising fund to support the work of the Charles Darwin Foundation, the Galapagos National Park and other Galapagos institutions and relevant NGO's, - Helping to provide technical assistance, especially on the control of alien species, - Facilitating the involvement of New Zealanders in voluntary work in the Galapagos, - Working to increase governmental support for Galapagos conservation in NZ and Ecuador. Project outline: The White-vented Storm Petrel - Oceanites gracilis galapagoensis (OGG) is endemic to the Galapagos Islands. Like all other petrels, these storm-petrels spend most of their lives at sea but must nest on land. They are very small birds (25 grams) and are extremely vulnerable to predation by introduced predators. Knowing where the birds breed is vital to ensure their 53


future protection and conservation. The breeding sites for OGG have never been found. Without knowing its breeding sites, it is impossible to ensure that the species remains safe from threats like rats. It is therefore important to identify the breeding sites. This can be done by catching birds at sea at the time of the year when these birds are breeding, attaching small radio transmitters, and then tracking them to their nests using a variety of methods â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tracking from boats, remote receiver/data loggers, tracking by shore parties. This is the technique successfully employed in discover the breeding sites of New Zealand Storm Petrel (Fregetta maoriana) in the Hauraki Gulf. The opportunity will also be taken to resolve taxonomic questions about the bird by taking DNA samples. Species Information and threat status: White-vented Storm-petrel: Data Deficient http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22698442/0 Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to exceed 30,000 individuals. Oceanites gracilis occupies tropical waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean, where it is numerous. Prior to 2003, only one nest had ever been found, on Isla Chungungo, Chile (where rats and fire may have caused a decline). During surveys of the island on 6-11 January 2002 three crevices containing perhaps 11 nests were located in the north-east part of the island. Suitable sites are limited on the island, and alternative sites may be too disturbed by nesting Humboldt Penguins Spheniscus humboldti. No evidence of rodents or marsupials was found, although the presence of the Short-tailed Snake Tachymenis chilensis may be cause for concern. A breeding population (subspecies galapagoensis) of several thousand is suspected for the GalĂĄpagos. Trends and total population estimates for the species therefore remain unknown. Threats: Unknown, but breeding colonies are potentially vulnerable to predation by invasive species. Grant Amount Amount awarded 2013/14:

$5,000

Total amount awarded to this project to date:

$6,301

54


White vented storm petrel project

55


Organisation: Cheetah Outreach Trust Project: Conservation of South Africa’s free ranging cheetah through farmer wildlife mitigation

Website: http://www.cheetah.co.za Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CheetahOutreach Category 1 Organization profile: Cheetah Outreach is an education and community-based programme created to raise awareness of the plight of the cheetah and to campaign for its survival. Founder Annie Beckhelling launched the project in January 1997 with just one hectare of land proved by Spier Wine Estate and two cheetahs. Cheetah Outreach is continually evolving and taking on new challenges. In addition to partnering with ambassador cats to inform the public about the problems the cheetah faces, Cheetah Outreach:  Continues to be involved in environmental education, offering curriculum-linked school presentations and resources as well as workshops and fellowships for teachers.  Breeds Turkish Anatolian Shepherd dogs and places them on South African farms to guard livestock in an effort to reduce conflict between farmers and predators.  Hand-rears cubs from the Ann van Dyk Cheetah Centre and raises them to be ambassadors for the species  Partners with other cheetah conservation organizations worldwide. Project outline: In alignment with ‘ South Africa’s National Action Plan for the Conservation of Cheetahs (2009) the aims of this project is: conservation of free ranging cheetahs and farmland biodiversity protection through farmer-wildlife conflict mitigation and the establishment of a livestock guarding dog culture throughout South Africa. 1. Education of relevant stakeholders regarding effective livestock husbandry practices. 2. Promotion of co-existence between predators, game farmers and livestock farmers, and 56


supporting farming communities as custodians of indigenous biodiversity. 3. Assessing the impact of the guarding dogs on predator ecology and cheetah presence. 4. Raising the status of the cheetah nationally, as well as in its free ranging area, promoting this conservation benefit to all South Africans. 5. Increasing national awareness and educating learners to develop an understanding of the value of their natural wildlife heritage. Cheetah Outreach has proved that the Livestock Guarding Dog Program is hugely effective in reducing farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; stock losses, and eliminating the need for lethal persecution of predators, including cheetah. All the methodology is in place and proven. Now this program desperately needs to be rolled out to cover a wider area and reach more farmers and local communities in the critical border areas with Botswana â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the last remnants of the free ranging cheetahsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; habitat. Species Information and threat status: Cheetah: Vulnerable http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/219/0 The known cheetah population is approximately 7,500 adult animals. Additional areas where cheetah status is poorly known are unlikely to raise the total to over 10,000. Given Myers (1975) estimate of 15,000 cheetahs in Africa in the 1970s, a decline of at least 30% is suspected over the past 18 years (3 generations). The decline is primarily due to habitat loss and fragmentation, as well as killing and capture of cheetahs as livestock depredators, primarily, as well as for trade. Cheetahs have disappeared from huge areas of their historic range. They still occur widely, but sparsely, in Africa, but Ray et al. (2005) estimate that the cheetahs have disappeared from 76% of their historic range on the continent. Cheetahs are the fastest land mammals, and catch their prey, principally small- to mid-sized ungulates, especially gazelles, in high speed chases up to 103 km per hour (29 meters per second), over distances of hundreds of metres. Other prey includes ground-dwelling birds and small mammals, such as hares. Cheetahs, unlike other African predators, rarely scavenge and do not remain long with their kills, many of which are stolen by other carnivores. Cheetahs are primarily active during the day, unlike other predators, a strategy that may help to reduce competition. Threats: Cheetahs are hunted for sport and trophies, as well as handicrafts products. Live animals are also traded - the global captive cheetah population is not self-sustaining. Pest animals are also removed. In Eastern Africa, habitat loss and fragmentation was identified as the primary threat during a conservation strategy workshop. Because cheetahs occur at low densities, conservation of viable populations requires large scale land management planning; most existing protected areas are not large enough to ensure the long term survival of cheetahs. A depleted wild 57


ungulate prey base is of serious concern in northern Africa. Cheetahs which turn to livestock are killed as pests. Conflict with farmers and ranchers is the major threat to cheetahs in southern Africa. Cheetah are often killed or persecuted because they are a perceived threat to livestock, despite the fact that they cause relatively little damage. Another threat to the cheetah is interspecific competition with other large predators, especially lions. On the open, short-grass plains of the Serengeti, juvenile mortality can be as high as 95%, largely due to predation by lions. Cheetahs are active during the daytime and there is concern that they can be driven off their kills by tourist cars crowding around, or mothers separated from their cubs. Disease is a potential threat to the cheetah, as its reduced genetic diversity can increase a population's susceptibility. Grant Amount: Amount awarded 2013/14:

$5,000

Total amount awarded to this project to date

$39,900

58


Organisation: Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie Project: Saving the Fatu Hiva Monarch from the brink of extinction

Website: http://www.manu.pf Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Manu-SOP/212922695414646 Category 2 Organisation profile: The Polynesian Ornithological Society, a.k.a. « Manu » (meaning “bird” in Tahitian language), is a non-governmental organisation. A group of enthusiastic amateurs of French Polynesian birds founded this non-profit association in July 1990. Mission: To protect Polynesian birds and their habitats; To contribute to the studies on Polynesian birds in their natural environment; To promote public awareness and to circulate information concerning conservation, monitoring and study of Polynesian birds. Project outline: This project aims to save the Fatu Hiva Monarch (FHM) from extinction through predator control and community engagement (600 people on the island). It is the most endangered bird in French Polynesia. Endemic to Fatu Hiva Island in Marquesas Archipelago and previously common all around the island, its population has been in decline since the arrival of ship rats on the island in 80’s. In February 2000, the total population was estimated at 400-1,000 individuals but only 41 birds were found in 2009 during intensive surveys. Early in the year 2013, only 36 fixed birds were known and managed on the island. Nevertheless, 26 young were produced between 2008 and 2013, and 6 fertile pairs were present in 2013 against 3 in 2012, while the number of sterile pairs decreased from 5 to 2. This project will allow us to continue in 2014 the rat, cat control and bird monitoring in the main valley which host 75 % of the population (Ta’i’u valley). Station baiting and cat trapping as well as bird monitoring are conducted by local workers issued from the local community. The 59


programme manager is following regularly the activities and undertakes 3-4 field trips each year of approximately 12 days duration in this remote island of Marquesas. Species Information and threat status: Fatu Hiva monarch: Critically Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22707192/0 This species is endemic to one tiny island where, despite its very small population, it was considered secure. However, since the first observation of black rats in 2000 it has declined extremely rapidly and the current population is now estimated to be extremely low. It hence qualifies as Critically Endangered. The population was estimated to number 67 individuals in 2009. Based on a 30% decline in territories since this estimate, it is now thought to number c.50 birds, roughly equivalent to 33 mature individuals. Threats: Fatu Hiva is a relatively well preserved, well forested island (with no overgrazing or destruction of vegetation by fire). Black rat was observed for the first time on the island in February 2000. Identified as a serious threat as its presence is strongly correlated with the decline and extinction of monarch populations, rats already appear to have caused an extremely rapid population decline and represent the principal threat. Their density remains very high. Successful recent breeding has only very rarely been noted except in areas cleared of rats; elsewhere the lack of juveniles indicates a rapidly aging population, with at least 4 of the 10 protected pairs confirmed as sterile in 2011. Feral cats also appear to be a significant threat to the species as two adults were sighted without tails, typically a sign of a cat predation attempt. Cats are apparently released in agricultural areas near to where the monarch is found and have been found in every part of the island. They are presumably capable of impacting the monarch even in areas where rats have been cleared. Bush fires during the dry season, forest clearance and the establishment of non-regulated agricultural tracks in the speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; habitat are also increasing threats. Grant Amount: Amount awarded 2013/14:

$10,000

Total amount awarded to this project to date:

$10,000

60


Fatu Hiva monarch

61


Organisation: TRAFFIC/ ZAA Project: Supporting intelligence led approach to wildlife trade in Southeast Asia

