Stephen Ongpin Fine Art
Front cover: Sam Szafran Untitled (Plants) No.47
Jean-Simon Berthélemy (1743-1811) Achilles Lamenting the Death of Patroclus(?) No.18
MASTER DRAWINGS 2021
Stephen Ongpin Fine Art
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am, as always, extremely grateful to my wife Laura for her advice, support and (especially!) patience, while I was working on this catalogue through the months of lockdown in London. I am also greatly indebted to the amazing gallery team of Megan Corcoran Locke and Alesa Boyle for their invaluable assistance in every single aspect of preparing this catalogue and exhibition. Ric Horlock, Sarah Ricks and Jenny Willings at Healeys printers have been splendid colleagues. Andrew Smith has photographed almost all of the drawings, and has also been tireless in the vital task of colour-proofing the images for the catalogue against the original artworks. In addition, I would like to thank the following people for their help and advice in the preparation of this catalogue and the drawings included herein: Morton Abromson, Stijn Alsteens, Robert Ansell, Sara Arnold, Deborah Bates, Jamilla Briggs, Sophie Camu, Glynn Clarkson, Anthony Crichton-Stuart, Pauline David, David Ekserdjian, Will Elliott, Marc Fecker, Gabriele Finaldi, Cheryl and Gino Franchi, Julie Frouge, Meg Grasselli, Laure Hug, Neil Jeffares, Alastair Laing, Stefano L’Occaso, Rupert Maas, Suz Massen, Charlotte McDurnan, James Mundy, Joan Nissman, Guy Peppiatt, Benjamin Peronnet, Jane Roberts, Judith Stapleton, Lucinda Walker and Will Wright.
Dimensions are given in millimetres and inches, with height before width. Unless otherwise noted, paper is white or whitish. Please note that drawings are sold mounted but not framed. High-resolution digital images of the drawings are available on request. All enquiries should be addressed to Stephen Ongpin at Stephen Ongpin Fine Art Ltd. 6 Mason’s Yard Duke Street St James’s London SW1Y 6BU Tel. [+44] (20) 7930-8813 or [+44] (7710) 328-627 e-mail: email@example.com
MASTER DRAWINGS 2021
1 BIAGIO PUPINI, called BIAGIO DELLE LAME Active in Bologna and Rome between c.1511 and c.1575 The Coronation of the Virgin with Saint John the Baptist, God the Father Above Pen and brown ink, extensively heightened with white, on buff paper. Laid down on an 18th century English mount. Numbered k.213 in brown ink at the lower right. Inscribed (by Richardson) Biaggio Bolognes.e in brown ink in the lower margin of the mount. Further inscribed by Richardson with his shelfmarks J.43 / Z.51 / D.62 / Z.44 E and Mo Biaggio Puppini Bolognese, Discepolo del Francia, pratteco con l’Imola, / Gerolimino da Carpi Fu Goffetto. P. Resta in brown ink on the reverse of the mount. 202 x 130 mm. (8 x 5 1/8 in.) [sheet] 329 x 251 mm. (12 7/8 x 9 7/8 in.) [mount] PROVENANCE: Padre Sebastiano Resta, Rome1; Presented by him, as part of an album of drawings, to Monsignor Giovanni Matteo Marchetti, Arezzo, in 1698; By descent to his nephew, Cavaliere Orazio Marchetti da Pistoia; Sold in 1710 with the Resta collection of drawings to John, Lord Somers, London (Lugt 2981); Probably his sale, London, Peter Motteaux, 16 May 1717; Jonathan Richardson, Senior, London (Lugt 2184), with his shelfmarks (cf. Lugt 2983 and 2984) and on his mount with his transcription of Resta’s annotations (cf. Lugt 2992)2; Probably his sale, London, Christopher Cock, 22 January to 8 February 1747; Sir John Charles Robinson, London and Swanage (Lugt 1433)3; Possibly Dr. Carl Robert Rudolf, London4; Hugh and April Squire, London and Woodbridge; Their anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 4 July 1975, lot 54 (bt. Holland); Ralph Holland, Newcastle; Thence by descent. LITERATURE: Anon., Father Resta’s Remarks on the Drawings, British Library MS Lansdowne 802, undated, p.192v, no.2135; Anon., An Alphabetical Catalogue of the Painters in the Collection, with the Drawings of each respective Master, referring to the several Books in which they are placed, British Library MS Lansdowne 803, undated, p.52v6. EXHIBITED: Newcastle, Hatton Gallery, Italian Drawings 1525-1750 from the Collection of Ralph Holland, 1982, no.4. Little is known of the career of Biagio Pupini, who is thought to have been a pupil of Francesco Francia in Bologna. He is first documented – already described as magister – working in a church in Faenza in 1511. He must have also spent some time in Rome in the late 1510s or 1520s, although the exact date of this trip is unknown. Pupini worked at the church of San Salvatore in Bologna around 1524, and the following year collaborated with Girolamo da Carpi on the fresco decoration of the sacristy of San Michele in Bosco. In 1537 he again worked alongside Girolamo da Carpi on frescoes in the d’Este villa at Belriguardo, southeast of Ferrara. In his biography of the artist published in 1686, Cesare Malvasia lists several paintings by Pupini, almost all of which are now either lost or destroyed. The scarcity of extant paintings by Pupini has meant that his artistic personality is best studied in the many drawings by him that survive, of which the largest groups are today in the Louvre and the Uffizi. Often on prepared or coloured paper and employing extensive white heightening, Pupini’s drawings are characterized by a highly pictorial technique and reflect the influence of both North Italian and Roman traditions, particularly the draughtsmanship of Polidoro da Caravaggio, Parmigianino and Girolamo da Carpi. Pupini drew numerous copies after antique masters, and also made several copies after works by Raphael and his followers. Relatively few of his drawings, however, can be related to surviving paintings or frescoes by the artist. The abbreviated technique of this sheet, which may be a free copy after the work of an earlier artist, is characteristic of Pupini’s distinctive draughtsmanship. No related painting by the artist is known; an altarpiece of a similar subject, painted for the Pulzoni chapel in the Bolognese church of San Giuliano around 1545, is quite different in composition. Among stylistically comparable drawings is a Pentecost in the Louvre7.
2 LORENZO SABATINI Bologna c.1530-1576 Rome The Virgin and Child with a Bishop Saint (Petronius?) Black chalk and grey wash, squared for transfer in black chalk, on buff paper. A drawing of The Adoration of the Shepherds, by a different hand, on the verso, executed in pen and brown ink and brown wash, with the head of the Christ Child partly squared for transfer in black chalk, and with framing lines in brown ink. Faintly inscribed and. del sarto(?) in black chalk at the lower right. 381 x 244 mm. (15 x 9 5/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Mia Weiner, New York, in 1988; Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 25 January 2002, lot 131. EXHIBITED: New York, Mia N. Weiner, Old Master Drawings, 1988, no.11. Known during his lifetime as ‘Lorenzino da Bologna’, Lorenzo Sabatini is thought to have trained with the Bolognese painter Prospero Fontana, although very little is known of his early years, until the end of the 1550s. He was in contact with the painter and biographer Giorgio Vasari by 1562, probably through Fontana, who had worked at the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence with Vasari, and through him gained some knowledge of Tuscan and Roman mannerism. Vasari mentions Sabatini briefly, in his biography of Francesco Primaticcio, as ‘an excellent painter…he has a very good manner and great mastery in all kinds of work, as may be seen from many things he has done in Bologna…this able painter is constantly making progress,…[and] attending as he does to the studies of art, a most honourable result is expected of him.’1 As an independent artist, Sabatini is only really documented in the 1560s and 1570s. Among the significant works of his early period in Bologna is a Last Supper in the church of San Girolamo alla Certosa. By 1565 he was in Florence, where he worked in Vasari’s studio and was one of only a handful of non-Tuscan painters admitted into the newly-founded Accademia del Disegno. Sabatini contributed to the decoration of the Palazzo Vecchio, and also worked on the ephemeral decorations for the wedding of Francesco I de’ Medici and Joanna of Austria. He returned to Bologna around 1568 and was employed at several churches, notably Santa Maria delle Grazie and San Martino Maggiore, while between 1570 and 1572 he painted works for the major Bolognese churches of San Giacomo Maggiore, San Clemente and San Domenico. Sabatini then left for Rome around 1573, and there received commissions from the newly elected Bolognese Pope Gregory XIII and his nephew, Cardinal Filippo Boncompagni. He painted frescoes in the Sala Regia and the Cappella Paolina of the Vatican, as well as a Pietà in the sacristy of St. Peter’s. A founding member of the Roman Accademia di San Luca, Sabatini died prematurely in 1576, leaving some of his work in the Vatican unfinished. Among his pupils was the Flemish painter Denys Calvaert, who assisted him on the Vatican frescoes. Relatively few drawings by Lorenzo Sabatini are known, and his work as a draughtsman remains little studied. The facial type of the Virgin in this large drawing recurs throughout much of Sabatini’s painted oeuvre, as well as in such drawings as that of the head of a woman in the British Museum2. Among stylistically comparable drawings by Sabatini is a Circumcision in the Louvre3, which is a study for a large altarpiece of c.1564, and a Saint John the Evangelist in a private collection in Florence4, which is a preparatory study for a figure in a ceiling fresco in the Malvasia chapel in San Giacomo Maggiore in Bologna, executed in 1564. The present sheet appears to show the Virgin and Child seated on a crescent moon, and as such can be likened to a drawing by Sabatini of a similar subject, albeit without the attendant saint, in the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa5. That drawing is in turn related to two engravings, one by Agostino Carracci and the other by Domenico Tibaldi, which are both derived from the same original design by Sabatini6.
3 GIOVANNI BATTISTA LOMBARDELLI, called DELLA MARCA Montenuovo (Ostra Vetere) c.1537-1592 Perugia Saint Jerome Pen and brown ink, with brown and grey wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Illegibly inscribed in brown ink at the bottom centre, and also (zucaro?) in red chalk on the backing sheet. 190 x 100 mm. (7 1/2 x 3 7/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 10 December 1979, lot 290; Private collection. Born in the Marchigian hill town of Montenuovo (today called Ostra Vetere), Giovanni Battista Lombardelli is therefore often referred to in documentary sources as Giovanni Battista della Marca or Giovanni Battista Montano. An accomplished fresco painter, he was a pupil of Marco Marchetti, called Marco da Faenza, and Raffaellino da Reggio. The earliest phase of his independent career saw Lombardelli working in several churches in his home town of Ostra Vetere; a fresco of the Nativity in one church is dated 1566 and two paintings in another are dated 1574. Between 1579 and 1581 he worked in Perugia, where he painted lunette frescoes of scenes from the life of Saint Dominic for the cloister of the church of San Domenico and another cycle of cloister frescoes of Franciscan subjects for San Girolamo; all of these works are now lost. Lombardelli began working in Rome in 1575, mainly as a fresco painter. At the Vatican, he painted a series of allegorical figures for the Sala Vecchia degli Svizzeri and, under the supervision of Lorenzo Sabatini and Marco da Faenza, contributed to the decoration of the logge vaticane. Other significant commissions included the fresco decoration of the Palazzo di Montecavallo, where he worked alongside Pasquale Cati between 1583 and 1585. Lombardelli was active in a number of Roman churches, including the Trinità dei Monti, San Pietro in Montorio, Santo Spirito in Sassia and Santa Maria sopra Minerva, as well as in the Palazzo Cesi. Among his most important works is a narrative fresco cycle of scenes from the life of Saint Anthony Abbott in the nave of the Roman church of San Antonio Abbate, painted in the mid-1580s and now largely destroyed. Although he enjoyed a successful career as a fresco painter, however, Lombardelli was not always highly regarded by some early artists and biographers; both Carlo Cesare Malvasia and Giovanni Pietro Bellori mention the same anecdote in which Annibale Carracci, seeing a young painter copying one of Lombardelli’s lunette paintings in San Pietro in Montorio, dissuaded him from doing so, so as not to be tainted by the defects of the artist. Apart from his work in Rome, Lombardelli was active in the Marches and Umbria, notably painting frescoes in the Palazzo Cesi in Aquasparta and an altarpiece of the Crucifixion for the church of Santa Cecilia, likewise in Aquasparta, as well as the chapel of the Madonna in the Sanctuary of Mongiovino in Panicale. He also worked in the Palazzo Buzi in Orvieto and in the Basilica of the Santa Casa in Loreto. The last years of the artist’s career were spent in Perugia, where he decorated the choir of the church of San Pietro, and worked at the Palazzo dei Priori. The present sheet may be likened to such stylistically comparable drawings by Lombardelli as a study of two hermit saints in the Albertina in Vienna1 and a drawing of Scenes from the Life of Saint Anthony Abbot, preparatory to the frescoes in San Antonio Abbate in Rome, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York2. Two drawings in the Louvre – one of Three Scenes from the Life of Saint Anthony Abbot3, likewise related to the San Antonio Abbate frescoes, and the other of A Saint Reviving a Drowned Man4 – may also be compared to the present sheet, as can a drawing of The Virgin and Child with Saints John the Baptist and Francis(?) in a New York private collection, which has recently been attributed to both Raffaellino da Reggio and his pupil Lombardelli5. Other drawings by Lombardelli are today in the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin, the Uffizi in Florence, the Museo del Prado in Madrid, the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, the Istituto Centrale per la Grafica in Rome, and elsewhere.
4 GHERARDO CIBO Genoa or Rome 1512-1600 Rocca Contrada (Arcevia) A Hilly Landscape with Trees Pen and brown ink and brown wash, heightened with white, on blue paper, with framing lines in brown ink. Laid down. 180 x 242 mm. (7 1/8 x 9 1/2 in.) PROVENANCE: Benjamin Wolff, Engelholm, Denmark (Lugt 420), with his drystamp at the lower centre; Thence by descent in the Wolff-Sneedorf family. LITERATURE: Claus M. Smidt, Tegnekunst på Nivaagaard: Ældre europæiske tegninger fra Benjamin Wolffs samling, 1983, no.83, pl.83. EXHIBITED: Nivå, Nivaagaards Malerisamling, Ældre europæiske tegninger fra Benjamin Wolffs samling, 1983, no.83. This splendid landscape is the work of Gherardo Cibo, a gifted amateur draughtsman who was one of the most interesting artistic personalities of the 16th century in Italy. The drawing may be included among a large group of landscape studies, drawn in a distinctive hand and often bearing dates in the second half of the 16th century, which were first assembled by Jaap Bolten in 1969 under the name of ‘Messer Ulisse Severino da Cingoli’; the name inscribed on one of three albums of landscape drawings by this artist in the Biblioteca Comunale in Jesi1. Twenty years later, however, the true author of these drawings was firmly identified by Arnold Nesselrath as one Gherardo Cibo, a nonprofessional landscape artist of noble Genoese origins who was also an accomplished botanist and a composer of lute music. The great-grandson of Pope Innocent VIII, and also related to the Della Rovere dukes of Urbino, Cibo was born into the Genoese aristocracy. He received a fine humanist education, studying in Rome and Bologna, and showed a talent for drawing from an early age. He seems to have briefly studied for the priesthood, before becoming a soldier and diplomat attached to the papal court in Rome. In 1540, aged just twenty-eight, Cibo appears to have retired from his papal duties and settled in the small town of Rocca Contrada (today called Arcevia), in the Apennines, where he lived for the next sixty years. As one scholar has noted, ‘In this peaceful haven he passed the remainder of his life, free to concentrate on his botanical and artistic pursuits: the painting of plants, trees and landscapes; the colouring and decoration of the images in important printed botanical texts; short excursions with friends into the neighboring countryside on collecting expeditions; and the preparation of medicaments based on herbs.’2 Cibo dedicated the rest of his life to the study, collection and illustration of the plants and flowers of the Marchigian region, and became one of the foremost field botanists of his day. He travelled extensively around the Marche collecting specimens and corresponded with fellow naturalists throughout Italy. A gifted artist, despite lacking any formal training, he produced a large number of scientifically accurate botanical illustrations. Among the works illustrated by Cibo is an illuminated herbal now in the British Library, the pages of which depict plants, painted in tempera, set in expansive settings. As Nesselrath noted, ‘Partly because he was an engaging person, partly because he was intrigued by nature, Gherardo would perhaps never have called himself an artist. As a botanist he simply needed to document plants and natural phenomena with great accuracy in order to study and analyze them. In this field he was one of the most gifted draftsmen of all times and his skills were not inferior to those of trained artists…In his lively sketchbooks he spontaneously recorded views and landscapes, alternating these with rocks, plants, seeds, or pigment tests.’3 Having lived most of his life in the relative isolation of Rocca Contrada, engaged in botanical studies purely for his own pleasure and enjoyment, Cibo died there at the age of eighty-eight. As a landscape draughtsman, Cibo worked mainly in the Marche; in the provinces of Ancona, Pesaro, Macerata and Perugia. His landscape drawings can be divided into two distinct types; views of actual sites on the one hand and purely imaginary landscapes on the other. The drawings made on the spot
are often inscribed with the location depicted and with astrological symbols to denote the specific day of the week. Such drawings are probably associated with the artist’s botanical studies, since they allowed him to record the precise places where his plant specimens were found, while also serving as a record of their natural habitat. Indeed, many of his botanical studies depict plants in their appropriate landscape settings. Cibo’s more elaborate invented landscapes, of which the present sheet is an especially fine example, are characterized by ambitious compositions that often show the distinct influence of the northern European landscape tradition. Cibo is known to have travelled to France and Germany in the late 1530s and to Flanders in the 1540s, and also owned drawings and prints by Netherlandish artists; indeed, he seems to have derived some motifs in his drawings from landscape prints by artists such as Paul Bril and Hieronymus Cock. As Stefano Rinaldi has pointed out, ‘This careful study of northern models allows the artist to learn the typical motifs of mannerist landscape painting…In his most successful compositions, however, Gherardo manages to integrate this exotic and artificial language with his observations from life. For this purpose the material gathered in his sketchbooks had to be patiently copied, modified and adjusted… This effort of synthesis explains why Cibo’s landscapes, though largely depending on northern models with their impossible geological fantasies, still maintain a recognizable echo of Gherardo’s own Marche. Thus Cibo contributed in a notable and original way to the development of the Flemish-style landscape in Italy.’4 While Cibo sent some drawings to family members and fellow botanists, most of his landscapes seem to have been done for his own pleasure. That he assembled his landscape drawings into albums, as he did with his botanical studies, is seen in an extract from a handwritten diary, written from 1553 onwards and now lost: ‘The cavalier Geronimo Ardoino came here to Rocca Contrada...and asked me if he could borrow my large volume of landscapes in pen and ink, which I lent him, having first removed certain sketches on bits of paper that were inside.’5 Around 360 landscape drawings by Cibo are known today, some of which bear dates ranging between 1560 and 1593. Apart from the three albums of drawings in Jesi, significant groups of landscape sketches by the artist are in the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin, the Szépmüvészeti Müzeum in Budapest, the Uffizi in Florence, the Musée du Louvre in Paris, the Albertina in Vienna and the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen in Weimar. A sketchbook of landscape drawings by Cibo, numbering twenty-two sheets, appeared at auction in 1989 and is today in a private collection in France6. This hitherto unpublished drawing by Cibo displays a more refined technique than most of the artist’s studies, and can be counted among his finest extant landscapes. Among stylistically comparable drawings by the artist is a Mountainous Landscape with an Arched Rock in the Uffizi7 and a Wooded River Landscape in the Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts in Brussels8, as well as a large mountain landscape in the Biblioteca Angelica in Rome9. The Cibo scholar Lucia Tongiorgi Tomasi notes that ‘Profound artistic sensibility, scientific knowledge and technical skill characterise the work of this notable sixteenth-century artist...Gherardo Cibo could also be considered as the very embodiment of that fascinating Renaissance ideal – the ‘artist-scientist-dilettante’. He was a precocious interpreter of the new and highly successful formula which was to unite the Italian and Flemish pictorial traditions.’10 And, as another recent scholar has added, ‘That Cibo would eventually be regarded as one of the most delightful and original Italian landscapists of the sixteenth century is an unexpected reward for this gentil’huomo who never received classical training as an artist and who may well have regarded his activities as a landscape draftsman as little more than a pleasurable distraction.’11 This drawing bears the drystamp of the 19th century Danish collector Benjamin Wolff (1790-1866). Wolff studied law in Copenhagen before settling in Calcutta, where he worked for an English trading house, of which he eventually became a partner. He returned to Denmark a wealthy man in 1829, and over the course of some thirty years assembled a collection of over 2,000 drawings by Danish and European artists ranging in date from the 16th century to the 19th century. Following Wolff’s death in 1866, the drawings remained with his descendants for over 150 years. Apart from a modest bequest to the Statens Museum for Konst in Copenhagen in 1915 and a pair of exhibitions in a small town in Denmark in the early 1980s, in which the present sheet was included, Wolff’s collection of drawings has remained mostly unpublished and little known to scholars.
5 GIOVANNI BALDUCCI, called IL COSCI Florence 1560-after 1631 Naples(?) A Dominican Saint (St. Vincent Ferrer?) Preaching Pen and brown ink and brown wash, with framing lines in brown ink. Faintly inscribed Loyola predica(?) in pencil at the lower margin. Inscribed Bernardin P[-] in brown ink on the verso. Further inscribed SES in black chalk and numbered C 954 in brown ink on the verso. 233 x 189 mm. (9 1/8 x 7 1/2 in.) [image] 257 x 192 mm. (10 1/8 x 7 5/8 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Peter Sylvester, London (Lugt 2108)1; ‘Prouts collection’ (according to an inscription on the former mount); Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 13 January 1988, lot 74; Nissman, Abromson & Co., Brookline, Massachusetts, in 1989; Private collection, Florida. LITERATURE: Mario di Giampaolo, ed., Disegno italiano antico: Artisti e opere dal Quattrocento al Settecento, Milan, 1994, illustrated p.79; Mauro Vincenzo Fontana, Itinera Tridentina: Giovanni Balducci, Alfonso Gesualdo e la riforma delle arti a Napoli, Rome, 2019, p.317, no.P7 (under ‘Disegni Problematici’, not illustrated). EXHIBITED: New York, Nissman, Abromson & Co., Italian Drawings 1550-1800, 1989, no.8. A versatile and gifted painter, Giovanni Balducci (known as Il Cosci after the surname of an uncle who raised him) established a successful career in Florence, Rome and Naples. Adept at both large-scale altarpieces and smaller devotional works for private patrons, as well as fresco painting, Balducci was trained in the studio of Giovanni Battista Naldini, eventually becoming his chief assistant. Among his significant early independent works are five lunette frescoes in the Chiostro Grande of Santa Maria Novella, painted between 1582 and 1584. In the late 1580s Balducci received an important commission for three altarpieces and nine frescoes of scenes from the life of Christ for the Florentine church of the Gesù Pellegrino, which he completed by the end of the decade. By 1594 he was in Rome, where he contributed to the decoration of the church of Santa Prassede, and painted altarpieces for San Giovanni Decollato, San Gregorio al Celio, San Giovanni dei Fiorentini and San Giovanni in Laterano. Balducci travelled to Naples in 1596 and there worked on an extensive decorative cycle in the Duomo. He was to remain in Naples for more than thirty years, receiving numerous commissions for paintings and frescoes and working in Santissima Annunziata, Santa Maria de Monteverginella and Santa Maria del Carmine. However, relatively little of his work in Naples survives today. Although Balducci had a fairly distinctive style as a draughtsman, and produced a fair number of drawings, those of his later Neapolitan period remain less well studied. Relatively few drawings by the artist can be connected with finished paintings or frescoes, and establishing a firm chronology of his style as a draughtsman remains challenging. The present sheet may be likened to a drawing by Balducci of Christ Healing the Paralytic in the Uffizi2, which incorporates a similar architectural background and is a study for a lunette fresco in the Chiostro Grande of the Florentine church of Santa Maria Novella. The frescoes of the Chiostro Grande, painted for the most part between 1581 and 1584 by various artists, were devoted to scenes from the life of Christ, Saint Dominic and other Dominican saints. It has been suggested that this drawing might represent Balducci’s design for another fresco in the Chiostro Grande, depicting Saint Dominic Resurrecting a Fallen Bricklayer, although that lunette was eventually painted by Benedetto Veli with a composition different from that which appears in this drawing. Among other stylistically comparable drawings by Balducci are a Calling of Saint Matthew in the Uffizi3, an Adoration of the Magi in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung in Munich4 and an Apollo and the Muses in the Museo del Prado in Madrid5.
6 GIOVANNI BATTISTA CASTELLO, called IL GENOVESE Genoa 1547-1639 Genoa Saint Jerome in Prayer Bodycolour, heightened with gold, on vellum. 149 x 117 mm. (5 7/8 x 4 5/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Private collection. LITERATURE: Elena de Laurentis, ‘Il pio Genovese: Giovanni Battista Castello’, Alumina, April-June 2012, illustrated p.29. Giovanni Battista Castello was apprenticed in the studio of Luca Cambiaso in Genoa, probably in the 1560s, following an initial period of training with his father Antonio, a goldsmith. (His younger brother, the painter Bernardo Castello, also studied with Cambiaso.) Castello began his career as a goldsmith and indeed it was not until 1579, when he was already in his thirties, that he began working primarily as an illuminator and miniature painter. Certainly, his grounding in the goldsmith’s art is evident in the jewel-like qualities of much of his oeuvre. His earliest works are indebted to the example of the miniaturist Giulio Clovio and, through him, Michelangelo. Castello became one of the foremost miniaturists of the day, and his colourful religious scenes, usually on vellum, were widely admired and much praised. Indeed, his fame spread as far as Spain, where around 1583 he was summoned by Philip II to work on the illumination of several choir books for the Royal monastery of El Escorial. Although Castello apparently produced over two hundred choir book illuminations (‘corali miniati’) while at the Escorial, none of these appear to have survived. Castello was back in Genoa by 1586, and for much of the remainder of his long career was at the peak of his artistic activity. His small, highly finished religious scenes on parchment or vellum were often framed in ebony frames as independent works, and are sometimes referred to as ‘quadretti da letto’ in household inventories of the period. Often inspired by Northern prints, these devotional miniatures were praised by his first biographer Raffaello Soprani as ‘coloriti con esquisitezza maravigliosa’, and found an appreciative audience of collectors and connoisseurs not only in Genoa and Liguria, but throughout Italy and in Spain. As Mary Newcome has noted of Castello, ‘Writers and poets praised the beauty and naturalism of his work which has been confused and compared with the miniatures by Giulio Clovio and which was highly admired at the Spanish court of Philip II.’1 A further measure of his success is seen in the fact that, when a special tax on municipal guild members was levied in Genoa in 1630, Castello was assessed the highest tax liability of the 142 artists then active in the city, since his miniatures, and their elaborate frames, were counted as luxury goods. Castello, who died when he was in his nineties, also assembled a private collection of drawings and miniatures, including several works by Giulio Clovio, that was eventually inherited by his son and is today in the Galleria Regionale della Sicilia in Palermo. Like most of Castello’s gouache miniatures, this fine Saint Jerome in Prayer, executed on vellum, was almost certainly produced as an autonomous work of art intended for private devotion. As the Castello scholar Elena De Laurentis has noted of the present sheet, ‘[it] is a work of considerable interest, both for its highly refined artistic quality and for its probable provenance from the Escorial, alluded to by the saint portrayed, who was the titular saint of the order of monks entrusted with the management of the monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial.’2
7 FEDERICO ZUCCARO Sant’Angelo in Vado 1543-1609 Ancona The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence Pen and brown ink and brown wash, heightened with white, over an underdrawing in black chalk, on two joined sheets of paper, with framing lines in black chalk. Made up at the lower corners, and laid down. 530 x 285 mm. (20 7/8 x 11 1/4 in.) at greatest dimensions. PROVENANCE: Nicos and Dimitra Dhikeos, Lyon (Lugt 3529)1; Galerie Terrades, Paris, in 2016; Private collection. One of the most important and influential painters of the late 16th century in Italy, Federico Zuccaro was trained in the Roman workshop of his elder brother Taddeo from about the age of ten. Between 1560 and 1563 he assisted his brother on the decoration of the Casino of Pius IV and the Belvedere in the Vatican. He spent the next three years in Florence and Venice, where he painted the fresco decoration of the Grimani chapel in the church of San Francesco della Vigna, before returning to Rome. After Taddeo’s death in September 1566 Federico completed many of his brother’s unfinished projects, including fresco cycles in the Palazzo Farnese at Caprarola, where he served as capomaestro, as well as the Sala Regia of the Vatican and the Pucci Chapel in the Roman church of Santa Trinità dei Monti. He also worked on several commissions of his own, such as two altarpieces for the Duomo at Orvieto, painted in 1568, and the decoration of the vault of the Sala di Ercole in the Palazzo Farnese at Caprarola, a project from which he was, however, dismissed in 1569. Federico Zuccaro was among the most well travelled artists of his day. Unlike Taddeo, he travelled throughout Italy, working in Venice, Florence, Orvieto, Bologna, Urbino, Pavia, Turin, Parma and Mantua, while also visiting France, the Netherlands and England between 1574 and 1575. On his return he received a commission to complete the decoration of the cupola of the Duomo in Florence, begun by Vasari and completed by Zuccaro between 1576 and 1579. The next year he was back in Rome, contributing to the decoration of the Cappella Paolina of the Vatican, before departing for Venice, where he worked between 1582 and 1584. He established a particular practice of making drawings after works of art that he saw on his journeys; a sort of visual travel diary that attests to a broad and wide-ranging interest in the different schools of painting in Italy. (As the Zuccaro scholar James Mundy has noted, ‘Federico was completely without prejudice in his omnivorous ingestion of the work of other artists, both past and present.’2) In 1585 he was summoned by Philip II to Spain, where he painted eight canvases for the retablo mayor, or high altar, of the Basilica of San Lorenzo at El Escorial, as well as cloister frescoes in the attached monastery. Elected the first principe of the reorganized Accademia di San Luca in 1593, Zuccaro continued to receive important commissions late into his career. He built a fine palace for himself in Rome, now the home of the Biblioteca Hertziana. Near the end of his career he wrote an artistic treatise entitled L’idea de’ pittori, scultori et architetti, published in 1607. A gifted draughtsman, Zuccaro was much influenced by the drawings of his elder brother, particularly early in his long career. However, as Julian Brooks has noted, ‘Federico’s style was less dramatic than Taddeo’s, and he answered the demands of the Catholic Church for a clearer, more iconic art. His drawings and compositions are tidier than those of Taddeo, with less robust figures, a greater interest in decorative effects, and occasionally complex iconography.’3 Furthermore, Federico’s peripatetic career, together with his inveterate copying of the work of other artists, exposed him to a wider range of artistic influences, which often found their way into his drawings and paintings. As Mundy has pointed out, ‘Whereas it would be fair to say that Taddeo’s style was invented in Rome, Federico’s was forged in an international crucible…The wide stylistic range of drawings might be expected but it still, at times, surprises the viewer.’4
This very large drawing is a compositional study for one of Zuccaro’s most significant late works; the monumental altarpiece of The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence (fig.1) in the Chiesa dei Cappuccini in Fermo, which is signed and dated 16025. (The painting was was long thought to be by Taddeo Zuccaro, before Federico’s initials were revealed when the large canvas was cleaned and restored in 1979.) The Fermo altarpiece, for which the artist was paid 200 scudi6, was the last of Federico Zuccaro’s three depictions of the subject of the death of Saint Lawrence, following an altarpiece in the Roman church of San Lorenzo in Damaso, commissioned from Taddeo but painted by Federico in 1568, and the centrepiece of the large retablo mayor at the Escorial, painted between 1586 and 1588, but now lost and known only through an engraving by Pierre Perret of 1589. The Fermo painting appears to be particularly inspired by Titian’s great Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence of c.1557-1558, today in the Venetian church of the Gesuiti7, which Federico must have seen on one of his three visits to Venice. He would also have known the later version of the subject that Titian painted in 1567 for Philip II of Spain, which was on the high altar of the church of San Lorenzo at the Escorial when he was working there twenty years later. James Mundy has confirmed the attribution of the present sheet, and has noted that it is an autograph copy or version of another drawing by Federico, of similar dimensions (fig.2), in the collection of the Uffizi in Florence8. He further suggests that the present sheet and the Uffizi drawing, which both show significant differences from the finished painting, particularly in the background, should be regarded as studies for the Fermo altarpiece, for which no other preparatory drawings are known9.
8 CAMILLO PROCACCINI Bologna 1561-1629 Milan The Annunciation Red chalk, squared for transfer in red chalk. 180 x 97 mm. (7 1/8 x 3 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Michael Jaffé, Cambridge and Clifton Maybank, Dorset; His sale, London, Sotheby’s, 1 July 1965, lot 131; Faerber & Maison, London; Thomas Palmer; Private collection, London, in 1978; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 18 April 1996, lot 8; Nissman, Abromson Ltd., Brookline, Massachusetts; Martin J. Wilheim, New York. LITERATURE: Nancy Ward Neilson, ‘Il Seicento Lombardo. Catalogo dei disegni, libri, stampe’ [review], Master Drawings, Spring 1974, pp.57-58, fig.1; Nancy Ward Neilson, Camillo Procaccini: Paintings and Drawings, New York and London, 1979, p.46, under no.61, p.143, fig.204. Born into a family of Bolognese artists that included his father Ercole and younger brothers Carlo Antonio and Giulio Cesare, Camillo Procaccini was trained in the late Mannerist artistic milieu of Bologna. He was much influenced by the Carracci, and undertook study trips to Parma, to see the works of Correggio, and to Rome, where he was inspired by the frescoes of Raphael and Michelangelo. All of these influences are evident in his first major independent work, the fresco decoration of the apse of the church of San Prospero in Reggio Emilia, painted between 1585 and 1587. In 1587 Procaccini moved to Milan, with his father and brothers. He enjoyed a successful career for the next forty years, receiving numerous commissions for paintings for churches and palaces in Milan and elsewhere in Lombardy, as well as in his native Emilia and in Venice, Genoa and the Canton Ticino in Switzerland. The subjects of Procaccini’s religious paintings, depicted with narrative clarity and expressive force, served to emphasize the tenets of the Counter Reformation, and the artist came to dominate the artistic scene in Lombardy in the latter half of the 16th century. That Procaccini’s drawings were popular among collectors in his lifetime is seen in the comments of a contemporary connoisseur, Girolamo Borsieri, who describes the artist as ‘he who, by those who know the excellence of paintings, is praised as the master among modern draughtsmen’, adding that ‘To obtain drawings by Procaccini…is more the fortune of a great prince than the reward of a private, albeit worthy connoisseur...I would almost stop trying to find them.’1 Executed in the artist’s preferred medium of red chalk – a legacy of his Bolognese training – this drawing is a preparatory study for the outside of one of the organ shutters painted in 1615-1616 for the Milanese church of San Vittore al Corpo. The interiors of the two organ shutters, each measuring four and a half metres in height, depicted The Annunciation2 (fig.1) and The Adoration of the Shepherds3, while the exterior was painted with a scene of The Crossing of the Red Sea and the Destruction of Pharoah’s Host4. The paintings were commissioned from Procaccini in August 1615, and the artist received final payment for the works in November 1616. All three paintings are today in the sacristy of the church. The fact that the organ shutters would have been seen from below accounts for the low viewpoint adopted in this drawing. A pendant study in red chalk of The Adoration of the Shepherds, for the other interior organ shutter, is in the Castello Sforzesco in Milan5, while a preparatory drawing for The Crossing of the Red Sea and the Destruction of Pharoah’s Host is in the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm6. 1.
