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Flexible Architecture What value does flexible architecture add to dwellings? By Aishwarya Bharatkumar

Guide: Prof.I.M.Chishti Co-ordinator: Prof.Dr. Ranjana Mital Prof. Jaya Kumar


Flexible Architecture

Acknowledgements Sincere gratitude for the constant inspiration and supervision by my guide, Prof. I.M.Chishti, Immense appreciation for the direction and drive provided by the studio co-ordinators Prof.Dr.Ranjana Mital and Prof. Jaya Kumar, Ardent respect for Mrs.Amritha Bhallal for her valuable and timely inputs, Warm regards for the eternal courage and faith instilled in me by my parents, Mr.B.N.Bharatkumar and Usha Bharatkumar, my brother, Karthik Bharatkumar and my family, Special thanks for the persistent companionship of all my friends especially Anuj Mittal, Vatsalya Sharma, Shruti Ravi and Anete Thomas, And an earnest acknowledgement of the indelible mark left on this dissertation by all the people who have touched my life.

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Flexible Architecture

Contents A start An introduction to the question.......................................................4 Need for the study

....................................................... 5

Scope of study

....................................................... 6

Limitations

....................................................... 6

Methodology

....................................................... 7

Dwell well What is a dwelling?

....................................................... 8

Types of Dwellings and their user spectrum

..............................9

Dwelling criteria

....................................................... 10

The Dwelling unit today

....................................................... 10

Flexible Architecture What is flexible architecture? ....................................................... 11 Classification

....................................................... 13

Flexible Dwellings Need for flexibility in dwellings....................................................... 16 Evolution of flexible dwellings....................................................... 20 Conclusion What value has flexible architecture added to dwellings? Flexible architecture for the Indian context Bibliography

........50

...............................52

....................................................... 55

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Flexible Architecture

A start An introduction to the question Change is the new constant. The statement above stands unquestioned and self-explanatory in a dynamic world where in every field of study and work the ultimate goal is to achieve an infinite and instant flexibility. Objects today are “alive” and are able to change from one dimension to another. Torch in radio, Sofa cum bed, computer in a mobile phone are all examples of changing functionalities. Modular kitchens, folding chairs, roll able keypads, bed-in-wall systems are all examples of changing volumes or spaces. This phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that we as people are constantly evolving and adopting new lifestyles. The house or dwelling is a crucial model for exploring new ideas and implementing innovative technology. It is the laboratory, test-tube and petridish of new forms, technologies and living patterns. Also, a dwelling being the primary living space needs to accommodate life cycle changes; increase in family size, aging, change in occupation etc. The dwelling unit can be described aptly as the „second skin‟ we possess as it is this artificial interface that helps us withstand our environment beyond the capacity of the human body. In a world of changing functionalities and changing volumes, this dissertation probes into the utilization of these fluctuating dimensions in the architecture of dwellings to solve problems of space efficiency, material usage and time consumption. Any home should be able to adapt to the life of its inhabitants and in this lies the true value of the dwelling leading to the question “What value does flexible architecture add to dwellings?”

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Flexible Architecture

The following chapters aim at answering the above question with the help of suitable case studies and other data collected from the existing literature available. The study is mostly contemporary and does not feature many historical examples in order to increase its relevance in present time. A global outlook has been provided rather than a region-specific one. However, an evaluation shall be made for the application of systems of flexibility in the Indian context presently and for the projected future.

Need for the study People are dynamic, progressive and adaptive. Our living spaces should be able to adapt to our changing needs, expanding families, tendency to migrate and fast – paced work oriented lifestyles. With globalization and seamless transfer of information across borders becoming a revolution, it is important to recognize the bottlenecks posed by rigid and static architecture in an urban context. Flexible architecture addresses these concerns using a number of innovative design strategies, open planning concepts and modern technologies. Even varying degrees of flexibility provided by say; sliding/folding furniture or the addition of a room to accommodate a new family member or a technology –driven climate responsive morphing form; have an impact on our lifestyle and make dwelling that much more comfortable. Every flexible dwelling is enhanced by a different set of techniques and technology that add a certain value to the space. Value addition may be in the form of use/function or responsive materials or even just as symbolic connotations addressing a problem. It is important to identify these values to understand the nuances of flexible spaces, and determine what „works‟ and what does not in a particular context. The very future of flexible architecture will reflect the conclusions of such an analysis.

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Flexible Architecture

Scope of Study Flexible architecture is a vast subject owing to its early beginnings since nomadic times as well as rapid development in recent years. 

The term „flexible‟ can be interpreted in an architectural sense in multiple ways and has been classified by many authorities on the subject. This dissertation follows the terminology and classification as defined in the succeeding chapters to avoid ambiguity.

The term „dwelling‟ is indefinite and infinite. The types of dwellings covered in the study are mentioned in succeeding chapters.

The study is mostly contemporary and does not feature many historical examples in order to increase its relevance for the present and near future.

Case studies and other references have been derived from various countries, built or idealized at different points of time in the past. This dissertation is not specific to any location or region but is only specific to the issue addressed. It is a contemporary study with a global outlook.

Limitations This dissertation was compiled within a specific time frame in accordance to the academic schedule. Thus, it has its limitations in that the study has been conducted from a database that may not be exhaustive. Most part of the dissertation is based upon secondary sources.

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Flexible Architecture

Methodology A rigorous and comprehensive study of all the literature available on flexible architecture was read and understood. Following this, the research question was formulated and relevant case studies were identified.

The research question and hence, this dissertation has been tackled in three portions. 

The first portion clarifies the meaning of the term „dwelling‟ and the types of dwellings covered in the dissertation. It gives an overview of the dwelling unit today and the basic criteria that it must fulfil.

The second portion explains the term flexible architecture and classifies various flexibilities under sub-heads.

The third portion deals with flexible architecture in dwellings. It explains in detail the need for flexible spaces in dwellings. It describes the various types of flexibilities and their usage in different contexts to serve different functions. References have been made to several built projects around the world. A few examples have been identifies as case studies and analyzed. Value addition has also been discussed at length under various parameters and has been tabulated for ease of comparison.

Each type of flexibility has been supported by 3-5 case studies ;each selected for a different key feature

Every case study has been chosen as it calls upon the attention of the reader to a particular technique of flexibility under the sub-heads.

The terminal chapters include the conclusions drawn from the case studies and attempt to answer the research question.

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Flexible Architecture

Dwell Well What is a dwelling? “To dwell is to make one‟s abode: to live in, or at, or on or about a place. For some this implies a permanent structure, for others a temporary accommodation, for still others it is where they live, even if there is little evidence of building. All houses are dwellings; but all dwellings are not houses.” (P.Oliver, 1987) The term dwelling is both a verb and a noun. It is the state of being and the means to be. The act of dwelling is innate to all creatures. Creating a sense of place out of a space be it a cave, tent or a condominium and attaching a sentimental value to it through associated memories is to dwell. Through the years, dwelling as a phenomenon has attracted several philosophers, thinkers and architects to write upon the subject and define its scope. Martin Heidegger (1951), a German philosopher argued that it is only when we can dwell that we can build in his book “Building, Dwelling, Thinking”. (Heidegger, 1971) This statement was opposed by Roger Scruton (1994) who insisted that “Only when we can build, only then are we capable of dwelling”. (Scruton, 1983) However, it is Peter King who strikes a balance in his book “In Dwelling” when he states that “Building and dwelling both appear to serve as the purpose for the other. Building is the means of dwelling, it is the active putting down of boundaries, and the action of building makes dwelling significant to us as individuals or as members of a society.” (King, 2008) Humans have been building structures that can withstand the forces of nature and predators since pre-historic times. Dwellings have evolved in form and function with the advent of new technology and science.

