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Trinity House

Gallery Catalogue

Trinity House

The Unique Sensation:

Draftsmanship, Imagery and Chromatics in Impressionist Painting

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MAXIMUM HEIGHT MINIMUM HEIGHT 15mm

MEMBER T H E S O C I ET Y O F LO N D O N A RT D EA L E R S Representing Fine Art Dealers Throughout The UK

11mm


Trinity House

Gallery Catalogue

Trinity House

MAXIMUM HEIGHT

MEMBER T H E S O C I ET Y O F LO N D O N A RT D EA L E R S Representing Fine Art Dealers Throughout The UK

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MINIMUM HEIGHT 15mm

MEMBER T H E S O C I ET Y O F LO N D O N A RT D EA L E R S

11mm

Representing Fine Art Dealers Throughout The UK

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Paul CĂŠsar Helleu Portrait of a Young Girl in Profile (detail) Cat. No. 6


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Gallery Catalogue including

The Unique Sensation:

Draftsmanship, Imagery and Chromatics in Impressionist Painting An introductory essay by

Vanessa Curry

Trinity House 67 High Street Broadway WR12 7DP England Telephone: +44 (0) 1386 859 329 Fax: +44 (0) 1386 859 298 art@trinityhousepaintings.com

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50 Maddox Street London W1S 1AY England Telephone: +44 (0) 207 499 8958 Fax: +44 (0) 207 493 6302 www.trinityhousepaintings.com

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Henri Martin Une rue a Collioure (detail) Cat. No. 16


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Introduction Impressionist works have been one of the areas in which Trinity House Paintings has specialized since we founded the gallery in 2006. Inevitably this partly reflects our personal tastes. We have always loved these extraordinary paintings that portray the artists’ own vision of contemporary 19th century France. It is impossible not to be inspired by Monet, Renoir, Sisley, Pissarro, Degas and their colleagues who produced vibrant pictures that lift one’s spirits. But it is also because they are hugely important in art historical terms. These painters changed the way we look at art forever, abandoning the requirement that scenes should be portrayed factually and instead capturing the visual impression made by a landscape, a figure or a group of people. In the late 19th century it was a revolutionary doctrine that horrified academics, art critics, fellow artists and the public alike. Today the Impressionists are so much part of our world and our conception of art that it is easy to forget that they were once regarded as really rather shocking. The journey that the Impressionists have made from outsiders barred from the Paris Salon to the artistic mainstream – the recent Monet show at the Grand Palais in Paris attracted more than 913,000 visitors – has been remarkable. They are truly loved and for decades have been eagerly sought-after by collectors. So we hope that the works in this catalogue The Unique Sensation: Draftsmanship, Imagery and Chromatics in Impressionist Painting will be favourably received by collectors with whom we have formed a strong relationship since we set up Trinity House Paintings. The pictures provide a unique chance to plot the development of Impressionism. It is fitting that these pictures will be exhibited in our new gallery at 50 Maddox Street in Mayfair in the heart of London’s internationally renowned art market district. We opened the gallery over two floors in an elegant Regency building in November and look forward to seeing you there. At the same time we are maintaining our strong roots in the Cotswolds where our gallery in the beautiful village of Broadway will continue to exhibit 19th century British paintings and works on paper. It was a pleasure to work with art advisor Vanessa Curry and we would like to thank her for writing The Unique Sensation. We do hope you enjoy this catalogue.

Simon Shore Steven Beale Director Director

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Sir George Clausen Hayrick in Sunlight (detail) Cat. No. 15


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Foreword During my time as Chairman of LAPADA, The Association of Art & Antiques Dealers, it was always particularly pleasing to witness younger dealers starting new businesses and emerging successfully into the competitive world of the international art market. Simon Shore and Steven Beale who founded Trinity House Paintings only five years ago are prime examples of this and I have been very impressed by what they have achieved in such a short time. They have exhibited wonderful paintings and works on paper from the 19th and 20th centuries in an imposing Gothic-revival Victorian building in Broadway in the Cotswolds, an area of England that is well-known for the quality of its art and antiques dealers. It is very exciting that Simon and Steven have recently opened their new gallery at 50 Maddox Street, Mayfair. This prime location is where they will exhibit Impressionist, Post-Impressionist and Modern British works while continuing to show the best 19th century art in Broadway. This catalogue shows clearly the continuing commitment of Trinity House Paintings to exhibiting the finest works of art. Both Simon and Steven worked in the art market long before they set up their own gallery and thanks to this experience they make the art world, which can be intimidating for collectors, approachable and enjoyable. They wear their knowledge lightly and have a refreshingly positive attitude which, combined with their love of their subject, will I believe take them a long way.

The Earl Howe President LAPADA The Association of Art and Antique Dealers

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Eugène Boudin Coucher de soleil, Étaples (detail) Figure 10, Cat. No. 8


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The Unique Sensation

Draftsmanship, Imagery and Chromatics in Impressionist Painting By Vanessa Curry

The source of the term ‘Impressionist’ is a tumultuous one. It has been attributed both to Monet’s iconic painting Impression: Sunrise (Figure 1), and to Louis Leroy, an angry journalist who inserted the word as a term of contempt to review a number of the movement’s ground breaking exhibitions between 1874 and 1886. Whichever is correct, the irony is that the term was initially a criticism that became an accurate description for the unique attraction of the Impressionist group of artists’ work. It was precisely the artists’ personal, visual impression of contemporary France that they sought to communicate. In the words of Camille Pissarro, an artist who was involved at the inception of the movement and entrenched in its progression, the art of the Impressionists managed to convey the ‘unique sensation’ of those artists who were working at the time.1 Indeed, Pissarro’s expression gives a hint towards what has made Impressionist art grow so rapidly in appeal to collectors in the last 140 years, catapulting it from being regarded as distastefully anti-academic to receiving the annual appreciation of tens of millions of visitors across the world via international galleries in the 21st century. The works of art in this catalogue are treasures from the period and give a unique chance to plot the development of Impressionist painting by reference to pieces that are momentarily out of private collections. Beginning the journey from French Realism of the 1820s and ending with the Expressionism of Jean Dufy, this paper plots the origins of Impressionism and the development of the movement though its

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Figure 1: Claude Monet Impression: Sunrise 1873, oil on canvas. © Musée Marmottan-Monet, Paris.

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Figure 2: Camille Corot Moret-sur-Loing, le pont et l’eglise 1822 Oil on paper lain on canvas © Trinity House Paintings (Cat. No. 1) Figure 3: Camille Corot The Harbour of La Rochelle 1851 Oil on canvas © Yale University Art Gallery, Bequest of Stephen Carlton Clark, B.A. 1903

inspirations and preoccupations. What was, in Pissarro’s words, the ‘sensation’ that the Impressionists sought to translate? What tools of composition did the Impressionists employ in order to communicate their revolutionary intentions? What is the reason that collectors have grown to adore the movement? This paper seeks to answer these questions with particular reference to works in this catalogue.

Corot and the Roots of Impressionism Rather than fabricate fantastical events through the medium of painting and drawing, such as in the classically-inspired painting that had gone before them, the Impressionists had the goal of depicting something quite the opposite. They sought to express the reality of modern life within the contemporary landscape. More specifically, the group itself was split with artists exploring particular areas of modernity; Monet, Pissarro and Sisley were concerned to record their sensations in front of nature, whilst Manet and Degas were determined to paint the realities of modern, urban life. Renoir was interested in the pleasures of both subjects, and Cézanne stood apart from the rest by focussing on strikingly avant-garde technique. The genesis for the idea of painting contemporary subjects and further more, for communicating the sensation of contemporary culture can be partly attributed to the groundbreaking work of Camille Corot (1796-1875). Figures 2 and 3 provide insight into the roots of Impressionist composition and subject matter.

Figure 4: Modern photograph of Moret-sur-Loing © Tourisme Seine-et-Marne

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These paintings show the classic order of composition and serenity in Corot’s painting. Firstly, Corot’s draftsmanship is sublime. The asymmetrical composition of both works and the diagonal lines of the bridge and dockside in Figures 2 and 3, respectively, build a strong sense of structure and perspective for the viewer. Indeed, Corot’s strength in using compositional tools to communicate his intentions was central to his groundbreaking appeal to the Impressionists. Corot himself had learnt the techniques via extensive academic study of the Italian landscape artists of the Renaissance. Both paintings draw from the classical


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arrangement of the large architectural areas of the composition being illuminated by sunlight. They are examples of his gray-toned landscapes, upon which he built his greatest popularity from the 1830s onwards.2 Secondly, Corot’s highly skilful rendering of architecture and geometry in both paintings juxtaposes the fluidity and light brushstrokes used for the waterways and surrounding trees. Motifs of human intervention and industry, such as the watermill in Figure 2 and the dockside in Figure 3 are key to the compositions and dominate the images of the towns. Nevertheless, that is not to suggest that Corot was simply painting what he saw. Figure 4 shows a modern photograph of Moretsur-Loing from a similar angle, and one can clearly observe that the watermill is less prominent in reality, whilst the church has greater dominance over the town than Corot’s composition suggests. Corot, as became the essence of the Impressionists, uses his own autonomy as an artist to create a new set of relationships between the elements of his paintings. He did not materially change the structure of landscape he sought to paint, but he did set up specific juxtapositions; namely, nature versus human intervention and spirituality versus industry in order to express the shifts in culture and landscape at the time. What was groundbreaking in the Impressionist movement was the artists’ passion for painting en plein air, as Corot had developed alongside the Barbizon group of artists.3 The expression ‘en plein air’ is used to describe the artistic process of drawing and painting in situ of the subject, whether it might be a cabaret in Paris or a windy beach in Normandy. This avant-garde approach – previously, respected painters only developed work within their studios – was used by artists because they felt that it brought about truer depictions of the places they were depicting. Painting en plein air was a change in process that shifted landscape painting from staid images to dynamic interpretations – indeed, into ‘impressions’.

Rebellion Against the Paris Salon It does not seem likely that the original group of Impressionist painters deliberately set forth to shun the established system for artistic advancement. Indeed, most of the Impressionist painters applied to have their work included at the Salon at the start of their careers. Nevertheless, the Impressionist group of artists seized upon a source of inspiration so moving that the Salon’s preference for historical and Biblical subjects came to be of secondary importance to them. That inspiration was Paris herself. Paris started to provide the backdrop to action that was as real as it was contemporary and the Impressionists could not resist putting their interpretation of the changes onto canvas. By the 1860s, whilst the Salon remained apathetic, Paris was modernizing and its cafes became the unlikely backdrop for intellectual rebellion. The café was the new forum for artists, writers and critics to come together for absinthe, discussion and argument about thoughts and ideas. It was not the gentile hub for polite dialogue that the Salon had created, but a bawdy hub for creatives to openly explore their ideas without intellectual expectation.

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Figure 5: Édouard Manet At the Cafe (Café Guerbois) 1869 transfer lithograph © National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

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In this arena, the standard was set for the new wave of landscape. The artisans supported each other in their shared rebellious view against the Salon’s aesthetic dictatorship and later, the leading Impressionist painter Édouard Manet was to make the Café Guerbois his headquarters (depicted in Figure 5).4 Against a backdrop of social and political change in Paris, the art critics of the day discussed technique and composition with the Impressionists and saw them as arbiters of a cultural revolution. Moreover, the artists were a source of material for the writers, and the Impressionists’ wholesale disrespect for the Salon’s authority gained reader interest. The art critics ensured that the Impressionist’s revolutionary style of imagery did not go unnoticed. A number of the first images that travelled to Victorian Britain by way of articles about the Impressionist exhibitions in France were widely misunderstood. On receiving an image of Degas’s iconic L’absinthe (Figure 6), the respected writer and social commentator George Moore stated “What a slut!” about the depicted actress Ellen Andrée and added, “the tale is not a pleasant one, but it is a lesson”, thereby missing the point of the painting altogether in thinking it was a moral warning. In fact, this iconic composition of two slumped figures placed off-centre of the composition is not intended to be sordid but alludes to the sensation of unease in the viewer that the artist felt about his modernizing capital city. The couple depicted appears to belong to café-going members of Paris society but, on closer inspection, the diagonal arrangement of the tables that they sit behind acts as a barrier between us, the viewers, and them. Appearing to be trapped in their situation, the mid-afternoon sun casts heavy shadows of the pair on the wall behind and there is an unmistakable sensation of isolation within the composition. Simultaneously, these friends are depicted as modern café-goers and as pensive members of Paris life. Degas manages to evoke a very strong sense of emotion in this painting via the use of diagonal line to create juxtaposition, as Corot demonstrated in Figures 2 and 3, whilst using only a few, quick brushstrokes, as was the preoccupation of the movement itself.

Figure 7: Camille Pissarro Femme assise Charcoal on paper © Trinity House Paintings (Cat. No. 3)

Figure 6: Edgar Degas L’absinthe c. 1875-1876 Oil on canvas © Musée d’Orsay, Paris/ Giraudon/ The Bridgeman Art Library

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Country and City Life The reality of modernity for Paris in the 1870s was Baron Haussman’s vision of wide boulevards, where the bourgeoisie could go to see and be seen. The effect of this, however, was to displace a significant section of working class Paris society to the outskirts of the city whilst the countryside, only a few miles out of the city limits, remained simple farming communities. The parallel existence of all three societies did not go unnoticed by the Impressionist painters. Camille Pissarro was an artist who had the ability to communicate beauty amidst the banality of working class life and was the only artist to exhibit in all eight of the Impressionist’s independent exhibitions. Born in the British Virgin Islands in 1830, he moved permanently to Paris at the age of twenty five and became involved in the intellectual café culture discussions. Under that influence, Pissarro tested some of the Barbizon group’s theories in and around Paris and was impressed with the unique sense of place that the technique imbued. In fact, as a mark of his respect for Corot’s ideas, Pissarro initially describes himself in exhibition catalogues as a ‘pupil of Corot’. The highly respected critic of the period Theodore Duret articulated Pissarro’s skill for painting en plein air: “..he stamps every canvas with a feeling of life, as we gaze at even the most ordinary scene painted by him – a highway lined with elms or a house nestling under leafy trees – we feel a sense of melancholy stealing over us, the same he himself must have felt as he stood before the scene.”6 In the face of the developing bourgeoisie community of Paris, Pissarro established a great interest in the working class communities of the rural villages outside the city boundaries. Pontoise, where he lived off and on between 1866 and 1883, provided inspiration for some of his most respected works of art. Figure 7, shown above, is evidence of Pissarro’s meticulous draftsmanship together with his ability to evoke a sensation for the viewer using tools of composition. Pissarro depicts a seated peasant woman, simply and functionally dressed, who supports her leaning frame on her hand centre-right of the composition. The subject, at first glance, may seem banal. In fact, the freedom and lyricism in his rendering of the creases in the cloth of the subject’s skirt and tunic, coinciding with clear and confident outline for her hand and the curve of her shoulders gives further insight into the work of the Impressionists. The subject’s arm is central to the composition and its straightness provides an anchor to the rest of her body, thereby communicating an impression of strength. The linearity of the arm also serves to juxtapose the fluid, curvaceous lines of the rest of the subject’s body and head, thereby emphasising her femininity. In terms of her face, it can hardly be seen and Pissarro merely indicates it by a profil perdu,6 whilst the viewer’s elevated standpoint adds to the emotional distance. However rather than distract the viewer from getting to know the female subject, it allows us to observe her and her simple beauty in a pose taken directly from reality. Indeed, within only few short marks of his pencil, Pissarro conveys a respect for the woman depicted and references the far wider work of the Impressionists – as recorders of honest, contemporary life. The theme of the artist as ‘observer’ of others was important to the Impressionist movement. Degas, in fact, did not paint one single outdoor landscape. In “Dancer” (Figure 8), Degas deftly brings together two significant elements of his work as a founder member of Impressionism. First, the composition gives the viewer an accurate depiction of a dancer in action and provides clear evidence of Degas’s ability to depict a moment in a dancer’s movement that may, in normal circumstances, pass unnoticed. Additionally, this drawing gives the sensation of a moment in time much as a photographic snapshot might.