9 JACOPO LIGOZZI Verona c.1549-1627 Florence The Meeting of Saints Francis, Dominic and Angelus of Jerusalem at San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome Pen and brown ink and brown wash, heightened with gold, on two joined sheets of paper, backed and varnished. 705 x 520 mm. (27 3/4 x 20 1/2 in.) PROVENANCE: Private collection, France; Talabardon & Gautier, Paris, in 1998; Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 26 January 2000, lot 48; Thomas Williams Fine Art, London and W. M. Brady & Co., New York; Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 27 January 2010, lot 26. LITERATURE: Lucilla Conigliello, Drawing Gallery: Ligozzi, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 2005, p.71, under no.20; New York, W. M. Brady & Co., Master Drawings 1520-1890, exhibition catalogue, 2006, unpaginated, no.9. EXHIBITED: New York, W. M. Brady & Co., Master Drawings 1520-1890, 2006, no.9. Born into a family of painters and decorators in Verona, Jacopo Ligozzi settled in Florence in 1577, summoned there by Grand Duke Francesco I de’ Medici. He was to spend the remainder of his long career in Florence. Trained as a miniaturist (it is interesting to note that even in his large paintings he often signed his name as ‘Jacopo Ligozzi miniator’), he was admitted into the Florentine Accademia del Disegno in 1582. One of the most industrious artists active in Florence in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Ligozzi served as a court artist for four successive Medici Grand Dukes, from Francesco I to Ferdinando II. Working from a studio in the Casino Mediceo, he executed numerous designs for tapestries, furniture, glass, jewellery, pietra dura and metalwork, as well as festival decorations. According to Medici inventories, however, much of his work took the form of small-scale paintings, often of a devotional or emblematic nature. Ligozzi’s first important public commissions came in the 1590s, notably two monumental historical scenes, painted on slate, for the Salone dei Cinquecento of the Palazzo Vecchio, completed in 1592. He painted altarpieces for the Florentine churches of Santa Maria Novella, San Marco and San Giovannino degli Scolopi, as well as for churches elsewhere in Tuscany; in Bibbiena, Poppi, Arezzo, San Gimigniano, Livorno and at Monte Oliveto Maggiore. Perhaps his best-known works as a painter, however, are a series of lunette frescoes of scenes from the life of Saint Francis in the cloister of the Florentine church of Ognissanti. Ligozzi became increasingly devout as he grew older, and this is reflected in such late works as an altarpiece of The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence for the Florentine church of Santa Croce, painted in 1611. The artist’s last Medici commission was for a series of four paintings of The Passion of Christ, painted between 1621 and 1622 for Maria Maddalena of Austria, mother of the young Grand Duke Ferdinando II and co-regent during his minority. Jacopo Ligozzi was a superbly gifted draughtsman, and was greatly esteemed as such by his contemporaries. Many of his highly finished drawings were executed as independent works of art, sometimes on coloured paper, and several were heightened with gold. As one scholar has noted, ‘The most authentic, coherent vein of Jacopo’s work is expressed in his graphic output: he was a born draughtsman, a draughtsman of immense precision, of drawings so meticulous as to occasionally become for the artist and his commissioners works of art for their own sake, and sought after as such.’1 It is interesting to note that, when he was engaged at the Medici court in the early 1620s, the terms of his employment were tied to his output as a draughtsman. As the document noted, ‘If there is no occasion to employ him, have him do drawings to keep him in the gallery…just have him draw, leave it up to him, whatever he does he will produce sheets worth keeping, and for that very reason we want him at court.’2
The drawings made by Ligozzi cover a wide range of subject matter, including religious and allegorical scenes, designs for glassware and costume studies, as well as literary subjects, notably a series of episodes from Dante’s Divina Commedia, drawn between 1587 and 1588. His reputation as a designer of innovative allegorical compositions was well established early in his career and, as one scholar has recently noted, he ‘produced (and was most probably the originator of) ingenious allegorical compositions… The content of Ligozzi’s drawings is often very unusual and their sources are extremely unexpected.’3 In keeping with Grand Duke Francesco I’s interest in natural history, Ligozzi also produced over three hundred drawings depicting specimens of fishes, birds and flowers in the Granducal collections. An album of such drawings is recorded in the Medici Guardaroba in 1619, and a large number of natural history drawings by the artist are today in the Uffizi; some of these were also used to illustrate the treatises of the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldovrandi. (Other drawings of this type entered the collection of the Habsburg Emperor Rudolf II in Prague.) Whatever the subject, Ligozzi’s drawings are usually very highly finished, and combine a meticulous technique with a miniaturist’s attention to detail. He also provided a number of designs for printmakers such as Agostino Carracci, Philippe Thomassin and the chiaroscuro woodcutter Andrea Andreani, who reproduced a handful of his allegorical drawings in the mid-1580s. The present sheet is unusually large in scale among Ligozzi’s extant oeuvre of drawings. It is a finished composition study for one of a series of lunette frescoes (fig.1) of scenes from the life of Saint Francis of Assisi, painted by Ligozzi in the cloister of the church of the Ognissanti in Florence. The artist received the commission for this vast mural project around 1599, and worked on it over the next two decades or so, eventually completing seventeen of the thirty-one frescoes in the cloister. Starting in the southeast corner and working clockwise, Ligozzi painted every lunette fresco on the south and east walls of the cloister, as well as the two on the northwest corner. The remaining lunettes on the north and west sides were painted by other artists, sometimes working from Ligozzi’s designs, including Giovanni da San Giovanni, Filippo Tarchiani, Nicodemo Ferrucci and Galeazzo Ghidoni. The painting of the cloister frescoes seems to have been largely completed by 1624.
This large and highly-finished drawing, almost certainly made to be presented to the friars of the church for their approval, is a modello for one of the last frescoes painted by Ligozzi at Ognissanti, depicting the meeting of Saints Francis, Dominic and Angelus of Jerusalem in the church of Saint John Lateran in Rome in 1215. The lunette fresco of this scene is found at the eastern end of the north wall of the cloister4, and was probably painted around 1620. Like many of the other frescoes in the cloister at Ognissanti, which have long been exposed to the elements, the lunette of The Meeting of Saints Francis, Dominic and Angelus of Jerusalem at San Giovanni in Laterano had suffered damage and sustained significant losses, particularly in the foreground, by the early 20th century. Nevertheless, the appearance of the fresco is recorded in an engraving (fig.2) made in the 19th century5. The only known preparatory study for the fresco, this drawing differs little from the final painting, apart from the area of the foreground at the lower right. Here the prominent figure of the seated youth seen in the present sheet was replaced in the fresco by a mendicant friar and a young boy, as can be seen in the reproductive engraving. Although the Ognissanti cloister frescoes underwent a major program of restoration in the 1980s, the lower foreground part of this fresco remains irreparably lost today. A number of other highly-finished compositional drawings by Ligozzi for the Ognissanti frescoes are known, some of which, like the present sheet, are heightened with gold. These include four drawings at Christ Church in Oxford6, two sheets in the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin7, and single examples in the Uffizi in Florence8, the Art Institute of Chicago9 and the Louvre in Paris10. Other drawings related to the Ognissanti frescoes include two studies for individual figures; one in the Uffizi11 and the other in the Städel Museum in Frankfurt12. With its dark ground and delicate highlights in gold, this drawing reveals the influence on Ligozzi of chiaroscuro woodcuts by such Northern artists as Albrecht Altdorfer and Hans Burgkmair the Elder. Among stylistically comparable drawings by the artist, although considerably smaller than the present sheet, is a highly-finished study for an unknown altarpiece or fresco of The Virgin Blessing Two Monks, Accompanied by Saints Mary Magdalene, Agnes, Cecilia and Catherine, with Christ and Angels Above, in the De Pass Collection at the Royal Cornwall Museum in Truro13.
10 ABRAHAM BLOEMAERT Gorinchem (Gorcum) 1566-1651 Utrecht Studies of the Head of a Young Woman, Legs and Hands and the Bust of a Woman Red chalk and black chalk, heightened with touches of white chalk, with framing lines in brown ink. Laid down. Numbered 125 in brown ink at the upper right. 178 x 158 mm. (7 x 6 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Part of an album of drawings by Bloemaert belonging to the artist André Giroux, Paris; The posthumous vente Giroux, Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 18-19 April 1904, part of lot 175 (‘Etudes de personnages, de paysages et d’animaux. Cent trente-six dessins, la plupart exécutés à la sanguine, un certain nombre avec d’autres croquis au verso’), the album thence broken up and the drawings dispersed; Private collection. One of the last major exponents of the Northern Mannerist tradition, Abraham Bloemaert enjoyed a very long and productive career of some sixty years, resulting in an oeuvre of around two hundred extant paintings, including landscapes, religious scenes, history subjects and genre scenes. He was also a gifted and prolific draughtsman, creating numerous studies for paintings and engravings – some six hundred prints after his designs are known – as well as landscape drawings and many sheets of studies of heads, hands and arms. The bulk of his enormous corpus of drawings, numbering around 1,600 sheets, were retained by his descendants for over fifty years, and it is not until the first half of the 18th century that they began to be sold and dispersed. Sheets of studies such as this were an integral part of Bloemaert’s working method. While in some cases the different studies on a drawing – of heads, hands, arms, draperies, legs and so forth – were simply exercises, at other times the artist seems to have been working towards a painting, with the drawing intended to prepare different parts of a single multifigural composition. As Stijn Alsteens has noted of Bloemaert’s study sheets, ‘The dating of these drawings is difficult; it can be assumed that many were made from life, with a model posing. Some studies are preparatory for Bloemaert’s painted compositions or print designs…In most study sheets, however, the artist seems to have had no specific…narrative in mind, and these collages of heads, limbs and drapery should be considered as part of the tradition of model sheets…However, it cannot be excluded that Bloemaert made them to accommodate collectors with a taste for such examples of pure, and superior, draftsmanship.’1 Some of these drawings were reproduced as engravings and published in the 1650s as part of the Konstryk Tekenboek, a compendium of drawings by Bloemaert which was reprinted several times, perpetuating his influence on later generations of artists. The present sheet is likely to be a relatively late work. Both the facial type and the distinctive hairstyle of the two studies of the head of a woman in the lower part of the drawing occur in numerous paintings by Bloemaert of the late 1620s and 1630s2. The hand drawn in red chalk at the top of the sheet was used for the hand of Adonis holding a spear in one of the artist’s finest works; the large painting of Venus and Adonis of 1632, today in the Statens Museum for Kunst in Copenhagen3. This drawing was part of a large group of around 140 studies by Bloemaert – mostly figure studies drawn in red chalk – that were at one time in the collection of the French landscape painter André Giroux (1801-1879), and were dispersed at auction in Paris in 1904. Most of these drawings are numbered on the upper right corner of the sheet, up to 162, which suggests that they may have formed part of an album, perhaps assembled by one of the artist’s sons. Jaap Bolten has suggested that the Giroux drawings were drawn between 1595 and 1630, and were meant as a sort of model-book or sketchbook of motifs to be copied by Bloemaert’s students4.
11 Circle of ANTHONY VAN DYCK Antwerp 1599-1641 London The Head of an Apostle Black chalk, heightened with touches of white chalk, with framing lines in brown ink, on brown paper. Laid down. Numbered 2882 in red ink on the on the backing sheet. Extensively inscribed (by van der Marck) pastel [?] / en B [?] / Paulus Rubens / Gabriel Huquiers vente / te [?] Sept. 1761 [?] in black chalk on the backing sheet. 372 x 260 mm. (14 5/8 x 10 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Gabriel Huquier, Paris1; His sale (‘Catalogue d’un magnifique Cabinet de desseins… Par un fameux Connoisseur & Amateur, Monsieur ***’), Amsterdam, Pierre Yver, 14-26 September 1761, lot 760 (as Rubens, ‘Une Tête d’Homme pensif, dessinée au crayon noir & blanc, par le même [P. P. Rubens].’, bt. Fouquer); Johan van der Marck Aegidiusz., Leiden (Lugt 3001) with his inscription on the backing sheet2; His posthumous sale, Amsterdam, de Winter & Yver, 29 November 1773 onwards, ‘Konstboek’ P, lot 1430 (as Rubens: ‘Een Man Hoofd met een Baard, met zwart en wit Kryt op graauw Papier getekend, h.14 b 10 1/4 duim.’, bt. Vollenhoven); J(acobus?) Vollenhoven; Private collection, Sierre, Switzerland; Iohan Quirijn van Regteren Altena, Amsterdam (with his posthumous sale stamp [Lugt 4617] on the backing sheet); Thence by descent. LITERATURE: Jeroen Giltaij, Le cabinet d’un amateur: Dessins flamands et hollandaises des XVIe et XVIIe siècles d’une collection privée d’Amsterdam, exhibition catalogue, Rotterdam and elsewhere, 19761977, pp.28-29, no.48, illustrated pl.107 (as Van Dyck); Susan J. Barnes et al, Van Dyck: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, New Haven and London, 2004, p.72, under no.I.56 (as not by Van Dyck). EXHIBITED: Rotterdam, Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Paris, Institut Néerlandais and Brussels, Bibliotheque Albert Ier, Le cabinet d’un amateur: Dessins flamands et hollandaises des XVIe et XVIIe siècles d’une collection privée d’Amsterdam, 1976-1977, no.48 (as Van Dyck). Long thought to be by Peter Paul Rubens, the present sheet may be related to Anthony Van Dyck’s small panel painting of the apostle Saint Jude (Judas Thaddeus) (fig.1) in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna3, of which a later autograph version is in the Museum Boijmans-van Beuningen in Rotterdam4. Both early works are part of two different series of paintings of Christ and the Twelve Apostles, datable to Van Dyck’s first Antwerp period, between c.1618 and 1620. Although this drawing was published in 1976 as a preparatory study by Van Dyck for the painting in Vienna, the attribution was rejected in the 2004 catalogue raisonné of the master’s paintings. An attribution to the Flemish artist Lucas Franchoys the Younger (1616-1681) has been suggested. Franchoys entered the Antwerp studio of Rubens in the late 1630s, and became one of the most talented of Rubens’s followers, although his work also shows the distinct influence of Van Dyck. Working in Tournai and Mechelen, he had a successful career as a painter of portraits, religious scenes and history subjects. Although only a handful of drawings by Franchoys are known, some of which are drawn in black and white chalk on blue paper, the influence of both Rubens and Van Dyck is evident in the few drawings and oil sketches by the artist that survive.
12 JOSEPH WERNER THE YOUNGER Bern 1637-1710 Bern A Bacchanal Gouache on vellum, with framing lines in gold. The sheet laid down at the edges on copper. 147 x 203 mm. (5 3/4 x 8 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Private collection, Switzerland. Born in the Swiss city of Bern, the Baroque painter and draughtsman Joseph Werner the Younger had a peripatetic career in Italy, France, Germany and Switzerland, producing work ranging from miniatures executed with remarkable refinement to large-scale ceiling paintings. The son of a painter of the same name, he completed his training in Basel and then in Frankfurt, where, from the age of thirteen, he worked in the studio of the Swiss painter and engraver Matthäus Merian the Younger. Between 1652 and 1654 Werner was in Rome, where he is thought to have been in contact with the painters Carlo Maratti and Andrea Sacchi, as well as the Frenchman Nicolas Poussin, whose influence is noticeable in much of his work. A small self-portrait in gouache on vellum, dated 1662 and today in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, depicts the twenty-five year old artist standing before an easel on which rests a large allegorical drawing in pen and ink, and is the only work that can be securely attributed to Werner’s brief Italian period. In 1662 Werner was summoned to France by King Louis XIV, whom he portrayed in the guise of Apollo in a portrait miniature of 1663-1664 now at Versailles. He lived and worked in Paris for much of the 1660s, when he produced some of his finest works. He painted mythological and allegorical scenes and portraits in miniature – often in the form of allegories – for the King, and also produced a number of exceptional miniatures of mythological subjects for the collector Eustache Quinault from Troyes, who owned at least eleven examples1. Such was the artist’s renown in France that in 1671 the priest and poet Jean Bahier published a long poem praising the works by Werner in the Quinault collection, which begins: ‘Chefs-d’oeuvre sans pareils, merveilleuses figures, / Divins charmes des yeux, aimables mignatures, / Tableaux qui ravissez et la veue et l’esprit, / Fust-ce la main d’un homme ou d’un dieu qui vous fit? / Interprètes muets des plus nobles merveilles, / Qui parlez à nos coeurs sans parler aux oreilles, / Dites-nous quel pinceau si sçavant et si doux / Forma ces beaux objets que l’on admire en vous.’2 Werner left Paris in 1667 and settled in Augsburg, coming into contact with artists such as Joachim von Sandrart and undertaking commissions in Zurich, Innsbruck and Munich, where between 1672 and 1673 he completed an allegorical ceiling painting for the Schloss Nymphenburg. He also produced religious miniatures, easel pictures and portrait miniatures, and among his patrons was the Electress Henrietta Adelaide of Bavaria, for whom he painted eight miniatures of scenes from the life of the Virgin between 1669 and 1670; these are today in the Residenz in Munich. After leaving Augsburg in 1680, Werner seems to have spent some time in Vienna, creating a number of portrait miniatures of the Imperial family, before returning to his native city of Bern in 1682 and founding a private art academy there, inspired by the precepts of his friend Sandrart. Unusually for the time, the school was open to women as well as men. Much of his work of the 1680s and 1690s is in the form of portrait painting, since there seems to have been no real market in Bern for Baroque allegories and he received few official commissions. In 1695 he was appointed director of the newly-established Prussian Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin by the Elector of Brandenburg. Although he remained in the German city for over a decade, he was, by this time, much less productive as an artist, and only a few works, mostly oil paintings, are known from this late period. In 1707 Werner returned for good to Bern, where he died three years later. Both of his sons, Joseph Christopher Werner and Francis Paul Werner, became painters.
Joseph Werner the Younger’s extant oeuvre includes less than sixty oil paintings and some fifty miniatures, as well as around sixty drawings (including several fantastical scenes of sorcery and witchcraft, perhaps influenced by the work of Salvator Rosa) and two etchings. Although his output as an artist is relatively small, his work is always characterized by a precise and highly sophisticated technique. He is perhaps best known for a series of refined, small-scale compositions drawn in gouache on vellum, of which this Bacchanal is a particularly fine example. Around fifty of these exquisite miniaturist works – depicting mythological, religious or allegorical subjects, as well as some portraits – have survived, bearing dates ranging from 1662 to 1685. These were the works for which the artist seems to have been held in the highest esteem in his lifetime. The present sheet may be dated to the period Werner spent in Paris and Versailles, between 1662 and 1667, when he was at the peak of his powers as a draughtsman and miniaturist. Also datable to the mid-1660s is a stylistically comparable gouache on vellum drawing of Apollo and Daphne, dated 1665 (fig.1), in the collection of Jean Bonna in Geneva3. As Stijn Alsteens has noted of the Bonna drawing, in terms equally applicable to this Bacchanal, ‘This classic beauty, Werner’s faultless drawing, and the preciousness of the detailed execution must have appealed particularly to the aristocratic taste of his French admirers. When well preserved…Werner’s miniatures still hold the attraction of a gem.’4 Likewise comparable with the present sheet is a gouache drawing of The Judgment of Paris, dated 1670 (fig.2), in the collection of the Kunstmuseum in Bern5, in which the same figure of a standing female nude appears as one of the three goddesses. This splendid Bacchanal, like the Bonna Apollo and Daphne and the Judgment of Paris in Bern, is notable for the elaborate landscape background that suggests the influence on Werner of the early 17th century German painter Adam Elsheimer. The figures in these works are placed in a shallow foreground space, and in their classicism reflect something of the artist’s time in Italy, and in particular his exposure to the work of Poussin. A somewhat similar subject is found in a lost gouache miniature by Werner of Two Bacchantes Picking Grapes, of vertical format, which is known through a reproductive print6.
13 BENEDETTO LUTI Florence 1666-1724 Rome God Cursing Cain after the Murder of Abel Red and black chalk and brown wash, extensively heightened with white, on buff paper. Partly squared for transfer in red chalk. 501 x 330 mm. (19 3/4 x 13 in.) PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Piasa], 23 March 2001, lot 33; Flavia Ormond, London, in 2002; Private collection. LITERATURE: Rodolfo Maffeis, Benedetto Luti: L’ultimo maestro, Florence, 2012, pp.222-224, under no.I.6, illustrated p.223 (as location unknown, ‘autografia incerta’)1; Ursula Verena Fischer Pace, Italian Drawings in the Department of Prints and Drawings, Statens Museum for Kunst: Roman Drawings before 1800, Copenhagen, 2014, p.172, under no.105. EXHIBITED: New York, Flavia Ormond Fine Arts at Adelson Galleries, Master Drawings 1500-1895, 2002, no.7; Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Splendor and Elegance: European Decorative Arts and Drawings from the Horace Wood Brock Collection, 2009, no.128. Benedetto Luti was a pupil of Anton Domenico Gabbiani in Florence in the 1680s, and at the end of the decade was sent to Rome to complete his training at the Medici academy there. Admitted to the Accademia di San Luca in 1695, Luti worked in Rome for the remainder of his successful career, becoming one of the most important and influential artists in the city. He earned commissions from Popes Innocent XII and Clement XI and several cardinals, as well as members of the Roman nobility and the city’s leading families, and painted altarpieces and decorations for churches and palaces in Rome and elsewhere. Luti continued to maintain close contacts with Florence, however, and enjoyed the particular patronage of Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany; he also sold paintings to prominent collectors in France, England and Germany, notably Lothar Franz von Schönborn, Archbishop-Elector of Mainz. The 17th century biographer Lione Pascoli wrote of Luti that ‘he achieved a tender and delicate manner, of lovely and soft colour with perfect design, and with such harmonious compositions so well attuned to his exquisite taste, that no one has been able to imitate it.’2 Luti was not a prolific painter, however, and less than eighty paintings by the artist are known today. A gifted teacher with a large studio, he held private classes in life drawing and took a leading role in the affairs of the Accademia di San Luca, of which he was elected principe in 1720. Recognized as a fine connoisseur, Luti was also active as an art dealer and agent, and eventually assembled a large collection of drawings by earlier artists, numbering almost 15,000 sheets. Benedetto Luti’s significance as a painter and draughtsman was aptly summarized by the pioneering modern scholar of 18th century Italian art, Anthony Clark: ‘Luti was a lovely and careful artist; and he is rather a rare one. His originality was appreciated, but not without reservations and misunderstanding. Highly intelligent, solitary, melancholy, and sickly, Luti was a great collector of drawings and prints, and not overfond of the act of painting – at which he was more brilliant and easy than any Roman colleague of the day. His honors and fame in Europe were considerable…His perfectly executed paintings, his drawings of exquisite quality…are one of the finest and most formative achievements of the century.’3 This large drawing is a finished compositional study for Luti’s monumental early painting of God Cursing Cain after the Murder of Abel (fig.1), today in the collection of Viscount Scarsdale at Kedleston Hall in Derbyshire4. This was the artist’s first painting completed after his arrival in Rome in 1691, and seems to have been executed for a competition at the Accademia di San Luca. The huge canvas of God Cursing Cain after the Murder of Abel is mentioned in letters written by Luti to his teacher Gabbiani in September and December 1692, in which he notes that the painting had been exhibited in August, for the Feast of Saint Bartholomew, in the Roman church of San Bartolomeo dei Bergamaschi. Luti then
sent the painting to his patron in Florence, the collector Giovanni Nicolò Berzighelli, who presumably also acquired its pendant of The Feast in the House of Simon, also now at Kedleston Hall, either in 1692 or shortly thereafter. The composition of God Cursing Cain proved to be very popular, and was copied several times. Both paintings by Luti were purchased at the posthumous sale of Berzighelli’s collection in 1724 by the Anglo-Florentine painter, dealer and collector Ignazio Hugford. In his account of Luti’s life and career published in his Raccolta di cento pensieri diversi di Anton Domenico Gabbiani in 1762, Hugford praises the two paintings as among Luti’s best works, and adds that they were later sold to an English collector. This must have been after 1746, when the two paintings were engraved for Hugford by the Venetian printmaker Giuseppe Wagner5 from copy drawings provided by Giovanni Battista Cipriani. By 1757 Luti’s two paintings are recorded in the collection of Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Baron Scarsdale, at Kedleston Hall. The paintings were originally intended to be hung high on the wall on either side of a niche in the Dining Room at Kedleston, but were soon moved by Robert Adam to the large Drawing Room, where they remain today. The present sheet is the only drawing by Luti that may be persuasively regarded as a preparatory study for the painting of God Cursing Cain after the Murder of Abel6. An outline drawing in black chalk, formerly in the collection of the Vicomte Villain XIII and recently on the art market in Paris7, shows several differences with the final painting, and has been regarded as a study for it. However, that drawing is incised for transfer and rubbed with red chalk on the verso, and as such may have been preparatory for a reproductive engraving rather than the painting itself8. Other drawings related to the Kedleston Hall painting may be dismissed as later copies of the painting or the engraving. These include a red chalk drawing in the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence9 and a pen and wash study in the Biblioteca Reale in Turin10, as well as a drawing in black chalk on blue paper in the Statens Museum for Kunst in Copenhagen11 and a brush and wash drawing in the National Gallery of Scotland in Edinburgh12.
14 AURELIANO MILANI Bologna 1675-1749 Bologna The Abduction of Helen Black chalk, with stumping, with grey ink and grey wash, laid down on an 18th century English mount. Signed Io Aureliano Milani F. in black chalk at the lower right. Inscribed (by Barnard) J:B No 865. / 19 1/2 by 11 1/4. / of Bologna, was a Disciple of Pasinelli born 1675 in brown ink on the reverse of the mount. Further inscribed W. R. Hubbard. / 1892. and 4. Cockspur St. in brown ink on the reverse of the former mount. A clipping from a late 19th or early 20th century English auction catalogue pasted onto the reverse of the former mount. 291 x 496 mm. (11 1/2 x 19 1/2 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: John Barnard, London (Lugt 1419), on his mount and with his initials J:B in brown ink at the lower right corner of the mount; Probably his sale, London, Greenwood, 16-24 February 1787, possibly eighth night’s sale (24 February), lot 3 (‘One A. Milani’); W. R. Hubbard, Glasgow(?), in 1892 (according to an inscription on the reverse of the former mount); Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s Olympia, 20 April 2004, lot 18; Jean-Luc Baroni Ltd., London in 2005; Private collection, California. LITERATURE: Angelo Mazza, ‘Gli artisti di palazzo Fava. Collezionismo e mecenatismo artistico a Bologna alle fine del Seicento’, in Saggi e memorie di storia dell’arte, No.27, 2004, p.355, note 102. EXHIBITED: New York and London, Jean-Luc Baroni Ltd., Master Drawings and Oil Sketches, 2005, no.18. Trained in Bologna by a succession of minor painters, Aureliano Milani received his true artistic education from his close study of the Carracci. Gianpietro Zanotti, in his biography of the artist, noted that the young Milani made drawn copies after the works of the Carracci (‘a disegnare le opere de’ suddetti Carracci’), and in particular the frescoes of the Palazzo Fava in Bologna. Milani’s first datable work is an Annunciation in the convent church of Santa Maria dei Servi in Bologna, painted in 1705. Relatively few paintings survive from Milani’s early years as an independent artist in Bologna, however, of which the most important is an altarpiece of Saint Jerome and the Blessed Ghisilieri in the church of Santa Maria della Vita, painted around 1718. The following year Milani settled in Rome, where he was to work for the remainder of his career. He received commissions for altarpieces for such churches as Santi Giovanni e Paolo and San Bartolomeo dei Bergamaschi and undertook several important decorative projects, notably a fresco cycle of the Labours of Hercules for the vault of the gallery of the Palazzo Doria Pamphili, painted in 1732. He also painted a number of genre subjects, typified by a Market Scene in a Roman Square now in the Museo Civico in Pesaro. Milani’s drawings were highly praised by his biographers, both of whom noted that he had a better contemporary reputation as a draughtsman than as a painter. Zanotti admired the artist’s animated figures (‘nude men, muscular and ferocious’) and diversity of subject matter, while Luigi Crespi noted of Milani that ‘He made many drawings, and in truth his drawings are equal to those of any great master, for their character, for their immediacy, for their magnificence, and for the ease of execution, with which they are touched, heightened and shadowed’1. Crespi further notes that his father, the painter Giuseppe Maria Crespi, had once advised Milani to travel to France, where his drawings could be reproduced by the finest engravers, and thus bring him wealth and success. Although Milani seems not to have taken the elder Crespi’s advice, his drawings were nevertheless known and admired in France. The French connoisseur and collector Pierre-Jean Mariette noted of Milani that ‘he drew better than he painted’, adding that ‘he liked to depict sad and serious subjects. He gave preference to those which provided him with opportunities to paint nude figures and whose muscles demanded to be felt. He had acquired a taste for this in the great study he had made of the works of the Carracci.’2
Despite the fact that contemporary biographers noted several 18th century collections in which drawings by Aureliano Milani could be found, relatively few drawings by the artist are known today. These show Milani to have been an important precursor of a later Bolognese tradition of draughtsmanship. As one modern scholar has pointed out, ‘Milani’s ideal of beauty and his painterly drawing style, which made extensive use of light playing over the surfaces of forms, foreshadow the luminous draughtsmanship of the Gandolfi family in Bologna.’3 The delicate handling of stumped black chalk in the present sheet is a typical feature of Milani’s draughtsmanship, and may be likened to that in a number of large, finished compositional drawings by the artist which exist both as studies for easel pictures as well as independent works in their own right. Such drawings by Milani include a Samson Defeating the Philistines in the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa4, The Harpies Disrupt the Meal of Aeneas and the Trojans in the Pinacoteca Nazionale in Bologna5, and An Old Man Tormented by Demons and Attended by an Angel in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York6; all of these are stylistically comparable to the present sheet. Also somewhat similar is a large drawing of The Bearing of the Cross in the Louvre, which is a preparatory study for an enormous etching by the artist, executed in 17257, and a drawing of The Stoning of Saint Stephen, formerly in the Horvitz collection8. No related painting of this subject by Milani is known, nor is one mentioned in the list of the artist’s works included in Luigi Crespi’s biography. It is likely, therefore, that this drawing was executed as an autonomous work of art, destined for sale to a collector. This is also suggested by the full signature ‘Io Aureliano Milani F’ at the lower right corner of the sheet. An almost identical signature (‘Io Aureliano Milani F. 1726’) is found on a drawing of The Assumption of the Virgin in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art9. This fine Abduction of Helen was at one time part of the large collection of drawings and prints assembled by John Barnard (d. 1784) over a period of more than fifty years. Numbering around 1,100 sheets, the collection was one of the finest in England at the time, as noted in the preface to the catalogue of the sale of the collection over eight days in 1787: ‘It is presumed, that a more capital collection was never offered to the Public or more worthy the Attention of the learned Connoisseurs’10. Barnard generally signed the drawings he owned with his initials and often added further notes, such as the dimensions of the sheet and brief biographical details about the artist, as with the present example.
15 CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE Nîmes 1700-1777 Castel Gandolfo Landscape with a Horseman and Animals before the Temple of Venus and Roma, Rome Pen and brown ink and brown wash, with black chalk and touches of red chalk, heightened with white, with framing lines in brown ink, on blue paper. Signed or inscribed and dated C. Natoire 1755 in brown ink at the lower right. Inscribed Tempio del Sole o della Luna in brown ink at the lower centre. 284 x 466 mm. (11 1/8 x 18 3/8 in.) PROVENANCE: The posthumous vente Natoire, Paris, Hôtel d’Aligre [Chariot and Paillet], 14 December 1778 onwards, part of lot 251 (‘Deux autres; l’une représente les restes du Temple du Soleil & de la Lune, l’autre faite sur le Tibre.’, bt. Ménageot); Augustin Ménageot, Paris; E. de Bruyn; His sale, Brussels, Galerie Giroux, 13-15 December 1956, lot 202; Private collection, Belgium; Anonymous sale, Versailles, Hôtel des Chevau-Légers, 20 June 1982, lot 66; Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Thierry de Maigret], 23 March 2007, lot 70 (bt. Tchoban); Sergei Tchoban, Berlin. LITERATURE: R. A. d’Hulst et al, Dessins du XVe au XVIIIe siècle dans les collections privées de Belgique, exhibition catalogue, Brussels, 1983, pp.188-189, no.84; Eva-Maria Barkhofen, ed., Architekturwelten / Architectural Worlds: Sergei Tchoban – Zeichner und Sammler / Draftsman and Collector, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt, 2010, p.44, pl.44; Vladimir Sedov and Irina Sedova, ed., The Golden Age of Architectural Graphic Art: Drawings and Drafts from the Sergei Tchoban Collection, exhibition catalogue, Moscow, 2010, pp.58-59, no.8; Susanna Caviglia-Brunel, Charles-Joseph Natoire 1700-1777, Paris, 2012, p.180, no.D.33 (where dated c.1723-1728); Moscow, State Tretyakov Gallery, Tolko Italiya!: Arhitekturnaya grafika XVIII-XXI vekov., exhibition catalogue, 2014, p.72, no.11; François Wedrychowski, Charles-Joseph Natoire: Dessins de paysage, Poitiers, 2015, p.21, no.8 (where dated c.1723-1728). EXHIBITED: Brussels, Société Générale de Banque, Dessins du XVe au XVIIIe siècle dans les collections privées de Belgique, 1983, no.84; Frankfurt am Main, Deutsches Architekturmuseum DAM, Architekturwelten. Sergei Tchoban – Zeichner und Sammler, 2010, no.44; Moscow, The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, The Golden Age of Architectural Graphic Art: Drawings by European Masters of the 18th – 19th Centuries from the Sergei Tchoban Collection, 2010, no.8; Moscow, State Tretyakov Gallery, Tolko Italiya!: Arhitekturnaya grafika XVIII-XXI vekov. / Only Italy!: Architectural Graphic Art of the 18th21st Centuries, 2014, no.11. Charles-Joseph Natoire studied with his father before entering the Parisian studio of Louis Galloche at the age of sixteen, transferring after three years to the atelier of François Le Moyne. Winning the Prix de Rome in 1721, he arrived in Rome two years later. Natoire lived as a pensionnaire at the Académie de France until 1728, during which time he also won a first prize in a competition at the Accademia di San Luca. After a period of time spent travelling around northern Italy, Natoire returned to France in 1730, when he was admitted into the Académie Royale as an associate member, rising to full membership in 1734. During the 1730s and 1740s he was much in demand as a painter, earning a number of significant Royal, public and private commissions. Among his most important works were a series of paintings for the château of La Chapelle-Godefroy in Champagne, executed between 1731 and 1738. He also joined François Boucher and Carle van Loo in the decoration of the Hôtel de Soubise, on which he worked at the end of the 1730s. Natoire received royal commissions for work at Fontainebleau, Versailles and Marly, as well as for designs for Beauvais and Gobelins tapestries. Appointed director of the Académie de France in Rome in 1751, he was to remain in Italy for the rest of his life. Between 1754 and 1756 he designed a fresco of The Apotheosis of Saint Louis for the vault of the nave of San Luigi dei Francesi, the French national church
in Rome. Natoire painted relatively little during the 1760s, however, and much of his later Roman years were spent drawing. He encouraged the pensionnaires at the Académie de France to draw directly from nature, and himself produced a number of finished landscape drawings which were to have a particular influence on two of his young students, Jean-Honoré Fragonard and Hubert Robert. Natoire’s extant oeuvre of around 125 Italian landscape drawings account for approximately threequarters of the examples listed in the posthumous sale of the contents of his studio in 1778. The artist’s interest in landscape drawing was first manifested during his period of study at the French Academy in Rome between 1723 and 1728, which is the likely date of the present sheet, and was fully developed after his return to Italy as the Director of the Académie de France in the 1750s. His landscape drawings of this second Roman period – generally intended as finished works of art for sale, and for the most part dated between 1755 and 1766 – are characterized by picturesque compositions, often incorporating the monuments of Roman antiquity identified in inscriptions at the bottom of the sheet. Apart from views of Rome, Natoire also produced landscape drawings of views in the surrounding countryside; at Frascati, Tivoli, Caprarola, Valmontone, Albano, Nemi and elsewhere. His interest in achieving pictorial effects in his landscape drawings resulted in the use of a combination of pen and ink with brown or grey washes, along with black or red chalks and white heightening, together with the frequent use of blue or green paper. As in the present sheet, the artist often included figures or animals in the foreground of his compositions, creating a stage-like proscenium effect. This drawing depicts the ruins of the huge ancient Roman Temple of Venus and Roma. Situated at the eastern end of the Forum, between the Basilica of Maxentius and the Colosseum, the Temple of Venus and Roma was one of the largest buildings in Ancient Rome. Built (and supposedly designed) by the Emperor Hadrian, on the site of the atrium of Nero’s grandiose palace known as the Domus Aurea, it was begun in AD 121 and dedicated in AD 135, before being completed in AD 141. The temple had two huge cellae, situated back-to-back and facing in opposite directions, with one dedicated to the goddess Roma and facing the Capitoline Hill, and the other, dedicated to Venus, oriented towards the Colosseum. Damaged by fire at the beginning of the 4th century and restored by the Emperor Maxentius, the building was largely destroyed by an earthquake in the early 9th century. Part of the cella of the temple dedicated to Roma was integrated into the late 9th century church of Santa Maria Nova, renamed San Francesca Romana in the 16th century, following an extensive program of rebuilding and renovation. Standing to the southeast, with his back to the Colosseum, Natoire has here depicted the ruins of the cella of Venus, with its coffered apse dating from the restorations undertaken by Maxentius in AD 307. By the 18th century the structure was erroneously known as the Temple of the Sun and Moon, or Tempio delle Sole e Luna, hence the inscription on the present sheet. This fine landscape drawing has been dated by the Natoire scholars Susanna Caviglia-Brunel and François Wedrychowski to the artist’s first stay in Rome in the 1720s, despite the later dating at the lower right. The present sheet may be identified with a drawing depicting ‘les restes du Temple du Soleil & de la Lune’; one of a group of almost 170 landscape drawings by Natoire acquired en bloc, for a total of 7,030 livres, by the painter and art dealer Augustin Ménageot (c.1700-1784) at the posthumous vente Natoire of 1778. More recently, the present sheet was part of the exceptional collection of architectural and landscape drawings, dating from the 16th to the 21st centuries, assembled by the Russian-German architect Sergei Tchoban (b.1962). Much of his collection is today housed in the private Museum for Architectural Drawing in Berlin, established by the Tchoban Foundation in 2013.