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Flexible Architecture

Types of dwellings and their user spectrum They can be classified on the basis of three parameters: -Time –Period of stay in a dwelling can establish its purpose and functioning. A distinction between Hotel and home is intended. Boarding houses, Hotel Apartments, Hostels, Barracks, and Hospital Wards etc also fall under this category. -Typology - The type of materials used in construction determines the form of the dwelling. These may be further classified as Permanent, Semipermanent and Transient structures. The type of dwelling is dependent on climate, culture, economy and resource availability specific to a region/area. Huts, Tepees, Bungalows, Chalets, Housing in concrete and glass etc fall in this category. -Users - Detached, Semi-detached and Multi-unit housing are the three subcategories. Detached single –unit housing is free-standing in a plot of it own. Bungalows, Castles, Cottages, Prefabricated Houses and Tree houses fall into this division. Semi-detached dwellings are those in which two houses are joined in part over a level. Ex: Duplex house Multi-unit housing includes apartment blocks, Hostels, Loft apartments and Housing co-operatives. -Mobile - These are typically homes on wheels like caravans and trailers. They also include house boats, tents etc.

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Flexible Architecture

Dwelling criteria Dwellings of all kinds are in existence today. The variation in form, function, materials and purpose is so vast that the terminology itself has come to mean different things to different people based on their background and life. However, there still remains a common thread that though unrecognizable at a glance, plays across the broad spectrum meaning there are definitely some criteria that typify a dwelling. Use and Function Materials and technology Climate and environment Symbolic or communicative connotations System of flexibility Cost( Location, land value) Based on these factors, a broad spectrum of flexible dwellings have been studied to realize their value for day-day living. For the purpose of this study only, the cost factor has not been taken into consideration.

The Dwelling unit today The term “dwelling� today in an urban context has evolved to mean modernday homes built out of steel, concrete, wood or glass with a certain degree of permanence associated to them. This however does not mean that the other forms of dwelling are redundant but only that they are in dwindling in number. The next chapter in this dissertation covers several case studies categorized into four broad categories. Adaptable Transformable Movable Interactive

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Flexible Architecture

Flexible Architecture What is flexible architecture? “Flexibility is not the exhaustive anticipation of all possible changes. Most changes are unpredictable. Flexibility is the creation of margin - excess capacity that enables different and even opposite interpretations and uses.” -Rem Koolhaas architect When one begins to explore the subject of flexible/morphing architecture, it leads to the fundamental question “what is „flexible‟?” "Nothing is permanent. Everything is in constant flux and change. Through day and night, through summer and winter, year after year, from birth to death, life flows in a timeless cycle-“ (Zuk & Clark, 1970) Since time immemorial, animals have been the sole architects of their own unique habitat that caters to their most intrinsic needs. Every bird, mammal, amphibian or otherwise is born with an innate knowledge of its shelter and how to build it. And this is where we as human beings differ. Our knowledge of shelter and concepts of habitat go beyond the basics and refuse to attain stagnation. We possess the quality of „memory‟ and hence, every space visited ceases to be just a volume and begins to acquire a „place‟ value. Due to this trait, we keep improvising our living conditions and habitat to suit our changing lifestyles. It is because we are consciously memorizing our surroundings that we have concepts of a permanent residence or a family home or even emotional attachment to say a room in a house or a tree in the backyard. In other words, it is memory that facilitates permanence. The word „flexible‟ can be better understood when juxtaposed against something rather than as a definition in solitude. Flexibility as opposed to permanence differs from flexibility as opposed to rigidity and so on. In the former case, we are reminded of tents, emergency disaster housing and

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Flexible Architecture

mobile architecture while the latter talks of open floor plans, movable partitions and kinetic architecture. Flexible architecture has a long and interesting history. Our nomadic beginnings and innate flexibility called for artificial environments that could keep pace with our lifestyle and accommodate our changing needs. To give this typology of architecture a definition, Flexible architecture can be defined as the realm of architecture that allows for change periodically.

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Flexible Architecture

Classification Flexibility in architecture is feasible in an infinite number of ways; in terms of materials and finishes, external facade, interiors, furnishing, partitions, structural members and many such elements. Morphing architecture is a vast area of interest to the architectural community today and has been classified in several ways by different authorities on the subject. For better understanding a hybrid of two different classifications from two independent sources has been followed; -Flexible Architecture by Robert Kronenburg Lawrence King Publishing 1997 (Kronenburg, 1997) -Blogger: Geoff, at www.wordpress.com, http://thewaywelive.wordpress.com/2007/11/15/flexibility-inarchitecture/ (Geoff, 2007)

Interactive These are responsive buildings that can respond to a number of external stimuli, including, but not limited to, energy/environment, interaction, usage, or occupation (case studies: Allianz arena, institute du monde arab).

Figure 1 Interactive Source: http://thewaywelive.wordpress.com/2007/11/15/flexibility-in-architecture/

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Flexible Architecture

Adaptable Adaptable structures features repositionable partitions or are changeable per user/occupant (case studies: Rietveld Schroeder house, japanese housing). What typifies a universally flexible building is its ease of adaptation per use. These buildings are often characterized by open floor plans and typology free design (case studies: S.R. crown hall, Eames house).

Figure 2 Adaptable Source:Self

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Flexible Architecture

Movable Movable flexible buildings consist of relocatable or repositionable structures or buildings capable of being torn down and reassembled in another location (case studies: nomadic tents, airstream trailers).

Figure 3 Movable Source:Self

Transformable Characterized by modular design (capable of adding or removing units or components) transformable structures can also open and close, change form or change color (case studies: plug-in city, university of phoenix stadium).

Figure 4 Transformable Source:Self

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Flexible Architecture

Flexible Dwellings Need for flexibility in dwellings “Buildings that morph are intended to respond to changing situations in their use, operation or location. Morphing architecture adapts, rather than stagnates; transforms, rather than restricts; is motive, rather than static; interacts with its users, rather than inhibits.” (Kronenburg, 1997, pp. 10-1) Flexible architecture can provide efficient solutions to the problems of today and tomorrow where yesterday‟s rigid architecture fails. Imagine a home that travels with you on any business trip or holiday; a meeting room that enlarges/contracts to accommodate the number of people present; or even a tower that bends to offer less resistance to wind forces. Flexible architecture addresses several issues, some of which are categorized below:

Space Efficiency

In a world of „best fits‟, tight fits and „one size fits all‟ ,

flexible architecture plays an important role in defining and re-defining spaces in various permutations and combinations. Starting from open floor plans providing ultimate flexibility to movable partitions in homes to inbuilt furniture that slides, rotates or folds, this kind of architecture responds to practical problems with ease. For example, in Hong Kong, because of acute space shortage, apartments are small and expensive. Gary Chang, an architect, decided to design a 344 sq. ft. apartment to be able to change into 24 different designs, all by just sliding panels and walls. He calls this the "Domestic Transformer." (Homes)

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Flexible Architecture

Mobility

In a world where information is at our fingertips and technology

is omnipresent, our transience in any particular house, apartment, city or even country is accentuated. We are constantly on the move with our jobs, family, lifestyle etc. keeping pace with us. Ironically, one of the most basic constants, our homes are still largely static and immobile. Flexible architecture has started to offer short term solutions like Eduard Bohtlingkâ€&#x;s Markies. This is a trailer which offers all domestic servicing facilities and upon reaching its destination, the walls can fold down to make floors and the new space is enclosed by a membrane like structure which is transparent on the living side and translucent on the sleeping side.