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Degas understood that photography was changing the way people saw the world and that the trend for taking snapshots of spontaneous reality would be the most unique part of photography’s appeal. By that token, he also understood that painting would have to change to provide the viewer with a pictorial mode that met and challenged photography.7 Painting and drawing, therefore, would have to contain enough accurate information for the viewer to receive the sensation of the subject, and go further than simply describing the scene in paint or pencil. Degas produced a number of stunning photographic compositions himself, the finest of which is considered to be that shown in Figure 9. The female subject is posed as if we are accidental voyeurs of her at a split moment in time, but the lighting and geometry of her body give every sense that Degas has explored and closely observed this exact composition for the purposes of creating this image. It explicitly shows Degas’s, and suggests the wider Impressionists’, obsession with light and shade. Additionally, the photograph expresses the way that light and shade can be manipulated to create form and perspective within an image.

Figure 8: Edgar Degas Dancer, Préparation en dedans Charcoal on paper © Trinity House Paintings (Cat. No. 2) Figure 9: Edgar Degas After the Bath, Woman Drying Her Back 1896 Gelatin silver print © J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles

Degas’s understanding of how light interplays with the female form was central to the success of his works depicting dancers – drawings, paintings and sculptures – which, as a subject matter, made up half of all his output. All the Impressionists painted the effect of light on objects and people – that fact is recognised and fundamentally understood by anyone who has the opportunity to stand in front of a painting by Claude Monet or Eugène Boudin – but Degas specifically manipulated light to create drama and theatricality. Indeed, at times, Degas references more than one source of light in his paintings, to create complex interplays of shadow and definition within the piece.8 The drawing shown in Figure 8 and the photograph in Figure 9 both demonstrate the importance of definitive line and form

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within Degas’s observations of the female figure. The female subject in Figure 9 is depicted profil perdu to give suggestion of the direction that the dancer is looking and therefore travelling in. The face of the subject of the photograph in Figure 9, however, is deliberately shrouded in darkness and, rather than movement, concentrates on observing the form of the female subject. Nevertheless, this is an academic study of the negative space within the angles of the women’s bodies rather than simply a snapshot of a moving moment. The classical tools of composition cannot fail to be noticed but are shifted into modernity as Degas creates an overall sense of theatre within the images. Degas’s figures move and manipulate themselves as much as Paris was shifting shape herself.

Science and Art In a studio, the direction and strength of light can be controlled. However en plein air, light is an altogether more complex factor to communicate through paint. The Impressionists worked in coherence with new theory on the way humans receive colour on the retina, to find a solution for accurately creating the perception of light. Isaac Newton had already explored the fact that white light became separated into its component colours when passed through a prism, within his text Opticks published in 1704. Furthermore, several scientists in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries had explored the way that light was received on the retina of the eye, particularly with regard to how the colours interacted and merged when received by the human retina.

Figure 10: Eugène Boudin Coucher de soleil, Étaples 1878 Oil on canvas © Trinity House Paintings (Cat. No. 8)

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However, the paintings by Monet (Figure 1) and Boudin (Figure 10) are examples of how colour theory transcended science and influenced artists’ technique (whether consciously or not) in the mid-1800s and onwards. These images also give a vital insight into why this movement has such aesthetic appeal. In the hotbed of the artist community in Paris in the mid nineteenth century, there can be no doubt that the new evidence around colour theory would have been discussed. Whether deliberately or not, Impressionist artists such as Monet and Boudin applied the science to the intuition they had gained from painting en plein air, and further strengthened the effect of the Impressionist technique. The blue-violet and orange-red hues that are central to the foggy sky of Monet’s Impression: Sunrise (Figure 1) and centre of the composition in Boudin’s Sunset, Étaples (Figure 10), are colour mixes that were specifically mentioned by colour theory scientists of the period.9 The scientist’s theory entailed that the combination of blueviolet, orange-red and green tones gives the perception of white when received onto the human retina. As had already been proved by Constable and Turner in England, specks of white on the canvas give the impression of light and suggest luminosity. Indeed, Monet and Boudin achieved success at conveying the luminosity of sunlight on water with the same technique as Constable and Turner, but applied greater subtlety of colour rather than using white pigment itself. Figures 1 and 10 show how the artists’ delicate use of the blue-violet, orange-red and green hues effectively communicate the sensation of sunlight on the sea to the viewer and give a realistic impression of the luminosity of light in nature.

The End of Impressionism In French language, there are two words to describe the English word ‘end’: la fin (termination) and le but (goal). Contrary to much scholarly belief, the end of Impressionism cannot be taken to be a termination at the point that expressive, subjective content became less important and symbolism in art became more prevalent. Nevertheless, symbolism did provide the Impressionist project with a new goal.10 The movement was transformed in the eyes of the symbolist artists in the late 1880s and eventually became what we commonly recognise as Post-Impressionism. Despite this important juncture in art history however, the appeal of the original set of Impressionist painters continued to grow beyond the turn of the 20th century and, significantly, with British and American collectors. Paris dealer Paul Durand-Ruel was the most significant patron-speculator-dealer to affect the market and even ran a successful gallery during the Franco-Prussian war (19 July 1870 – 10 May 1871) on New Bond Street selling Monet and Pissarro’s work, for which the artists received 300 and 200 Francs each piece, respectively. However, by the early 1890s, the savvy American collectors were hunting out Impressionist works themselves and Durand-Ruel was available with an inventory of great Impressionist work – not just those of Monet and Pissarro but other artists who exemplified the style of the period. Paul Durand-Ruel ‘discovered’ Loiseau in 1895 and had placed him under contract by 1897, which allowed Loiseau the financial freedom to travel and paint throughout France. By the early 1900s Loiseau had purchased homes in both Pont-Aven and SaintCyr-du-Vaudreuil but remained a consummate traveller – exploring, sketching, and painting a bevy of France’s coastal sites, rivers, and towns.11 Looking at the example of the artists work in Figure 11, it is easy to see why Durand-Ruel recognized his appeal. Loiseau communicates the raw beauty of nature; reminiscent of Pissarro and gained through time spent painting en plein air. He uses the Impressionist palette of colour for strokes of red-orange, blue-violet and green and vividly creates the

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Figure 11: Gustave Loiseau Gelée blanche á Pontoise 1906 Oil on canvas © Trinity House Paintings (Cat. No. 21)

sensation of the white luminosity of a hoar frost on canvas. Additionally, Loiseau’s composition references the concerns of the original group of Impressionist painters: his juxtaposition of industry and countryside, where billowing chimneys that seem to pollute the frosty sky provide the backdrop for countryside orchards, reflects on the changing face of French life. The Loiseau shown in Figure 11 is early in the development of Modernism, but Figures 12 and 13 give a clear sense of the shifts in artistic language that had taken place by the beginning of the twentieth century. There is a balance in the composition of both these paintings, reflective of the harmony of composition one sees in the imported Japanese prints at the time. In fact, Le Sidaner and Martin were close friends and may have influenced each other in the creation of this composition. In the Le Sidaner, Figure 12, a figure is shown climbing steps through a shaded narrow street in this pretty town in Southern France, into the clear sunlight at the foot of the church beyond. Similarly, the Martin shown in Figure 13 depicts a narrow street in the Southern French town of Collioure whereby the viewer is encouraged by the artist’s composition to travel through the narrow, shaded street towards the sunlight ahead. Both images above give the impression of a spiritual journey from dark to light, whilst expressing the intimacy – due to the closeness and height of the houses that surround the viewer – of walking through a typical French village street. A striking difference, nevertheless, between the two paintings is the apparent desertedness of Martin’s Collioure versus the visible signs of a community in Le Sidaner’s Villefrance. It is possible that Martin depicted the empty street to reflect the event of the First World War, whereby tourism vanished in the quaint Riviera towns and its residents were forced to find work in the cities and larger towns elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is an optimism in this piece that reflects the artist’s passion for the area; a faith that would be rewarded by a later resurgence in popularity of the town, particularly with the Modern artists such as Matisse.

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Figure 12: Henri Le Sidaner The Street towards the Church, Villefranche-sur-Mer. c. 1928, Oil on canvas © Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid. Figure 13: Henri Martin Une rue á Collioure Oil on canvas © Trinity House Paintings (Cat. No. 16)

“Modern Painters Painting Modern Life” The above title is a quotation from the highly influential nineteenth century author Emile Zola, and was written in relation to Monet in 1868, but still reflects what collectors find appealing in 21st century contemporary art. The appeal of Impressionist drawing and painting is not just the technical draftsmanship and prowess of the artist’s skill but it is about a sudden merging of a few major factors: firstly, the ability of the artists involved in the movement to communicate the sensation of a real place at that moment in time; secondly, the establishment of a technique for applying colour that resulted in being able to communicate natural light to a greater extent than artists had done previously and thirdly, the willingness of critics, collectors and the art-loving public to reject the ideals of the government Salon and listen to a new group of revolutionary creatives. The events aforementioned created a force in art history that developed Modernism and built the foundations of what we consider as contemporary art today. Later in this catalogue, one will find works by Modernists such as Maurice de Vlaminck (Cat. No. 39) and Jean Dufy (Cat. No. 44) and it is intriguing to look at these works with the Impressionist painters in mind. Jean Dufy (whose painting is depicted in Figure 14), was a passionate painter of Le Havre and the industry, leisure time and natural inspiration that the sea provided, as Monet and Boudin had done 50 years before him. To echo the founders of the Impressionist group of artists, Jean Dufy also progressed to become part of the café culture of Paris which, despite being a more developed scene by the 20th century, was reflective of the 19th century; in fact, the musicians and composers who surrounded Dufy (such as Eric Satie) were highly influential on the expressiveness of his painting. Even technically speaking, the hatching technique amidst bold blocks of colour is closely evocative of the Impressionist painter Cézanne.

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Collectors and art dealers in the nineteenth century stood up and took notice of the unique sensation that Impressionist art was able to communicate and as modern day patrons, we are custodians for the groundbreaking movement they acknowledged.

Endnotes 1. Taylor, The Impressionists and Their World, 1953, Phoenix House, London. pp.11 2. The great portrait artist John Singer Sargent in a report on Corot’s 1836 painting ‘Avignon from the West’ in the Wallace Collection, wrote that the 1830s was Corot’s ‘best period’; papers in National Gallery Archive; footnote 14 in research paper. Accessed January 2011: www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/ research/avignon-from-the-west 3. The Barbizon Group was so named because of their extensive en plein air studies of nature and landscape in the Barbizon area of Fontainebleu, near Paris. 4. Noted in White and White’s text Canvases and Careers, 1993, The University of Chicago Press, pp.119 5. Quoted in Bernard’s The Impressionist Revolution, 1986, Macdonald and Co. London, pp.100 6. This is a French expression meaning ‘lost profile’ whereby the subject has turned his or her back but has their face turned slightly towards the viewer in order to reveal their profile. It is a classical pose, particularly of note in Dutch painting, and is a technique used to sensualise the sitter. 7. Bernard, The Impressionist Revolution, 1986, Macdonald and Co, London, pp.83 8. Such as within Degas’s The Dancing Class, painted 1874, The Louvre. 9. Notably Hermann von Helmholz and James Clark Maxwell between 1850 and 1870

Figure 14: Jean Dufy Voiliers Oil on canvas © Trinity House Paintings (Cat. No. 44)

10. Sourced from the essay by Richard Shiff in The New Painting Impressionism 1874-1886, National Gallery of Art Washington, Exhibition catalogue 1986, pp.61. 11. Referenced from article online entitled Landscape and Seascape Paintings by Gustave Loiseau, dated September 13th 2010 and accessed in January 2011: www. paintingall.com/articles/landscape-seascapeoil- paint ings - b y -f re nch - impressionistgustave-loiseau-928.html

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Edgar Degas Dancer, PrĂŠparation en dedans (detail) Cat. No. 2


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Catalogue

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Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (1796 – 1875)

Moret-sur-Loing, le pont et l’église Oil on paper lain on canvas 11.75 x 15.25 inches • 30 x 38.5 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Private collection, New York, USA

Literature:

Painted in October, 1822, this work has been examined by Martin Dieterle and will be included in the forthcoming sixth supplement to the Corot Catalogue Raisonné being prepared by Martin Dieterle and Claire Lebeau. Robaut, Alfred. L’oeuvre de Corot: catalogue raisonné et illustré , Paris, 1905, Vol.II, p.15, no.28 for illustration of another view dating from 1882 of the bridge at Moret-surLoing. This piece correlates to the work Corot completed in the formative years of his artistic career, when he travelled through France, Switzerland and Italy painting landscapes. The strong contrasts between light and shade, the characteristic earth tones, as well as the geometric setup of the composition are indicative of Corot’s work. While the artist experiments with academic principles and imitation from nature, hints to his avant-garde usage of the oil medium can be seen in his manipulation of the water under the bridge, as well as the light tones of the sky and the playful strokes depicting the foliage on the left side.

For the artist biography, see page 114

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Edgar Degas (1834 – 1917)

Dancer (Préparation en dedans) Charcoal on paper 13.25 x 9 inches • 33.5 x 22.75 centimetres Inscribed by artist and stamped Inscribed by the artist ‘Préparation en dedans / fausse position’ in pencil at the upper right. Stamped with the Degas vente stamp (Lugt 658) in red at the lower left. Verso: Inscribed with the Durand-Ruel photograph numbers Ph1863 (overwritten to read 1063) / 2591 in blue chalk.

Provenance:

The Atelier Degas, Paris, with the atelier stamp (Lugt 657) stamped on the verso; The third Vente Degas, Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 7-9 April 1919, part of lot 102, sold with three other drawings for 1,450 francs; Paul Cassirer, Berlin; Acquired by a private collector in the 1920’s; Thence by descent to a private collection, Germany.

