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BUYERS GUIDE Great expectations The right partner can give you the freedom to operate and provide you with the insight and tools you need to stand out.

We have a heritage in print and a hand in future communications. Together we’ll unlock the full potential of your print business.

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Plus Print

Design centred print and production

Irish Printer of the Year Irish Small Printer of the Year Irish Digital Printer of the Year

Plus Print would like to thank all their customers for their support over the years and help in winning these prestigious awards. Please feel free to contact John Kenny or Ciaran Smith for help with any of your next printing projects.

Unit 44b Moyle Road Dublin Industrial Estate

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION » 2 THE PRINTING PROCESS » 5 Find out about the five major processes used in printing – digital, letterpress, gravure, offset lithography and screen – and the applications for which they are best suited.

PRINT PROFILES Horizon Digital Print » 7 Standard Printers » 8 Plus Print » 9 Impress Printing Works » 10 Print Logistics » 11 TYPEFACES » 12 A brief introduction to the variety of typefaces you can use and a useful breakdown of how typefaces are classified.


PRINT PROFILES Flexo Labels » 14 The Label Factory » 15 Label World » 16 LABEL PRINTERS » 17 COVER STORY » 18 Ricoh, one of the world’s leading technology companies, outlines the range of print and ancillary services that it provides to its corporate clients.



Phil Byrne of Mentor Consulting provides some advice on how to target the right printers for the job when putting a contract out to tender.

PRINT PROFILE Printglaze Ltd » 24



PAPER PROPERTIES » 32 FINISHING » 25 Whether it is varnishing, embossing, laminating or binding, we outline the variety of options available to allow you to add those all important finishing

We show how understanding the nature of the paper you select can help you anticipate how it will react to the printing processes you have selected.

touches to your print job.


TOP TIPS » 50 What to Look for During a Press Check – we flag some of the issues that those responsible for an organisation’s printing should be aware of before putting a job on the press.


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THE IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE. This is a new product, published by Ashville Media Group, which aims to assist the nation’s print buyers in sourcing the expertise that they require to produce high quality printed materials.

classified. On Page 21, Phil Byrne of Mentor Consulting provides some top tips on how to ensure that you are targeting the right printers for the job when you are putting a contract out to tender.

The guide is a sister publication of our Irish Printer magazine, which is circulated to the Irish print and graphic design industries on a monthly basis. With the Irish Print Buyers Guide we are giving our Irish Printer readers’ customers the opportunity to get some basic information on how the printing process works. This will allow you to provide the most accurate specifications to ensure that you get the best results from your marketing budgets.

Whether it is varnishing, embossing, laminating or binding, on Page 25 we outline the variety of options that are open to the print buyer to allow them to add those all important finishing touches to their print job.

We begin our guide on Page 4 with descriptions of the five major processes used in printing – digital, letterpress, gravure, offset lithography and screen – and the applications for which they are best suited. On Page 12 you will find a brief introduction to the variety of typefaces that you can use, as well as a useful breakdown of how typefaces are

Every type of paper has a set of properties that will affect its suitability for printing and presentation. On Page 32 we will show how understanding the nature of the paper you select can help you anticipate how it will react to the printing processes you have selected and how your finished job will look and feel. Apart from listing some of the country’s key print companies, including label printers, print finishers and paper merchants, in our Directory sections, we also profile some of the country’s best known print service providers. And

there is also what we hope will be a useful Glossary of Design and Printing terminology. As this is our inaugural issue we welcome your feedback on how we can improve on the next edition, including the type of information that you would like to see in this publication. Maev Martin, Editor

T: 01 432 2271 E:

THE TEAM Editor: Maev Martin

Ashville Media Group

omissions. Reproduction by any means in

Editorial Manager: Mary Connaughton

Old Stone Building, Blackhall Green,

whole or in part without the permission of

Dublin 7, Ireland

the publisher is prohibited. © Ashville Media

Art Director: Jane Matthews

Tel: (01) 432 2200

Group 2014. All discounts, promotions and

Design & Layout: Antoinette Sinclair

Fax: (01) 672 7100

competitions contained in this magazine are run

independently of The Irish Print Buyers Guide.

Advertising Design: Colm McDermott/ Jennifer Reid

The promoter/advertiser is responsible for All rights reserved. Every care has been taken

honouring the prize.

to ensure that the information contained in this

Production: Nicole Ennis

magazine is accurate. The publishers cannot,

Sales Director: Paul Clemenson

however, accept responsibility for errors or


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For the best quality, service and value in design & print Brochures, leaflets and posters Books, booklets and reports Folders and catalogues Newsletters and magazines Stationery and business forms Bannerstands and displays Calendars, cards and more

Call us on: 090 6454327 Ferbane Business & Technology Park, Ballycumber Road, Ferbane, Co. Offaly Fax: 090 6454609 • • • /brosnapress

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THE PRINTING PROCESSES FIVE MAJOR PROCESSES ARE USED IN PRINTING: DIGITAL, LETTERPRESS, GRAVURE, OFFSET LITHOGRAPHY AND SCREEN. EACH USES A DIFFERENT METHOD: DIGITAL IS FROM A DIGITAL-BASED IMAGE, LETTERPRESS IS RELIEF, GRAVURE IS INTAGLIO, LITHOGRAPHY IS PLANOGRAPHIC, AND SCREEN IS POROUS OR STENCIL PRINTING. LETTERPRESS This is the oldest and most versatile method of printing. There is equipment for short, medium or long runs. It is used for job and commercial printing, books, newspapers, magazines, as well as packaging printing and many types of speciality printing. Letterpress is printed by the relief method. It is the only process which can use type directly. Printing is done from cast metal type or plates on which the image or printing areas are raised above the non-printing areas. Ink rollers touch only the top surface of the raised areas; the surrounding (non-printing) areas are lower and do not receive ink. The inked image is transferred directly to the paper. Much time is consumed in makeready (building up of the press form so that both the light and heavy areas print with the correct impression). When highlights and shadows are at the same height, the highlights exert more pressure than the shadows so that pressure must be re-

lieved in the highlights and more pressure added in the shadows or heavy printing areas. There are four types of presses – platen, flatbed cylinder, rotary and belt. On platen and flatbed cylinder presses, the type or plates are mounted on a flat surface or bed. Type and flat plates cannot be used on rotary presses where the printing member is a cylinder, and plates must be curved. Printing is done on sheets of paper on sheet-fed presses, or rolls of paper on web-fed presses. The distinctive feature for recognising letterpress is a heavier edge of ink around each letter (seen with a magnifying glass). The ink tends to spread slightly from the pressure of the plate upon the printed surface. Sometimes a slight embossing (because of denting) appears on the reverse side of the paper. The letterpress image is usually sharp and crisp. Flexography Flexography is a form of rotary web letterpress using flexible rubber plates

and fast-drying solvent or water-based inks. The rubber plates are mounted to the printing cylinder with double-faced adhesive. Plates are sometimes backed with thin brass or other metal sheets and attached to the cylinder with fastening straps for close register. Almost anything that can go through a web press can be printed by flexography. Printing by the flexographic process ranges from decorated toilet tissue to bags, corrugated board and materials such as foil, hardcalendered papers, cellophane, polyethylene and other plastic films. It is well suited for printing large areas of solid colour. Inks can be overlaid to obtain high gloss and special effects. Flexography features prominently in the printing of business forms, books, folding cartons and corrugated boxes, as well as many speciality items, from drinking straws to shower curtains. It is the major process for printing milk containers. Because of its colour brilliance, flexography is used extensively in printing gift wraps and shopping bags. It is also used in newspaper and magazine printing and is used extensively for heat transfer printing. Thermography (Raised Printing) Thermography is a process which creates special embossed effects in printing such as stationery, invitations, greeting cards, and paper decoration. A raised surface of printing resembling die engraving is formed without using costly engraving dies. Special non-drying inks are used in printing, either by letterpress or offset, and the wet inks are dusted with a powdered compound. After the excess powder on the non-printing areas is removed by suction, the sheet passes under a heater which fuses the ink and powdered


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compound. The printing swells or raises in relief to produce a pleasing engraved effect.

GRAVURE Gravure is an example of intaglio printing. It is the least commonly used printing process today. It uses a sunken or depressed surface for the image. The image areas consist of cells or wells etched into a copper cylinder or wraparound plate, and the cylinder or plate surface represents the non-printing areas. The plate cylinder rotates in a bath of ink. The excess is wiped off the surface by a flexible steel doctor blade. The ink remaining in the thousands of recessed cells forms the image by direct transfer to the paper as it passes between the plate cylinder and the impression cylinder. Gravure printing is considered to be excellent for reproducing pictures but high plate-making expense usually limits its use to long runs. As with rotary letterpress, gravure presses are manufactured to print sheets (sheet-fed gravure) or rolls (rotogravure) of paper but most gravure is printed from rolls. Sunday newspaper magazine sections or supplements, colour pre-prints for newspapers, large mail order catalogs, wallpaper, plastic laminates and postage stamps are examples of rotogravure printing. Steel-Die Engraving Steel-die engraving is an intaglio process in which the die is hand or machine cut, or chemically etched to hold ink. The plate is inked so that all sub-surfaces are filled with ink. Then the surface is wiped clean, leaving ink only in the depressed (or sunken) areas of the plate. The paper is slightly moistened and forced against the plate with tremendous pressure, drawing the ink from the depressed areas. This produces the characteristic embossed surface, with a slightly indented impression on the back of the paper. Copper plates are used for short runs of one-time use (invitations and announcements). For longer or repeat runs such as letterheads, envelopes, greeting cards, stamps, money and stock certificates, chromium-plated copper or steel plates are used in a die-stamping press.

With screen printing, the image to be printed is created photographically on the stencil leaving open areas of mesh through which ink passes. Image courtesy of KIWO

OFFSET LITHOGRAPHY Lithography uses the planographic method. The image and non-printing areas are essentially on the same plane of a thin metal plate and the distinction between them is maintained chemically. Printing is from a plane or flat surface and there are two basic differences between offset lithography and other processes – it is based on the principle that grease and water do not mix and ink is offset first from the plate to a rubber blanket, and then from the blanket to the paper. When the printing plate is made, the printing image is rendered grease receptive and water repellent, while the non-printing areas are rendered water receptive and ink repellent. On the press, the plate is mounted on the plate cylinder which, as it rotates, comes into contact successively with rollers wet by a water or dampening solution, and rollers wet by ink. The dampening solution wets the non-printing areas of the plate and prevents the ink from wetting these areas. The ink wets the image areas which are transferred to the intermediate blanket cylinder. The paper picks up the image as it passes between the blanket cylinder and the impression cylinder. Transferring the image from the plate to a rubber blanket before transferring it to the paper

is called the offset principle. Letterpress and gravure can also be printed by this offset principle. But because most lithography is printed in this way, the term ‘offset’ has become synonymous with lithography. Offset printing can be recognised by a smooth print as well as by the lack of any impression, ring of ink, or serrated edge which are characteristic of letterpress and gravure. Like letterpress, offset lithography has equipment for short, medium and long runs. Both sheet-fed and web presses are used. Sheet-fed lithography is used for printing advertising, books, catalogues, greeting cards, posters, labels, packaging, folding boxes, decalcomanias, coupons, trading stamps and art reproduction. Also many sheet-fed presses can perfect (print both sides) in one pass through the press. Web offset is used for printing business forms, newspapers, pre-printed newspaper inserts, advertising literature, catalogues, books, encyclopedias and magazines.

SCREEN PRINTING Formerly known as silk screen, this method employs a porous screen of fine silk, Nylon, Dacron, or stainless steel mounted on a frame. A stencil is produced on the screen, either manually or photomechanically, in which the IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 5

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non-printing areas are protected by the stencil. Printing is done on paper, or another substrate, under the screen by applying ink with a paint-like consistency to the screen, spreading and forcing it through the fine mesh openings with a rubber squeegee. The production rate, formerly limited by the drying time of the ink, has been greatly increased through the development of automatic presses, improved dryers and UV inks. Rotary screen presses allow for continuous operation. Screen printing usually can be recognised by the thick layer of ink and sometimes by the texture of the screen on the printing. Versatility is the principal advantage of screen printing. Any surface can be printed – wood, glass, metal, plastic, fabric, cork etc – in any shape or design, any thickness, and in any size. In advertising, screen printing is used for banners, decals, posters, 24-sheet billboards, car cards, counter displays, menu covers, etc. Heavy paperboards can be printed, eliminating costly mounting. Wallpapers and draperies are printed because of the depth of colours afforded – especially in the short-run custom designs of interior decorators. There are many other speciality uses for screen printing, such as decorating melamine plastic sheets before lamination and the printing of electronic circuit boards.

DIGITAL PRINTING Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital-based image directly to a variety of media. It usually refers to professional printing where small-run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large-format and/or high-volume laser or inkjet printers. Digital printing has a higher cost per page than more traditional offset printing methods, but this price is usually offset by avoiding the cost of all the technical steps required to make printing plates. It also allows for ondemand printing, short turnaround time, and even a modification of the image (variable data) used for each impression. The savings in labour and the everincreasing capability of digital presses means that digital printing is reaching the point where it can match or supersede offset printing technology’s ability to produce larger print runs of several thousand sheets at a low price. The greatest difference between digital printing and traditional methods such as lithography, flexography, gravure, or letterpress is that there is no need to replace printing plates in digital printing, whereas in analog printing the plates are repeatedly replaced. This results in quicker turnaround time and lower cost when us-

ing digital printing but typically a loss of some fine-image detail by most commercial digital printing processes. The most popular methods include inkjet or laser printers that deposit pigment or toner onto a wide variety of substrates including paper, photo paper, canvas, glass, metal, marble, and other substances. In many of the processes, the ink or toner does not permeate the substrate, as does conventional ink, but forms a thin layer on the surface that may be additionally adhered to the substrate by using a fuser fluid with heat process (toner) or UV curing process (ink). Digital printing has many advantages over traditional methods. Some applications of note include: • Desktop Publishing - inexpensive home and office printing is only possible because of digital processes that bypass the need for printing plates. • Variable Data Printing - uses databasedriven print files for the mass personalisation of printed materials. • Fine Art - archival digital printing methods include real photo paper exposure prints and giclée prints on watercolour paper using pigment-based inks. • Print on Demand - digital printing is used for personalised printing, for example, children’s books customised with a child’s name, photo books (such as wedding photo books), or any other short-run books of varying page quantities and binding techniques. • Advertising - often used for outdoor banner advertising and event signage, in trade shows, in the retail sector at point of sale or point of purchase, and in personalised direct mail campaigns. • Photos - digital printing has revolutionised photo printing in terms of the ability to retouch and colour correct a photograph before printing. • Architectural Design - new media that conforms to a variety of surfaces has enabled interior and exterior spaces to be transformed using digitally printed wall murals and floor graphics.


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TESTIMONIALS “Horizon have worked with us on instore communications for a number of years. They are a progressive company with an innovative and ‘get things done’ approach to business which has consistently met the challenges of working in the retail environment. Our day-to-day print and collation requirements are delivered on time and accurately, despite some challenging deadlines. We value their innovation, with the use of new materials and print processes, and the ability to turn our ideas from a drawing into an in-store display or point of sale element.” Marketing Manager, Tesco Ireland Horizon is an FSC® Certified and ISO Quality & Environment-Assured Company. Winner of Best Integrated Print Campaign of the Year at The International FESPA Awards 2014. IPA 2013 Winner of Large Format Digital Print category for their Lancome Dreamtone lightbox poster

Our goal is that every client should find executing a print campaign a fulfilling and hassle-free experience. We are here to take care of every part of the process, from concept and design to print, storage and distribution. We invest heavily in world-class technology, using inkjet printers from Agfa Graphics such as the :M-Press Leopard and :Jeti 3020 Titan, both of which deliver the

ultimate in high resolution quality and fast production speeds. We have over 60 highly trained professionals who can take a client’s advertising concept and run with it. We work hard on building long and rewarding relationships with our customers. That’s why we love the fact that 90% of our clients come from referrals and 95% of these are repeat buyers. Clients include: Tesco and Heineken.

SERVICES PROVIDED • Retail (Point of Sale, Display Units, In-Store Branding, Banners) • Out of Home (Billboards, Vehicle Branding, Event Branding, Special Builds) • Interactive Campaigns • Lenticulars • Commercial Literature


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Award for Carton Packaging presented to Peter Cunningham and Gary Dunne of Standard Printers.

Standard Printers winning entry - the Life’s 2 Good Presentation Box.

WHO WE ARE Standard Printers has grown to become one of the biggest print and packaging companies in Ireland and now offers a full online print portal, digital, lithographic and wide format print solutions, as well as a full finishing and storage facility. The company has consistently invested in the latest and most up-to-date printing and prepress technology. Standard Printers are fully accredited to the National Standards Authority of Ireland’s ISO 9001:2008 and the UKAS 236 standard for quality management. The company won The Ricoh Ireland Award for Carton Packaging at the prestigious Irish Print Awards 2013. COMPANY HISTORY Standard Printers was established in 1967 by Michael Cunningham and has grown into a one-stop-shop print and

finishing facility. In 1981 Michael established Western Plastics to supply plastic packaging solutions to the food, drink and industrial markets. This company now operates five manufacturing facilities based in Europe and North America. WHAT WE DO: WEB BASED PRINT PORTAL We can set up a bespoke print portal for all of your print requirements. It is secure and provides the print buyer with total control of their requirements, on demand print from upload files, stock control and delivery. GRAPHIC DESIGN A full design studio available to design, typeset, amend and finalise your artwork. We have all the latest graphic design packages, on site designers, and a full stock image library.