Figure 5 Markies-'awning' in Dutch Source: http://mincasa.com/tag/markies/ Photographer: Roos Aldershoff

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Flexible Architecture

Sustainability In a world where the word „green‟ is gaining momentum and resources are scarce, flexible architecture has the potential to break the vicious cycle between production, utilization and degradation. Sustainable not only encompasses natural and man-made resources but also intangible resources like time as well as financial resources. Flexibility in terms of space usage is in itself a sustainable practice where a built environment can support several activities at different times of the day catering to a varying audience. „Modular‟ buildings and Pre-fabricated homes reduce construction time by nearly twothirds and also cut costs due to mass production and efficient usage of materials. Climatology is also closely linked with sustainable building practices in that a building that can respond to its environment consumes

Figure 6 the stunning interior of the Esplanade Theatre as a result of the external skin. Source:http://biomimeticarchitecture.com/2010/11/28/biomimetic-shading-techniquesof-the-esplanade-theatre/

less energy while remaining uncompromising on the comfort of its occupants. The „skin‟ or external facade of the building being the interface can be manipulated to allow or reject heat gain, control exposure to sunlight and stimulate or curb ventilation. For example, “the Esplanade theatre and commercial district in Singapore by DP Architects and Michael Wilford hosts an elaborate skin inspired by the Durian plant. The external shading system is also responsive in that the triangular louvers adjust during the day to the suns angle and position.” (Mesghali, 2010)

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Flexible Architecture

Inclusivity In a world of cultural, social, gender, age, racial and economic disparities, it is necessary to find an underlying common thread while at the same time preserve our uniqueness. Today, a large portion of the urban population resides in high-rise apartment blocks where the design is ultimately what the builder gives them. The occupants have no or very less say in the design. In the words of Robert Kronenburg, “Consequently, they are built to design principles that establish a lowest common denominatorone size fits all.” (Kronenburg, 1997) Truly inclusive architecture would include all groups of people, whether of different economic strata, religious beliefs, sex, familial and household structure, jobs or professions, disabilities, age, or even sexual preference. In the western context inclusivity has generally come to mean inclusion of the aged and the disabled, while in most of the developing world it implies economic, religious and cultural integration. The idea is not to equalize everyone and bring them to the same socioeconomic level, but rather accept and respect their differences.

•Customs and Traditions, Way of life Culture•Globalization, Consumerism

Gender

Inclusivity •Classes of society

Economic

Inclusivity Age

Physically challenged Family Social •Single/Married/ •Sexual Orientation Status•Casteism, Racism

Figure 7 Inclusivity chart. Source: Self, Source of image in chart: http://designinterdependence.wordpress.com/

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Flexible Architecture

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Evolution of Flexible Architecture

Adaptable

This category includes dwellings with -Open plans -Flexible/ Adaptive servicing -Flexibility in spaces with integrated furniture and fixture design -Modular construction -Prefabricated Systems -Incremental Growth Case Studies( table): Next 21 (Japan) O2 –Modular Housing Traditional Japanese House Kleinwohnung (Germany) Boklok Housing (Sweden) Schroder Huis (Netherlands)


Flexible Architecture

Case 1 | Traditional Japanese House S.no

Year

1

1850-1995

Architect

Project

Kazuhiko+Kaoru Traditional Obayashi

Place Japan

Japanese House

Criteria Use & Function

21

ADAPTABLE Traditional Japanese House Next 21 O2-Modular housing Kleinwohnung (Germany) Boklok Housing (Sweden) Schroder Huis (Netherlands)

Features Participation of the user (and lifestyle based): by pulling out futons from a storage cupboard, a room that was used as a dining or sitting room can be transformed into a bedroom. For example; Japanese culture dictates that

people sit upon floor mats for socializing and tea drinking. Therefore the rooms are dimensioned to allow these functions rather than the modernday furniture arrangements. Lightweight walls-sliding partitions, room dimension based on Tatami

System of flexibility

mats( set of these mats i.e. 6 or 8),modular approach to design, indeterminacy of

Materials and Technology

function. Timber frame construction, wood/paper infill panels, no acoustic insulation

Climate and Environment

Not significant

Symbolic Connotations

A direct influence of Japanese culture on architecture, Roof form, Plan layout etc. (Schneider & Till, 2007)

Figure 8 Plan Source: Flexible Housing AP 2007

Figure 9 Interiors Source: Flexible Housing AP, 2007


Flexible Architecture

Case 2 | Next 21 S.no

Year

2

1993

Architect Osaka Gas Co.

Project

Place

Next21-Experimental

Japan

residential complex, Multi-storeyed block

Criteria Use & Function

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ADAPTABLE Traditional Japanese House Next 21 O2-Modular housing Kleinwohnung (Germany) Boklok Housing (Sweden) Schroder Huis (Netherlands)

Features NEXT21 is an experimental 18-unit housing project Building elements are divided into two groups: Long life elements that provide the communal structure (columns, beams and floors) and Shortlife elements in private areas (partitions, building services and equipment), which can be adjusted without disturbing the overall integrity of the system.

System of flexibility

Wall components are based on a modular system. Units were designed by 13 different architects. Each unit's interior and exterior layout was freely designed within a system of coordinating rules for positioning various elements Services form a separate constructional layer. Wiring and piping for gas, water and electricity are located in raised floors or suspended ceilings.

Materials and Technology

Reinforced Concrete Skeleton, Newly Developed Faรงade System

Climate and environment

Treating everyday waste and drainage onsite within the building using energy efficiently by means including fuel cells Thermal Effect of Greenery -The green areas on the roof, on the terrace on each floor, and on the ground floor of NEXT21 besides creating a comfortable habitat will also eliminate latent heat caused by evaporating moisture.

Symbolic Connotations

Three-Dimensional Street A "3 dimensional street" has been designed as a natural element linked with the Ecological Garden, and as vital common space for allowing communications between dwellers in each of the houses. Each of the dwellers will be able to enjoy the atmosphere of the regular street while maintaining privacy in their different lifestyles.

(Kendall, 2000)


Flexible Architecture

Figure 11 Front facade Source: http://www.openbuilding.org/ob/next21.html

Figure 10 Streets in the air Source: http://www.openbuilding.org/ob/next21.html

Figure 12 Services and Components Source: http://www.open-building.org/ob/next21.html

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Flexible Architecture

Case 3 | O2 Village-Modular Housing S.no 3

Year 2005

Architect Richard Horden in

Project

Place

O2 Village

Munich,

collaboration with Haack + Hopfner

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ADAPTABLE Traditional Japanese House Next 21 O2-Modular housing Kleinwohnung (Germany) Boklok Housing (Sweden) Schroder Huis (Netherlands)

Architekten

Criteria Use & Function

Features This is a micro-compact home (M-CH). Each cube measuring 2.6 metres in each dimension manages to include all the essentials for life, on two levels. Everything is purpose made and fitted in. There is a full height entrance, shower and kitchen area with a fold-down double bed beneath the floor and behind the dining area. An integral sound system and two flat-screen television monitors with broadband connection are also available. The kitchen has a double radiant hob and a microwave oven plus a fridge/freezer. Life in the box is definitely not austere.

System of flexibility

O2 Village is a cluster of six inhabited units plus an experimental one. 150 mm steel tubes are used to create the support frame and facilitate everything from one-off house to a multi-storey complex. For example, a tree village can be built with 30 living cubes surrounding a central lift core and stairs. The services function through a ring of reeds supplying electricity and water.

Materials and Technology

Materials are aluminium, Perspex and epoxy-coated OSB (oriented strand board).

Climate and Environment

Windows incorporate privacy blinds, and lighting consists of LED lowtemperature technology to avoid overheating on summer evenings. The cube is insulated, so that energy use should be low. Photovoltaic panels may be placed on the mast and on the flat roof.