16 JEAN-BAPTISTE HUET Paris 1745-1811 Paris Landscape with Two Children Playing by a Cottage Charcoal and black chalk, extensively heightened with white chalk, with framing lines in brown ink, on buff paper. Signed and dated j. huet. 1768. in brown ink at the lower left. Laid down on a 19th century mount. 317 x 460 mm. (12 1/2 x 18 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Léon Decloux, Sèvres1; His sale (‘Collection Léon Decloux’), Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Chevallier], 14-15 February 1898, lot 83 (‘Paysage rustique’), sold (or bought back by the owner?) for 200 francs2; Decloux sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Baudoin], 29-30 November 1920, lot 68 (‘Paysage rustique. Deux enfants sont couchés sur des bottes de paille; au second plan, des perches réunies par des cordes. Dessin au crayon noir et rehauts de blanc, sur paper gris. Signé et daté: 1768. Haut., 35 cent.; larg., 47 cent. Cadré ancien en bois sculpté doré.’). Born into a family of artists, Jean-Baptiste Huet was the son and pupil of the animalier painter Nicolas Huet the Elder. He also studied with another animal painter, Charles Dagomer, before entering the studio of Jean-Baptiste Le Prince. In 1768 he was accepted into the Académie Royale as a ‘peintre d’animaux’ and the following year made his debut at the Salon. Huet’s paintings of animals, indebted to the example of Jean-Baptiste Oudry, were much admired by critics and collectors throughout his career. He was able to make studies of animals at the Royal menagerie at Versailles and on his country estate at Villiers-sur-Orge, where every summer he drew dogs, sheep, goats, horses and cows. Huet regularly exhibited finished drawings of animals – drawn in black or red chalk, pastels or watercolour – at the annual Paris Salons until 1787, and again between 1800 and 1802. He had a particular fondness for pastoral and bucolic genre subjects, often with shepherds or herders, in which the influence of François Boucher is readily evident. He also found inspiration in the work of the Dutch genre painters of the 17th century. In 1794 Huet was appointed peintre du roi, and in addition produced designs for the Gobelins and Beauvais tapestry factories and for printed textiles at the Manufacture Oberkampf in Jouy-en-Josas. Huet was an extremely accomplished draughtsman, and many of his drawings served as models for prints and were reproduced as engravings, usually by his friend, the printmaker Gilles Demarteau the Elder. Between 1765 and 1770 he painted a series of pastoral landscapes and animal subjects to decorate the interior of Demarteau’s house in Paris, a project to which both Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard also contributed. Huet also produced a large number of book illustrations, and assembled a personal collection of drawings by artists such as his teacher Le Prince, Boucher, Fragonard and Hubert Robert, alongside prints by Northern artists such as Nicolas Berchem, Paulus Potter and Philips Wouwerman, all of whom can be seen to have had an influence on his own work. Signed and dated 1768, this large and previously unpublished sheet is among the earliest known landscape drawings by Jean-Baptiste Huet, and may be added to a small group of pastoral subjects drawn by the artist between 1767 and 1771. Among a handful of comparable drawings of the same size, technique, and early date is a Landscape with a Shepherd by a Lake of 1767 in the collection of the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Valenciennes3 and a Winter Landscape with Two Children, also signed and dated 1767, in a private American collection4. Several years after he made this drawing, Huet reused much of the composition for a slightly larger drawing of a Landscape with a Shepherdess, signed and dated 17865.
17 HUBERT ROBERT Paris 1733-1808 Paris A Kitchen in a Vaulted Hall Red chalk. Laid down on a late 19th century French mount. Inscribed H. Robert. and numbered -5 in black ink at the lower left of the old mount, along with other inscriptions cut off at the bottom edge of the mount. Further inscribed (by Deglatigny) Ce dessin paraît avoir été fait vers 1758 dans la salle des gardes, aujourdhui le grande guichet de la Conciergerie. Vente Roblin 26 fevrier 1900. in pencil on the reverse of the old mount. 335 x 460 mm. (13 1/4 x 18 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Delestre], 26 February 1900, lot 103 (‘Cuisines au Palais de justice. Dans une salle basse, ornée de voûtes à nervures vigoureuses, reposant sur des colonnes gothiques à demi enfouies dans le sol, on voit des cuisiniers et leurs aides, soit autour d’une table, devant des fourneaux, ou surveillant une marmite dans une cheminée monumentale. Ce dessin paraît avoir été fair vers 1785, dans la salle des gardes, aujourd’hui le grand guichet de la Conciergerie. Sanguine. (H., 0,34.- L., 0,46.)’); Louis Deglatigny, Rouen (Lugt 1768a); His posthumous sale (‘Succession de M. Louis Deglatigny, De Rouen’), Paris, Galerie Jean Charpentier, 28 May 1937, lot 96 (‘Cuisines dans un sale voutée, probablement des cuisines du Palais de Justice. Un grand chaudron est suspendu à la crémaillère d’une vaste cheminée, au milieu du fond. A droite, près d’une haute fenêtre, un grand fourneau où fument plusieurs casseroles. Des cuisiniers s’affairent devant les feux; on en voit quatre autres au milieu du premier plan, près d’une haute et longue table. A gauche, deux chiens attachés au gros pilier roman qui soutient les voûtes et, à droite, un grand chaudron avec son couvercle. Sanguine. Monture ancienne. Haut., 0 m. 335; Larg., 0 m. 460.’, unsold?); Anonymous sale, Versailles, Hôtel des Chevau-Légers, 25 November 1962, lot 25 (unsold?); By descent to Deglatigny’s great-grandson, Jean-Claude Delauney, Caen. LITERATURE: Sarah Catala et al, Les Hubert Robert de Besançon, exhibition catalogue, Besançon, 2013-2014, p.150, under no.122. A student of the sculptor Michel-Ange Slodtz, Hubert Robert travelled to Italy in 1754 and, although not officially a pensionnaire at the Académie de France in Rome, was able to study there for several years. Described by the director of the French Academy, Charles-Joseph Natoire, as a young man ‘who has a penchant for painting architecture’, Robert spent a total of eleven years in Italy, mostly in Rome. He fell under the influence of Giovanni Paolo Panini, the leading Italian painter of architectural views and capricci, who taught perspective at the Académie de France. There he also met Jean-Honoré Fragonard, and with him made sketching tours of the countryside around Rome. Robert returned to Paris in August 1765, and the following year was admitted into the Académie Royale. He made his debut at the Salon in 1767 and continued to exhibit there until 1798, showing picturesque landscapes and capricci. He soon had developed such a reputation for paintings of real and imagined Roman views, often incorporating ancient ruins, that he earned the sobriquet ‘Robert des Ruines’. A versatile artist, Robert often repeated and developed favourite views or compositions in several different formats, including chalk drawings, finished watercolours, small cabinet pictures and large-scale wall paintings. Appointed dessinateur des jardins du roi in 1778, Robert was able to incorporate his artistic ideas into landscape designs for the gardens at Versailles and elsewhere. In 1784 he was appointed garde des peintures de roi and played a key role in the establishment of the Musée du Louvre, and he remained a significant figure in the artistic scene in Paris until the end of the 18th century. A prolific and gifted draughtsman, Robert produced fine drawings and watercolours throughout his life. As Margaret Morgan Grasselli has recently written of the artist, ‘Over the course of his long career, he turned out thousands of works on paper, ranging from the slightest chalk sketches to fully completed sanguines,
from swift pen and ink jottings to highly resolved watercolors. These works show Robert at his most versatile, spontaneous, and experimental, and constitute a significant part of his entire oeuvre, complementing and augmenting what he achieved in his paintings…Drawing was, in fact, the soul of Robert’s art, and he remained a dedicated draftsman until the end of his life.’1 The 18th century collector and connoisseur Pierre-Jean Mariette noted of Robert’s drawings that they were popular and much sought-after. Robert began to use red chalk for his landscape compositions in the late 1750s. As Grasselli has pointed out, ‘within a very short time…he gained confidence and skill, learning to exploit the full range of coloristic qualities of the chalk, from the darkest accents and densest shadows to the most delicate whispers of tone. All the while, he was figuring out how to integrate seamlessly sharp-edged and solid architectural forms with softer effects of light and shadow. Robert seems to have recognized early on some of the special advantages of red chalk, most notably the combining of color and line in each stroke, the absence of drying time, and the easy portability.’2 The medium came to represent a significant part of Robert’s drawn oeuvre, and by the early 1760s he was ‘consistently turning out strong and spirited red chalk drawings…By then he understood how to control the full tonal range and descriptive capabilities of his medium and wielded his chalk with a spritely but smartly varied touch – from bold to subtle, calligraphic to controlled, reticent to assertive.’3 Although some of Robert’s red chalk landscapes were used as models for watercolours and paintings, most seem to have been intended as complete works in their own right. Datable to the late 1760s, this very large and highly finished red chalk drawing is likely to have been done as an independent work of art. As has been noted of the artist, ‘A surprisingly large portion of Robert’s drawing production involved the execution of complete compositions that he considered to be finished works in themselves.’4 The drawing depicts the so-called Cuisines de Saint-Louis, the kitchens in the medieval Palais de la Cité, situated on the Ile de la Cité in Paris. (The residence of the French kings from the 6th to the 14th centuries, the building now houses the Conciergerie, the Palais de Justice and the Sainte-Chapelle.) Built in 1353 by King John II of France, known as John the Good, the kitchen was on the ground floor, with four huge corner fireplaces and a vault supported by several low columns. After Charles V moved the royal court to the Palais du Louvre across the river in the middle of the 14th century, these rooms were eventually converted into a state prison, the Conciergerie. A counterproof of this drawing is today in the Bibliothèque Municipale in Besançon5, part of a group of nearly two hundred counterproofs by Robert divided between the collections of the Bibliothèque Municipale and the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d’Archaéologie in Besançon. Robert often made counterproofs of his drawings in both red and black chalk; this was an essential task, since by making a counterproof, any excess chalk dust, which otherwise might easily smear, would be removed from the original drawing. Counterproofs also served the artist as records of successful compositions. Sometimes Robert would sell the counterproof and keep the original drawing for himself, while at other times he would extensively rework the counterproof with chalk, ink or watercolour to create a finished, reversed version of the original composition. Furthermore, as Grasselli has noted of the artist, ‘Upon occasion, he made replicas of his sanguines, usually with some variations; presumably these copies had been requested by patrons or were easily saleable.’6 Indeed, a close copy or variant of the present composition, drawn in red chalk and of similar dimensions, appeared at auction in Paris in 19297. This large drawing once belonged to the Rouen merchant and archaeologist Louis Deglatigny (18541936), who assembled an extensive collection of paintings, drawings, books and prints, including a significant number of drawings by Hubert Robert. Although much of Deglatigny’s collection was dispersed over five auctions in Paris in 1937, the year after his death, the present sheet remained with his descendants until 2019.
18 JEAN-SIMON BERTHÉLEMY Laon 1743-1811 Paris Achilles Lamenting the Death of Patroclus(?) Oil on paper, over an underdrawing in pen and black ink. Laid down. 445 x 592 mm. (17 1/2 x 23 1/4 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Tajan], 30 October 2000, lot 82 (as Attributed to Jean-Baptiste Deshays); Eugene Victor Thaw, New York. The son of a sculptor, Jean-Simon Berthelémy was trained in the studio of Noël Hallé. Among his earliest independent commissions was a group of decorative paintings for the Hôtel de l’Intendance de Champagne at Châlons-sur-Marne. Berthelémy won the Prix de Rome in 1767 with a painting of Alexander Cutting the Gordian Knot, and, after three years at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés, was enrolled as a pensionnaire at the Académie de France in Rome between 1771 and 1774. Little survives of his work while in Rome, however, apart from a handful of landscape drawings in red or black chalk and a painting of The Death of a Gladiator, today in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Berthelémy was adept at working on a large scale, and early in his career developed a particular reputation as a ceiling painter. Agrée at the Académie Royale in 1777 and reçu in 1781, he exhibited regularly at the Salons in Paris between 1779 and the outbreak of the Revolution ten years later. Highly regarded as a history painter, Berthelémy received several important commissions, including ceiling paintings for the Palais du Louvre and the Palais de Luxembourg in Paris and the château of Fontainebleau. He painted altarpieces for churches in Paris, Laon, Douai and elsewhere, as well as a number of portraits. Like his master Hallé before him, Berthelémy provided cartoons for the Gobelins tapestry manufactory, mainly of scenes from classical and French history, and also designed costumes for the Paris Opéra. During the period of the Directoire, he served on a committee tasked with selecting works of art from Italy to be brought back to Paris, and he continued to earn official commissions during the Consulate and Empire. Berthelémy’s working process involved preparing for most of his large-scale paintings with fluid compositional oil sketches on paper or canvas, together with studies and figure drawings in chalk. As the scholar Nathalie Volle has noted, ‘Throughout his career, Berthelémy retained the light, bright palette and free brushwork of the generation of artists who were trained by the school of Boucher…A series of dazzlingly virtuosic preparatory oil sketches for ceilings and other decorative paintings, once ascribed to Jean-Honoré Fragonard, probably represent his talent best.’1 The attribution of this oil sketch, previously given to Jean-Baptiste Deshays (1729-1765)2 is due to Alastair Laing. The free handling of the paint in this nocturnal scene finds parallels in a number of coloured oil sketches by Berthelémy, such as the Queen Tomyris Dipping the Head of Cyrus into a Basin of Blood in the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Nîmes3, which is a study for a large painting of 1766 in the same collection4. Laing also notes some stylistic comparisons with two freely-executed oil sketches of Apollo and Sarpedon5, both of which are preparatory for a painting that was Berthelémy’s morceau de reception for the Academie Royale in 1781 and is today in the Musée Saint-Didier in Langres6, as well as with a sketch en camaïeu brun of The Nurse of Nero Pouring his Ashes into the Tomb of his Ancestors, which was on the art market in 1985-19867. The distinctive facture of the present sheet is particularly close to a monochrome oil sketch on paper of Nessus Offering his Poisoned Tunic to Dejanira in the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Quimper8. Although the Quimper sketch has been attributed to Jean-Baptiste Deshays, Laing has recently suggested that it, like the present sheet, is more likely to be the work of Berthelémy. A similar subject to the work here exhibited, though different in composition, is found in another stylistically comparable oil sketch by Berthelémy; an Achilles Mourning the Death of Patroclus in the Snite Museum of Art of the University of Notre Dame in Indiana9.
19 JOHN ROBERT COZENS London 1752-1797 London A View near Sallanches, Savoy Watercolour and pencil on paper, laid down on the artist’s original mount. Signed and dated John Cozens 1778 in brown ink at the lower left of the mount and inscribed nr. Salanches in Savoy in brown ink at the lower right of the original mount. Inscribed Near Salanche in Savoy in pencil on the verso. Further inscribed This drawing lent to GH by Dr. Richardson / of the Times paper(?) in pencil on the verso. 369 x 539 mm. (14 1/2 x 21 1/4 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Possibly Richard Payne Knight, London; Alexander Joseph Finberg, London1; His sale, London, Christie’s, 8 July 1921, lot 19; Pawsey & Payne, London; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 20 July 1928, lot 152; J. Palser and Sons, London; Michael Guy Molesworth Bevan, Longstowe Hall, Longstowe, Cambridgeshire, by 1951; Private collection; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 14 July 1994, lot 112; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 5 July 2016, lot 95. LITERATURE: C. F. Bell and Thomas Girtin, ‘The Drawings and Sketches of John Robert Cozens’, The Walpole Society, Vol.23, 1934-1935, p.28, no.6 [II] (not illustrated); Emma Crichton-Miller, ‘Collectors’ Focus: British watercolours’, Apollo, March 2020, p.169, fig.2. EXHIBITED: London, Leggatt Brothers, Exhibition of English Painters 1700-1850, 1951, no.37. ‘Cozens was all poetry…he was the greatest genius that ever touched landscape.’ The painter John Constable’s opinion of the work of John Robert Cozens reflects the esteem in which his watercolour landscapes were held long after his death. The only son and pupil of the drawing master Alexander Cozens, John Robert Cozens first exhibited at the Society of Artists in 1767, where he continued to show until 1771. Five years later he made his first trip to Italy. In the company of the young scholar, antiquarian and collector Richard Payne Knight, Cozens travelled through Switzerland and the Alps before arriving in Rome in November 1776. He was to stay in Rome for almost two and half years, until April 1779, making sketching tours of the Roman countryside. A second trip to Italy in 17821783, in the retinue of the wealthy collector William Beckford, resulted in a series of almost a hundred finished watercolours of Italian views for Beckford. Cozens seems to have worked exclusively as a draughtsman, and almost no oil paintings by his hand are known2. His health deteriorated in the 1790s, and in 1794 he suffered a severe nervous breakdown. He was admitted to the Bethlem Royal Hospital asylum and placed under the care of the physician and collector Dr. Thomas Monro, who had many of Cozens’s Continental sketches copied by younger artists such as J. M. W. Turner and Thomas Girtin. Cozens died in 1797, at the age of just forty-five. While his reputation was based solely on his watercolours, none of his works were engraved, with the result that there was no wider dissemination of his compositions through the medium of reproductive prints. Nevertheless, his watercolours were to be enormously influential among the succeeding generation of English landscape draughtsmen. For most of his relatively brief career of some twenty years, Cozens worked in a limited palette of light blues, greens and greys, avoiding vivid effects and contrasts in favour of a tonal, atmospheric approach to landscape. As has been noted, ‘the near monochrome watercolours of Cozens…opened up unforeseen possibilities – not only to Turner, but to an entire generation of painters exposed to his work at the London house of Dr Thomas Monro. Monro employed Turner, Girtin and other young artists, including John Varley and John Sell Cotman, to make copies of compositions by Cozens. It was less the subjects themselves… than the subtlety of Cozens’s wash technique which made the greatest impression; through the extreme refinement of his graduated colour, Cozens evoked the fabled clarity of the Italian atmosphere, and an almost infinite spatial recession.’3 This large and impressive watercolour of a view near Sallanches, in the Haute-Savoie region of France and Switzerland, is based on a smaller drawing in pen and ink wash (fig.1) in the Whitworth Art Gallery
in Manchester4, which the artist made during his trip through Switzerland in 1776 with his patron Payne Knight. The two men left London in the late summer of that year and arrived in Geneva in August. They reached Sallanches on the 26th of August and Chamonix four days later, before continuing on to Italy. During the journey, Cozens produced fifty-seven almost monochromatic Swiss views that were formerly owned by Payne Knight but are now scattered in various collections, with a large group in the British Museum. Once in Rome, Cozens used the pen and wash drawings as the basis for a number of larger coloured versions in watercolour, some presumably done for Payne Knight but most sold to other patrons. As the Cozens scholar C. F. Bell has remarked, ‘The Swiss period (August-September 1776) of this first tour was in some respect the most inspiring of all Cozens’ life to the spiritual side of his art. Moreover, the sketches that he then made were, like those which he produced in Italy, studied and copied by Turner, Girtin and their companions and contributed greatly towards opening the minds of English artists to the impressiveness of mountain scenery.’5 Only a year older than Cozens, Payne Knight was a noted connoisseur of art. His taste and interest in landscape painting tended towards the picturesque, and in particular the ‘sublime’ in nature, and Cozens’s depictions of the grandeur and majesty of the Alps would no doubt have greatly appealed to him. As Kim Sloan has written of the artist’s Swiss watercolours, ‘his views are characterized by their effect on emotions, senses, or passions…They are the first visual interpretation of the Alps to display these characteristics which were already well-established in English poetry and prose…John Robert Cozens had finally lifted watercolour painting out of the topographical recording of nature, to a new level where it was capable of fulfilling the serious intentions of art as oil painting.’6 Drawn in subtle washes of pale blue, green and gray, this View near Sallanches is one of the large-scale finished watercolours of Swiss alpine views produced by Cozens during his first stay in Rome. Dated 1778, this fine watercolour was worked up from the smaller drawing in Manchester. Although the composition of both drawings is identical, the artist has added the shepherd and his flock at the lower left of this watercolour, while at the same time stripping the trees at the right of the foliage that appears in the earlier sketch. The mountain in the distance is likely to be the peak known as Tête de Colonney, above Sallanches to the northeast7. Stylistically comparable watercolours of this period include Between Chamonix and Martigny and Ober Hasli Valley from the South East, both in the Victoria and Albert Museum8. Paul Oppé has written of these early watercolours that, ‘when in 1778 Cozens was signing and dating a number of large water-colours either from the Alpine sketches or from drawings made in Rome and the neighbourhood, he was already exhibiting, almost in its perfection, the refined scheme of colour and the consummate technical skill which were recognized from the first, and are still felt to be, the characteristic note of his art. Apart from any reference to nature, the harmonies and subtleties of his blues and greens are an immediate and permanent joy to the eye, and, without attempting to reproduce in full the manifold varieties of the natural scene, they provide an admirable medium for representing certain atmospheric effects of light, mist and distance…In the finished water-colours of the Alpine series something of the cool freshness of the Payne Knight drawings has been lost and the scene changed from an apparently literal transcript to a vision, almost a dream. The tonality in light blue-greens is exquisitely modulated to suggest the forms of mountain-sides, the texture of their surfaces, and the clear or misty character of the intervening atmosphere. The unity of tone produces the pervading harmony of a reflection in water.’9 A later watercolour version of this composition, of similar dimensions and dated 1779, was formerly in the collection of Norman Newall10, while a smaller and previously unrecorded watercolour variant appeared at auction in 198911.
20 PHILIPPE-AUGUSTE HENNEQUIN Lyon 1762-1833 Leuze A Profile Portrait of a Young Boy in Revolutionary Costume Pen and brown ink, with framing lines in brown ink. Signed, dated and inscribed fait au temple par hennequin le 5 brumaire an 5 de la R.. française in brown ink in the lower margin. Further inscribed portrait fait dans la Prison du Temple par / Hennequin en l’an 5 in brown ink on a piece of paper pasted onto the old backing board. 160 x 132 mm. (6 1/4 x 5 1/4 in.) at greatest dimensions. PROVENANCE: Probably the posthumous vente Hennequin, Paris, Hôtel des Ventes Mobiliers, 18-19 April 1836, part of lots 12-14; Maurice Michon; His sale (‘Collection M. Michon. Objets d’ameublement et de curiosités de la Revolution Française’), Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 11 and 13 November 1942, lot 98; Anonymous sale, Paris, Palais Galliera, 20 March 1974, lot 4; Private collection, France. LITERATURE: Mireille Monod de Coninck, Philippe-Auguste Hennequin (1762-1833): Vie et oeuvre, unpublished MA thesis, Université de Lyon, 1976, p.182; Jérémie Benoit, Philippe-Auguste Hennequin 1762-1833, Paris, 1994, p.145, no. P74 (as location unknown), not illustrated. Philippe-Auguste Hennequin began his studies in Lyon and completed his artistic education in Paris, for a brief time in the studio of Jacques-Louis David, from which he was expelled for allegedly stealing some of the master’s collection of prints. He travelled to Italy in the late 1780s, and on his return to Lyon in 1790 was politically active during the early years of the Revolution there. A Jacobin sympathizer, Hennequin was imprisoned for five months in Paris in 1796, and although a petition was circulated among artists in support of his release, his former master David – undoubtedly the most significant artistic figure in Revolutionary Paris – refused to sign it. (Despite this, Hennequin and David later developed a respectful, if not especially close, relationship.) Hennequin first exhibited at the Salon in 1798, the year after his release from prison. He began his mature career painting mostly history scenes and Napoleonic subjects, and enjoyed the patronage of Baron Vivant Denon, directeur-général des musées, from whom he received several official commissions. In 1814 Hennequin left France and settled in Belgium. He left a large corpus of drawings, with over 1,250 examples included in the posthumous sale of the contents of his studio in 1836. The largest extant group of drawings by the artist, numbering some fifty sheets, is today in the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Lyon. Accused of having participated in the conspiracy to overthrow the Directoire led by the political agitator François-Noël Babeuf, Hennequin was arrested in September 1796 and sent to the Temple prison in Paris, where he was placed in the cell occupied by Marie-Antoinette three years earlier. Like other artists who were imprisoned during the Revolution, including David and Hubert Robert, Hennequin was allowed to have drawing materials in his cell. Only a handful of drawings dating from this period are known, however, of which the present sheet is among the most appealing. Drawn on the 26 of October 1796, a few weeks after Hennequin’s arrest, this portrait study depicts a young boy, perhaps the son of one of his jailers1, wearing a bonnet rouge, the liberty cap associated with the Parisian working-class sans-culottes of the French Revolution2. The Hennequin scholar Jérémie Benoit has tentatively suggested that this drawing may have been a preparatory study for a now-lost painting commissioned from the artist while he was imprisoned. Hennequin drew a comparable portrait in pen and ink of the British naval officer Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, who was a fellow prisoner in the Temple. Hennequin’s profile drawing of Smith, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York3, is dated ‘28 Brumaire’ (18th November), some three weeks after the present sheet was drawn. Smith also commissioned a large and highly-finished drawing from Hennequin, drawn on the 2nd of December 1796 and today in the British Museum4, depicting the officer and two fellow prisoners in their cell. Hennequin was released from prison a few weeks later, in January 1797.
21 JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE Tournus 1725-1805 Paris The First Harvest of the Wheat Black chalk, brush and black and grey ink and grey wash on laid paper. 476 x 593 mm. (18 3/4 x 23 3/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Art market, London; Edgar Munhall, New York, in 1970; His sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 9 January 1996, lot 144; Saul P. Steinberg, New York; Thence by descent; Private collection. A gifted and versatile draughtsman, the 18th century genre painter and portraitist Jean-Baptiste Greuze was praised by the influential critic Denis Diderot, who noted of him that ‘this man draws like an angel… He is enthusiastic about his art: he makes endless studies; he spares neither care nor expenses in order to have the models that suit him.’1 Greuze enjoyed a healthy market for his drawings, many of which were produced as independent works of art that found their way into important 18th century collections in France, Germany and Russia. This very large and previously unpublished drawing is a significant addition to Greuze’s late oeuvre, and is one of the last complete compositional drawings that he produced. It also appears to be the only extant record of one of the artist’s most significant works as a history painter. The composition of this drawing serves as a pendant to Greuze’s painting of A Farmer Handing Over the Plow to his Son in the Presence of his Family, also known as The First Furrow (fig.1), exhibited at the Salon of 1801 and today in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow2. As has been noted of the Pushkin painting, ‘We see here power being passed from father to son, the latter becoming the head of the family in his turn once he has received the tool which will allow him to earn a living for them all. The moral theme emphasizes the importance of the world of peasant farming and of working the land.’3 Almost certainly intended as an autonomous work of art in its own right, the present sheet continues the narrative of The First Furrow. It depicts the family of the farmer showing its gratitude for the son’s hard work, while in the background young women serve bread baked from the wheat he has harvested. Although no related canvas is known to have been painted by Greuze, the scale and finish of this drawing suggest that the artist had fully developed the composition. A similarly large compositional drawing by Greuze for The First Furrow, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York4, is considerably less finished than the present sheet. Another, earlier preparatory study for the Pushkin painting is in the Musée Greuze in Tournus5. Among stylistically comparable works by Greuze is a finished drawing in grey ink and wash of A Couple in a Park (also known as The Departure for the Hunt), exhibited at the Salon of 1800 and today in the Louvre6.
22 FRENCH(?) SCHOOL Circa 1800 Portrait of a Shepherd with a Crook Pastel on paper, laid down on card. 346 x 283 mm. (13 5/8 x 11 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Private collection, in 2016. LITERATURE: Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of pastellists before 1800 [online edition], no.J.9.3958 (as French School). Traditionally but wrongly attributed to the Neoclassical German painter and engraver Johan Zoffany (1733-1810), the correct attribution of this very fine pastel drawing has proved elusive. The rustic genre subject is quite rare in the pastel medium, which was generally reserved for more formal portraiture.
23 JACOB ERNST MARCUS Sint Eustatius 1774-1826 Amsterdam The Grain Harvest Pen and brown ink and grey wash on laid paper, with framing lines in brown ink. Signed and dated J. E. Marcus. Ft 1812. in black ink on the verso. 238 x 308 mm. (9 3/8 x 12 1/8 in.) Born on the Caribbean island of Sint Eustatius (also known as Statia), part of the islands of the Dutch Antilles, Jacob Marcus settled with his father in Amsterdam in 1783, at the age of nine. When his father died a year later, Marcus was brought up by a guardian, the merchant Balthazar Ortt. He received training in drawing from the artist Steven Goblé and in engraving from the well-known printmaker and draughtsman Reinier Vinkeles – one of the few pupils Vinkeles accepted – while at the same time studying at the Stadtstekenacademie in Amsterdam, where he won a gold medal in 1798. Active primarily as a draughtsman and printmaker, Marcus produced landscapes, genre scenes and portraits, as well as reproductive etchings, engravings and lithographs after the work of such earlier artists as Jacob Cats and Jan Steen, among others. A member of the Koninklijke Academie in Amsterdam, he was also a founder member of the Amsterdams Kunstgenootschap (the Amsterdam Art Society) in 1801. Between 1807 and 1816 he published a series of 106 prints under the title Studiebeelden en Fragmenten, which was inspired by Abraham Bloemaert’s Konstryk Tekenboek, a sort of model-book for students published in the 17th century. (The prints were posthumously reissued in 1834 under the title Het Studie-Prentwerk van Jacob Ernst Marcus, accompanied by a portrait of the artist.) In 1820 Marcus was appointed a professor and director of the Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam. He died six years later, at the age of fifty-two. Drawings by Jacob Marcus are today in the collections of several Dutch museums, including the Amsterdam Museum and the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Museum Kennermerland in Beverwijk and the Kröller-Müller Museum in Otterlo. The present sheet can be related to an earlier etching by Marcus of a nearly identical subject of A Peasant Mowing Rye and a Resting Woman (fig.1). The small etching, dated November 18111, was published as part of Marcus’s Studiebeelden en Fragmenten, and was then used as the basis of this larger and more finished drawing, which repeats the central foreground portion of the present sheet. Among stylistically comparable drawings by Marcus is a landscape with figures, mounted hussars and a seated draughtsman, dated 1813, in a German private collection2, and a landscape study with two peasant girls which recently appeared at auction in Holland3.
24 ALEXANDRE DENIS ABEL DE PUJOL Douai 1785-1861 Paris Study of a Mourning Woman, for The Death of Britannicus Black chalk, with stumping, heightened with white, on light brown paper. Irregularly trimmed at the upper left and lower right corners. 388 x 536 mm. (15 1/4 x 21 1/8 in.) at greatest dimensions. PROVENANCE: Louis Deglatigny, Rouen; By descent to his great-grandson, Jean-Claude Delauney, Caen. The illegitimate son and only child of the nobleman Alexander-Denis-Joseph Mortry de Pujol, Baron de la Grave – a powerful figure who served as advisor to the King and was the founder of the Académie de Peinture et Sculpture in Valenciennes – Alexandre-Denis Abel studied there from the age of twelve, before completing his training in the studio of Jacques-Louis David in Paris. He also took classes in anatomy, perspective and architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. (He received little support from his father, however, and at one point almost had to leave David’s studio as he could not afford the monthly tuition fee of twelve francs, which the master offered to pay for him, although he eventually earned a pension from Valenciennes which allowed him to continue his studies.) Abel won a first-class medal at the Académie in 1806 and a second-class medal at the Salon of 1810 for a painting of Jacob Blessing the Children of Joseph, and the same year came second in the Prix de Rome competition. The following year he won the Prix de Rome with a painting of Lycurgus Presenting the Heir to the Throne to the Lacedaemonians, after which he was formally recognized by his father and was able to add the name Pujol to his own. As a result of poor health, as well as apparent homesickness and depression, Abel de Pujol was only able to study in Italy for eight months in 1812. Nevertheless, he resumed his career in Paris with much success, exhibiting mainly history paintings at the Salons between 1808 and 1855. A large and ambitious painting of The Death of Britannicus won gold medals from both Louis XVIII and Napoleon in 1814, while a grisaille painting of The Preaching and Martyrdom of Saint Stephen, intended for the church of Saint-Etienne-du-Mont, was equally admired at the Salon of 1817, winning the prize for history painting and firmly establishing the artist’s reputation. Abel de Pujol received a number of important official commissions, including three paintings for Versailles and a ceiling painting for the Palais Royal, as well as a large allegorical ceiling painting of The Renaissance of the Arts for the grand staircase of the Louvre, which was sadly destroyed in 1855. He continued to be in great demand as a painter of mural decorations for public buildings, such as the main hall of the Bourse, the Musée Charles X of the Palais du Louvre, the Galerie de Diane at Fontainebleau, the Palais de Luxembourg and elsewhere. He was particularly admired as a painter of large-scale grisaille decorations; of his work at the Bourse, the critic Charles Blanc noted, ‘The grisailles which decorate the Paris Bourse, and in which the artist has imitated in trompe-l’oeil the projections and hollows of a series of bas-reliefs, bear witness to a skill that cannot be praised too highly…Abel de Pujol has shown all that he possesses, the science of the nude, the talent for modelling, the art of drapery; and, in confining himself to painting this vast decoration in monochrome, he has shown himself to be a man of spirit.’1 Throughout his career, Abel de Pujol produced paintings and murals, many in grisaille, as well as altarpieces and designs for stained-glass windows for several Parisian churches, notably at Saint-Sulpice, Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle, the Madeleine, Saint-Roch, Saint-Denis-du-Saint-Sacrement and Saint-Thomas d’Acquin. He also worked in the cathedral at Arras and the church of Saint-Pierre in Douai, and produced a handful of portraits, mainly of family and friends. In 1846 he was commissioned
to paint a monumental canvas of Valenciennes Encouraging the Arts for the town hall of Valenciennes, and in 1852 painted the ceiling of the staircase of the Ecole des Mines at the Hôtel de Vendôme in Paris, which was to be one of his last major decorative schemes. Admitted into the Legion of Honour in 1822 and the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1835, Abel de Pujol was a popular and successful teacher, and counted among his pupils Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, Pierre-Justin Ouvrié and Camille Rocqueplan. As a draughtsman, Abel de Pujol was much admired in his lifetime by critics and connoisseurs. The largest extant collection of the artist’s drawings, amounting to almost 150 sheets, is in the collection of the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Valenciennes. This large sheet is a drapery study for a figure in Abel de Pujol’s large painting of The Death of Britannicus of 1814 (fig.1), today kept in storage at the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Dijon2. One of the artist’s finest early paintings, the monumental canvas was awarded a gold medal at the Salon of 1814 and thence acquired by the State. Unfortunately, the painting, which measures 3.54 x 5.50 metres and appears to have been rolled up at some point, is only known from a poor black and white photograph. The composition of the painting is perhaps best seen in a reproductive line engraving published in an account of the Salon of 18143. The subject of the painting is taken from the tragic play Britannicus by the 17th century playwright Jean Racine, based on the history of ancient Rome. The son of the Roman emperor Claudius, and presumptive heir to the imperial throne, Britannicus was poisoned by his older stepbrother Nero, adoptive son of Claudius’s fourth wife Agrippina, and died at the age of fourteen. The present sheet is a study for the weeping figure of Junia, Britannicus’s fiancée, who in Racine’s play is the object of Nero’s lust and jealousy. In Abel de Pujol’s painting she appears at the left of the composition, at the knees of her dying lover. As one scholar has noted of this figure, ‘the pose of the grieving young woman at the feet of the hero is certainly conventional, but very beautiful.’4 A variant of this drawing, of similar technique and dimensions and studying mainly the drapery of the figure (fig.2), was on the art market in Paris in 20045. That drawing differs from the present sheet, however, in the arrangement of the drapery. A study by Abel de Pujol for the drapery of the figure of Agrippina, standing in the centre of the painted composition, is known6, while a preparatory study for the left half of the canvas – depicting Britannicus lying down with his head to the right, but with the figure of Junia largely unchanged from the final composition – is among the large number of paintings and drawings by the artist in the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Valenciennes7. A more finished compositional drawing of The Death of Britannicus, in which the mourning figure of Junia is very different, is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York8, while another compositional study for the painting, squared for transfer, was with the Galerie Didier Aaron in 19989.