Websites: http://www.traffic.org/ http://www.zooaquarium.org.au/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/trafficnetwork http://www.facebook.com/pages/Zoo-and-Aquarium-Association/305341719522688 Category 2 Organisation profile: The Zoo and Aquarium Association is the peak body representing the zoo and aquarium community throughout Australasia. The Association has 99 member organisations; 94 of these are zoos, aquariums and museums with the remainder consisting of universities, TAFEs and government departments. The Association manages the coordination of breeding programs and sets the level of professional standards and practice for its members. It also provides general support and advice where required to its members and governments on a range of issues such as biosecurity, wildlife disease and species knowledge. TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network, is the leading non-governmental organization working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. TRAFFIC specializes in: • Investigating and analysing wildlife trade trends, patterns, impacts and drivers to provide the leading knowledge base on trade in wild animals and plants • Informing, supporting and encouraging action by governments, individually and through inter-governmental cooperation to adopt, implement and enforce effective policies and laws; • Providing information, encouragement and advice to the private sector on effective approaches to ensure that sourcing of wildlife uses sustainability standards and best practice; 62


â&#x20AC;˘ Developing insight into consumer attitudes and purchasing motivation and guiding the design of effective communication interventions aimed to dissuade purchasing of illicit wildlife goods. Project outline: Illegal trade in wildlife represents the second greatest global threat to species survival behind habitat loss. Wildlife trade is the single greatest direct threat to numerous endangered species, many of which are species that are part of ASMP program initiatives. TRAFFIC, the wildlife monitoring network, is seeking to partner with ZAA, and ZAA member institutions, to support the appointment of a new staff position within the TRAFFIC Southeast Asia Team, based in South East Asia. The partnership would support the salary and overhead expenses of a Wildlife Crime Data Analyst. The partnership would allow ZAA, and ZAA member institutions, to play a key role in a unique, proactive and crucial approach to tackling illegal wildlife trade. The Wildlife Crime Data Analyst would be responsible for proactively analysing crime data to provide intelligence to inform and direct relevant Government agencies and NGOs enforcement efforts. Focus will be centred on mapping transnational and organised crime networks and capacity building with Government and NGO enforcement agencies. ZAA is actively promoting this opportunity because it is relevant to so many of the collections in our region, many species impacted are those we manage under the ASMP and global programs and intelligence suggest even New Zealand and Australian species are being traded within the SE Asian region. Messaging about illegal trade in endangered species is already a significant element of many membersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interpretive strategies and participation in this initiative would demonstrate how zoos and aquariums are proactively supporting solutions to this increasing threat to wildlife in our greater region. Grant Amount: Amount awarded 2013/14:

$15,000

Total amount awarded to this project to date

$15,000

63


1.2.1. Summary of Category One and Two International Grants Project

Amount

1

Sumatran orang-utan conservation Programme (Indonesia)

$50000

2

Giraffe Conservation Foundation (Namibia)

$15000

3

Red Panda Network (Nepal)

$10000

4

Friends of Galapagos NZ (Ecuador)

5

Biodiversity and Elephant Conservation Trust (Sri Lanka)

7

Cheetah Outreach (South Africa)

$5000

8

Lowveld Rhino (Zimbabwe)

$5000

10

Traffic Wild Life Trade (Indonesia)

$15000

11

SOP Manu Saving the Fatu hiva monarch (Tahiti)

$10000

Total

$5000 $15000

$130,000

64


1.3. Small Grants Programme 1.3.1.

Round 1

Project: Conservation of the critically endangered frog Telmatobufo bullocki (Anura) in fragmented temperate forests of Chile Applicant information: Virginia Moreno, PhD candidate Massey University Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation Group, INMS Project partners: Nahuelbuta Natural in Chile (local environmental NGO) Project outline: Telmatobufo bullocki is one of the most endangered amphibians in the world. It is microendemic to the temperate forest of Chile's coastal Nahuelbuta Range. Throughout this area, native forest has been extensively replaced by exotic forestry plantations, leaving mostly small and isolated patches of native forest. Only six populations are known in the wild, and they currently face several threats. With few observations of the adult frogs, knowledge of this species ecology and behaviour is still scarce. Urgent conservation research and action is needed in order to protect and manage populations and habitat. This project will generate baseline data on relative abundances of each population, which will be the basis for future long-term monitoring. Population structure, genetic diversity, and gene flow will be assessed using genetic markers. This will aid the identification of management units, and will help manage the longterm conservation of genetic resources. The potential use of environmental DNA for the detection of this species will be explored, and this could become a cost-effective monitoring tool. This knowledge will also be valuable for other conservation applications such as identification of source populations for future translocations, and the genetic management of captive populations. Species Information and threat status: Telmatobufo bullocki = Critically Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/21623/0 Listed as Critically Endangered, because its area of occupancy is probably less than 500 km2, with all individuals in fewer than five locations, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in Arauco Province, Chile. Threats: The major threat to the species is clear cutting and afforestation with pine plantations, which causes siltation of streams which, in turn, makes it harder for the larvae to feed. Amount awarded:

$ 5,000 65


Project: Community based effective & proactive Human-Elephant conflict mitigation program Applicant information: Rabin Kadariya, Conservation Officer National Trust for Nature Conservation/Bardia conservation Programme in Nepal Website: www.ntnc.org.np Project outline: Bardia National Park and its surrounding forest offers the maximum numbers of elephants (6080) found in the Terai of Nepal. These days elephant population are concentrated only in the isolated park due to the habitat destruction and rapid settlement in elephant habitat. Human population surround the park are rapidly increased and the elephant population are drastically increased during a decade in Bardia National Park due to migration from India and armed protection in park. Consequently human elephant conflict is growing concern issue due to human death, casualties, property damage and crop raids among the poor people living contiguous to park boundary and nearby forest. Suddenly, maximum elephants deaths are recorded as a retaliatory killing such as fired and electrocuted while protecting their life and property from wild elephants. The migrantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; people and migrants (now become residential) elephants are major issues for their co-existence as the farmers do not know how to survive with elephants which is new for them. The proposed project has planned to organize long-term HEC assessment program and the action based elephant conservation awareness program by the active involvement of farmers, school students and other stakeholders. It will also explore the sustainable viable mitigation measures and small rapid medication fund for the minimization of conflicts and empower local people in long-term conservation of wild elephant. The human elephant conflict assessment is already accepted from AWELY France whereas action based conservation awareness and implementation of community based viable measures is proposed for the kind funding from Auckland Zoo Conservation Fund. Species Information and threat status: Asian Elephant: Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/7140/0 Listed as Endangered because of a population size reduction inferred to be at least 50% over the last three generations, based on a reduction in its area of occupancy and the quality of its habitat. Although there are few accurate data on historical population size, from what is known about trends in habitat loss/degradation and other threats including poaching, an overall population decline of at least 50% over the last three generations seems realistic. A recent estimate (2003) for the global population size of the Asian elephant was 41,410â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 52,345 animals. The estimated population size for Sri Lanka 2,500â&#x20AC;&#x201C;4,000.

66


Threats: The Asian elephant is hunted for ivory, food, leather and other products. Live animals are also removed from the wild and used in forestry operations and for ceremonial purposes. The pre-eminent threats to the Asian elephant today are habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation which are driven by an expanding human population, and lead in turn to increasing conflicts between humans and elephants when elephants eat or trample crops. Hundreds of people and elephants are killed annually as a result of such conflicts. The longterm future of elephants outside protected areas, as well as in some protected areas, is therefore inextricably linked to mitigating such humanâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;elephant conflicts, and this is one of the largest conservation challenges in Asia today. Asian elephants live in the region of the world with the densest human population, growing at a rate of between 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;3% per year. Because elephants require much larger areas of natural habitat than most other terrestrial mammals in Asia, they are one of the first species to suffer the consequences of habitat fragmentation and destruction and because of its great size and large food requirements; the elephant cannot co-exist with people in areas where agriculture is the dominant form of land-use.

Amount awarded:

$4,892 67


Project: Distribution, habitat Restoration, utilization and educational awareness program of two Endemic, Endangered Species of Abronia (lizards: A. campbelli; A. frosti) from Guatemala. Project outline: Guatemala is the centre of diversity for the arboreal lizards of the genus Abronia (10 species, 8 endemic) which live within the pine-oak and cloud forests of northern Mesoamerica. The conservation status of most species is uncertain, but restricted distributions and habitats disturbed or destroyed by human development have made most species of the genus among the most endangered lizards in the world. Both Abronia campbelli and A. frosti were thought to have become extinct soon after their discovery. Recently however, individuals of both species were re-discovered by our group in degraded remnants of pine-oak forest. Both species are thought to highly venomous by the local inhabitants and are killed on sight. The natural history, distribution and habitat utilization of these species is little known and are critical to any conservation program. The goals and objectives of this project are to address these important conservation concerns as outlined below. Species Information and threat status: Campbell's alligator Lizard (Abronia campbelli) = Critically Endangered This species is listed as Critically Endangered because it has a very restricted distribution (about 18 km2), occurs at only one location, and is subject to a continuing decline in the extent and quality of the habitat due to cattle raising, and in the number of mature individuals due to the illegal pet trade. The total estimated population size (from sampling the adults in remnant trees) is approximately 500 individuals. Exploitation for the international pet trade is presumed to be leading to a decline in the number of mature individuals, given the small population size and the numbers recorded in trade. Threats: The main threats to this species are habitat loss and degradation from cattle raising and collection for the pet trade. In addition, the oak trees where the species occurs are affected by pollution from chemical runoffs from pig farms. Frostâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Arboreal Alligator Lizard (Abronia frosti) = Critically Endangered This species is listed as Critically Endangered because it has a very restricted distribution (extent of occurrence approximately 0.7 km2), is present in one location, and is subject to a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat from logging for firewood. There are no quantitative data on population size and trends for this species. It is suspected that the population may be decreasing from loss of forest habitat. Threats: The main threat is habitat loss from logging for firewood. In addition, an infestation of pine beetles has been killing the pine trees within the forest, and the loggers are switching to oak trees. Amount awarded:

$5,000 68


69


Project: A nationwide population estimate on translocated populations of the critically endangered Orange-fronted parakeet

Applicant information: Dr. Luis Ortiz-Catedral Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University http://ecologyatalbany.com/L_Ortiz.php Project outline: Translocation to offshore islands is the quintessential management technique for threatened avifauna in New Zealand. This approach has saved a number of species from the brink of extinction and remains close to the heart of New Zealand conservationists, managers and the public. Nevertheless, for a number of avian groups, in particular, parakeets of the genus Cyanoramphus, it is not clear what the current sizes of translocated populations are. Without this information, it is difficult to determine if the overall trend for the meta-population of the target species is (i.e. are the different sub-populations decreasing, increasing, extinct, stable?). Moreover, lacking this information limits our ability to identify potential source populations for further translocations or captive breeding programs, thus obstructing other beneficial management actions. Here I describe a straightforward project designed to estimate the current meta-population size of translocated Orange-fronted parakeets, New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rarest and most critically endangered cavity nester. This project represents a first step towards a more integral management of New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parrot diversity. Species Information and threat status: Malherbe's Parakeet, Orange-fronted Parakeet = Critically Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22724562/0 This species is listed as Critically Endangered because, subsequent to serious declines since the 1800s, it underwent a population crash following rat invasions in 1990-2000, and it now has a very small population that has declined during the last decade. However, the global population is now increasing owing to successful translocations onto four predator-free islands, and control of predators in its South Island range, and if this trend continues it may qualify for down-listing once the number of mature individuals in the population is clarified.