SERVICES AT A GLANCE Bespoke Print Portal • Graphic Design •Digital Printing • Lithographic Printing Wide Format/Sign and Display Printing • Bindery/Finishing and Fulfilment Carton Packaging


Standard Printers, Ballybrit Industrial Estate, Ballybrit, Co Galway T: 091 755 373 E: W:

DIGITAL PRINTING We can deliver short to medium runs, full colour or black and white, personalised/ variable data printing, bespoke sizes up to 660mm x 340mm, print on demand or just in time. LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING Medium to long run printing from one to eight colours with aqua varnish coating is available. We can also run a range of specialised inks such as metallic and luminous pantones (for example, our winning Irish Print Awards entry). WIDE FORMAT/SIGN AND DISPLAY PRINTING Standard Printers designs and manufactures a wide range of sign and display products on both rigid and flexible materials for indoor and outdoor use. The most common are wide format posters, corri-board or foam board signs, roll-up, exhibition stands and canvas banners. CARTON PACKAGING We can design and prototype all kinds of cartons and sleeves and we can also offer non-printed or printed plastic packaging through our sister company Western Plastics. BINDERY, FINISHING AND KITTING SERVICES Standard Printers offers a full finishing service. Common finishes include trim and folding, saddle stitching, perfect binding, laminating, thread sewing, wirobinding, die cutting and spot varnishing. We also offer a full shrink-wrapping, kitting and fulfilment service.



Dan and Tom set up the company after Guinness closed down their internal printing section and outsourced the work. The company quickly became known as a good trade printing company. They worked with companies such as Donnelly Documentation, helping them with their overflow work, as well as working closely with their old employers to produce labels and posters, including the iconic John Gilroy animal posters with the famous slogan ‘Guinness is good for you.’ Tom’s son Brian, also a qualified printer, soon joined the company and the purchase of two GTO 52s led to Plus Print securing new types of print work from companies like The Earlsfort Press and Aluset Ltd. John Kenny joined the company in 1992 as a sales executive to try to build up a new customer base so the company didn’t have to rely on the trade for its work. The work built up over the next couple of years and the company grew from four to nine employees. Plus Print acquired a reputation for producing high quality CDs and cassette inlays for the music industry, dealing with the likes of Lunar Records, Trend Studios, Warner Music, and Gael Linn Records, as well as independent labels from around the country. As the company was producing a lot of this work in full colour process on single colour GTOs day in, day out, the decision was made to buy a five-colour Roland Favorit in 1999. The machine opened up a lot of new opportunities for Plus Print and they

began working with some bigger clients such as Gael Linn, Lancome and Ernst and Young. EMBRACING THE DIGITAL REVOLUTION

There were a lot of changes in the industry over the next few years, particularly the increase in digital and wide format printing. Plus Print kept in touch with these changes and bought an SRA3 digital press and a 60 inch wide format HP machine to allow them to produce more work internally as their customers’ needs increased. In 2007 the company bought a new Komori Lithrone LS – a five-colour B2 press - to help them keep up with the increasing workload. The new machine tripled Plus Print’s output and it wasn’t long before it was fully loaded with high quality work from its loyal customers.


In 2011 Plus Print decided to enter the Small Printer of the Year category in the Irish Print Awards to showcase the excellent quality of the work that they were producing. They took the top honours in this category and the following year they entered two categories - Small Printer of the Year and Digital Printer of the Year - and won both categories. 2013 was the icing on the cake for Plus Print when they won the Small Printer of the Year category for the third year in a row and were also crowned the overall winner at the awards, taking the Irish Printer of the Year 2013 title. “Winning the print awards has

given us a sense of pride in our work and has opened up new and better opportunities for our company at a time when a lot of our colleagues have, unfortunately, closed down,” says John Kenny. “We have been lucky enough not to lose any of our employees over the last 10 years and we have managed to keep the company trading successfully so that we can continue to grow as the industry improves in the coming years.” EQUIPMENT PORTFOLIO Plus Print currently has the following litho and digital presses in its equipment portfolio: • Five-colour B2 Komori Lithrone • SRA1 two-colour Roland Parva • Heidelberg single colour GTO52 • Xerox SRA3 Docutech 250 • HP 60-inch photographic wide format printer. Plus Print’s finishing department includes a stitching, collating, scoring and cutting capability.

CONTACT DETAILS For assistance with any of your next print projects, please contact John Kenny or Ciaran Smith, or visit the company website at


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CommerCial Profile

impress printing Works Impress prIntIng Works Was establIshed In 1990 to produce qualIty multIcolour and process prIntIng and consIstently delIvers a standard of excellence In Its prInt Work and In Its approach to customer servIce. contact details Units 14-16 Beechlawn Industrial Complex, Greenhills Road, Dublin 12 T: +353 (1) 4502852 F: +353 (1) 4502884 E: W:

management Our senior management team have the expertise and the years of experience in the industry to ensure that your work is checked and produced to the highest standard, a standard for which we are well known within the printing trade. Impress printing lithographic brochures

same care and attention to detail about us The company specialises in smallas they do - and we have industry to-medium size runs where quality awards to prove it. is paramount - we even take on difficult and intricate work. our mission Impress Printing Works operate Our mission is to provide affordable litho and digital presses, as well as consistent quality printing to our wide format printers for short-run clients while delivering a professional posters. Most of our finishing work service. We are also committed is completed in-house, including to investing in state-of-the-art perfect binding, loop stitching, die equipment and to researching and cutting, embossing etc. providing solutions from within We work a double day shift the industry to maintain the Monday to Friday and we can work standards that our clients have weekends at short notice, marrying become accustomed to. Our expertise with the latest technology capital investment philosophy and to achieve fast turnarounds without our consistent investment in staff a loss in quality. Impress Printing training has paid dividends for both Works is one of Ireland’s top quality the company and our clients by printing companies because we giving us the resources to deliver PROVIDED handle our clients projects with the SERVICES more efficiently produced work. complete service

future Digital printing will be our growth area in the short term, while conventional presses improve setup and ink controls for speedier make-readies. Our new website - - is offering real time estimating and purchasing online and we believe that webbased functionality and customer interaction systems will be crucial to the future success of our business. our success We are successful because of our dedication to achieving perfection. Our clients know we never compromise on quality and that we always meet their deadlines and that generates repeat business and recommendations to other businesses who are looking for a quality print service provider. debossing

We offer a complete in-house service, from file to finished product right through to fulfilment and delivery to all parts of Ireland, mainland Europe, the US and Asia. We take a very hands-on approach to dealing with your projects - all jobs get the utmost attention.


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Discover True WhiTeness! on uPM Finesse PaPers

UPM Finesse papers offer high whiteness and brightness, opacity 90–100% and different finishing from gloss to matt. Its superior surface provides the best image and text reproduction, ensuring you can make a sharp and lasting impression. UPM Finesse woodfree coated papers are available in a wide range of sheets and reels. Their runnability and overall performance is proven to be excellent. Close co-operation with technical service and product development ensures that the paper is constantly being developed to meet different printing and market requirements. UPM Finesse is an EU Ecolabel awarded paper. FI/11/001

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ypefaces are usually available in 6 to 72 point, with a complete font in each size. A font is defined as a complete assortment of any one size and style of type containing all the characters for setting ordinary composition. Capital letters are called upper case and small letters, lower case. In lower case letters, the upper stroke (as in the letter ‘b’) is called the ascender and the downward stroke (as in ‘p’) is known as the descender. The short crossline at the


end of the main strokes is called the serif. Typefaces without serifs are called sans serif. The body or x-height makes up the greatest portion of a letter. Type size cannot be measured from the top of an ascending letter to the bottom of a descending letter. The face of any letter is not the full point size. For example, the face of a 36-point letter may measure only 30 points. Corresponding letters in the same size type may vary in height. We say that the face is either small on body (small x-height) or large on body

(large x-height). The entire appearance of a printed piece can be affected by the selection of type faces. Many characteristics – masculinity, femininity, delicacy, formality, etc – can be suggested by the type face used. The guidance of a qualified designer or printer in selecting the proper type face is indispensable. Above all, remember type was designed to be read easily. Both the selection of the type face and the size to be used must be considered. Use italics with care! Their primary purpose is for emphasis, not to be read in a mass.






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CLASSIFICATION OF TYPEFACES There are many approaches to type classification, none of which are precise. The following, however, is a useful breakdown covering a wide variety of type faces:

Oldstyle This type style group, patterned after letter forms used on classical Roman inscriptions, looks better in mass than when examined letter by letter. The letters have high readability because they are open, wide and round, with pointed serifs that make a pleasing contrast between the heavy and light strokes. Garamond and Caslon are examples.


The term modern refers not to a time period but to a style of type designed almost 200 years ago. These types have a much greater degree of mechanical perfection than Oldstyle faces and are distinguished by extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes, with thin squared off serifs. Times Roman, Bodoni and Didot are examples.

Square Serif A contemporary type style used mainly for display, headlines, and small amounts of reading matter. The letters have square or blocked serifs and more or less uniform strokes, and the face is even in texture and weight with very little contrast. Clarendon, Stymie and Cairo are examples.

Sans Serif This type enjoys great popularity because of its simplicity of design. The letters have no serifs, and the face is generally even in overall weight with very little contrast between thick and thin strokes. Helvetica, News Gothic and Futura are examples.

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Designed to simulate handwriting, script type is used mostly for special effects, formal invitations, and announcements. There are no serifs or extreme contrast between the thick and thin strokes, and the letters seem to touch each other. Commercial Script and Bank Script are examples.

Text Letters This group resembles the handdrawn letters of the early scribes. It is usually selected for religious documents, certificates, diplomas and invitations and is rarely used otherwise. Old English and Engravers Text are examples.

Decorative Types These are novelty styles or faces that are used primarily to command attention. They are generally contemporary faces and do not fit any of the standard classifications. Designed to express different moods, they may be eccentric in appearance. Comstock is one example.


Some type have many variations and these various styles are said to be in the same family. Examples of these variations in a type style are: light face, medium, bold, extra bold, expanded, and condensed, with italic versions of each in most cases.



PRINTERS’ MEASUREMENTS The point and pica are two units of measure universally used in printing in most English-speaking countries. Their use is primarily in typesetting. Type size is measured in points. Line length measure is in picas and points. The pica is used to express overall width or depth as well as the length of a line. The point measures .0138 or approximately 1/72 of an inch. In other words, there are 72 points to the inch. All type is designated in points (10-point Caslon, 24-point Baskerville etc). Points are always used to specify the size of type. Type faces may be set in sizes from 4 to 144 points but are generally used in 6 to 72 points. Line spacing is also specified in points (2 points of leading, etc). The pica is used for linear measurements of type. (A pica gauge is the printer’s measuring tool). There are 12 points to 1 pica, or 6 picas to 1 inch. The length of a line is specified in picas, as well as the depth of a type area. For example, a given block of copy is to be set 20 picas wide by 36 picas deep. Inches are never used in type measurement. The em is also important in typesetting although not a part of the point system. It is the square of the type size (a 10-pt. Em is 10 points wide and 10 points high) and is used for measuring the quantity of type. The most common use of the em space today is that of paragraph indention. An en space is one half of an em; a thin is either one quarter or one third of an em space. These fixed spaces are used for tabular composition. The agate line is a measurement used by newspapers to sell advertising space. There are 14 agate lines to an inch. An agate line refers to the space occupied by one line of agate type in one column. The width of the column can vary from paper to paper. A 60 line ad can take several forms: 60 agate lines in one column; 30 agate lines in 2 columns, etc. IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 13

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• LOW COST LABELS High quality label printing at affordable prices.

We have invested in a specialist digital label printer and we are now able to provide a range of adhesive labels on a roll. As the process is digital, there are no plate charges or die charges. This enables us to provide quality labels from small to medium quantities at affordable prices. With our advanced technology and manufacturing capabilities all on site, we are in a position to meet your requirements. Our experienced team with their specialised skills and expertise allows us to customise and add unique value to each client’s needs. We will work with you to produce the perfect proof before we go to print. This makes your job easier, more cost effective and ensures that your order is delivered on time. Flexo Labels is proud of the fact that it is an established printing house and our mission is to consistently provide you with exactly what you had in mind. Flexo Labels are in business over 30 years and

some of our customers have been with us for the past three decades. We try to put the customers’ needs first and provide them with a good quality job that is produced quickly and at a reasonable price. We pride ourselves on offering exceptional customer service. All phone calls and emails are responded to on the same day and we can boast a speedy turnaround when it comes to requests for quotations. We will give you the personal service needed to execute even the toughest print job because we are a company that you can trust and rely on. We are dedicated to producing creative and innovative ideas and products for you and your business. From start-up companies developing their identity and small companies needing a polished touch in their advertising to large corporations looking for a reliable outsource department, we tailor our knowledge, expertise and excellent customer service to your unique situation.

• NO PLATE OR DIE CHARGES No hidden charges or costs.

• GRAPHICS TEAM Inhouse graphics department who can amend jobs at no extra cost.

• SHORT RUN PRINTING Short runs from 10 labels available.

• RUN FROM 10 LABELS All job sizes catered for.

• NEXT DAY DELIVERY Price includes delivery to anywhere in Ireland.

• CUSTOMER SUPPORT We pride ourselves on our customer service.

• EXPERIENCE Over 30 years experience in the label printing business.

SERVICES PROVIDED: Printing all types of office stationery, from docket books, labels and pads to continuous stationery and glued sets. We are an approved print supplier for Ryanair, Maxol, Aer Lingus, BOC Gases, and the Irish Dairy Board.


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The Label Factory is highlyregarded within the industry and has received an array of national and international accolades since its establishment in 2002, the most prestigious being the top prize in the Self Adhesive Roll Labels category in the Irish Print Awards in 2010, 2011 and 2013. The use of conventional letterpress and digital print ensures that The Label Factory can offer customers the most appropriate solution for their label requirements. An efficient professional service has strengthened the companies reputation for delivering on time and on budget results. OUR MD A PRINT EXPERT Our Managing Director Peter Schaerer has over 30 years’ experience in the label printing business. Regarded as a print expert by his peers, Peter has worked worldwide as a printer, trouble shooter and instructor and has held positions as printer, production manager, technical teaching manager and printing technician with leading global print companies. Peter was involved in printing press innovations and development with Gallus, Switzerland, who are regarded as the world’s best builders of label printing presses.

TESTIMONIALS “From our first contact, The Label Factory impressed us with their efficient, professional manner - an approach that not only inspired confidence but generated the results we were looking for. We needed a company that would give us results on time and to the highest quality and that is what we found in The Label Factory. Because of Peter and Susan’s years of experience, The Label Factory has been able to provide Hot Irishman Ltd with the best in labelling services. From their state of the art printing equipment to their helpful, knowledgeable, and friendly staff, our experience with them confirms to us that we’ve partnered with true leaders in the labelling industry.” - Hot Irishman Ltd “I have been getting my labels from Peter and Susan at The Label Factory since they first opened. My business has grown since then, helped in no small way by the professionally produced labels supplied by them. Whether it was smaller orders, like when I first began, or hundreds of thousands, like now, their dedication, care and enthusiasm has always delivered a superior label, with specifications on material, adhesive, finish, and so forth, exactly selected to suit my needs. With The Label Factory, getting the right labels for the job is an easy process.” - Con Traas, The Apple Farm

CONTACT DETAILS T: 052 6128656 F: 052 6128660 E: W:

SERVICES & SECTORS One to 10 colours, labels on rolls, die cut, beverage, spirit labels, food, body care, animal healthcare, pharmaceutical, generic, barcode, sequential numbering, thermal, blank, industrial, hot stamp, emboss, graining, laminating, full/spot varnish.


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WHO ARE WE? We are an ISO9001, BRC/IoP, Award winning manufacturer of self adhesive labels. Founded by Declan O’Rourke and Derek Maher in 1998. Both continue to head up the company to this day. With our own in-house design department, digital printing presses and 3 Full UV Flexographic presses we are well positioned to meet all our customers label and tag requirements. WHAT WE DO? We specialise in digital labels to the printing trade. Since Label World’s formation, our

aim is to completely satisfy the needs of all our customers. To achieve this objective it is our aim to provide labels of the highest quality in the marketplace, at a competitive price with exceptional delivery. It is our objective to make the quality of our product and courtesy of our service so excellent that no customer would want to trade elsewhere. The total commitment to quality is in keeping with the guidelines as layed down under the I.S.O. 9001 Standard.

TESTIMONIALS “We have recently had labels designed and printed by Label World for our new Relish and Chutney Company. The team have been a pleasure to deal with, both their professional expertise and their patience in dealing with a fledgling company like ourselves, who are inexperienced in the area of labeling. We really appreciated their expert guidance, combined with the flexibility of their printing processes, which have certainly given us a label we are proud of. Thanks again to the team in Label World - it has been a pleasure dealing with you all. We would not hesitate to recommend them as a company” - Olive and Pat.


Digital labels Barcode printers Plain labels Zebra printers Datamax printers


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We are printers of self-adhesive labels, servicing the retail sector and industry with complete labeling solutions.