Literature:

Kinsman, Jane. Degas: The Uncontested Master, exhibition catalogue, Canberra, 20082009, pp 132 and 138, No. 59. Exhibited: Canberra, National Gallery of Australia, Degas: Master of French Art, 2008-2009, No.59.

The artist has inscribed the top right corner with a note about the technical name for the step “préparation en dedans” - a unique insight into Degas’s ballet k now-how beyond the visual.

Expanding upon Vanessa Curry’s analysis of this image, the drawing by Degas demonstrates a knowledge of the off-guard compositions created by photography, as one can see on page 16. For the artist biography, see page 115

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Camille Pissarro (1830 – 1903)

Femme assise Charcoal on paper 12.25 x 13.75 inches • 30.75 x 35 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Notanda Gallery, Sydney; Acquired by the family of the previous owner in Paris c.1950; Private collection, France

Literature:

Lloyd, Christopher and Joachim Pissarro. “Camille Pissarro: a case study in Impressionist drawing.” On Paper. (NovemberDecember 1997) pp 24-28 The charcoal drawing of a seated woman demonstrates Pissarro’s masterf ul eye when studying even the most simple of daily activities. This woman is seen from an elevated position, illustrating the weight of her hand resting on the ground and the weight of her skirts around her, with her gaze a mystery, masked by her bonnet and curls. For the Impressionists, drawing was no longer regarded as a subordinate technique leading to the more desirable end of a tableau. There is no Pissarro painting to correlate to this sketch, as far as we know, it is a finished piece in its own right.

For the artist biography, see page 120

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Jean Béraud (1849 – 1935)

Promenade sur les quais Oil on canvas 18 x 10.25 inches • 45.75 x 26 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

American Art Association; Anderson Galleries Inc.; Hammer Galleries, New York; Private collection, United Kingdom

Literature:

Labels on the reverse include: Cuttings from a French newspaper glued around the frame Offenstadt, Patrick. ‘Jean Béraud 1849 – 1935 – The Belle Époque: A Dream of Times Gone By’ Catalogue Raisonné. Pg. 159, Illustration no: 165. This painting by Béraud is exhibited in its original frame and attests to the beautiful fashion of the Belle Époque era. While the painter was not working in an Impressionist style, the instantaneous appeal, as well as the quirky pose of the lady portrayed, relates immediately with the themes worked by artists from the same period. Béraud’s work was clearly developed in a studio as its finish is polished and pristine; however the Parisian artist is, like the Impressionist group, inspired by the modernity that is occuring outside on the banks of the Seine. The sublime level of draftsmanship in for example the figure’s collar and corset demonstrates Jean Béraud’s eye for delicate details. For the artist biography, see page 112

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Paul César Helleu (1859 – 1927)

Le parfum Charcoal and pastel on paper 20 x 17 inches • 50.75 x 43.25 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Lambert Collection (Inv. No: 548); Private collection, Ireland The subject is Madame Clarigny, Helleu’s sister-in-law. The head study in the top left is the artist’s daughter, Ellen, aged one year. The authenticity of this work has been confirmed by the Association des amis de Paul-César Helleu The artist was known for portraits of ladies from society, as well as his understanding of the Belle Époque fashions. This sketch would have been more personal to the artist as the subjects are Helleu’s sister (Madame Clarigny) and daughter. The diagonal line of Madame Clarigny’s upper body, captured as she leans toward the flower, are reflected in the shapes of her arms and chin, and establish balance in the composition. The charming visage of the child, thought to be Helleu’s daughter Ellen, in the corner surrounded by a hectic head of curls adds another dimension to the piece, paralleling the lines in the main figure and adding complexity to the composition with the attention implied by Ellen’s gaze.

For the artist biography, see page 116

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Paul César Helleu (1859 – 1927)

Portrait of a Young Girl in Profile Crayon and pastel on paper 21.75 x 17 inches • 55.2 x 43.2 centimetres Signed and dedicated ‘Madame Blas---’ Provenance:

Private collection, Atlanta, Georgia; Acquired from the above, by the present owner; Private collection, Virginia

A young girl boasting a lovely hat in profile sits for Paul César Helleu in this portrait. She raises her right hand to her chin, on which Helleu has gently hinted to a wedding band. This detail, and the inscription reading “Madame Blas--” leads one to believe that the artist was portraying a recently married lady, still in the prime of her youth and radiantly fashionable. Helleu has used three different tones of crayon and pastel demonstrating the freeflowing quality of his drawing. The gestural looseness of the sitter’s pose implies that the portrait was completed in situ.

For the artist biography, see page 116

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Paul César Helleu (1859 – 1927)

Jeanne Toussaint Pastel on linen 31.75 x 25.5 inches • 81 x 65 centimetres Signed lower left Exhibitions:

Galerie Charpentier, Paul Helleu, (Paris: 1931) Cat. no. 32 Musées de Dieppe, Paul Helleu (Dieppe: 1962) Cat. no. 6 Kitakyushu, Women of Fashion, French and American Images of Leisure, 1880 – 1920 (Osaka, Tokyo: 1994) Cat. no. 17, illustrated in the catalogue. Barbican Art Gallery, Impressionism in Britain (London: 1995) Cat. no. 97, illustrated in the catalogue.

Literature:

Des Horts, Stéphanie. La Panthère . Paris: Jean Claude Lattès, 2010. ‘Jean Toussaint was a Flemish girl, born in the twentieth century and grew up in Brussels amid lace. [...her] father becomes ill, the family is shattered. [...] Determined, she meets a French deserter who takes her to Paris. He promises both marriage and the high life but then becomes engaged to another. In Paris, the young woman meets the man who will love her, Louis Cartier, the ‘jeweller of kings’. Louis teaches Jeanne the mysteries of gems and alloys, and together they created fabulous jewels’.

Jeanne Toussaint was appointed the Director of Cartier High Jewellery in 1933. She was a person of exquisite elegance; designers and master jewellers stood in awe of her. She was given the nickname of ‘The Panther’ by Louis Cartier as every new idea had first

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to be submitted to her harsh judgement. This feline motif was likewise a tribute to ‘devastating seduction, mysterious beauty and untamed character.’ The animal is still used in Cartier designs to this day.

For the artist biography, see page 116


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Eugène Boudin (1824 – 1898)

Coucher de soleil, Étaples Oil on canvas 20 x 30 inches • 51 x 76 centimetres Signed and dated (18)78 Provenance:

Sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, 12 Oct. 1899; Galeries Durand-Ruel, Paris; Alex Reid Glasgow, 6 March 1912; E.J. Van Wisselingh & Co., Amsterdam; Private collection, Europe

Exhibitions:

Marlborough Fine Art. Exhibition of French Masters of the 19th and 20th Centuries(London: November 1951). Cat. No. 4 Marlborough Fine Art. “Eugène Boudin: 1824-1898” (Nov. - Dec. 1958)

Literature:

Schmidt, R. Catalogue Raisonné Eugène Boudin, Vol. 1 (1973) Cat. No. 1121, illustrated p. 418 Étaples is a port city on the banks of the river Canche, in the north of France. Painting en plein air, Boudin has tackled one of the most difficult chromatic complexities: the sunset. This time of day implicates using a variety of tones and a great range of contrasts, not to mention the optical effects necessary for the scene to look realistic as well as picturesque.

warm yellow of the sunlit sky, contrasting profoundly with the purplish blues of the shadows on the backlit clouds. Centuries prior, the Baroque French artist Claude Gellée of Lorraine (c. 1600 - 1682) worked endless amounts of landscape scenes at sunset. Boudin’s interpretations draw upon this theme in French painting but he takes a step further to realism. The Impressionist Boudin expands the limits of what painting can do, lyrically intertwining colours in a way that forgets the linearity of draftsmanship instilled upon many generations of artists before him.

The artist handles the challenge with a mature and measured hand, working intricate interwoven colours - from the darker green a nd eart h tones i n t he foreground of the port to the light tones and For the artist biography, see page 113

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Eugène Boudin (1824 – 1898)

Golfe Juan, l’escadre dans le baie Oil on canvas 21.75 x 35.5 inches • 60 x 84 centimetres Signed and dated (18)93, inscribed ‘Golfe Juan-Avil” Provenance:

Wildenstein & Co., New York This view of Golfe Juan in southern France seems to have been painted from the eastern side of the bay. The viewer looks towards the west, to Cannes, and to the glimpses of light before the nightfall. Shadows appear in the clouds, as they are backlit by the sun; a similar effect to Coucher de soleil, Étaples also by Boudin (Cat. No. 8). A lightness occurs in the colour choices made by the artist in this canvas as in his last; and the brightness of his brown tones in the foreground fade to pastels tinged with white and blue of the mountains in the distance. This blueish tone contrasts greatly with the orange-red warmth radiating in the sky from the right side of the canvas. W h i l st t he mome nt i s f le et i ng a nd i n s t a n t a n e o u s , B o ud i n a c h i e ve s a permanence with his understanding of atmosphere and sky. The dynamism to counterbalance this feeling of permanence lies in the details Boudin chooses to include: the water lapping at the fishing boat and rocks in the centre of the canvas.

© Holton Archive / Getty Images

The image on the bottom right looks at the place where Boudin must have been sitting to paint this scene, from the opposite side of the Golfe Juan.

For the artist biography, see page 113

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Léon Augustin Lhermitte (1844 – 1925)

Lavandières au travail a bord d’un ruisseau Pastel on paper 26 x 32 inches • 66 x 81.25 centimetres Signed and dated 1905 Provenance:

Private collection, United States

Although the precise location of this French riverside scene is unknown, it is indicative of Léon Lhermitte’s preferred themes: that of countryside folk working along the French river banks. Lhermitte knew well the traditions of both the Barbizon group of artists as well as the French Realists. However, his work stands out from them as he often turned to progressive techniques, such as his execution of pastels. He manages the medium in a way that delineates the women at their work as well as the rustic landscape they inhabit. The artist, utilising the complex quality of the pastel medium, balances an adept attention to detail with the atmospheric effects of light and colour inherent in the raw French countryside. This fascination with light and colour was later taken up by the Impressionists; whose influence can be seen in Lhermitte’s work after 1900.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Re f No. 1528

Léon Augustin Lhermitte (1844 – 1925)

Les lavandières Pastel on paper mounted on canvas 21.25 x 25.5 inches • 53.5 x 64.75 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Private collection, Europe

Using the same earth tones one can appreciate in the previous work by Lhermitte (Cat. no. 10) this pastel focuses more on the landcape rather than the women. Under the shade of a large tree two figures kneel by the water, their white bonnets shining in the sun. One can only speculate the narrative behind the work, as one figure looks larger - is it a mother and daughter? But the main beauty of the work is its strong composition and apt handling of light and shade, a detailed observation of the tones of nature.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Henri Le Sidaner (1862 – 1939)

Le berceau Oil on canvas 24 x 29 inches • 61 x 73.75 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Galleries Maurice Sternberg, Chicago (acquired by 1968); Private collection, United States; Acquired from the above by the present owner

Exhibitions:

Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, Tenth Annual International Exhibition, 1905 Prague, Exposition Le Sidaner, 1907 Brussels, Galerie de l’Art Belge, Rétrospective Le Sidaner, 1951, no. 23 Paris, Galerie Brame et Lorenceau, Tables et fenêtres, 1952, no. 29 Chicago, Galleries Maurice Sternberg, Exposition Le Sidaner, 1968, no. 29, illustrated in the catalogue Texas, Amarillo Art Center, Early French Moderns, 1982, no. 28

Literature:

Looking from the inside out, the bushes of white flowers bloom outside the window. The artist employs darker ochre tones to contrast the bright greens of the garden and complementary rose tones highlight the crib around the sleeping infant.

Farinaux, Yann. Le Sidaner, L’ouvre peint et gravé . (Milan: 1989) Cat. no. 188, illustrated p. 98 This sensitive piece by Le Sidaner depicts an infant in a crib by an open window. The window has been identified as Le Sidaner’s home in Gerberoy. After moving to this home, Le Sidaner was greatly inspired by the quotidian scenes there. Catalogue number 14, Le jardin blanc, is also an image from this home. For the artist biography, see page 117

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Re f No. 1589

Henri Le Sidaner (1862 – 1939)

Les Tuileries, 1900 Oil on canvas 31.75 x 23.25 inches • 79.25 x 59 centimetres Signed and dated Provenance:

Galerie Fricker, Crespieres; Galleries Maurice Sternberg, Chicago; Private collection, South Africa; Private collection, Switzerland

Exhibitions:

Chicago, Galleries Maurice Sternberg, 19th and 20th Century Masters, 1976, no. 18.

Literature:

Farinaux, Yann. Le Sidaner, L’oeuvre et grave. (Milan: 1989) no. 81, p 68.

This piece illustrates the giant fountain situated centrally in the Tuileries gardens on the Rue Rivoli outside the Louvre in Paris. As this piece was painted in 1900, it is very likely that Le Sidaner was looking to portray typical Parisian scenes for the World Exhibition that was occurring on the banks of the Seine nearby. The artist renders the foreground in cool, muted tones to highlight the warmth in the windows beyond. The brushwork and energy revolves around the fountain, as centrepiece to the composition. A contemporary photograph of the Grand Basin at the Tuileries Gardens (right) demonstrates the location where Le Sidaner must have been sitting in order to complete this painting.

© Carlos Sanchez Pereyra / Getty Images

For the artist biography, see page 117

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Henri Le Sidaner (1862 – 1939)

Le jardin blanc a claire du lune, Gerberoy Oil on canvas 23.25 x 31.5 inches • 59 x 80 centimetres Provenance:

Bernard-Joseph Artigue, Blaye-the-Mines (acquired from the artist before 1936); Then by descent with the current owner

Literature:

Farinaux, Yann. Supplement for the Catalogue Raisonné Le Sidaner-l’oeuvre peint et grave. Sagner, Karin and Ingrid Mössinger. Henri le Sidaner: A Magical Impressionist. (Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag, 2009) p. 101, Cat. 21 for another image of the garden at night.

The dominant green palette here highlights L e Sida ner ’s ex p er i me nt at ion s w it h monochromatic painting. His vast varieties of brushstrokes en hance the sense of texture within the canvas, from small dark stippling to broad loose strokes. An accent of yellow radiates as light would through the window. The artist had completed preliminary sketches for this painting in Gerberoy, and the painting, looking at the home from the exterior, interplays interestingly with Le berceau (Cat. No. 12) as it looks from the interior outwards through the window.