25 ANNE-LOUIS GIRODET DE ROUSSY-TRIOSON Montargis 1767-1824 Paris The Genius of Greece (The Artist Meditating on the Ruins of Athens) Pencil, with double framing lines in pencil. Signed and dated (in mirror writing) 1820 in pencil at the lower left and G.T. in pencil at the lower right. 135 x 99 mm. (5 1/4 x 3 7/8 in.) [image] 215 x 164 mm. (8 1/2 x 6 1/2 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Jules Renouard, Paris, in 1829; Antoine César Becquerel, Paris; By descent to his grandson, Antoine Henri Becquerel, Paris; By descent to his widow, Louise Desirée Lorieux, Paris; The Becquerel family collection; Their sale (‘Fonds Girodet (provenance Becquerel) et à divers amateurs’), Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Oger & Semont], 14 April 2008, lot 85; Private collection, New York. LITERATURE: Pierre Alexandre Coupin, Oeuvres posthumes de Girodet-Trioson, Paris, 1829, p.lxxxv (‘1820. L’Origine du dessin, le Génie de la Grèce, Appelle et Campaspe, Michel-Ange, Raphaël, Poussin. Dessins très terminus. Ces six compositions ont été faites pour le poème du Peintre, auquel ils sont jointes; trois ont été gravées du vivant de Girodet: la première par M. Henriquel Dupont; la seconde par M. H. C. Müller; la troisième par M. Bein. Les trois dernières ont été lithographiés, depuis sa mort, par M. Sudre. Appartiennent à M. Jules Renouard.’) ENGRAVED: In reverse by H. C. Müller for Coupin, ibid., illustrated between pp.142 and 143. One of the principal history painters of the Napoleonic era, Anne-Louis Girodet entered the studio of Jacques-Louis David in 1783, at the age of sixteen. He won the Prix de Rome on his third attempt in 1789, when he shared the prize with Charles Meynier, and was in Italy between 1790 and 1795, working in Rome and Naples. In 1793 he sent back to Paris his first submission to the Salon, The Sleep of Endymion, an evocative painting which proved immensely popular and established his reputation. A huge theatrical canvas of a Scene from a Deluge was exhibited to much acclaim at the Salon of 1806, while two years later a painting of The Burial of Atala was equally celebrated. These paintings evoke a distinctly proto-Romantic sensibility at odds with the strict neoclassicism of the artist’s Davidian training, although Girodet always remained first and foremost a history painter. As Neil MacGregor has succinctly noted, ‘Girodet is the paradigm of the artist caught in a change of traditions, a man in whom neo-classicism and romanticism – however specially defined – coexisted in conflict. Reluctant to submerge his personality in an idealized aesthetic, unable to throw off its weight, he is the enfant terrible of late eighteenth-century French art.’1 In 1810 Girodet was awarded a prize for the finest history painting of the past decade, the premier prix du concours décennal, for the Scene from a Deluge of 1806. (His master David’s The Intervention of the Sabine Women of 1799 came second.) Several of Girodet’s finest later works were of Napoleonic subjects, such as the Ossian Receiving the Shades of the French Heroes of 1801, commissioned for Malmaison. In 1809 he was entrusted by the Empress Josephine with the decoration of the Imperial apartments at Compiègne. After 1810, Girodet produced only a handful of history paintings, preferring instead to concentrate on portraiture. At the Salon of 1814 he exhibited fifteen paintings, three of which were acquired by the Crown. The end of that decade saw a falling off in his powers, however, exacerbated by bouts of severe depression. After 1820 he seems to have largely given up painting and instead devoted himself almost exclusively to his writings, notably his epic poem Le Peintre, as well as producing highly-finished drawings on literary themes. A popular teacher, Girodet had many pupils, of whom the most notable were Alexandre-Marie Colin, Léon Coigniet, Théodore Gudin and the brothers Achille and Eugène Deveria. Girodet worked extensively as an illustrator, collaborating with the publisher Pierre Didot to provide superb illustrations for editions of Virgil, Racine and Anacreon. He is known to have regarded illustration as of equal importance to grand history painting, and the posthumous sale of the contents of his studio
in 1825 included a large number of drawings for book illustrations and engravings, several of which achieved very high prices. The Girodet scholar Sylvain Bellenger has noted that, ‘A devotee of literature, Girodet was especially concerned with the relationship between text and image…and he devoted himself particularly to illustrating literature. Nowhere better than in his illustrations for Racine’s Phèdre and Andromaque did Girodet advance the sophistication and subtlety of literary illustration to create profound historical compositions. He explained their importance in a letter to the Marquis de Pastoret…“It is a mistake for drawings to be nothing but drawings, and they require the same conception and almost the same study as a painting when one takes pride in giving them style and character; only the process of execution is different. The artist who succeeds at such drawings can be none other than a history painter.”’2 Girodet was an accomplished writer and poet as well as an artist. As Bellenger has written, ‘Throughout his entire life Girodet followed two parallel vocations, two destinies which he aspired to combine into one. He pursued two artistic forms, painting and literature, which he hoped to fuse, but which nevertheless required him to live two lives. This two-fold quest, which pushed both arts to the limits of their similarity, demanded unstinting determination.’3 In the last years of his career, Girodet devoted himself increasingly to the literary arts; translating ancient poetry and writing his own verse in Greek or Latin style, as well as producing essays on art, such as Considérations sur le génie particulier à la peinture et à la poésie. Arguably Girodet’s most important literary work was his late poem Le Peintre, written over a period of several years right up until his death, and only posthumously published in 1829 by his pupil Pierre Alexandre Coupin. Written in six cantos, this long didactic poem about art is partly autobiographical. Le Peintre takes the form of an account of the training, travels and career of a French artist. The first three cantos describe the young painter’s education and his winning of the Prix de Rome, his voyage over the Alps to Italy and the great works of art he sees in Rome and Naples. The fourth canto finds the painter travelling to Greece, Egypt and Palestine, as well as Scotland and America, before returning to France. The final two cantos are devoted to the artist’s career, his challenges and successes, culminating with his eventual apotheosis to posthumous fame and glory. The published poem was accompanied by six engravings after illustrations by Girodet, of which the present sheet is one. The drawing depicts a self-portrait of the artist, with his stylus and portfolio, dreaming amidst the ruins of Ancient Greece. As Marc Fumaroli has described the composition, ‘The painter, sitting on the ruins at the foot of the Acropolis…symbolize[s] the deep independence of the artist who, like a new Petrarch, draws his moral and creative strength, not from his times, from which his melancholy alienates him, but from the ruins, the tombs and the venerable dead of antiquity.’4 The related engraving by Henri Charles Müller (fig.1) reverses the composition of this preparatory drawing. The provenance of the present sheet can be traced back to the Parisian book dealer and editor Jules Renouard (1798-1854), who is recorded as the owner of the six original drawings by Girodet for Le Peintre that were first published as engravings in Coupin’s Oeuvres posthumes de Girodet-Trioson in 1829. The drawing then entered the collection of the scientist Antoine César Becquerel (1788-1878), Girodet’s cousin and the executor of his will. Becquerel acquired a large portion of the contents of Girodet’s studio, thereby assembling one of the finest collections of drawings and paintings by the artist. He saw to the publication of several suites of drawings by Girodet after his death, and also laid the foundations of the collection of his work in the museum in the painter’s native Montargis. Many of the drawings by Girodet amassed by Becquerel, including the present sheet, remained with the collector’s descendants until they were dispersed at auction in Paris in 2008. 1.
26 Attributed to ALEXANDRE-MARIE COLIN Paris 1798-1875 Paris Portrait of a Young Man Black chalk, with stumping, heightened with touches of white chalk. Laid down. 486 x 309 mm. (19 1/4 x 12 1/8 in.) Alexandre Colin entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1814, at the age of sixteen, and joined the studio of Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson, where he remained until 1817. He chose not to take part in the Prix de Rome competition, and made his debut at the Salon in 1819, when he showed a portrait of a woman, and he continued to exhibit there regularly over the next fifty years. A good friend of Richard Parkes Bonington, Colin was also on close terms with Eugène Delacroix, with whom he shared a studio for a time, as well as Théodore Gericault, who was a few years older. In 1820, when Gericault’s painting of The Raft of the Medusa was shown in London, Colin accompanied the artist to England and produced the lithograph of the painting which was sold at the exhibition. (Gericault, who died when Colin was twenty-five, was to be a lifelong touchstone for the artist. Not only did Colin own a large number of drawings by him, acquired at the auction of the contents of the master’s studio, and of which he made carefully traced copies, but he was also commissioned to produce facsimiles of other drawings by the elder artist.) Colin’s earliest works were genre subjects and portraits, and in 1824 he won a second-class medal at the Salon. That same year he travelled to Dunkirk with Bonington, and the following year visited England in the company of Bonington, Delacroix and Eugène Isabey. He also spent some time in Italy, and on his return to France settled in Saint-Omer. Known as a painter of history, genre, literary and exotic subjects, Colin was also a fine portraitist and a lithographer. He exhibited regularly at the Salons in Paris until 1873, as well as at the Royal Academy and the British Institution in London. In 1830 he was appointed the director of the Ecole de Dessin in Nîmes, where he remained until 1838, although he continued to send paintings, drawings and watercolours to the Paris Salons. (In 1833, for example, he showed a dozen paintings, as well as several drawings.) By 1840 Colin was at the height of his success. He won a first-class medal at the Salon that year, and several of his large-scale paintings of historical, religious and allegorical subjects were reproduced as engravings or illustrated in contemporary magazines. He also painted religious works for churches in Paris and elsewhere between 1838 and 1865, notably at Saint-Nicolas-desChamps and Saint-Roch in Paris. In 1847 he returned to Italy, travelling the length of the country down to Sicily, and painting several landscapes. In 1867 Colin published Etudes d’après les grands maitres dessins et lithographies par A. Colin, a compendium of copies after works by the Old Masters, intended as a teaching aid for students. Indeed, the copying of the paintings of earlier masters was a practice that occupied Colin throughout his career, and for which he was highly regarded1. Colin’s four daughters and one son were also artists, as was his younger brother, the sculptor Paul-Hubert Colin. This striking, life-size drawing of an unidentified young man may be a portrait of a family member, friend or fellow artist. Depicted with a surprising degree of informality, the sitter was perhaps a fellow pupil in the studio of Girodet; in 1817 Colin produced a large lithograph of the master surrounded by bust-length portraits of thirty of his students2. The present sheet is closely comparable to a large-scale portrait study of the head of a youth in profile that appeared recently at auction and seems to be by the same hand3. Also similar in technique is a portrait drawing of the writer George Sand by Alexandre Colin, which was lately on the art market in France4.
27 HONORÉ DAUMIER Marseille 1808-1879 Valmondois The Lawyer Watercolour and gouache, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Inscribed H Daumier / Hier(?) biseau anglais - / [?] in pencil on verso. 171 x 131 mm. (6 3/4 x 5 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Roger Marx, Paris; His posthumous sale, Paris, Galerie Manzi, Joyant, 11-12 May 1914, lot 119 (‘L’Avocat. En robe, tête découverte, il pérore dans le feu de la plaidoirie. Fond blanc, noir gris et bleu. Dessin rehaussé. Haut., 16 cent.; larg., 12 cent.’); Dikran Garabed Kelekian, Paris and New York1; Private collection, New York; Anonymous sale, New York, Parke-Bernet Galleries, 13 May 1953, lot 16; Fine Arts Associates, New York; Private collection, America, in 1967; Grace Borgenicht, New York; Anonymous sale, Paris, Artcurial, 28 March 2012, lot 225; Gérard Lhéritier, Nice. LITERATURE: Erich Klossowski, Honoré Daumier, Munich, 1923, p.102, no.177Q; K. E. Maison, Honoré Daumier: Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, Watercolours and Drawings, Vol.II, London, 1967, p.209, no.630, illustrated pl.237. Born in Marseille but raised in Paris, Honoré Daumier was almost never to leave the city, and made its people the subject of much of his work. Although he attended life drawing classes at the Académie Suisse, he had little formal artistic training. He began working as an illustrator and lithographer, providing images and political caricatures for newspapers and magazines such as La Silhouette, La Caricature and, most famously, Le Charivari, and soon established a formidable reputation as a caricaturist. Over the course of his career, Daumier produced some eight hundred drawings and watercolours and over four thousand lithographs. The drawings were mainly done during periods when the artist’s time was not completely devoted to his commercial work as a lithographer. As a draughtsman, Daumier tended to depict a handful of favourite themes, including carnival performers, women and children, people on trains and in railway stations, and the law courts. Working in chalk, charcoal, watercolour, pen and ink and wash, he created finished drawings and watercolours for sale, as well as sketches or studies and quick ‘notes’. His drawings are often unsigned and very rarely dated, and only a few were exhibited in his lifetime. In the 1830s Daumier became a regular visitor to the Palais de Justice in Paris, and he portrayed scenes from the law courts in around two hundred lithographs, drawings, watercolours and paintings over the next thirty years. As Colta Ives has noted, ‘Lawcourts, which were the centers of great influence and authority in nineteenth-century France, aroused the attention of Daumier to an exceptional degree. In fact, no other artist has ever been quite so fascinated by the legal profession or has proclaimed its endemic weaknesses so vividly…His depictions of lawyers and court drama grew stronger in design and larger in meaning as he progressed from detailing specific personages and events to presenting simpler, generalized images of one or two figures symbolic of the profession and its practices…Daumier’s particular genius is evident in the stunning and disciplined clarity of his images. The artist never became mired in detail or narratives that required explanation, but instead concentrated on defining character through incisive description.’2 The first owner of the present sheet was the French writer and art critic Roger Marx (1859-1913), one of the earliest collectors of Daumier’s drawings. As his son Claude Roger-Marx later recalled, ‘From my early childhood, I have lived in daily intimacy with Daumier’s exciting world. At a time when he was still considered only a “humourist”, my father was able to acquire two cardboard boxes of drawings and sketches that had miraculously escaped destruction. These first thoughts, like the painted studies, were so disregarded at the time that it is said that almost all of them were thrown away by his widow in the trash. Between Daumier and myself all distances were removed. I tried to forget everything that others had written about him in order to find myself free of all topicality, served by an inexhaustible imagination, an extraordinary visual memory, one to one with his ardour, his sadness too…’3
28 ALFRED EMILE LEOPOLD STEVENS Brussels 1823-1906 Paris The Young Widow (La jeune veuve or Le dernier jour de veuvage) Pen and black ink and black wash, heightened with touches of white gouache. Signed AStevens in black ink at the lower left. Titled LA JEUNE VEUVE and inscribed (Fable de Lafontaine) on the original mount. Signed, dedicated and dated à mon cher Dr. Campbell / souvenir de reconnaissance / Alfred Stevens / Paris 31 Décembre 1874 in black ink on the old backing board. 237 x 162 mm. (9 3/8 x 6 3/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Given by the artist to a Dr. Campbell, probably Dr. Charles James Campbell, Paris1; Private collection, Bordeaux. Alfred Stevens trained in Brussels with François-Joseph Navez before moving to Paris in 1844 to study with Camille Roqueplan. He returned briefly to Brussels in 1849 and exhibited at the Salon there in 1851, but by the following year was back in Paris, where he was to live and work for the remainder of his career. Stevens made his debut at the Paris Salon in 1853, where he won a third-class medal and had one of his paintings purchased by the State. Within a few years he had established the genre of intimate scenes of women in modern interiors for which he was to become famous. By the 1860s Stevens had become one of the best-known artists in Paris, part of a literary and artistic circle that included the writers Charles Baudelaire and Théophile Gautier and the painters Edouard Manet, Berthe Morisot, Jacques-Emile Blanche and Edgar Degas. In 1866 paintings by Stevens were acquired by King Léopold II of Belgium and the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, while at the Exposition Universelle the following year he showed eighteen pictures and won a first-class medal. The artist lived in a series of elegant studios in Paris, lavishly decorated with a fine collection of paintings, furniture and objects, and exhibited with much success in Paris, Brussels, Antwerp and elsewhere. Stevens developed a particular speciality of paintings of the elegant women of Paris, dressed in their finery or getting ready for balls or visits. He was a master at depicting rich silks, crinolines, ribbons and jewellery, and achieved a considerable reputation for these stylish works. In the 1870s his paintings first came to the attention of American collectors such as the Vanderbilts in New York and William Walters in Baltimore, and a large number of significant pictures by the artist are today to be found in American museums. In the 1880s Stevens began teaching young artists in his studio, many of whom were women. At the end of the decade he worked, in collaboration with a former pupil, Henri Gervex, on a monumental painting entitled Panorama of the History of the Century, which was displayed in a special pavilion at the Exposition Universelle of 1889. Stevens continued to paint until 1899, when a bad fall left him confined to a wheelchair. The following year he was accorded a large retrospective exhibition of more than two hundred works at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris; an unprecedented honour for a living artist. Stevens’s paintings were much admired by many of his contemporaries, including Degas, Manet, PaulCésar Helleu, Claude Monet and Auguste Renoir. At his death in 1906, one obituary praised the artist’s ability to ‘make a fresh and living art out of material which no painter had seriously employed for half a century – the fashionable woman of Paris – and so to become an influence upon the photographic art of Tissot, the milliner’s work of Carolus-Duran, and to a lesser degree, perhaps, upon men of the rank of Manet and Whistler…Stevens’s best work anticipates not a few of the qualities of design and spacing that made Whistler’s fame, coupled with a true painter’s sense of pigment, and a touch so light, so orderly, so expressive and so tender that his pictures were as much admired by artists as his subjects were by the fashionable public.’2
The present sheet is related to Stevens’ painting The Young Widow (La jeune veuve) of c.1873-1874 (fig.1), today in the Musée Royal de Mariemont in Morlanwelz, south of Brussels3. The painting was purchased in April 1875 from the Brussels art dealer Henry Le Roy et fils by the Belgian collector Arthur Warocqué (1835-1880), whose widow later presented it to the museum4. As Peter Mitchell describes the subject, ‘The young widow in black, with the portrait of the lost husband in the background, looks in the mirror to reassure herself that she is still attractive and able to attract a new admirer. She need have no worries because the promise of new love is assured by the well-timed appearance of Cupid from under the table.’5 In his 1906 monograph on Stevens, Camille Lemonnier described The Young Widow as having ‘the charming caprice of a Fragonard’6. The painting was one of eighteen works by Stevens shown at the Exposition Internationale de peinture at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris in 1882, and was also exhibited at the Salon des Champ de Mars in 1890. On the latter occasion the artist wrote to Mme. Warocqué requesting the loan of the picture, noting that ‘This painting, which I consider to be one of my best, is unknown in Paris, and for the sake of my reputation I would so much like to have it seen.’7 In a later letter, he mentioned that ‘your painting – The Young Widow – before sending it to the Champ de Mars, it was seen in my studio by many painters, who were all enthusiastic about it, which made me so happy, that I would like to tell you and express again all my gratitude to you for having had the goodness to grant me it for my exhibition.’8 As Mitchell has noted of the painting of The Young Widow, ‘Critics at the time were unhappy that the ‘painter of modern life’ had lapsed into the realms of the imaginary. Clearly, they did not appreciate that it was an illustration to Les Fables by La Fontaine, a source of inspiration to artists from the 17th century onwards.’9 Indeed, the present sheet is also closely related to a sketch by Stevens10 for an illustration of the fable ‘La jeune veuve’, intended for an edition of the Fables of Jean de La Fontaine published in Paris in 187311. Two other drawings by Stevens of the same composition – a preparatory sketch in pen and watercolour in an American private collection12 and a more finished drawing in watercolour and gouache recently on the Paris art market13 – are also likely to have been drawn as studies for the 1873 illustration before being reused for the painting of The Young Widow. All three works on paper differ from the final painting in several details, notably the fact that the Japanese paper screen seen in the drawings was replaced by two doors and the edge of a large tapestry in the painting.
29 FREDERICK SANDYS Norwich 1829-1904 London Portrait of May Gillilan Coloured chalks and pencil, heightened with white, on pale green tinted paper. Signed F. Sandys in pencil on part of the original sheet, cut out and pasted onto the reverse of the frame. 377 x 285 mm. (14 7/8 x 11 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Commissioned from the artist by the sitter’s father, William Gillilan, Kensington, London; Thence by descent; Anonymous sale, Salisbury, Woolley and Wallis, 15 April 1996, lot 85; Anonymous sale, London, Bonham’s Knightsbridge, 19 March 1997, lot 106; The Maas Gallery, London, in 1998; Private collection. LITERATURE: Betty Elzea, Frederick Sandys 1829-1904: A Catalogue Raisonné, Woodbridge, 2001, pp.267-268, no.4.27. EXHIBITED: London, Maas Gallery, British Pictures (1840-1940), 1998, no.39. One of the finest draughtsmen of the Pre-Raphaelite circle, Anthony Frederick Augustus Sands (he added the ‘y’ to his surname after his marriage in 1853) was the son of a minor provincial drawingmaster. A precocious artist, by the age of ten he was already exhibiting his work in Norwich. At sixteen, while a student at the Norwich School of Design, he met the Reverend James Bulwer, a Norfolk clergyman, antiquarian and amateur artist who became one of his first patrons. Bulwer commissioned several watercolours and drawings from the young artist, culminating several years later in a fine oil portrait, today in the National Gallery of Canada. Despite his lack of a proper academic training, Sandys won a silver medal at the Royal Society of Arts in 1846 for a chalk portrait drawing, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1851, when he showed another chalk portrait. By this time he was living in London, although he continued to divide his time between the capital and Norfolk. He came to be closely associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and for a year shared a studio with Dante Gabriel Rossetti at 16 Cheyne Walk in Chelsea. The 1860s found the artist at his most prolific, producing genre, landscape and subject paintings, commissioned portraits, finished drawings and designs for wood engravings. Like Rossetti, Sandys painted several striking half-length female figures, such as a depiction of Morgan Le Fay of 1864. His close friendship with Rossetti eventually became strained, however, over the latter’s accusation that Sandys had copied one of his designs. In 1868 his painting Medea was first accepted and then, at the last minute, rejected by the Royal Academy, to the considerable surprise and consternation of both critics and fellow artists. From this point onwards, Sandys only rarely painted in oils, preferring to use coloured chalks for his portraits and subject pictures. As part of the preparatory process for his paintings, he had always made full-scale drawn cartoons in chalk, and these elaborate works – sometimes on a very large scale – began to be offered for sale in their own right. For the remainder of his career the artist developed a particular speciality of producing chalk drawings for collectors, most famously Proud Maisie, of which he made several versions. Sandys also continued to receive numerous private commissions for finished portraits in coloured chalks, while between 1881 and 1885 he made a series of portraits of notable writers for the publisher Alexander Macmillan. As the scholar Douglas Schoenherr has pointed out, ‘Sandys never really attempted to plumb any psychological depth in his portraiture – his forte was a more superficial celebration of features, costume and accessories rendered at their best in a super-refined and elegant technique and with a sure, even quirky sense of design.’1 Among his favourite models was his longtime companion, the actress Mary Emma Jones, who was known by her stage name of ‘Miss Clive’. She was the mother of the artist’s ten children, of whom six daughters and two sons survived infancy. Sandys also provided a number of splendid illustrations for wood engravings for books and such magazines as The Cornhill Magazine, Once a Week and Good Words, for which he became very well known.
Largely due to his painstaking technique, Sandys worked very slowly, and produced only a relatively small oeuvre of paintings, drawings and wood engravings. An inveterate gambler and spendthrift, he was often in financial difficulties and was thrice declared bankrupt, although he was supported by such patrons as Cyril Flower, later Baron Battersea, who gave him an allowance and paid for studio expenses. Nevertheless, the last two decades of his life saw a significant reduction in the artist’s output. In 1884 an article on his work appeared in the Art Journal, and in 1896 a monograph devoted to his work was published in a special issue of The Artist magazine. Two years later Sandys became a founder member of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers. An exhibition of his drawings was shown, alongside works by Rossetti and Simeon Solomon, at the Leicester Galleries in London in 1904, a few months before the artist’s death. Although a small retrospective memorial exhibition was mounted at the Royal Academy in 1905, his oeuvre soon lapsed into obscurity, and it was not until almost seventy years later that another exhibition of Sandys’s work took place, at the Brighton Art Gallery in 1974. Sandys was highly regarded in his day as a brilliant draughtsman, and indeed Rossetti once described him as ‘the greatest of all living draughtsmen’. He used coloured chalks for many of his formal portraits, which are characterized by a particular sensitivity and delicacy of touch. As Schoenherr has noted, Sandys was ‘the consummate draughtsman of portraits in coloured chalks…From his student days to the end of his life, the portrait in coloured chalks remained the one constant, his most characteristic mode of expression.’2 The artist, who seems to have been short-sighted or myopic, needed to stand very close to his subjects, with the result that many of his portraits evoke an intense focus on the sitter. Drawn in 1882, this fine portrait drawing was one of several works commissioned from Sandys by the sitter’s father William Gillilan (d.1925) of Kensington in London. Gillilan owned a number of late pictures by the artist, including The Tangled Skein of c.1870 (Ferens Art Gallery, Kingston upon Hull) and Poppies of 1898 (The National Trust, Wightwick Manor, Wolverhampton), as well as a final version of Proud Maisie, dated 1902 (National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa). He also commissioned portraits of his family from Sandys, of which the present sheet is the earliest in date. This drawing was originally created as a double portrait, incorporating a likeness of May Gillilan’s younger sister Winnie at the right of the composition3, but was trimmed at the right and bottom edges and reduced to a single portrait sometime between 1997 and 1998. The drawing originally hung in the dining room of the Gillilan home at 6 Palace Gate in Kensington, where it is recorded in a photograph (fig.1) taken in May 18914. Sandys also produced drawn and painted portraits of William Gillilan in 1886 and his wife Mary in 18855, as well as a drawing in coloured chalks of their third and youngest daughter Christabel in 18876.
30 CESARE MARIANI Rome 1826-1901 Rome Studies of a Reclining Female Nude Black chalk, heightened with white chalk, on deep blue paper. Signed Cesare Mariani in black ink at the lower right centre. 328 x 435 mm. (12 7/8 x 17 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Part of a large album of 283 Italian drawings of the late 18th and 19th centuries, compiled by Giovanni Piancastelli, Rome; Probably Edward and Mary Brandegee, Brookline, Massachusetts; Probably dispersed on the American art market in the late 1940s; Revd. Francis Agius, Church of Our Lady of Good Counsel, Inwood, New York; Thence by descent until the album sold in 1976 to Shepherd Gallery, New York, by whom it was broken up and the drawings dispersed; John Richardson, New York; Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 22 May 1997, lot 62; Private collection, New York. LITERATURE: Roberta J. M. Olson, Italian 19th Century Drawings & Watercolors. An Album: Camuccini & Minardi To Mancini & Balla, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1976, unpaginated, no.101, pl.34; Gemma di Domenico Cortese and Liliana Barroero, Mostra delle opera del pittore Cesare Mariani (1826-1901) conservate nel Museo di Roma, exhibition catalogue, Rome, 1977, p.61, under no.219; Roberta J. M. Olson, Italian Drawings 1780-1890, exhibition catalogue, Washington and elsewhere, 1980-1981, pp.168-169, no.67. EXHIBITED: New York, Shepherd Gallery, Italian 19th Century Drawings & Watercolors. An Album: Camuccini & Minardi To Mancini & Balla, 1976, no.101; Washington, National Gallery of Art, and elsewhere, Italian Drawings 1780-1890, 1980-1981, no.67 (lent by John Richardson). The Roman painter Cesare Mariani was a pupil of Giovanni Silvagni at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome, and completed his training with an apprenticeship in the studio of Tommaso Minardi. He started working as an independent artist around 1850, and the following year one of his paintings was shown at the Great Exhibition in London. Although he began his career as a painter of genre scenes, with which he achieved some success, Mariani soon established a particular reputation as a fresco painter, often working on a large scale in churches, palaces and public buildings. Between 1857 and 1860 he painted frescoes for the newly-rebuilt church of San Paolo fuori le Mura in Rome, followed by a huge fresco cycle in another restored Roman church, Santa Maria in Monticelli, where he decorated the choir, vault and presbytery. In the 1860s Mariani painted frescoes in the Roman churches of San Lucia dei Gonfaloni, Santa Maria in Aquiro and San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, where he completed the fresco decorations begun by his friend Cesare Fracassini, as well as in the church of the Madonna della Stella, near Montefalco. He also worked as a frescante in the Palazzo Sangermano in Arpino and the Castello at Rocca di Lanciano. Mariani’s activity as a painter of religious works continued throughout the 1870s and 1880s; a period when he was, for all intents and purposes, the official painter of Papal Rome and the Vatican. He provided paintings and frescoes for numerous churches in Rome, Lazio, Abruzzo and the Marches, where between 1884 and 1891 he completed a vast decorative cycle for the Duomo at Ascoli Piceno. Some of his work was sent even further afield, with an altarpiece and several paintings commissioned for the cathedral in Santiago in Chile. Although best known as a painter of religious subjects, Mariani also worked on a number of secular decorative schemes, notably painting allegorical subjects and portraits for the walls and ceiling of the Sala della Maggioranza of the Ministry of Finance in Rome, completed in 1879, and the Royal apartments of the Palazzo Quirinale. Of the Ministry of Finance frescoes, one contemporary English account
noted that ‘When it is remembered how few are the living painters capable of using the supremely difficult medium of fresco for their works, we look with increased interest on this remarkable series of paintings, the productions of a thoughtful, enthusiastic, and able artist, whose mind is saturated with the great traditions of Italian art, and whose hand can execute his conceptions with rare power and skill. Had Cesare Mariani been a native of Munich, Paris, or London, instead of a civis Romanus, his name would probably be well known in Europe...The whole work, indeed, has been painted con amore, with the devotion, patience, and enthusiasm of a thorough artist.’1 Mariani received numerous honours during his career, including being named a Knight of Saint Gregory the Great by Pope Pius IX in 1870, and, the following year, a Knight of the Order of the Crown of Italy. He trained numerous students, and rose to become principe of the Roman Accademia di San Luca between 1888 and 1890. (He also served as a drawing master to the Prince of Naples, the future King Victor Emmanuel III of Savoy.) One of his last significant projects was the fresco decoration of the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Terano, in the Abruzzo region, for which he also seems to have provided architectural drawings for the reconstruction of the church. From the middle of the 1890s onwards, however, he worked very little, and produced almost nothing in the few years before his death in 1901. The present sheet, perhaps a study for a figure in an allegorical painting or fresco, provides a fine example of Cesare Mariani’s gifts as a draughtsman. As has been noted of this large drawing, ‘These Rubensian academic studies of a reclining female nude display a baroque lushness and an attention to light which Mariani derived from his teacher, [Tomasso] Minardi. Mariani has studied the model from three different angles, adding a detailed study of her feet and, at the left of the sheet, a partial outline of her hands. The several areas of pentimenti suggest that the artist quickly sketched the poses and then reworked the contours in a more complete manner. Mariani concentrated on the more highly finished figure of the model at the bottom of the page.’2 Mariani seems to have favoured blue paper for his studies from life. A stylistically comparable sheet of studies of hands and feet, also drawn on blue paper, was in a private Florentine collection and appeared at auction in Italy in 20143. The present sheet has also been likened, in stylistic terms, to three similarly large-scale drawings of allegorical female figures, datable to around 1885 and perhaps intended for the decoration of a theatre, which are part of a group of 244 drawings, oil sketches and paintings by Mariani acquired by the Museo di Roma in 19664. Also comparable are two studies in black chalk, one of the sole of a right foot and the other of a left arm, that were exhibited at a gallery in Rome in 20015. This drawing by Mariani once belonged to Giovanni Piancastelli (1845-1926), a painter and engraver who served as the curator of the Borghese collection in Rome and assembled an important private collection of drawings. Piancastelli included the present sheet in an album that he put together, containing over 280 drawings by numerous artists working in Italy in the late 18th and 19th centuries, a few of which bear dedications to the collector. In 1901 Piancastelli sold some 3,600 drawings from his collection, mainly of ornament and stage designs, to the nascent Cooper-Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration in New York. Three years later, in 1904, the rest of Piancastelli’s collection, amounting to around 8,600 drawings, was purchased by the American collectors Edward and Mary Brandegee. After the death of Edward Brandegee in 1938, his wife sold most of the drawings to the Cooper-Hewitt Museum. The remainder of the Piancastelli collection – including the bound album of drawings in which the present sheet was included – was sold on the American art market in the second half of the 1940s. The album then found its way into the collection of a Maltese priest, the Revd. Francis Agius (1891-1958), who had arrived in America in the 1920s and served as a parish priest at a Catholic church in Inwood, Long Island. The album remained with his heirs until 1976, when it was broken up and the drawings dispersed.