Label Tech prints adhesive labels used in all types of industries, including specialist food and drink labels, toiletries and cosmetics, household, pharmaceutical, health and nutrition, transport and logistics and industrial strength labels.

Munster Labels manufactures one colour to full colour labels on rolls or sheets. Founded in 1995, we have grown consistently and now offer modern technology platforms combined with over 20 years’ experience providing meaningful print and business outcomes to our clients.

Advanced Labels have been servicing Irish industry for over 30 years and our solutions include Toshiba Tec, Desk Top in store and industrial label printing systems. Our prices won’t be beaten. Unit 126, Baldoyle Industrial Estate, Baldoyle, Dublin 13 T: (01) 832 1335 F: (01) 832 1336

We can deliver any quantity and practically any shape imaginable using the latest innovations in printing and materials. Famous brands trust us with their labels and our customers, large and small, know they can depend on our expertise to deliver perfect label orders, every time, even at short notice.

T: (01) 8421700 F: (01) 8421827 E:


The global label supplier serving you at a local level. Our purpose is to deliver the world’s best label solutions that help our customers build their brands, and to add value to our associates, our shareholders, and the communities in which we operate. Our businesses are led and managed by experienced label industry professionals who understand their own operations and the supply chain within which they operate. We have more than 3,200 employees working in 32 operations, large and small, across six continents. We understand labels!

Established in 1981, Label Art is a proven manufacturer of top quality self-adhesive labels, heat seal lidding, non-adhesive tags, sachets and anti-counterfeit products.


70-74 Broomhill Road, Tallaght Industrial Estate, Dublin 24

J.R. Labels has been supplying sheet and roll self adhesive labels to the trade for 35 years. Our solutions include Taktik printers, blank labels for digital, litho and laser printing, plain and printed roll labels, from one to full colour, with barcoding and variable information. Trade confidentiality guaranteed.

T: (01) 4513555 F: (01) 4510424 E:

9/10 Craig Crescent, Clondalkin Industrial Estate, Dublin 22

Our key markets are pharmaceutical and healthcare, chemical, beverage and food, automotive, electronics and brand protection.

T: (022) 42640

Unit A2-A3, IDA Industrial Estate, Santry Avenue, Dublin 9 Registered in Ireland No 191824


With servo print technologies and the latest digital print capability, we can meet all your labelling needs.

Quartertown Industrial Estate, Mallow, Co Cork

Multi-Color is consistently recognised for its quality labels as a multi-award winner in North America (TLMI, PLGA, etc), Europe (FINAT), Australia (LATMA/ NPA) and World Label Awards. Unit 2, Swords Business Park Seatown, Swords, Co Dublin T: (01) 8138900


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icoh is one of the world’s leading technology companies specialising in office imaging equipment, production print solutions, document management systems and IT services. Its primary focus is on providing solutions and services that improve the interaction between people and information. Ricoh is known for the quality of its technology, the exceptional standard of its customer service and sustainability initiatives. Ricoh is present in Ireland since 1980 and now has more than 60 employees in its head office in Glasnevin, Dublin and its production print facility in Park West, Dublin. Ricoh has a strong direct business, working with enterprises and commercial printers throughout Ireland. It also operates a nationwide partner network of dealers who work closely with Ricoh to provide high quality solutions and services to businesses in every region.

SERVICE-LED BUSINESS Gary Hopwood, General Manager, explains how Ricoh has evolved its business successfully to become a leading services provider. “While we still bring some of the world’s most advanced printing and imaging technology to market, we’re now much more focused on delivering services which improve the entire document workflow and business processes in an organisation.” With volumes of digital information growing rapidly, Ricoh designed its Managed Document Services program (MDS) to ensure all organisations – and their employees – can get access to the right information at the right time and

Pictured: Gary Hopwood, General Manager, Ricoh Ireland.

in the right form. MDS addresses and improves the three fundamental parts of document management: input – the creation of information; throughput – how it moves around the organisation; and output – processing it in a way that really adds value. Ricoh MDS provides a centralised and streamlined approach to managing all documents – both print and electronic. It identifies efficiency savings immediately. It also provides many additional benefits, including improved productivity by giving users rapid access to information resources, enabling them to access information more quickly and efficiently. In addition, it reduces the burden on administration. This all saves time, money and vital resources.

increasingly popular among businesses in Ireland,” continues Gary Hopwood. A key part of MDS is outsourcing services that extend to managing customers’ on-site document facilities, including the print room, the mail room, scanning and archiving. Highly skilled Ricoh staff can be utilised on the customers’ premises to manage a wide range of activities. Whether it’s to deal with workflows such as invoices in the finance department, records in HR, or the integration of the print fleet with the print or mail room, outsourcing to Ricoh gives customers the opportunity to focus on growing their own business and revenues.


A very important part of Ricoh’s business in Ireland is its world-class production print and managed services facility in Park West, Dublin. “With a focus on service innovation, the facility has been developed to meet the needs of customers who want extremely high quality output and short turnaround times. It also acts as a very important business continuity service for

“Besides dramatically reducing costs and improving productivity, MDS incorporates the highest levels of governance and security at every stage of a document’s lifecycle. It is a combination of all these initiatives that’s making Ricoh MDS



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customers who need an overflow facility during busy times,” says Gary Hopwood Ricoh’s fully integrated approach to print and document management ensures that businesses across Ireland can experience the highest levels of quality and service at every single point in a document’s lifecycle. With the right systems and procedures in place, there is a real opportunity for businesses to introduce better ways of working, improving productivity and morale, and ultimately providing a platform for enhanced revenue growth.

TRANSFORMING THE ENTERPRISE PRINT ROOM IN THE NEW WORLD OF DIGITAL CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS Like many areas of the print industry, the traditional in-house print room or CRD has to move with the times to thrive and continue to provide valuable communications services that their clients and organisation requires. The growth of digital communications is reshaping the print market and is impacting the use of print and the production methods used to deliver it. These changes are creating opportunities for print rooms to redefine their role within the enterprise. According to InfoTrends, pursuing a multi-channel communications strategy

is growing in the corporate enterprise market and is being driven by the need to serve and communicate with customers in different ways.

ON-DEMAND SERVICES Increasingly, organisations are taking advantage of the latest workflow technologies to deliver on-demand printing services like web-to-print technology that enables print rooms to streamline their print orders through an online portal. As a result the print room can offer a range of on-demand services to fulfil marketing requirements – whilst ensuring brand consistency and adherence to corporate guidelines. Drawing on a rich heritage of continuous research and development, Ricoh TotalFlow brings together a comprehensive and market leading portfolio of flexible and powerful endto-end output management solutions that can streamline the entire production output process, from commercial print to CRD to high volume transactional print. By identifying each customer’s specific business needs, Ricoh can select all the software and service options needed to create a best-fit automated workflow. In addition to its automated workflow and marketing toolset, Ricoh is continuing to design and manufacture production print technologies that are second to none. Whether you’re a commercial

printer, in-house print room, marketing department or small creative agency, your business and customers demand tight turnarounds, maximum productivity and superb quality. Ricoh’s production printers deliver it all, along with service levels that are unmatched in the print industry. Ricoh’s Pro C series of production print presses are extremely popular for cut sheet printing. For continuous printing requirements, its InfoPrint presses - built on a rich IT heritage enables Ricoh to offer even more broadreaching service, support and technically advanced solutions to customers.

EXCITING NEW DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES The Ricoh Pro C7100 series of digital colour cut sheet presses are the latest in the Pro C series and are ideal for small to medium sized graphic arts business, direct mailers, service bureaux, digital printers and centralised reprographic departments. Features include an even higher quality finish and it supports an extensive range of media, including textured media, light packaging, envelopes and synthetics up to 360 gsm duplex. Other features of particular appeal include the 330 x 700 sheet size, 5th colour station for white ink or clear gloss (spot or flood) and the mechanical registration system. In addition, Ricoh is also introducing the Pro VC60000, a new generation, continuous feed, inkjet technology platform for graphic arts, designed to excel at direct mail, book printing and marketing materials. The modular based system is the most versatile colour inkjet system on the market.


Pictured: In Ricoh’s Managed Document Centre in Eversheds’ Dublin HQ are (l-r): Michael Smith, Eversheds, Rob Stanley, Ricoh Ireland, and Kevin Collins, Eversheds.

Another exciting development in 2014 for Ricoh Ireland is becoming a member of the Business in the Community initiative in Ireland. One of only a select number of organisations in Ireland, Ricoh has proven its credentials for responsible and sustainable business practices based on ISO2600. Ricoh is working on a number of successful IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 19

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projects with sustainability organisations and charities, including ReCreate and Focus Ireland, to provide a real and lasting contribution to local communities in Ireland.

RICOH IRELAND BRINGS SIGNIFICANT COST, PRODUCTIVITY AND SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS TO EVERSHEDS Eversheds is Ireland’s only full service international law firm and provides services to a wide range of indigenous and multinational businesses. With documents and access to information being such a crucial element of its legal procedures, Eversheds went to tender in Ireland looking for a partner to upgrade its ageing print fleet and to manage their document workflows. This included the provision of a new in-house print facility. Ricoh won the contract to deliver

a fully outsourced service and provides Eversheds with an integrated and futureproofed process for managing all of its documents. Ricoh opened a dedicated Document Centre at Evershed’s HQ on Earlsfort Terrace. The solution includes Ricoh production devices in the Document Centre and three on-site Ricoh staff. While Ricoh’s team handles most managed print and document services for Eversheds, further resilience has been built-in for busy periods when documents can also be securely delivered from Ricoh’s production print facility in Park

West, Dublin. The solution also includes the installation of Ricoh multi-functional devices across all six floors in the head office. Ricoh’s managed document service is delivering significant cost, productivity and sustainability benefits for Eversheds.

1,000 Working Days Saved Annually “In the first year of the new deal, we are forecasting a reduction in paper consumption of one third, from 7.5 million to five million pages, through new processes being implemented by Ricoh,” says Evershed’s Finance Director, Michael Smith. “We also expect to save more than 1,000 working days per year by removing all print and copying activities from our legal team, giving them the freedom to operate more value-added activities.”

K600i versatile inkjet printer for Variable Data Printing


018 IPBG 2014 COVER STORY.indd 20 Cleaboy Business Park, Old Kilmeaden Road, Waterford • Tel (051) 379933 Unit 4,W.I.N Business Pk, Canal Quay, Newry, BT35 6PH • Tel (028302 ) 61066

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have dealt with many print providers over the years, and to say that there is a standard tendering process to follow would be untrue. It may be that your inbox is full with unsolicited emails from print suppliers and you don’t know where to begin. Or, indeed, you may be in the print sector and are seeking to outsource part of the production processes to achieve lower costs. You must always keep in mind that your need for print is usually because of a need to communicate with your customers, whether through your marketing, or after sales support, etc. It is imperative that you select a print supplier that will properly portray your brand, with the provision of a first-class print product. The following are some areas for your consideration when offering work to tender in the print industry in Ireland.

SPECIFICATION Those who are experienced buyers within the Irish print sector will have developed relationships with their print suppliers over time, establishing a reliable mechanism for specifying print work. When offering work to tender, you must be clear from the start about your own requirements, so that potential suppliers can quickly get to grips with the job at hand, removing delays caused by responding to queries, etc. If you are new to working with the print sector you will find that plenty of advice is available through publications such as Irish Printer magazine. Remember, you will need to provide as much detail of the job as possible, such as paper size and quality, the number of copies, colour, typeface, etc and the type of job, (whether it is a let-

terhead, business card or leaflet). Printing processes also need to be considered when specifying.

HOW YOU COMMUNICATE WITH YOUR PRINT SUPPLIERS As a repeat buyer in the print sector, you will benefit from standardising how you specify print work, as part of your overall

purchasing process. This allows your print supplier to familiarise themselves fully with your requirements. When offering new work to tender, you will also benefit by developing your own tendering process for potential suppliers to follow. This gives you a structured way of assessing each response, allowing you to evaluate each submission more independently. With this in mind, make sure that you IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 21

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generate a standardised form for completion by the prospect. Give guidelines on how you communicate with suppliers throughout the tendering process, so that you are not unnecessarily distracted by queries on various aspects of the process. Keep in mind that key to your decision, especially if your are ISO 9001 certified, will also be the consideration of the capability of the prospective supplier to deliver as promised.

EOIS, RFTS & RFQS While there are many print firms in Ireland who will be familiar with dealing with large scale print buyers, the contrary is also true. There are many more print firms who will not be familiar with responding to invitations to submit Expressions of Interest or Requests for Tender etc. Don’t miss out on opportunities to engage with these printers, as they can also provide you with a first- class service. Seek testimonials,

where appropriate, for prospective print suppliers. Invite tenders from as wide a field as possible to ensure that you are getting the best possible responders. Your print specification will make up just one part of your invitation to tender. It is also important to outline the tendering process, with relevant details on volumes and timescales. Ensure that the prospective supplier responding to your invitation has all of the necessary information required to make their application so that they have a realistic expectation of what is required to succeed.

SELECTING YOUR PROSPECTIVE PRINT PROVIDER In recent years, we have seen an increase in the number of companies offering a comprehensive print management service and for those engaged with these companies the tendering processes will be part of

that service provided. Also, a good print broker can meet any print buyer’s requirements by sub-contracting out the work and managing the print for you. For those who want to maintain a closer relationship with their print suppliers, these options may not suit. Deciding on the parameters for evaluating prospective suppliers is very important and will be determined largely by your own requirements. Selecting those to invite to tender must be done carefully to ensure your desired results, particularly on quality, consistency and timescale. The list of companies to include in your invitation to tender will include current suppliers and others who have been recommended by industry partners. Seek testimonials from customers of prospective suppliers before including them on your invitation list. Other things for consideration include seeking tenders from print providers who have implemented a Quality Management

The HP Scitex FB7600 press


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System certified to ISO 9001:2008. This gives you the assurance that the prospective supplier has been independently assessed as operating to the highest management standards, that they have a distinct customer focus and are always working toward continual improvement.

SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENTS When you have decided on your new print supplier, what next? Do you just place the order and await delivery? You could…or you could take a more structured approach. Many companies, particularly when dealing with repeat suppliers, implement SLAs (Service Level Agreements). If you are a pharmaceutical manufacturer, for example, and are putting your packaging and literature out to tender, you will need some assurance that compliance to your initial agreement is maintained. ISO 9001 Supplier Audits provide a solution, where applicable, but not all of your suppliers will have been certified. You will benefit from putting in place a mechanism for assessing the performance of your supplier on an ongoing basis. Having an SLA in place will provide the parameters for continued delivery of the print service and, indeed, a mechanism to exit the agreement if you need to. In particular, specify how rejects and defects are to be dealt with, and include a guide to how any deviations or changes are agreed. Better safe than sorry!

SUMMARY So, what are the essentials of your RFT (Request for Tender)? Firstly, your tender should have an outline description of the job at hand. In addition, the following would be seen as necessary information: • Tender Title, or Identification Number • Tender Return Date • Technical Specification • Details of Job • Number of Copies • Number of Pages • Layout & Size • Colour Specification • Cover Description and Details • Paper Specification (Cover & Body) • Binding & Finishing • Packaging Format • Date for Job Completion • Delivery & Settlement • How ‘Run-Ons’ are Treated • Availability of Artwork • Any relevant Terms & Conditions that are applicable

Note: Further consideration should be given to security and non-disclosure agreements where necessary. You may be divulging market sensitive information to your print supplier which needs to be controlled. By having an established purchasing process as part of your quality management system, you will have defined how you handle all of your suppliers, particularly where you are serious about control and continual improvement. Your tendering process will be included as a controlled document and will be maintained for suitability through your internal audits. It is important that you keep these documents up to date if you are to renew your ISO 9001 certification.

ABOUT PHIL BYRNE Phil Byrne of Mentor Consulting is an experienced independent consultant with extensive experience in the print sector, specialising in management control and ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems. You can contact him directly on mobile 085 775 1452 or visit for more information.


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Staff at Printglaze

The new Iberica JR-105 Varioplan flatbed die cutter.

The Duran Intro Pro 110 gluing line.

Printglaze is the largest print finisher in the 32 counties, we are 35 years servicing the print trade from our 35,000 sq foot state of the art factory, located close to the m50, at printglaze is to continually provide high quality print finishing service to reflect creativity and quality from conception to the final product, we regulary invite our customers to our factory to inspect our large array of finishing equipment, and get to know the team.Printglaze operate 24 hours a day five days a week

We pride ourselves in having the latest cutting edge paper finishing technology at our disposal and also a large array of exclusive finishes that cannot be replicated elsewhere. We are aware that our customers must work to tight deadlines, so Printglaze works 24 hours, five days a week, with Saturday opening 8:00-13:00. So once your job is placed with us our customer service team will be there to provide you with real time information; where your job is, at every step of the print finishing process.


WHAT WE DO? • Purbinding • Perfect binding • Thread sewing stitching • Loop stitching • Large-pharma folding • Laminating spot UV varnishing • Foil blocking • mailing • die cutting • Carton gluing • Window patching • Pick & place • Ram bundling Our list of coatings and decorative print finishes is second to none. At print glaze we can offer you the latest paper finishing technology as well as a list of finishes that you won’t find anywhere else in ireland. Visit our web site for a full list of our services.