For the artist biography, see page 117

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Sir George Clausen (1852 – 1944)

Hayrick in Sunlight Pastel 16.5 x 13.25 inches • 42 x 33.5 centimetres Signed and dated 1901 lower right Provenance:

Private collection, United Kingdom Clausen is somet imes considered t he qu i ntessent ia l Engl ish I mpression ist. Working with pastels, oils and also creating countless drawings, his work often tackled similar themes as the Impressionist group in France. He studied atmospheric effects, and distanced himself from the classical paintings at the Salons in Paris. However, he did not participate in the rebellious cafe culture, sticking to the establishment and becoming a central fig ure at the Royal Academy in London. Clausen was a founding member of the New English Art Club (the NEAC), the English equivalent of the Impressionists; but rather than city life, they focused on painting countryside scenes. When looking at a composition such as this one, the subject relates to Monet’s haystacks and rural landscapes from twenty years prior. Clausen uses the grey colour of the paper within the composition. The impression of sunlight on the hayrick and shade under the tree expresses Clausen’s successful tackling of the theme.

For the artist biography, see page 113

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Henri Martin (1860 – 1943)

Une rue à Collioure Oil on canvas 37.5 x 21.25 inches • 95.25 x 55.5 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Private collection, France. Accompanied by a certificate from Cyrille Martin

Vanessa Curry highlights in “The Unique Sensation”(Figure 13, p. 20) that this image demonstrates the move from Impressionist style brushwork towards more modern styles of composition. The artist has abstracted many of the forms of the buildings in this painting to blocks of colour. Collioure, in southern France, has inspired many artists throughout history with its warm climate and charming streets. This seminal piece by Martin captures the town’s charm, lovely cobblestone paths and the great contrast between the warmth of the sun and the inviting cool of the shadows. In 1911 Martin purchased his first motorcar which enabled him a greater access to different locations. The Mediterranean was now relatively accessible to the artist and in 1926 he bought his third house which was in Collioure. It is conceivable that this impressive canvas was executed between this date and its exhibition in Cannes in 1933.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Henri Martin (1860 – 1943)

Jour de détente avec des amis, Marquayrol Oil on canvas 28 x 21 inches • 71 x 53.5 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Private collection, United States Henri Martin’s house in Marquayrol was his passion. He moved there after searching for a decade to find the perfect home. It overlooks Bastide-du-Vert near Cahors in south-western France. Many of his canvases focused on the garden, and there is a suggestion of Renoir’s impressionist paintings of ladies taking lunch. The late critic Roger Fry suggested of Martin that his work has a “gentle air of Impressionism.” Particularly the woman in the foreground, sitting on the rocking chair, painted in long sweeping brushstrokes of colour: a progression from the Impressionist to the Modern technique.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Henri Martin (1860 – 1943)

Renvoi à la maison Oil on canvas 37 x 33 inches • 94 x 83.75 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Private collection, United States

This painting communicates the sensation of French rural life, whilst reflecting the influence that Japanese art had on the painters of the period. The high horizon, between the roofs of the houses and the top of the canvas, is indicative of Japanese woodblock compositions, ukiyo-e, that were purchased by artists and the bourgouisie alike at the time. Indeed, Monet’s own home at Giverney abounded with Japanese woodblock prints and Picasso directly copied them in his own work. Additionally, there is a lovely sense of typical French living in this work, with the cottages and their eccentric combination of windows, and the aged woman returning to the village with her provisions.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Henri Martin (1860 – 1943)

La paysanne Oil on panel 18 x 13 inches • 45.75 x 83.75 centimetres Signed and inscribed upper right Provenance:

Private collection, United States It is highly probably that this was a preparation painting to Renvoi à la maison (Cat. no. 18). The model wears the same costume, and Martin places her within similar tonal surroundings. Martin has sketched this figure quickly as the dabs of paint that circle the figure’s head and clogs demonstrate. She seems to radiate with movement, tensed to take the next step. Her eyes gaze at the floor in a profil perdu, much like the previous drawings by Camille Pissarro and Edgar Degas (Cat. no. 2 and 3). One can only imagine the weight of her labours and thoughts, but Martin gives us insight into the hidden beauty in her banality by surrounding her with vibrant colour.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Henri Martin (1860 – 1943)

Le laboureur Oil on panel 16 x 13 inches • 40.5 x 33 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Connaught Brown, London Private collection, London A similar size painting as La paysanne (Cat. No. 19), the labourer works, ploughing the field, in full daylight with the yellow sun reflected in the highlights of his face and the shadows in the blues of the back of his legs and on the ground. The artist has decided to almost camouflage the character in his surroundings. The greens of the grass parallel the tones of the worker’s shirt and cap, while the browns of the soil parallel the tones of his trousers. Beyond the strong differences in light and shade, Martin employs more densely joined and smaller brushstrokes to define the main character while using a broad stroke for the background - a bold move in technique. The academic painters would have frowned upon this inversion of painting principles, as an artist usually keeps his fine brushes for the background and broader strokes for the foreground. Nevertheless, Martin manages to achieve a beautifully harmonised piece.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Re f No. 173 0

Gustave Loiseau (1865 – 1935)

Gelée blanche à Pontoise Oil on canvas 24 x 36 inches • 61 x 91.50 centimetres Signed and dated 1906 Provenance:

Galerie Durand-Ruel, Paris (acquired directly from the artist on March 22, 1906); Mr Whitcomb (acquired from the above on February 23rd, 1929); Sotheby’s New York, Impressionist and Modern Paintings, Drawings and Watercolours, 14 May 1992, Lot 233; Private collection, France; Private collection, United Kingdom

Literature:

This work will be featured in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné being prepared by M. Didier Imbert Brettell, Dr. Richard R. Pissarro and Pontoise: The Painter in a Landscape. (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1990.) At first glance, this work by Loiseau closely resembles that of Monet. Also, the title immediately references Pissarro, who had painted a landscape entitled Gelée blanche in 1873, now in the Musée d’Orsay. Gustave Loiseau communicates the sensation of hoar frost (gelée blanche), with his varied colour palette described by Vanessa Curry in The Unique Sensation on page 18 and 19. Beyond the reference to Pissarro’s landscape of hoarfrost from 1873, the smokestacks of factories in the distance across the river Oise were a subject also often painted by Camille Pissarro. The image above is one of Pissarro’s views of the river. Dr. Richard

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Camille Pissarro The River Oise near Pontoise 1873, oil on canvas. © Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA / The Bridgeman Art Library.

Brettell’s research into the area in Pissarro’s work found that the factories were alcohol and chemical distilleries. The contrast between this industrial environment and the idyllic fields of Pontoise undoubtedly inspired both these plein-air artists from the avant-garde. For the artist biography, see page 118


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Gustave Loiseau (1865 – 1935)

La plage de Fécamp, 1930 Oil on canvas 21 x 32 inches • / 53.25 x 81.25 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Durand-Ruel, Paris (Acquired from the artist on 25th February, 1931); Private collection, France (Acquired from the above on 29th February, 1943); The Lefevre Gallery, London; The Redfern Gallery, London; Commander Lowis, London (Acquired from the above in 1954); Private collection, Paris

Literature:

Accompanied by a certificate issued by Didier Imbert The work is to be included in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné currently being prepared by Didier Imbert. From this perspective, one can clearly see both the ocean’s horizon line and the strength of the waves crashing onto the beach. The tones of the beach here demonstrate the cool air, strong Channel currents, and long stretches of the northern French coast. Loiseau contrasts the rounded, blue and teal strokes of the ocean and foam with the angular lines and warm tones of the village on the right. The artist created a textured effect by using a hatching technique of weton-wet oil paint, an optical illusion that adds to the intricacy of the piece.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Gustave Loiseau (1865 – 1935)

La lanterne Oil on panel 16 x 13 inches • 40.5 x 33 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Private collection, France

This still-life of a lantern and bowl falls within a group of studies made by Loiseau with the same lantern. One can assume that the interesting shape of the object, with its straight sides and quirky top, inspired the artist to come back to it time and time again. Loiseau works en grisaille – in tones of grey – on brown paper laid on panel, providing the warm ground colour that can contrast the different tones of grey. Using the edge of the table as a horizon line to unify the whole, his study of everyday objects makes for a very balanced composition.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Lucien Adrion (1889 – 1953)

Equilibrist on a Chair Oil on canvas 21 x 25 inches • 53.3 x 63.5 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Private collection, United Kingdom

Adrion portrays the magic of a street performance featuring a male and female gymnast, mediated by a matron-like figure. The artist was greatly appreciated for his crowded street scenes around Paris. For example, the critic Galtier-Boissiére wrote, “Il a le sens du mouvement des foules, du mouvement de la vie.” (He has a feeling for the movement of crowds, the movement of life.) In this example, one can feel the magic of the crowd around the spectacle, and with a couple of brushstrokes Adrion portrays hundreds of people, whilst holding a little unique character for each of them. One can see different styles of hats, coats and dresses. The female gymnast’s leg contorts in an unnatural, fascinating way, highlighted by the stripes on her stockings. The chair held by the male equilibrist hovers in line with his legs and the performance platform, and the viewer is left to wonder how long he can keep this up.

For the artist biography, see page 112

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Maxime Maufra (1861 – 1918)

Morning in the Oasis of El-Kantara Oil on canvas Size: 29 x 36 inches • 40.75 x 24.25 centimetres Signed and dated 1913 Provenance:

Durand Ruel, Paris; David Findley Galleries, New York; Private collection, Palm Beach

The well-travelled Maufra capt ures a morning in the El-Kantara oasis in Algeria. This particular area is known as a “wadi”: a valley with steep ravines that floods during the rainy season to become a watercourse. This geological form is typical of northern Africa and parts of the Middle East. Maufra masterf ully deli neates t he forms a nd defines the colour contrast between the sky’s electric blue and the warmth of the landscape’s reddish tones. The photograph on the right taken at the turn of the 20th century demonstrates Maufra’s attention to detail, from the accurate depiction of the flora as well as the astute observation of the skyline.

© Roger Viollet / Getty Images

For the artist biography, see page 119

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Michel Auguste Collé (1872 – 1949)

Nancy, vue de la cathédrale, Saint Epvre (Automne), 1906 Nancy, vue de la cathédrale, Saint Epvre (Bleu), 1907 Oil on canvas Each 30 x 20.5 inches • 76.25 x 52 centimetres Each signed and dated Provenance:

Corbin Family, France Private collection, United Kingdom

This pair of images renders the view over the Nancy Cathedral from the Saint Epvre basilica nearby. The basilica’s Gothic ornamentation figures into the foreground of the images, while the artist formulates the angles of the Cathedral’s roof in tones of blue. Collé’s first canvas painted in 1906 and entitled Automne focuses more on architectural and tonal accuracy. Meanwhile the second canvas, Bleu, painted in 1907 takes a more dramatic angle and limited colour palette. The first canvas draws the viewer towards the quotidian lifestyle of Nancy’s inhabitants, even presenting some figures on the square in the bottom right corner, and developing the perception of distance in gradients of sunbathed red-tiled roofs. The Bleu canvas switches the sun-drenched for mistier conditions, with the smoke blowing from industrial plants on the horizon, further puncturing the tonal calm with strong dark vertical strokes representing the steeples of the Gothic building.

For the artist biography, see page 114

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Edward Cucuel (1875 – 1954)

Capri Oil on board 15.75 x 20 inches • 40 x 50.75 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Eva Bell (a gift from the artist before 1935. Bell lived with Cucuel and his wife in Starnberg at Villa Mussinan until 1939); Thence by descent to the present owner, nephew of the above

Literature:

Ostini, Fritz. Der Maler Edward Cucuel. (Zurich: Amalthea-Verlag, 1924.) The artist gave this piece to Eva Bell, a family friend, and it makes one wonder if there is a longer story behind the structures Cucuel chose to include here. The cupola and towers central in the composition are the structures of the Piazza San Gennaro. The dome, made of glazed ceramic tile known as majolica, glistens in the sun. This structure contrasts greatly with the slightly medieval towers of the city wall. Similar to the colour theories of the NeoImpressionists, this American artist works quick brushstrokes that create realistic tones from afar but are bright colours up close. Cuc uel pai nted various pieces at his home, Villa Mussinan by Lake Starnberg i n s out h e r n Bava r i a i n t h e 193 0 s, including various sun-lit garden scenes. Comparatively, this view of Capri employs similar soft strong colours that Cucuel used in Germany. However, the great rocky cliffs of the Amalfi coast cause a great dramatic effect.

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© Marco Cristo Fori / Getty Images

For the artist biography, see page 114


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Alfred Stevens (1823 – 1906)

Baigneurs et bateaux à voile Oil on canvas 26 x 21 inches • 66 x 53.25 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Private collection, United Kingdom

Literature:

Bodt, Saskia de, et al. Alfred Stevens: Brussels 1823 - Paris 1906. (Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum; Brussels: Royal Museums of Belgium, 2009.) It is interesting to note the difference in painting st yles Stevens employs when he paints academic subjects versus the looseness of his seascapes. Works of his can be found in pastel and oil describing the ever-changing ocean. In this example, he stratifies the areas into completely different, almost abstract entities. The grey cloud above makes way for the brilliant blue sky, reflected cheerfully in the coastal waters, and then the bottom of the canvas describes the expanse of sand on the beach. If one looks more carefully, the viewer can make out bathers on the centre right, or a hint of a steamship on the horizon, but in reality the harmony of this work is due to Stevens’s understanding of Realism, Impressionism, and en plein air painting.

For the artist biography, see page 120

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Rosa Bonheur (1822 – 1899)

Lion d’Afrique Oil on canvas 17 x 12 inches • 43 x 30.5 centimetres Stamped lower right Provenance:

Private collection, Germany; Private collection, United Kingdom

Literature:

Ashton, Dore. Rosa Bonheur: A Life and a Legend. (New York: Viking/Studio, 1981.)

Rosa Bonheur, one of the few female artists recog nised in the nineteenth cent ury, depicts this regal animal overlooking a dry landscape that fades into the distance to beautiful tones of rose, purple and grey. Bonheur often painted animals, and is renowned for her understanding of the anatomy of horses. In this piece, her brushwork clearly describes the muscular anatomy of the lion. The beast’s tail is tensed, as if something has caught his eye. The texture of his mane is painted in very loose brushwork, almost unrealistic in its freedom. The tones Rosa has used work together to create a cohesive and masterful composition.

For the artist biography, see page 113

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Yvonne Canu (1921 – 2008)

Concarneau, le retour des pêcheurs Oil on canvas 21.25 x 25.5 inches • 54 x 65 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Private collection, United Kingdom

This is a great example of the Divisionist technique by Yvonne Canu. She separated dabs of colour, in line with the technique, that would fuse on the viewer’s own retina and create an overall aura of colour and luminosity. Port scenes were a particular speciality of the artist. She experiments with the light reflected both on the water, in the sky, and off the sails of boats. This large canvas is a prime example of Canu’s search for tonalities and the narrative appeal of her descriptive images.