70


Threats: The impact of introduced predators, principally stoats and rats, is likely to be the primary cause of decline, with recent population crashes being due to rat irruptions. The species's holenesting behaviour leads to a reduced ratio of females in the population due to predation of birds on the nest. Silviculture of beech forests aims to harvest trees at an age when few will be mature enough to develop suitable cavities, so sufficient nest holes are unlikely in managed beech forest. The species forages in low-growing shrubs and such lower forest levels have been subject to heavy browsing by cattle, deer and possums, altering the forest structure. Population growth in island populations, especially on Maud Island, may also be limited through predation by falcons (Falconidae), and displacement of two nesting pairs by introduced Common Starlings has now been documented; the overall impact of this recently-identified threat is uncertain, but may be minimal. In 2008, it was confirmed that native Red-crowned Parakeets C. novaezelandiae on Little Barrier Island were suffering from psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD). The virus has been sequenced and appears very similar to the strain found in Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans, in which the disease is known to be endemic within the captive population. In 2009, some individuals of C. malherbi on Maud Island were showing some symptoms consistent with PBFD. In reaction, testing of the entire captive population has been undertaken, as well as more limited sampling of individuals in all three island populations, as well as other parrot species. Results indicate that antibodies for PBFD were detected in C. malherbi from both Maud Island and the captive-rearing unit; notably in the latter case antibodies were found in the C. novaezelandiae foster parents and the disease has now been found in C. auriceps in the Eglington Valley, Fiordland. Monitoring for the disease in the captive population continues and it is hoped that the unit will soon be declared disease-free. C. malherbi at all three Mainland sites and on Tuhua were seen to be in very poor feather condition in 2012/2013, with a major infestation of Dermanyssus mites having occurred on Tuhua. On the mainland, mites were suspected but immunosuppression may also be involved, either because of small population size and/or because of post PBFD issues. Amount awarded:

$4,674

71


1.3.2.

Round 2

Project: Ecology and Conservation of Burmese Pythons in Bangladesh Applicant information: Shahriar Caesar Rahman, Project Coordinator, Bangladesh Python Project Centre for Advanced Research in Natural Resources in Management (CARINAM) Bangladesh http://www.facebook.com/bangladeshpythonproject Project outline: Bangladesh Python Project was set up with a mission to conserve the last remaining tropical forest ecosystems in North-eastern Bangladesh, with the Burmese python (Python bivittatus) as the flagship species. Burmese pythons are an iconic snake species that is best known through the pet trade and as an invasive species in Florida. However, almost nothing is known about the species within its native range in Asia where it is believed to be declining. They are endangered in Bangladesh and listed as Vulnerable by IUCN Red List. The declines are almost certainly due to a combination of human exploitation and habitat loss. Conservation of Burmese python would sound knowledge on the species ecological needs. We will be conducting a radiotelemetry study of Burmese python in Bangladesh to understand habitat selection, movement rates, and thermal biology in the native range. Furthermore, we will involve Bangladeshi university level students and local people in research activities and will provide outreach presentations on the value of wildlife in the area. This should lead to more positive attitudes toward snakes in general and reduce the level of human persecution. The project will result in recommendations for habitat protection and restoration for pythons, as well as contribute to knowledge of the basic biology of Burmese pythons. The project is conducted in collaboration with Centre for Advanced Research in Natural Resources in Management (CARINAM), Bangladesh and Forest Department of Bangladesh, with initial financial support from The Orianne Society, USA. Species Information and threat status: Burmese Python: Vulnerable http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/193451/0 The Burmese Python is a widely distributed species found throughout Southeast Asia, with evidence of extensive and widespread population declines. Neither generation length nor the scale of declines throughout this snake's global range are well-known, however, it has been listed as Critically Endangered in two major areas within its range due to localized declines greater than 80% over a ten-year period, and exhibits apparently high but un-quantified rates of decline throughout its distribution. This snake is conservatively estimated to have declined by at least 30% over the past ten years across its global range as a result of over-harvesting for a variety of uses, to some extent compounded by the effects of habitat loss, and with the drivers of this decline not having ceased. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable.

72


Use & Trade: This large constrictor is harvested for food, skin for use in the leather industry, medicinal purposes, and the pet trade. It is known to be used in snake wine in Viet Nam, but in small numbers, with 13 individuals recorded in one recent study. The species is commercially bred in Viet Nam and China, however, production systems vary and Vietnamese operations are reliant on breeding wild-caught individuals, while Chinese systems also breed subsequent captive generations and so are not reliant on a regular wild source. Trade in this species is illegal in much of its range due to national protection, however, the species is illegally imported into China and source populations for this trade cannot be traced. The species is kept by collectors and as pets in much of its range. Despite public concerns about the introduction of pythons to the Florida Everglades and their low commercial value, thousands are still imported into the United States from Viet Nam as pets. The species is also still imported to Europe. China has recently developed a market for low-quality snake skins, largely supplied from west Malaysia, and pythons may also be supplied for this trade. Threats: This species is under threat due to illegal trade; in China it has been heavily impacted by overexploitation for food and skins, the latter for use both in leather and in traditional musical instruments such as Erheen, Sanxian and hand drums (CITES 2011) and Vietnamese populations are under pressure from a combination of use in food and leather production, export to supply the pet trade, and consumption in snake wine. Similar pressures are presumed to account for the rarity of this species throughout the remainder of its range, for which no quantitative data is available. The subspecies P. b. progschai, which has a restricted range in southern Sulawesi, is of some interest in the commercial international pet trade, and may be vulnerable to exploitation, the type specimen having been recorded in a trader's collection. Despite its designation as a protected species in this country, populations in China exhibit no evidence of recovery, and illegal harvesting is on-going. Habitat degradation through slash and burn agriculture in upland areas) may pose a risk by eliminating this snake's prey and making it more vulnerable to exploitation by humans. Ironically, this is an invasive species that is firmly established in southern Florida, USA, and poses a threat to the ecosystem there by consuming native wildlife. Amount awarded:

$5,000

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Project: Status, Ecology and Conservation of Oriental Small Clawed Otter: Integration in wildlife Conservation Applicant information:

Pratikshya Paneru, Research Officer Biodiversity Conservation Society Nepal (BIOCOS Nepal) Website: www.biocosnepal.org.np

Project outline: The research project aims to explore the status and ecology of oriental small clawed otter form the Karnali River of Bardia National Park, Nepal. Information on species like oriental small clawed otter and status of this particular otter species is unknown to park authority. Lack of adequate information on the otter is the main hindering factors for its conservation and regular monitoring for the park authorities. Besides this, habitats where there are signs of presence of the otter are degrading day by day. River pollution, habitat destruction (extraction of sand and gravels), excessive fishing by local fishermen and the killing of otters for pelts and meats by the locals are the major setbacks for the conservation of this species. Hence, the study aimed to explore status, distribution, food behaviours and conservation threats of otter in the river of Bardia National Park. More importantly, during the study period, conservation awareness campaigns will be organised in schools and in community and posters will be produced and distributed widely to make community people aware on the conservation importance of Otter. During the period of the study, park authorities will be sensitized so as to include Otter in their management information system to ensure long term monitoring of the otter in the park. Questionnaire survey and intensive field survey will be conducted to know the presence of otter. The droppings and footprint survey will be carried out intensively in the areas where there are signs of presence of otter. Camera trap will be set in the otter latrine and tracks to capture the photos of Asian small clawed otter. The dropping will be studied to find the diet composition of otter. Awareness programmes will be conducted and training will be imparted to park personnel regarding monitoring of the species. Species Information and threat status: Asian Small-clawed Otter, Small-clawed Otter, Oriental Small-clawed Otter = Vulnerable http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/44166/0 This species is considered to be Vulnerable due to an inferred future population decline due to habitat loss and exploitation. In the last few decades the range of Asian small clawed otter has shrunk particularly in its western portion, as evident from the published literature. Given the extent of loss of habitat that is occurring in south and Southeast Asia and the intensity of 74


poaching the reduction in population has been observed in many parts of its range. Although quantitative data on population sizes or trends are lacking, it is suspected that the global population of the smooth-coated otter has declined by> 30% over the past 30 years. The threats to small-clawed otter is prominent in its western range so much so that since last 60 years its range has been shrunk considerable moving west to east from Himachal Pradesh to Assam. They were once common in the mangroves of east Calcutta and Sunderbans is now believed to be locally extinct. Threats: The threat to Small-clawed otter is similar to that of smooth-coated and Eurasian otters. Throughout Asia the potential threat to its continued survival is destruction of its habitats due to changing land use pattern in the form of developmental activities. In many parts of Asia, the habitats have been reduced due to reclamation of peat swamp forests and mangroves, aquaculture activities along the intertidal wetlands and loss of hill streams. In India the primary threats are loss of habitats due to tea and coffee plantations along the hills, in the coastal areas loss of mangroves due to aquaculture and increased human settlements and siltation of smaller hill streams due to deforestation. Increased influx of pesticides into the streams from the plantations reduces the quality of the habitats. The next important threats to Asian small-clawed otter are reduction in prey biomass due to over-exploitation, which make its remaining habitats unsustainable. Pollution is probably the single most factors causing decline in the population of many fish species. Reduction in prey biomass affects otter population, and organochloric and heavy metal contamination interferes with their normal physiology leading to the decline in population. The threats to small-clawed otter is prominent in its western range so much so that since last 60 years its range has been shrunk considerable moving west to east from Himachal Pradesh to Assam. Once common in the mangroves of east Calcutta and Sunderbans now it is believed to be locally extinct. It is likely that the present range boundary at the western limit is Assam and in the Western Ghats of Southern India. Amount awarded:

$4,778

75


Project: Lion’s Ecology, conservation & conflict mitigation in Maasai Mara national park - Kenya