All services can be viewed on our wesite at printglaze.Ie


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VARNISHES & SPECIAL INKS WHETHER IT IS VARNISHING, EMBOSSING, LAMINATING OR BINDING, WE OUTLINE THE VARIETY OF OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO ALLOW YOU TO ADD THOSE ALL IMPORTANT FNISHING TOUCHES TO YOUR PRINT JOB. VARNISHES Utilising special inks and varnishes can be an effective way to seal the printed material and can greatly enhance the impact of a project. Machine Varnish Gloss, satin (semi-gloss) or matte varnishes applied in-line with the colour printing process. This allows for accurate spot varnish, for visual effect, as well as overall coating. Satin varnish is usually applied to seal ink against scuffing during postproduction. Aqueous Coating Water-based coating, available in gloss, satin (semi-gloss) or matte, which can be applied either in-line or off-line. After application, the coating is dried off, using air blowers and moderate heat. UV Varnish A high-gloss finish that can be applied inline on suitably-equipped presses, or as a separate process on dedicated machinery. UV varnish can also be silk-screened (as a separate process only). Wax-Free Varnishes Specially-formulated varnishes for use with any foil or latex finish. (The wax component in other varnishes can repel these finishes).

DRY TRAP & WET TRAP VARNISHES Dry Trap Varnish The paper is printed first and then allowed to dry before the varnish is applied. It is another pass through the press and will add to your costs, but it will give you better gloss level appearance. Note: Dry trap will add production time to allow for the paper to completely dry before the varnish is applied. Wet Trap Varnish A machine varnish is applied to wet ink in-line and will be placed down last on a multi-colour sheet-fed press, as compared to dry trap. The varnish can be either spot or overall.

Celloglazing A high-finish coating formed by rolling a film over the printed sheet and adhering it with glue by either ‘wet celloglazing’ or with heat ‘thermal celloglazing’. Thermal celloglazing is generally preferred as the wet application can cause a shift or ‘burning off’ in the printed colour. However, use of light-fast inks can alleviate this problem. Gloss and matte celloglaze is available.

SPECIAL INKS Metallic Inks Special inks for printing a metal-look finish or colour. The results can be extremely effective. However, laser printing on metallic ink should be kept to a minimum or avoided altogether. Matte varnishes will dull the reflectivity of the metallic flecks, degrading the effect. Trapping is critical when printing metallic duotones. It is best to print down the metallic first, unless the content can be reversed out.

Fluoro Inks Vivid eye-catching inks that are now available in a wide range of colours. They can be run in-line but only to a predetermined strength or poor drying will result. Fluoro inks are extremely sensitive to emulsification (water absorption) and so the ink-to-water balance is critical. Foil Inks Inks formulated to dry through oxidisation (contact with air). Foil inks are always used on synthetic stocks. Water content is critical - the ink will not dry if too much water is applied, leading to the set off drying poorly. Due to their drying process, these inks need more time before post-production processes can be commenced.

EMBOSSING & FOIL STAMPING Embossing changes the physical dimensions of paper to add an elegant and eyecatching graphic element. Text and cover IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 25

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stocks can be moulded using heat, pressure and an embossing die. The process stretches and reshapes the paper fibres, creating a textural effect and setting the communication apart by adding a third dimension. The paper or other substrate is pressed between a female die and its moulded male counterpart, usually with the addition of heat, in a special embossing press. The finished result can then be emphasised with ink or foil, sometimes in combination with pastelling or tinting foil. The design can be enhanced on the press by adding more heat to alter the colour and/or texture. This effect is called burnishing. Types of Embossing Embossing can be single level, multi level, rounded, sculptured or textured. Embossing pushes the paper surface forward, causing a raised image. Debossing uses the same process, but the surface is depressed. A Blind Emboss is an embossed (or debossed) graphic area that is not covered by printed ink but may be highlighted with a foil. Registered embossing is where an embossed image exactly matches the position of a printed or foil image on the reverse of the same page.

FOIL STAMPING Foil stamping, also known as flat or hot stamping, is the application of foil to a page using heat and a die. Unlike embossing, stamping compresses the paper fibres. Smoother coated stocks will enhance the reflective quality of metallic foils, but many other bond, text and cover stocks can also be foil-stamped effectively. Specific stocks may require special foil formulations which may not be available in all colours and finishes. You should avoid heavily inked or coated sheets, as they may not be porous enough for the foil to adhere properly. Plastic coatings and varnishes can also prevent the foil from transferring to the paper effectively, and may lead to blisters appearing. Ideally, inks with less than three per cent wax content should be used with foil stamping. Foils come in a myriad of colours and finishes, including (but not limited to) metallic, pigmented, matte, pearl, holographic, pastel and scratch-off foils. If more than one foil is required on a design, specific sequences may be necessary in the press application. Just as with other printing processes, the artwork must be properly prepared to ensure proper coverage and bleeding.

COATING, LAMINATING & ENCAPSULATION Laminating and coating are the most common forms of embellishment for printed paper sheets. They can deliver

a wide range of finishes to enhance the look, feel and durability of printed work, from matte coating to full-gloss lamination.

TYPES OF COATING Aqueous Coatings Aqueous coatings are designed to improve both aesthetics and provide product resistance. These coatings are formulated for rub and scuff resistance, high gloss, quick work and turn, and increased efficiency. They are used on covers and printed stocks where the printed area needs sealing. Cellosheening This is also known as film lamination – it is a gloss or matt film used to enhance or protect print work which is fully suitable for embossing and foiling. It can be used on books, magazines, presentation folders, annual reports, brochures etc. Calendering A finishing process by which paper, plastics, rubber or textiles are pressed into sheets and smoothed, glazed, polished, or given a moire or embossed surface. Film Laminating This is also known as plasticoating. This process uses a plastic coating to improve the appearance and add durability to your jobs, including waterproofing. It is used quite a bit on menus, charts, posters, wall planners, architectural plans etc.

Glitter Varnish This is a speckled and reflective finish that is available in a range of standard colours as well as gold, silver and rainbow. It is mostly used in the greeting card industry. It works best on coated stocks. Glow in the Dark Varnish This is a varnish with light sensitive particles that is designed to be energised under light sources and emit a glow in zero-light areas. It is often used on greeting cards, promotional printwork, CD/ DVD sleeves, business cards and stickers. It is best used on light ink colours, as dark colours and/or heavy ink coverages can absorb the light emitted by the glow particles. High Build Spot UV Varnish This is an ‘embossed-effect’ UV varnish which has a raised texture that you can feel. It is often used on greeting cards, corporate brochures, annual reports, CD/DVD sleeves, new car brochures, fashion directories/magazines, business cards and cosmetic cartons. It works best on coated stocks. Holographic Laminating A metallised polyester base film which has been specially treated to create a ‘rainbow’ effect with many different designs. It can be directly glued to and printed on using oxidisation or UV inks and is suitable for embossing and foiling. It is often used on toothpaste cartons, premium packaging, cosmetics, toiletries and DVD jackets.


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Latex Coating This is a silver or gold coating in a defined or ‘spot’ area to hide information on promotional print work. It is used on scratch and win tickets, local business incentives, seasonal promotions, in-store promotions etc. Metallised Laminating This is a metallised polyester film with high-reflective ‘mirror’ properties which can be directly glued to and printed on using oxidisation or UV inks. It is suitable for embossing and foiling. It is commonly used on premium packaging, DVD jackets, cosmetics and toiletries. Polyester Laminating This is a gloss film used to enhance or protect print work and it is primarily used for its glue ability. It is suitable for embossing and foiling. It is used on glued presentation folders, cartons, computer software boxes etc. Sand-tex UV Varnish This is a special effect glossy, sand-paper textured UV silk screen varnish that is often used on premium print work, books, magazines, annual reports, presentation folders, brochures etc.

Gloss Lamination This is where the printed sheet has a roll of lamination film applied to it under heat and high pressure. Is more high profile than matt lamination and it adds a high silk sheen. It is often used on brochure covers, menus, magazine covers or presentation folders. Gloss lamination is the high impact option and forms a protective coating over the print which makes it suitable for items such as menus etc. Celloglazing Celloglazing is a process whereby a thin sheet of film is adhered to the printed piece by a special machine that uses both heat and pressure to apply the coating. Celloglazing can be matt or gloss and can be single sided or double sided. The process tends to add depth to colours and gives your printed matter a prestige finish, as well as extending document life. Gloss celloglazing gives a high gloss, shiny, reflective finish. A printed product that is competing with others on a stand in a news agent or bookshop would benefit

from a gloss celloglaze. A book or calendar produced by a professional photographer (for example) to be handed out to clients, or sold as a premium product over the Internet, would benefit from a matt celloglaze. Cold Lamination Cold laminating is a process that uses pressure-sensitive adhesives to bind the film to the material being laminated. The laminator uses rollers that push the sheets of lamination together. Cold laminators are faster and easier to use than hot laminators and they are safe for nearly all flat items. Cold lamination is your best option when laminating heatsensitive documents or photos. There are several styles of cold laminating film to fit a variety of applications: • Single-sided film is used to laminate just one side of a document. • Double-sided or dual laminating films completely encase your docu-

Scratchable Scented Coatings This is a slurry containing an encapsulated scent. The scent is released when scratched, enabling the user to smell the product. It is often used for new product launches, promotional print work, new perfume fragrances, air fresheners, coffee etc. UV Coating – Spot This is a matt or high gloss ‘mirror finish’ silk screen UV coating. It is best used to highlight an image or area on a printed sheet. It is an ideal contrast when using a gloss or matt laminate as a base. UV Coating – All Over This is an all-over high gloss roller application UV varnish and it is often used on popular national directories, greeting cards, brochures, booklets, etc, although it has been known to cause cracking on folds and it does not offer UV fade resistance to inks. Varnishing To lay varnish on – to cover with a liquid which produces, when dry, a hard, glossy surface. This is applied to covers and printed stocks where the printed area needs sealing.

TYPES OF LAMINATING Matt Lamination Matt lamination gives a subtle, tactile effect and is great for items where image and first impressions are important. It forms a protective coating over the print but it does not provide the same level of protection as gloss lamination and can be prone to scratching and fingerprints.

Image courtesy of Printglaze Ltd.


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• •

• •

ment, laminating both sides for complete protection. Cold Laminating film is available in a variety of finishes: Matte - This is a non-reflective finish that has a slightly granular look. Matte finishes tend to make image colours more vivid. Satin - Provides a reduced level of glare and has a soft sheen. Gloss - This is a clear finish that brings out and emphasises colours.

Holographics Holographics offer an endless number of exciting designs with both a metallised or clear finish for packaging, book and magazine covers or any other printed promotional material. Strip Lamination This is a plastic film lamination that offers flexibility, tear resistance and longterm durability. It is ideal for work on mail folders and tubing where protection is needed along delicate traffic areas.

ENCAPSULATION Lamination and Encapsulation are often confused. Encapsulation is plastic film which is applied to both sides of the entire printed sheet to protect and enhance the print. Polyester or polypropylene film of up to 250 microns is applied to both surfaces of the printed item to enhance appearance and increase durability. It can be trimmed flush or left with a margin on all sides to give complete protection. Encapsulated items can be die

cut, drilled, creased and round cornered. Encapsulation is easily identified as there is usually a clear plastic edge of 2mm to 5mm around the printed product (this has an added benefit of sealing in the printed item). Encapsulation is commonly used for posters, leaflets, menus and flyers. Types of Binding Binding refers to the process of fastening printed sheets together along an edge so that they form an easily read arrangement of consecutive pages. The binding chosen for a particular publication will depend on its intended use, the quantity and, of course, the budget. Binding Styles The three main binding styles are case binding, paper binding and loose-leaf binding. Case Binding This is the traditional ‘hard cover’ binding style, usually reserved for books - either to help withstand constant use or for a ‘prestige’ finish. This process gives a very professional result. However, it is labour intensive and carries a corresponding level of expense. Hard cover cases are made by gluing coloured cloth, printed case lining or leather to binder boards. The cases are made to exact specifications, based on the size and bulk (thickness) of the book block. The cases are printed or stamped before binding usually with the title and author’s name, sometimes in coloured or metallic foil. Meanwhile, the pages within the book

will usually be section sewn or burst bound (see the paper binding section which follows), before being enclosed in their case. We say that the sewn book blocks are ‘cased in’ to their hard covers. Endpapers are glued to the front and back of the sewn book blocks, then the book blocks are trimmed on the head (top), foredge (front) and foot (bottom). Just like in burst bound books, this threesided trim gives the pages a smooth and clean edge. Finally, the front and back endpapers are glued to the inside of the cases, binding the case to the block. If jackets are required, they will have been printed and trimmed already. They are fitted now and the books are ready for boxing. Paper Binding While case binding is elegant and traditional, the majority of publications these days are paperbound, whether it is saddle stitched, side stitched, section sewn, perfect bound or burst bound.

Image courtesy of Printglaze Ltd.

Saddle Stitching This is the most common paper binding method. The folded sections of a book are simply assembled inside a folded cover, and then stapled through the fold along the spine. Saddle stitching is suitable for both self-covered books (where the cover stock is the same as the other pages) and books with separate covers. 96 pages (48 leaves of paper) is generally considered the maximum number of A4 pages which can be saddle stitched, but this depends on factors like the weight and bulk of the paper used. When too many leaves are saddle-stitched the pages will ‘bow’ when closed, instead of lying flat.


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tion, and the sections are arranged into a ‘book block’. The unbound book blocks are sent to a sewing machine, which sews the binding edge of each section along the spine and sews all the sections together. The binding side is not perforated as in burst binding. Once all the sections of the book are sewn they make a sewn book block. This can be sent to the gluer to have limp covers applied (like burst binding). Or to a case binder for ‘casing in’ to hard covers. Burst Binding As each printed page of the book is folded, a special wheel puts perforations on the binding side of the sections. When the sections are gathered into unbound book blocks, these perforations along the spine allow the glue to penetrate into each fold of paper. Hot melt glue is applied to the spine and an oversized cover is wrapped around the glued book blocks. When the glue dries (usually a matter of seconds), the books are sent to the three-knife trimmer, which cuts top, front and bottom edges of the book to size. The burst bound book is now complete and ready for delivery.

Image courtesy of Printglaze Ltd.

Side Stitching This is the method of binding where staples are through one edge of assembled pages, giving a sturdy binding, but a book that will not lie flat when opened.

Section Sewing Books of 80 pages (40 leaves of paper) or more are generally section sewn when a strong, high-quality finish is desired. The pages are first collated in folded sec-

Perfect Binding This is now the most common way to bind commercially produced paperback books, as well as substantial brochures, catalogues, reports and other collateral.

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It is significantly cheaper than section sewing. Once the pages are assembled, the binding side (or spine) is shaved by about 3mm and glue is applied to the cut area. The covering process then continues as for a burst bound book. Loose Leaf Binding Loose-leaf binding, plastic comb binding, wire or plastic spiral binding and ring binding are all commonly used for textbooks, manuals, workbooks and resource kits. These forms of binding allow the finished publication to be opened and laid flat - and ring binding has the advantage of allowing more pages to be added at any time. However, all these methods of binding lead to considerable wear and tear along the binding edge and the binding processes require hand-working, which adds cost. Comb Binding Plastic comb bindings come in a range of colours and will allow a book to lie flat when opened, although the pages cannot be truly doubled back. Comb binding can be used on publications up to 75mm thick and will hold adjoining pages more tightly in register with each other than spiral bindings. However, the plastic is more vulnerable to damage. Inserting comb bindings is a hand operation, making it quite costly for large numbers of documents.

Spiral (Coil) Binding Based on a simple, spring-like plastic coil, this durable and crush-resistant binding allows a bound book to lie flat, or be folded back on itself for easy reading. Spiral bindings can be made of plastic or wire and will allow the bound document to lie flat or doubled over. This combination of properties makes spiral binding popular for technical manuals, notebooks, and calendars. However, the fine spirals allow some play between pages, and pages can’t be inserted (e.g. updated) after binding. Also, rough handling may crush the spirals. Spiral wire coils range from 6mm to 50mm in diameter, and they can be used to bind book spines up to 600mm long. Wire-O-Binding Wire-O-Binding is a double loop of wire, inserted through a line of drilled holes, to hold the covers and pages of a document firmly in place. The document will lie flat when opened and the pages can be doubled back while keeping perfect registration with the adjoining pages. Wire-O bindings come in nine standard colours and loop diameters, ranging from 5mm to 30mm. They can be used on documents from 3mm to 25mm thick. Often, Wire-O binding is used for reference books, reports, proposals and calendars. The wires are very durable but preclude printing on the document spine and inserting new pages.

Image courtesy of Printglaze Ltd.

PUR Binding PUR binding is very similar to perfect binding but uses a more durable and flexible glue. It is nearly impossible to remove pages from a PUR bound book and the spine doesn’t deteriorate with age. It is ideal for printed items that need to be durable reference tools such as catalogues, price lists, prospectus, brochures, town plans, etc.


Southern Tapes & Packaging

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Custom Printed Tapes OR ECT F PERF SHOWS Custom Printed Labels E TRAD RKETING Custom Printed Hot Cups & MA IATIVES:) INIT Custom Printed Bags Custom Printed Promo Material & Much More

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clients across corporate, SME and public sector organisations.