For the artist biography, see page 113

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Frank Myers-Boggs (1855 – 1926)

Le Pont Neuf vu des bords de Seine Oil on canvas 13 x 18 inches • 33 x 45.5 centimetres Signed and dated 13 Fevrier 1898 Provenance:

Private collection, France

Myers-Boggs works an interesting theme by concentrating on a quotidian Parisian scene: the Seine and the well-known Pont Neuf (the oldest bridge over this river in Paris.) The road along the river is unpaved; and two figures lead a horse and carriage towards the viewer. Contrastingly, there exists a growing feeling of industry in the background on the left, as a steamboat flows calmly on the waters of the Seine and smog rises from various smokestacks in the background. Myers-Boggs uses a very free brushstroke, and warm earth-tones. His canvas radiates with energy, from the quick way he has portrayed the roofs of homes on the opposite bank of the river to the swirls of impasto (thick paint) that he uses to narrate the road’s textures. The hints of red throughout the canvas, from a detail on a wheel of a carriage, to the wall of a house placed centrally, lead the viewer to explore the entire canvas.

For the artist biography, see page 119

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Luigi Loir (1845 – 1916)

Return of the Fishermen to Boulogne Watercolour and pastel heightened with white gouache 13 x 18.5 inches • 33 x 47 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Private collection, United States; Private collection, France

Literature:

This work will be included in Volume II of the artist’s catalogue raisonne currently in preparation by Noe Willer Willer, Noe. Luigi Loir: de la Belle Epoque a la publicité. (Paris: N.Willer, 2004.)

If one looks closely at this piece, it seems as if the watercolour is still wet and just brushed. Loir achieves this quality by combining his characteristic loose brushwork and very wet paint, giving this scene a special air. The basket of fish glistens in the light of dawn, as do the white caps of the women coming to buy them. This early work by Loir is a great reflection of a newly Haussman-ised Paris. The recently laid banks of the Seine and boulevards beyond are in direct relation to the subjects that the great Impressionist painters worked on at the time.

For the artist biography, see page 118

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Edmund Blampied (1886 – 1966)

The Dunes at Wimereux, Normandy Oil on board 8 x 11.5 inches • 20.25 x 29 centimetres Signed, inscribed and dated 1934 Provenance:

Sir Bruce Ingram, O.B.E., M.C., Chesham; The Ruskin Gallery, Stratford-on-Avon

Blampied achieves a great deal with simple strokes and lines in this painting of the dunes at Wimereaux, northern France. The artist, from the Channel Islands, is quite well-k nown for his illustrations including a version of J. M. Barrie’s Peter and Wendy (Peter Pan). There is something magical about this piece as well, with its soft overtones of misty white giving the perception of depth, when one compares the structures on the left side of the canvas to those in the distance on the right. Furthermore, Blampied provides insight to the visitors of this beach, their movements charmingly captured. One lady airs out a piece of cloth, while others bend over to shelter themselves from the wind. Fishermen are hard at work at the entrance of the bay on the right-hand side – one can keep discovering layers of activity in this small panel.

For the artist biography, see page 112

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Re f No. 1594

Erna Hoppe Kinross (1878 – 1964)

Paris Bridge Oil on canvas 24 x 29 inches • 61 x 73.5 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Private collection, United Kingdom

This nocturne scene by Hoppe Kinross from around 1910 is an early work by the artist. She had married her husband, Theodore Hoppe in 1906. It is clear she is experimenting with contemporary and past painting styles. Partic ularly, one can correlate Hoppe Kinross’s painting with the works of Claude Monet in London, painting the Waterloo or London Bridge. Interestingly, Erna Hoppe Kinross met Monet at Giverny. The occasional yellow highlight of a passing carriage or burning streetlamp breaks up the tendency towards greys and dark blue tones. These tones parallel the hazy moonlight visible from the uppermost part of the canvas. The newly laid banks of the Seine are visible on the right-hand side of the canvas. This painting communicates the sensation of an atmospheric Paris.

For the artist biography, see page 116

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Gaston La Touche (1854 – 1913)

La fête joyeuse Oil on canvas 39.75 x 32 inches • 101.5 x 81.25 centimetres Signed and dated (18)99 Provenance:

Paris, vente Lair Dubreuil, 27 Feb. 1909, Lot 26

Literature:

Frantz, Henri. ‘The Gay Party.’ The Magazine of Art. (London: 1904) illustrated. La Touche references the art of eighteenth cent u r y Fra nce by apply i ng si m i la r allegories and motifs to his work. In this painting, the recurring theme of love appears by including dolphins, swans, cupids and a pair of joyous couples in the background. The painting differs from the Rococo 18th century pictures mainly in its treatment of colour. The colours used by La Touche oscillate between a warm, yellow brightness and a cool, reflected blue in the shadows. For example, the warmth of light radiating from the skin of the figures in the background contrastthe cool tones on the white swans on the right-hand side. The motif of the fountain, popular at this time, is painted with a great sense of movement.

For the artist biography, see page 117

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Henri Lebasque (1865 – 1937)

Hélène et Marthe au bord de la Seine Oil on canvas 29 x 39.5 inches • 73.75 x 100.25 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Galerie Anne Abels, Cologne; Private collection, United Kingdom

Literature:

Accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Denise Bazetoux; This painting will be featured in the forthcoming Volume II of the Henri Lebasque catalogue raisonné currently being prepared by Denise Bazetoux. Henri Lebasque painted his two daughters, Hélène and Marthe, throughout their lives from when they were tiny toddlers to when they became lovely mademoiselles. While the canvas here includes a monumental landscape moving with great colour and strong draftsmanship, the prime position and centre of attention are the two young ladies sitting by the water, reflected in its surface and enjoying the lovely sunlit day. Henri Lebasque’s work, characteristically possesing an imposing architectural quality, is softened by the two figures painted on the riverbank. The image itself references the compositional ideas of Japanese woodblock prints in its clean colours and the division of space within the composition, particularly the high horizon.

For the artist biography, see page 117

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Julien Gustave Gagliardini (1846 – 1927)

Summer Harvest Oil on canvas 21.25 x 28.75 inches • 54 x 73 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Private collection, France; Private collection, United Kingdom

Though the colours seem to imitate nature, Gagliardini act ually combines radical colours - pinks, blues, lilacs and lime greens swirl together in the artist’s rendition of a summer harvest in the Provence region of France. The canvas portrays a house on a hill, basked in lovely sunshine under an electric blue sky. One could speculate that this is Gagliardini’s most masterful piece, rendering both the atmosphere and a beautiful composition with aerial perspective as one looks over the hillside to a river far beyond. The lone tree casts a soft-green shade and a haystack sits happily in the centre right corner. Gagliardini guides the viewer’s eye from darkness to light, as the foreground on the right-hand side of the painting falls into a darker shade and the sunbathed landscape reaches out into the distance.

For the artist biography, see page 116

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Ref No. 1222

Isaac Israëls (1865 – 1934)

Pink roses Oil on panel 8 x 6 inches • 20.25 x 15.25 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Private collection, The Netherlands

Literature:

Wagner, Anna. Israëls, Isaac Lazarus. (Venlo: Van Spijk, 1985) An artist of the Hague school in the Netherlands, Isaac Israëls was trained within a tradition that painted en plein air sooner than the academies in many other countries. He was born into the lifestyle of artists, as his father Jozef Israëls was an important figure in the cultural scene in Holland and Paris at the time. An apt draftsman, Isaac Israëls often painted scenes of daily life, nudes, and seascapes. However, the expressiveness of the brushwork here implies that the artist probably boldly started to paint without much need for the usual preparatory sketch underneath. Israëls also works with a motif that can be traced to Baroque Dutch flower painting of the seventeenth cent ury. The roses are imperfect yet entrancing. The central rose painted with concentric strokes, is hypnotising as the viewer looks within its many layers. The larger pink rose has bloomed to its utmost beauty, while a bud in the shadows balances the right side of the composition. There is a strong contrast between the roses, surrounded by quickly

painted foliage upon a dark, earth toned background that relates back to Israëls’s tones in other paintings. This smaller-sized, more intimate piece gives us the opportunity to view a personal side of the artist. While Israëls did paint various still-lives, this piece narrates more than studious observation.

For the artist biography, see page 116

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Maurice de Vlaminck (1876 – 1958)

Bouquet des fleurs dans une vase Gouache on paper laid down on canvas 20.5 x 23.25 inches • 52 x 59 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Private collection, United Kingdom

Literature:

This work will be included in the forthcoming Catalogue critique of Maurice de Vlaminck’s paintings, drawings and ceramics being prepared by Maïthé VallèsBled and Godelieve de Vlaminck under the sponsorship of the Wildenstein Institute. This harmonious composition by Maurice de Vlaminck demonstrates the artist ’s evolution beyond the original Fauvist style. The pastel colours are naturalistic and cohesive; however, the brushwork is still tinged with Vlaminck’s prior energetic pa i nt i ng tec h n ique. T he peon ies are defined by explosive swoops of pink and white, surrounded by hints of green. The symmetrical composition is classical, with a frieze-like garland around the base of the vase yet the subtle expressionism clearly points to Vlaminck’s innovative strengths.

For the artist biography, see page 121

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John Singer Sargent (1856 – 1925)

Portrait of an Italian Model Oil on canvas 18 x 15 inches • 45.75 x 38 centimetres Painted within the original stretcher Provenance:

Given by the artist to Jessie Marion McConnell, December 1905; Acquired from her estate on the Isle of Wight by Robert Cooper Hall, c. 1997; Bonham’s New York, 28 November 2007, lot 58; Peter Nahum at the Leicester Galleries, London; Private collection, United Kingdom

Literature:

Featured on the front cover of the 2009 (Vol. V) Antique Catalogue of J.M. Stringer Gallery This sketch was painted on the reverse of a profile study of the same model by Jesse Marion McConnell, then a student at The Royal Academy Schools in London. She was admitted to the Schools on 26 July 1904, and left on 30 July 1907. Sargent was a visitor at the Schools, in his capacity as a Royal Academician, over the winter of 1905. There is no reason to question Jessie McConnell’s note on the stretcher, recording that the sketch was done at the Schools while Sargent was giving her a lesson. Instead of trying to explain in words how best she could improve her study, he painted his own demonstration of what he meant. The sketch is taken little further than the under-painting, with the head broadly blocked in, and the values of light and dark firmly established. Sargent is best known

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Left: image of canvas verso (originally the front face of the stretcher)

for his formal, posed portraits from the end of the nineteenth century. However, it is in these informal works that one gets the opportunity to observe his ability to portray the personality of his subjects. For the artist biography, see page 120


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Philip Alexius De László (1869 – 1937)

Portrait of a Flamenco Dancer Oil on canvas 36.5 x 26.5 inches / 92.75 x 67.25 centimetres Signed and dated 1927 Provenance:

Private collection, United Kingdom

Literature:

De Laszlo, Sandra. Philip de Laszlo: A Brush with Grandeur. London: Paul Holberton, 2003. Portrait of a Flamenco Dancer remained in the artist’s possession until his death (see image on the right) and appears in the Studio inventory with the following wording: “The Spanish dancers appeared at the Spanish Club and the artist invited the Señora to pose for him. She arrived with her partner (her husband) and to avoid any jealousy they were painted as a group. The Señor, however, was annoyed to find himself providing a background for his wife’s figure”. This double portrait of flamenco dancers demonstrates de László’s loose brushstrokes and attention to detail. Everything is drafted out from the gaze between the dancers to the translucent sleeves of the female dancer’s dress. Working a Latin theme in a Latin style the artist employs a Velazquez-type neutral background and playful chiaroscuro. László was a contemporary of artists such as John Singer Sargent (Cat. No. 40).

For the artist biography, see page 115

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Louis Abel-Truchet (1857 – 1918)

La Gare St Lazare Oil on canvas 13 x 18 inches • 33 x 46 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Private collection, France; Private collection, United Kingdom

Abel-Truchet is at the heart of Paris, looking at the Gare St Lazare. This train station was painted by Monet in 1877, and by other artists including Jean Béraud. Abel-Truchet must be standing on the Pont de l’Europe, in order to create this composition as it gives a perfect view of the trains arriving and leaving the station. The St Lazare station was ever-expanding, tripling the amount of lines it received between 1837 and 1900. An atmosphere of change, and of industry, undoubtedly would attract painters from the avant-garde at the time. The tones used by Abel-Truchet include a lot of black, grey, and white – contrary to usual Impressionist tones. However, the fact that the artist has painted on site, working such a contemporary topic immediately links it to the concerns of the Impressionist group at the time.

For the artist biography, see page 112

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Joseph Austin Pennell (1857 – 1926)

Grey Day Oil on canvas 11.5 x 5.5 inches • 29.25 x 14 centimetres Signed lower left Provenance:

Wallace Gallery, East Hampton, New York; Neuberger Berman & Lehman Brothers; Private collection, US

Literature:

Sharp Young, Mahonri. “The Remarkable Joseph Pennell” American Art Journal. Vol 2, No. 1 (Spring, 1970) pp 89-91.

This piece by American artist Joseph Pennell works nicely in comparison to the previous painting by Louis Abel-Truchet (Cat. No. 42). Both artists use similar techniques of white specks to simulate the effect of steam rising into the air. Furthermore, both artists study industry’s effect on the skyline, enriching the realism of the atmosphere portrayed. In this piece, New York is clearly visible in the background, with its skyscrapers and grey tones. The dark structures at the bottom of the canvas serve to lead the eye towards all of the action on the river. The organic lines of steam ascending towards the sky soften the strong vertical lines of the architecture.

For the artist biography, see page 119

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Jean Dufy (1888 – 1964)

Voiliers Oil on canvas 16 x 9.5 inches • 40.75 x 24.25 centimetres Signed lower right Provenance:

Private collection, United Kingdom

Literature:

Accompanied by a certificate from Jacques Bailly (December 2007). Jean-Jacques Bailly will include this painting in his forthcoming Volume II to the Jean Dufy catalogue raisonné. (Volume I was published in 2002) It is interesting to note the similarities and differences between the work of Jean Dufy and his brother Raoul. Jean decided to become a full-time artist later in life, after having been inspired by the work of Modernists like Matisse. Raoul’s work kept a more graphic, illustrative line than his brother Jean though they both worked with bold colours. Particularly after 1930, Jean Dufy uses expressive, loose brushwork, curling and twisting in a manner that does not imitate nature but rather formulates a feeling. Le Havre, the same port city where Monet painted Impression: Sunrise (Fig. 1, p. 11) was central to Dufy’s work, and also inspired many paintings by Boudin. The industrious landscape of this busy port of northern France undoubtedly also inspired Dufy’s curling white strokes above the horizonline symbolising steam and clouds. When comparing Voiliers with the Coucher de soleil, Étaples by Boudin (Cat. No. 8), Dufy

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utilizes a more limited array of colours (blue, brown, white and black). His long brushstrokes, particularly in the sails of the boats and describing the reflection of light on the water, link back to the Renoiresque treatment of paint by Henri Martin in Jour de détente (Cat. No. 17). Jean Dufy symbolizes the manner in which the avant-garde of the Impressionists kept being reinvented in subsequent generations.