Applicant information: Mr. Michael Gichia Project Director and Research Scientist Biodiversity Conservation Organization www.biocon.webs.com Project outline: Lions are currently listed as “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and this is associated with shooting, spearing, poisoning, habitat loss and over hunting of wild prey. The lion is one of the most threatened and amongst the large carnivores in Kenya. Indeed there is probably no other mammal species whose intra-continental distributional range and numbers has shrunk over historical times to the extent shown by lion. Kenya alone loses approximately 100 of its less than 2,000 wild lions every year due to killing by people. At this rate, it is clear that there will be no wild lions left in Kenya by the year 2030. Conflict with humans has been highlighted by international experts as one of the most important threats facing wild populations of large carnivores. Effectively resolving this threat is a top conservation priority, especially in areas such as Kenya’s Maasai Mara landscape, which holds globally important populations of large carnivores, especially lion, cheetah and leopards. Game Reserves, Wildlife Management Areas and village land are thought to hold just under 10% of all remaining lion in sub-Saharan Africa. Intense human-carnivore conflict in the Maasai Mara landscape, posing a significant risk to large carnivores in this crucial area. The conflict is driven chiefly by livestock depredation, but is exacerbated by a lack of alternative income sources apart from livestock, little knowledge about carnivores, incorrect identification of the causes of livestock death, and few tangible benefits from carnivore presence. It is vital to address all these issues in the Maasai Mara landscape, in order to reduce antagonism between local communities and large carnivores, and reduce the retaliatory killing of these threatened species hence the need for implementation of this project. Species Information and threat status: African lion = vulnerable http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15951/0 76


A species population reduction of approximately 30% is suspected over the past two decades (= approximately three Lion generations). The causes of this reduction are unlikely to have ceased. This suspected reduction is based on direct observation; appropriate indices of abundance; a decline in area of occupation, extent of occupation and habitat quality; and actual and potential levels of exploitation. Estimating the size of the African Lion population is an ambitious exercise involving many uncertainties. Threats: The main threats to Lions are indiscriminate killing (primarily as a result of retaliatory or preemptive killing to protect life and livestock) and prey base depletion. Habitat loss and conversion has led to a number of populations becoming small and isolated. The economic impact of stock raiding can be significant: Patterson et al. (2004) estimated that each Lion cost ranchers in Kenya living alongside Tsavo East National Park US$290 per year in livestock losses. Likewise, annual losses of cattle to Lions in areas adjacent to Waza National Park in Cameroon comprised only about 3.1% of all livestock losses, but were estimated to represent more than 22% of financial losses amounting to about US$370 per owner. Consequently, Lions are persecuted intensely in livestock areas across Africa; their scavenging behaviour makes them particularly vulnerable to poisoned carcasses put out to eliminate predators. Little actual information exists on the number of Lions killed as problem animals by local people, even though this is considered the primary threat to their survival outside protected areas. Implementation of appropriate livestock management measures, coupled with problem animal control measures and mechanisms for compensating livestock losses, are some of the primary responses to resolving human-Lion conflict. Trophy hunting is carried out in a number of sub-Saharan African countries and is considered an important management tool for providing financial resource for Lion conservation for both governments and local communities. Disease has also been a threat to Lion populations. In parts of south-eastern Tanzania there have been alarmingly high incidences of people killed by Lions, with up to 400 human Lion-related fatalities recorded from 1997-2007. Amount awarded:

$5,000

77


Project: Conserving the Black Soft-shell Turtle, Nilssonia nigricans, in Assam, North-east India

Applicant information: Shailendra Singh, PhD, Director, TSA-India Turtle Survival Alliance -India www.turtlesurvival.org Project outline: The black-soft-shell turtle (Nilssonia nigricans) endemic to North-eastern India and Bangladesh is a critically endangered species. The species was thought to be Extinct in the Wild and restricted to a few temple ponds in the region. However, preliminary surveys indicate that remnant wild populations numbering less than 500 adults occur near these temples. Colonies of N. nigricans in the ponds of Assamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ancient temples are subject to deplorable husbandry conditions. These ponds are eutrophic, overcrowded and lack basking and nesting spaces. Resultantly, captive soft shells are in poor health. Adult females either drop eggs in water or oviposit, often dying, in inhospitable areas. This results in no neonate recruitment and removal of nesting females. In 2013, we added basking and nesting spaces and a modest headstarting facility at Nagshankar temple in central Assam. Consequently, 22 eggs were found and successfully hatched. These hatchlings are being reared for a forthcoming pilot release. Population estimation, health assessments, installation of educational signage and educational workshops were also achieved last year. We request support at Nagshankar Temple to sustain husbandry improvements, expand our head-starting facility, renovate a defunct kitchen into an education kiosk and conduct reconnaissance of protected sites to develop a re-introduction/supplementation plan. Species Information and threat status: Black Soft-shell Turtle, Extinct in the Wild http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/2173/0 A. nigricans is known to occur only in a single artificial temple pond near Chittagong, Bangladesh. No specific observation of this species has been made outside of this pond. Amount awarded:

$4,260

78


Project: Survey for jewelled geckos (Naultinus gemmeus) in the Hunter Valley, north-west Otago.

Applicant information: Florence Gaud DOC Biodiversity Assets Ranger Department of Conservation http://www.ecogecko.co.nz/ Project outline: The jewelled gecko (Naultinus gemmeus) is a threatened gecko species predominantly found in Otago and Canterbury. The jewelled geckoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s distribution is very patchy in Otago and regular observations have only been made on Otago Peninsula. Finding out more about Otago jewelled gecko populations outside of Otago Peninsula has become a high conservation priority, so that key sites can be identified and considered in conservation management. The Hunter Valley is one place that requires further survey in order to determine its significance, and is the only known jewelled gecko population in the Wanaka / Makarora area. We undertook a four day survey of the Hunter Valley in November 2012. This survey represented the first time the Hunter Valley had ever been surveyed specifically for jewelled geckos, although occasional sightings of jewelled geckos had been previously noted by Hunters and DOC staff. We found one jewelled gecko. This was only the third sighting of a jewelled gecko in the Hunter Valley since the 1980â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and the first sighting since 2006. We highly recommend that more survey work is undertaken in order to learn more about this population and the ecology of green geckos (Naultinus spp.) in beech forest. Species Information and threat status: Jewelled Gecko = Near Threatened Naultinus gemmeus has been assessed as Near Threatened due to its small area of occupancy, severely fragmented distribution, and continuing declines in the quality of habitat as well as population numbers. The threats imposed by introduced predators and exploitation for trade on international markets, as well as habitat degradation are all having a detrimental effect on N. gemmeus. However, population declines in the last ten years alone are not high enough to warrant a threat category at this time. This species almost qualifies for a threatened listing under criterion B2. Use & Trade: It is likely this species is collected illegally from the wild; however it is possible that it is also bred in captivity.

79


Threats: Habitat degradation of dry scrubland due to grazing, browsing, burning and herbicides is a major threat to this species. Although all geckos in New Zealand are protected by law under New Zealand's Wildlife Act of 1953, they continue to be threatened by introduced predators including rats, weasels, stoats, ferrets, cats and possums, as well as by habitat destruction. More than two thirds of the native forest has been cleared since colonisation of the islands, though over the last century most habitat loss and degradation has been limited to localized land development, or the clearance of secondary habitat. The effects of introduced predators are likely to have become the dominant threat in many areas. Certainly, the threat is more pervasive. New Zealand's endemic geckos are reported to be "appearing on the international market at numbers far exceeding the breeding capacity of the captive population" (CITES 2002). It is thought that these specimens, of unknown provenance, are evidence of an expanding illegal trade of wild specimens. Some individuals are obtaining very high market values, of up to US$15,000 per individual. It is known that this has been responsible for at least one population decline in this species. This has occurred in an Otago Peninsula reserve, where a predator fence excludes cats, mustelids and rodents (except for mice), but poaching is frequent. Mouse irruptions have been known to have had severe impacts on lizard populations in parts of New Zealand and specimens of this species have been seen injured. Pindone baits laid for rabbit control are also thought to cause mortality in species of this genus; however, these threats are localized to a reserve on Otago Peninsula. Amount awarded:

$3,000

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Project: Incidence of Chytridiomycosis in the New Zealand Pet Trade

Applicant information:

Jenny Laycock Massey University Ecology and Conservation

Project outline: The impact of chytridiomycosis on frogs is the most spectacular loss of vertebrate biodiversity due to disease in recorded history. It has been estimated that chytridiomycosis has caused the decline or extinction of 200 species of frog from 14 families and two orders. The national trade in amphibians is highly active and completely unregulated. Live amphibians are regularly posted via the mail service or couriered throughout the country in large numbers. Over ten thousand tadpoles were sold through the Trade Me website in 18 months during 2011-2012. In New Zealand there is no regulatory control specific to the domestic breeding and sale of introduced amphibians, with the exception of the laboratory Xenopus spp. Yet it is likely that transmission of disease through this trade poses a high risk to New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wild populations of aquatic species. Litoria are a species that are able to survive and reproduce in the New Zealand environment so releases whether intentional or not may pose a disease risk to wildlife. The goal of this PhD project is to investigate specific anthropogenic mediated disease risks to New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frogs. Examining the anthropogenic dispersal of Litoria in New Zealand and determining the prevalence of chytridiomycosis within the pet trade will help in understanding the disease risk. Three other exotic amphibians (Ambystoma mexicanum, Cynops orentalis, and Cynops pyrrhogaster) will also be tested to determine whether Bactrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the fungus causing chytridiomycosis is present in these species. Establishing to what extent the disease is present in captive populations within New Zealand is the first step towards controlling and containing the spread this disease. Developing systems that reduce the risk of introducing disease into native populations is an important role in ensuring the long-term survival of New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s endangered Leiopelma spp. General Information on native frogs: http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-animals/reptiles-and-frogs/frogs-pepeketua/ 81


Threats: Frogs are declining everywhere in the world. More than most creatures, frogs are sensitive to disease, pollution, chemical poisons and environmental changes, as they absorb many things through their sensitive skin. Fossil records show that our native frogs were spread throughout both the North and South Islands several thousand years ago. The four remaining species have declined significantly in range and in numbers over the past one to two thousand years, as land has been cleared of forest and predators have been introduced. Amount awarded:

$4,500

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1.3.3. Summary of Category 3 Small Grants Amount

Project 1

Distribution, Habitat Restoration and Utilization, and Educational Awareness Program of two Endemic, Endangered Species of Abronia (A. campbelli; A. frosti) from Guatemala

Guatemala

$4500

2

Conservation of the critically endangered frog Telmatobufo bullocki (Anura) in fragmented temperate forests of Chile

Chile

$5000

3

Community Based Effective and Proactive Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation Program

Nepal

$4892

4

Ecology and Conservation of Burmese Pythons in Bangladesh

Bangladesh

$5000

5

Status, Ecology and Conservation of Oriental Small Clawed Otter: Integration in wildlife Conservation

Nepal

$4,778

6

Lionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ecology, conservation & conflict mitigation in Maasai Mara national park in Kenya

Kenya

$5,000

7

Conserving the Black Soft-shell Turtle, Nilssonia nigricans, in Assam, North-east India

8

A nationwide population estimate on translocated populations of the critically endangered Orange-fronted parakeet

NZ

$4674

9

Incidence of Chytridiomycosis in The New Zealand Pet Trade

NZ

$4500

10

Survey for jewelled geckos (Naultinus gemmeus) in the Hunter Valley, north-west Otago.