ROBINSON & MORNIN BOOKBINDERS LTD LETTERTEC IRELAND LTD We are printers, bookbinders and publishers. As well as paperback and hardback books, we offer a case making and bookbinding service. We also produce unique lay flat books and a complete solution for self-publishing authors. Springhill House, Carrigtwohill, Co Cork, W8R-89-2BK T: (021) 488 3370 F: (021) 488 3423 E:

We are the largest quality bookbinding supplier to litho and digital printers in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. For a list of all services please visit our website. Units 1-7, Belfast Industrial Complex, Belfast, Co Antrim, BT13 2EZ, Northern Ireland


XERETEC Xeretec is a leading integrator of digital print hardware, software, solutions and services. The company’s service portfolio includes managed print services, digital print technology, mobile print, multi-function devices, heavy production printers, print audits, Xerox and HP print technology, solid ink printers, print servers (Fiery & Creo), print finishing equipment, Web2Print, VDP, and cross media.

Established in 1935, MJ Flood is the largest indigenous supplier of copiers, digital technology, office furniture and interiors for the modern office.


Ground Floor 1B, Block 11, Galway Technology Park, Parkmore, Galway Ireland T: (091) 174 4050

CANON Canon’s start-of-the-art printers, scanners and cameras continue to provide best-inclass solutions for Irish businesses. But our expertise does not stop there. From rationalising your print and document management to engaging with your customers, managing your business processes, and introducing new ways of working, Canon Ireland has the expertise to bring future-proof technology and people together, to create a winning combination. Please contact Aileen Caffrey in Canon Ireland on: T: (01) 2052411 E:

Clonlara Avenue, Baldonnell Business Park, Baldonnell, Dublin 22 T: (01) 466 3500 F: (01) 466 0051 E:

OPUS PRINT & PROMOTIONS We are your trusted partner for promotional products, branded merchandise and corporate gifts. Opus offers trade prices on promotional pens, printed mugs, umbrellas, USBs, conference folders, lanyards, printed golf balls and branded clothing.


Unit C9, Santry Business Park, Santry, Dublin 9 T: (01) 862 2976

27 Second Avenue, Cookstown Industrial Estate, Dublin 24 T: (01) 4622646 F: (01) 4622645 E:

IBS IBS, a Xerox Company, brings unrivalled expertise to the market, providing the full Xerox product and services portfolio, from an entry level printer to a complete enterprise-wide document management solution across the island of Ireland. IBS, a Xerox Company, has in excess of 18,000

We advise you on the best print and promotional product options for your company or for your customers. Visit our website and, if you cannot find what you are looking for, please do not hesitate to call us. T: (01) 4057815 IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 31

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The absorbency of a paper is its ability to absorb or repel both water and oil.


This affects the contrast, brilliance, snap or sparkle of the printed subject. Artificial brighteners, like flourescent additives, can affect colour reproduction as most are not neutral in colour and have excess blue reflectance.


Curl is caused by the two sides of a paper sheet either expanding or contracting unevenly as they absorb moisture. This two-sidedness of paper has the strongest influence over curl, and causes uneven stresses and strains between the top and bottom of a sheet. There are many types of curl, most of which fall into one of two categories. One is inherent curl, which shows up immediately after the paper is first sheeted or converted. The other is moisture curl, which results from paper’s tendency to seek equilibrium with the moisutre content (the relative humidity) of its surrounding atmosphere.


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GRAIN DIRECTION All paper has a grain direction, determined by the direction of pigments during manufacture. Laser printers rely on the paper curling around an electrostatic drum as it passes through the imager, and paper will only curl properly along the grain. A4 sheets must be long grain and A3 sheets must be short grain for problem free lasering.

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POROSITY Porosity is literally the number of minute holes in a sheet of paper. It is measured by calibrating the airflow, under standard conditions, that will pass through a given area of a sheet of paper. This airflow is expressed in millimetres (cubic centimetres) per minute (ml/min). A high airflow indicates large areas between the fibres – and the sheet is referred to as being ‘open’. Conversely, a low airflow indicates small voids – and the sheet is said to be more ‘closed’. Porosity will give an indication of the potential ink penetration and spread in a paper during printing. The indication of airflow also gives an approximate measure of the permeability of paper to other fluids such as inks, oils and solvents. High or variable porosity in lightweight papers can cause feeding problems in converting machines or printing presses. The suction cups that lift the sheets or cut blanks may pick up more than one piece at a time. However, low porosity can also cause problems. When laminating or labelling these papers, for example, low porosity may prevent penetration of the necessary adhesive.


The moisture content of a paper usually lies between four per cent and 10%. It is defined by the loss in weight of a sample after oven drying at a constant temperature of 105 degrees Celsius. This moisture content provides a valuable guide to the way in which a paper will behave under various conditions, particuarly when subjected to relative humidity changes during printing and converting. Moisture influences most paper properties to some degree, including smoothness, strength properties (burst, tear, tensile, stiffness and fold), ink receptivity and dimensional stability. The moisture content of a particular paper will depend on drying conditions during its manufacture, as well as the conditions of storage and use. Maintaining uniform moisture profiles is an essential requirement in ensuring good printing and converting performance.



The gramm




age or ‘weigh t’ of paper is its mass p er unit area – usually expressed in grams per sq u are metre (gsm). G rammage is an importan contributor t to sheet thic kness, stiffn opacity, and ess and will help det ermine con verting yield.


Tensile strength is a good indicator of a paper’s ability to resist stresses imposed by web printing and converting operations, as well as the end use demands of packaging applications – especially for paper bags and sacks. This strength is assessed by measuring the force required to break a strip of the paper 15mm wide when strained at a constant rate, and is expressed in Newtons per 15mm (N/15mm) or just Newtons per mm (N/mm).

OPACITY This relates to the show-through of the printed image from the opposite side of the sheet or the sheet under it. It is affected by the thickness of the sheet and the use of mineral fillers like titanium dioxide.


TEARING RESISTANCE Tear is a measure of a packaging material’s ability to withstand rough handling. Taken in conjunction with tensile strength, it is also an important indicator of the stock’s ‘runnability’ and performance in various converting operations, particularly bag making. Tearing resistance is measured as the work done to tear a paper specimen through a specified distance. Based on the total work done figure, the force required to propagate the tear can be calculated and is expressed in mN.


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PAPER MERCHANTS PRINT SOLUTIONS With over 70 years’ experience in the print and signage industry in Ireland, Print Solutions offer the largest range of materials from one distributor, including self adhesive vinyls, digital media, display solutions, digital inks and sign accessories. In 2013, we launched our plastic solutions division, supplying multiwall and flat sheet polycarbonate, acrylics, PVC cladding and PVC foam sheet materials. We are the sole Irish agent for Marabu Inks, Europe’s largest inks manufacturer based in Germany. Knockmitten, WesternIndustrial Estate, Naas Rd, Dublin 12 T: (01) 4098000 E:

SWAN PAPER We are one of Dublin’s biggest paper merchants, based in Balydoyle Industrial Estate in Dublin 13. T: (01) 839 3932

PAPERLINX We are one of the world’s leading merchants of paper, communication materials and diversified products and services.

T: (01) 457 0549 F: (01) 457 0799

ANTALIS LIMITED Antalis are the leading European distributor of paper, packaging products and visual communications materials. St Margaret’s Road, Finglas, Dublin 11


Unit 524, Grants Place, Greenogue Business Park, Rathcoole, Co. Dublin

T: (01) 832 3099 F: (01) 839 0797

Unit 10 Fonthill Business Park, Fonthill Rd, Clondalkin, Dublin 22

One of our main brands is Swiftbrook Bond which has traditionally been one of Ireland’s leading brands of watermarked paper, primarily for use as letterheads. We are a leading supplier of lightweight papers that are used in the production of leaflets and inserts for the pharmaceutical industry.

We aim for the pursuit of excellence in paper merchanting through efficiency of service and quality of product. Unit 67, Baldoyle Industrial Estate, Baldoyle, Dublin 13

T: (01) 623 3788

We are an Irish paper merchant offering a nationwide service to printers and stationers. We carry a full range of papers and boards suitable for offset litho, digital, office and stationery applications. Within our product portfolio we supply a full range of papers in white and tinted offset, coated papers and boards,carbonless paper, digital, laser papers, business, office papers and self adhesive paper.


UNIBOARD UniBoard is an independent stockist and distributor. We provide our customers with a wide selection of top quality brands from the world’s leading mills. We stock up to 7,000 pallets in Ireland allowing us to offer an unrivalled range of boards for immediate delivery to cover a wide variety of applications including, greeting cards, covers, luxury packaging for cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, healthcare, general food cartons, folders, CD wallets, postcards, cartons for where extra strength is required, pads, stiffeners, bookbinding, picture framing, display, point of sale, and show cards. We also offer speciality boards.

T: (01) 8763100 E:

PREMIER PAPER We are one of Ireland’s leading suppliers to the printing, sign and display and stationery sectors.

Unit L 15 - 20, Grants Road, Greenogue Business Park, Rathcoole, Co Dublin § T: (01) 401 0008 F: (01) 401 0009

Unit 54, Park West Industrial Estate, Dublin 12

T: (01) 620 5555 F: (01) 620 5089 E:


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PRINT DIRECTORY T (Kildare): (059) 86 23976 F: (057) 86 34051 CUBE PRINTING LTD Established in 1996, Cube Printing is a supplier of print and packaging solutions in the mid-west region. In November 2002, we moved to a purpose-built 8,000 square foot facility at Eastway Business Park in Ballysimon, Limerick. Our aim is to provide top quality products competitively priced for both our lithographic and digital operations. Unit B3 Eastway Business Park, Ballysimon, Limerick T: 1890 555 577 / (061) 400658


DOCUMATION We are a Dublin-based company providing web to print solutions for printers, print management companies, agencies, retail chains and corporates. Our powerful publishing technology, Web4Print, allows printers to provide an online ordering facility for their clients for the creation of business stationery, price lists, brochures, catalogues and general marketing collateral. Contact: Bill McConnell Documation Limited, B15 South City Business Centre, Tallaght, Dublin 24

Established in 1996, Webprint is a privately-owned and operated printing company. We are the largest independent coldset web offset printer in Ireland. Since 2009 we have built up an extensive portfolio of commercial clients by providing a range of products and services for the motor, furniture, hardware, electrical, tourism, FMCG and utility sectors. We provide compelling print solutions for customers looking for print runs from 1,000 copies to millions of copies. Mahon Retail Park, Cork, Ireland T: (021) 467 0200 F: (021) 461 4951 E

T: (01) 653 5008

LETTERTEC IRELAND LTD. We are printers, bookbinders and publishers. Lettertec Ireland produces, paperback and hardback books. As well as case making and bookbinding, we also offer unique lay flat books and a complete solution of self publish authors. Springhill House, Carrigtwohill, Co. Cork T: (021) 488 3370 F: (021) 488 3423 E:

MOCHUA PRINT & DESIGN ETS Printers Ltd t/a Mochua Print & Design prides itself on its personal touch and outstanding print quality and finishing. Unit 3 Clonminam Business Park, Portlaoise, Co. Laois T (Laois): (057) 86 34050 NBM

ANGLO PRINTERS LTD Founded in 1983, Anglo Printers Ltd is a privately owned litho and digital printing operation based in Drogheda. A raft of investment in new technology and an impressive 30,000 square foot facility places us at the forefront of the printing industry in Ireland. Recent purchases include a B1 Komori five colour press, and the creation of a digital hub on site featuring multiple Xerox production engines ticks all the boxes for the regular print buyer.

As a Xerox-accredited advanced production reseller, NBM have a firm focus on the graphics market. With a broad customer base, particularly across Munster and South Leinster, we are well positioned to advise and support the Irish print industry. NBM is 30 years in business and we have a dedicated and experienced Graphics Account Manager. Unit F2, South Link Park, Ballycurreen, Cork, T: (021) 4319396 Low-call: 1890 80 40 40 F: (021) 4327009 E:

Mell Industrial Estate, Drogheda, Co. Louth T: (041) 983 5000 F: (041) 983 5485 E: ISDN: 00353 (0)41 987 0206

ULTRA CHEM SYSTEMS Ultra Chem Systems provides the following services: cleaners of all types; hands soaps of all types, including IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 35

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aerosols; lubricants for all types of machinery, including aerosol sprays; barrier cream, including aersosols, and coatings and laquers. Raheen, Brittas, Co. Dublin T: (01) 4583013 / 4582611/2 F: (01) 4582613 E:

CARRAIG PRINT INC LITHO PRESS We are a Cork-based, family run company with over 30 years experience in the print industry. Our clients range from individuals and small start-up businesses to larger national, multinational and government bodies. Our services include: in-house graphic design; digital and offset print; book printing and binding; posters, banners and signage; packaging and Point of Sale material and print management. T (Carrigtwohill): (021) 4883458 T (Midleton): (021) 4631401


Contact: Eugene McGrath T: (046) 928 0902 M: (087) 653 7394 F: (046) 928 0995 E:

With over 50 years in business, we pride ourselves on being one of the most modern print and graphic design facilities in the south east of Ireland. From design to finishing, we have the most up to date machinery available to produce any print job you may require. Unit 11B, Loughboy Industrial Estate, Kilkenny, Ireland T: (056) 772 1739 F: (056) 776 5484

A highly professional contract newspaper printer, Smurfit Kappa News Press is strategically located near Kells, Co Meath and we print national and regional titles for some of the worlds largest publishers. We introduced Ireland’s first triple width printing capacity which provides second to none full colour print quality for a vast range of products and formats. We specialise in broadsheet and tabloid sizes and offer a highly automated insertion facility on our Ferag Easysert inserter.


FAGAN PRINT & DESIGN We are in business to supply superb design and print solutions to the midlands area. We ensure we have the most up-to-date software, hardware and print machinery coupled with highly trained staff to keep us at the forefront of the printing industry. We pride ourselves on producing quality work in excellent turnaround times. We cater for all budget types. So call us…… Fagan Print & Design 15 Pearse Street Mullingar T: (044) 9331210 E:

SELECT DIGITAL PRINT LTD Established in 2003, we are a multi awardwinning Irish print house specialising in the design and print of high quality large and small format digital print. Check out our website and be prepared to be impressed by the variety of digital printed media as well as the quality of our finished products. For further information contact or telephone 01 4628008. Select Digital Print Ltd., E11, Southcity Business Park, Whitestown Way, Dublin 24

SMC PRINT & DESIGN We are a medium-sized company based in Ballymount, specialising in commercial printing and design. Our work includes brochures, point of sale, labels, leaflets and stationery for the SME sector. In recently years, SMC Print & Design has expanded its range of services to include greeting cards printing. We have specialised machines to gloss, score and fold. Please check out our YouTube channel to learn more. Unit 7, The Westway Centre, Ballymount Avenue, Dublin 12 T: (01) 405 1000 F: (01) 462 5400 E:

MAHONS PRINTING WORKS Mahons Printing Works (along with sister company, KINGS), is conveniently based in at 54 Bolton Street (opposite Bolton Street College) in Dublin’s city centre. We offer quick turnaround digital work, high-quality lithographic printing and in-house design at very competitive rates. We also handle a confidential photocopying service, mail-merge, envelope stuffing and postal distribution for our clients. Our wide range of print services includes business, general and legal stationery, NCR sets, journals, fliers, brochures and books.

BIZQUIP Bizquip Ltd is one of Ireland’s largest suppliers of office equipment solutions, office furniture and office stationery. Our specialities include office interiors, business equipment and supplies, content and document management software, managed print services, and space planning solutions.

M: (086) 0606 131 E:

7-8 Burton Hall Road, Sandyford Business Park, Dublin 18 T: (01) 217 8000 F: (01) 217 8010 E:


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PRINTING TERMS GLOSSARY A Addendum Any supplementary material, which is additional to the main body of a book or text. It is usually printed as a separate section at the start or end of the finished document. Align To line up type or other graphic material, using a horizontal or vertical reference. Alignment The orientation of type and graphic elements on a page, usually with regard to the edges of a column or the paper. Examples include aligned left or flush left, aligned right or flush right, and aligned centre or centred. Also called range (as in ranged left, etc). Alley The space left between images or columns of type on a page. As compared to gutter. Alteration Any change made by the customer after their copy or artwork has been given to the printer. The change could be to copy, layout and/or specifications. Also called an author’s alteration (AA) or customer alteration. Apex The point of a character where two lines meet at the top – the point at the top of a letter A, for example. Art Paper A smooth coated paper, which is produced by adding a very fine coating of china clay compound to one or both sides of the page during the manufacturing process. Artwork Any original design – including type, photos, illustrations and layouts – intended for printing. Also called art. Ascender The part of a lower case letter that rises above its x-height, such as the long stroke in an h, b, k, etc. Compare with descender. ASCII An acronym of American Standard Code for Information Interchange, which is the standard code for type characters in a computing. For example, an ASCII file will contain data as standard text characters.

Author’s Alterations – (Aas) Changes made by a customer after the composition stage of their print project. The customer accepts responsibility for additional charges as a result of making author’s alterations. Also called Author’s Corrections.

Bleed An extra ink area for printing colour and images past the trim line. This allows images to be printed right to the edge of the trimmed page and includes an allowance for any variation when the printed page goes through a trimmer or cutting die.


Blind Embossing Embossed forms that are not inked or gold leafed.