Symbolic Connotations

Not Applicable (Slavid, 2007)


Flexible Architecture

Figure 13 Above: Folding bed clears space for eating, working or relaxing On the left from top ; High-quality finishes, A refuge in the beautiful forest, O2 Village at Munich Source: Micro-Very Small Architecture (2007)

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Flexible Architecture

Figure 15 Model showing the 'Tree Village' 15 metres high Source: Micro-Very Small Architecture (2007)

Figure 14 Plan Source:Micro-Very Small Architecture (2007)

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Flexible Architecture

Case 4 | Kleinwohnung S.no 4

Year 1931

Architect Carl Fieger

Project

Place

Minimal

Germany

Apartments

Criteria Use & Function

ADAPTABLE Traditional Japanese House Next 21 O2-Modular housing Kleinwohnung (Germany) Boklok Housing (Sweden) Schroder Huis (Netherlands)

Features This project was built as a prototype for a minimal apartment at the Berlin building exhibition. The apartment can be transformed from a living/dining/study to a two-bedroom apartment at night.

System of flexibility Materials and Technology Climate and Environment Symbolic Connotations

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The main mechanism is the folding beds that fold into the wall clearing the floor space for daytime activities. RCC Framed Construction with brick infill

Not significant Not Applicable (Schneider & Till, 2007)

Figure 16 Left: Folding bed mechanism, Right: Plans showing night and day use Source: Flexible Housing AP, 2007


Flexible Architecture

Case 5 | Boklok Housing S.no

Year

1

1850-1995

Architect

Project

Kazuhiko+Kaoru Traditional Obayashi

Place Japan

Japanese House

Criteria Use & Function

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ADAPTABLE Traditional Japanese House Next 21 O2-Modular housing Kleinwohnung (Germany) Boklok Housing (Sweden) Schroder Huis (Netherlands)

Features Built in a quality-controlled factory, delivered and assembled in a day. The BoKlok flats have a flexible open-plan layout, high ceilings and large windows, giving the apartments a light, airy and contemporary feel.

System of flexibility

They come with a host of additional features as standard, such as extra height rooms to give a feeling of space, wooden flooring throughout, fitted kitchens and free interior design advice from Ikea, as well as an Ikea furniture voucher.

Materials and Technology

They are constructed using a highly insulated closed panel system developed by Pace Timber Systems, of Milton Keynes, with a range of cladding systems.

Climate and Environment

Not Significant

Symbolic Connotations

Not Significant

(IKEA )

Figure 17 Left: Prefabricated Housing Source: http://www.gizmag.com/go/7108/picture/33980/ Right: Plan Source: www.aquariumsearchengine.com


Flexible Architecture

Case 6 | Schroder Huis S.no 7

Year 1924

Architect

Project

Place

Gerrit Thomas

Client initiated

Netherlands

Rietveld

two-storeyed independent

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ADAPTABLE Traditional Japanese House Next 21 O2-Modular housing Kleinwohnung (Germany) Boklok Housing (Sweden) Schroder Huis (Netherlands)

house

Criteria Use & Function

Features Involves participation of the user, who is constantly employed to create an enclosure and dissolve it again. During the day, the hinged screens are pushed towards the outer walls of the buildings and either kept in storage cupboards or gathered behind short fin walls. When closed again, the screen in the centre doubles up as a door so that each room can be accessed separately from the hall; two rooms for sleeping and one

System of flexibility Materials and Technology

living/dining room. Light weight screens(hinged) and custom made flexible furniture Highly tuned to a particular set of requirements by the client. Stainless steel and glass used for partitions, Concrete frame structure

Climate and Environment

Not significant

Symbolic Connotations

The design of the Schroder Hius joins the spatial concepts of De Stijl with Mrs. Schroderâ€&#x;s aims to overcome the socio-spatial hierarchy of a normal house whilst maintaining privacy.

Figure 18 Schroder Huis Source: www.architectsandartisans.com


Flexible Architecture

Figure 19 Mechanism of Partitions Source: Flexible Housing AP,2007

The Schroder House is considered to be a one of the most conspicuous modern icon of transformable living. The house as a whole; interiors and exteriors was designed conforming to the bold aesthetics, colour and geometry of the DeStijl movement. The client, Truus Schroder was also Gerrit Rietveld‟s collaborator and lover. She wanted a home for herself and her three kids

Figure 20 Ground Floor Plan (above), First Floor Plan (Below) Source: http://zeospot.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/02/Rietveld-Schroder-House-sketchfloor-architecture-design.jpg

that would dictate an efficient but special lifestyle. According to Hubert-Jan Henket, Chairman of the Rietveld-Schroder House Foundation, Truus “sought sobriety and ultimate freedom of use, so that she could be independent.” To allow this, Rietveld divided the entire volume by four vertical and two horizontal planes. Each floor plate was divided using a clever system of movable partitions to give one expansive space when folded and four enclosures when opened. The interiors acquire a dynamic character dictated by function. (Henket, 2000)

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Flexible Architecture

However, it is ironic that the freedom that the partitions represent is actually stifled during actual use of the house in the course of time. For example, Catherine Croft, a writer for Architectural Design observes that one would have to make a bathroom by pulling out walls around the bath, which is the antithesis of a relaxing experience. Also, the partitions are such that

Figure 21 Interiors Source: The Transformable House, AD,Vol 70 (2000)

either all are pulled out or all are pushed back. Unlike the conventional plan layout, the convenience of different time schedules for different occupants is not provided for. Every „room‟ must be kept at a certain level of tidiness to accommodate the open flowing space. Another negative aspect of the partition is the unsophisticated and outdated mechanism of control. The switch between open and close is slow and cumbersome. Even today, although the house has been preserved in its authentic environment as a museum, its maintenance costs are high. In the words of Catherine Croft, The Schroder House “...functions perfectly as an iconic building, a symbol both of modernist living and a pioneering art movement.” (Croft, 2000)

Figure 22Interiors-Partitions are open Source: The Transformable House, AD,Vol 70 (2000)

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Flexible Architecture

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Transformable

This category includes dwellings -that can be altered dramatically in terms of architectural environment -capable of movement -capable of physical alteration of structure, skin, internal surface -that are kinetic by machinery or human effort Case Studies( table): Pushbutton House Garden Hut (Spain) Floirac House (France) NASA Bioplex capsule (Germany) Crate House-Packed Dwelling (House in a box)


Flexible Architecture

Case 1 | Pushbutton House S.no

Year

1

2005

Architect Adam Kalkin

Project

Place

Pushbutton House,

USA

ArtBasel Miami Fair

Criteria Use & Function

33

TRANSFORMABLE Pushbutton House (USA) Garden Hut (Spain) Floirac House (France) Crate House NASA Bioplex capsule (Germany)

Features The Pushbutton house is a dynamic re-use of a shipping container. The ordinary looking completely closed container, at the push of a button, opens up hydraulically to reveal the interior. The client for such a house is currently a company that is developing a resort in the Caribbean. As a sales office it is equal to none. The company will take the container, put it on a deserted island, take potential clients by boat, open the house, talk

System of flexibility Materials and Technology

over coffee about the development and then close up the house and leave. Each wall weighs a ton. Four electric motors are used for opening and closing and the valves are controlled by a computer. 6m steel Shipping container

Climate and Environment

Not significant

Symbolic Connotations

out. In his words, “ The Pushbutton House becomes an actor in the

Kalkin compares the house to a blossoming flower, turning space inside relationship between the viewer and the viwed to the point that it can swallow the visitor in its hydraulic jaws (thus disturbing the superior position that people usually enjoy over their living rooms� (Slavid, 2007)

Figure 23 Opening/Closing Source: Micro-Very Small Architecture (2007)


Flexible Architecture

Figure 24 Interior View while closing (above) Plan (side) Open house (below) Source: Micro-Very Small Architecture (2007)

34


Flexible Architecture

Case 2 | Garden Hut S.no

Year

Architect

2

2004

Eightyseven

Project

Place

Garden pavilion

Spain

Architects

Criteria

35

TRANSFORMABLE Pushbutton House (USA) Garden Hut (Spain) Floirac House (France) Crate House NASA Bioplex capsule (Germany)

Features

Use & Function

A building of a modest budget; the Garden Hut serves as a storage shed in the winter and an extra open-air room in the summer for the owner‟s adjacent house.