NZ

$3,000

India

$4,260

Category 3 grant international sub total

$33,430

Category 3 domestic sub total

$12,174

Category 3 Total

$45,604

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Part 2: Auckland Zoo Staff in the Field 2.1.

Introduction

During the 2013/14 financial year, 85 Auckland Zoo staff spent a total of 10,113 hours working outside of the zoo on 28 field conservation projects. This equates to 4.86 full time members of Auckland Zoo staff in the field for the entire year. The 28 field projects Auckland Zoo were practically involved with during 2013/14 are summarised in Appendix I and are individually profiled in Appendices II (Domestic projects) and III (International projects). Each profile provides the project outline, details on the number of Auckland Zoo staff and time commitment involved (both for the 2013/14 financial year and total to date for longer-term projects), whether our field support is on-going and if the project is also supported financially by Auckland Zoo, through disbursements from the Auckland Zoo Conservation Fund.

2.1.1. Auckland Zoo staff involvement

• A total of 85 members of Auckland Zoo staff, from 19 different teams worked out of the zoo on field conservation projects during 2013/14. • 46 members of Auckland Zoo staff, from 16 different teams carried out fieldwork on Rotoroa Island.

2.1.2. Geographical distribution and project location • Of the 28 field conservation projects Auckland Zoo staff were directly involved with during 2013/14, 26 were located within New Zealand (Domestic projects) and 2 were overseas (International Projects). • The majority (21 out of 26) of Domestic projects were situated in the North Island, with a particular concentration of projects located in the Hauraki Gulf (8 projects in the Inner Gulf and 2 in the Outer Gulf). All of these projects took place on Rotoroa, Rangitoto and Motutapu, Motuora and Tiritiri Matangi and Little Barrier Islands. • A significant proportion of Auckland Zoo’s fieldwork was also carried out on the west coast of the North Island, in the Waitakere Ranges and Te Henga wetlands. • Three projects were situated around the central Auckland area and 1 was situated on the Coromandel peninsula. • Finally, still within the North Island, but a little further from home; three projects were located at Pureora and Whareorino Forests. • Of the 5 projects situated in the South Island, 1 was located in West and central Otago, 1 at Te Anau, 1 on Codfish Island and 2 in the Marlborough Sound (Maud Island and D’Urville Island). • In 2013 /14 Auckland Zoo staff also travelled internationally to carry-out fieldwork in Sumatra and the Republic of Kiribati. 84


2.1.3. Field time distribution across geographical locations • Table 1 below shows the amount of time in hours spent on fieldwork at key locations during 2013/14. • The majority of Auckland Zoo’s fieldwork was carried out in the Hauraki Gulf, with 73% of field-time spent working on projects located here. • Over half (55%) of field-time was spent on Rotoroa (including the education component of the field project). • Of the other Hauraki Gulf Islands, Auckland Zoo staff spent the most time working on Rangitoto and Motutapu Islands. • After the Hauraki Gulf Island, the Waitakere Ranges (Ark in the Park) are the second most significant location for Auckland Zoo in terms of amount of field time dedicated to projects there. • Approximately 9% of Auckland Zoo’s field-time was spent working on project in the South Island and 3% of field-time was spent working on international projects overseas. Table 1. Amount of field-time spent at key locations during 2013/14. Project location Domestic - total North Island, NZ - total Hauraki Gulf – total Inner Gulf - total Rotoroa Island Rangitoto and Motutapu Motuora Island Tiritiri Matangi Island Outer Gulf (Little Barrier Island) Waitakere Ranges Te Henga wetlands Central Auckland area Coromandel peninsula Purerora Forest Whareorino Forest South Island, NZ - total Marlborough Sound - total Maud Island D’Urville Island West and central Otago Te Anau Codfish Island International - total Sumatra Republic of Kiribati TOTALS

Number of projects 26 21 10 8 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 28

Time in hours 9,787 8,918 7,358 7,230 5,557 953 224 496 128 999 120 105 80 136 120 869 76 60 16 296 48 449 326 70 256 10,113 85


2.1.4. Project focus and time distribution • Table 2 below shows how project focus and proportion of time was distributed during 2013/14. • Rotoroa is Auckland Zoo’s largest field conservation project, which is multi-faceted; incorporating wildlife surveys, monitoring, species-specific focused work and habitat restoration and creation. It is also the only field project that contains an Auckland Zoo-led education component. • 25% of fieldwork projects worked on in 2013-14 were bird projects, with 20% of field time spent on these projects. • 18% of fieldwork projects worked on in 2013-14 were reptile projects, with 10% of field time spent working on these projects. • 11% of projects were focused on amphibians, fish and invertebrates (combined), with 3% of field time spent working on these projects. • 21% of projects were focused on native habitat restoration (including animal and plant pest control), with 8% of field-time spent working on these projects. Table 2. Project focus and proportion of time distribution. Project focus Island ‘restoration’ and education Mammals - total Sumatran orangutan Long-tailed bat Lesser short-tailed bat Birds - total Kiwi Red crowned kakariki Kokako Kakapo Takahe Reptiles - total Lizards (multiple species) Duvacel’s gecko Grand skink and Otago skink Cook Strait striped gecko Archey’s frog Giant weta Fish and aquatic invertebrates Animal pest control Native habitat restoration New Zealand woodrose Training only TOTAL

Number of projects 1 3 1 1 1 7 2 1 1 2 1 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 2 28

Time in hours 5,557 126 70 16 40 2,083 232 360 922 521 48 1,032 604 72 296 60 120 136 85 353 424 96 101 10,113

86


2.1.5. Scope of commitment and relationship longevity to field projects • 57% of all fieldwork projects (16 out of 28) also received financial support through Auckland Zoo’s Conservation Fund (AZCF). • 11 of the 28 (approximately 40%) fieldwork projects are AZCF ‘Category 1’ projects. • 4 projects (14%) are AZCF ‘Category 2’ projects. • 61% of all fieldwork projects are on-going and Auckland Zoo staff will continue to work in the field on these projects in 2014/15.

87


2.2. Summary of Auckland Zoo’s 28 field conservation projects Project name

Location

Staff hours 2013/14

No. of staff 2013/14

AZCF support?

5,557

62

No

548

13

No

320

10

Yes Cat 1

85

2

No

152

16

No

136

10

Yes Cat 1

72

2

No

360

7

Yes Cat 1

56

1

No

80

2

Yes Cat 2

4

1

No

16

1

104

13

96

4

40

1

922

6

77

6

120

3

No

296

4

Yes Cat 1

60

1

No

16

1

449

3

72

2

Project profile on page

Domestic Projects Rotoroa Island Lizard surveying and monitoring on Rangitoto and Motutapu Native species planting and pest plant control on Rangitoto and Motutapu Redfin bully and koura surveying on Motutapu Kiwi chick release on Motuora Wetapunga releases on Motuora and Tiritiri Matangi Islands Duvacel’s gecko monitoring on Motuora and Tiritiri Matangi Islands Red Crowned kakariki health, disease and nesting study on Tiritiri Matangi Lizard surveying on Little Barrier Island Kiwi listening surveys, Te Mata Pest Control advice, Tuff Crater, Birkenhead Pest control at Matuku Reserve Track clearing at Matuku Reserve Population monitoring of the New Zealand woodrose, Pest control and monitoring of the lesser short-tailed bat Kokako monitoring at Ark in the Park Predator control at Ark in the Park Archey’s frog population monitoring Grand skink and Otago skink protection Installation of captive facilities for Cook Strait striped geckos on Maud Island Long-tailed bat monitoring at D’Urville Island Kakapo Recovery Programme Kakapo Recovery Programme, Little Barrier Island

NZ, NI Inner Hauraki Gulf NZ, NI Inner Hauraki Gulf NZ, NI Inner Hauraki Gulf NZ, NI Inner Hauraki Gulf NZ, NI Inner Hauraki Gulf NZ, NI Inner Hauraki Gulf NZ, NI Inner Hauraki Gulf NZ, NI Inner Hauraki Gulf NZ, NI Outer Hauraki Gulf NZ, NI Coromandel NZ, NI Northshore NZ, NI West coast Te Henga NZ, NI West coast Te Henga NZ, central NI Pureora forest NZ, central NI Pureora forest NZ, NI West coast Waitakere Ranges NZ, NI West coast Waitakere Ranges NZ, NI Whareorino Forest NZ, SI West and central Otago NZ, SI Marlborough Sound NZ, SI Marlborough Sound NZ, SI Codfish Island NZ, NI Outer Hauraki Gulf

Yes Cat 1 Yes Cat 1 No Yes Cat 2 Yes Cat 1 Yes Cat 1

Yes Cat 2 Yes Cat 1 Yes Cat 1

88


Project name

Location

Domestic Projects Takahe management Keeper training - urban mist netting, Birkenhead Invertebrate identification and cataloguing International Projects

NZ, SI Te Anau NZ, NI Northshore NZ, NI Auckland

Staff hours 2013/14

No. of staff 2013/14

AZCF support?