31 ARTHUR RACKHAM RWS Lewisham 1867-1939 Limpsfield ‘Up to the Mountain’s Top’: Hippolyta and Theseus, from A Midsummer Night’s Dream Pen and brown ink and brown and grey wash, with touches of watercolour, on paper laid down on card. Signed and dated Arthur Rackham 08 in brown ink at the lower right. 286 x 183 mm. (11 1/4 x 7 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Ernest Brown & Phillips (The Leicester Galleries), London, in 1908; Bought from them by Edward John Power, London; Thence by descent. EXHIBITED: London, The Leicester Galleries, Exhibition of water-colour drawings illustrating Shakespeare’s comedy “A midsummer-night’s dream” by Arthur Rackham, R.W.S., 1908, no.50. One of the most famous and best-loved illustrators of his day, Arthur Rackham enjoyed a successful career which lasted for over forty years, illustrating more than 150 books and producing over three thousand watercolours and drawings. His first success came with his illustrations for an edition of Grimm’s Fairy Tales, published in 1900. This led to many further projects, including fine editions of Peter Pan, Gulliver’s Travels, Rip Van Winkle, A Midsummer Night’s Dream and Andersen’s Fairy Tales. Rackham’s superb technique and imaginative compositions were greatly admired, and his reputation as an illustrator, particularly of children’s books and fairy tales, was second to none. He exhibited his watercolours at the Royal Academy and the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours, and between 1906 and 1913 also showed his drawings yearly at the Leicester Galleries in London. In 1912 Rackham was honoured with a retrospective exhibition at the Societé Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and by the 1920s his work had become extremely popular in America. His last commission, from an American publisher, was for sixteen illustrations for an edition of Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows, which was published in 1940, after the artist’s death. Rackham’s drawings were much praised by art critics as well as his contemporaries, who elected him to the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours on his first application. Writing in 1906, one critic noted of Rackham that ‘His admirable originality and exquisite technical skill have, within the last few years, gained him an assured place in the front rank of our water-colourists and draughtsmen; and to this place he has come not by fortunate accident, nor by the influence of powerful patrons, but solely by his own exertions...As a craftsman he has an extraordinary command over refinements of expression, a perfection of touch and a delicacy of hand which give rare distinction to everything he produces, and which, nevertheless, do not prevent him from attaining, when his subject requires it, the most satisfying vigour and decision. But in addition to this executive skill he has a faculty for seizing immediately upon the imaginative possibilities of the material he is considering.’1 This superb drawing is a final study for one of Rackham’s illustrations for William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, published by Heinemann in London in 1908. Regarded as one of Rackham’s finest works as an illustrator, the book achieved great success, with the entire run of 1,000 copies of the deluxe edition sold out within three months of publication. Of the illustrations for A Midsummer Night’s Dream, which was also published in French, Italian and German editions, it has been noted that ‘almost all of the plates echo perfectly the mysterious interweaving of lightness and depth in this great work’2. Rackham’s illustrations have long remained the definitive rendering of the visual imagery of the story, and have inspired later stage and screen productions of the play. As one biographer has written, ‘Rackham cast his spell over the play; his drawings superseded the work of all his predecessors… his conception of Puck and Bottom, Titania and Oberon, Helena and Hermia, his gnarled trees and droves of fairies, have represented the visual reality of the Dream for thousands of readers. Here he excelled especially in landscape, and in reconciling dream and reality, giving himself to the luxury of rich detail with a rare generosity…William de Morgan, in a letter to Rackham, described his Midsummer-Night’s Dream as ‘the most splendid illustrated work of the century, so far.’’3
This drawing illustrates a passage from Act IV, Scene 1 of the play. As dawn breaks, Theseus, Duke of Athens, and Hippolyta, the Queen of the Amazons and fiancée of Theseus, have been celebrating the May morning and, accompanied by hounds, are about to embark on a hunt: THESEUS: Go, one of you, find out the forester; For now our observation is perform’d; And, since we have the vaward of the day, My love shall hear the music of my hounds. Uncouple in the western valley; let them go: Dispatch, I say, and find the forester. We will, fair queen, up to the mountain’s top And mark the musical confusion Of hounds and echo in conjunction. HIPPOLYTA: I was with Hercules and Cadmus once, When in a wood of Crete they bay’d the bear With hounds of Sparta: never did I hear Such gallant chiding; for, besides the groves, The skies, the fountains, every region near Seem’d all one mutual cry: I never heard So musical a discord, such sweet thunder. THESEUS My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind, So flew’d, so sanded, and their heads are hung With ears that sweep away the morning dew; Crook-knee’d, and dewlapp’d like Thessalian bulls; Slow in pursuit, but match’d in mouth like bells, Each under each. A cry more tunable Was never holla’d to, nor cheer’d with horn, In Crete, in Sparta, nor in Thessaly. Judge when you hear. Rackham worked tirelessly on the illustrations for A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and took almost two years to complete the forty colour plates and thirty-four black and white illustrations for the book. (In the artist’s own annotated copy of the published book, he noted that the settings for many of the illustrations were based on the countryside around Walberswick in Suffolk, where he had holidayed in 1907.) A sketchbook of 1908, today at Columbia University in New York, contains over eighty preparatory studies for A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Rackham had always been especially fond of the play; as he wrote to the American publisher George Macy in 1936, ‘I have done the Midsummer Night’s Dream for instance & should like to do it any number of times.’4 Seventy of Rackham’s original drawings for A Midsummer Night’s Dream, including the present sheet, were exhibited at the Leicester Galleries in London in 1908. As the critic Paul Konody noted of that exhibition, ‘Rackham’s name has become a household word and his position firmly established among the greatest illustrators of modern times...He reads the play, and when he comes across a passage or line that stirs his imagination he allows his mind to roam over the whole field of vision suggested by the poet… He is an artist to his fingertips, equipped with all the gifts that make for lasting fame.’5 This Hippolyta and Theseus was purchased at the Leicester Galleries exhibition by the collector Edward John Power (1858-1918), and remained with his descendants until 2019. Other original drawings for A Midsummer Night’s Dream are today in the Victoria and Albert Museum, the British Museum, the New York Public Library, and a number of private collections.
32 BERNARD BOUTET DE MONVEL Paris 1881-1949 near the Azores Two Equestriennes Pencil, with two shades of brown wash, and watercolour. Signed BERNARD / B. DE MONVEL in pencil at the lower left. 222 x 222 mm. (8 3/4 x 8 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Among the contents of the artist’s studio in Paris at the time of his death; Probably by descent to the artist’s daughter, Sylvie Boutet de Monvel, Paris; Private collection. The son of the illustrator Maurice Boutet de Monvel, Bernard Boutet de Monvel was one of the finest painters, printmakers and illustrators of the Art Deco era. Beginning in the late 1890s, when he was still a teenager, Boutet de Monvel’s remarkable colour etchings first established the young artist’s reputation. Published in large editions and exhibited in galleries and museums in Paris, London and America, these colour prints account for a significant part of the artist’s output in the years leading up to the First World War. In 1919 Boutet de Monvel became a member of the Compagnie des Arts Français, established by the decorator André Mare and the architect Louis Süe, and in the 1920s received numerous commissions for paintings to decorate the homes of such clients as the couturier Jean Patou, Jane Renouardt and Mme. Jacques Edeline. A large and comprehensive exhibition of Boutet de Monvel’s work as a décorateur – amounting to over one hundred and fifty paintings and decorative panels – was mounted in New York in 1926. In the late 1920s he received several commissions from members of the Vanderbilt, Whitney, Frick and Mellon families, as well as the Maharajah of Indore. Although he is perhaps best known as a painter of decorative panels and portraits, as well as urban views, Boutet de Monvel also produced book and fashion illustrations for such magazines as the Gazette du Bon Ton, La Vie Parisienne, Fémina, Le Journal des Dames et de Modes (Costumes parisiennes) and Le Rire. He provided drawings for Harper’s Bazaar in the 1920s and 1930s, and contributed illustrations to the first French edition of Vogue, published in June 1920, for which he continued to illustrate the latest fashions. Boutet de Monvel was himself a well-known dandy, admired for his innate style and elegant dress sense. A frequent exhibitor at the Salons in Paris, where he showed portraits, landscapes and nudes, Boutet de Monvel died in a plane crash near the Azores in 1949. Datable to around 1910, the present sheet is a fine example of Boutet de Monvel’s refined draughtsmanship. As the scholar Stéphane-Jacques Addade has noted, ‘Boutet de Monvel’s work...was striking for the pared back and rectilinear qualities that were so characteristic of the sleekness of his style. In place of sinuous curves, elaborate volutes and glistening golds, he preferred the pure, controlled lines of a pale outline...This productive economy of means led him to also make color subordinate to line.’1
33 SIR WILLIAM ORPEN RHA RA Stillorgan, Co. Dublin 1878-1931 London On the Hill of Howth Pencil and watercolour, with framing lines in pencil. Signed ORPEN in pencil at the lower right. 524 x 750 mm. (20 5/8 x 29 1/2 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Said to have been acquired in the 1950s from the Waddington Gallery, Dublin, by Mary (‘Molly’) Matthews; Given as a wedding present to her nephew, Desmond P. H. Windle, later Judge Desmond Windle, Sandymouth, Dublin, until 2014; Thence by descent. William Orpen displayed a precocious talent for art at an early age, and in 1891 was admitted into the Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin. He quickly came to the attention of his teachers and contemporaries as an immensely gifted draughtsman, and won several prizes for his drawings. In 1898 he transferred to the Slade School of Art in London, where his professors included Philip Wilson Steer and Henry Tonks. Orpen and his friend Augustus John soon came to dominate their class at the school, where they were recognized as head and shoulders above their fellow students in terms of talent. Orpen joined the New English Art Club, and exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal Hibernian Academy. He was appointed an Official War Artist in 1917, and his powerful paintings and drawings of the trenches in France were shown in London the following year. Knighted in 1918, Orpen reached the height of his success in the 1920s, when he was firmly established as one of the leading portrait painters in England, with a fashionable clientele and no shortage of commissions. After his death at the age of only fifty-two, however, his reputation lapsed into obscurity, and it has not been until relatively recently that he has regained something of the stature he once enjoyed. Throughout his career, Orpen was admired as one of the finest draughtsmen of his day. As the artist’s friend and biographer Paul Konody wrote of him, ‘drawing became his goal, his passion, almost his language. His whole eloquence lay in the sure hand that guided his pencil.’1 This very large sheet, drawn with a fine pencil and with light touches of watercolour, depicts a young woman on the clifftop at Howth Head, situated on a small peninsula east of the city of Dublin. Orpen first visited Howth in 1907, and with his family rented a house called ‘The Cliffs’ there for a number of summers between 1909 and the outbreak of the Great War. The house enjoyed a spectacular location, overlooking Dublin Bay with the city in the distance. As Orpen was to write several years later, ‘The view looking towards the mainland in the evening, from the top of the Hill of Howth, is wonderful and ever-changing. From Wicklow Head away off to the south, the chain of hills and mountains swing round in modulating curves right up to the near the city itself…Of an evening, as the sun dips, the water of the bay becomes brilliant gold…Or if the night is fine, the lights all along the shore, from Bray Head to Dublin, begin to twinkle.’2 It was during these August vacations that Orpen was at his happiest, in the company of his young family and freed, at least temporarily, from the pressure of his formal portrait commissions. The family enjoyed long walks along the cliffs, bathed in the sheltered cove below the house, and sometimes a tent would be pitched on the clifftop for picnics. This carefree life did not, however, mean that Orpen gave up working while he was on holiday. The artist’s brother Richard, who often joined them at Howth, recalled that ‘Bill was always at work and painted many pictures there. It was at the ‘Cliffs’ that I realized what the urge of the painter is.’ Orpen created several paintings, watercolours and drawings while at Howth, mainly between 1909 and 1913. As a recent scholar has written, during this period the artist ‘managed, on top of everything else, to produce a magnificent series of works, conceived and drawn out of doors, mainly at Howth, and taking as their subject matter the everyday human material that surrounded him.’3 Among his subjects were his wife Grace and their two daughters Mary and Christine, as well as friends and Orpen’s students and models from the Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin. As Konody noted, ‘These pictures
of life by the sea and among the Irish hills...of open-air sketching and children playing, breathe the spirit of physical well-being and freedom from mental worries. They are filled with sunlight – the mild sunlight of a damp climate – and caressed by the gentle breezes of heaven.’4 The identity of the young woman depicted in this fine drawing, lying in the sun with her right arm raised in a carefree manner and holding a bunch of tiny flowers in her hand, remains to be determined. The same woman appears, dressed in an identical manner and with the same hat, lying on her stomach looking over the cliff edge, in a large drawing of similar technique (fig.1) that was exhibited in London in 19875. It has been suggested that the model for both drawings may be Vera Hone (1885-1971), the wife of the Irish writer and biographer Joseph Maunsel Hone and a neighbour of the Orpens at Howth. Born Vera Brewster in New York, she was very beautiful, as was noted by the painter in letters to his wealthy patron and mistress, Florence Evelyn St. George. In one letter he included a drawing of Vera, adding ‘I’m afraid this does not give much idea of Mrs. Hone but she really is very good to paint.’6 For a period of about two years Vera Hone posed for several important paintings and a number of drawings by Orpen. As his pupil and assistant Seán Keating recalled of Hone, who was known as ‘the lovely Vera’, ‘We all loved her. She was a most beautiful woman. She had such lovely eyes. I think he was half in love with her, too. He thought she was wasted on Joe Hone. Whenever we met I couldn’t take my eyes off her.’ As the artist’s biographer Bruce Arnold has noted of Vera Hone, ‘She was his favourite model. Mrs. St. George’s daughter, Vivien, said of her: ‘Were there an “Orpen type” she’d be it.’ She was an American, and very beautiful...The Hones lived for about a year in the house next door to the Orpens. It was there that Orpen met them, and in the period of about two years which followed, he painted a magnificent series of portraits of Vera…She was, without question, the most beautiful woman he ever painted. She had deep blue eyes, golden hair, an almond-shaped face which strongly emphasised the full mouth and slighty dimpled chin…There is no doubt that Orpen was himself enchanted by Vera, as were many other artists...To some extent the pictures Orpen painted of her represent an almost perfect synthesis of his talents as an artist… Through all his paintings of Vera Hone there runs a thread of enticement; Orpen invests his subject with a loveliness that appeals for reasons other than her beauty, which itself is great.’7 Among the major paintings by Orpen for which Vera Hone posed are The Chinese Shawl (National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne), The Angler (Tate, London) and The Blue Hat, all painted in 1912, and The Roscommon Dragoon and The Irish Volunteer, both completed in 1913. Vera’s contact with Orpen seems to have ended later that year, however, when the Hones settled in Dublin and began to raise a family. Confidently executed in pencil and delicate touches of watercolour, the present sheet is among the largest of Orpen’s Howth watercolours. It may be compared stylistically with a number of drawings made at Howth in 1910 and 1913, some of which were published as a portfolio of ten photogravure reproductions by the Chenil Gallery in London in c.19158. One of these, a pencil drawing entitled After Bathing, seems to depict the same woman, wearing the same hat9.
34 RICHARD MÜLLER Tschirnitz 1874-1954 Dresden Study of the Hermann Monument Black chalk, with stumping. Signed, dated and inscribed Rich. Müller / Hermanns Denkmal Teutoburger Wald 26.8.17 in pencil at the bottom. 173 x 147 mm. (6 4/5 x 5 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Shepherd Gallery, New York, in 1991; Matthew Rutenberg, New York. EXHIBITED: New York, Shepherd Gallery, Winter Exhibition 1991: European Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture, 19th and early 20th century, 1991, no.57. A superbly gifted draughtsman and printmaker, Richard Müller was born in the Bohemian town of Tschirnitz (today Cernovice in the Czech Republic). He showed considerable artistic talent as a child, and by fourteen had enrolled in the school of the Royal Saxon porcelain factory at Meissen. Two years later he entered the Akademie in Dresden as one of the youngest students ever admitted to the school. Müller studied in Dresden between 1890 and 1893, and his earliest drawings – landscapes and studies of animals, for the most part – already reflect the lifelong stylistic inspiration of his older contemporary, Adolph Menzel. Another profound influence on the young artist was the printmaker Max Klinger, who encouraged him to take up etching. For over thirty years, beginning in 1903, Müller served as a professor at the Dresden Akademie, where his students included George Grosz and Otto Dix. In 1921 an exhibition of his work was held in Dresden, and the same year the first monograph dedicated to his oeuvre was published. After 1924, he largely abandoned printmaking and concentrated on drawings and paintings whose subjects were often fantastical, sometimes quite macabre and occasionally erotic. Müller was appointed Director of the Akademie in Dresden in 1933, but was forced to resign two years later, under the Nazi regime, on account of the ‘subversive tendencies’ in his art. After the war, he was refused membership in the East German artist’s union, and spent the rest of his life struggling for commissions and recognition. Drawn on 26th of August 1917, this drawing depicts the Hermannsdenkmal, or Hermann Monument (fig.1), in the Teutoburg Forest in the German province of North Rhine-Westphalia. Seen here from its base, the colossal statue is dedicated to Arminius (later translated into German as Hermann), the war chief of the Cherusci tribe, who led an alliance of Germanic clans that defeated three Roman legions in battle in the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD1. Generally regarded by historians as Rome’s greatest military defeat, and one of the most decisive military engagements of all time, Arminius’s victory precipitated the Roman empire’s eventual strategic withdrawal from Germania and prevented its expansion east of the Rhine. By the time of the unification of Germany in 1871, Arminius had come to be regarded as a symbol of German nationalism and freedom. Built between 1838 and 1875 near the city of Detmold, on what was thought, at the time, to have been the site of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the Hermannsdenkmal was designed and constructed by the architect and sculptor Ernst von Bandel. The monument rises to a height of nearly 54 metres, including the pedestal and base, with the figure of Arminius itself measuring some 25 metres to the tip of his sword. The monument remains a major tourist attraction today, receiving well over half a million visitors a year.
35 FREDERICK CAYLEY ROBINSON ARA Brentford-on-Thames 1862-1927 London Evening in London Tempera, watercolour and pencil on paper, laid down on board. The standing figure drawn on a separate sheet of paper pasted onto the main sheet at the left. Signed and dated CAYLEY ROBINSON 1920 in pencil at the lower right. Inscribed ‘“Evening in London.” / F. Cayley Robinson. / In the possession of Cecil French, Esq.’ in black ink on the backing board. 375 x 340 mm. (14 3/4 x 13 3/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Probably acquired from the artist by Cecil French; The Fine Art Society, London, in 1970; Stuart Pivar, New York; Acquired from him by a private collector in 1983; Private collection. LITERATURE: Geoffrey Holme, ed., British Water-Colour Painting of To-day, [The Studio, Special Winter Number], London, 1921, illustrated in colour pl.18. EXHIBITED: London, Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours, Summer Exhibition, 1920, no.98; London, The Fine Art Society, The Earthly Paradise: F. Cayley Robinson, F. L. Griggs and the paintercraftsmen of The Birmingham Group, 1969, no.193; Wilmington, Delaware Art Museum, The PreRaphaelite Era 1848-1914, 1976, no.6-13. Among the most interesting and original artists active in England in the first quarter of the 20th century, Frederick Cayley Robinson remains a relatively obscure figure today. His work has not been the subject of a monograph, nor has there been any major retrospective exhibition of his paintings since 1977; indeed, during his lifetime he was only accorded three one-man exhibitions. Cayley Robinson studied at the St. John’s Wood School of Art between 1883 and 1885, and thereafter at the Royal Academy Schools, before completing his studies at the Académie Julian in Paris between 1891 and 1894. There he came into contact with the work of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and the Nabis painters, who were to have a strong influence on his style, although he was also much inspired by the work of Sir Edward Burne-Jones and the painters of the Renaissance in Italy. As early as 1896 the critic Alfred Lys Baldry, in an article published in The Magazine of Art, noted of the young Cayley Robinson that ‘He has already established himself as an artist who occupies a place by himself, and he is conspicuous because he fills that place with real distinction. If he goes on as he has begun he can hardly fail to make his mark on the artrecord of our times.’1 Much of the early part of Cayley Robinson’s career was spent abroad. He lived for several years in Florence, where he studied the art of Giotto, Mantegna and Michelangelo, and took up the practice of painting in tempera. Following a period of four years in Paris, he settled in Cornwall in 1906, two years after his first one-man exhibition, at the Baillie Gallery in London. He began to exhibit his watercolours in 1911 at the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours, and continued to send two or three works to each of the Society’s annual exhibitions until 1926. Much of Cayley Robinson’s work is characterized by a sense of stillness and meditative calm, and this is especially true of his exhibition watercolours. Indeed, as James Greig noted in an appreciation of his work in watercolour, published shortly after the artist’s death, ‘neither medium nor method counts in any great measure for the attractiveness of Cayley Robinson’s oeuvre. Its influence is exercised mainly through spiritual emotion conveyed in rhythmic movement and tender tones of alluring beauty. The rhythm is always controlled within a well thought out design, but it is the elusiveness of the inward motive of his pictures that gives them their indefinable charm.’2 Cayley Robinson exhibited regularly at the Old Water-Colour Society, The Royal Society of British Artists and the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. He also received commissions for costume and set designs for theatrical productions, most notably for a staging of Maurice Maeterlinck’s The Blue Bird
at the Haymarket Theatre in 1909; a work that served to cement his reputation as what one recent scholar has described as ‘a sensitive painter of the child’s-eye view’3. (The artist likewise provided the drawings for an illustrated edition of The Blue Bird, published in 1911; the drawings were exhibited at the Leicester Galleries in London the same year.) He also produced a handful of designs for posters and book illustrations, notably for The Book of Genesis, published for the Medici Society in 1914. Apart from his easel paintings, Cayley Robinson was highly regarded as a mural painter. His finest works of this type are a series of four enormous oil paintings on canvas collectively known as The Acts of Mercy, painted for the entrance hall of Middlesex Hospital in London. Commissioned from the artist in 1910 and painted between 1915 and 1920, the paintings remained in situ until the Hospital was demolished in 2008, and were acquired the following year by the Wellcome Library in London. In 1914 Cayley Robinson also won a commission to paint a mural of The Coming of Saint Patrick to Ireland for the Dublin Art Gallery. By this time he had settled in London, established in a block of studios in Lansdowne Road which also housed the artists Charles Ricketts and Charles Shannon, Glyn Philpot and James Pryde. He lived there from 1914 until his death, although he spent three months every year until 1924 in Glasgow, where he served as Professor of Figure Composition and Drawing at the Glasgow School of Art. Elected a member of the Royal Watercolour Society in 1919 and an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1921, Cayley Robinson was also a member of the New English Art Club. Among the most common themes in Cayley Robinson’s oeuvre is that of women in enclosed interior spaces, often lit from both a light source within the room and from a window beyond. As Charlotte Gere has noted, ‘It is tempting to compare the interiors which are perhaps his most successful works, with those of his French contemporaries Bonnard and Vuillard; but close examination reveals that their atmosphere has less in common with the intimism that inspired the nabis than with the quietism of the Cotswold artists and authors. In Cayley Robinson’s pictures it takes on an almost sinister quality, and one feels that the figures in their airless rooms are brooding on ancient mysteries.’4 As another modern scholar has written, ‘Cayley Robinson’s pictures are almost always of people, denizens of a silent, timeless world. There are symbolic allusions but no clear cut messages...Cayley Robinson suggests an artist who, almost consciously, evaded worldly success; his life and work evoke that of a musician who, with only a limited number of notes available to him, is able to create a corpus of amazingly subtle harmonies which is neither forced nor false.’5 The present sheet may be related to a number of other, similar depictions of women in interiors, often incorporating standing or seated figures at the left edge of the composition, looking into the scene. These include a large painting entitled A Winter’s Evening, dated 1918, which was on the London art market in 20036, while another sizeable painting of the same title, exhibited at the Royal Society of British Artists in 1899, appeared at auction in 1995 and 20017. In keeping with much of Cayley Robinson’s work, the subject of this drawing remains enigmatic. As MaryAnne Stevens has noted of the artist, ‘the critics were perplexed by the meaning of Robinson’s paintings. When writing about his work, they tended to apply such descriptions as ‘poetic’, ‘literary’, ‘ethereal’, ‘full of associative meaning’ and ‘expressive of a mood’. However, there was one quality in his pictures upon which they all agreed: it was ‘symbolic’. This does not mean that Robinson adhered to a rigid system of visual metaphor...Instead, it is the quiet interchange between form and content, line and colour, which suggests a mood, a state of mind or the aspirations of Man. It is this aspect of his work which, in the face of pictorial innovation by other English artists after about 1900, justified Robinson’s commitment to an individual, quasi-archaic style of painting. It was this aspect that also fascinated the critics of his day and which continue to intrigue us today.’8 The present sheet was, in all likelihood, acquired directly from the artist by his friend, the Irish artist Cecil French (1879-1953). A painter, printmaker and illustrator, French seems to have abandoned painting after around 1903, devoting himself to assembling a collection of works by late 19th and early 20th century painters. In 1922 French published an article on Cayley Robinson in the magazine The Studio, in which he noted that ‘it was the infrequent appearance of Cayley Robinsons at the [Society of] British Artists that drew me, as a boy, to those exhibitions. The potency of spell, the visionary strangeness, the almost desperate sincerity, of the new, mysterious, isolated artist brought to mind the first strenuous beginnings of the English Pre-Raphaelite group.’9
36 JEAN-GABRIEL DOMERGUE Bordeaux 1889-1962 Paris An Elegant Woman at a Mirror, under a Spray of Wisteria Gouache and charcoal on buff paper, laid down on board. Signed and dated jean / gabriel / domergue / 21 in black ink at the centre left. Signed and inscribed jean / gabriel / domergue / Le princesse(?) aux(?) fleurs in pencil on the backing board. Further partially inscribed Domergue / [fem]me vue de dos assise in blue ink on a torn label pasted onto the backing board. 410 x 231 mm. (16 1/8 x 9 1/9 in.) [sight] Jean-Gabriel Domergue displayed an artistic talent from an early age, winning a drawing competition in Paris and receiving a portrait commission at the age of fourteen. A student at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris between 1903 and 1910, he first exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1906, at the age of seventeen, gaining an honourable mention. Domergue earned a gold medal at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1920, and the same year was among the founders of the Salon de la Mode par les Artistes, devoted to fashion in painting, drawing, sculpture and decoration. He was much in demand, for advertising posters, book covers and illustrations, costume designs and stage sets, fashion illustrations, and, in particular, as a painter of the elegant Parisian woman. As has been noted of Domergue, ‘With a skilful and witty brush, he had the art of translating the light, piquant, sparkling side of the pretty woman as one readily imagines her. Like Watteau and Fragonard in the 18th century, he is the great arbiter of feminine evolution, launching fashions, helping to create the type of beauty of his time.’1 Although he often used young dancers or actresses as models, he also painted a number of society portraits, and over the course of his career is thought to have produced some three thousand paintings. Domergue also worked occasionally as a decorative painter on a larger scale, painting murals for the theatre in the city of Agen in 1911 and at the Château d’Osmond in the Haut-Médoc in 1921. He organized fashionable balls and galas in Paris, such as the 1922 Venetian Ball at the Opéra, as well as events in Deauville, Juan-les-Pins, Monaco, Biarritz and Cannes, where in 1926 he built a villa that later became a museum devoted to his work. Apart from the Salon des Artistes Français, he exhibited at the Salon d’Automne, the Royal Academy in London and at the Carnegie International in Pittsburgh. In 1933 Domergue was admitted into the Légion d’Honneur, and in 1950 he was appointed to the Institut of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. From 1955 until his death he served as a curator at the Musée Jacquemart-André in Paris, where he organized a series of important monographic exhibitions on Toulouse-Lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh, Goya and others. He was in the midst of preparing an exhibition devoted to one of his greatest influences as an artist, the society painter Giovanni Boldini, when he died in November 1962, at the age of seventy-three. This gouache drawing may be related to a handful of similar compositions of a young woman seated in front of a tall mirror that Domergue produced in the early 1920s. It is particularly close to the left half of a painting of Eve at a Mirror (fig.1) of 1921, which depicts a woman looking into a mirror held by a lascivious satyr, with a golden carriage behind2. A variant of the composition, with the addition of a standing nude woman, occurs a gouache drawing, likewise dated 1921, which was sold at auction in 20123, while the artist also used a similar composition in a number of large folding screens4. A painting of an analogous subject, entitled Dans l’ombre d’une jeune fille en fleur, dated 1922 and exhibited at the Salon of that year, depicts a woman with a fan, dressed in white, underneath a spray of wisteria5.
37 JAN TOOROP Poerworedjo 1858-1928 The Hague Portrait of the Artist Lambert Lourijsen Charcoal, with stumping, on buff paper. Signed and dated JthToorop / 1926 in pencil at the upper left. 564 x 408 mm. (21 3/4 x 16 in.) PROVENANCE: Bernardus Petrus (Ben) Viegers, Nunspeet1; Galerie Erik H. Ariëns Kappers, Amsterdam, in 2013; Bernd Schultz, Berlin. Born and raised in Java in the Dutch East Indies, Jan Theodoor Toorop settled in Holland in 1872, at the age of fourteen. He studied in Delft, Amsterdam and Brussels, and in 1884 became a member of the Belgian artistic and literary group Les XX, exhibiting with them for several years. His early years found the artist working in a variety of styles, ranging from Realism to Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism. Toorop had his first exhibition in 1885, and after his marriage to an Englishwoman the following year, began to divide his time between England, Brussels and The Hague, as well as the artist’s colony at Katwijk aan Zee in Holland. In the early 1890s, influenced by the writings of Emile Verhaeren and Maurice Maeterlinck, Toorop began to work in a Symbolist vein, producing a number of large, complex and highly finished drawings. His paintings were exhibited abroad, notably at the first Salon de la Rose + Croix in Paris in 1892 and at the Vienna Secession in 1900 and 1902, where they were a particular influence on a slightly younger artist, Gustav Klimt. By the turn of the century Toorop was established as one of the leading avant-garde artists in Holland, and an influence in the development of the International Art Nouveau style. In 1905 he converted to Roman Catholicism, and began to produce a large number of overtly religious works, many of which were reproduced as prints or in facsimile and displayed in homes throughout the Low Countries. Among the few official commissions he received from the Catholic Church in Holland were designs for stained glass windows in the Sint Jozefskerk in Nijmegen, executed in 1913, as well as a series of paintings for the church of St. Bernulphus in Oosterbeek, completed in 1919. By this time he was in poor health, however, and within a year was largely confined to a wheelchair, with his left leg paralyzed. Toorop may justifiably be claimed as one of the finest Dutch portraitists of the early 20th century. He produced a large number of drawn and painted portraits of family, friends and fellow artists, as well as many portraits – usually in the form of highly finished drawings – of some of the leading Dutch writers, poets, clergymen, politicians, lawyers, musicians, composers and intellectuals of his day. Dated 1926, this large and striking late drawing is a portrait of Toorop’s friend and pupil, the Dutch painter, goldsmith, glazier and mosaicist Lambertus Theodorus Cornelis Lourijsen (1885-1950), who assisted the older artist on the decoration of the church of Sint-Bavo in Haarlem. (Toorop also served as a witness at Lourisjen’s wedding in 1914.) Lourijsen spent the early part of his career working as a portrait painter, but in 1923 moved to Haarlem and began to devote himself to producing decorative work for churches throughout Holland; not only stained glass and mosaics, in which the influence of Toorop is evident, but also murals, altars, candlesticks, monstrances and carpets. His oeuvre can be seen to its best advantage in such complete works of ecclesiastical decoration as the church of Sint-Agatha in Beverwijk, executed in 1924, for which Lourijsen designed most of the main elements of the interior. Fifteen years before he made this drawing, Toorop painted a spirited small-scale portrait of Lourisjen, signed and dated 1911, which is today in the Kröller-Müller Museum in Otterlo2. The same year the artist used Lourisjen as the model for a sizeable drawing of The Apostle Paul, now in the offices of the Ministry of Education in Brussels3, as well as a second large version of the same subject, dated 1912, now in the Museum Het Vallkhof in Nijmegen4.
38 EDOUARD VUILLARD Cuiseaux 1868-1940 La Baule A Woman Wearing a Beret Pastel on faded pinkish paper. Signed E Vuillard in black chalk at the lower left. 276 x 249 mm. (10 7/8 x 9 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Etienne Bignou, Paris; Lester Avnet, New York; Gallery Gertrude Stein, New York; Purchased from them in 1974 by Alfred Courchod, Lausanne; His (anonymous) sale, London, Sotheby’s, 16 October 1991, lot 6; Barbaralee Diamonstein-Spielvogel and Carl Spielvogel, New York. LITERATURE: Antoine Salomon and Guy Cogeval, Vuillard: The Inexhaustible Glance. Critical Catalogue of Paintings and Pastels, Milan, 2003, Vol.III, p.1473, no.XII-43. In the early years of the 20th century, Edouard Vuillard began expanding his repertoire of decorative panels and small, intimiste domestic interiors to include portraits and landscapes. The later years of his career found him working mainly as a portrait painter, often depicting his sitters within an interior setting. By the turn of the century he was using mainly pastel for his drawings, and soon came to master the subtlety of this challenging medium. As the critic and art historian Claude Roger-Marx noted, ‘Vuillard often found expression by means of pastels’1, and he made more extensive use of the medium than perhaps any French artist since Edgar Degas. Pastel was to become an essential part of Vuillard’s working process until the end of his career, used for landscape and figure studies, compositional drawings and still-life subjects, as well as preparatory studies for portraits. Antoine Salomon has suggested that the present sheet, which can be dated to around 1928, may be a portrait of Miche Marchand (1888-1942), the wife of Léopold Marchand, an author, playwright and screenwriter who was a patron of Vuillard. Born Michalina (Misz) Hertz in Lodz in Poland, she married the Franco-Polish playwright Alfred Savoir Poznanski in 1908. Vuillard had known Miche since at least 1910, when he painted her as a young woman, two years after her marriage to Savoir, in a portrait now in the Tate in London2. The year after her divorce from Savoir in 1921, Miche married Marchand. She became a close friend of Lucy Hessel, the wife of Vuillard’s dealer, who was also his muse and model for almost forty years. Miche Marchand appears in a number of late works by Vuillard, notably the painting In The Salon, Evening, Rue de Naples of 1933 (fig.1), in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.3, where she is shown seated at the left of the composition, along with Lucy Hessel and her adopted daughter Lulu, in the Hessel’s Parisian apartment. She also appears in the reworked version of Vuillard’s large painting Le Grand Teddy of 1930, today in the Musée d’Art Moderne in Geneva4. Miche Marchand committed suicide in July 1942, hours before a mass arrest of Jews in Paris by the French police, under the orders of the Nazis.
39 PABLO PICASSO Málaga 1881-1973 Mougins Banjo Blue pastel, brush and black ink on paper laid down on board. Signed and dated Picasso / 26 in black ink at the lower right. Inscribed [Pi]casso / banjo / 47 x 32 and numbered No. 9988 on a label pasted onto the old backing board. 313 x 465 mm. (12 3/8 x 18 1/4 in.) Watermark: CANSON & M[ONTGOLFIER]. PROVENANCE: Galerie Louise Leiris (Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler), Paris; Comtesse Eliane de Beaumont, Neuilly-sur-Seine; Acquired from her a private collector in c.1980; Thence by descent to a private collection; Anonymous sale, Paris, Christie’s, 20 May 2009, lot 93 (unsold); Private collection. LITERATURE: Christian Zervos, Pablo Picasso. Vol.7: Oeuvres de 1926 à 1932, Basel, 1982, pl.13, no.27 (with inverted dimensions); The Picasso Project. Picasso’s Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture: A Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue 1885-1973. Toward Surrealism – 1925-1929, San Francisco, 1996, p.57, no.26-050; Josep Palau i Fabre, Picasso: From the Ballets to Drama (19171926), Cologne, 1999, p.467, no.1659 (with inverted dimensions). Pablo Picasso did not play an instrument himself, and is said to have had little interest in most types of music. He did, however, have a particular penchant for the guitar, which seems to have reminded him of his native Spain, and the instrument appears in many of his still life compositions and papiers collés of the 1910s and 1920s; it was also the subject of his first constructions of sheet metal and cardboard, produced between 1912 and 1914. As Robert Rosenblum has written, ‘For Picasso, the guitar was the king of Cubist musical instruments, as well as being a ubiquitous presence in both his pre- and post-Cubist works.’1 While guitars, mandolins and violins occur throughout the artist’s oeuvre, notably during the early analytical Cubist years, they seem to have been a focus of his intense interest in the middle of the third decade of the 20th century. This is particularly true of the early months of 1926, when Picasso began developing numerous ideas for compositions with stringed instruments. For example, a small sketchbook used by the artist between December 1925 and March 1926, today in the Musée Picasso in Paris2, contains several pen and ink drawings of still life compositions with guitars, akin to the present sheet. Drawn in Paris in March or April 1926, this large Banjo is one of three closely-related drawings of stringed instruments of the same date. The other two drawings – one depicting a zither (fig.1), today in the Philadelphia Museum of Art3, and the other a mandolin (fig.2), which appeared at auction in Switzerland in 20054 – are likewise drawn in a combination of blue pastel and black ink, and are of identical dimensions to the Banjo. A handful of other drawings by Picasso of this period can also be related to this group; a vertical drawing of a mandolin, signed and dated 1926 and executed in blue pastel alone5, a drawing of a guitar, also in blue pastel6, and a third pastel drawing of a guitar7, also dated 1926 and likewise of the same dimensions as the present sheet. The last of these drawings has in turn has been regarded as a preparatory sketch for Guitar; an assemblage made up of a washcloth, newspaper, string and nails on painted canvas, today in the Musée Picasso in Paris8. The Guitar is one of a small group of around a dozen or so fetish-like assemblages or ‘picture reliefs’ of guitars created by Picasso in the spring of 1926, using rags, washcloths or pieces of old shirts, as well as nails, string, cardboard and, in one instance, a knitting needle, to create different guitar-like forms. As the artist’s biographer John Richardson has stated, ‘Early in March, Picasso cobbled together a series of fetishes – two large (130 x 96 cm) and ten smaller ones – out of rags, nails, and other junk. These fetishes are all ostensibly guitars – anthropomorphic ones.’9 Part sculpture, part collage, all of
these works – ‘suggesting threatening fetish objects provoking a psychic shock comparable to a Surrealist found object’10 – were kept by the artist until his death, and most are today in the collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris11. A number of other drawings by Picasso may be stylistically and thematically related to the present sheet, including an ink drawing of four musical instruments, dated November 192512, and a nearly abstract study of a guitar in pen and ink, dated 192613. As the scholar Josep Palau i Fabre has written of the artist’s work of this period, ‘During the spring of 1926, Picasso furiously attacked the theme of the guitar, as if all the versions he had so far given us were not enough, as if he still had to extract unprecedented notes from the instrument. And he did. But what notes! They are hair-raising. This is not a return to the guitars of Cubism in order to renounce or contradict those he had been conceiving recently; it goes much further beyond. The guitar he now offers us is incapable of producing pleasant, harmonious music; it represents the destruction of all the previous guitars.’14
40 CHRISTOPHER WOOD Knowlsey 1901-1930 Salisbury A Reclining Female Nude Pencil on buff paper. Signed and dated Christopher Wood / 1928 in pencil at the lower right. 292 x 480 mm. (11 1/2 x 18 7/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 11 November 1988, lot 395; Peter Nahum, London, in 1989; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 23 June 1994, lot 131 (bt. Bowie); David Bowie, London and New York. EXHIBITED: London, Peter Nahum, British Art from the Twentieth Century, 1989, no.12. Born near Liverpool, John Christopher (always known as Kit) Wood was largely self taught as an artist. In March 1921, at the age of twenty, he arrived in Paris at the invitation of the prominent French banker and collector Alphonse Kahn, and later that year enrolled at the Academie Julian. Some months afterwards he wrote to his mother, ‘You ask me what I am going to be: – I have decided to try and be the best painter that has ever lived...I want to paint everything that touches the human being.’1 Among Wood’s earliest successful paintings were a range of still life subjects, and in later years the artist came to be admired in particular for his flowerpieces. One of Wood’s early patrons and supporters was a Chilean diplomat and socialite, José Antonio de Gandarillas, who became his friend and lover for nearly seven years. The period between 1922 and 1924 found Wood travelling with Gandarillas around Europe and North Africa, while also studying briefly with Maurice Denis and André Lhote. Wood divided his time between London and Paris for several years, and enjoyed a close relationship with several figures of the European avant-garde, including Picasso, Jean Cocteau (with whom he briefly shared a studio) and the ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev2. For the remainder of his career he continued to spend much of his time in France, working in Paris, the Côte d’Azur and Brittany. In 1926 Wood exhibited with the London Group and became a member of the Seven and Five Society. It was at this time that he met the artists Ben and Winifred Nicholson, who were to become lifelong friends and travelling companions, as well as champions of his work. The three artists worked together in Cornwall, and in 1927 shared an joint exhibition in London. The following year Wood joined the Nicholsons at Feock and St. Ives in Cornwall, where he spent several months, and in 1929 he had his first one-man exhibition in London. The last two summers of his life were spent mostly in the port towns of Douarnenez and Tréboul in Brittany, where he produced a number of landscapes and genre scenes, characterized by a consciously ‘naive’ or primitive style, that are regarded as some of his finest works. In May 1930 he shared a joint exhibition with Ben Nicholson at a gallery in Paris, where he showed twenty-five paintings. Just over three months later, in August 1930, Wood died – apparently a suicide – when he was hit by a train at Salisbury railway station. He was just twenty-nine years old, and his brief career had lasted around eight years. A large retrospective exhibition of Wood’s work, numbering around five hundred paintings and four hundred drawings and watercolours, was held at the New Burlington Galleries in London in 1938, and was visited by some fifty thousand people. Wood received a thorough grounding in life drawing as a young student in Paris, where he took classes at the Académie Julian and the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. Although the artist used several models for his figure drawings from life, the model for the present sheet, drawn in 1928, may be Frosca (or Froska) Munster, a married Russian emigré whom Wood met in in the spring of that year and who became his lover. This large drawing by Christopher Wood was acquired in 1994 by the singer, musician and actor David Bowie (1947-2016) for his personal collection.