System of flexibility

The building‟s walls slide and fold back to open it completely to the immediate garden and distant views. The roof is multipitched with triangular laminated glass skylights.

Materials and Technology

Corten steel was chosen for the exterior. It is known as „weathering steel‟ and begins rusting the moment it is exposed to air forming an airproof layer that prevents further corrosion. With time it turns to a bright orange colour which blends with the ripening wheat in the surroundings. The interiors are of durable Brazilian Ipe timber.

Climate and environment

The building changes its function with the seasons and its dialogue with the environs. In the damp winter months, its use as a store is facilitated by the hardwood interiors and its closed-box like structure. In summer, the space changes dynamically allowing the garden to flow freely into the hut.

Symbolic Connotations

The building has an identity of its own. Its fragmented geometry lends a mystic charm to it giving it the character of a sculpture or piece of furniture. (Slavid, 2007)

Figure 25 View from Inside in summer Source: Micro-Very Small Architecture (2007)


Flexible Architecture

Figure 26 Garden Hut Views (Above) Plan (side) Source: Micro-Very Small Architecture (2007)

36


Flexible Architecture

Case 3 | Floirac House S.no

Year

3

1995

Architect Remkoolhas, OMA

Project House for client with specific needs

Place Bordeaux, France

Criteria Use & Function

37

TRANSFORMABLE Pushbutton House (USA) Garden Hut (Spain) Floirac House (France) Crate House NASA Bioplex capsule (Germany)

Features The client of this house was confined to a wheelchair, so instead of providing a conventional lift core, Koolhaas created an elevating room that forms a mobile core, placing the needs of the occupant above all else. The house is comprised of three vertical blocks.

System of flexibility

Ground floor: Adjacent to the parking ramp giving the owner easy access, contains mainly service functions (kitchen, laundry, wine cellar, etc.), each carved from the hillside in cave like spaces. Top floor: The parent's and children's bedrooms in a heavy concrete mass, punctuated by random, circular openings. Living areas are glass enclosed and in-between providing scintillating views. Accessible to all three levels is the lift, furnished as a workspace, located

Materials and Technology

adjacent to a full-height library. Not significant

Climate and environment

Not significant

Symbolic Connotations

part of and changing the experience of the client's home life. It is clear that

The moving platform opens itself up to the rest of the house, becoming Koolhaas designed the spaces of the house around the platform, reversing the typical design process in regards to vertical transport. (Abitare, 2009)

Figure 27 Above: The moving room Source:http://abitare.bg/en/story/house-floirac


Flexible Architecture

Case 4 | Crate House S.no

Year

Architect

4

1991

Alan Wexler

Project „Packed‟ Dwelling

Criteria Use & Function

Place New York

38

TRANSFORMABLE Pushbutton House (USA) Garden Hut (Spain) Floirac House (France) Crate House NASA Bioplex capsule (Germany)

Features The Crate House was designed as a statement on modern living and changing lifestyles. It consists of an empty structure in the form of a white

System of

cube. Each side of the cube has a door opening and a movable crate which

flexibility

can be rolled into the structure independently of one another through the doors. These crates contain all the furniture, utensils and fittings required by a two-person household. Therefore, the cube reduces the conventional „living room‟, „dining‟,

Materials and

„kitchen‟, „bedroom‟ and „bathroom‟ into a deceptively compact box.

Technology

Not available

Climate and

Not Applicable

environment Alan Wexler did not build the Crate house with the intentions of yet Symbolic

another compact dwelling but also as an artistic comment on the way we

Connotations

dwell. For example, when one pushes all four crates into the living structure, the space inside does not allow one to dwell. But if three crates are pushed out and only one crate is in the structure at a time, then this crate can be accessed freely. In the words of Michael Fehr, “What then becomes strikingly obvious is that “the bedroom would only exist when sleeping, the kitchen when eating””. (Fehr, 2001)

Figure 28: The Entertainment shelf and the Kitchen shelf, The Crate House with all shelves pushed out Source Clockwise: feldmangallery.com, peternencini.blogspot.com, tallerhousingesarq.wordpress.com


Flexible Architecture

Case 5 | NASA Bioplex Capsule S.no

Year

5

2000

Architect

Project

Place

Foreign Office

Living

-

Architects

Capsule,Future Homes Exhibition

Criteria Use & Function

39

TRANSFORMABLE Pushbutton House (USA) Garden Hut (Spain) Floirac House (France) Crate House NASA Bioplex capsule (Germany)

Features This is a prototype dwelling for astronauts on NASA‟s planned 2013 mission to Mars. The structure upon landing can transform into a building form of great variety.

System of flexibility

Normally dwellings support activities like eating, sleeping, bathing etc. in conjunction with outer spaces that support recreation, sports, travel and communication. However, the capsule must respond to all these needs. Although it has no windows, it contains its own „outside‟. Inhabitants will choose their own projected picture windows as dial-a-view murals that let the eye travel into the imaginary distance. Bioplex has no straight walls or ceiling per se. Because the inhabitant must be able to reconfigure the shape and content of the house over time, and sometimes within minutes, furniture is temporary and unfolds from the soft walls of the structure.

Materials and technology

A series of concentric ribs unfolds to change the extruded tube into a deformed cylinder that rotates along its length. The ribs can open up further to create larger spaces.The challenge lay in the transportation of the dwelling which has been designed to contract back into a compact cylindrical form.Expanded foams, which are exceptionally lightweight and porous, as well as flame retardant. They can be flexible, semi rigid or rigid. Waterlily foam, which has extremely low consumption and production waste levels, is also recyclable.

Climate and environment

Not Applicable

Symbolic connotations

None (Mark, 2004)


Flexible Architecture

Figure 29 Above clockwise: NASA Bioplex interior, Ribs open and closed, Exterior view, Morphing interior Source: MARK Issue 3-The Domestic Fantastic

40


Flexible Architecture

41

Mobile

This category includes dwellings that are mobile or transported with ease. These may be used in special environments, or as week-end homes, for disaster relief or even as permanent dwellings. Case Studies( table): Mobile Dwelling Unit (USA) Halley VI Antarctica Base Project (USA) La Petit Maison du Weekend (USA)


Flexible Architecture

Case 1 | Mobile Dwelling Unit S.no

Year

1

2002

Architect LOT-EK

Project

Place

ISO shipping

New-York

container dwelling

Criteria Use & Function

42

MOBILE Mobile Dwelling Unit (USA) La Petit Maison du Weekend (USA) Halley VI Antarctica Base Project (USA)

Features An ISO shipping container is converted to a dwelling unit that is expandable in portions. Each portion caters to one live, work or storage function. When travelling, these sub- volumes are pushed in, filling the entire container with inter-locking volumes. And leaving the outside flush

System of flexibility

to allow worldwide standard shipping. The MDU travels with the dweller from place to place. Once it reaches any urban hub, it can be harboured in the MDU harbours located in all major metropolitain areas.

Materials and Technology

The container is a steel ISO standard box. The harbour is a multiple level steel rack measuring 8 feet in width and varying length. All services and the stairs run vertically along corridors parallel to the building. Steel barracks are used as supports.In todayâ€&#x;s throwaway society, it is more profitable to re-use a shipping container than to send it back empty in case of an abundance of containers cause by trade imbalance (more import than export). LOT-EK has utilized this knowledge to the fullest using the mobile dwelling unit concept to the fullest. Now, malls, retail stores etc. are also being built using the same technology.