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Artists’ Biographies Abel-Truchet, Louis French, 1857-1918

Louis Abel-Truchet was born in Versailles, but it was his life in the city of Paris that gained him notoriety. He studied under Jules Lefebvre (1836-1911) and Benjamin Constant (1845-1902) at the Académie Julian in Paris, and exhibited at the Salon d’Automne. He was also the founding treasurer of the Société des Humoristes. Whilst Abel-Truchet mostly painted landscapes in Marseilles, Paris and Vienna and genre scenes in a style after the Impressionists, his role as an artist was difficult to define due to the variety of his work. During the First World War, AbelTruchet, then aged 57, volunteered to fight. This experience formed the basis of his work as an artist depicting the war and scenes that he witnessed. He was awarded the Légion d’honneur and La Croix de Guerre and died during military service in 1918, the last few months of the war.

Adrion, Lucien

French, 1889-1953 Adrion left his native town of Strasbourg in 1907 and moved to Paris to work as a draftsman to the fashion industry. He travelled to London, Munich and Frankfurt. When he visited Germany the outbreak of the First World War meant he was demobilised in Berlin. Here Adrion studied at the studio of Hermann Struck (1876-1944), a well-known artist in etchings and engravings who was also the master of artists such as Marc Chagall (1887-1985) and Lesser Ury (1861-1931). Adrion remained in Berlin until after the end of the First World War, and returned to Strasbourg in 1919. His signed lithographs were a success and monetarily fuelled his travels back to Paris. Georges Chéron (?-1931), an art

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dealer who also represented artists like Amadeo Modigliani and Foujita, staged a one-man show of Adrion’s work in February 1921 and represented him henceforward. In the neighbourhood of Montparnasse, Adrion associated with young Eastern European painters such as Chaime Soutine (1893-1943), Pinchus Krémegne (1890-1981) and Michel Kikoine (1892-1968) who were to comprise the École de Paris Group. The artist was greatly appreciated for his crowded street scenes around Paris. For example, the critic Galtier-Boissiére (1891-1966) wrote, “Il a le sens du mouvement des foules, du mouvement de la vie.” (He has a feeling for the movement of crowds, the movement of life.) There is a distinct shift in Adrion’s later style, when bored with his life in Paris he left his agent Chéron for Normandy and focused on painting landscapes. These were immediately successful and gained great popularity. In 1926, Adrion finally made his professional debut at the Salon des Indépendants. He also showed at the Salon d’Automne in 1940 and at the Salon des Tuileries from the following year. He passed away in Cologne, France in 1953.

Béraud, Jean

French, 1849-1935 Jean Béraud was the son of a French sculptor but first studied law in Paris, turning to painting after the Franco-Prussian War. His two years at the École des Beaux-Arts under Léon Bonnat (1833-1922) inspired him to paint portraits. As a Belle Époque painter and illustrator, Jean Béraud skillfully documented Parisian daily life, which by then had become a spectacle of display and a display of the spectacular. After Baron Haussmann expanded Paris’s boulevards, renewed interest was found in fashionable strolls

around the city. Béraud’s work focused on Paris, studying urban life and its people. Béraud had ample subject matter to be inspired by as Paris became a city of flaneurs, idle metropolitan strollers. The leisurely activity of aimless wandering became a hobby for the most cultured of individuals. Jean Béraud achieved success and honours in his lifetime, exhibiting at annual Salons from 1873 to 1889, and he was awarded a gold medal at the 1889 Paris International Exhibition. He was an active founding member of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris, exhibiting there from 1890 to 1929. In 1936, a year after his death, the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Musée Carnavalet, held memorial exhibitions of his work.

Blampied, Edmund British, 1886-1966

Born in Jersey in the Channel Islands, Edmund Blampied’s ar t ist ic career took off exponentially when he was discovered drawing caricatures of a local election at the age of sixteen. His first language was Jerriais, and he spoke hardly any English when he attended the Lambeth School of Art in London. His first published illustrations appeared in The Daily Chronicle in January 1905. Blampied is known primarily for his etchings and dry-point engraving in the early part of his career; in the twenties the printing business was booming and he often received commissions for illustrations. He later worked oils, lithography a nd even bron ze. Ma ny (primarily American) investors were interested in Blampied’s paintings produced in the late 1920s and in the following years he focused on exhibiting works on paper and paintings in London and in Glasgow. In 1926 Blampied sold all of his possessions and travelled through southern


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France and north Africa for five months. His drawings from that time would inspire all of his work in the following years.

École nationale vétérinaire d’Alfort (National Veterinary Institute in Paris) to perform dissections of animals.

and his young friends in the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874, but never considered himself a radical or innovator.

In 1938 Blampied was elected to join the Royal Society of British Artists. This same year he was commissioned to prepare illustrations for a beautiful edition of J.M. Barrie’s Peter Pan – published in late 1939 as The Blampied Edition of Peter and Wendy.

She gained fame with her painting in the 1848 Salon, entitled Le labourage nivernais, le sombrage, (Ploughing in the Nivernais) – which is now housed in the Musée d’Orsay in Paris. Her most famous painting is in the Metropolitan Museum of New York, entitled The Horse Fair painted in 1853-1855. During her lifetime she gained great renown in England, more so than in her native France. She was represented by private art galleries, including that of Ernest Gambart (1814-1902) in Pall Mall.

He debuted at the Paris Salon in 1859 and received a third place medal at the Paris Salon of 1881 followed by a gold medal at the 1889 Exposition Universelle. In 1892 he was made a knight of the Légion d’honneur.

In the 1950s America held various exhibitions of his work. As one of the most eminent artists to come from the Channel Islands, much of his works are kept in museums in his native Jersey, but also grace the collections of the British Museum, Victoria and Albert Museum, Museum of Fine Arts Boston and the Cleveland Museum of Art.

Bonheur, Rosa

French, 1822-1899 Born Marie-Rosalie Bonheur, she was later known simply as “Rosa Bonheur” - a painter and sculptress focusing on animals and realist themes. Originally from Bordeaux, Bonheur was from a family of artists: her father worked as a landscape and portrait painter and her mother (who died when Rosa was eleven) was a pianist and piano instructor. Interestingly, Bonheur’s father knew Francisco Goya y Lucientes (1796-1828), the Spanish Romantic artist, who was in exile in France. It might seem exceptional that Rosa was trained to such a high degree as a woman in the 19th century, but her father adhered to a Christiansocialist sect that promoted the education of men and women equally – and believed in the prophesy of a female messiah. An unruly character, Rosa was expelled from many schools, and drawing was often an alternative to teaching her to read and write. She finally settled down as an apprentice to her father when she was twelve (she was not allowed to attend the École des Beaux-Arts as they did not accept women.) She did, however, train independently, even going to the

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Boudin, Eugène French, 1824-1898

Born in Trouville, France, Eugène Boudin is known for his paintings of the sea. In 1835 his family moved to Le Havre, where Boudin began working as an assistant to his father. There he came into contact with local artists and exhibited the paintings of Constant Troyon (1810-1865) and Jean-François Millet (1814-1875) in his stationery shop, who, along with Jean-Baptiste Isabey (17671855) and Thomas Couture (18151879) encouraged young Boudin to follow an artistic career. At the age of 22 he abandoned the world of commerce, began painting fulltime, and travelled to Paris and then through Flanders. In 1850 he earned a scholarship that enabled him to stay in Paris, although he often returned to paint in Normandy and, from 1855, made regular trips to Brittany. He was profoundly influenced by Dutch 17th century masters and on meeting the Dutch painter Johan Jongkind (1819-1891), who had already made his mark in French artistic circles, Boudin was encouraged by him to paint outdoors (en plein air). In 1857 Boudin met the young Claude Monet who spent several months working in Boudin’s studio. They remained lifelong friends and Monet later paid tribute to Boudin’s early influence. Boudin joined Monet

Canu, Yvonne

French, 1921-2008 Yvonne Canu studied at the École des Arts Decoratifs in Paris but started to attain greater success after the Second World War. Her work often depicts coastal and harbour scenes. Stylistically, her work followed the influences of the pointillists such as Georges Seurat (18591891). Particularly Seurat’s masterpiece L’ile de la Grande Jatte (A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of Grande Jatte) is documented as having a great impact upon Canu. She belonged to an interesting trend of French twentieth century artists who looked to and expanded upon the theories of so-called “divisioniste” artists of the late 19th century such as Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910). Canu’s analysis of colour hence followed many of the same trends and focuses on the mixture of primary, secondary, and tertiary tones in broad brushstrokes on the canvas. Canu died of old age in 2008.

Clausen, Sir George British, 1852-1944

George Clausen was born in London in 1852, to a Scottish mother and a Danish father. As his father’s work as an interior decorator had an artistic edge, George Clausen first followed in his line of trade. Further artistic training occured in 1867 when Clausen began to attend evening classes at the National Art School, (now known as the Royal College of Art) in South Kensington. His mentor at the

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Trinity House time, painter Edwin Long (18291891), convinced the younger painter to pursue art as a full time career. Clausen’s subsequent travels to Holland and Belgium in 1875 influenced his inclination towards naturalism. The rural scenes he depicted were often inspired by the countryside in Berkshire, where he moved with his new wife Agnes Webster in 1881. The slightly French feel of Clausen’s manipulation of pastels and oils might be due to his short study at the Académie Julian, Paris in 1882. On return to England, he formed the New English Art Club of 1886, adhering to French pleinair style painting. Clausen was a member of the ARA in 1895 and then joined the Royal Academy in 1908. From 1903-6 he was appointed to the position of Professor of Painting at the Royal Academy. He received many honours during his lifetime, culminating in a knighthood in 1927. His work to this day symbolizes a marriage between French and English turn-of-thecentury artistic trends.

Collé, Michel Auguste French, 1872-1949

Orphaned at fifteen years of age, Collé became a gilder and engraver’s apprentice. As this job involved much drawing, it was during this period that Collé realised his love of drawing and painting. He was encouraged by Impressionist painter Charles Peccatte (1850-1918). Then Eugene Corbin (1835-1901), another art lover, introduced Collé to fellow artists in Nancy: Charles Meixmoran, Émile Friant and Victor Prouvé. In contract with Corbin until 1911, Michel Auguste Collé painted nearly five hundred canvases and watercolours. Thereafter, Collé wanted to discover other areas and travelled often, finding inspiration in Savoy, Corsica and North Africa. At the end of the First World War, in Brittany, he was allured by the particular light of the salt-water marshes and the landscapes of the peninsula of Guérande. This revelation was to transform

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his palette and to diversify his techniques, as certain canvases are in the pointillist style, while others are created with the palette knife. Collé so enjoyed his summer stays in the area of Croisic that he prolonged them as much as possible. In 1940, he finely settled in the village of Kervalet, close to Batz-on-Sea. It was then, during the Second World War, that he was encouraged to diversify his subjects of inspiration, and he turned to church interiors and portraits.

Corot, Jean-Baptiste Camille French, 1796-1875

In many ways Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot is the middle link between the early and later 19th century. He was born to Louis Jacques Corot, a cloth merchant, and Swiss-born Marie Françoise Oberson Corot, in 1796 – only 7 years after the French Revolution. Due to the status of his family within the Parisian bourgeoisie, Corot never experienced the economic difficulties other artists had. He studied at Rouen when he was 11, then became a draper, and continued in this profession until he was 26; even though he never showed a knack for commercial work. Corot’s artistic career began later in life, when his father finally decided to support his son’s dream to be an artist. Corot studied under Achille Etna Michallon (1796-1822) and Jean Victor Bertin (1767-1842) until 1822, but tended to be an autodidact. After 1822 he travelled to Italy, the first of three trips. Two of Corot’s Roman studies hang in the Louvre. He was a regular contributor to the Salon, and so his transition in style and the dating of his pictures is well documented. In 1846, the French government decorated him with the cross of the Légion d’Honneur. Corot had many pupils and also many friends, despite his reputedly quiet and shy character. His friends considered that Corot deserved more recognition, and in 1874, a short time before

his death, they presented him with a gold medal, one he never received at the Salon. Many artists call themselves Corot’s pupils including stars of the later 19th century such as Camille Pissarro, Eugène Boudin, Berthe Morisot, Stanislas Lépine, Antoine Chintreuil, FrançoisLouis Français, Le Roux, and Alexandre DeFaux. During the last few years of his life he earned large sums with his pictures, which were in great demand. In 1871, he gave £2000 to the poor of Paris, under siege by the Prussians (part of the Franco-Prussian War). Although loved by many, Camille Corot never married in his lifetime, unsurprisingly claiming that married life would interfere with his artistic aspirations. The works of Corot are housed in museums in France and the Netherlands, Britain, and America. In 2010 a solo show named “Corot en Suisse” highlighted the magnanimous size of Corot’s oeuvre in Swiss collections, honouring his mother’s original roots. Despite falling outside any traditional art historical time lines, Corot’s work is essential to any analysis of the advent of later artistic styles and modernism.

Cucuel, Edward

American, 1875-1954 Cucuel was born as the son of a newspaper publisher in San Francisco. By the age of fourteen he had already attended the local Academy of Arts. Still a teenager he was employed as an illustrator by the newspaper ‘The Examiner’. At seventeen years, Cucuel was sent to Paris, where he entered the Académie Julian and the Académie Colarossi. He then went on to study at the Académie des Beaux Arts. In 1896 Cucuel returned to the USA and settled in New York. After six months, during which he worked again as a newspaper illustrator, Cucuel returned to Paris and devoted himself to painting. He spent two years in Paris, and then travelled through France and Italy to study the old masters. In Germany, Cucuel


Trinity House went to Berlin, where he mainly worked as an illustrator. In 1907 Cucuel moved to Munich, the city that would become his home for a long time. There, he joined the artists’ group ‘Schölle’, which was dominated by the outstanding artistic figure Leo Putz (1869-1940). The group took care of him in artistic matters. Furthermore Cucuel took part in the exhibitions of the Secession in Munich. In 1912 the artist successfully exhibited in Paris. His paintings resemble the French Impressionists both in colour and motive. From 1914 to 1918 Cucuel lived in Holzhausen at the Ammersee and later had studios in Munich and Starnberg. From 1928 he spent his summers at the Ammersee and lived in New York during the winters, until 1934. Owing to the beginning of Word War II Cucuel finally left Germany in 1939. He settled in the Californian town Pasadena, where he led a secluded life until his death in 1954.