Backup Copy A duplicate of an original file or document, made in case the original is lost, damaged or altered. Backing Up Printing onto the reverse side of an already-printed sheet. Banding A defect found in halftone screens or screen tints when they’re outputted by laser printers or image setters. Instead of a smooth colour graduation, parallel breaks (stair steps), bands or streaks appear in the dot pattern. Bank A lightweight writing paper. Banner A large headline, usually printed across the full width of the page. Baseline An imaginary guideline under a row of type to which the text characters are aligned. Bindery A designated work area where printed pages are collated, trimmed, folded and/or bound. A bindery may be a finishing department within a printing company, or it may be a separate specialist business. Binding Any of the various methods used to secure pages together and/or attach them to a cover to form a single publication. Blanket A fabric-reinforced sheet of rubber in offset presses which is used to transfer the impression from the plate onto the paper. Blanket Cylinder A cylinder on offset presses which is covered with a reinforced rubber ‘blanket’. This blanket transfers ink from the litho plate onto the paper. Using a blanket and blanket cylinder prevents the litho plate becoming worn through direct contact with the paper.

Blind Folio Work that does not have the page numbers printed on the page. Blueline A prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all the colours show as blue images on white paper. ‘Blueline’ is the generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having similar appearances, so this kind of proof may also be known as a black print, blue, blue-print, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Dylux or Vandyke. Board Any paper stock weighing more than 200gsm. Body Copy Copy text set in the basic type face and size in a layout, as compared with display type. The bulk of a story, advertisement or article will be made up of body copy, with the headlines and decks. Bold Type Type that appears darker, or has more weight, than adjacent type in the same typeface. Bond Paper A very common category of paper used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper. Book Paper A category of paper suitable for publications and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also called offset paper), coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss finish paper and slick paper) and text paper. Brightness A characteristic of paper or ink, referring to how much light it reflects. Bullet A bold dot used for typographic emphasis or to identify elements in a list.


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Butt Fit Printed colours that overlap one row of dots so they appear to butt or join without overlapping. Byeline The name of the author, appearing at the beginning or end of their article.

C Calendered Finish A manufacturing process for giving paper a very smooth surface. The paper is passed through a series of polished metal rollers. Caliper The thickness of a sheet of paper or board, expressed in microns (millionths of a metre or thousandths of a millimetre). Also the name of the tool used to make the measurement. Callout A word that identifies part of an illustration or the part of a text that invites the reader to take action. Cap Height The height of the capital letters in one type size of a font. Carbonless Any paper that has been coated with chemicals and dye so that it will produce copies through pressure without the need to insert carbon paper. Also referred to as NCR (No Carbon Required). Cartridge A thick general purpose paper stock used for printing, drawing and wrapping. Case Bound A hardback book made with stiff outer covers or ‘cases’. The cases are usually covered with cloth, vinyl or leather. Cast Coated Art paper with exceptionally glossy coated finish, usually on one side only. Catchline A temporary headline used to identify a page in a galley proof. Chalking A powdering effect left on the surface of paper if the ink fails to dry satisfactorily. Caused by a fault in printing. Character Any letter, numeral, punctuation mark or other alphanumeric symbol. Cheshire Labels Names and addresses printed out on wide computer paper, in a format that can be cut into labels and affixed by machines developed by the Cheshire Com-

pany. Also called four-up labels. Clip Art Copyright-free drawings that can be purchased and then used for unlimited reproduction. Clip art illustrations are printed on glossy paper or stored on computer disks so that they are ready for placement on mechanicals or in pages designed on computer screens. Also called standard artwork. Coated Paper Paper that has been coated with fine clay or other substances to improve brightness and ink holdout. Mills produce coated papers suitable for printing in three major surface categories – gloss, dull and matte. Collate To assemble or collect printed sections into single copies of completed publications for binding. Also known as Gathering. Collating Marks Black step-marks printed on the back of folded sheets as a guide for collating and checking the sequence of book signatures. Colour Separations To be printed, multi-coloured original or line copy needs to be separated into separate plates for each of the basic (or primary) process colours – yellow, magenta, cyan and black. Note that these primary colours are different to the optical (and computer) primaries of red, green and blue. Column Gutter The space left dividing the type columns on a page. Column Rule A thin vertical line used to help visually separate columns of type. Composition In typography, the assembly of the words and paragraphs into pages ready for printing; in graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics, and other elements on the page; and in photography or similar arts, the arrangement of the subject matter within the frame. Continuous-Tone Copy Any photograph or illustration in which the range of shades is not made up of dots (as compared to line copy or halftones). Often abbreviated to contone. Concertina Fold A method of folding paper so that each fold opens in the opposite direction to its neighbour, giving a concertina or pleated effect. Condensed Type Type characters (a type face) that have relatively narrow proportions in rela-

tion to their height. This gives them a tall and tightly spaced look. Sometimes called Narrow. Either term will be appended to the type family name, e.g. Futura Condensed or Arial Narrow. Contrast The variance in the tones of a photograph, comparing highlight to shadow. Copy For an editor or typesetter, ‘copy’ refers to all written material. But for a graphic designer or printer, ‘copy’ is everything that will be printed - art, photographs and graphics, as well as words. Copy Editor A person who checks and corrects spelling, grammar, punctuation, inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and conformity to style requirements in a manuscript. Also called a Line Editor. Copyfit To calculate the amount of space that a given text will require using a specified typeface and point size. Or, to edit the text and adjust the typography for the purpose of fitting it into a layout. Copyright The ownership of creative work by the writer, photographer or artist who made it or, in the case of work for hire, the organisation that paid for it. Copyright Notice A statement of copyright ownership, which is appended to a creative work. It should contain the word ‘copyright’ or symbol, the year of publication and the name of the copyright owner. Corner Marks The lines on a mechanical, negative, plate or press sheet that indicate where the corners of the page or finished piece will be. Cracking Delamination or breaking of a coating. Credit Line A line of relatively small type placed next to a photo or illustration, giving credit to its source and/or creator. May include a copyright notice. Also called courtesy line. Creep Caused by the thickness of the paper, creep describes how the loose edges of sheets inserted into the middle of a folded signature finish further and further from the edge of the outer-most sheet. Crop To ‘cut off ’ portions of an image so that the remainder is more useful, pleasing or able to fit into the layout. Crop Marks Lines near the outer edges of an image


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indicating which portion of the whole is to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tick marks.

design, letters or a pattern cut into it, which is used for stamping book covers or embossing.

Crossover Type or art that continues from one page across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.

Dingbat Any of numerous typographic symbols, such as a bullet, used for emphasis or decoration.

Curl Where a sheet or page will not lie flat and tends to form into cylindrical or wavy shapes instead. Cursive Any typeface that has been designed to resemble written script. Cutter A machine for accurately cutting stacks of paper to the desired dimensions and to trim bound softcover books to their finished size. The cutter can also be used to score or crease. Cutting Die A sharp edged device, usually made of steel rule, used to cut paper, cardboard, etc on a printing press. Also known as knife forme.

D DAM Digital Asset Management is the systematic cataloguing and management of digital media (text, images, video and audio) and some physical media to enable their efficient storage, retrieval and reuse. Dash A typographic mark commonly used to indicate a break between thoughts. An em dash (—) is longer than an en dash (–) and much longer than a hyphen (-). Descender The part of a lower case letter that falls below the type line, such as the ‘tail’ stroke of a, j, g, q, etc. Compare with Ascender. Data The numbers or content that make up a database. Database An organised collection of data or information. De-dupe To remove duplicate entries in a set of data. For example, this is a common task when integrating multiple databases.

Display Type Any type style being used for a headline. Also called headline type. Dot Gain The darkening of a halftone image due to ink absorption in the paper – this literally causes the halftone dots to gain size, reducing the white space between them. Double Page Spread Two facing pages of a newspaper or magazine where the copy is continued across both full pages. Abbreviated to DPS. Downloadable Fonts Type faces which can be stored on a computer disk, then downloaded to the printer when required. These are, by definition, bit-mapped fonts and therefore fixed in size and style. DPI (Dots Per Inch) The standard measure of resolution for graphics screens, page printers and phototype setting machines. Currently graphics screens reproduce 60 to 100dpi, most page printers work at 300dpi and typesetting systems operate at 1,000dpi or above. Drawn On A method of binding a paper or hard case to a book. The cover is drawn on to the book block and then glued in place. Drop Folio A page number printed at the foot of a page.

that can be transferred to artwork by rubbing them off the back of a transfer sheet. The best known is the Letraset brand. Dual-purpose Bond Paper Bond paper that is suitable for printing by either lithography (offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper. Duplex To print on both sides of a single page (see double sided). Dull Finish A flat (not glossy) finish or coating, slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish. Dummy (1) A mock-up of the final printed and bound product. Dummies range from the very simple, showing only the finished size or a rough layout; to the very complicated, showing position and colour of type and art. Also called a mock-up. Dummy (2) A model resembling the finished piece in every respect except that the pages and cover are blank. Used by the designer as a final check on the appearance and ‘feel’ of the book as a guide for the size and position of elements on the jacket, and as a positional placement for collated pages. Duotone A colour reproduction from a monochrome (one colour) original. The key plate usually prints a dark colour for detail, while a second plate provides light flat tints.


Drop Shadow A three-dimensional shadow effect created on the page by using a screen tint copy of an illustration or typeface, or a rule for border boxes, in close proximity to the original object. Also called flat shadow.

Edition One version of a publication.

Dropped Cap A design element that uses a large capital letter (usually the first letter in the body type) that extends down into the first two or more lines.

Electronic Composition The use of a computer aided system to assemble type into words, lines and paragraphs of text, or all the body matter with graphic elements into a page layout, for printing.

Densitometer A device to measure the density of printing ink.

Dry Offset A process in which a metal plate is etched to a depth of 0.15mm (0.006 in), making a right-reading relief plate. This plate is then used to print onto the offset blanket, which transfers the image to the paper without the use of water.

Die A metal (usually brass) stamp with a

Dry Transfer (lettering) Type characters, drawings, dingbats, etc,

Egyptian A term for the style of typefaces that have square serifs and almost uniform stroke thicknesses.

Element Any one part of an image or page. Elements of an image may include the subject, background and foreground. Elements of a page may include headlines, body copy and halftones. Em A unit of measurement in printing, IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 39

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where the edge of a square (the Em) are equal in size to the chosen point size. It gets its name from the letter M, which was originally used as the standard for width of the typeface. Em Dash A dash used in punctuation, the length of one em (as opposed to a much shorter hyphen). Embossing To raise a design or letters printed onto card or tough paper, using an uninked die, in combination with heat and pressure. En A unit of type measurement, half the width of an Em. En Dash A typographic dash, longer than a hyphen, but half the width of an em dash. End Papers The leaves at the front and end of a book that are pasted to the first and last pages of the book block and to the inside front and back of the cover boards. Usually only used in Case Bound volumes. See our section on Binding. Estimate A forecast of what a job will cost. Also called a bid, quotation, or tender. Printers base their estimates on experience and specifications provided by customers. Estimator A specialist who computes or approximates the value or cost of a job for the purposes of raising an estimate. Extended Type Type characters which are over-wide in proportion to their height, thus seeming fat. Also called expanded type.

F Face An abbreviation for typeface, referring to type of a given style. Fair Use A concept in copyright law that allows short quotations from a copyrighted text to be used without permission from the copyright holder, for purposes of reviewing or teaching. Also called fair dealing. FSC Forest Stewardship Council, a notfor-profit organisation that promotes environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world’s forests. Feature An in-depth or multiple-page article

within a publication. Feature articles are usually longer and more illustrated than standard content. Fillers Short items, such as proverbs or announcements, which a publisher keeps on hand to fill small blank spaces in a layout. Film Speed A measure of light sensitivity in photographic film. ‘Fast’ film is highly sensitive to light and is suitable for very short shutter intervals, while slow film is less sensitive and needs longer exposure. Finish The surface characteristics of a paper. Finished Size The size of a printed product when production is complete – as compared to its flat size. Also called trim size. Finishing The overall term for trimming, folding, binding, and all other post press operations. Fixed Costs Costs that remain the same regardless of how many copies are printed, as compared to variable costs. Development costs, such as writing, photography and design, are examples of fixed costs. Flat The assembly of photographic negatives or positives, or vinyl acetate, ready for exposure in contact with a sensitised metal press plate. Used in lithography. Flat Size The size of a piece after printing and trimming, but before folding. Flexography A rotary letterpress printing process, using flexible plates (usually made from rubber) and fast drying inks. Mainly used for packaging. Floating Rule A rule whose ends do not touch other rules – most often seen between type columns. Flop To ‘turn an image over’, changing the sense of its contents so that it becomes a mirror image of the original. Flush Left Type aligned vertically along the left edge of the column. Also called left justified and ranged left. Flush Right Type aligned vertically along the right edge of the column. Also called right justified and ranged right.

Foil Stamping A process for stamping a design on a book cover with pressure from a heated die or block using a coloured foil instead of ink. Also called Foil Blocking. Fold Marks Lines on a mechanical, film, printing plate or press sheet, indicating where to fold the final product. Folder The machine used to fold signatures into sections. Folio or Page Number A number printed at the top or bottom of a page, either centred, flush left or flush right. Font The complete set of upper and lowercase characters, numerals, punctuation and other symbols of one typeface. A font is a concept, not a physical object. Fonts can be held in the storage or memory of a computer, on sheets of transfer lettering, on film, or in job cases holding metal type. Footer Information, such as page number or chapter title, that appears at the bottom of every page. Also called running foot. For Position Only Inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanicals to indicate the placement and scaling of the final image but not intended for reproduction. Abbreviated to FPO or ‘positional’. Format A general term for size or layout, depending on the context. For example, ‘The format is A4’ or ‘Our publication has a twocolumn format’. Forme (old) The composed type matter or type-andblock, complete with its accompanying spacing material, secured in a frame, which is also called a forme, or a chase. Forwarding In binding, this is the process between folding the sheets and casing the book block. It may involve rounding and backing, putting on headbands, reinforcing the backs, etc. Four Colour Process A full-colour printing process based on combinations of just four standard ink colours – cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK) – in colour separation negatives. French Fold A sheet of paper that has been printed on one side then folded once horizontally and once vertically (folded into four) so that the printing shows on the outside faces.


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FTP – File Transfer Protocol File Transfer Protocol is the standard method of transferring files using TCP/ IP. FTP allows you to transfer files between dissimilar computers, with preservation of binary data and optional translation of text file formats.

Glossy Print Photography term for prints made on high gloss photographic paper.

Full Measure A line of type that has been set to fill the entire line length.


Grade A general term used to distinguish printing papers. However, the specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of a paper.

Grid A pattern of lines guiding the layout of a print job – especially over multiple pages. A grid may be imaginary, displayed on a computer screen but not printed, or printed onto the paper as part of the copy.

Galley A long column of composed text, from the Galley used in traditional type compositing.

Graduated Screen An area of image where halftone dots range continuously from one density to another. Also know as a vignette.

GSM An acronym of grams per square metre, gsm is the standard measure of weight (or grammage) for paper sheets.

Galley (old) A flat oblong tray into which composed type would be put prior to full pages being made up in the forme. Also the name for a similar tray on a slug composing machine, which receives the slugs as they are ejected.

Grain In paper, grain is the predominant direction in which the fibres become aligned during manufacturing. Grain governs properties such as size changes and curl due to relative humidity. Paper will also fold and tear better along the grain, rather than across it.

Gutter The space between pages in the printing frame of a book, or the inside margin towards the binding edge. This space is made unusable (unreadable, anyway) by the binding process.

Gang A group of frames or impositions of different jobs, arranged in the same forme so as to be printed together. Gas Ghosting The marring of a print, caused by any work printed on the reverse side interfering with its drying so that differences in the trapping frame colours or gloss variations are apparent. Gatefold An oversize leaf, bound into a publication and folded so that both sides fold into the gutter in non-overlapping layers. Gather To assemble or collect sections into single copies of complete books (book blocks) for binding. Ghosting The fault whereby a printed image appears lighter on subsequent prints, due to local blanket depressions from previous image areas. This can occur on a letterpress rotary machine or an offset press. GIF – Graphic Interchange Format An established computer file format for image files with built-in data compression. Gilding Sticking gold leaf to the edges of books with a liquid agent and then making the effect permanent with burnishing tools. Gloss Finish A highly reflective paper coating, as compared to dull-or matte-coated paper. Also called art paper and enamel paper.

Gothic The group of typefaces that have no serifs, and strokes of even thickness.

Grainy The effect where photographic emulsion crystals become apparent in an enlarged print or reproduction. Graphic Arts The crafts, industries and professions related to designing and printing. Graphic Design The art of arranging type and visual elements. For printing, the graphic artist may also specify paper, ink colours and printing processes to complete their visual message. Graphic Designer A professional who designs, plans and perhaps coordinates production of graphic design. Graphics The visual elements that supplement type, to make layouts clearer, more interesting or more attractive to readers. Gravure A rotary printing process. The image is etched into a metal plate, which is then attached to a cylinder. The cylinder is rotated through a trough of printing ink, and the etched surface is wiped clean by a blade to leave the non-image area clean. Paper is passed between two rollers and pressed against the cylinder, where it absorbs the ink remaining in the etched areas. Grey Levels The different grey tones that can be reproduced by a computer. Grey Scale A range of luminance values for evaluating shades from white through to black.

Frequently used in discussions about scanners, as a measure of their ability to capture halftone images. (Basically the more grey levels the better, but with correspondingly larger memory requirements).