48

1

Yes Cat 2

99

7

No

2

1

No

Kiritimati Island wildlife protection

Kiritimati Island, Republic of Kiribati

256

2

Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme quarantine centre

Batu Mbelin, Medan, Northern Sumatra

70

1

Project profile on page

Yes Travel and equipment Yes Cat 1

89


2.3. Summary of Auckland Zooâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 28 field conservation projects 1. Rotoroa Island Location: Rotoroa Island, Hauraki Gulf

Partner Organisation:Rotoroa Island Trust

Project Objective: The Rotoroa Island Trust was founded to develop Rotoroa Island as an arts, heritage and conservation park. Auckland Zoo is working with the Trust to establish a range of New Zealand species on the island with the intention of creating a rich diversity and abundance of wildlife, whilst demonstrating a significant new model of innovative conservation management and environmental education Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

3966 (wildlife) 1591 (schools)

6269 (wildlife) 2544 (schools)

During 2013/2014, Auckland Zoo staff spent over 1814 fieldwork hours outside of the Zoo, working on the wildlife component of the Rotoroa Island project. Activities carried out have included bird surveys (five-minute bird counts, morepork counts, open-country bird counts, wetland bird, shorebird and seabird counts), reptile surveys (pitfall traps, artificial cover object (ACO) checks and visual encounter surveys (VES)), bat surveys, invertebrate surveys and freshwater surveys. Staff assisted with the three mouse eradication bait drops and then carried out post bait-drop weka surveys to monitor the impact of brodifacoum on the weka population. A site was cleared of vegetation on the south-east coast of the island where an artificial gannet colony was created. Over 400 roost and 120 nest boxes were installed across the island and saddleback and whitehead were the first two species translocated to Rotoroa from Little Barrier Island. Additionally, a further 2152 hours were spent working on the wildlife component of the Rotoroa project at the zoo. These activities included project planning and management, the husbandry, veterinary checks and care of 40 weka temporarily translocated to the zoo during the mouse eradication operation, preparing species translocation proposals and producing reports required for submission to the Department of Conservation. Auckland Zoo education staff spent 1591 hours on the Rotoroa schools programme in 2013/2014, 142.5 hours of which were spent teaching on the island No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? 62

86

25 years +

No 90


2. Lizard surveying and monitoring on Rangitoto and Motutapu Location: Rangitoto, Hauraki Gulf

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: The objectives of regular, on-going involvement in this field project are to: 1. Support the local DOC office in surveying/monitoring a key Hauraki Gulf predatorfree island with vast reintroduction potential. 2. Add to the knowledge of lizard diversity and biology on the island 3. Contribute useful data to the consideration of translocating new lizard species to the island In terms of staff field skill experience and development, this project: 1. Enables Ectotherm (and other) staff to be engaged in a local project, ensuring regular and reliable, field opportunities. 2. Provides reliable lizard encounters, thereby significantly increasing staff familiarity with and confidence in lizard handling, processing and data collection in the field. 3. Provides staff with valuable project planning and management skill development. Project Description: The zoo’s Ectotherm team became involved in regular lizard monitoring fieldwork on Rangitoto and Motutapu Islands with the Department of Conservation in the summer of 2011-2012 and has subsequently taken on the monitoring of Rangitoto while DOC concentrate efforts on Motutapu. Two monitoring site ‘circuits’ have been established on Rangitoto. Each site has a mixture of pitfall buckets and artificial cover objects (ACO’s) and some sites have additional wooden “lizard houses”. Each of the two circuits take approximately 5-7 hours to complete. Each circuit is surveyed once per month during spring, summer and autumn, which entails two trips per month. Trips are reduced to once a month during winter. Each trip is for 3 days. On the first day, pitfall traps are opened and baited, traps are checked on the second day and on the third day, all traps are checked, bait removed and traps closed. All the original DOC-positioned reptile sites were located around the coast. Zoo staff were interested in investigating the distribution of reptiles inland, so expanded the monitoring area to include an additional five sites, which were installed by Zoo and DOC staff. During the last year of monitoring, zoo staff have found lizards at all new sites apart from one, located in the middle of the crater. The numbers of common gecko (Woodworthia maculatus) have increased over the year and zoo staff found 91


the first recorded moko skink (Oligosoma moco) on Rangitoto. Rainbow skink (Lampropholis delicata) is an unwanted organism that is increasing its range across the island. Most recently, Zoo staff have been working with DOC Biodiversity Rangers to expand monitoring sites to the side of the island not currently monitored (known as ‘the dark side’), in order that we can build a comprehensive picture of lizards diversity and abundance on the island. The ‘dark side’ comprises roughly a third of the island, which does not have any walking tracks, only trap lines, so will be a challenging area of the island to work.

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

548

725

13

17

Project longevity 3 years ongoing

AZCF project? No

3. Native species planting and pest plant control on Rangitoto and Motutapu Location: Rangitoto and Motutapu, Hauraki Gulf

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: Native habitat restoration Project Description: Auckland Zoo has been assisting the Department of Conservation with native habitat restoration (including planting native species, weeding pest species and working in the nursery on Motutapu), since 2010. Auckland Zoo’s horticulture team manage and oversee monthly day trips to 92


the island, which this year have involved the removal of Crassula multicava and Agapanthus praecox syn A.orientalis, cutting and poisoning Rhamnus alaternus, cutting and pasting Hypericum, pricking out and potting on of Euphorbia glauca, Manuka, and Matai species, planting Euphorbia glauca around the coast and planting Cyperus ustulatus and Flax to create suitable habitat for brown teal. The regular assistance and experience provided by Auckland Zoo staff has allowed the project to advance significantly in terms of activities achieved within specific time frames.

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

320

1064

10

41

Project longevity Est. 2010. Monthly except July and August

AZCF project? Yes Category 1

4. Redfin bully and koura surveying on Motutapu Location: Motutapu and Rangitoto, Hauraki Gulf

Partner Organisations: Department of Conservation, Motutapu Restoration Trust, Ngai Tai and Mahurangi Technical Institute

Project Objective: 1. To carry-out annual post-release surveys of redfin bully (Gobiomorphus huttoni) and koura (Paranephrops planifrons) translocated into two streams (Home Bay and Poplar stream) on Motutapu, to monitor the success of the translocation and to ascertain the necessity and viability of further releases. 2. For AZ staff to acquire experience and skills in planning and executing freshwater fish surveys and translocations. Project Description:

Redfin bully (Gobiomorphus huttoni) and koura (Paranephrops planifrons) populations are nationally declining due to a number of threats, particularly from habitat loss and degradation. Following the eradication of animal pests (including rats, stoats and possums) from Motutapu and neighbouring Rangitoto, the Department of Conservation have established a programme to relocate â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;at riskâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; wildlife to 93


Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

85

155

these islands. On the 26 November 2011, just over 120 captive-bred koura and 120 redfin bullies were released. A further 100 koura and 100 redfin bullies were released on 11 November 2012. Some of the koura and redfin bullies released were rescued from a section of stream that was removed to make way for a large pipeline. The original aim was to carry-out two surveys a year at each release-site. To date, five surveys have been completed since the initial release. These were carried out in April 2012, June 2013, October 2013 and May 2014. The ideal time to survey the streams is in late summer when water levels are low and clarity is high. This also times in well with checking for recruitment success. The timing and frequencies of surveying the streams is affected by weather, moon phasing and tides. The ability to schedule a time when both Auckland Zoo and DOC staff are available has also had an influence on when surveys have taken place. Each time the streams have been surveyed, the proportion of the reach that remains unobstructed by vegetation varies, thereby influencing results. Over the past 3 years, the survey format has been refined and is currently based on the NZ freshwater fish sampling protocols. Auckland Zoo staff have also instigated the testing of water quality and freshwater invertebrate sampling in both streams as part of the surveying. Auckland Zoo has provided support in terms of staff-time and equipment at each survey. Surveys will continue to occur until it can be confirmed stable self-sustaining populations have established for both species or no representatives are present at sequential surveys and the translocation is deemed unsuccessful. Additionally, a further release of both species is being planned. Dates for this are not finalised, however it is anticipated that Auckland Zoo will be involved in this release and at least two more post-release monitoring trips will occur. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF project? 2013/14 to date longevity 3 years 2 4 No ongoing

94


5. Kiwi chick release on Motuora Location: Motuora Island, Hauraki Gulf

Partner Organisations: BNZ Save the Kiwi Trust, Kiwis for kiwi, Department of Conservation and Motuora Restoration Society

Project Objective: Release captive-hatched brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) as part of Operation Nest Egg Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14 152

BNZ Operation Nest Egg was developed to reverse the decline of kiwi populations. The programme involves collecting kiwi eggs from the wild and incubating, hatching and rearing chicks in captivity. When about four weeks old, chicks are sent to a safe, designated crèche site - either a predator-free island or mainland sanctuary – until they reach around one kilogram. Only then are birds returned to their original habitat; when they are big enough to fend off most predators. Auckland Zoo is one of the eight designated specialist captive facilities in the country, where eggs are incubated, hatched and chicks reared for release – primarily on to Motuora Island, which is the designated crèche site for Northland brown kiwi. Over the 2013/2014 breeding season, Auckland Zoo hatched and released 13 chicks on to Motuora Island, bringing our total number of releases to 279. Additionally, in May 2014, a member of Auckland Zoo’s bird team travelled to Motuora Island to assist DOC staff and specially trained kiwi dogs with catching up kiwi and transporting them to the mainland for release. Staff hours No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF project? to date 2013/14 to date longevity 440 47 Est. 1996-97 16 No (since 2011) (since 2011) On-going

6. Wetapunga releases on Motuora and Tiritiri Matangi Islands Location: Motuora Island and Tiritiri Matangi Island, Hauraki Gulf

Partner Organisations: Department of Conservation, Motuora Restoration Society, Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi, Ngati Manuhiri and Butterfly Creek

Project Objective: Restore populations of giant weta (Deinacrida heteracantha) to Motuora and Tiritiri Matangi Islands through breeding and release of captive-bred offspring Project Description: 95


Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

136

136

Over the months of April, May and June, at total of 738 captive-bred weta were released on to Motuora (366 individuals) and Tiritiri Matangi (372 individuals) Islands. The identification of release sites and associated paperwork were overseen by the Department of Conservation and the captive-breeding, packing, transfer and release of weta were carried out by Aucklandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ectotherm team. A mixture of instars were released, but they were mostly later (6-10) instars. Larger instars were selected for release onto Tiritiri Matangi Island, in order to increase their chances of survival with the larger bird population on the island. Individual weta were placed in bamboo hides at the zoo before being transported to the islands, where they were attached to trees in areas of suitable habitat. The bamboo hides were collected in over the following weeks once they were deserted by the weta (as they are not often utilised by the species) and can be re-used for future releases. Monitoring of released weta is being carried out by DOC. We currently know that released weta have mated and some adults have survived for at least 6 months. It is anticipated that further releases will take place on the islands during 2014/15. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? First year, Yes 10 10 on-going Category 1

7. Duvaucelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gecko monitoring on Motuora and Tiritiri Matangi Islands 96


Location: Motuora Island and Tiritiri Matangi Island, Hauraki Gulf

Partner Organisation: Massey University, Motuora Restoration Society, Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi

Project Objective: Assist with post-translocation monitoring of Duvaucel’s gecko (Hoplodactylus duvaucelii) as part of MSc research Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