41 AUSTIN OSMAN SPARE London 1886-1956 London Palimpsest Pencil and watercolour on board. Inscribed and titled P / A.O. SPARE / “Palimpsest” / 6-2=143 in pencil on the reverse of the board. 490 x 308 mm. (19 1/4 x 12 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Sir John Richardson, New York; Thence by descent. EXHIBITED: Possibly London, Alex. Reid & Lefevre Ltd., Drawings and Water-colours by Austin O. Spare, April 1929, no.52 (‘Palimpest’ [sic], priced at 18 gns.); Possibly London, Godfrey Phillips Gallery, Water-colours & drawings by Austin O. Spare, November-December 1930, no.31 (‘Palimpsest’). Arguably one of the most gifted draughtsmen of Edwardian London, and today among the least wellknown, Austin Osman Spare was born in Smithfield in London – a true Cockney – on the penultimate day of 1886. He drew constantly from a very early age, and by the end of his life had produced over two thousand drawings, watercolours and pastels. Although largely self-taught, from the age of about twelve he took evening classes at the Lambeth School of Art, where his fellow pupils included Glyn Philpot. In 1903 Spare won a silver medal in the National Competition of Schools of Art, and the following year a first exhibition of his drawings was held at the public library in Newington. Also in 1904, the seventeenyear-old Spare had a drawing accepted at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, becoming one of the youngest exhibitors ever. This earned him much comment and praise as something of a ‘boy genius’ from journalists, as well as, it is said, such fellow artists as George Frederick Watts, Augustus John and John Singer Sargent. Having been recommended by the artist William Blake Richmond for a scholarship to the Royal College of Art, Spare found the institution unsuited to his style and temperament, and soon began skipping classes. He left the school in 1905, without any qualifications, and the same year self-published Earth: Inferno; his first book of drawings and mystical texts (‘Strange Desires and Morbid Fancies’, in his words). Another of his drawings was shown at the Royal Academy in 1905, and at around the same time he began to work as an illustrator and a designer of bookplates. In 1907 a second volume of Spare’s drawings was published, entitled A Book of Satyrs and containing eleven striking images of satirical subjects. Spare had his first proper exhibition at the Bruton Gallery in London in 1907. ‘Black and White Drawings by Austin O. Spare’ resulted in a number of reviews, most of which commented equally on the sheer technical proficiency of the works and their weird and disturbing subject matter. As one reviewer noted, the exhibition ‘will probably be the talk of the London studios for many a day to come. In speaking of his pen and ink work it is difficult to avoid superlatives. His craftsmanship is superb; his management of line has not been equalled since the days of Aubrey Beardsley; his inventive faculty is stupendous and terrifying in its creative flow of impossible horrors.’1 It was at the Bruton Gallery that Spare first met the occultist Aleister Crowley, who joined a small but growing band of patrons and collectors of the young artist’s work. Spare, who had a lifelong interest in the occult, provided a number of illustrations for Crowley’s journal The Equinox. Further exhibitions of his drawings in West End galleries followed in 1911, 1912 and 1914. In 1916 Spare founded and co-edited the magazine Form: A Quarterly of the Arts. Lavishly produced but also criticized for its eccentric layout, the journal lasted for only two issues before it ceased publication with the outbreak of the First World War, when Spare was conscripted into the Royal Army Medical Corps and worked as an Official War Artist. The journal was briefly revived after the war but Spare soon moved on to a new project, a literary and artistic journal called The Golden Hind, which ran for eight issues, until 1924. By now he was living in relative squalor in a council flat in Borough in South London, and his next project was an album of ‘automatic’ grotesque drawings, entitled The Book of Ugly Ecstasy, of which the sole copy was purchased in 1924 by the art historian Gerald Reitlinger2. Although Spare was producing some of his best drawings by the end of the 1920s, exhibitions at the St. George’s
Gallery in 1927 and at Alex. Reid and Lefevre in 1929 were commercial and critical failures, as was a 1930 show of anamorphic portraits in watercolour (which the artist titled ‘Experiments in Relativity’) at a gallery in St. James’s, which was to be his final West End exhibition. By this time, Spare had begun to exhibit and sell his drawings from his South London flat, and had fallen into something of a depression. Spare moved in 1936 to a large but spartan studio space near Elephant and Castle in London, where he was able to hold exhibitions of his work, and where he began a School of Draughtsmanship. (The same year he received a most unusual request; to paint the portrait of Adolf Hitler. Apparently, someone at the German embassy in London had purchased a portrait or self-portrait by Spare and had sent it to the Führer as a present3. Hitler was, it seems, impressed enough by Spare’s talent to offer to fly the artist to Germany, but the artist brusquely rejected the proposed commission.) In May 1941 Spare’s studio was completely destroyed by a German bomb, resulting in the loss of everything he owned, including several hundred works. His right arm was severely injured and he was unable to draw for several months. Soon living in a tiny basement room in Brixton in abject poverty, dressed in tattered clothes and sleeping on two chairs since he had no bed, Spare continued to draw, filling sketchbook after sketchbook with drawings. An exhibition at the Archer Gallery in Westbourne Grove in 1947 was a great success, and from 1949 onwards Spare began to hold exhibitions in a series of South London pubs. He remained quite impecunious, however, largely due to his refusal to produce commercial portraits. He turned down numerous requests for portrait commissions, once remarking to his friend and acolyte Kenneth Grant, ‘I can only do portraits in the quiet of my own rooms…with the best intentions I don’t know how I should get a drawing board and easel to any particular place and at a certain time. Which is the reason I have never troubled to do portraits for a living – but tramps, charwomen, etc…Studies of heads – Yes! But with no thought of sale – that would kill me at once.’4 Spare remained intensely prolific, and his last exhibition, at the Archer Gallery in 1955, included over 220 works. The following year, on the 15th of May, he died from peritonitis following a burst appendix, at the age of sixty-nine. That evening, a newspaper noted that ‘A strange and gentle genius died in a London hospital this afternoon. You have probably never heard of Austin Osman Spare. But his should have been a famous name.’5 Throughout his life, Spare was recognized as an outstanding draughtsman. An obituary in The Times noted that ‘Mr. Austin Spare, an artist of unusual gifts and attainments and even more unusual personality, died yesterday in hospital in London…He worked chiefly in pastel or pencil, drawing rapidly, often taking no more than two hours over a picture…His minute draughtsmanship may have owed something to the Pre-Raphaelite influence, though in general his art was much more human and full-blooded than that of the “brethren”. Of his technical mastery there can be no manner of doubt. The collection of his drawings may yet become a cult.’6 Datable to c.1928-1929 and typical of many of Spare’s portraits in its unsettling intensity, the present sheet is possibly a self-portrait. Always particularly interested in achieving and expressing a heightened self-awareness, he produced powerful self-portrait drawings, pastels and paintings throughout his career. The title Palimpsest, in various forms, appears several times in Spare’s work7, as early as his exhibitions in London in 1929 and 1930, in which the present sheet may have been included. As the Spare scholar William Wallace has noted, recording the statements of two of the artist’s closest friends, ‘[Kenneth] Grant recounts…that he visited Hannen Swaffer, the ace journalist one evening in the late 1940s…Swaffer showed him two large drawings that he was unable to hang on his walls (of which two were covered with Spare’s works), as the line-work was so pure and fine that it did not register on the eye. These do indeed sound like examples of Spare’s palimpsest method, achieved – as Frank Letchford explained to me in conversation – by rubbing down the drawing with dry crumbled bread to ‘lift’ some of the graphite from the indented lines...as drawings with a strong quasi-automatic element as a fundamental aspect in their process, these palimpsests by Spare might owe some debt to the essay Suspira de Profundis of Thomas de Quincey (1786-1859), specifically in the section ‘The Palimpsest of the Human Brain’. It is perhaps significant that a drawing entitled ‘Palimpsest’ appears as No.31 in the 1930 Godfrey Phillips catalogue whilst ‘De Profundis’ is No.46. In his essay, De Quincey deftly catalogues the term: ‘A palimpsest then, is a membrane or roll cleansed of its manuscript by repeated successions’…Spare’s palimpsests are, quite literally, automatic expressions and represent attempts to reify the incarnations of the archaic unconscious mind.’8
42 ALEXANDER YAKOVLEV (IACOVLEFF) St. Petersburg 1887-1938 Paris Portrait of a Black Man, South Carolina Charcoal, pastel and pencil. Laid down. Signed, inscribed and dated A. Iacovleff / Camden / 1935 in brown chalk at the lower centre. 660 x 487 mm. (26 x 19 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: By descent to the artist’s sister, Alexandra Yakovleva, Paris; Acquired from her by a private collector in 1978; Private collection, Rhode Island. EXHIBITED: Possibly Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, Paintings, Water Colors and Drawings by Alexandre Iacovleff, 1938, no.25 (‘Negro, South Carolina’); Possibly New York, Grand Central Art Galleries, Memorial Exhibition of the Work of Alexandre Iacovleff, 1939, no.55 (‘Negro, South Carolina’). Alexander Evgenievich Yakovlev (also Iacovleff or Jacovleff) studied at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg, where he was taught by Dmitry Kardovksy. It was there that he met his friend and fellow artist, Vasily Shukaev, with whom he travelled to Italy and Spain in 1913. This was to be the first of many travels for Yakovlev. A member of the revived Mir iskusstva group of Russian artists, he was much admired by one of the movement’s founders and leaders, Alexander Benois, who praised the young man’s talent. Following a period of military service during the First World War, Yakovlev earned a travelling scholarship to the Far East in the summer of 1917, and visited Mongolia, China and Japan. He was in Peking during the outbreak of the October Revolution, and was never to return to Russia. After some years in Peking, where he was particularly captivated by Chinese theatre, Yakovlev travelled across Mongolia and Japan, making drawings and sketches of the people and sights he encountered, several of which were exhibited in Shanghai in 1918. He settled in Paris in 1919, and the following year an exhibition of his drawings and paintings of the Far East, at the Galerie Barbazanges in Paris, made his name and established his reputation as an artiste-voyageur and a superb draughtsman. Yakovlev took French citizenship and worked on commissions for decorative mural and fresco paintings for the homes of such private patrons as the Duchesse de Gramont and Prince Felix Yusupov. He continued to travel, and later kept a studio in Capri. In 1922 an exhibition of nearly fifty paintings and drawings by the artist, mainly of Chinese, Mongolian and Japanese subjects, was held at the Art Institute of Chicago; the first presentation of Yakovlev’s work to an American public. In 1924 Yakovlev was invited by the industrialist André Citröen to join ‘La Croisière Noire’ – a motorized expedition, sponsored by Citröen and led by Georges-Marie Haardt, to cross the African continent from Algeria to Madagascar – as its official artist. Between 1924 and 1925 the artist made hundreds of paintings and drawings of the people, animals and landscapes that the expedition encountered on its route, which were later developed into finished works in his studio in Paris. These were exhibited, to considerable critical acclaim, at the Galerie Jean Charpentier and the Pavillon de Marsan at the Louvre. In 1928 Yakovlev sent an exhibition of his work to Moscow, and three years later he joined a second Citröen expedition; the trans-Asiatic ‘La Croisière Jaune’ from Beirut to Peking. Departing in April 1931, the expedition crossed Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, the Himalayas and the Gobi Desert before arriving in Peking in February 1932. The artist’s painting and drawings from ‘La Croisière Jaune’ were shown, again with much success, at the Galerie Jean Charpentier in Paris in 1933. The following year Yakovlev accepted a position as the director of the painting and drawing department of the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, where he remained until 1937. He was a popular and much-admired teacher; as one of his American pupils later recalled of the artist, ‘[He] did a type of drawing, rapid drawings in crayons. Portraits were done in a certain graphic style which became dominant and very influential – long contour lines; deep shadings; Iacovleff didn’t suggest things; he rendered them.’1 Writing on the occasion of an exhibition of the artist’s work in New York in 1936, Edward Forbes, an
art historian and the director of the Fogg Art Museum, noted that ‘In his earlier work Iacovleff’s interest was largely in structure and draftsmanship…But in his constant evolution his interest and studies have developed also in the field of colour. His reputation has grown to be international, but even twelve years or so ago Sargent said to me that he thought Iacovleff was one of the two greatest living draftsmen.’2 Although successful exhibitions of his work were held in Washington, D.C., New York, Boston, Charleston and Pittsburgh, Yakovlev missed Europe and decided to leave America when his three-year contract in Boston was over. Not long after his return to Paris, however, the artist died of stomach cancer, a few weeks before his fifty-first birthday. In 1939 a huge memorial exhibition, numbering some 225 works, was held at the Grand Central Art Galleries in New York. This large and striking portrait drawing of an unknown man was made during a stay by Yakovlev in the city of Camden in South Carolina in 1935, during which time he seems to have produced a number of portraits, as well as at least two depictions of a dance hall scene. The following year, in 1936, an exhibition of the artist’s work at the Knoedler Gallery in New York included three drawings entitled Josephine (Camden, South Carolina), The Black Plumber (Camden, South Carolina) and Cariebell (Camden, South Carolina). A few months later, another exhibition of Yakovlev’s work was mounted at the Gibbes Art Gallery of the Carolina Art Association in Charleston, South Carolina, and included some of the same works. In 1938, a number of other drawings of Black subjects in South Carolina – possibly counting the present sheet – were included in an exhibition of Yakovlev’s paintings and drawings at the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh. A review of that exhibition praised the ‘remarkable creative ability, an amazing productive power, great technical skill, incredible versatility as to style and the use of artistic medium, superb draftsmanship, and a cosmopolitan understanding, sympathy, and outlook’ of the works displayed, adding that ‘Iacovleff’s ability as a draftsman is best seen in his drawings, where with a few bold strokes of his pencil or crayon, he outlines a head, an arm, a body, or a piece of drapery.’3 This drawing was formerly in the possession of the artist’s younger sister, Alexandra Yakovleva (18891979), an opera singer who, with her mother, escaped Russia after the Revolution and settled with her brother in Paris. From 1949 until her death thirty years later, Yakovleva taught at the Conservatoire Russe Serge Rachmaninoff in Paris.
Alexander Yakovlev in 1924.
43 TSUGUHARU FOUJITA Tokyo 1886-1968 Zurich A Young Woman Asleep (Kimiyo assoupie) Pencil, with stumping, on papier calque. Signed Foujita in pencil at the lower right centre. 209 x 267 mm. (8 1/4 x 10 1/2 in.) PROVENANCE: By descent from the artist to his wife, Kimiyo Foujita, Paris; Her posthumous sale (‘Succession Kimiyo Foujita: Première partie’), Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Cornette de Saint Cyr], 26 March 2013, lot 11; Private collection. A painter, draughtsman and printmaker, Tsuguharu Foujita studied at the School of Fine Arts in his native Tokyo. Disappointed by the conservative nature of the training he received there, he decided to move to Paris, where he arrived in 1913. Foujita soon made his mark in the artistic milieu of bohemian Paris, becoming friendly with such artists as Kees van Dongen, Pablo Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani, Chaim Soutine, Henri Matisse and Juan Gris. From quite early in his career he achieved considerable financial rewards from the sale of his paintings and drawings. (Indeed, such was his success that he was able to install a bathtub with hot running water in his studio in Montparnasse; a great luxury that was used by many of the artist’s models in the area, most notably Man Ray’s lover Kiki de Montparnasse, who also posed nude for Foujita.) Although he was associated with the artists of the School of Paris, and in 1920 became a permanent member of the Salon d’Automne, Foujita created his own individual style, characterized by a combination of Japanese, French and European influences. His favoured subjects included portraits, views of Paris, still-lives, nudes and cats, and he also designed a number of posters as well as theatre costumes and stage sets. In later years Foujita’s fame spread beyond France, and in 1931 he undertook a hugely successful tour of Central and South America, while two years later he was welcomed back to Japan as something of a celebrity. He remained in Japan during the Second World War, working as an official propaganda and war artist for the Army and Navy Ministries, for which he was much criticized by his countrymen after the war. Foujita returned to settle for good in France in 1950, and became a French citizen in 1955. Following his conversion to Catholicism in 1959 (when he adopted the baptismal name Léonard, in honour of Leonardo da Vinci), he began producing paintings and drawings of religious subjects, culminating in the decoration of the chapel of Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix in Reims with murals and stained glass, completed in 1966. Foujita is buried in the chapel at Reims, and a large collection of his work is today in the Musée des Beaux-Arts there. The subject of a woman asleep was a constant motif in Foujita’s oeuvre from the middle of the 1920s onwards. The present sheet would appear to depict the artist’s fifth wife, Kimiyo Foujita (1910-2009), whom he married in 1936. The drawing remained in her possession until her death, more than forty years after that of her husband. As Foujita’s widow and the sole executor of his estate, Kimiyo jealously guarded his reputation after his death. She strictly controlled access to his papers and the extensive contents of his studio, and almost never allowed scholars to publish anything on his oeuvre. As the copyright holder, she also refused to allow the artist’s work to be reproduced for a period of almost two decades after his death, until the late 1980s. In her will, Kimiyo left 860 works by Foujita to the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Reims.
44 MAX LÉON MOREAU Soignies 1902-1992 Granada The Head of a Berber Man in Profile Black chalk, watercolour and gouache on buff watermarked paper. Signed and dated Max Moreau / 1938 in pencil at the lower left. 488 x 298 mm. (19 1/4 x 11 3/4 in.) [image] 504 x 323 mm. (19 3/4 x 12 3/4 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: La Petite Galerie, Brussels, in 1938. EXHIBITED: Brussels, La Petite Galerie, Exposition Max Moreau, October 1938, no.35. The son and pupil of the painter Henri Moreau, Max Moreau demonstrated a talent as a draughtsman from an early age, and began painting in oils at fourteen. By sixteen he was making copies of Old Master paintings at the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, as well as portraits of the actors of the city’s theatres and cabarets. In 1920 the Moreau family settled in Paris, where the young artist continued to find subjects among the theatrical world, particularly at the Comédie-Française. By 1923 Moreau was back in Brussels. Fascinated by the Near East, in 1929 he made the first of five trips to Tunisia. As he noted of the country in his autobiography, ‘it was, for me, a marvel, and I set to work’1. The artist returned to Tunisia and the Maghreb several times over the next decade. He participated in the Salon Tunisien of 1933 and 1934, while some of his Orientalist work was included in a series of solo exhibitions in Belgium. After the Second World War Moreau established a successful international career as a society portrait painter. He travelled extensively, living in Marrakech between 1947 and 1950, while also working in France, England, Portugal, the Bahamas and America, notably in New York and Palm Beach. In 1965, after fifteen years in Paris, Moreau settled permanently in Granada in Spain. He continued to enjoy considerable success, with exhibitions of his work in galleries in Spain, Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, North Africa and in several American cities. The onset of Parkinson’s disease in 1982, however, meant that he no longer exhibited his work after this date. Following his death at the age of ninety, and that of his widow two years later, Moreau’s estate was willed to the city of Granada, which turned his home and studio into a museum – the Casa Museo Max Moreau – that houses some five hundred works by the artist. Dated 1938, the present sheet was drawn on one of Moreau’s visits to Tunisia. While he worked mainly in Tunis, he also visited the island of Djerba and the towns and cities of Gabès, Kairouan, Kébili, Nabeul, Sfax and Sousse, painting portraits and genre scenes. As he wrote, ‘What a pleasure it is for the enchanted portraitist who wanders through the labyrinth of the Arab city and the quartiers of the Hara. At every step are heads of character, at every street corner, living models out of the Bible. Misery, suffering, old age, disease have hollowed out this face; youth and beauty irradiate that one; this Bedouin woman passes like a princess in nameless rags of admirable colour; this grave rabbi bears on his features the full weight of a formidable past... Admirable draperies of which the Arabs have the secret, a burnous thrown proudly over the shoulder, turbans rolled up carefully or devilishly…And these hollowed, tormented faces, these eyes which keep the vision of deserts, these wrinkles which speak eloquently...’2 As the art dealer and auctioneer Alphonse Bellier noted of Moreau, on the occasion of an exhibition of his Moroccan work at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune in Paris in 1951, ‘This painter, born in the mists of Belgium, is in love with the warm lights of North Africa and, like [Albert] Marquet, although in a totally different way, he excels at rendering the violent, sometimes even trembling, beauty of Islam, asleep for centuries in a picturesque world that never disappoints. The classical purity of the Shilha people, the shops of the souks, where his love of chiaroscuro gives joy to his heart, allow him to note, in profound drawings, the history of this Islam that he loves and understands.’3 Among stylistically comparable drawings by Moreau is a watercolour and gouache study of an Arab man, dated 1937, sold at auction in 20174, and a study of a Moroccan man playing the flute, drawn in Marrakesh in 1950, which appeared at auction in Paris in 2005 and 20075.
45 GRAHAM SUTHERLAND OM London 1903-1980 London Teeming Pit Charcoal, black ink, watercolour, gouache and pastel on paper laid down on board. 510 x 385 mm. (20 1/8 x 15 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale, Sotheby’s, 25 October 1972, lot 121 [catalogue untraced]; Anonymous sale (‘A Collection of Works by Graham Sutherland, O.M.’), London, Sotheby’s, 5 April 2000, lot 95; Peter Nahum, London; His sale (‘The Poetry of Crisis: The Peter Nahum Collection of British Surrealist and Avant-Garde Art 1930-1951’), London, Christie’s South Kensington, 15 November 2006, lot 196; Private collection, London. LITERATURE: Roberto Tassi, Sutherland: The wartime drawings, Milan, 1979, p.127, fig.122, as ‘Steel works, ladles of molten metal’ (with incorrect dimensions); Colin Harrison et al, Great British Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 2015, p.258, under no.100, note 3 (entry by Katherine Wodehouse). EXHIBITED: London, Olympia, Graham Sutherland: Olympia Loan Exhibition, February-March 2003, no. GS 188. When the Second World War began, the artist Graham Sutherland was thirty-six years old and considered too old for active duty. His friend and mentor Sir Kenneth Clark had been appointed head of the War Artists Advisory Committee, and he soon engaged Sutherland as an official War Artist, a role he fulfilled from 1941 to 1945. The artist first depicted scenes of bomb damage in London, then turned his attention to studies of industrial production on the home front; tin mining in Cornwall and blast furnaces in South Wales, as well as open cast coal mining and limestone quarrying. Most of his works from this period were acquired by the War Artist’s Advisory Committee and later presented to museums around the country. At the end of September 1941 Sutherland was sent to make studies of the large blast furnaces at the Guest, Keen and Baldwin Steel Works near Cardiff. The production of steel had taken on a new importance during the war, since Britain was cut off from foreign imports and urgently needed to produce armaments. The artist was fascinated by the almost alchemical processes in steel manufacturing, and by the huge furnaces and crucibles, the molten steel and the red and yellow glow of the huge flames. As Malcolm Yorke has noted, ‘Now all his sunset colours could be deployed again in the flow of molten iron, flames belching from furnace doors, glowing crusts of slag and the plop and seeth of boiling metal...In this dramatic black and red inferno the steel-men risked their lives teeming super-heated metals, feeding the voracious furnaces and tapping the outflow.’1 The overwhelming combination of extreme heat, noise and smells in a steelworks, as well as the sheer scale of the equipment and the operation, must have had quite an impact on the artist. Many years later, in 1971, Sutherland recalled the sight: ‘As the hand feeds the mouth so did the long scoops which plunged into the furnace openings feed them, and the metal containers pouring molten iron into ladles had great encrusted mouths.’2 The artist’s early training as an engineer gave him some insight into the workings of the machinery, and allowed him to study and understand the processes involved. Executed in a rich combination of different media and techniques, this vibrant drawing depicts the process of ‘teeming’ in steel manufacture, namely, the pouring of molten steel into ingot moulds. A very similar composition, drawn in watercolour, wax crayon and black ink and entitled The Smelting Works: Twin Ladles, was presented by the War Artists Advisory Committee in 1947 to the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford3. A recent description of the Ashmolean drawing is also relevant to the present sheet: ‘The
vivid egg-yolk yellow, carmine and sooty black recalls the work of William Blake...[and] evokes the intense heat and acrid atmosphere of the factory – a visceral assault on all the senses. The bold geometry of the design, emphasised by the grid of the ceiling and the parallel rails in the foreground, is countered by the swirl of the raging flames and the murky smoke.’4 Another related composition by Sutherland, Twin Ladles: A Furnace Scene, appeared at auction in 19725, while a similar drawing of Teeming Steel into Moulds, sharing the same provenance as the present sheet, was sold at auction in 20006. An associated subject also occurs in a gouache drawing of a Teeming Pit: Tapping a Steel Furnace, dated 1942, which is today in the collection of the Imperial War Museum in London7. Other paintings and drawings of the Cardiff steelworks by Sutherland are today in the Tate in London, the Manchester City Art Gallery and the Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Some of Sutherland’s drawings of steelworks were reproduced in one of the small series of books entitled War Pictures by British Artists, published in 1943. In his introduction to the book, Cecil Beaton noted that ‘In those Vulcan forges, our eyes become attuned, unlike the camera lens, to the nuances of darkness amid a strange world that is spasmodically suffused by flashes of green, magenta, puce and golden light. In this world of molten metals, of glowing furnaces, soot and firework sparks, that only the painter can interpret, Graham Sutherland has reverently seized his opportunity to capture this fleeting phenomenon of sequined brilliance, of mystery, of glowing magic.’8 In later years, Sutherland recalled, ‘I think my war paintings did have a very big effect on me. I was suddenly faced with certain subjects which, as far as painting was concerned, I had had no previous knowledge, and I was, in fact, frightened, simply because I didn’t know how I was going to react. It was a new field entirely and I had to make the best of what I could do, and it undoubtedly had an important effect on me, because clearly nothing one experiences fully is ever wasted. For example, I painted a lot of factory subjects – machinery and the rest – during the war...these vast machines, with violence in the air, later made me see correspondence with the forms in nature. I began to see a curious similarity between machine forms and nature forms. I have always liked and been fascinated by the primitiveness of heavy engineering shops with their vast floors. In a way they are cathedrals. Certainly they are as impressive as most cathedrals I’ve seen and a good deal more impressive than some. And yet the rite – a word I use carefully – being performed when men are making steel, is extraordinary; and how primitive it all really is in spite of our scientific age.’9
46 FRANK AUERBACH Born 1931 To the Studios Felt-tip pen and pastel on paper. Signed and dated Auerbach / 1977 in pencil on the verso. 253 x 294 mm. (10 x 11 5/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Acquired directly from the artist by a private collector; Their (anonymous) sale, London, Sotheby’s, 22 February 1990, lot 445. Beginning in the late 1970s, Frank Auerbach painted a number of canvases entitled To the Studios, depicting a view looking downhill towards the entrance to his North London studio, between a redbrick Victorian house at the left and a newer building at the right. In his 1990 monograph on the artist, Robert Hughes described Auerbach’s studio: ‘It is one of a line of three studios in an alley that runs off a street in Camden Town, a rootedly lower-middle-class area between Mornington Crescent and the park of Primrose Hill. They were built around 1900, with high north-facing windows...You enter the alley through a wicket gate, set between a liver-brick Victorian semi-detached villa on the left and on the right a decayed block of 60s maisonettes. A roughly lettered sign says TO THE STUDIOS.’1 Throughout his career, most of Auerbach’s urban landscape subjects have been views in the immediate vicinity of his studio in north London. As he has noted in a recent interview, ‘I’ve been painting my street and my house, and so on, by the studio because it’s easier…Familiarity matters a great deal to me, painting another location wouldn’t mean anything to me.’2 The inspiration for the series of To the Studios paintings, begun in 1977, seems to have been the result of the painter’s anxiety that he would be evicted from his studio; a situation eventually resolved when he was able to purchase the building outright. Drawing is a vital part of Auerbach’s working process. This is particularly true when he is working on a landscape composition, when he repeatedly makes sketches of the view or motif he is working on. As he noted in 1998, ‘I go out each morning and draw. I can’t really start a painting in the morning until I’ve done a drawing...I feel dissatisfied with what I’m doing, so I go out and try and notice some fact I haven’t seen before, and once I’ve been provided with a reason for changing my picture, I can come back to the studio and change it. I can go on doing this for many months. Noticing something that no one else has paid any attention to seems to be a motive. I’ve lived here for 40 years, but when I look at certain things around here I can’t think of any way of painting them. I looked at the Camden Theatre for twenty years before I did pictures of it. I looked at the chimney in Mornington Crescent for 35 years before I found a way of painting it. I think I’m speaking for all painters when I say that I get a sense of pleasure out of pinning something down that I’ve seen, as it were, out of the corner of my mind for years.’3 The present sheet may be related in particular to a series of four paintings entitled To the Studios, painted in 1977 and early 1978; one of these is now in the Pallant House Gallery in Chichester4, while the others are in private collections5. When working on this series of paintings, Auerbach often pinned several drawings and sketches of the subject, similar to the present sheet, to the wall of his studio (fig.1). This drawing also displays compositional similarities with a later group of To the Studios paintings of 1982, all in private collections6.
47 SAM SZAFRAN Paris 1934-2019 Paris Untitled (Plants) Watercolour on paper; a page from a large sketchbook. Signed Szafran in pencil at the lower centre. 737 x 476 mm. (29 x 18 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: The studio of the artist, Paris; Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris and New York; Purchased in 1987 by William Louis-Dreyfus, Mount Kisco; The William Louis-Dreyfus Foundation, from 2015. EXHIBITED: New York, Claude Bernard Gallery, Sam Szafran: Recent Works, 1987, probably no.14. Born in Paris in 1934 to Polish immigrants, Samuel Berger took the maiden name of his mother when he began to sign his works in the 1960s. Although he was briefly enrolled at the Académie de la Grande-Chaumière in Paris in the mid-1950s, Szafran was largely self-taught as an artist. He exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1957 and two years later at the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles. While his earliest work was based in abstraction, from around 1960 onwards he depicted representational subjects, drawn in pastel, charcoal or watercolour. Content with studying a limited range of themes – notably studio interiors, staircases and plant forms – Szafran produced numerous drawings, each characterized by a very skillful handling of the medium and an abiding interest in perspectival effects. From 1965 Szafran’s work was exhibited extensively in France, and also in Switzerland, but only rarely elsewhere. He contributed to the Nouvelle Subjectivité exhibitions curated by Jean Clair in Paris in 1976 and in Brussels in 1979. A retrospective exhibition of drawings, pastels, watercolours and sculptures was held at the Fondation Pierre Gianadda in Martigny, Switzerland, in 1999-2000. Works by Szafran are today in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Centre National d’Art Contemporain, the Musée d’Orsay and the Musée d’Art Moderne in Paris, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D.C., and elsewhere. Throughout his career Szafran concentrated on a small range of subjects, notably views of the interior of his studio and of a staircase in an apartment building on the rue de Seine in Paris, seen from above in steep perspectival foreshortening. Drawn in 1986 or 1987, this very large watercolour depicts another of the artist’s favourite subjects; the plants which filled his Parisian studio. For over fifty years, Szafran produced what he called ‘feuillages’, or studies of potted plants in interior spaces. As the artist’s friend James Lord has written of these ‘feuillages’ by Szafran, ‘Then there is a leap into the universe of vegetation. Plants. Infinite interstices of leaves in their imperceptible palpitation, profusion, perfection, each leaf limned upon the vibrant air with horticultural precision. Aerial tendrils dangling down through the multitudinous greenery, seeking sustenance even as they provide its structure. Stalks and stems sprouting and supporting: the armature of this dense but fragile vegetal architecture…the glimpse we occasionally catch of a human presence amidst the luxuriant, polymorphous foliage is fragmentary, fleeting. Verdure endures alone and exuberant in the fructification of itself.’1 As Lord adds, ‘Szafran’s staircases and plants are the output of an eye dedicated to the absolutism of its own experience, disciplined by self-effacement before what sight alone can convey to the senses but submissive at the same time to the sublimating want of self-expression. Proceed with caution upon these stairs and amongst the vegetation. Aesthetic delight is dangerous. The pleasure of familiar forms is deceptive…Seeing Szafran shows how wonderfully well looking can think.’2 Throughout much of Sam Szafran’s career, his work was acquired by a coterie of enthusiastic and devoted collectors. Prominent among these was the French-American businessman and passionate collector William Louis-Dreyfus (1932-2016), who assembled an exceptional group of works by the artist that spanned several decades of his career.