Figure 30 PUMA Showroom and Mall using MDU Source:www.ecosistemaurbano.org, www.connow.blogspot.com

Climate and environment

The re-use of the steel container is a green practice in itself. However, some studies have revealed that long-term use of these containers may be hazardous to the inhabitants due to emissions.

Symbolic Connotations

The concept of a global citizen is introduced where the dweller and his habitat are both completely mobile. (LOT-EK)


Flexible Architecture

Figure 31 Clockwise: Elevation, 3-D View, Plans, Interiors Source: http://www.lot-ek.com

43


Flexible Architecture

Case 2 | La Petit Maison du Weekend S.no

Year

2

1998

Architect Patkau

Project

Place

Weekend House

Ohio,USA

Architects

Criteria Use & Function

44

MOBILE Mobile Dwelling Unit (USA) La Petit Maison du Weekend (USA) Halley VI Antarctica Base Project (USA)

Features This project was designed as a minimal, sustainable, self-sufficient dwelling and was constructed for the Fabrications Exhibition at the Wexner Centre.

System of flexibility

It consists of a shelter, sleeping loft, kitchen, composting toilet and shower. The house can be towed to any vehicle-accessible site, where it may be opened and ready to use.

Materials and Technology

Made from solid and ply hemlock wood with steel strengtheners at critical

Climate and environment

Water is collected from the roof and photovoltaics are used to generate

Symbolic connotations

joints. electricity for lighting, a high-efficiency refrigerator and a small fan in the toilet. (Kronenburg, 1997, p. 191) None

Figure 32 La Petite Maison du Weekend Source: Flexible, Lawrence King Publishing (2007)


Flexible Architecture

Case 3 | Halley VI Antarctica Base S.no

Year

Architect

Project

Place

3

2005

Hugh Broughton

Halley VI Antarctica

-

Architects/Faber

Base project

45

MOBILE Mobile Dwelling Unit (USA) La Petit Maison du Weekend (USA) Halley VI Antarctica Base Project (USA)

Maunsell LTD.

Criteria Use & Function

Features This research base centre was designed to function upon the Brunt Ice shelf. The shelf itself is not static and the building must withstand temperatures of -30 deg. Celsius and have a minimal impact on the environment.

System of flexibility

The building must allow relocation according to the changing ice conditions. The design is based on a series of separate building modules, founded on skis to allow easy shifting. The largest module is centrally located and contains operations, communications, eating and recreation and a double-height hydroponics space.

Materials and Technology Climate and environment

The modules are lightweight, highly insulated units that sit on legs to avoid snow build up. The combined heat and power source will be used to support heating and airflow, low energy lighting and domestic appliances- this is necessary because of the no. of machines operated in the facility. Low water use and

Symbolic connotations

a bio-digester also help keep the environmental impact low. None (Kronenburg, 1997, pp. 186-7)

Figure 33 Halley VI Antarctica Base Source:www.arkinet.com,www.telegraph.co.uk


46

Flexible Architecture

Interactive

This category includes dwellings that respond to external stimuli like the environment or even the user. These houses are automated and function with the help of high-tech gadgets and sensors. Case Studies( table): Tolvanen Cybertecture House (Denmark) SmartWrap Building, New York (USA) R-128 House, Stuttgart (Germany)


Flexible Architecture

INTERACTIVE

Case 1 | Tolyanen Cybertecture S.no 1

Year

Architect

2002- James Law 4

Project

Place

Tolvanen House

Denmark

Cybertecture

Criteria Use & Function

47

Tolyanen Cybertecture House SmartWrap Building (USA) R-128 House (Germany)

Features Cybertecture is architecture in another form, the creation of living and working spaces which are a harmonious blend of technology, multimedia, intelligent systems and user interactivity. These spaces can be customized and the residents can claim to be the world's most connected community. It even allows a person to select preferred background music. A revolutionary Cybertecture house designed in conjunction with IBM

System of flexibility

which shows a new form of morph able living based on an animatronic house that is able to move and reshape its spaces and functions interactively to the inhabitant's needs. Cybertecture includes a dynamic trolley system of rooms and spaces controlled by a voice recognition/interactive cyber character interface that acts as the virtual

Materials and Technology

butler for the house. Not known

Climate and environment

Not known

Symbolic connotations

Not known (Kronenburg, 1997, pp. 224-5)

Figure 34 Tolvanen Cybertecture house Source: Flexible, Lawrence King Publishing (2007)


Flexible Architecture

Case 2 | SmartWrap Building S.no

Year

Architect

2

2003

INTERACTIVE

Project

Place

KieranTimberlake

SmartWrap

USA

Associates

Building

Criteria Use & Function

48

Tolyanen Cybertecture House SmartWrap Building (USA) R-128 House (Germany)

Features SmartWrap™ represents a new way of thinking about a building envelope. It is a dramatic alternative to how a conventional facade is manufactured, functions and appears.

System of flexibility

It proposes to replace the conventional "bulky" wall with a composite that is 1 millimetre thick that integrates climate control, power, lighting, and information display on a single substrate.

Materials and Technology

Through the deployment of deposition printed organic photovoltaics and organic light-emitting diodes onto thin plastic layers, SmartWrap™ is lightweight, energy-gathering, mass customizable and sustainable. It is applicable to commercial and residential buildings on both large and small scales, and can be mass customized for a range of conditions and desired aesthetic programs, the printed pattern dictated by the needs of the particular project.

Climate and environment

Climate control is implemented by Phase Change Materials (PCM‟s) which are microcapsules embedded into a polyesterresin and then extruded to a film.

Symbolic connotations

None (Kierantimberlake)

Figure 35 SmartWrap Architecture Source:http://specialtyfabricsreview.com/articles/0908_sw1_cellophane.html


Flexible Architecture

INTERACTIVE

Case 3 | R-128 House S.no 3

Year

Architect

1999- Werner Sobek

Project

Place

R-128 House

Germany

2000

Criteria Use & Function

49

Tolyanen Cybertecture House SmartWrap Building (USA) R-128 House (Germany)

Features This house was built as a case study to explore the limits of technology integrated with building systems by the architect for his family. The house is an open plan with no partition walls with all the pipe work and cabling either exposed or behind concealed metal covers. There are no locks or switches; the front door opens by a voice recognition system; lighting, heating and windows are controlled by a touch screen; systems like task lighting and water taps operate by infrared sensors.

System of flexibility

The structure has a modular, bolt-together steel frame with continuous suspended glass walls on all sides of the building. All components can be disassembled for reuse in the same manner or a completely different building design. (Kronenburg, 1997, pp. 222-3)

Materials and Technology

Steel and glass volume

Climate and environment

A heat pump balances seasonal temperature changes. 48 solar panels on the roof generate 6.72 kilowatt of electricity. The house is representative of the technology-driven era we live in.

Symbolic Connotations

Although it features state-of art systems, for many the house would never translate into a home for the lack of the human touch.