De László, Philip Alexius Hungarian, 1869-1937

Born in Budapest as a son of a Jewish tailor, de László worked as a set designer and ceramic painter. At first he apprenticed for photographer Sándor Strelisky (1851-1922) while studying art at the School of Applied Arts. In 1885 he secured a place at the National Academy of Art in Hungary under Bertalan Székely (1835-1910) and Karoly Lótz (18331904). He also studied both in the artistic centres of Munich (at the Royal Bavarian Academy of Art) and Paris (at the Académie Julian.) During these years of training he mainly painted historic and genre scenes. However, de László was primarily known for his paintings of aristocratic and royal sitters: he won a Grand Gold Medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1900 for his Portrait of Pope Leo the XIII, now in the Hungarian National Gallery in Budapest. De László spent a lot of time in the United Kingdom. He married Lucy Madeleine Guinness (from the well-connected Guinness

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Gallery Catalogue family) in 1900 and they had six children. In 1909 King Edward VII made him an honorary member of the Royal Victorian Order. He became a British citizen in 1914, and died in London in 1937. An authorised version of his memoirs was published by Owen Rutter in 1939.

Degas, Edgar

French, 1834-1917 Degas was born on July 19, 1834 in Paris. In 1855-56, he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He lived in Italy from 1854 to 1859 where he studied the Italian fifteenth century Renaissance. He was also influenced by academic painter J. A. D. Ingres (1780-1867), following the poussiniste belief in line as the basis of form in painting (rather than colour as was believed by the rubenistes.) Degas’ early paintings were portraits and historical scenes – regarded highly by the establishment at the time - marked by a strictness of composition. But as he absorbed the perception of his surroundings and of the everyday life of man, Degas’s later work in the 1860s allied him with the Impressionists the following decade. Fascinated by the diversity and activity of city life, he painted the ever-changing aspects of the Paris of his day (its streets, theatres, cafés, and race tracks), re-creating the atmosphere of a capitalist city from the eyes of the flaneur. Degas depicts people’s characteristic behaviour and appearance, born of the particular conditions of their work and of everyday occurrences. Focusing on the “occupational” gesture, he poses subjects with a business that combines movement and beauty. A type of nineteenth-century humanist, Degas focuses great attention to his subjects (often members of the lower classes) and asserts the aesthetic meaningfulness of their ordinary lives. Particularly memorable are his many ballet scenes, conveying the festive and magnetic atmosphere of the theatre. While revealing beauty, the artist as an

objective and subtle observer captures the parallel exhausting, monotonous labour hidden behind the elegant spectacle. A displaced composit ion (asymmetric and with the dynamic, fragmentary quality of a motion-picture frame), precise and supple lines, unexpected foreshortening and active interplay of figure and space, give Degas’ works a combination of spontaneity with precise calculation. His works from the 1870s show a subtle restraint of colour, developing to gradually augment with the effects created by strong artificial light. The works of the 1880s and 1890s, depicting ballet dancers and nudes at their toilette (bath). These drawings, executed primarily in pastel, take on a tense quality as Degas takes the role of voyeur, looking subjects oblivious to being watched. From the late 1880s to the beginning of the 20th century Degas also cast various bronze sculptures. In these figures of dancers, bathers and horses, Degas strove to achieve a plastic expressiveness. Conveyi ng fleeting motion and the sharpness and unexpectedness of a pose, he also preserves the figure’s plastic wholeness and clear-cut quality.

Dufy, Jean

French, 1888-1964 Jean Dufy was born in Le Havre in 1888 and came from a large, musically, as well as artistically, talented family. His older brother was the well known painter Raoul Dufy (18771953). Jean’s career began with a mercantile apprenticeship - he only gradually discovered his love of painting. When visiting an exhibition in Le Havre in 1906 featuring impressive works by Matisse, Derain, Marquet and Picasso, Jean decided to become a full-time artist like his brother. When Jean returned from military service in 1912 he moved to Paris. In 1914, he presented his watercolours for the first time in the Galerie Berthe Weill, receiving great recognition. After this

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Trinity House success he was encouraged to work tirelessly on his paintings of landscapes, animals and flowers. By 1916, Raoul and Jean Dufy worked together for textile studio Bianchini-Férier, also developing flower and animal designs for the Lyon porcelain manufacturer Théodore Haviland de Limoges for thirty years. In 1925, Jean Dufy received the Gold Medal at L`exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs for designing the porcelain service “Châteaux de France”. In 1920, he returned to Paris and lived in the artist quarter Montmartre, a direct neighbour of Cubist painter Georges Braques (1882-1963). The music and art of the Parisian post-war years influenced Jean Dufy definitively in his power of expression in colours. At the World’s Fair in Paris in 1937, the general manager of the Compagnie Parisienne de Distribution de l`Electricité commissioned the Dufy brothers to design the ceiling (with a size of 600 square meters) for the Electricity Pavillion at the upcoming World Fair in Paris. This amazing structure would be lit by thousands of electric light bulbs, a revolution in technology. In 1950-60, Dufy took numerous trips abroad, and his impressions from these were reflected in the last phase of his work.

Gagliardini, Julien Gustave French, 1846-1927

Julien Gagliardini painted portraits, landscapes, seascapes, and marine scenes, working primarily in oils. He studied under poet Josephin Soulary (1815-1891) in St. Etienne, and also under Léon Coginet (1794-1880) in Paris, a famed academician who also favoured the Romantic style of painting. Gagliardini combined the academic skills he learned in Paris with the atmospheric experimentations in colour that his contemporaries were experimenting with. He received much recognition for his artistic oeuvre, and went on to exhibit at the Paris Salon from 1869 to 1880.

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Helleu, Paul César French, 1859-1927

Paul César Helleu worked as a painter and an engraver in France at the turn of the century. His work epitomises the charm and elegance of French culture at the time – the Belle Époque. He gained renown for his portraits of society ladies on commission, but a true graceful sensitivity arises out of his portraits of his wife, Alice. He met Alice Guerin when she was only fourteen, and obeyed her parents’ wishes to wait for her to turn 16 to get married and lived at home two years after that. Though he moved to Paris when he was a young man, Helleu was born in Vannes in 1859. His first jobs involved painting ceramics. He later became a pupil of Jean Leon Gérome (1824-1904) at the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts and befriended fellow student John Singer Sargent. Gérome was to buy Helleu’s first painting. The Second Impressionist Exhibition of 1876 profoundly impacted Helleu and Sargent. It went so far that Helleu applied to the group and was accepted as one of them. However in 1886 when he was invited to the eighth exhibition, he was advised not to exhibit by his friend, Impressionist Claude Monet (1840-1926). Helleu earned a living that enabled him to enjoy yachts and sailing – a pleasure he inherited from his father, a naval officer. He mixed with English and French society at Deauville and Cowes. His wife enjoyed entertaining on their boat L’Etoile and Helleu painted many canvases of life on board and other harbour scenes.

Hoppe Kinross, Erna German, 1878-1964

Erna was born on the 17th September 1878, daughter of Louise Adele (nee Vogler) and Karl Theodore Hoppe and grew up in Hamburg. She specialised in figurative work s a nd tow n s c ap e s, exhibiting her work throughout the decade 1910-20, being recorded in Paris from 1906-1914. There she met Charles Kinross

and they married in 1906. By then she was an established artist who had exhibited at the Salon and the Societé Nationale des Beaux-Arts. At their holiday home in Giverny Erna and her husband met and befriended Impressionist Claude Monet. Some of the pictures that Erna painted before marrying were later amended and “Kinross” added - so the date of the painting may be correct despite having “Erna Hoppe-Kinross” as the signature. The couple moved to England in 1915 where Charles’s business was based. One of her paintings was published in English Colour Magazine 1919 Vol II No. 4, but the subject (“Orchard Girl”) was clearly based on a French scene. An exhibition was held in Hastings sometime in the late 50s or early 60s at which a number of her remaining paintings were sold.

Israëls, Isaac

Dutch, 1865-1934 Isaac was the son of well-known Dutch artist Jozef Israëls (18241911). He was largely self-taught, demonstrating precocious talent, and later attended the academy in The Hague from 1878–80. His first well-known paintings date from 1880–84 and include a self-portrait, portraits of women and military subjects. They were composed in the studio in a precise style, soft grey and brown tones predominating, showing the influence of the Hague school. In 1887 Israëls moved to Amsterdam, where he was at the centre of the Tachtigers (Eighties Movement) of writers and painters. Among his friends were George Hendrik Breitner, Lodewijk van Dyssel, Frans Erens, Max Liebermann, Jan Pieter Veth and Jan Voerman. In Amsterdam, he briefly studied at the Rijksacademie, but sought a more fluent technique with which to record contemporary life. Undoubtedly influenced by Frenc h pa i nt i ng, he predominantly started painting the cafés, cabarets, dance halls and the street life of Amsterdam. In 1889 he visited Paris, where


Trinity House he met members of the avantgarde Stéphane Mallarmé, Berthe Morisot, Odilon Redon and Emile Zola. In 1894 he painted Three Servant Girls, now in a private collection, the first of his plein-air pictures. From then on he applied transparent colours to capture fleeting effects of light. His oils were painted in flat broad strokes. For the rest of his life he employed his very personal Impressionist style, which emphasized the interplay of light, colour, line and movement.

La Touche, Gaston French, 1854-1913

La Touche showed an early vocation for a prodigal artistic career. When he finally managed to obtain permission from his parents to take lessons from a M. Paul, he quickly discovered his natural aptitude and was ushered to continue his studies. La Touche never received any further formal training, but he came under the influence of two older painters, Félix Bracquemond (1833-1914) and Edouard Manet (1832-1883). He also frequented the same cafés as Manet and Degas after the Franco-Prussian War – among those he met there were Emile Zola, Duranty and Theodore Duret. It was Bracquemond who largely persuaded La Touche to abandon his sombre palette in favour of the spectrum of colour. He perceived that the underlying influences of La Touche’s art were those of the French eighteenth century: Fragonard (1732-1806) and Watteau (1758-1823), and encouraged him to pursue the symphonies of colour which typify his work. In 1891, La Touche burned many of his first socio-realist paintings – almost fifteen years of work up in flames. La Touche’s oeuvre does not really fall into any named category. His feathery brush strokes, each of a different shade give his pictures an ethereal serenity which seems far removed from the everyday world. Compared to his contemporaries who focused on the life of the Parisian

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Gallery Catalogue flaneur, street and café scenes, La Touche depicted prosaic subject matter transformed to magical feel. It seems as though the most ordinary event or gesture transforms under La Touche’s brush.

whether they are landscapes or still lifes result from both his delicate style of painting and his choice of subjects.

His works were often inspired by the gardens at the Versailles Palace. In 1889 he exhibited some of these Versailles views in Paris. That same year he exhibited watercolours at the Fine Art Society in London. In Paris, La Touche exhibited regularly at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Société des Peintres et Sculpteurs as well as at the Société de la Peinture a l’Eau which he had founded in 1906 and of which he was President. He also had a gallery show in the Netherlands, some two months before his sudden death while working on a painting on 12th July, 1913.

Born in northwest France at Champigné in Maine-et-Loire, Henri Lebasque started his education at the École des BeauxArts d’Angers, and moved to Paris in 1886. Here, Lebasque started studying in the academic studios of Léon Bonnat (1833-1922), a painter who had lived in Spain and stressed the importance of drawing. In Paris, Lebasque also met Camille Pissarro and Auguste Renoir, who later would have a large impact on his work. He was a contemporary of the Fauvist movement, and showed at the first Salon d’Automne with his friend Henri Matisse in 1903, but he always retained his own personal painting style rather than taking up the theories of the fauves. Furthermore his acquaintance with pointillists Georges Seurat (1859-1891) and Paul Signac (1863-1935) developed into an understanding of colour theory, emphasizing the use of complementary colours in shading (as opposed to black).

Le Sidaner, Henri French, 1862-1939

Le Sidaner travelled extensively throughout his life, visiting Holland, Belgium, Venice, London and New York; he also travelled throughout France. During his lifetime, he exhibited at the Paris Salon, the Galeries Georges Petit in Paris and the Goupil Gallery in London. In 1900 he visited the tiny village of Gerberoy (Seine-et-Oise) where he later bought the house which became the inspiration for many of his paintings and where he painted many of his beautiful still lifes. Although the work of Henri Le Sidaner appears to be very personal to the artist, and (as he primarily painted at home) seems impervious to the artistic changes taking place at the beginning of the twentieth century, he was not totally unaffected by the development of Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism. He worked in the realist style, but his love of penumbra and twilight create a poetic and dreamy quality to his technical expertise. There is also undoubtedly an influence of optics on Le Sidaner’s work. The atmosphere of his paintings,

Lebasque, Henri French, 1865-1937

In contrast to these aggressive painters and strong theorists, Lebasque’s vision ran parallel to movements and continued forwards. His pieces were coloured by the soft tenderness with which the younger generation from the Nabis and the Intimists painted. One can compare to Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940) and Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), founders of the aforementioned movements, who often focused on the calm and quietude of domestic subject matter. After 1905, at the aforementioned Salon d’Automne, Lebasque met Henri Manguin (1874-1949), who introduced him to the south of France. This time visiting the Mediterranean coast led to a radical change in Lebasque’s colour palette. He painted warm and welcoming environments, with strong compositions often based on very recognisable places.

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Trinity House Unlike many of the avant-garde artists of the early 20th century, Lebasque had some commercial success during his lifetime. His work decorated both theatres of the Champs-Elysées and a transatlantic sea liner. He died at Cannet in the French Riviera in 1937.

Lhermitte, Léon Augustin French, 1844-1925

The life of the peasant worker, a theme worked on by the realists and the Barbizon school, was rejuvenated in the later nineteenth century through Léon Lhermitte. His dignified subjects were often of rustic environments, earning him the title, “the singer of wheat.” Though he was a very skilled oil painter who exhibited yearly at the Salon, his avantgarde usage of pastels earned him great recognition. Pastels, as a medium, were taken up by the Impressionists in the second half of the nineteenth century due to its immediacy and primacy of colour. Lhermitte never exhibited alongside the Impressionists during his lifetime, but he is a clear contemporary of their ideas and developments, and as such is often considered one of them. Lhermitte often travelled to Britanny, as he was fascinated by the rural life there. His work was shown in Paris but he also had a dealer who brought his pieces to the US, Canada, and Britain. Moreover, his work also spread through commissions in illustrated magazines. Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) wrote “If every month Le Monde Illustré published one of his compositions...It would be a great pleasure for me to be able to follow it. It is certain that for years I have not seen anything as beautiful as this scene by Lhermitte...I am too preoccupied by Lhermitte this evening to be able to talk of other things.” Originally from north-eastern France, Léon Augustin Lhermitte moved to Paris in time to attend the Salon des Refuses in 1863, and while studying at the École des Beaux Arts he gained recognition after his show in the Paris Salon in 1874. His many awards include

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the French Legion of Honour (1884) and the Grand Prize at the Exposition Universelle in 1889.