72

72

Two members of the Ectotherm team provided assistance to Massey University MSc student research. The aim of the project was to investigate whether modified tree wraps can be used to anchor translocated geckos to a site, with the wraps being used as shelters. The difference between captive - wild and wild – wild translocations was also being investigated. Fieldwork activities involved monitoring tree wraps, tracking cards funnel traps, radio tracking and night searching to survey for Duvaucel’s gecko on the island. Many specimens of various ages were captured in funnel traps and tree wraps. Morphometric data was recorded and in some cases invertebrate populations in tree wraps were also being recorded, as were plant species in the areas that geckos were located. Staff gained experience in a number of reptile survey techniques and were also able to provide expertise on invertebrate species identification and reptile handling. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? 2

2

One-off

No

8. Red crowned kakariki health, disease and nesting study Location: Tiritiri Matangi Island, Hauraki Gulf

Partner Organisation: Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi, Massey University, Bethany Jackson, 360 Discovery Cruises

Project Objective: To investigate the nesting success and impact of ecto parasites on fledgling success and health of the red crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) Project Description: In recent years several diseases of concern for red crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) conservation have been found in the Tiritiri Matangi population, including beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), a new nest mite species (Dermanyssus sp.) and ectoparasitic mange mites causing 97


feather loss in adults and avian malaria. All of these may impact adult and population health, as well as chick health and reproductive success. Currently Auckland Zoo is undertaking two long-term (5 year) studies with red crowned parakeetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s on Tiritiri Matangi. The first is a nesting study to evaluate reproductive success and chick health and the second is annual mist-netting for health and disease screening of the adult population. Annual health data collected includes haematology, parasitology and physical health exams. Reproductive success is being measured against risk factors such as the presence/absence of nest mites, mange (in parent birds), and BFDV. Blood samples are being taken from chicks to check for disease presence and investigate whether the prevalence of nest mites causes a drop in red blood cell count (i.e. do chicks with nest mites have anaemia or a low red blood count?). It is intended that up to 150 red crowned parakeets will be banded each year to significantly increase the ability to identify individuals, thereby enabling long-term survival data to be collected and increasing the likelihood that parent birds in the nesting study are identifiable. Both projects aim to build on previous work carried out and will provide a long-term dataset needed to understand factors influencing annual variations in the health and reproductive success of this island population. Information collected will inform future management decisions and conservation efforts for this species. Furthermore, the Dermanyssus nest mite has also been found in wild orange fronted parakeet nests and it is expected that results from this study will be directly relevant for the conservation management of this Critically Endangered species. It is anticipated that results will also be valuable to the conservation management of other native parrot species such as kaka, and the Critically Endangered kakapo, as well as threatened parrot species on other Pacific and sub-Antarctic islands. Key staff involved with carrying out this project have received training with external experts in specialised data collection and provide supervised assistance where relevant in the capture of adult parakeets, which involves setting up mist nets and extracting a variety of species. 360 Discovery Cruises are supporting this project by providing free ferry tickets to Auckland Zoo staff for travel to Tiritiri Matangi.

98


Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

Project longevity

360

360

7

7

Est. 2013, on-going

AZCF project? Yes Category 1 since 2011

9. Lizard surveying on Little Barrier Island Location: Little Barrier Island â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Hauturu-o-Toi

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: Participation in and providing skilled assistance to the Department of Conservationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s annual reptile survey on Little Barrier Island Project Description: A member of the Ectotherm team joined a team of 5 other volunteers to monitor the abundance and diversity of reptiles on Little Barrier. Ten sites were surveyed daily using pitfall traps (15 buckets per site). Four sites were each set with 15 minnow traps amongst log piles in streams to focus on surveying for chevron skink (Oligosoma homalonotum) and these were also checked daily. An additional four sites were surveyed using artificial cover objects and foam tree wraps and these were checked once during the trip. The following seven lizard species were found during surveys: Moko skink (Oligosoma moco), Mokohinau skink (Oligosoma townsi), shore skink (Oligosoma smithii), copper skink (Oligosoma aeneum), ornate skink (Oligosoma ornatum), common gecko (Hoplodactylus maculatus) and Pacific gecko (Hoplodactylus pacificus). Tuatara were also encountered and zoo staff assisted with burrow searches, and collecting morphometric data from previously released animals. Additionally, zoo staff gained two hours experience of radio tracking kakapo and, at the request of the Island Ranger, trained the second group of reptile survey volunteers on capture and restraint techniques as well as reptile survey methodology. Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

Project longevity

AZCF project?

56

56

1

1

One-off

No

99


10. Kiwi listening surveys Location: Te Mata, Coromandel peninsula

Partner Organisation: Thames Coast Kiwi Care

Project Objective: To locate brown kiwi as part of the Rotoroa ONE project Project Description: In April 2014, members of Auckland Zoo’s bird team spent a week in Te Mata, Coromandel, where they received training and assisted with kiwi call surveys to locate brown kiwi. The information collected during this survey was then used by contract-partner dog handlers to locate adult kiwi and attach transmitters. These adults were then tracked regularly and monitored for nesting behaviour so ultimately eggs could be harvested eggs for Rotoroa Island (which is being used at the crèche island for Coromandel birds) to begin the ONE programme for this population. Staff hours Staff hours No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date 2013/14 to date longevity project? One-off, 5 Yes 80 80 2 2 day trip Category 2

11. Pest control advice Location: Tuff Crater, Birkenhead, Northshore

Partner Organisation: Forest and Bird, Auckland Council

Project Objective: To provide pest management advice and improve effectiveness of rodent control programme Project Description: After giving a presentation at the Pest Liaison Group’s quarterly meeting on pest control at Auckland Zoo, Auckland Zoo’s Pest Control Officer was requested review the rodent control programme being carried out at Tuff Crater and provide recommendations to improve its effectiveness. Despite control being undertaken in the area, the population of rats remained stable. A review of bait station placement was carried out and it was subsequently advised that the distance between these should be reduced. It was also recommended that additional stations should be placed in habitat areas that are particularly favoured by and therefore prone to high numbers of rats. Guidance was also provided on mustelid control for the area. Staff hours Staff hours No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date 2013/14 to date longevity project? 4

4

1

1

One-off trip

No

100


12. Pest control at Matuku Reserve Location: Matuku Reserve / Te Henga wetlands, Waitakere Valley

Partner Organisation: Forest and Bird

Project Objective: Assist with pest control operations and provide recommendations Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

16

16

Auckland Zooâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pest Control Officer spent two days assisting with, reviewing and advising on pest control activities in Matuku Reserve and Te Henga wetland. During an initial visit, recommendations on placement of DOC 200 traps in a new area along the coastal walkway, specifically to target mustelids were provided. A second visit was carried out to place, bait and set the traps within the Te Henga wetland area. Weasels were the most commonly caught species in the traps. Other observations included a relatively high number of goats in the north-eastern pine/bush areas and an apparent prevalence of possums around the farm on the north-east boundary of the treatment area. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? Two one Yes 1 1 days trips Category 1

13. Track clearing at Matuku reserve Location: Matuku Reserve, Waitakere Valley

Partner Organisation: Forest and Bird

Project Objective: Clearing vegetation Project Description: Auckland Zooâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s horticulture team carried out vegetation clearing along the sides of the old clay track at Matuku reserve. The purpose of this was to widen the track enough for trucks so building materials can be brought in to metal seal the road, thereby making it suitable for public access. Staff hours Staff hours No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date 2013/14 to date longevity project? Yes 104 104 13 13 One-off Category 1

101


14. Population monitoring of the New Zealand woordrose (Dactylanthus taylorii) Location: Pureora forest, northwest of Taupo

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: To assist with surveys for the New Zealand woodrose (Dactylanthus taylorii) Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

96

192

The Nationally Vulnerable woodrose (Dactylanthus taylorii) is New Zealand’s only fully parasitic flowering plant and is the most southerly occurring species of a predominantly tropical family of root parasites, the Balanophoraceae. This cryptic plant grows completely or partially underground from a tuber attached to a host tree. Clusters of tiny flowers emerge from the tuber and are the only viable part of the plant. The principal pollinator of this plant is the lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata). A major threat to D. taylorii is browsing by introduced mammals, particularly rats and possums. In 2013, Auckland Zoo staff assisted with population monitoring surveys in Pureora forest (known as a ‘hot-spot’ for D. taylorii) to locate above-ground emergence of Dactylanthus on host plant roots. Continuing assistance on this project from the hort team is being combined with seed propagation and plans for captive research at Auckland Zoo. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? Began 2013. 4 7 On-going, No annual

15. Pest control and population monitoring of lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) in Pureora forest Location: Pureora forest

Partner Organisation: Massey University Department of Conservation

Project Objective: Provide data collection and field assistance to PhD study on lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) investigating survival and fitness through a pest control programme in Pureora forest. 102


Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

40

40

A member of Auckland Zoo staff spent a week providing field assistance to PhD research, gain experience and develop field skills. Field activities included assembling and placing harp traps, removing bats from traps, bat identification from PIT tags, collecting and recording data, releasing bats and setting infrared cameras to count bats leaving the roost. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? Yes 1 1 One-off trip Category 2

16. Kokako monitoring at Ark in the Park Location: Cascades, Waitakere Ranges

Partner Organisation: Forest and Bird Auckland Council

Project Objective: Tracking and identifying birds and mapping out territories Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14 922

Staff hours to date 1594 (Tracking from 2011)

Kokako translocations to Ark in the Park began in 2009 as part of the Recovery Plan for this endangered species. The Kokako Recovery Group has specified that a minimum of 30 breeding pairs need to be identified before it is concluded that a viable population has been established and therefore, the Ark in the Park translocation is deemed a success. Auckland Zoo staff monitor translocated individuals, identify breeding pairs and map kokako territories. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? 31 Started in Yes 6 (Tracking 2010. Category 1 from 2011) On-going

17. Predator control at Ark in the Park Location: Cascades, Waitakere Ranges

Partner Organisation: Forest and Bird Auckland Council

Project Objective: Contribute to on-going predator control activities at Ark in the Park 103


Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14 77

Staff hours to date 320 (tracking from 2011)

Ship rats, stoats, weasels and possums in Ark in the Park are routinely targeted by trapping and poisoning to keep their numbers at a minimum – especially during the bird breeding season (November – February), when nesting birds with chicks are most vulnerable to predation. Rodent control is achieved through a grid of bait lines with ‘Philproof’ bait stations containing Brodifacoum in sealed plastic bags set up at regular intervals. Auckland Zoo staff are currently responsible for the management of six bait lines within the Park. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? 19 Started in Yes 6 (tracking 2003. Category 1 from 2011) On-going