48 AVIGDOR ARIKHA Rădăuți (Bukovina) 1929-2010 Paris Interior with Drawings Pastel on emery paper. Signed and dated Arikha Nov.88 in pencil at the lower centre edge. 505 x 300 mm. (19 7/8 x 11 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: The estate of the artist; Marlborough Fine Art, London. EXHIBITED: New York, Marlborough Gallery, Avigdor Arikha: twenty-five pastels, 2007, no.3. One of the finest draughtsmen of the second half of the 20th century, Avigdor Arikha was born to German-speaking Jewish parents in Romania in 1929. The drawings he produced as a young boy while imprisoned in a Ukrainian labour camp brought him to the attention of the International Red Cross, by whom he was rescued in 1944 and sent to a kibbutz in Palestine. After studying art at the Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts in Jerusalem, Arikha went to Paris in 1949, completing his training at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He eventually settled in Paris in 1954, studying philosophy at the Sorbonne and establishing lifelong friendships with Samuel Beckett and Alberto Giacometti. Arikha began his career as an abstract painter, but in 1965 abandoned painting completely, and spent the next eight years working on black and white drawings from life, as well as a series of monochromatic etchings. By the time he returned to painting in 1973, he had become a committed figurative painter, producing mainly portraits of family and friends, interior scenes and still life subjects. Arikha’s drawings, invariably made from life, have always been much admired. As the critic Robert Hughes wrote in 1974, ‘He gives us back a sense of the possibility of drawing. Arikha is, to my mind, the best draftsman of his generation, perhaps the best to have emerged in Europe since the death of Giacometti.’1 The artist employed a wide range of media and techniques, including pencil, pen, brush, ink, charcoal, metalpoint, watercolour, chalk and pastel. As has been noted, ‘Arikha’s drawings take their place alongside those of some of the masters, from Rembrandt to Géricault, and are scarcely to be equalled among his contemporaries.’2 The present sheet belongs with a group of pastel drawings that Arikha produced in the 1980s. As the artist later recalled, writing in the catalogue of an exhibition of his pastels held in 2007, in which this work was included, ‘One winter afternoon, during the first months of 1983, I was present at the arrival and unpacking of a crate at the Cabinet des Dessins of the Louvre. It contained the pastel-portrait of Madame Tronchin by Jean-Etienne Liotard. Its impact was such that I rushed to get pastels on the very next morning. I had not practiced this medium since the early ‘50s...The twenty-five pastel paintings in this exhibition were never exhibited nor published, remaining hidden in their drawer until now.’3 The use of pastel became an important part of Arikha’s artistic process, with the medium applied not only to drawing paper or tinted board, but also emery paper, as in this Interior with Drawings. The rough surface of the emery paper, as Duncan Thomson has noted, ‘allow forms that are more fragmented, that do not strive for the same degree of ‘completeness’, so that the white or the tint of the base plays a role in the finished work...the fine crystals of alumina [in emery paper] take up the pressure of pastel in their own particular way.’4 Drawn in November 1988, this pastel is closely related to a much larger oil painting entitled Reflections on the Drawings, completed in December 1989 and today in a private collection, in which the side of a bookcase appears at the left edge5. (The framed drawing at the upper left of this composition, a study of heads by Giacometti, is more readily evident in the large painting.) Arikha returned to the motif of reflections in a wall of framed drawings several years later, in a large pastel drawing executed on the 11th and 12th of January, 20006.
No.13 Luti Fig.1 Benedetto Luti Cain Fleeing from the Sight of God after the Death of Abel, 1692 Oil on canvas. National Trust, Kedleston Hall and Eastern Museum 108850 © National Trust Images/Ian Blantern No.19 Cozens Fig.1 John Robert Cozens Near Sallanches, Savoy, France Pencil, pen and brown ink and watercolour on paper. The Whitworth, The University of Manchester D.1892.4 Courtesy of the Whitworth, The University of Manchester No.29 Sandys Fig.1 The Dining Room at 6 Palace Gate, 8 May 1891 Photograph. The Historic England Archive BL10754 © Historic England Archive No.38 Vuillard Fig.1 Edouard Vuillard The Visit, 1931 Mixed media on canvas. National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. 1963.10.230 Courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington
NOTES TO THE CATALOGUE
No.1 Biagio Pupini 1. One of the leading collectors of drawings in Italy in the 17th century, the Oratorian priest Padre Sebastiano Resta (1635-1714) assembled a large and significant group of some 3,500 sheets, gathered into about thirty albums. At least nineteen of these albums, containing almost 2,500 drawings, were compiled by Resta for his patron and fellow collector Monsignor Giovanni Matteo Marchetti (1647-1704), Bishop of Arezzo from 1691 until his death. After Marchetti’s death in 1704, the Resta albums were offered for sale by his heirs. They were eventually acquired in 1710 by John, Lord Somers (1651-1716), Lord Chancellor of England. (Somers also later obtained some albums directly from Resta himself in Rome.) The Resta albums were in England by 1711, but Somers soon decided to break up the albums and have the drawings remounted. Before doing so, however, he had fourteen original Resta volumes lettered from A to O, with each drawing within them numbered consecutively, together with the album letter, on the recto. (On the present sheet, this so-called Resta-Somers number is the k.213 inscribed near the lower right corner.) The year after Somers’ death in 1716, his drawings were sold at auction in London and dispersed. 2
This drawing was probably acquired at the 1717 Somers sale by the English portrait painter, author and connoisseur Jonathan Richardson the Elder (1667-1745). Richardson owned a remarkable collection of nearly five thousand drawings, mostly Italian works of the 16th and 17th centuries, assembled over a period of about fifty years. His extensive collection was organized by school and date, and the drawings were further classified with a complex system of shelfmarks, such as can be found on the reverse of the mount of this drawing.
3. Sir J. C. Robinson (1824-1913), a scholar and a leading figure in the Victorian art world, served as curator of the South Kensington Museum in London and was later appointed Surveyor of the Queen’s Pictures. 4. According to a note on the mount of a photograph of this drawing in the Witt Library, London. 5. In the manuscript inventory of the Resta-Somers albums, transcribing Padre Resta’s own notes on each of the drawings, the entry for the present sheet, listed under no. K.213, reads: ‘Mo. Biagio Puppini Bolognese, Discepolo / del Francia, prattirò con l’Imola e Gerolimino / da Carpi. fugossotto(?).’ 6. ‘Puppini Bolognese (Biagio) 1471 / Coronation of the Blessed Virgin. J 49.’. 7. Inv. 8859; Marzia Faietti and Dominique Cordellier, Un siècle de dessin à Bologne 1480-1580: De la Renaissance à la réforme tridentine, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 2001, pp.65-67, no.16; Marzia Faietti and Dominique Cordellier, Il Cinquecento a Bologna: Disegni dal Louvre e dipinti a confronto, exhibition catalogue, Bologna, 2002, pp.124-127, no.25. No.2 Lorenzo Sabatini 1. Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and Architects, Florence, 1568, [trans. Gaston du C. de Vere, London, 1912], London, 1996, Vol. II, p.775. 2. Inv. Ff,4.10; Jürgen Winkelmann, ‘Lorenzo Sabatini detto Lorenzino da Bologna’, in Vera Fortunati Pietrantonio, ed., Pittura bolognese del ‘500, Bologna, 1986, Vol.II, illustrated p.627. 3. Inv. 10001; Winkelmann, ibid., illustrated p.612. The Louvre drawing is a study for a large painting today in the Bob Jones University Museum and Gallery in Greenville, South Carolina (Winkelmann, op.cit., illustrated p.613). 4. Winkelmann, op.cit., illustrated p.625. 5. Inv. 293; A. E. Popham and K. M. Fenwick, European Drawings (and two Asian drawings) in the Collection of the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 1965, pp.32-33, no.42; Diane DeGrazia Bohlin, Prints and Related Drawings by the Carracci Family: A Catalogue Raisonné, Washington, 1979, p.93, under no.15, fig.15a; Mimi Cazort and Catherine Johnston, Bolognese Drawings in North American Collections 1500-1800, exhibition catalogue, Ottawa, 1982, p.54, no.13. 6. DeGrazia Bohlin, ibid., p.93, no.15 (where dated c.1576-1579) and pp.418-419, no.R 55. The first of these two prints, by Agostino Carracci, identifies the author of the composition as. LAV. SAB., while the second, by Domenico Tibaldi, is dated 1575 and inscribed Laurens. Sabadinus Inven:. Both engravings are in the same direction as the Ottawa drawing. No.3 Giovanni Battista Lombardelli 1. Inv. 23371; Veronika Birke and Janine Kertész, Die Italienischen Zeichnungen der Albertina: Generalverzeichnis, Vol.IV, Vienna, 1997, p.2225, Inv.23371. The drawing is signed or inscribed ‘G. B. della Marca’. 2. Inv. 1974.16; Jacob Bean and Lawrence Turcic, 15th and 16th Century Italian Drawings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1982, pp.128-130, no.119; Francesco Grisolia, ‘Per Giovan Battista Lombardelli, Pasquale Cati e Vespasiano Strada disegnatori’, Paragone, JulySeptember 2010, pl.3a. 3. Inv. 22479; Grisolia, ibid., pl.4. 4. Inv. 11590; Grisolia, op.cit., pl.21.
5. Marco Simone Bolzoni, ‘The Drawings of Raffaellino Motta da Reggio’, Master Drawings, Summer 2016, p.191, no.A34, illustrated p.169, fig.37 (as Raffaellino da Reggio); Giulio Zavatta, ‘Recensione a: The drawings of Raffaelino Motta da Reggio. Note sul “catalogo” di Marco Simone Bolzoni e alcune proposte per Giovanni Battista Lombardelli’, in Taccuini d’arte: Rivista di Arte e Storia dei territorio di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 2016, p.90, fig.1 (as Lombardelli). The drawing is in the collection of Robert Loper, New York. No.4 Gherardo Cibo 1. Jaap Bolten, ‘Messer Ulisse Severino da Cingoli, A Bypath in the History of Art’, Master Drawings, 1969, pp.123-147, pls.1-21. It is now clear that ‘Messer Ulisse Severino da Cingoli’ was the recipient and owner of one of the Jesi albums, rather than the artist responsible for the drawings themselves. 2. Lucia Tongiorgi Tomasi, ‘Gherardo Cibo: visions of landscape and the botanical sciences in a sixteenth-century artist’, Journal of Garden History, 1989, p.200. 3. Arnold Nesselrath, in Suzanne Folds McCullagh, ed., Capturing the Sublime: Italian Drawings of the Renaissance and Baroque, exhibition catalogue, Chicago, 2012, p.68, under no.28. 4. Stefano Rinaldi, ‘Gherardo Cibo’s landscapes. Comments in the catalogue margins’, in Giorgio Mangani and Lucia Tongiorgi Tomasi, ed., Gherardo Cibo. Dilettante di botanica e pittore di ‘paesi’. Arte, scienza e illustrazione botanica nel XVI secolo, Ancona, 2013, pp.340-341. 5. Enrico Celani, ‘Sopra un erbario di Gherardo Cibo conservato nella R. Biblioteca Angelica di Roma’, Malpighia, 1902, p.190; quoted in translation in Tongiorgi Tomasi, op.cit., 1989, p.210. 6. Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 3 July 1989, lot 106 (as Messer UIlisse Severino da Cingoli); Caen, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Caen, L’Oeil et la Passion: Dessins italiens de la Renaissance dans les collections privées françaises, exhibition catalogue, 2011, pp.132-135, no.37 (entry by Arnold Nesselrath). 7. Inv. 758P; Bolten, op.cit., p.139, no.45, pl.14b; Arnold Nesselrath, ed., Gherardo Cibo alias Ulisse Severino da Cingoli: dipinti e disegni da collezione italiane, exhibition catalogue, San Severino Marche, 1989, p.118, no.34; Mangani and Tongiorgi Tomasi, ed., op.cit., pp.144-145, no.67. 8. Inv. De Grez 1786; Bolten, op.cit., p.137, no.17, pl.16; Mangani and Tongiorgi Tomasi, ed., op.cit., pp.134-135, no.21, fig.45. 9. Inv. Bancone Stampe N.S. 56, no.59; Nesselrath, ed., op.cit., 1989, pp.118-119, no.35; Mangani and Tongiorgi Tomasi, ed., op.cit., p.180, no.234 (not illustrated). 10. Tongiorgi Tomasi, op.cit., 1989, p.215. 11. Oliver Tostmann, in Margaret Morgan Grasselli and Arthur K. Wheelock, ed., The McCrindle Gift: A Distinguished Collection of Drawings and Watercolors, exhibition catalogue, Washington, 2012, p.32, under no.5. No.5 Giovanni Balducci, il Cosci 1. The late 17th century Dutch physician Peter Sylvester (d.1718), a Protestant who was born in Bordeaux but raised and educated in Holland, served as a physician at the court of William III, Prince of Orange and King of England, with the title of ‘Commissioner of the Sick and Hurt’. He seems to have assembled a small collection of prints and drawings, about which relatively little is known today. 2. Inv. 1090F; Annamaria Petrioli Tofani, Gabinetto disegno e stampe degli Uffizi. Inventario: Disegni di figura 2, Florence, 2005, pp.62-63, no.1090F; Mauro Vincenzo Fontana, Itinera Tridentina: Giovanni Balducci, Alfonso Gesualdo e la riforma delle arti a Napoli, Rome, 2019, pp.274-275, no.D30 (where dated 1582-1584). 3. Inv. 15639F; Annamaria Petrioli Tofani and Graham Smith, Sixteenth-Century Tuscan Drawings from the Uffizi, exhibition catalogue, Detroit, 19881989, pp.146-147, no.63; Fontana, ibid., p.283, no.D56 (where dated 1585-1590), illustrated in colour pl.6. 4. Inv. 21132; Mario di Giampaolo, ‘Balducci o Corenzio? Un’ ipotesi’, in Monika Cämmerer, ed., Kunst des Cinquecento in der Toskana, Munich, 1992, fig.15; reprinted in Cristiana Garofalo, ed., Mario Di Giampaolo: Scritti sul disegno italiano 1971-2008, Florence, 2010, p.328, fig.15; Fontana, op.cit., p.284, no.D62 (where dated 1585-1590), not illustrated. 5. Inv. D 1751; Fontana, op.cit., p.283, no.D59 (where dated 1585-1590), illustrated in colour pl.7. No.6 Giovanni Battista Castello, il Genovese 1. Mary Newcome, ‘Giovanni Battista Castello’, Arte Cristiana, 1995, p.197. 2. ‘La miniatura…è un’opera di notevole interesse, sia per la elevata e raffinata qualità artista sia per la probabile provenienza escurialense, alla quale allude il santo effigiato, titolare dell’ordine dei monaci, ai quali era stata affidata la conduzione del monastero di San Lorenzo de El Escorial.’; de Laurentis, op.cit., p.29.
No.7 Federico Zuccaro 1. This drawing bears the collector’s mark of the Cypriot Nicos Dhikeos (1896-1987), who had settled in France by 1916. He lived in Lyon, where he owned a gallery dealing in Old Masters, and from 1930 onwards assembled a large and varied group of Old Master and 19th Century drawings, primarily of the Italian and French schools. While much of his collection were acquired at auction, Dhikeos also bought large groups of drawings from the heirs of the 20th century collectors Dr. A. Tardieu and Louis Maudet. The drawings were largely dispersed in the years following Dhikeos’s death in 1987, and sheets from the collection are today in the British Museum in London, the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, the Louvre in Paris and the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C., among many other institutions. 2. James Mundy, ‘Federico Zuccari’s Invisible Architecture’, in Matthias Winner and Detlef Heikamp, ed., Der Maler Federico Zuccari: Ein römischer Virtuoso von europäischem Ruhm. Akten des internationalen Kongresses der Bibliotheca Hertziana, Rom und Florenz, 23.-26. Februar 1993, Munich, 1999, p.28, note 3. 3. Julian Brooks, Taddeo and Federico Zuccaro: Artist-Brothers in Renaissance Rome, exhibition catalogue, Los Angeles, 2007-2008, p.2. 4. E. James Mundy, Renaissance into Baroque: Italian Master Drawings by the Zuccari 1550-1600, exhibition catalogue, Milwaukee and New York, 1989-1990, p.18. 5. Bonita Cleri, ed., Per Taddeo e Federico Zuccari nelle Marche, exhibition catalogue, Sant’Angelo in Vado, 1993, pp.128-129, no.4; Cristina Acidini Luchinat, Taddeo e Federico Zuccari: fratelli pittori del Cinquecento, Milan and Rome, 1999, Vol.II, pp.260-261, fig.70. The dimensions of the painting, which is signed and dated FZ 1602, are 356 x 192 cm. 6. Apparently Federico Zuccaro had initially quoted the congregation of the Chiesa dei Cappuccini a price of 600 scudi for the altarpiece, but had offered to give up half of this amount as a donation to the church. In the end, however, he accepted an even lower fee of 200 scudi. 7. Harold E. Wethey, The Paintings of Titian. Vol.I: The Religious Paintings, London, 1969, pp.139-140, no.114, pls.178-179. 8. Inv.11042F; John Gere, Mostra di disegni degli Zuccari (Taddeo e Federico Zuccari, e Raffaellino da Reggio), exhibition catalogue, Florence, 1966, pp.39-40, no.51 (not illustrated); John Gere, ‘Two of Taddeo Zuccaro’s last commissions, completed by Federico Zuccaro. II: The High Altar-piece in S. Lorenzo in Damaso’, The Burlington Magazine, July 1966, p.343, fig.5; Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò, ‘Federico: inizi e autonomia’, in Winner and Heikamp, ed., op.cit., p.25, fig.15. The dimensions of the Uffizi drawing are 527 x 270 mm. 9. A freely drawn copy by Andrea Boscoli (1560/64-1608) after Zuccaro’s Fermo altarpiece is in the National Gallery of Scotland in Edinburgh (Inv. D 3157; Keith Andrews, National Gallery of Scotland: Catalogue of Italian Drawings, Cambridge, 1968, Vol.I, p.23, no. D 3157, Vol.II, p.32, fig.181; Nadia Bastogi, Andrea Boscoli, Florence, 2008, p.308, no.117, not illustrated). It is interesting to note that Boscoli’s drawing must have been made very soon after the painting was installed in the church, since he was working in Fermo and nearby Macerata between 1600 and 1602. No.8 Camillo Procaccini 1.
‘…il quale da cui conosce la eccellenza delle pitture è stimato il maestro de’ moderni dissegnatori’…‘L’haver dissegni dal Procacino...è più tosto ventura di somma principe che premio di privato, benché meritevole virtuoso…Lo per me cessarei quasi di procurare.’; Luciano Caramel, ed., ‘Arte e artisti nell’ epistolario di Girolamo Borsieri’, in Contributi dell’ Instituto di storia dell’ arte medioevale e moderna, Milan, 1966, pp.108 and 136.
2. Ward Neilson, op.cit., 1979, p.46, under no.61, fig.203. 3. Ward Neilson, op.cit., 1979, p.46, under no.61, fig.205. 4. Philip Pouncey, ‘Some Drawings by Camillo Procaccini Connected with Paintings and Choir Stalls, in Arte in Europa: Scitti di storia dell’arte in onore di Edoardo Arslan, Milan, 1966; reprinted in Mario di Giampaolo, ed., Philip Pouncey: Raccolta di scritti (1937-1985), Rimini, 1994, p.110, fig.22; Ward Neilson, op.cit., 1979, p.46, under no.61, fig.207. 5. Inv. C 731-3; Milan, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Il Seicento Lombardo: Catalogo dei disegni, libri, stampe, exhibition catalogue, 1974, p.22, no.41, p.92, pl.42; Ward Neilson, op.cit., 1979, p.153, fig.206. 6. Inv. 1438; Pouncey, op.cit., p.110, fig.21. No.9 Jacopo Ligozzi 1. Lucilla Conigliello, ‘“He brought to Florence a candid brush, an intricate composition, a taste for ornament and an indefinable grace and delightfulness that were uncommon in Florence”’, in Conigliello, op.cit., p.8. 2. Ibid., p.8. 3. Lubomír Konecny, ‘Jacopo Ligozzi, Dante and Petrarch’, Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorisches Institutes in Florenz, 2006, p.401. 4. Antonio Paolucci et al, Il chiostro di Ognissanti a Firenze. Restauro e restituzione degli affreschi del ciclo francescano, Florence, 1990, pp.78-79, no.23.
5. Ibid., illustrated p.78, under no.23. The print is by F. Corsi. 6. Inv. 0236 - 0239; James Byam Shaw, Drawings by Old Masters at Christ Church, Oxford, Oxford, 1976, Vol.I, pp.87-88, nos.218-221, Vol.II, pl.142 and 144-146; Paolucci et al, op.cit., illustrated p.41, under no.2, p.44, under no.3, p.48, under no.6 and p.55, under no.10, respectively. 7. Inv. 16501 and 22338; Paolucci et al, op.cit., illustrated p.50, under no.7, and p.32, respectively. Although very highly finished, the second of the Berlin drawings, of Saint Francis Driving the Devils Out of the City of Arezzo, depicts a subject that was not in fact painted by Ligozzi at Ognissanti. The corresponding lunette fresco of that episode in the cloister, with a very different composition, was painted by Giovanni da San Giovanni between 1616 and 1619. 8. Inv. 1336 S; Paolucci et al, op.cit., illustrated p.58, under no.11; Alessandro Cecchi, Lucilla Conigliello and Marzia Faietti, Jacopo Ligozzi “pittore universalissimo”, exhibition catalogue, Florence, 2014, pp.264-265, no.100. 9. Inv. 1922.3161; Suzanne Folds McCullagh and Laura Giles, Italian Drawings Before 1600 in the Art Institute of Chicago: A Catalogue of the Collection, Chicago, 1997, pp.131-132, no.169. 10. Inv. 5029; Françoise Viatte, Musée du Louvre: Cabinet des dessins. Inventaire général des dessins italiens III: Dessins toscans XVIe – XVIIIe siècles, pt.1: 1560-1640, Paris, 1988, pp.140-141, no.247; Paolucci et al, op.cit., illustrated p.60, under no.12; Conigliello, op.cit., p.71, no.20, pl.20. 11. Inv. 1337 S; Paolucci et al, op.cit., illustrated p.64, under no.15. 12. Inv. 430; Lutz S. Malke, ed., Städel: Italienische Zeichnungen des 15. Und 16. Jahrhunderts, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt, 1980, pp.128-129, no.61; Paolucci et al, op.cit., illustrated p.94, under no.31a; Joachim Jacoby, ed., Raffael bis Tizian: Italienische Zeichnungen aus dem Städel Museum, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt and Paris, 2014-2015, pp.51-52, no.44. 13. Inv. 1928.336; Marianne Joannides, Exhibition Catalogue of Master Drawings from the De Pass Collection, Royal Cornwall Museum, Truro, exhibition catalogue, London and Truro, 1994, pp.34-35, no.12; Cecchi, Conigliello and Faietti, op.cit., pp.260-261, no.98. Drawn in pen and brown ink and brown wash, heightened with gold, on a brown-washed ground, the drawing measures 427 x 270 mm. No.10 Abraham Bloemaert 1. Stijn Alsteens et al, ed., Raphael to Renoir: Drawings from the Collection of Jean Bonna, exhibition catalogue, New York, 2009, p.97, under no.45. 2. For example, a large canvas of The Judgement of Midas of c.1635-1640 in the Jagdschloss Grunewald, Berlin or a painting of The Wedding of Peleus and Thetis, dated 1638, in the Mauritshuis in The Hague (Marcel G. Roethlisberger, Abraham Bloemaert and his Sons: Paintings and Prints, Doornspijk, 1993, Vol.I, pp.333-339, no.544, Vol.II, figs.729-730, illustrated in colour pl.XXXII, and Vol.I, pp.341-342, no.548, Vol.II, fig.734, respectively). 3. Inv. Sp.343; Roethlisberger, ibid., Vol.I, pp.317-319, no.494, Vol.II, fig.676, illustrated in colour pl.XXIV. 4.
Cecile Tainturier has suggested that the Bloemaert drawings in the Giroux album may be more precisely dated to the decade of the 1620s. Other drawings from the ex-Giroux group are today in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Hessisches Landesmuseum in Darmstadt, the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Frits Lugt Collection (Fondation Custodia) in Paris, the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Rouen, and elsewhere.
No.11 Circle of Anthony Van Dyck 1. The first recorded owner of this drawing was the French engraver, print publisher and collector Gabriel Huquier (1695-1772), who attributed the drawing to Rubens. Huquier owned some forty drawings by or attributed to Rubens. 2. Along with some 4,500 drawings from Huquier’s collection, the present sheet was sold at auction in Amsterdam in 1761, when it was purchased by Johan van der Marck (1707-1772), burgomaster of Leiden, who noted the acquisition in an inscription on the backing sheet. Van der Marck’s collection of around 2,300 drawings was dispersed at auction in Amsterdam in 1773. 3. Inv. 6809; Barnes et al, op.cit., p.72, no.I.56. 4. Inv. 2423; Barnes et al, op.cit., p.76, no.I.66. No.12 Joseph Werner the Younger 1. Quinault’s collection of gouaches by Werner were individually praised and described in Latin epigrams published between 1667 and 1671. 2. Jean Bahier, Peinture poétique des tableaux de Mignature de M. Quinot faits par Joseph de Werner, Paris, 1671; Reprinted in Paul Lacroix, ‘Le cabinet de Quinault et les miniatures de Werner’, Revue universelle des arts, 1863, p.48. 3. Jürgen Glaesemer, Joseph Werner 1637-1710, Zurich, 1974, p.162, no.81; Stijn Alsteens et al, Raphael to Renoir: Drawings from the Collection of Jean Bonna, exhibition catalogue, New York, 2009, pp.142-144, no.64 (entry by Stijn Alsteens); Nathalie Strasser, Dessins des écoles du nord du XVe au XVIIIe siècle: Collection Jean Bonna, Geneva, 2013, pp.140-141, no.57. Like the present sheet, the Bonna gouache is laid down on copper.
4. Alsteens, ibid., p.144, under no.64. 5. Inv. 308; Glaesemer, op.cit., p.171, no.96, illustrated in colour p.59. 6. Glaesemer, op.cit., p.219, no.173, p.226, no.225. The original gouache by Werner is recorded as having been exhibited in Bern in 1804. No.13 Benedetto Luti 1. In his 2012 monograph on Luti, Rodolfo Maffeis, who only knew the present sheet from a photograph, noted that it was ‘neat and full-bodied, with some small details (such as the hair of God the Father) which are different than in the painting: these details, together with the fine quality of the sheet, make the drawing an interesting candidate as an autograph work’, although he reserved judgement as he had not seen the drawing in person. (‘…curato e corposo, con alcuni piccoli particolari (come la capigliatura del Dio Padre) autonomi rispetto al dipinto: questi dettagli, uniti alla buona qualità, rendono il disegno interessante per una candidatura all’autografia, che tuttavia non portà avallarsi fintanto che non sia possibile una verifica sull’originale.’); Maffeis, op.cit., p.224. 2. Lione Pascoli, Vite de’ pittori, scultori ed architetti moderni, Rome, 1730-1736; Quoted in translation in Xavier F. Salomon, ‘Benedetto Luti. L’ultimo maestro’ [book review], The Burlington Magazine, August 2013, p.558. 3. John Maxon and Joseph J. Rishel, ed., Painting in Italy in the Eighteenth Century: Rococo to Romanticism, exhibition catalogue, Chicago, Minneapolis and Toledo, 1970-1971, p.200. 4. Inv. KED.P.155; Francis H. Dowley, ‘Some Drawings by Benedetto Luti’, The Art Bulletin, September 1962, fig.1; Maffeis, op.cit., p.134, fig.31, pp.222-224, no.I.6, illustrated in colour pl.2. The dimensions of the painting are 338 x 229 cm. 5. Maffeis, op.cit., p.224, fig.2. The print is entitled ‘Quid fecisti? vox sanquinis fratris tui clamat ad me de terra’, and is inscribed ‘Eques Bened: Lutti Florent: Pin: 1691 Alt: palm: Rom: 13.6 Lat. p. 8.8 Io Bapt: Cipriani delin: Florentie 1746. G. Wagner Sculp. Venezia con Privileg.o dell’Ecc.mo S.’ Hugford later used Wagner’s prints to try and sell the two paintings by Luti, for 3,000 lire, to the picture gallery of the Electors of Saxony in Dresden in 1754, but without success. 6. See note 1 above. 7. Vicomte Villain XIII sale, London, Sotheby’s, 11 June 1981, lot 19; Private collection, Paris; With Galerie Tarantino, Paris, in 2020. An image of the drawing is visible at https://www.latribunedelart.com/galerie-antoine-tarantino-benedetto-luti-la-malediction-de-cain [accessed 16 May 2021]. 8. Rodolfo Maffeis (op.cit., p.224) has rejected the attribution to Luti of this drawing. 9. Inv. 20.435; Dowley, op.cit., fig.2; Maffeis, op.cit., illustrated p.223. 10. Inv. Cart. 18, no.37; Aldo Bertini, I disegni italiani della Biblioteca Reale di Torino, Rome, 1958, p.77, no.647, fig.647 (as a copy after Luti). 11. Inv. GB 5788; Fischer Pace, op.cit., pp.172-173, no.105 (as Benedetto Luti or copy after). 12. Inv. D 3192; Keith Andrews, National Gallery of Scotland: Catalogue of Italian Drawings, Cambridge, 1968, Vol.I, pp.68-69, no. D 3192 (as a copy after Luti, not illustrated). No.14 Aureliano Milani 1. ‘Ha disegnato moltissimo, e veramente i suoi disegni, possono andar del pari con quelli di qualunque gran maestro, per carattere, per la prontezza, per la grandiosità, e per la disinvoltura, con la quale sono toccati, lumeggiati, e macchiati’; Luigi Crespi, Felsina pittrice: Vite de’ pittori bolognese... che serve di supplemento all’opera del Malvasia, Rome, 1769, p.147. 2. ‘il dessinoit mieux qu’il peignoit’ and ‘se plaisoit a representer des sujets tristres et sérieux. Il donnoit la préférence à ceux qui lui fournissoient des occasions de peindre des figures nues et dont les muscles demandoient a être ressentis. Il en avoit pris le gôut dans le grande etude qu’il avoit fait des ouvrages des Caraches.’; Pierre-Jean Mariette, Abecedario de P.J. Mariette et autres notes inédits de cet amateur sur les arts et les artistes, ed. Philippe de Chennevières and Anatole de Montaiglon, Paris, 1851-1860, Vol.VI, p.394. 3. Andrea Czere, ‘Five New Chalk Drawings by Aureliano Milani’, Master Drawings, Summer 1988, p.136. 4. Inv. 23348; Vancouver and elsewhere, Master Drawings from the National Gallery of Canada, exhibition catalogue, 1988-1989, pp.64-65, no.17 (entry by Mary Cazort); Daniele Benati, ed., Disegni emiliani del sei-settecento: Quadri da stanza e da altare, Bologna, 1991, pp.239-241, fig. 66.1, illustrated in colour (entry by Renato Roli). The drawing is a study for a large painting today in the collection of the Banca Popolare dell’Emilia in Modena; one of four canvases of scenes from the story of Samson in the bank’s collection. 5. Inv. 4177; Giovanna Gaeta Bertelà, Artisti italiani dal XVI al XIX secolo: Mostra di 200 disegni dalla raccolta della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna, Gabinetto dei Disegni e delle Stampe, exhibition catalogue, Bologna, 1976-1977, p.35, no.69, fig.69; Marzia Faietti, I grandi disegni italiani della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna, Cinisello Balsamo, 2002, unpaginated, no.51. 6. New York, Paris and London, Colnaghi, Master Drawings, 1993, no.38. 7. Dwight C. Miller, ‘An ‘Israelites Worshipping The Golden Calf’ by Aureliano Milani’, The Burlington Magazine, June 1974, p.333, figs. 57 (drawing) and 58 (print). The drawing measures 772 x 395 mm., while the dimensions of the etching are 762 x 1473 mm.
8. Linda Wolk-Simon, Italian Old Master Drawings from the Collection of Jeffrey E. Horvitz, exhibition catalogue, Gainesville and elsewhere, 19911993, pp.102-105, no.25; Horvitz sale (‘The Jeffrey E. Horvitz Collection of Italian Drawings’), New York, Sotheby’s, 23 January 2008, lot 51. 9. Ann Percy, ‘Collecting Italian Drawings at Philadelphia: Two Nineteenth-Century Amateurs and a Twentieth-Century Scholar’, in Ann Percy and Mimi Cazort, Italian Master Drawings at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, 2004, p.65, fig.XLIX (as attributed to Aureliano Milani); Mazza, op.cit., p.373, fig.75 (as Milani). The attribution of the Philadelphia drawing to Milani is accepted without reservation in Mimi Cazort and Catherine Johnston, Bolognese Drawings in North American Collections 1500-1800, exhibition catalogue, Ottawa, 1982, p.131, under no.92. 10. A Catalogue of that superb and well known Cabinet of Drawings of John Barnard, Esq. Late of Berkley-Square, Deceased, London, Mr. Greenwood, 16 February 1787 onwards. No.16 Jean-Baptiste Huet 1. Jean-Léon Decloux (1840-1929) was a well-known collector of mainly 18th century French furniture, drawings, engravings, porcelain and objets d’art. Much of his important collection of ornamental prints and drawings was sold by him to the Misses Eleanor and Sarah Hewitt and is today in the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in New York. 2. A priced and annotated copy of the catalogue of the 1898 Decloux sale, in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, bears a handwritten inscription next to lot 83 reattributing the drawing from Huet to François Boucher. 3. Inv. D.76.27; Laure Hug, Recherches sur le peintre Jean-Baptiste Huet (1745-1811), unpublished MA dissertation, Université de Paris IV Sorbonne, 1995-1996, Vol.II, catalogue of drawings, no.1; Laure Hug, ‘Jean-Baptiste Huet ou l’art de la pastorale’, L’Estampille / L’Objet d’Art, March 1997, illustrated p.26; Benjamin Couilleaux, Jean-Baptiste Huet: Le plaisir de la nature, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 2016, pp.84-85, no.34. The dimensions of the drawing, which is signed and dated J. huet. 1767, are 277 x 410 mm. 4. Hug, ibid., 1995-1996, no.2; Paris, Galerie Didier Aaron, Histoires Naturelles…: Deux Siècles de Peinture de Chasse et de Paysage, exhibition catalogue, 2001, no.24; London, Stephen Ongpin Fine Art, Watteau to Gauguin: A Selection of 18th and 19th Century French Drawings, exhibition catalogue, 2018, no.21. Signed and dated j. huet. 1767, the drawing measures 272 x 412 mm. 5. Hug, op.cit., 1995-1996, no.58. Executed in chalk and pastel, the drawing measures 387 x 550 mm. The current location of the drawing is unknown. No.17 Hubert Robert 1. Margaret Morgan Grasselli, ‘Robert, Master Draftsman’, in Margaret Morgan Grasselli and Yuriko Jackall, Hubert Robert, exhibition catalogue, Paris and Washington, D.C., 2016, pp.13 and 20. 2. Ibid., p.16. 3. Grasselli, op.cit., p.17. 4. Grasselli, op.cit., p.13. 5. Inv. Vol.452, no.57; Catala et al, op.cit., p.150, no.122. The counterproof measures 322 x 465 mm. 6. Grasselli, op.cit., p.16. 7. Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Desvouges], 28 January 1929, lot 26; Catala et al, op.cit., p.150, under no.122 (as a copy, not illustrated). The drawing measured 355 x 470 mm. No.18 Jean-Simon Berthélemy 1. Nathalie Volle, ‘Berthélemy, Jean-Simon’, in Jane Turner, ed., The Dictionary of Art, London, 1996, Vol.3, p.852. 2. Although sold at auction in Paris in 2000 with an attribution to Jean-Baptiste Deshays, the present sheet is not listed in André Bancel’s catalogue raisonné of the works of Deshays, published in 2008. 3. Inv. I P 1989.02; Nathalie Volle, Jean-Simon Berthélemy (1743-1811): Peintre d’histoire, Paris, 1979, pp.72-73, no.13, fig.14 (as location unknown); Dominique Jacquot et al, L’apothéose du geste: L’esquisse peinte au siècle de Boucher et Fragonard, exhibition catalogue, Strasbourg and Tours, 2003-2004, pp.286-287, no.66A. 4. Inv. 1389; Volle, ibid., 1979, p.72, no.12, fig.13; Jacquot et al, ibid., pp.286-287, no.66B. 5. One with David Carritt in London in 1981, and the other illustrated in Volle, op.cit., 1979, p.86, no.59, fig.40 (as location unknown). 6. Inv. 142; Volle, op.cit., 1979, pp.85-86, no.58, fig.43. 7. With Stair Sainty Matthiesen Gallery, New York.