Loir, Luigi

Austrian, 1845-1916 Born in Austria, Luigi Loir first started training formally in art in 1853 at the Beaux-Arts Academy of Parma and finished his studies in 1865. He made his debut in the Salon of Paris with a painting of a view of Villiers-sur-Seine that received very high praise. Subsequently, Loir studied under Jean Amable Amédée Pastelot (1810-1870) to become a mural painter, and one of Loir’s first commissions was to paint the murals and ceilings at the Chateaux du Diable (The Devil’s House) in 1866. Beyond the murals, Loir’s works vary from oil paintings to watercolours to lithographs. At Hôtel de Ville, Loir had exhibited preparatory sketches of La fête foraine. This painting of a fair with a mass of people overwhelmed the museums and Loir received high recognition. Soon the Municipal Council of Paris purchased a market scene entitled Le marché a la ferraille, and the city of Paris would acquire La rue de la Pitie, vue du Val de Grace, while the Empress of Russia purchased a watercolour entitled The Celebration of the Throne. Luigi enjoyed success and the recognition of his talent throughout his own lifetime. Hence in 1870, he was commissioned into the military to record the battles of Bouret. Slightly methodical perhaps, Loir concentrated exclusively on painting views of Paris. In these works, Loir caught and expressed the many faces of the city of lights, at different times of the day. His craftsmanship and attention to detail led to his election as the official painter of the Boulevards of Paris. This boosted his career and his reputation even further. In 1879 he was awarded the Bronze medal from as Exposant Fidèle des Artistes Français in Paris. He died in his beloved city on 9 February, 1916.

Loiseau, Gustave French, 1865-1935

Gustave Loiseau’s parents were butcher shop owners who moved to Paris soon after he was born. Loiseau became an apprentice to a decorator friend of the family and his parents, recognizing that he was unlikely to change his mind about his future, sold their business and retired to Pontoise near Paris. Pontoise was important in French painting at the time, having been extensively depicted by Pissarro and Cézanne. In 1887 Loiseau’s inheritance from his grandmother enabled him to give up his job and devote his life to painting. Moving to Montmartre, he enrolled for one year at the École des Arts-Décoratifs to study life-drawing, until an argument with his teacher prompted him to withdraw. Departing from the École des ArtsDécoratifs, he reconnected with Fernand Just Quignon (18541941), a painter whose apartment Loiseau had worked on when he was a decorator’s apprentice. He then became a pupil in Quignon’s studio. In 1890 he befriended the myriad of artists now known as the Pont-Aven school, most importantly Paul Gauguin (18481903), as well as Maxime Maufra and Emile Bernard (1868-1941). This school focused on bold usages of colour and the painting of Symbolist subjects. He first employed pointillist techniques and then re-found his pure landscape ideals painting ‘en plein air’ - directly from nature. Loiseau developed a type of ‘cross-hatched’ technique, called ‘en treillis’ (latticework), which gives his paintings the supple, almost touchable quality he is known for.

Martin, Henri

French, 1860-1943 Born August 5, 1860 in Toulouse, Martin’s career started academically and then expanded to an avant-garde Post-impressionist style. His early works were devoted to poetic and allegorical themes


Trinity House reflecting his training at the École des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. After winning the Grand Prix he moved to Paris in 1879 to study at the École des Beaux-Arts under Jean-Paul Laurens (18381921). This all implied that Henri Martin was turning into the prime academician, and saloniste: Martin would exhibit at the Salon des Artistes Français in Paris from 1880, winning a medal at the 1883 Salon. The strict, linearbased painting style Martin had acquired up to this point loosened after a trip to Italy in 1885. Martin returned to Paris in 1889 and began experimenting with pointillism and the theories of colour. His subjects turned from allegories and history painting almost exclusively to landscape painting. Colourful canvases full of light depict the rolling countryside around his house at different times of the day and render works of shadow and sun. In 1889 Henri Martin exhibited at La Fête de la Fédération where he was presented with a gold medal. Working in an avant-garde, ground-breaking style, Martin boasted much recognition for his work. He was named Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1896, and in 1900 won the grand prize at the Exposition Universelle. Martin is buried in the cemetery at La Bastide-du-Vert.

Maufra, Maxime French, 1861-1918

Maufra first began painting when he turned eighteen. He was encouraged to do so by two artists from Nantes: the brothers Leduc. He didn’t fully embrace his painting career immediately as he was at this time a businessman; therefore he only painted in his spare moments from 1884 to 1890. It was then that Maufra discovered the work of the Impressionists and was able to display his works at the Paris Salon of 1886. In 1890, Maufra decided to give up commerce and to become a full-time painter. He left Nantes for Brittany, where he met Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) and Paul

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Gallery Catalogue Serusier (1864-1927). Maufra had his first solo exhibition in Paris in 1894, at Le Barc de Toutteville. Returning from Brittany, he was the first painter to take up residence in The Bateau-Lavoir, a famous Parisian residence for artists. In his works, Maufra sometimes quoted the pointillist technique of Pissarro or Sisley, and also took from the strong colours and powerful drawing of the PontAven school. However, Maufra remained an independent artist throughout his life, and dedicated his work to recording the beauty of nature.

Myers-Boggs, Frank American, 1855-1926

The artist was born in Ohio and trained at the École des Beaux-Arts under Jean Léon Gerôme (1824-1904), spending the majority of his life in Paris. There he accomplished the rare feat of gaining prominence in both the French and American art worlds. By the end of his life, Myers-Boggs had essentially transformed himself into a French Impressionist: he became a French citizen in 1923 and earned the French Legion of Honour three years later. Myers-Boggs loved France; this is witnessed through his atmospheric paintings of its streets, ports and monuments. He was known as a master of plein-air painting, much like Impressionists, Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley (1839-1899), and Eugène Boudin with whom he associated in Paris. His works demonstrate an acute sensitivity to atmosphere and light and a tendency toward damp surfaces — rain-flecked streets and foggy skies — that allow a greater range of reflective effects. It was the transitory aspects of nature, as well as the documentation of everyday reality, to which Myers-Boggs was keenly sensitive. He also painted in Holland, Venice and Belgium, finding inspiration from quaint villages and markets.

He won a prize from the American Art Association in 1884 and silver medals from the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889 and the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893. His paintings are now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Brooklyn Museum of Art, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, as well as the Réunion des Musées Nationaux of Paris, the Luxembourg Museum, and the Museum of Nantes in France.

Pennell, Joseph Austin American, 1857-1926

Joseph Pennell’s chief occupation was working as an etcher and lithographer, as well as an illustrator. Because he and his wife were good friends of artist James McNeill Whistler (18341903), a fellow American living in London, they undertook his biography in 1906. The book was published in 1908, the first of many he and his wife, Elizabeth Robins Pennell, would produce. The artist, born, raised, and educated in Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love, then went to Europe and made his home in London. After returning to the west coast of the United States in March 1912, Pennell decided to complete an etched series he would call “municipal subjects.” He exhibited these works in 1912. Long-time members of California Society of Printmakers believe that Pennell was a member of the New York Etchers Club, established in 1877, which would mean that his work has inspired many generations of printers on both the eastern and western coasts of the United States. Pennell, like many artists and illustrators at the time, completed paintings used for propaganda in war-time United States. Pennell’s contributions include a poster for the fourth Liberty Loans campaign of 1918, stating “That Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth.” It showed the entrance to the New York City harbour suffering aerial and naval bombardment. In the background, the city of New York in flames and the Statue

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Trinity House of Liberty’s head and her torch blown off make for an apocalyptic scene.

Pissarro, Camille French, 1830-1903

Camille Pissarro was a French Impressionist painter and draftsman. He contributed greatly to aesthetic and political ideas of the second half of the nineteenth century, and painted many seminal works. He was born in the West Indies to a successful family of French Jewish merchants. He returned to France for boarding school near Paris in his later youth, and as he started realising his potential as a painter, he moved back to the tropics, sketching and painting on the island of St Vincent and in Venezuela. Camille finally settled in France in 1855, attending the Académie Suisse where he met many of his contemporaries who would later be known as the Impressionists. The artist became acquainted with the works of Camille Corot, who he greatly admired. Like Corot, Pissarro painted rural and urban French life, particularly landscapes. His most famous works were completed in and around Pontoise up until the 1880s. He also painted beautiful scenes from Montmartre, in Paris. His mature work displays empathy for peasants and labourers, perhaps hinting towards his known political leanings and beliefs. He was an avid draftsman but also experimented with the optical effects created by joining different coloured brushstrokes together. Pissarro fled his home in Louveciennes in September 1870 due to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. His family took refuge in London in September 1871. A Blue Plaque now marks the site of the house at 77a Westow Hill, in what is now known as Crystal Palace. He and Monet painted and sketched many beautiful scenes in England. Pissarro returned in June 1871 to Louveciennes to find that his house, along with many of his early paintings, had been destroyed by Prussian soldiers.

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Two years later in 1893 Parisian gallery Durand-Ruel organized a major exhibition of 46 of Pissarro’s works along with 55 others by Spanish artist Antonio de La Gandara. The critics greatly praised the work of the latter, but their appraisal of Pissarro’s art was less enthusiastic. Later historians believe that it might have been that he did not differentiate between landscape and genre painting, often including animals and peasants in rural occupations into the compositions, without any type of pretence or sentimental approach. Camille Pissarro’s pupils went on to become incredibly wellknown artists, among them Paul Gauguin, Paul Cézanne, his son Lucien Pissarro and American Mary Cassatt - he is often considered a patriarchical figure to subsequent generations. He lived long enough to see his own name gain public recognition; when he died in autumn 1903 his works had been included in great exhibitions and prominent private collections.

Sargent, John Singer American, 1856-1925

An American born and raised in Italy, John Singer Sargent went on to become a well-known portrait painter of the rich and famous at the turn of the twentieth century. He worked in manic amounts: his oeuvre includes around nine hundred oil paintings and more than two thousand watercolours, without counting his sketched and charcoal drawings. Sargent initially applied to the Academy of Florence. The school was reorganising at the time and Sargent moved to Paris to study with Carolus-Duran (18371917). He entered the École des Beaux-Arts, in 1874 and won a silver prize in his drawing and anatomy classes. His studiomate James Carroll Beckwith (18521917) became a close and valuable friend. Beckwith was Sargent’s primary connection with the American artists abroad, though Sargent spent most of his time alone, drawing and painting in museums and outside.

In 1879, Sargent exhibited at the Paris Salon with a painting of his teacher, Carolus-Duran. He was only twenty-three at the time, and this success both served as a tribute to his teacher and an advertisement for portrait commissions. By the 1880s, he was a regular exhibitor. Most of his works were full-length portraits of women including Madame Edouard Pailleron in 1880 and Madame Ramón Subercaseaux in 1881, clad in finery; which received with positive critical responses. In 1884 he caused a controversy by exhibiting Portrait of Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau), now housed in the Metropolitan Museum of New York. The work is considered one of his best works, and was the artist’s personal favourite. At the time, however, the untoward forwardness of the portrait and the reactions it caused when it was unveiled at the Salon in Paris was likely the reason for Sargent’s decision to move to London afterwards. He thrived in London as he had in Paris, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1887, with the Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose. This large piece painted on site of two young girls lighting lanterns in an English garden was executed in the Cotswold village of Broadway (on the same High Street as the Trinity House flagship gallery is situated). The painting was purchased by the Tate Gallery immediately, and is still exhibited in London to this day. Sargent travelled extensively, painted constantly and inspired countless people, making him one of the most proclaimed portrait artists of the turn of the twentieth century.

Stevens, Alfred

Belgian, 1828-1906 Stevens began his art training with François Navez (17871869) in Brussels, where he quickly mastered the skill of painting portraits, landscapes and seascapes. He came from a prominent artistic family, his brother Joseph Edouard Stevens was a great painter of figures and


Trinity House animals (especially dogs) as well as a watercolourist and capable engraver. In 1844 Stevens went to Paris and worked under the instruction of Camille Roqueplan (18031855), a friend of his father’s; he also attended the classes at the École des Beaux-Arts, where Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) was then professor. His first picture is dated 1848, A Soldier in Trouble. His early works show a debt to the realism of Gustave Courbet and the historical subjects of Henri Leys. After 1855 he turned to painting genre scenes depicting female subjects within middle-class Parisian interiors. While these works were the most popular at the time, he also produced various more Romantic plein-air works that reveal a more intimate and loose side of the artist.

Gallery Catalogue Vlaminck also painted many areas beyond the café interiors of Paris. In 1911, he travelled to London and painted by the Thames and two years later, he painted again with Derain in Marseille and Martigues. In 1905, he began to experiment with “deconstruction,” a modernist intake that turns the physical world into dabs and streaks of colour conveying a sense of motion. He was greatly influenced by the work of the Impressionists of the 1870s and 1880s, as well as the work of Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890). After 1908 his palette grew more monochromatic, and the predominant influence was that of Cézanne. His later work displayed a dark palette, punctuated by heavy strokes of contrasting white paint.

Vlaminck, Maurice de French, 1876-1958

Maurice de Vlaminck, with André Derain (1880-1954) and Henri Matisse (1869-1954), is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauve movement, a group of modern artists who from 1904 to 1908 were united in their use of intense colour. Vlaminck met Derain on a train from Paris when he was twenty-three years old and the two struck up a lifelong friendship. As Vlaminck came from a musical family, he initially made a living giving violin lessons and evening band performances, painting during the day when he had a free moment. It is clear that this café environment Vlaminck and his friends frequented inspired the artist, as two of his renowned paintings were Sur le zinc from 1900, and L’homme a la pipe - both works illustrating figures one would find in these nocturnal establishments. One could analyse whether the implementation of electricity and artificial coloured lighting in these environments inspired the artists to use such revolutionary colours.

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Index of artists

Page

Abel-Truchet, Louis 106 Adrion, Lucien 70 Béraud, Jean 30 Blampied, Edmund 88 Bonheur, Rosa 80 Boudin, Eugène 38 Canu, Yvonne 82 Clausen, Sir George 52 Collé, Michel Auguste 74 Corot, Jean Baptiste Camille 24 Cucuel, Edward 76 De Lázsló, Philip Alexius 104 Degas, Edgar 26 Dufy, Jean 110 Gagliardini, Julien Gustave 96 Helleu, Paul César 32 Hoppe Kinross, Erna 90 Israëls, Isaac 98 La Touche, Gaston 92 Le Sidaner, Henri 46 Lebasque, Henri 94 Lhermitte, Léon Augustin 42 Loir, Luigi 86 Loiseau, Gustave 64 Martin, Henri 54 Maufra, Maxime 72 Myers-Boggs, Frank 84 Pennell, Joseph Austin 108 Pissarro, Camille 28 Sargent, John Singer 102 Stevens, Alfred 78 Vlaminck, Maurice de 100

Trinity House Gallery Catalogue © 2011, All rights reserved ISBN: 978-0-9568194-0-6

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John Singer Sargent Portrait of an Italian Model (detail) Cat. No. 40


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