H Hairline The thinnest of visible rules (or spaces). Because visibility is determined by factors such as contrast between ink and paper, and the eyesight of the reader, hairline has no precise meaning. Hairlines exist in the eye of the beholder. Hairline Register A subjective term referring to very close register. Halftone A graduated image composed of varying sized dots or lines, with equidistant centres. Hard Copy Copy presented on a substrate, such as film or paper, as compared to soft copy. Hard Mechanical A physical mechanical made up of paper and/or acetate – as compared to an electronic mechanical. Hard Proof A proof on paper or other substrate, as compared to a ‘soft’ or electronic proof. Hardback A book with a separate stiff board cover. Head The margin across the top of a page. Header Any information, such as page number or chapter title, that appears at the top of every page of a publication. Hickey A spot or imperfection in printing, most IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 41

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visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called a bull’s eye or a fish eye. Highlights The lightest portions of a photograph, halftone, or other type of image – as compared to its midtones and shadows. House Sheet Paper that is kept in stock by a printer, and which is suitable for a wide variety of general printing jobs. Also called floor sheet. House Style The grammar, typography, colour and other graphic elements adopted by a specific organisation and used consistently in their printing. Usually established as a set of guidelines.

I IBC Acronym for Inside Back Cover IFC Acronym for Inside Front Cover Image Setter A high resolution, large format device for producing film from electronically generated page layouts. Image Any type, illustration or other original artwork that has been reproduced on a computer screen, film, printing plate or paper. Imposition Copy for different pages, arranged so that they will print correctly on a single press sheet and be in the correct order when the sheet is folded. Impression The printed result of one cycle of a printing machine. Impression Cylinder The cylinder or roller of a printing machine that brings paper into contact with the printing plate or blanket cylinder. Imprint The name and address details of the publisher and printer. These are required to be included by law, if a piece is to be published. Sometimes the imprint includes codes indicating the quantity printed, the month and year of printing, or an internal control number. Ink Holdout A characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink. It allows the ink to dry on the surface of the paper, free of absorption problems like dot gain.

In-plant Printer The department within an agency, business or association that does printing for the parent organisation. Also called a captive printer or inhouse printer. Inserts Extra printed pages, inserted loosely (or sometimes separately bound) into a printed publication. Interleaves Extra blank pages, inserted loosely into a book after printing. International Paper Sizes The International Standards Organisation (ISO) system of paper sizes, based on the A, B and C series of sizes. Series A is used for general printing and stationery, Series B for posters and Series C for envelopes. ISO International Standards Organisation is the organisation that produces many of the world’s standards. Issue Date The year, month or date on which a publication was mailed or released. Ivory Board A smooth high white board used for business cards etc.

J JDF Job Definition Format is the industry standard for workflow systems. JDF automates the production process through the factory via a digital job bag. It makes special use of HTML for setting up CIP4 printing machinery. Job Number A code number assigned to a project and used for record keeping, job tracking and cost management. Also used to file and retrieve jobs for reprints, rework or review. Jogger A vibrating sloping platform, used to even up the edges of stacks of paper. JPEG Based on the acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEG is a computer image compression and display format. Image quality varies between JPEGs as file sizes can be reduced by as much as 20 times. Jump The point at which text moves from one page to another. When the subsequent page doesn’t immediately follow the first, the jump is usually indicated with a ‘continued on page...’

Jumpover Type that continues from above a photo or illustration to below it so that the reader’s eye must jump over the visual element to continue reading the text. Justify Another term for aligning text to both its left and right margins. This is achieved by adjusting the spacing between the words and characters so that each line of text finishes at the same point.

K Kern To adjust the space between two or three characters so that they appear to sit together more naturally. Key To relate loose pieces of copy to their positions on a layout or mechanical, using a system of numbers or letters. Keylines The lines on a mechanical or negative that show the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements. Also called holding lines. Kicker A small, secondary headline placed above a primary headline, to lead the reader into the sense of the primary headline. KPI Key Performance Indicator is a measurement of performance against a metric e.g. measuring achievement against the metric of ‘on-time delivery 98%’. Kraft Paper A tough brown paper used for packing.

L Laid Any paper with a watermark pattern that shows the wire marks used in the paper making process. Usually used for high-quality stationery. Laminate A thin transparent plastic coating applied to paper or board to provide protection and give it a glossy finish. Landscape Work or paper in which the width used is greater than the height. Also used to indicate the orientation of tables or illustrations that are printed wider than they are high. Lateral Reversal A positive or negative image transposed from left to right as a mirror reflection of the original.


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Laser Printer A common printing device that uses a laser beam and xerography to reproduce type, graphics and halftone dots. Laser Type Type made using a laser printer. Image setters also use lasers to make type but the term ‘laser type’ refers specifically to type produced by toner on plain paper. Lay Edge The edge of a sheet of paper that is fed into the printing press. Layout A representation of how a page or sheet will look when printed. Leaders Any dots, dashes or other symbols that guide the eye from one item to another, as in a table of contents. Pronounced ‘leeder’, it comes from the verb ‘to lead’. Leading The space between lines of type, expressed as the distance between the two baselines. The term originated with strips of lead metal that printers used to separate lines of hot type and is pronounced ‘ledding’. Also called interline spacing and line spacing. Leaf One of a number of folds (each containing two pages) which compose a section. Legibility The contrast between printed type and its background, which makes it easy (or hard) for readers to distinguish the characters and read the text. Letter Fold Two folds creating three even panels in a sheet of paper – allowing the sheet to fit into a business envelope. Also called a barrel fold or roll fold. Letter Spacing The amount of space between characters in a line of type. Also called character spacing. Letterpress A relief printing process in which a raised image is inked to produce an impression – metal type is a classic example. The impression is then transferred by placing paper against the raised image and applying pressure. Ligature Letters which are joined together to form a special, single character – such as they are in traditional spellings of encyclopaedia. Line Copy Any high-contrast image, including

type – as compared to half tone and continuous tone elements. Also called line art and line work. Linen Tester A magnifying glass designed for checking the dot image of a halftone. Lines Per Inch A linear measure of screen ruling, expressing how many lines of dots there are per inch in a screen tint, halftone or separation. Abbreviated lpi. Lineup Table A table with an illuminated top, used for preparing and checking alignment of page layouts and paste-ups. Similar to a photographer’s lightbox but usually much larger. Lithography A printing process based on the natural aversion of water to oil. Photographically prepared printing plates are treated chemically so that the image areas will accept ink and reject water. Loose Leaf A method of binding which allows the insertion and removal of pages for continuous updating. Loupe See linen tester.

M Machine Glazed (MG) A paper with a high gloss finish on one side only. Magnetic Ink A magnetised ink that can be read both by people and by electronic machines. Most commonly used for encoding numbers on cheques. Mailing House A business that specialises in addressing and mailing large quantities of printed material. Also called letter shop. Make Ready The process of adjusting final plate on the press, to fine tune or modify the plate surface and position. Makeover A new design that replaces an old design. Printing jobs can be made over for design reasons – or done over again (without changes) because of unacceptable flaws in the previous production run. Manilla A tough brown paper used to produce stationery and wrapping paper. Margin The unprinted space around the edge of a page.

Mark Up To write instructions about typesetting, colour correcting or printing on a manuscript or proof. Mask To cover part of an image on a film or printing plate, so that light can’t reach it. This isolates the remaining part that light can still reach. Also called knock out. Masking Material Any opaque paper or plastic used to mask selected areas of film or a printing plate. Also called knockout film. Masking material is often referred to by brand names such as Amberlight, Goldenrod and Rubylith. Matte Finish A flat, dull finish on a photographic or coated printing paper as opposed to a satin (semi-matte) or gloss finish. Match Print A photographic proof made up from all the colour flats. This composite proof gives the printer an indication of printed colour quality, as well as accuracy, layout, and imposition before the plates are made. Measure The width of a column of type. With justified type, all lines have the same measure. With ragged type, measure equals the longest possible line. Also called line measure. Mechanical A camera-ready assembly of type, graphics and other copy, complete with instructions to the printer. Mechanical Binding Any method of binding that secures the pre-trimmed leaves with wire or plastic spirals placed through holes in the binding edge. Mechanical Tint A pre-printed sheet of dots, lines or patterns that can be laid down on artwork for reproduction. Merge/Purge A process where two or more databases are combined (merged), and then any resulting duplicate records are removed (purged). Merge/purge is usually performed on address data by a mailing house. Metallic Ink Any printing ink that produces a metallike coloured finish, most commonly gold, silver or bronze. MG (Machine Glazed) Paper with a high gloss finish on one side only. MICR Encoding – Magnetic Ink IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 43

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Character Recognition The method used to print cheque numbers and deposit slip numbers with magnetic ink.

ments and then convert them into digital codes that can be used by a computer as editable text rather than just an image.

Midtone Dot The tones created by dots with coverage of 30% to 70% in a photo or other graphic.

OFC The acronym for Outside Front Cover.

Moire An undesirable banding pattern that is caused by halftones and screen tints being made with improperly aligned screens or when a pattern in a photo (such as a plaid) interferes with a halftone dot pattern. Mottle Spotty, uneven ink absorption. Also called sinkage. A mottled image may be called mealy. Mounting Board Any thick, smooth piece of paper used to paste up copy or mount photographs. MPEG – Motion Picture Expert Group A computer standard for encoding/decoding and compressing digital video. Mug Shot A photograph that only shows a person’s face. Multicolour Printing Printing in more than one ink colour (but not the four-colour process). Also called polychrome printing.

N Nameplate The portion of a newsletter front page that graphically presents its name, subtitle and date line. Newsprint Unsized, low quality, absorbent paper used for printing newspapers. Nipping A stage in book binding where, after sewing, the sheets are pressed to expel air.

O Out of Register The term for an impression not being printed in register. Also called mis-register.

Offset The transfer of ink from one material to another. In printing, the process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate. Short for offset lithography. Offset Lithography An indirect printing method in which the inked image on the press-plate is first printed onto a rubber blanket and this impression is then transferred onto the sheet of paper. Onion Skin A translucent lightweight paper used in airmail stationery. Opacity The characteristic of paper that describes how much light passes through it. High opacity prevents an impression on one side from showing through to the other. Original Art The source photo or illustration that will be prepared for reproduction. Orphan A line of type on its own, at the top or bottom of a column. Overlay A layer of material taped to a mechanical, photo or proof, with the same dimensions as the mounting board that it covers. There are two types of overlays: a. Acetate overlays, which are used to layer separate elements of the art; and b. Tissue overlays, which are used to carry instructions about the underlying copy and to protect the base art. Overprint To print an impression over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.

four pages printed on each side of the sheet. Page Count The total number of pages in a publication. Also called the extent. Page Proof A proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page, complete with elements such as heading and rules. Pagination The numbering of pages in a book. PANTONE Colours A brand name for the system of colours set out in the PANTONE Matching System. Paper Merchant A distributor who sells large quantities of paper to printers and other buyers at wholesale prices. Parallel Fold A method of folding. Two parallel folds will produce a six page sheet. Paste Up The various elements of a layout mounted in position to form cameraready artwork. Peeling Delamination of a coating or layer. PDF (Portable Document Format) PDF files are most appropriately used to encode the exact look of a document in a device-independent way. While the PDF format can describe very simple one-page documents, it may also be used for many pages and for complex documents that use a variety of different fonts, graphics, colours and images. Perfect Binding A common and cost-effective method of binding paperback books. After the printed sections have been collated, the spines are sliced off and the cover glued on. Perfecting Printing both sides of a sheet in the same pass through the printing machine.

Overrun When the number of pieces printed, or the amount of paper made, is in excess of the quantity ordered.

Perfector (or Perfecting Press) A printing press that prints both sides of a sheet in only one pass through the machine.

Overs The extra printed pieces in an overrun.

Photoengraving A photochemical method of making printing plates. The plate metal is first sensitised and then the line and halftone negatives are laid over the top and the plate is exposed to light. The reaction converts the image into an acid resistant layer, which remains when the rest of the plate is etched. The process creates a plate in relief for letterpress printing.

OBC The acronym for Outside Back Cover.


OCR (Optical Character Recognition) A special kind of scanner that can read and identify type characters on docu-

Page One side of a leaf in a publication or book. One sheet folded in half yields four pages. An eight-page signature has


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Photogravure A printing process where the image is etched into a cylindrical plate. The main advantage of this method of printing is the high speed, long run capability, making it ideal for mail order and magazine work. Phototype Type that is created by projecting light onto photosensitive paper. Pica An Anglo-American unit of typographic measure equal to .166 inch (4.128mm). One pica has twelve points. Picking The problem of ink being too tacky and lifting fibres out of the paper. Shows up as small white dots on areas of solid colour.

Positive A true photographic image of the original subject, made on paper or film. PostScript A brand name page description language developed by Adobe Systems. Widely supported by both hardware and software vendors, including those who make laser printers and imagesetters, it represents the current ‘standard’ in the market.

Proofreader Marks A standardised set of symbls and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Most dictionaries and style manuals include charts of proof-reader marks. Also called correction marks.

Preprint To print portions of sheets that will be used for later importing.

Proportion Scale A round device used to calculate the per cent that an original image must be scaled to yield a specific reproduction size. Also called percentage wheel, proportion dial, proportion wheel and scaling wheel.

Printing Press A machine that transfers images by contact with various forms of inked surfaces onto paper. Is sometimes referred to as a Press.

Plate A flat or cylindrical surface that bears a reproduction of the copy to be printed. This reproduction can be made by cutting or etching metal, plastic, rubber, or other materials to form a relief, planographic or intaglio printing surface. Plates are then mounted onto a press, inked and pressed against the substrate or a blanket.

Press Check An event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined by the client before full production begins.

Platemaking The process of making up printer’s plates. Platemaking from film or a flat mechancial involves preparation of the plate surface, sensitising, exposure through the flat, development or processing, and finishing.

Primary Colours The three core colours – cyan, magenta and yellow – which, when mixed together with black, can produce a reasonable print reproduction of all other colours.

Point A unit of measure used to express the size (height) of type, the distance between the lines (leading) and the thickness of rules. One point equals 1/12 pica or .013875 inch (0.351mm).

Proof Sheet A photographic term for a sheet of images made by contact printing strips of negatives. Also called a contact sheet. Also a printing term for any press sheet used as a proof.

Prepress A range of functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior to printing – including camera work, colour separating, stripping and platemaking. Also called preparation.

Pinholing The failure of printed ink to form a completely continuous film. The fault will appear as small holes in the surface of printed areas.

PMS An obsolete reference to the PANTONE Matching System. The correct trade name of the colours in the PANTONE Matching System is PANTONE Colours, not PMS Colours. A system of formulated ink colours.

Proof An impression taken from composed type or a lithographic plate for checking the accuracy of the layout, type, tone and colour reproduction.

Press Proof An actual press sheet, which is run to show image, tone values and colours as well as imposition of frame or pressplate.

Printer’s Pair Two consecutive pages as they appear on a flat or signature. Compare with a printer’s spread and a reader’s pair. Printer’s Spread Mechanicals made so that they are imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads. For example, an A3 mechanical for an eight-page newsletter would have pages 2 and 7 opposite each other.

Portrait An upright image or page format, where the height is greater than the width.

Process Inks Printing inks, usually in sets of four colours, which are printed over one another in that order to obtain a coloured print with the desired hues, whites, blacks and greys. The most frequent combinations are cyan, magenta, yellow and black (see primary colours).

Position Stat A photocopy of a photo or illustration, made to size and affixed to a mechanical. Position stats show proper cropping, scaling and positioning.

Progressives Colour proofs taken at each stage of printing, showing each colour printed singly and then superimposed on the preceding colour.

Pull for Position A guide sheet for the positioning of type, blocks, etc. Pull Quote A selection of body text that is repeated in large type elsewhere on the page, as a graphic element. Pulp The raw material used in papermaking. Pulp is mainly made from wood chips, cloth rags or other fibres. These original materials are broken down by mechanical and/or chemical means.

Q Quick Printing Printing that uses small sheet-fed presses, called duplicators, and pre-cut sizes of bond or offset paper. Paper, plastic or rubber plates are made directly from camera-ready copy, as compared to the metal plates used in commercial printing, which require making film first. Quotation The final price offered by a printer for production of a specific job, as opposed to the earlier estimate. The quoted price is the printer’s side of the contract, based on specifications from the customer.

R Ragged-left/right Type Type that is not justified – the line beginnings or endings are not aligned vertically. Raster Image Processor (RIP) In digital imaging, a combination of computer software and hardware that IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 45

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controls the printing process by calculating the bitmaps of images and instructing a printing device to create the images. Most PostScript systems use a hardware RIP built into the printer. Readability The ease with which a printed message can be read and understood. Compare with legibility. Reader’s Pair Two consecutive pages as they will appear in a printed piece. Compare with a reader’s spread and a printer’s pair. Reader’s Spread Mechanicals which have been arranged into a double page spread as a reader would see them once printed. Compare with a printer’s spread. Ream 500 sheets of paper. Register The placement of different separation impressions, so that the final printed image forms a perfectly aligned composition. Compare out of register. Register Marks A set of fine cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help the printer keep the flats, plates and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks. Re-screen To create a halftone of an image that is already printed as a half-tone. For example, printers may re-screen a photo that was printed in a magazine, so that it will be suitable for reprinting in a newsletter. When not done properly, re-screening will yield a moire pattern. Resolution The measurement used in printing to express the quality of output. Measured in dots per inch (dpi), the higher dpi value will give a smoother and cleaner apperance. Currently Page (laser) Printers print at 300, 406 and 600 dpi, while typesetting machines print at 1,200 dpi or more. Retouching Any means of altering artwork or colour separations to correct faults or enhance the image. Reverse Any type character, graphic or illustration that is reproduced by printing ink around its edge only. This creates an outline and allows the underlying colour or paper to form a kind of negative image as it shows through. In other words, the image ‘reverses out’ of the ink colour. Also called knockout and liftout.