Figure 36 R-128 House Source: Flexible,Lawrence King Publishing (2007)


Flexible Architecture

Conclusion

What value has flexible architecture added to dwellings? Flexible architecture has revolutionized dwelling since time immemorial and is the most practical solution to our innate flexibility and constant change in lifestyle. Value addition to dwellings by flexible architecture can not only be seen by tangible qualities like cost, time and reduced effort in dwelling and construction but also in terms of intangible aspects like improved indoor life and healthy living. It caters to the current needs of any present population and promotes principles of sustainability, mass production and increased standard of living in response to the global environmental crisis, over-population of cities and progress in technology respectively (as discussed in the chapter Flexible Dwellings) When compared to other sectors, flexibility in architecture has seen slower progression in lieu of the idea of permanence of the structure embedded in the minds of the people. From temporary shelters, mankind has progressed to a stage where building property is considered a stable investment due to its deep rooted association with the land. However, slowly but surely, mobility is once again an emerging lifestyle for many. Flexibility is subjective and heavily relies on immediate factors like climate, topography, economy, culture and people. For example, what works as a type of flexibility in Japan may be considered an inconvenience to living in India. In the Curtain wall house by Shigeru Ban, a portion of the entire twostoreyed volume has the option of being enclosed by tall curtains only. This is conducive to the climate and culture of people in Japan but would raise serious issues of privacy, safety and personal discomfort in India.

50


Flexible Architecture

Also, flexibility needs to be designed from the level where innate flexibility of a population ceases. In countries like India, currently people are much more flexible than their built environment and they easily adapt to their surroundings. Their concerns need to be addressed in an entirely different light when compared to other places. Adaptable Architecture that is Adaptable in terms of movable partitions, open plans, the room as furniture etc. is slowly shifting from an architect-determined plan to a user-based plan. The onus is on the resident to design his/her own space rather than the architect designing for a singular purpose as seen in the Japanese House (Case Study 1) when compared to Kleinwohnung (Case Study 4). Transformable Transformable architecture has revolutionized the relationship between man and his dwelling. What was previously static and inanimate is now kinetic in tune with the userâ€&#x;s need. This kind of indeterminate architecture also gives the user an upper hand although the movements are pre-determined by the architect. There is constant interaction between the building and the resident giving the structure more than one meaning. Options of time sharing where day and night use differ and maximum utilization of a space become possible. Wexlerâ€&#x;s Crate House (Case Study 4) is a satirical take on the subject of time sharing for every activity while the Garden Hut (Case Study 2) enables seasonal variations in use. Mobile Mobile architecture is probably the oldest known type of flexibility existent since man was still foraging for food. Modular, volumetric, flat-pack, tensile and pneumatic are the primary building construction options within this category. On one hand, mobility is a positive attribute but it also has its shortcomings like re-assembly time and labour, large number of parts, high

51


Flexible Architecture

maintenance for every junction/joint, greater energy consumed by operation in transport etc. Mobile architecture may be easily transportable in the case of tensile structures or temporary disaster homes as compared to the Mobile Dwelling Unit (Case Study 1) depending on the purpose it was designed for. This field of architecture has a lot of potential that may someday overcome all the aforementioned setbacks. Interactive Being the most recent and advanced form of flexibility, the field remains largely unexplored and unconventional. With the rapid technological advancements taking place in all industries, these have yet to find their purpose in architecture. While this form of architecture gives the user ultimate control of his dwelling; every faรงade, glazing, lock and switch is automated; it remains an irony that direct human decision making is highly limited. The balance between human control and machine automated control is yet to be made.

Flexible architecture for the Indian context India has a rich and vibrant history of flexibility in architecture. Time and again, historical examples like the lightweight shamiana extensions, the chairpoy and the houseboats of Kashmir and Kerala have sown the seeds of flexible living. Indians owing to fact that India is a third world country and rising up to its over whelming problems of over-population, climate and growing economy have developed not only the flexibility of dwelling structures but also their own innate flexibility. More often than not, people in the sub-continent adapt to their surroundings as opposed to their surrounding built environment being adaptable.

52


Flexible Architecture

This tendency is understandably seen more amongst the poor and homeless in an urban setting. Strong concepts of culture, religion and tradition coupled with political corruption, security and shortage of resources make designing for this context volatile and complex. The tradition of flexibility in architecture has not developed steadily with the growth of urban and rural agglomerations. It has yet to make its presence, need and utility felt and experienced in the region. Some areas where flexible living may make a huge contribution in the near future are as follows: -

Supply and Demand

There is a widening gap between the growing population and the availability of dwelling units. Mass production of homes enabled by factory produced pre-fabricated units as discussed under Adaptable (pg 22-33) could be an efficient solution. Also, shortage of land in urban centres calls for maximizing space efficiency made possible by customized modular units or pods. -

Cultural and Social variations

India is a culturally and socially diverse country. Every region has its specific tradition and social values. The ancient science of Vaastu Shastra still has a strong influence in many parts of the country. Norms regarding privacy and security of occupants, Indoor/outdoor activities, lifestyle, cooking etc. demand a very different system of domestic planning. Architecture that can adapt and transform may help preserve these cultural practices in a modern world. -

Climate

The length and breadth of India is host to multiple climatic regions and environments. An interactive interface between man and his dwelling is important for sustenance.

53


Flexible Architecture

-

Religious diversity

People in the sub-continent are very religion oriented. There are several religious groups and communities, each having their own holy places of worship. Thus, there are a vast number of pilgrims every year who travel to their place of worship at different times of the year. Mobile temporary housing for this displaced population is needed. -

Defence

The defence housing requirements in India are large owing to the fact that the country features amongst the top 5 nations of the world in terms of number of people employed in this sector. The future of flexible domestic architecture in India is opportune and ripe. It may be the only solution to the deepening problems of housing not just in India but all over the world.

----------------------------------------

54


Flexible Architecture

Works Cited 

Abitare. (2009). House at Floirac. Abitare .

Croft, C. (2000). The Transformable House-Schroder Huis. AD , 70.

Dwelling. (2011, sept 26). Retrieved nov 7, 2011, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwelling

ECONOMIC SURVEY OF DELHI, 2.-2. (2001). Retrieved August 5th, 2011, from Delhi Planning: http://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/Ecosur200102/PDF/chapter14.PDF

Fehr, M. (2001). Structure for Reflection. Retrieved Nov 20, 2011, from aesthetischepraxis: http://www.aesthetischepraxis.de/Texte2/Allan%20Wexler_Structure s%20for%20Reflexion.pdf

Geoff. (2007, November 15th). flexibility in architecture,the way we live. Retrieved August 6th, 2011, from wordpress.com: http://thewaywelive.wordpress.com/2007/11/15/flexibility-inarchitecture/

Heidegger, M. (1971). Building, Dwelling, Thinking. (A. Hofstadter, Trans.) New York: Harper Colophon Books.

Henket, H.-J. (2000). The Schroder House Foundation. Architectural Design , 70.

Homes, W. G. (n.d.). A Tiny Apartment Transforms into 24 Rooms. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lg9qnWg9kak

IKEA . (n.d.). THE BOKLOK CONCEPT. Retrieved Nov 27, 2011, from BO KLOK: http://www.boklok.com

Kendall, P. D. (2000). NEXT21, Osaka, Japan, 1994. Retrieved Dec 22, 2011, from CIB W104 Open Building Implementation: http://www.open-building.org/ob/next21.html

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Flexible Architecture

Kierantimberlake. (n.d.). SmartWrap™: Building Envelope of the Future. Retrieved Dec 20, 2011, from Kierantimberlake: http://kierantimberlake.com/research/smartwrap_research_1.html

King, P. (2008). In Dwelling: implacability, exclusion and acceptance. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Kronenburg, R. (1997). Flexible. UK: Lawrence King Publishing.

LOT-EK. (n.d.). MDU- Mobile Dwelling Unit. Retrieved Dec 30, 2011, from LOT-EK: http://www.lot-ek.com/

Mark. (2004). Bioplex Foreign Ofice Architects. Mark (3), 9-10.

Mesghali, E. (2010, November 28). Biomimetic Shading Techniques of the Esplanade Theatre. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from BiomimeticArchitecture.com: http://biomimeticarchitecture.com/2010/11/28/biomimetic-shading-techniques-ofthe-esplanade-theatre/

P.Oliver. (1987). Dwellings: the house across the world. University of Texas Press.