8. Inv. 2013-6-1 (as Jean-Baptiste Deshays); Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Desvouges], 20 May 1926, lot 4 (as François Boucher); Anonymous sale (‘Mobilier et tableaux anciens provenant de la collection d’un érudit Français’), Paris, Sotheby’s, 9 November 2012, lot 304 (as Attributed to Jean-Baptiste Deshays); Paris, Galerie Alexis Bordes, Dessins du XVIe au XIXe siècle, exhibition catalogue, April 2013, unpaginated, no.14 and illustrated on the back cover (as Jean-Baptiste Deshays). The oil sketch, which measures 270 x 352 mm., is visible online at http:// collections.mbaq.fr/fr/search-notice/detail/2013-6-1-l-enle-d2847 [accessed 16 May 2021]. 9. Inv. 71-43; Volle, op.cit., 1979, p.87, no.61, fig.45 (where dated to the 1780s). No.19 John Robert Cozens 1. The present sheet was once in the collection of the art historian A. J. Finberg (1866-1939), who was best known for his scholarship on J. M. W. Turner. 2. A now-lost painting of Hannibal Crossing the Alps was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1776; the only occasion that Cozens showed his work there. 3. Timothy Wilcox, ‘Questions of Identity: the Place of Watercolour in British Art’, in Colin Harrison et al, Great British Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Oxford, 2015, p.32. 4. Inv. D.1892.4; Bell and Girtin, op.cit., p.28, no.6 [I] (not illustrated); Charles Nugent, British Watercolours in The Whitworth Art Gallery, The University of Manchester, London, 2003, p.87, no.D.1892.4. The drawing measures 237 x 362 mm. 5. Bell and Girtin, op.cit., p.5. 6. Kim Sloan, Alexander and John Robert Cozens: The Poetry of Landscape, New Haven and London, 1986, p.125. 7. Other views of the same area by Cozens include Bank of the Arve near Sallanches in Savoy and Between Sallanches and Servoz, Mont Blanc in the Distance, both recorded in pen and wash drawings in the British Museum (Inv. 1900,0411.17 and 1900,0411.13) which are dated August 26 and August 27, 1776, respectively. The second of these is illustrated in Sloan, ibid., p.119, fig.130. 8. Inv. 158-1881 and D.708; Bell and Girtin, op.cit., p.28, no.8 [III] (not illustrated) and p.32, no.27 (II), illustrated pl.Vb; Sloan, op.cit., p.119, fig.131 and p.121, fig.134. The two large watercolours measure 445 x 590 mm. and 371 x 530 mm, respectively, and the latter is signed and dated 1778. Other comparable finished watercolours are in the collections of the Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery, the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin and the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven, as well as a number of private collections. 9. A. P. Oppé, Alexander & John Robert Cozens, London, 1952, pp.131 and 133. 10. Bell and Girtin, op.cit., p.28, no.6 [III], illustrated pl.Ia; Newall sale (‘The Newall Collection of English Drawings and Watercolours’), London, Christie’s, 13-14 December 1979, lot 22 (sold for £12,000). 11. Anonymous sale (‘The Property of a Lady’), London, Sotheby’s, 13 July 1989, lot 114 (sold for £15,400). The watercolour measured 235 x 362 mm. No.20 Philippe-Auguste Hennequin 1. In his posthumously-published memoirs, Hennequin recorded that he produced a portrait of the wife of one of his jailers. 2. The sitter of the present drawing would appear to be too old to be the artist’s eldest son Apollodore, who was born around March 1795. Hennequin had married his wife Jeanne Françoise Desprez in February 1794, and his memoirs record that his wife and young son often visited him in the Temple prison, usually at mealtimes. 3. Inv. 2015.290. The drawing, which measures 245 x 194 mm., is inscribed ‘fait au temple par hennequin ce 28 brumaire an 5 de la R.f..une et indivisible’, and was later reproduced as an etching by Maria Cosway. An image of the drawing is visible online at https://www.metmuseum. org/art/collection/search/689638?searchField=All&amp;sortBy=Relevance&amp;ft=hennequin&amp;offset=0&amp;rpp=20&amp;pos=1 [accessed 5 May 2021]. 4. Inv. 1963,1214.14; Benoit, op.cit., pp.144-145, no. D73; Perrin Stein, French Drawings from the British Museum: Clouet to Seurat, exhibition catalogue, New York and London, 2005-2006, pp.168-169, no.69; Louis-Antoine Prat, Le dessin français au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 2017, p.641, fig.1332. No.21 Jean-Baptiste Greuze 1. Quoted in translation in Edgar Munhall, Greuze the Draftsman, exhibition catalogue, New York and Los Angeles, 2002, p.14. 2. Anita Brookner, Greuze: The rise and fall of an eighteenth-century phenomenon, London, 1972, pl.95; Irina Novolselskaya, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Leningrad, 1987, unpaginated, illustrated in colour; James Thompson, Jean-Baptiste Greuze [The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin], New York, Winter 1989-1990, p.49, fig.43. 3. Christelle Rochette, Jean-Baptiste Greuze (1725-1805) et les collections du musée Greuze de Tournus, Tournus, 2000, p.111.
4. Inv. 1983.427; Thompson, ibid., p.49, fig.44. The drawing measures 393 x 495 mm. 5. Inv. 82.1535; Rochette, op.cit., pp.110-111, no.34. 6. Inv. RF 2508; Brookner, op.cit., pl.94; Munhall, op.cit., 1976-1977, pp.220-221, no.112; Munhall, op.cit., 2002, pp.260-262, no.94. The dimensions of the drawing, formerly in the collection of Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, are 380 x 350 mm. No.23 Jacob Ernst Marcus 1. Impressions of this small etching, which measures 112 x 153 mm., are in the collections of the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen in Rotterdam and the Teylers Museum in Haarlem. 2. The drawing, which measures 197 x 270 mm. and is related to an engraving dated June 1813, is visible at https://rkd.nl/en/explore/ images/188061 [accessed 5 May 2021]. 3. Haarlem, Bubb Kuyper Auctions, 26 November 2020, lot 4699. The drawing is signed J. E. Marcus fec. and measures 263 x 289 mm. An image of the sheet is visible at https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/298880 [accessed 5 May 2021]. No.24 Alexandre-Denis Abel de Pujol 1. ‘Les grisailles qui décorent la Bourse de Paris, et dans lesquelles l’artiste a imité en trompe‐l’oeil les saillies et les creux d’une suite de bas‐reliefs, témoignent d’une adresse qu’il nefaut pas trop vanter…Abel de Pujol y a montré tout ce qu’il possédait, la science du nu, le talent de modeler, l’art de draper; et, en se bornant à peindre en camaïeu cette vaste décoration, il s’est comporté en homme d’esprit.’ 2. Inv. CA 436; Virginie Frelin-Cartigny, Abel de Pujol: La ligne souplé, exhibition catalogue, Valenciennes, 2011-2012, illustrated p.32. 3. Charles-Paul Landon, Salon de 1814, Paris, 1814, illustrated between pp.74 and 75. 4. ‘la pose de la jeune éplorée aux pieds du héros, est certes conventionnelle, mais fort belle.’; Ibid., p.16. 5. Paris, Talabardon & Gautier, Le XIXe siècle, exhibition catalogue, 2004, unpaginated, no.5. The dimensions of the drawing are 429 x 532 mm. 6. Ibid, under no.5, fig.2. 7. Inv. D.58.48; Virginie Frelin, ‘Devenir peintre d’histoire: retour sur les premières oeuvres d’Abel de Pujol 1803-1814’, Valentiana, No.36, December 2005, illustrated p.28; Frelin-Cartigny, op.cit., illustrated p.32. The dimensions of the drawing are 290 x 394 mm. 8. Inv. 2004.318; Frelin-Cartigny, op.cit., illustrated p.32. The drawing measures 356 x 527 mm., and an image of the work is visible online at https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/365702?searchField=All&amp;sortBy=Relevance&amp;ft=Abel+de+pujol&amp;offset= 0&amp;rpp=20&amp;pos=1 [accessed 2 May 2021]. 9. According to Frelin-Cartigny, op.cit., p.32. No.25 Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson 1. Neil MacGregor, ‘Girodet’s poem Le Peintre’, Oxford Art Journal, July 1981, p.26. 2. Diane De Grazia and Carter Foster, ed., Master Drawings from the Cleveland Museum of Art, exhibition catalogue, Cleveland and elsewhere, 2000-2001, p.124, under no.48. 3. Sylvain Bellenger, ‘“Too learned for us”: The Destiny of a Poet-Painter’, in Sylvain Bellenger, Girodet 1767-1824, exhibition catalogue, Paris and elsewhere, 2005-2007, p.36. 4. Marc Fumaroli, ‘Terror and Grace: Girodet, Poet of Painting’, in Bellenger, ibid., p.71. No.26 Attributed to Alexandre-Marie Colin 1. In 1860 Colin was commissioned by the State to copy a painting by Velasquez in the Prado in Madrid, and in 1867 an auction was held of his copies after paintings by Raphael, Michelangelo, Leonardo, Velasquez, Murillo, Rubens, Rembrandt and others in the Prado, the Louvre and elsewhere. 2. Barthélémy Jobert, ‘Girodet and Printmaking’, in Sylvain Bellenger, Girodet 1767-1824, exhibition catalogue, Paris and elsewhere, 2005-2007, p.151, fig.76; Danièle Sarrat, “Un talent bien vif et bien franc”: Alexandre Colin (1798-1875) “Cher et vieux camarade” d’Eugène Delacroix et illustrateur de Byron’, Bulletin de la Société des Amis de Musée National Eugène Delacroix, 2011, p.70, fig.3. 3. Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 29 January 2020, lot 116 (as French School, Early 19th Century). 4. Paris, Galerie Alexis Bordes, Dessins du XVIe au XXe siècle, exhibition catalogue, 2021, pp.54-57, no.12.
No.27 Honoré Daumier 1. Of Armenian descent, the collector and pioneering Islamic art dealer Dikran G. Kelekian (1868-1951) established his successful business in antiquities in Constantinople in 1892, and later opened galleries in Cairo, Paris, New York and London. Sometime in the 1910s Kelekian began collecting works by modern French artists, especially of the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist schools, and probably acquired the present sheet in May 1914 at one of the sales of the Roger Marx collection. By 1920 Kelekian had amassed an impressive collection that included works by Pierre Bonnard, Paul Cézanne, André Derain, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Edouard Vuillard. 2. Colta Ives, ‘Lawyers and the Courts’, in Colta Ives, Margret Stuffmann and Martin Sonnabend, Daumier Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt and New York, 1993, pp.174-175. 3. ‘J’ai vécu dès ma petite enfance dans une intimité quotidienne avec l’univers palpitant de Daumier. A une époque où on ne le considérait encore que comme un « drôle », mon père avait pu acquérir deux cartons de dessins et d’esquisses miraculeusement échappés à la destruction. On faisait alors si peu de cas de ces premières pensées, comme des études peintes, que presque toutes auraient été, dit-on, jetées par sa veuve à la poubelle. Entre Daumier et moi toutes distances se trouvaient supprimées. Je tâchais d’oublier tout ce que d’autres avait écrit sur lui pour retrouver délivré de toute actualité, servi par une imagination inépuisable, une extraordinaire mémoire visuelle, seul à seul avec sa fougue, sa tristesse aussi…’; Claude RogerMarx, Les carnets de dessins: l’Univers de Daumier, Paris, 1972, p.62. No.28 Alfred Stevens 1. As noted by the artist’s inscription on the old backing board, this drawing was given by the artist to a Dr. Campbell on New Year’s Eve 1874. This was probably the English-born physician Dr. Charles James Campbell (1820-1879), one of the leading obstetricians in Paris and a pioneer of obstetrical anaesthesia in France. Over the course of his distinguished career Campbell performed or supervised over 1,500 deliveries. As his friend, the writer Octave Mirbeau, noted of him, ‘There was in his exquisite way of speaking to women such a paternal grace, such an envelopment of respect mixed with the authority of the doctor, that they all adored him…There is not a woman belonging to Parisian society who has not had recourse to Dr. Campbell’s radiance and skill. Honoured with the favours and esteem of the Empress, he was the fashionable doctor, the obligatory doctor of all grace. A woman would not have believed herself well delivered if she had not been delivered by him. People were grateful for his care, and his flat in the Rue Royale was full of superb gifts and precious souvenirs.’ (‘Il y avait, dans sa façon exquise de parler aux femmes, une grâce si paternelle, un tel enveloppement de respect mêlé à l’autorité du médecin, que toutes l’adoraient…Il n’y a pas une femme appartenant à la société parisienne qui n’ait eu recours aux lumières et à l’habileté du docteur Campbell. Honoré des faveurs et de l’estime de l’Impératrice, il fut le médecin à la mode, le médecin obligé de toutes les élégances. Une femme ne se serait pas crue bien accouchée si elle ne l’avait été par lui. On lui était reconnaissant de ses soins, et son appartement de la rue Royale était plein de superbes cadeaux envoyés et de souvenirs précieux.’); Octave Mirbeau, ‘Le bon docteur’, Le Gaulois, 12 September 1880. 2. ‘Alfred Stevens’, The Burlington Magazine, October 1906, p.48. 3. Inv. P60; Camille Lemonnier, Alfred Stevens et son oeuvre, Brussels, 1906, pl.XXX (as Le dernier jour de veuvage); Mireille Jottrand, ‘Tableaux et lettres inédites d’Alfred Stevens au Musée de Mariemont’, Les cahiers de Mariemont, 1970, p.26, pl.I; William A. Coles, Alfred Stevens, exhibition catalogue, Ann Arbor, Baltimore and Montreal, 1977-1978, pp.48-51; Saskia de Bodt et al, Alfred Stevens 1823 Brussels-Paris 1906, exhibition catalogue, Brussels and Amsterdam, 2009-2010, no.6, illustrated in colour p.33. The dimensions of the painting are 93 x 64 cm. 4. Warocqué also owned Stevens’ painting The Cup of Tea of c.1874-1878, which is also today in the Musée Royal de Mariemont. 5. Peter Mitchell, Alfred Stevens 1823-1906, exhibition catalogue, New York, 2004, p.42, under no.6. 6. Lemonnier, op.cit., p.28. 7. ‘Ce tableau que je regarde comme un des mes meilleurs tableaux, est inconnu à Paris, et pour ma réputation je désirerais tant le faire voir.’; in a letter of 9 April 1890 to Mme. Warocqué, quoted in Jottrand, op.cit., p.32. In a letter written a year earlier Stevens had described the painting as ‘one of my favourite works’ (‘I’une de mes oeuvres préférées’); Letter of 21 May 1889 to Mme. Warocqué, quoted in Jottrand, op.cit., p.32. 8. ‘votre tableau – Le jeune veuve – avant d’envoyer ce tableau au Champ de Mars, il a été vu dans mon atelier par beaucoup de peintres, qui tous en ont été enthousiasmés, cela m’a rendu tellement heureux, que j’aime à vous le dire et vous exprimer encore toute ma reconnaissance pour avoir eu la bonté de me l‘accorder pour mon exposition.’; Letter of 20 April 1890 to Mme. Warocqué, quoted in Jottrand, op.cit., p.33. 9. Mitchell, op.cit., p.42, under no.6. 10. Camille Lemonnier, ‘Les artistes contemporains: Alfred Stevens’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1878, p.173; Jottrand, op.cit., p.28, fig.2. 11. Damase Jouaust, Fables de La Fontaine, Paris, 1873, Vol.I, Fable XXI; Jottrand, op.cit., p.28, fig.3. 12. Mitchell, op.cit., p.42, no.6. The dimensions of the drawing, which is signed with the artist’s monogram, are 240 x 150 mm. 13. Recently with Galerie Antoine Laurentin, Paris and Brussels. The drawing measures 239 x 172 mm. No.29 Frederick Sandys 1. Douglas E. Schoenherr, ‘The Spectacular Rise – and Sad Decline – of Frederick Sandys’, in Elzea, op.cit., p.15. 2. Ibid., p.10.
3. The drawing was signed, dated and inscribed ‘May & Winnie Gillilan: 1882 / F. Sandys’ at the upper right corner of the sheet, and its original dimensions were 724 x 540 mm. An image of the drawing in its previous state, showing the two sisters dressed in identical white dresses with lace collars, is illustrated in Elzea, op.cit., p.267, no.4.27. 4. The photograph is visible online at https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/photos/item/BL10754 [accessed 16 May 2021]. 5. The two oil paintings are untraced, but a finished drawing for the portrait of William Gillilan (Elzea, op.cit., pp.273-274, no.4.53, illustrated in colour p.76, pl.62) was formerly in the collection of Philip Rieff and Alison Douglas Knox in Philadelphia and appeared at auction there in 2008 (Sale, Philadelphia, Freeman’s, 7 December 2008, lot 56), while a preparatory sketch for the head of the portrait of Mary Gillilan is today in the Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery (Inv. 872.06; Elzea, op.cit., p.272, no.4.44). 6. Elzea, op.cit., p.275, no.4.59. No.30 Cesare Mariani 1. ‘Italian Frescoes’, The Furniture Gazette, 4 October 1879, p.233. 2. Olson, op.cit., 1980-1981, p.168, under no.67. 3. Anonymous sale (‘Una Collezione Fiorentina di Disegni Antichi, alcuni già Collezione Luigi Grassi’), Prato, Farsetti arte, 9-10 April 2014, lot 64. An image of the drawing is visible at https://www.farsettiarte.it/uk/auction-0167-1/cesare-mariani-studio-di-mani-e-piedi.asp [accessed 7 May 2021]. 4. Inv. MR 21368, MR 21369 and MR 211160; di Domenico Cortese and Barroero, op.cit., p.61, nos. 219-221 (where dated c.1885), two illustrated pl.XXXIX. Each drawing, depicting women with a mask, cymbals or a tambourine, measures 340 x 475 mm. 5. Cinzia Virno and Maurizio Berri, Cesare Mariani (1826-1901): Dai primi studi ai bozzetti per la Sala della Maggioranza, exhibition catalogue, Rome, Galleria d’Arte F. Russo, 2001, p.94, figs.116-117. No.31 Arthur Rackham 1. A. L. Baldry, ‘Arthur Rackham, Painter and Illustrator’, The Bookman, December 1906, pp.128-130. 2. Fred Gettings, Arthur Rackham, London, 1975, p.122. 3. Derek Hudson, Arthur Rackham: His Life and Work, London, 1960, p.78. 4. In a letter of 23 January 1936; Quoted in James Hamilton, Arthur Rackham: A Life with Illustration, London, 1990, p.167. 5. P. G. Konody, in The Evening News, 5 October 1908; Quoted in Hamilton, ibid., p.169. No.32 Bernard Boutet de Monvel 1. Stéphane-Jacques Addade, Bernard Boutet de Monvel: At the Origins of Art Deco, Paris, 2016, p.139. No.33 William Orpen 1. P. G. Konody and Sidney Dark, Sir William Orpen: Artist & Man, London, 1932, p.131. 2. Sir William Orpen, Stories of Old Ireland & Myself, London, 1924, p.4. 3. Bruce Arnold, Orpen: Mirror to an Age, London, 1981, p.268. 4. Konody and Dark, op.cit., p.187. 5. London, Pyms Gallery, Orpen and the Edwardian Era, exhibition catalogue, 1987, no.37. The drawing, in pencil and watercolour, measures 533 x 743 mm. and is dated 1913. 6. Arnold, op.cit., p.283. 7. Arnold, op.cit., pp.285-286. 8. London, Chenil Gallery, Drawings by William Orpen, A.R.A., n.d. (1915?). An untitled, bound copy of the portfolio is the National Art Library at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. 9. A photograph of the drawing is in the Witt Library of the Courtauld Institute in London.
No.34 Richard Müller 1. A prince of the Cherusci people, as a child Arminius was sent as a hostage to Rome, where he was raised. He joined the Roman army and eventually became a Roman citizen. Sent to Magna Germania to aid the Roman general Publius Quinctilius Varus in his subjugation of the Germanic peoples, Arminius secretly formed an alliance of the Cherusci with five other Germanic tribes. He used his knowledge of Roman military tactics to lead Varus’s forces into an ambush, resulting in the complete annihilation of the XVII, XVIII and XIX legions, with the loss of between 15,000 and 20,000 Roman soldiers. No.35 Frederick Cayley Robinson 1. Alfred Lys Baldry, ‘An “Original” Painter: Mr. F. Cayley Robinson’, The Magazine of Art, 1896, p.471. 2. James Greig, ‘Frederic Cayley Robinson, A.R.A.’, in Randall Davies, ed., The Old Water-Colour Society’s Club 1927-1928: Fifth Annual Volume, London, 1928, p.63. 3. William Schupbach, Acts of Mercy: The Middlesex Hospital paintings by Frederick Cayley Robinson (1862-1927), London, 2009, p.8. 4. Charlotte Gere, ‘Introduction’ in London, Fine Art Society, op.cit., 1969, unpaginated. 5. David Brown, ‘Introduction’, in London and Edinburgh, The Fine Art Society, Frederick Cayley Robinson A.R.A 1862-1927, 1977, unpaginated. 6. Cecil French, ‘The Later Work of F. Cayley Robinson, A.R.A.’, The Studio, June 1922, illustrated p.297; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 10 June 2003, lot 85. The painting measures 76.9 x 99.1 cm. 7. MaryAnne Stevens, ‘Frederick Cayley Robinson’, The Connoisseur, September 1977, p.31, fig.12; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 7 June 1995, lot 167; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 6 June 2001, lot 97. The painting measures 61 x 76 cm. 8. Stevens, ibid., p.34. 9. French, op.cit., p.293. No.36 Jean-Gabriel Domergue 1. ‘D’un pinceau habile et spirituel, il a l’art de traduire le côté léger, piquant, pétillant de la jolie femme telle qu’on l’imagine volontiers. Comme Watteau et Fragonard au XVIIIe siècle, il est le grand arbitre de l’évolution feminine, lançant la mode, contribuant à créer le type de beauté de son époque.’; Gérard-Louis Soyer, Jean-Gabriel Domergue: L’art et la mode, Paris, 1984, p.11. 2. Ibid., illustrated p.48. What appears to be the same painting, executed in oil on board and measuring 50.8 x 61 cm., and bearing a label from the Galerie Léon Gerard in Paris, was recently with the Paul Stamati Gallery in New York (https://stamati.com/product/jean-gabriel-domergueeve-looking-in-the-mirror-circa-1920/ [accessed 27 April 2021]). In the painting the woman’s dress is gold, not white, and there are no wisteria branches above her. 3. Anonymous sale, Cannes, Azur Enchères, 10 March 2012, lot 272. The sheet measured 410 x 480 mm. 4. For example, a four-panel screen, dated 1926, which appeared at auction in Paris in 2020 (Anonymous sale, Paris, Christie’s, 4 June 2020, lot 405), or a similar five-panel screen, also dated 1926, that appeared at auction in 2011 (Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Damian Leclere], 7 December 2011, lot 84). 5. Soyer, op.cit., illustrated p.15. No.37 Jan Toorop 1. The first known owner of this large drawing was the self-taught Dutch painter and draughtsman Bernardus (known as Ben) Viegers (18861947). 2. Inv. KM 110.581; Peter van der Coelen and Karin van Lieverloo, Jan Toorop Portrettist, exhibition catalogue, Nijmegen, 2003, pp.116-118, no.42a; Gerard van Wezel, Jan Toorop: Zang der tijden, exhibition catalogue, The Hague, 2016, pp.214-215, fig.354. The painting measures 61 x 45 cm. 3. van Wezel, ibid., pp.216-217, fig.358. 4. Inv.1984.02.2; van der Coelen and van Lieverloo, op.cit., pp.117-118, no.42b; van Wezel, op.cit., pp.216-217, unnumbered (fig.358a), as in a private collection. The dimensions of the drawing, executed in black chalk, are 1090 x 1013 mm.
No.38 Edouard Vuillard 1. Claude Roger-Marx, Vuillard: His Life and Work, New York, 1946, p.185. 2. Inv. N04436; Salomon and Cogeval, op.cit., Vol.II, pp.1106-1107, no.IX-161. 3. Inv. 1963.10.230; Salomon and Cogeval, op.cit., Vol.III, pp.1507-1508, no.XII-105; Guy Cogeval, Édouard Vuillard, exhibition catalogue, Washington and elsewhere, 2003-2004, pp.395-396, no.325. 4. Inv. 7446; Salomon and Cogeval, op.cit., Vol.III, pp.1286-1287, no.X-225. The oval canvas, measuring three metres in width, was painted between 1917 and 1919, and was reworked in 1930, when the artist added the portrait of Mme. Marchand. No.39 Pablo Picasso 1. Robert Rosenblum, ‘The Spanishness of Picasso’s Still-Lifes’, in Jonathan Brown, ed., Picasso and the Spanish Tradition, New Haven, 1996, p.78. 2. Inv. MP 1871; Brigitte Léal, Musée Picasso. Carnets: Catalogue des dessins, Vol.2, Paris, 1996, pp.46-54, no.32. 3. Inv. 1952-61-108; Zervos, op.cit., pl.13, no.28 (as Guitar); The Picasso Project, op.cit., p.57, no.26-051 (as Guitar). The drawing, which measures 316 x 470 mm., is visible at https://philamuseum.org/collection/object/227801 [accessed 15 May 2021]. 4. Zervos, op.cit., pl.12, no.26; The Picasso Project, op.cit., p.57, no.26-049; Anonymous sale, Bern, Galerie Kornfeld, 17 June 2005, lot 129 (sold for 280,000 CHF). The dimensions of the drawing are 315 x 465 mm. 5. Zervos, op.cit., pl.183, no.413; The Picasso Project, op.cit., p.101, no.27-063; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 5 December 1990, lot 364 (sold for £22,000); Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 3 December 1996, lot 291 (sold for £28,750); Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 14 May 1998, lot 197 (sold for $71,250). The drawing measures 460 x 314 mm. 6. The Picasso Project, op.cit., p.55, no.26-044; Palau i Fabre, op.cit., p.466, no.1656 (as in the Musée Picasso in Paris). The drawing measures 490 x 325 mm. 7. Zervos, op.cit., pl.6, no.10; The Picasso Project, op.cit., p.63, no.26-063. The dimensions of the drawing are 320 x 470 mm. 8. Inv. MP87; Zervos, op.cit., pl.6, no.9; William Rubin, ed., Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1980, illustrated p.261; Palau i Fabre, op.cit., p.462, no.1638; Carsten-Peter Warncke and Ingo F. Walther, Pablo Picasso 1881-1973, Vol.I, Cologne, 2007, illustrated p.323. 9. John Richardson, A Life of Picasso. Vol.III: The Triumphant Years 1917-1932, London, 2007, p.306. 10. William H. Robinson, ‘Surrealism and Marie-Thérèse Walter’, in Robinson et al, op.cit., p.173. 11. Inv. MP86 to MP94; Marie-Laure Besnard-Bernadac et al, The Musée Picasso, Paris: Paintings, Papiers collés, Picture reliefs, Sculptures, Ceramics, London, 1986, pp.133-135, nos.249-258; Palau i Fabre, op.cit., pp.462-465, nos.1638, 1640-1642, 1645-1650 and 1652. 12. Zervos, op.cit., pl.183, no.415; The Picasso Project, op.cit., p.38, no.25-116. The dimensions of the drawing are 200 x 400 mm. 13. Zervos, op.cit., pl.8, no.14; The Picasso Project, op.cit., p.63, no.26-064; Palau i Fabre, op.cit., p.467, no.1658 (dimensions unknown). 14. Palau i Fabre, op.cit., p.462. No.40 Christopher Wood 1. Letter of 7 June 1922; Quoted in Katy Norris, Christopher Wood, exhibition catalogue, Chichester, 2016, p.32. 2. In 1926 Wood created designs for a production of Romeo and Juliet for Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, although they were never used. No.41 Austin Osman Spare 1. The World, 29 October 1907; Quoted in Phil Baker, Austin Osman Spare: The Life and Legend of London’s Lost Artist, London, 2011, p.47. 2. Gerald Reitlinger’s brother, the Old Master drawing collector Henry Scipio Reitlinger, also acquired some drawings by Spare in the 1920s. 3. The work in question may even have been a self-portrait of the artist ‘as Hitler’, since Spare had a similar small moustache at this time. 4. Kenneth and Steffi Grant, Zos Speaks!, London, 1998, p.284. 5. Evening News, 15 May 1956; Quoted in Baker, op.cit., p.257. 6. ‘Obituary. Mr. Austin O. Spare. A Fine Figure Draughtsman’, The Times, 16 May 1956, p.15.
7. Two works by Spare entitled Palimpsest (Face in Body) and Palimpsest (Profile) were exhibited at his home in Brixton in the early 1940s, while other works with similar titles appeared in Spare’s exhibitions at the White Bear pub in 1953 and the Archer Gallery in 1955. 8. William Wallace, The Catalpa Monographs: A Critical Survey of the Art and Writings of Austin Osman Spare, London, 2015, pp.61-63. No.42 Alexander Yakovlev 1. Roberta A. Sheehan, The Boston Museum School: A Centennial History, 1876-1976, unpublished Ph.D thesis, Boston College, 1983, p.139. 2. Edward W. Forbes in New York, M. Knoedler & Company, A. Iacovleff, exhibition catalogue, 1936, unpaginated. 3. J. O’C. Jr., ‘The Art of Alexandre Iacovleff’, The Carnegie Magazine, 1938, pp.227-228. No.44 Max Moreau 1. ‘Ce fut, pour moi, un éblouissement…et je me mis à l’oeuvre.’; Max Moreau, La obra de Max Moreau, Granada, 1977, p.42. 2. ‘…quelle jouissance pour le portraitiste émerveillé qui parcoure les dédales de la ville arabe et les quartiers de la Hara. A chaque pas des têtes de caractère, à chaque coin de rue, des modèles sortis vivants de la bible. La misère, la souffrance, la vieillesse, les maladies ont creusé telle face; la jeunesse, la beauté irradie celle-ci; telle bédouine passe comme une princesse dans des chiffons sans nom mais d’une couleur admirable; tel rabbin grave porte sur ses traits tout le poids d’un passé formidable...Drapés admirables dont les arabes ont le secret, burnous jetés fièrement sur l’épaule, turbans enroulés soigneusement ou à la diable...Et ces faces creusées, tourmentées, ces yeux qui gardent la vision des déserts, ces rides qui parlent éloquemment...’ 3. ‘Ce peintre, né dans les brumes de Belgique, est amoureux des lumières chaudes de l’Afrique du Nord et, comme Marquet, bien que d’une manière totalement différente, il excelle à rendre la beauté violente, parfois même frémissent, de l’Islam, endormi depuis des siècles dans une pittoresque qui ne se dément jamais. La pureté classique des Chleuhs, les boutiques des souks, où son amour du clair-obscur s’en donne à coeur joie, lui permettent d’écrire en pages profondes, l’histoire de cet Islam qu’il aime et qu’il comprend.’; quoted in Moreau, op.cit., p.62. 4. The drawing was formerly in the collection of the Broun family at Coulston in Scotland; Sale (‘Property from Coulston, East Lothian’), London, Sotheby’s, 19 January 2017, lot 92. The dimensions of the drawing are 490 x 290 mm. 5. Anonymous sales, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Massol], 20 March 2005, lot 47, and Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Gros & Delettrez], 11 June 2007, lot 31. The dimensions of the drawing are 620 x 480 mm. No.45 Graham Sutherland 1. Malcolm Yorke, The Spirit of Place: Nine Neo-Romantic artists and their times, New York, 1988, pp.125-126. 2. The Sunday Telegraph Magazine, 10 September 1971, pp.27-28; Quoted in Martin Hammer, Graham Sutherland: Landscapes, War Scenes, Portraits 1924-1950, exhibition catalogue, London, Dulwich Picture Gallery, 2005, p.104. 3. Inv. WA 1947.416; Hammer, ibid., p.128, no.57; Paul Gough, Sally Moss and Tehmina Goskar, Graham Sutherland: From Darkness into Light. Mining, Metal and Machines, exhibition catalogue, Penzance and Swansea, 2013-2014, illustrated in colour p.62; Harrison et al, op.cit., pp.258259, no.100. The drawing measures 568 x 387 mm. 4. Harrison et al, op.cit., p.258, under no.100. 5. Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 25 October 1972, lot 121. The drawing, signed and dated 1942, measures 485 x 375 mm. 6. Anonymous sale (‘A Collection of Works by Graham Sutherland, O.M.’), London, Sotheby’s, 5 April 2000, lot 97; Tassi, op.cit., p.128, fig.123. 7. Inv. LD 1770; Ronald Alley, Graham Sutherland, exhibition catalogue, London, Tate Gallery, 1982, pp.96-97, no.98. The drawing measures 495 x 370 mm. The composition is repeated in a drawing formerly in the collection of Kenneth Clark; Tassi, op.cit., p.129, fig.124; Hammer, op.cit., p.126, no.55. 8. Cecil Beaton, ‘Introduction’, War Pictures by British Artists. Second Series, No.2: Production, London, 1943, p.6. 9. Noel Barber, Conversations with Painters, London, 1964, pp.47-48. No.46 Frank Auerbach 1. Robert Hughes, Frank Auerbach, London, 1990, p.13. 2. Pilar Ordovas, ed., Raw Truth: Auerbach – Rembrandt, exhibition catalogue, London and Amsterdam, 2013-2014, p.27. 3. Michael Peppiatt, ‘Frank Auerbach’, Tate, Spring 1998, p.39.
4. Inv. CHCPH 0098; William Feaver, Frank Auerbach, New York, 2009, p.280, no.388. 5. Feaver, ibid., p.281, nos.389-391. 6. Feaver, op.cit., p.293, nos.479-481. No.47 Sam Szafran 1. James Lord, ‘Seeing Szafran’, in New York, Claude Bernard Gallery, Sam Szafran: Recent Works, exhibition catalogue, 1987, unpaginated. 2. bid. No.48 Avigdor Arikha 1. Robert Hughes, ‘Avigdor Arikha’, in London, Marlborough Fine Art, Avigdor Arikha: Inks, Drawings and Etchings, exhibition catalogue, 1974, p.7. 2. Jane Livingston, ‘Arikha: New York Drawings’, in New York, Marlborough Gallery, Avigdor Arikha: New York Drawings, exhibition catalogue, 1984. 3. Avigdor Arikha, in New York, Marlborough Gallery, op.cit., 2007, unpaginated. 4. Duncan Thomson, Arikha, London, 1994, pp.161 and 171. 5. ‘Reflections on the Drawings’, dated 9 IX 89, and measuring 146 x 114 cm.; London, Marlborough Fine Art, Avigdor Arikha, exhibition catalogue, 1990, p.8, no.6; Thomson, ibid., illustrated p.198. 6. ‘Reflections’, 645 x 495 mm.; London, Marlborough Fine Art, Avigdor Arikha: Paintings, pastels and drawings 1999-2000, exhibition catalogue, 2000, no.6.
No. 6 Giovanni Battista Castello, called Il Genovese (1547-1639), St. Jerome in Prayer
INDEX OF ARTISTS ABEL DE PUJOL, Alexandre Denis; No. 24 ARIKHA, Avigdor; No. 48 AUERBACH, Frank; No.46 BALDUCCI, Giovanni, called Il Cosci; No.5 BERTHÉLEMY, Jean-Simon; No.18 BLOEMAERT, Abraham; No.10 BOUTET DE MONVEL, Bernard; No.32 CASTELLO, Giovanni Battista; No.6 CAYLEY ROBINSON, Frederick; No.35 CIBO, Gherardo; No.4 COLIN, Alexandre (attr.); No.26 COSCI, Giovanni Balducci, called il; No.5 COZENS, John Robert; No.19 DAUMIER, Honoré; No.27 DOMERGUE, Jean Gabriel; No.36 FOUJITA, Tsuguharu; No.43 FRENCH SCHOOL, 18th Century; No.22 GIRODET, Anne-Louis; No.25 GREUZE, Jean-Baptiste No.21 HENNEQUIN, Philippe-Auguste; No.20 HUET, Jean-Baptiste; No.16 LIGOZZI, Jacopo; No.9 LOMBARDELLI, Giovanni Battista; No.3 LUTI, Benedetto; No.13 MARCUS, Jacob Ernst; No.23 MARIANI, Cesare; No.30 MILANI, Aureliano; No.14 MOREAU, Max; No.44 MÛLLER, Richard; No.34
NATOIRE, Charles-Joseph; No.15 ORPEN, William; No.33 PICASSO, Pablo; No.39 PROCACCINI, Camillo; No.8 PUPINI, Biagio; No.1 RACKHAM, Arthur; No.31 ROBERT, Hubert; No.17 SABATINI, Lorenzo; No.2 SANDYS, Frederick; No.29 SPARE, Austin Osman; No.41 STEVENS, Alfred; No.28 SUTHERLAND, Graham; No.45 SZAFRAN, Sam; No.47 TOOROP, Jan; No.37 VAN DYCK, Anthony (circle); No.11 VUILLARD, Edouard; No.38 WERNER, Joseph; No.12 WOOD, Christopher; No.40 YAKOVLEV, Alexander; No.42 ZUCCARO, Federico; No.7
Cesare Mariani (1826-1901) Studies of a Reclining Female Nude No.30
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