18. Archey’s frog (Leiopelma archeyi) population monitoring Location: Whareorino Forest

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: To carry out annual monitoring of the most significant Archey’s frog population in the country and build zoo staff skills and expertise in amphibian fieldwork Project Description: Frog population monitoring takes place at two sites in Whareorino Forest – Archey’s Hut (predator controlled) and Hochstetter’s Hut (no predator control). Each has a 10x10m plot which is surveyed for four consecutive nights twice per year (resulting in four x 1 week trips each year). Trips involve conducting intensive nocturnal searches of the permanent plots for frogs. Work is typically carried out, after 9pm and sometimes finishing as late as 5am depending upon the number of frogs found. Surveyors move slowly on their hands and knees focusing on one 10x2m ‘lane’ within the plot at a time, collecting all frogs encountered from ground level to a height of approximately 2m. After the plot survey has been completed, all frogs are taken back to hut for processing, which involves taking identification photos for later markrecapture analysis and recording morphometric data (weight and SVL measurements). Some specimens over 18mm SVL are also swabbed for chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium 104


dendrobatidis). All frogs are returned to their exact capture location before dawn. Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

120

544

3

8

Project longevity Began 2011 on-going

AZCF project? No

19. Grand skink and Otago skink protection Location: Western and central Otago

Partner Organisations: Department of Conservation, Landowners, Central Otago Ecological Trust, Queenstown Kiwi & Birdlife Park, Orokonui Eco sanctuary, Wellington Zoo, Isaac Conservation and Wildlife Trust

Project Objective: To prevent the extinction of the western forms of grand skink (Oligosoma grande) and Otago skink through a comprehensive programme of predator control, ex situ management and reintroduction at protected sites. Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

296

296

Unique western populations of grand (Oligosoma grande) and Otago skinks (Oligosoma otagense) are entirely unprotected and in serious danger of extinction. A network of traps through the Glenfoyle valley was established to slow the decline of Otago skinks at this site and an ambitious programme of skink ‘rescue’ from this and a number of other sites established a comprehensive ex situ management programme across several institutions including Auckland Zoo. Two secure sites for release of captive skinks are being identified. One is well advanced – a 16 hectare site near Alexander, which will be fenced with excluder predator-proof fencing courtesy of the central Otago Ecological Trust. The first lizards will be released here during 2014 and 2015. The trap network at Glenfoyle is checked monthly from October to May (dependant on weather) by Department of Conservation staff, Queenstown Kiwi & Birdlife Park staff and local volunteers. This will continue to be so for several years and there is scope to expand this trapping to other sites. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? 4

4

Potential 5+ year. TBD.

Yes Category 1 105


20. Installation of captive facilities for Cook Strait striped geckos Location: Maud Island, Marlborough Sound

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: Establish temporary holding facilities for safety-net population of striped gecko (Hoplodactylus stephensi) during a mouse eradication programme Project Description: At the request of the Department of Conservation, Auckland Zoo’s Curator of Ectotherms went to Maud Island to provide expertise and practical skills to establish a safety-net population of Cook Strait striped gecko ahead of a programme to eradicate mice from the island. Equipment needs were identified and outlined ahead of the trip and then facilities were set-up on the island. Husbandry training was provided to DOC staff and a husbandry manual was written. Geckos were then collected and established on the island and on-going advice is being provided whilst the animals remain in captivity. Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

Project longevity

AZCF project?

60

60

1

1

One-off

No

21. Long-tailed bat monitoring at D’Urville Island Location: D’Urville Island, Marlborough Sounds

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: To assist with setting up long-tail bat monitoring and gain experience in survey techniques for bats. Project Description: After presenting on the husbandry of short-tailed bats at Auckland Zoo at the 4th New Zealand Bat Conference, a member of staff had the opportunity to assist with longtailed bat (Chalinolobus tuberculata) fieldwork on D’Urville Island. Activities involved choosing appropriate sites to set traps and deploying and checking automatic bat detectors and harp traps. A single long-tailed bat was caught. Morphometric data was recorded and the animal was banded before being released at the capture site. 106


Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

16

16

1

1

Project longevity One-off field experience

AZCF project? Yes Category 2

22. Kakapo Recovery Programme Location: Codfish Island

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: Veterinary support and hand-rearing kakapo chicks for the 2014 breeding season. Project Description: Veterinary staff visited the Kakapo Recovery Programme to increase knowledge of the island and the programme operations, in order to enhance the support provided to the programme. AZ’s clinical co-ordinator was trained in Kakapo egg candling and hand rearing so that NZCCM would be able to respond if rearing was required. This experience was required just one week after returning from Codfish, to handrear kakapo ‘Heather 1’. Veterinary support was also provided to the kakapo field team, which included on-site advice and training for kakapo chick health assessment and veterinary examination of several adult birds in the field. Experience was gained in monitoring sitting birds and their chicks in the nest. Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

Project longevity

AZCF project?

449

449

3

3

First year, Potential to be on-going

Yes Category 1

23. Kakapo Recovery Programme Location: Little Barrier Island – Hauturu-o-Toi

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: Kakapo transmitter changes and health checks Project Description: Auckland Zoo veterinary staff participated in a Kakapo Recovery Programme trip to Little Barrier Island to change transmitters and carryout health checks on nine kakapo that 107


have been translocated to the island. All staff on the trip needed to be experienced fieldworkers, able to work for long days on difficult terrain.

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

72

72

2

2

Project longevity Started in 2014. On-going.

AZCF project?

Yes Category 1

24. Takahe management Location: Te Anau

Partner Organisation: Department of Conservation

Project Objective: To participate in the annual takahe catch-up and baseline health screening at Burwood Takahe Rearing Unit Project Description: A member of Auckland Zoo’s bird team spent a number of days at the Burwood Takahe Rearing Unit in Te Anau to gain experience and develop skills in the management of takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri). Activities included bird restraint, banding, administering vaccinations, morphometric sampling and general husbandry techniques. Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

48

48

1

1

Project longevity First year Potentially on-going

AZCF project? Yes Category 2

25. Keeper training – urban mist netting Location: Birkenhead, Northshore, Auckland

Partner Organisation: University of Auckland

Project Objective: For members of Auckland Zoo’s bird team to gain additional experience in mist-netting and data recording and to assit with data collection as part of a PhD project. Project Description: 108


Assist with mist netting and data recording for PhD study (by Josie Galbraith, Auckland University) on the effects of supplementary feeding on urban garden birds. Species involved included sparrow (Passer domesticus), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis) thrush (Turdus philomelos) and blackbird (Turdus merula)). Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

No. of staff 2013/14

No. of staff to date

99

99

7

7

Project longevity One-off series trips in Aug 2013

AZCF project? No

26. Invertebrate identification and cataloguing Location: Central Auckland

Partner Organisation: Bioresearches

Project Objective: To gain experience in the identification and cataloguing of invertebrates Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

2

2

Intensive invertebrate surveys were carried out on Rotoroa this year. These were led by Bioresearches, with the intention that Auckland Zoo staff would gain significant experience in invertebrate survey design, methodology and fieldwork. As part of this training, a member of the Ecotherm team visited Bioresearches head office to observe and assist with the identification and cataloguing of invertebrates collected from Rotoroa during the surveys. Contents of pitfall traps were separated by taxa and into morphospecies and methods for keying were observed and practiced. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? 1

1

One-off visit

No

109


2.4. International Projects 27. Kiritimati Island wildlife protection Location: Kiritimati Island, Republic of Kiribati

Partner Organisation: Wildlife Conservation Unit â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Republic of Kiribati

Project Objective:

The Republic of Kiribati contains important populations of two Endangered seabirds Phoenix Petrel (Pterodroma alba) and White-Throated Storm Petrel (Nesofregetta fuliginosa). Additionally, the Kiritimati Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus aequinoctialis) is now restricted to Kiritimati and Washington Islands. The main threat to these species is predation by introduced mammals, particularly cats and rats. In September 2012, a veterinary team from Auckland Zoo travelled to the island to carry-out spay and neuter clinics at three villages. Over 100 cats were desexed during this trip and a number of feral or sick cats were humanely euthanized. Wildlife Conservation Unit (WCU) staff on the island were trained in veterinary techniques including male cat neuters and humane euthanasia, to enable them to conduct their own similar clinics in the future. This initial visit was at the request of the Wildlife Conservation Unit staffs (who are part of the Kiribati Government) and the trip was funded by the Secretariat for Pacific Regional Environmental Programmes (SPREP). Project Description:

In June 2013, Auckland Zooâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Manager of Veterinary Services and Pest Control Officer re-visited Kiritimati Island to conduct further spay and neuter clinics, assist with developing strategic pest control plans and assist with direct pest eradication in Protected Wildlife Areas. Over 50 cats were desexed during clinic sessions held at Roland and Banana villages. WCU vets trained by Auckland Zoo staff during the last visit were supervised in the training of new veterinary technicians and a review of WCU staff capacity to run and maintain clinics was undertaken. Longer-term strategic planning regarding pest control and the best options for cat reproductive control and management on the island was carried out with various key stakeholders including WCU staff, regional expert Ray Pearce (Eco Oceania), the Mayor of Kirimati Island, SPREP representatives and Island Council animal wardens. New monitoring and trapping techniques were introduced that should increase the efficiency of the pest control programme and also improve animal welfare. Assistance was also provided with the Yellow Crazy Any monitoring and eradication programme and a number of 110


Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

256

512

areas for future activities to continue to develop collaborations and the scope and effectiveness of this project were augmented. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? Yes – travel 2 trips since funded and 2 4 2012. Potential equipment to continue. provided

28. Visit to Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme quarantine centre Location: Batu Mbelin, Medan, North Sumatra

Partner Organisation: Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme

Project Objective: Developing our partnership with the Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme and sharing expertise. Project Description:

Staff hours 2013/14

Staff hours to date

70

151

Auckland Zoo’s Team Leader of primates visited SOCP’s quarantine centre work with keepers to develop skills and assess the treatment plan of a paralysed orang-utan. SOCP keepers were upskilled in operant conditioning, enrichment and husbandry with the aim of improving the day-to-day welfare of short and long-term residents as well as streamline the release process by equipping staff with the capacity to assess behaviour more accurately and respond appropriately when required. No. of staff No. of staff Project AZCF 2013/14 to date longevity project? Long-term, Yes 1 3 ongoing Category 1

111

Auckland Zoo Field Conservation Report 2013/14  

Auckland Zoo field conservation report - 2013 / 2014

Auckland Zoo Field Conservation Report 2013/14  

Auckland Zoo field conservation report - 2013 / 2014

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