Schneider, T., & Till, J. (2007). Flexible Housing. Burlington: Elsevier Inc/Ltd. Scruton, R. (1983). The aesthetic understanding: essays in the philosophy of art and culture. Taylor & Francis.

Slavid, R. (2007). Micro-Very Small Architecture. London: Lawrence King Publishing Ltd.

Terzidis, K. (Spring 2003). Hybrid Form. Design Issues , 19 (2), Pg 76.

The Wescott House Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.westcotthouse.org/prairie_style.html

Zuk, W., & Clark, R. H. (1970). Kinetic Architecture. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

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Flexible Architecture

Bibliography Books and Papers 

Bolker, Joan Ed.D (1998). Writing your dissertation in Fifteen minutes a day. Owl Books, Henry Holt & Company, LLC Publishers

Borden, Iain & Ruedi, Katerina (2000). The Dissertation. Architectural Press

Chand, Megha (2000). Interrogating the Indian condition: some problems with the Frameworks of Architect Charles Correa. Published in The Dissertation, LLC Publishers

Chair of Prof. Dr. Josep Lluis Mateo. Global Housing Projects. Architectural Papers Monograph.

Edited by Jennifer Siegal. More Mobile-Portable Architecture for today. Princeton Architectural Press, New York

Kronenburg, Robert (1997). Flexible. UK: Lawrence King Publishing.

Oliver, P. (1987). Dwellings: the house across the world. University of Texas Press. Terzidis, K. (Spring 2003). Hybrid Form. Design Issues , 19 (2), Pg 76.

 

Knight, Will & Groves, Kursty (2010). I wish I worked there! Wiley Publications, Photography by Edward Denison

Ritter, Axel (2007). Smart Materials. Birkauser-Publisher for Architecture

Moya, Sandra & Asensio, Paco (2006). Small Living. Loft Publications

Pople, Nicholas (2000). Experimental Houses. Watson-Guptill Publications, New York

Global Housing Projects. Monograph- Architectural Papers

Total Housing (2010). Actar, Barcelona

Waschsmann, Konrad. Innovation Architecture. Brookes & Poole

Zuk, W., & Clark, R. H. (1970). Kinetic Architecture.

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Flexible Architecture

Web pages 

Butcher, David.R. Shapshifting structures adapt to environment. Retrieved on July 18 , 2011:http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives Dwelling. (2011, sept 26). Retrieved nov 7, 2011, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwelling

Geoff. (2007, November 15th). flexibility in architecture,the way we live.Retrieved August 6th, 2011, from wordpress.com: http://thewaywelive.wordpress.com/2007/11/15/flexibility-inarchitecture/ Homes, W. G. (n.d.). A Tiny Apartment Transforms into 24 Rooms. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lg9qnWg9kak

ECONOMIC SURVEY OF DELHI, 2.-2. (2001). Retrieved August 5th, 2011, from Delhi Planning: http://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/Ecosur200102/PDF/chapter14.PDF

Mesghali, Ehsaan. (2010, November 28). Biomimetic Shading Techniques of the Esplanade Theatre. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from Biomimetic-Architecture.com: http://biomimetic-architecture.com/2010/11/28/biomimeticshading-techniques-of-the-esplanade-theatre/

by Prof. Dr. Stephen KENDALL and Building Futures Institute, B. S. (n.d.). NEXT21, Osaka, Japan, 1994. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from CIB W104 Open Building Implementation: http://www.open-building.org/ob/next21.html

Halse, Antonia (2008, May 19).Green Pix Zero energy wall lights up, Beijing Retrieved August 11, 2011:http://inhabitat.com/greenpix-zeroenergy-media-wall-lights-up-beijing/

Retrieved August 14, 2011:http://designinterdependence.wordpress.com/

 

Retrieved July 16, 2011:http://www.modularhomebook.com/book/chapter01.html Retrieved July 16, 2011:http://home.howstuffworks.com/prefabhouse6.htm

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Flexible Architecture

Sadhana, Lakshmi (2006, August 31st). Smart buildings that make smooth moves. Retrieved July 18 , 2011, from Wired magazine http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/08/71680

World's Greenest Homes. (n.d.). A Tiny Apartment Transforms into 24 Rooms.Retrieved August 14, 2011, from You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lg9qnWg9kak The Wescott House Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved August 11, 2011, from http://www.westcotthouse.org/prairie_style.html Wikipedia. (n.d.).Retrieved August 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prairie_School

 

Table of Figures Figure 1 Interactive ................................................................................... 13 Figure 2 Adaptable Source:Self .................................................................. 14 Figure 3 Movable Source:Self ..................................................................... 15 Figure 4 Transformable Source:Self ........................................................... 15 Figure 5 Markies-'awning' in Dutch ........................................................... 17 Figure 6 the stunning interior of the Esplanade Theatre as a result of the external skin. ............................................................................................ 18 Figure 7 Inclusivity chart. ......................................................................... 19 Figure 8 Plan Source: Flexible Housing AP 2007 ......................................... 21 Figure 9 Interiors Source: Flexible Housing AP, 2007 .................................. 21 Figure 10 Streets in the air Source: http://www.openbuilding.org/ob/next21.html ...................................................................... 23 Figure 11 Front facade Source: http://www.openbuilding.org/ob/next21.html ...................................................................... 23 Figure 12 Services and Components Source: http://www.openbuilding.org/ob/next21.html ...................................................................... 23 Figure 13 Above: Folding bed clears space for eating, working or relaxing .. 25 Figure 14 Plan Source:Micro-Very Small Architecture (2007) ........................ 26 Figure 15 Model showing the 'Tree Village' 15 metres high......................... 26

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Flexible Architecture

Figure 16 Left: Folding bed mechanism, Right: Plans showing night and day use Source: Flexible Housing AP, 2007 ....................................................... 27 Figure 17 Left:Prefabricated Housing......................................................... 28 Figure 18 Schroder Huis Source: www.architectsandartisans.com ............. 29 Figure 19 Mechanism of Partitions Source: Flexible Housing AP,2007......... 30 Figure 20 Ground Floor Plan (above), First Floor Plan (Below) Source: http://zeospot.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Rietveld-Schroder-Housesketch-floor-architecture-design.jpg ............................................................ 30 Figure 21 Interiors .................................................................................... 31 Figure 22Interiors-Partitions are open ....................................................... 31 Figure 23 Opening/Closing ....................................................................... 31 Figure 24 Interior View while closing (above) ............................................. 31 Figure 25 View from Inside in summer Source: Micro-Very Small Architecture (2007) ....................................................................................................... 31 Figure 26 Garden Hut Views (Above) ......................................................... 31 Figure 27 Above: The moving room ............................................................ 31 Figure 28: The Entertainment shelf and the Kitchen shelf, The Crate House with all shelves pushed out ....................................................................... 31 Figure 29 Above clockwise: NASA Bioplex interior, Ribs open and closed, Exterior view, Morphing interior ................................................................ 31 Figure 30 PUMA Showroom and Mall using MDU Source:www.ecosistemaurbano.org, www.connow.blogspot.com ................. 31 Figure 31 Clockwise:Elevation, 3-D View, Plans, Interiors.......................... 31 Figure 32 La Petite Maison du Weekend .................................................... 31 Figure 33 Halley VI Antarctica Base Source:www.arkinet.com,www.telegraph.co.uk .......................................... 31 Figure 34 Tolvanen Cybertecture house .................................................... 31 Figure 35 SmartWrap Architecture Source:http://specialtyfabricsreview.com/articles/0908_sw1_cellophane.html ................................................................................................................. 31 Figure 36 R-128 House ............................................................................. 31

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Dissertation flexible architecture  

Fourth year publication- School of planning and Architecture, New Delhi

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