Right Reading Any positive or negative impression that reads from left to right. Rights The conditions and terms of a licensing agreement between a copyright owner and a publisher. Roman Type Any ‘normal’ upright type with serifs, as opposed to gothic type or italics. Also caled plain type. Roman is the basic typeface in any type family, and any other typefaces in the family (bold, light, medium) will be based on the Roman face. Rotary Press Any web or reel-fed printing press that uses a curved printing plate mounted on the plate cylinder. Rough Layout A thumbnail sketch giving a general idea of size and placement of text and graphics in the final product. Also called esquisse and rough. RTF Rich Text Format indicates a complex file that may contain multiple structures (colour, complex layouts, typographic design), motion graphics (video, audio, animation) and large quantities of data in Gb volumes. Rule A line used as a graphic element. The width of a rule is measured in points or millimetres. Runaround Setting type line lengths so that they conform to the shape of a neighbouring photograph or illustration. Also called wraparound. Running Head A line of type at the top of a page, repeating the heading from the title page.

S Saddle Stitching Stitching refers to using wire staples through the spine of a section. In saddle stitching, the staples are driven through the fold along the spine, from outside to inside, and then clinched in the centre. Therefore, the process can only be used on single folded sections, or several sections inset to form a single section. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind. See our section on Binding. Sans Serif Type Any type without a serif. Also called gothic type. Satin Finish An alternative term for a dull or semimatte finish on coated paper.

Scale The percent by which photographs and art are enlarged or reduced to achieve the correct size for printing. For an 8” x 10” photo to be reproduced as a 4” by 5” image, for example, it should be scaled to 50 per cent. Scalloped Columns A page layout in which the text columns are only aligned across the top, so that their bottoms vary. Also called hanging columns. Scan To read or sample an image using a pinpoint beam of light. Scanner A digitising device that uses light to translate a picture or typed text into a pattern of dots, which can then be coded and stored by a computer. To obtain acceptable quality when scanning photographs, at least 64 grey scales are required. Score A linear impression or cut made partway through paper or board, making it easier to bend or cut. The paper fibres are either compressed or cut, weakening the paper along that line. Bending or tearing will then take place in the desired place. Screen To convert a continuous-tone image into a halftone or a solid into a screen tint. Screen Density A reference to the amount of ink that a screen tint will allow to print, and expressed as a percentage of overall ink coverage. Also called screen percentage. Screen Ruling A value used to express the number of rows (lines) of dots per inch or centimetre of a screen, when making a screen tint or halftone. Also called the line count, ruling, screen frequency, screen size or screen value. The most commn screen rulings for publications and books are: 85 lines per inch/34 lines per centimetre 100 lines per inch/40 lines centimetre; 120 lines per inch/47 lines per centimetre. Screen Tint The lighter colour created by printing dots instead of using solid ink coverage. Also called Benday, fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint or tone. Section A printed sheet folded to make numerous pages. Security Paper Any paper that incorporates special features, such as dyes, watermarks etc, for use in cheques, vouchers and other security documents.


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Selective Binding A technique often used in marketing, where signatures or inserts are bound into magazines or catalogues, according to the intended demographic or geographic distribution of the different versions. Self-Mailer A printed piece that has been designed to fold and mail without the need for a separate envelope. Semibold Type A type face that is darker than normal but lighter than bold. Serial Identification Code An alphanumeric code that follows an ISSN, to help identify the issue date or number of a periodical. Abbreviated to SIC. Serif A short line that crosses the ending strokes of most characters in roman typefaces. Service Bureau A business using imagesetters to make high resolution printouts of files prepared on computers. Also called an output house, prep service or copy centre. Set Off The accidental transfer of the printed image from one sheet onto the back of one laid on top. Shading Film Dry transfer materials in dot patterns of varying density. Similar to Letraset type, it can be used to make screen tints. Shadow Dot The lowest possible density of a halftone image. Sheet Fed A printing press which prints from single sheets of paper, rather than reels. Show Through Printing on one side of a sheet that is visible from the other side. Show through is usually due to a lack of opacity in the paper. Compare with strike through. Sidebar A block of information related to and placed near an article but set off by design and/or typography as a separate unit. Side Stitching A stitching technique where the wire staples pass through a pile of sections or leaves, usually down the left-hand side. The staples are then clinched on the underside. Signature A printed sheet or section that consists of a number of pages of a book laid out

so that they will fold and bind together as a section. Size A solution based on starch or casein, which is added to paper during manufacture to reduce the stock’s tendency to absorb water or ink. Small Caps Upper case letters that are approximately the x-height of lower case letters in the same font. Used for logs and nameplates and to soften the impact of all-caps type. Smooth Finish The most even finish available on offset paper. Soft Copy Copy viewed on a computer screen or stored as a computer file. Soft Back/Cover A book bound with a paper cover. Solid Any area of a sheet receiving 100 per cent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint. Apart from describing an area of an image on film or a plate that will print as 100% coverage, the terms can also be used to describe type set with no leading. Soy-Based Inks Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as their pigment vehicles for environmental reasons. Specification A complete and precisely written description of all the features of a print job. For example, a newsletter specification will typically include: Type specs to define typeface, size, line measure, indentations, headlines, and other features of the typography; Printing specs that concentrate on press work, such as quantities, ink colours and dot gains, but often include prepress details, paper and finishing; Finishing specs that determine the folding requirements and trim size. Spine The bound edge of a book. Spoilage A non-conforming product that costs the company financial loss. Spot Colour A small area printed in a second or special colour. Spread Two pages that face each other in a publication. Usually they are designed as one visual or production unit. Also refers to a layout of several photos, especially on facing pages.

SRA A paper size in the series of ISO international paper sizes. SRA is slightly larger than the A series to allow printers extra space for bleed. Standing Headline A headline whose words and position stay the same issue after issue, such as ‘From the Editor’. Also called a slug. Stochastic Screening A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots (1440 microns) of equal size and variable spacing. Second order screened images have variable size dots and variable spacing. Stock The material to be printed. Also used to describe stored printed items. Stet A proofreader’s note that cancels a previous correction. From the Latin for ‘let it stand’. Strawboard A thick board made from straw pulp, and used in bookwork, carton making or as the backing board of a pad. It is not suitable for printing. Strike-through The effect of ink soaking through a printed sheet. Strip To assemble images on a film for platemaking. Stripping involves correcting flaws in the film, assembling the pieces of film into flats, and ensuring that film and flats register correctly. Also called film assembly and image assembly. Stripper A person who works in the stripping department. Stripping Originally cutting images from their negatives and combining them in position on a glass plate, stripping now refers to using strip film materials, and the cutting, attachment and other operations for their assembly. Stumping or Blocking Impression book covers, etc, by means of hot die, brass types or blocks. Style A set of copy editor’s rules setting out conventions for the treatment of things like modes of address, titles and numerals. A special element within a set of guidelines. Style Sheet A document containing the rules for copy editing and typography to be IRISH PRINT BUYERS GUIDE 47

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followed in a specific publication. Subhead A small heading within a story or chapter. Also called crosshead. Substrate Any surface on which printing is done. Substance Weight An alternate term for basis weight, usually referring to bond papers. Also called sub weight. Subtitle A phrase in a nameplate or under a brand, which amplifies or supplements the information given in the masthead or logo. Summary Deck Two or three sentences of text that present the highlights of an article, and appear between the headline and the lead paragraph. Supercalendered Paper A super-smooth paper with a polished appearance, produced by rolling the paper between calenders. Examples of this are high gloss and art papers. Swash Letters Italic characters with extra flourishes, used at the beginning of chapters. Swatch A colour sample.

T Tabloid A newspaper page size half the size of a broadsheet. Tabular Setting (tab) Ruler stop settings used to align text into columns, for lists and tables. Tag Line An alternate term for a subtitle. Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) A common computer file format for exchanging digital information. Usually associated with greyscale or bitmap data. TIFF allows for customisation and several versions have been created. It does not guarantee compatibility between all programmes. Template A pattern used to draw illustrations, make page formats or lay out press sheets. The template may be a physical object that guides a pen or pencil, an underlay for a light table, or a computer file with formats and guidelines for the final piece. Terms and Conditions The legal specifics of a printing order

that the printer and customer agree as part of their contract. Text The main portion of type on a page, as opposed to elements like the headlines and captions. Also see the body copy. Text Paper The name used for printing papers with textured surfaces, such as laid or linen. Text Type The type style used for text and captions, as compared to display type. Also called body type and composition type. Text Wrap See runaround. Thermography See virkotype. Thin Space The thinnest possible spacing usable for separating words. Thumbnail Sketch A small, rough sketch of a design – the design equivalent of a mud map. Tied Letters See Ligature. Tight Register A subjective term referring to early, if not precisely exact, register. Tint A percentage shade of a single colour or combined colours. Tip In The separate insertion of a single page into a publication, using a paste, gum or glue. Tip ins can be added either during or after binding. Tombstone Two headlines that have been placed next to each other so that, at first glance, they appear to be one. Toner The powder that forms the images in photocopying and laser printing. Toner can also be the powder or liquid forming the images in some colour proofing systems. Trade Customs The usual business terms and policies that have been codified by a trade association. Within the graphic arts, there are trade customs for service bureaus and for printers.

be either dry trapping or wet trapping. In prepress, it refers to how much overprinting colours overlap to eliminate white lines between colours in printing. Trim To cut to a size indicated by crop, register or trim marks. Twin Wire A high-quality paper that has been manufactured with an identical smooth finish on both sides. See wire. Type The letters, numerals, punctuation marks and other symbols produced by a machine. Type Family A group of typefaces with similar letter forms. For example, Garamond, including all weights and styles, (light, semibold, bold italic, etc) is a type family. Also called family of type. Type Size The height of a typeface, measured from the top of its ascenders to the bottom of its descenders, and expressed in points. Type Specimen Book A book of printed samples of type families and their typefaces, offered by a type shop or a type font company. Type Style A specifc style of a typeface, such as bold, italic or light. Typeface A set of type characters with similar design features and weight. Garamond Light is a typeface. Also just called a face. Typographer A specialist in the design of printed matter, and in particular the art of typography.

U Ultrabold Type Type characters that are heavier than bold. Also called black type. Uncoated Paper Any paper that has not been coated with a fine clay finish as part of manufacturing. Also called offset paper.

Transparency A full colour photographic positive that has been produced on transparent film.

Unit Cost The cost of one item in a print run. Unit cost is computed by dividing the total cost of the printing job – variable costs plus fixed costs – by the quantity delivered.

Trapping In printing, the ability to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink. It can

Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) UCC gives protection to the authors or


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originators of text, photographs, illustrations etc, to prevent their use without permission or acknowledgement. Any protected publication should carry a copyright mark, plus the name of the originator and the year of publication. Upper Case Letters An alternate term for capital letters, and the opposite of lower case letters.

V Vandyke A brown print process used as a proofing medium. Compare with Blueline proofs. Variable Costs Those printing costs that change depending on how many pieces are produced. The cost of paper, printing and binding are examples of variable costs. Compare with fixed costs. Varnish A clear, shiny or matte ink used to add gloss to printed pieces. Varnishing A finishing process, whereby a transparent varnish is applied over the printed sheet to produce a matte, semimatte (satin) or glossy finish. VDP Variable Digital Printing describes a process of printing ‘direct to paper’ on a digital press capable of printing 100% variable information so that the content of each page is different. Vellum Originally the treated skin of a calf used as a writing material, but now applied to several modern, translucent papers. The name is also used to describe a thick creamy book paper. Vellum Finish A somewhat rough, toothy finish – smoother than antique, but rougher than English. Vignette A fade to white, giving an image a ‘soft’ edge, or small decorative design or illustration. See also graduated screen. Virkotype A print finishing process that produces a raised image similar to die stamping. The process takes a previously printed image and, before the ink can dry, dusts it with a resinous powder. When heat is applied, the ink and powder fuse and form a raised image on the paper.

W Washed Out A term used to describe printing and

photographs where the content or colour appears to be faded. Waste Paper that is rendered damaged or otherwise unusable as a result of normal make ready, printing or bindery operations – as compared with spoilage. Watermark An image that is made in paper, usually as part of the paper making process. Typically, a watermark will be a company logo and/or the name of the paper stock. Web Press A printing machine with a cylindrical or drum-shaped plate, into which paper is fed from a continuous roll as opposed to being sheet-fed. Weight The ‘weight’ of a typeface refers to the thickness or boldness of the letters and characters. White Space An area within a printed piece that does not contain images or type. (Sometimes also called a negative space). Wide Angle Lens Any camera lens in which the field of view is wider than the human eye can normally see. Also known as a short or a fish-eye lens. The opposite is a telephoto or ‘zoom’ lens, which has a narrower field of view. Widow A single word left forming the last line of a paragraph. Window A window is the area on a Mechanical that has been marked for placement of a halftone. When photographed using graphic arts film, the window, which is made using a masking material, literally creates a window (a clear area) in the film. Wire The wire mesh used at the wet end of the paper making process. This mesh determines the texture of the paper. Wire Stitching or Stapling A binding process used to fasten sheets, signatures, or sections using wire staples. There are three different methods used – saddle stitching, side stitching, and stab stitching.

Word Wrapping A function in word process, whereby the number of words in a line of text is automatically adjusted to match the margin settings. The carriage returns, or line breaks, created by this method are termed ‘soft’, as opposed to the ‘hard’ carriage returns that are created when the Return key is pressed. Work and Turn A method of printing where pages are imposed in one forme or assembled on one sheet of film. One side is printed, then the printed sheet is turned over and printed from the other edge using the same forme. Finally, the finished sheet is cut to produce two complete copies. Work and Tumble Another method of printing where pages are imposed together. The paper sheet is printed on one side and then turned from front to rear or ‘tumbled’ to print the opposite side. Wove A very finely textured paper without visible wire marks. WYSIWYG Pronounced ‘wizzy-wig’, this is an acronym of ‘what you see is what you get’. It can be used to describe any systems which preview a finished result – in printing, a finished page with text and graphics. However, the term can be a little misleading, in that computer screen resolution and colour accuracy may be different from the printing press.

X x-height The vertical height of the lower case x in a typeface, used to provide a standardised comparison between faces. Naturally, x-height varies from one typeface to another. Also called ‘body height’. Xerography A photocopying or printing process in which printed images are formed using the electrostatic charge principle. Dry or liquid toner replaces ink and it is attracted to the page by electrostatic charge. Once formed, the image is sealed with heat. Most page printers currently use xerography.

Wood Free Paper Paper made from chemical pulp only with size added. Supplied calendered or supercalendered. Word Break The division, breaking, or hyphenation of a word at the end of a line.


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IS THE TYPE SHARP? Under an eye glass (a small magnifying glass also known as a linen tester or loupe), look for doubling or broken type.

ARE COLOURS IN REGISTER? Check the register marks under an eye glass to make sure all colours line up. Under an eye glass, four-colour subjects using traditional screening should show a rosette pattern, and no more than a single line of dots of a single colour should be visible at the edge of the image.

ARE ALL GRAPHIC ELEMENTS PRESENT? Compare the press sheet to the prepress proof.

IF SPOT VARNISH IS USED, IS IT IN REGISTER? Use an eye glass to make sure the varnish is squarely registered with the subject it should cover.

ARE THERE BLEMISHES SUCH AS HICKEYS OR MOTTLING OF COLOUR? Check all areas of the press sheet for spots or mottling caused by problems on press.

IF CUSTOM-COLOUR INKS ARE USED, ARE THEY AS SPECIFIED? Compare custom-ink colours to the swatch book used to specify them.

ARE HALFTONE DOTS SHARP IN HIGHLIGHTS AND SHADOWS? Use an eye glass to make sure that detailed highlight areas have dots as on the contract proof.

ARE CROSSOVERS (DOUBLE PAGE SPREAD) CORRECT? Fold the press sheet to check the alignent and colour match.

ARE THE COLOURS AND TYPE DENSITY CONSISTENT FROM ONE END OF THE SHEET TO THE OTHER? Fold the press sheet end to end and compare the colour of type and custom colours.

THE COLOUR CONTROL STRIP Every four-colour press sheet should include a colour control strip, which is designed to show colour strengths and to provide early warning of problems with registration, colour balance, and other printing problems. Colour strips are designed to help press operators make informed decisions when adjusting ink balance on press. Designers should use the actual printed image rather than the control strips to judge colour accuracy.

IS THE STOCK THE ONE SPECIFIED? Compare it to a sample.


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Welcome to Motion Controlled, Augmented Reality, Interactive Campaigns.

Exhibitions National Campaigns Permanent Shopper Marketing Ring or email us to discuss on: 01 868 1257 / The latest in customer engagement and exclusively offered by Horizon. Untitled-1 1

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Profile for Ashville Media Group

Irish Print Buyers Guide 2014  

Irish Print Buyers Guide 2014  

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