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The Golden Gate Collection

Cohen & Cohen


The Golden Gate Collection & a Few Friends

Written by WILLIAM MOTLEY

November 2018 COHEN & COHEN PO BOX 366 REIGATE RH2 2BB Tel:+44 (0) 1737 242180 Fax: +44 (0) 1737 226236 Email: info@cohenandcohen.co.uk Website: www.cohenandcohen.co.uk Gallery at: 1 Essex Court, 30 St James’s Place, London SW1A 1NR By Appointment Only


© Cohen & Cohen 2018 Published October 2018

Published by Cohen & Cohen Photographs by Dairy Digital Imaging Printed and bound by Albe De Coker, Antwerp With thanks to: Graeme Bowpitt, Angela Howard, Tom Maes, Geert Bogaert, Nicolas Fournery


FOREWORD Our catalogue for this year is comprised mostly of a single owner collection. The collection was begun in the early 1970s and has continued to grow up to the present day. It is one of the most varied and comprehensive collections that we know of and like all good collections reflects the taste and interests of its instigator. Many of the purchases were made at dealers such as Helen Glatz in London and The Art Exchange in New York, both among the leading dealers of the 1970s.

I would have loved to write a short biography of somebody who was an important part of the entertainment industry and has probably lived the most colourful life of anyone I know but, however, wishes only to be known by the name of the collection. The Golden Gate collection comprises a large number of important armorial pieces among which are several Royal families, and also a variety of European subjects. There is an important bowl showing a number of British merchant ships and another depicting an elephant, a selection of Yongzheng period eggshell plates and another of teapots. Other standout pieces include a topographical plate with a scene of Rome, a pair of figures of foreigners seated on Buddhist Lions and a figural group of a Dutch couple that was previously in the Martin Hurst collection and is illustrated in Williamson’s Book of Famille Rose. Following the Golden Gate Collection are a smaller number of pieces representing some of our own inventory and these include another important item from The Book of Famille Rose, which is The Martin Hurst Cockerel Bowl described by the author as the high water mark of famille rose decoration. Other highlights are a fish tank decorated in a rare version of the tobacco leaf design, two massive and closely related famille rose chargers from the Yongzheng period and a famille rose bowl depicting the Dutch embassy to the Shunzhi emperor in 1655 to recognise the newly victorious Qing dynasty. This has been our largest ever catalogue and I must recognise the herculean task of Will Motley in researching and writing it in record time. As ever his research has unearthed new information that is published for the first time in this catalogue. Thanks also to my wife and partner Ewa, who, as always, is given the task of the final proof read so that I can blame her for all mistakes and typos. Michael Cohen


The Golden Gate Collection

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Soup Plate French, nineteenth century Samson & Cie. Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A rubyback eggshell porcelain soup plate made by the French manufacturer Samson & Cie., decorated in famille rose enamels with a domestic scene within a leaf shaped reserve surrounded by seven borders of detailed designs which directly copy those of the Chinese example that follows.

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This is a fine example of this type of nineteenth century French copy of the Chinese types made in the Yongzheng period. It is included here for comparison with the next item.


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Soup Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 Swedish market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export eggshell porcelain rubyback soup plate, finely decorated in famille rose enamels with a domestic scene within a leaf shaped reserve surrounded by seven borders of diapers and scrolling flowers. Seven border plates seems to have been made for the Swedish market, where they have always been valued artistically as the pinnacle of Yongzheng famille rose decoration.

References: Williamson 1970, plate LXII, an almost identical

plate; Howard & Ayers 1978, No 149, a similar plate; Pinto de Matos 2003, p175, and identical example


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Soup Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 European market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export eggshell porcelain soup plate, finely decorated in famille rose enamels with a domestic scene within a leaf shaped reserve surrounded by four borders of diapers and scrolling flowers. References: Williamson 1970, plate XXXII, an almost identical plate.


4 Soup Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 European market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export eggshell porcelain rubyback soup plate, finely decorated in famille rose enamels with a domestic scene within a floral reserve surrounded by a grisaille diaper border with reserves of flowers and dragon medallions.


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Soup Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 European market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export eggshell porcelain soup plate, finely decorated in famille rose enamels with a domestic scene of two boys watching rabbits within a leaf shaped reserve surrounded by five borders of diapers and gilt scroll. References: Williamson 1970, plate XXXIII, a similar plate; Santos & Allen 2005, No 18, a very similar example.

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Beaker Yongzheng period circa 1735 European market Height: 2ž inches; 7cm A Chinese export eggshell porcelain beaker painted in famille rose enamels with six panels each containing different animals, reserved on a ground of blue Y-diaper and pink fish roe.

He may look like an idiot and talk like an idiot but don’t let that fool you. He really is an idiot. Groucho Marx

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Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 European market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm Provenance: deaccessioned from the Metropolitan Museum, New York A Chinese export porcelain octagonal plate, finely decorated in famille rose enamels with a vase of peony and prunus, within a border of floral reserves on a deep ruby ground.

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Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 European market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm Provenance: deaccessioned from the Metropolitan Museum, New York A Chinese export porcelain octagonal plate, finely decorated in famille rose enamels with a scene of ladies and boys on a boating lake, the border in pale blue and pink enamels. References: Williamson 1970, plate XLV, an almost identical plate

and another very similar but with the main colours on the rim

swapped; Crosby Forbes 1982, No 7, a similar plate but with two deer

in the centre.

The Golden Gate Bridge’s daily strip tease from enveloping stoles of mist to full frontal glory is still the most provocative show in town. Mary Moore Mason

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Pair of Painted Enamel Plates Qianlong period (1736-96) European market Diameter: 8ž inches; 22.5 cm A pair of Chinese painted enamel on copper octagonal dinner plates, finely painted with flowers and insects, the rim with floral panels reserved on a yellow trellis diaper ground with additional dragon roundels.


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Plate Yongzheng/Qianlong period circa 1735-40 European market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain octagonal dinner plate decorated in famille rose with a central lotus blossom and a design imitating armorial devices. This rare plate seems to be using some of the armorial elements simply as decorative motifs, probably misunderstood by the Chinese artists involved. The two supporters resemble chimeras of a phoenix and a squirrel.


a c

b

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Three Teabowls & Saucers Yongzheng period circa 1730 European market Diameter of Saucer: 4Ÿ inches; 11cm Provenance: ex-collection Khalil Risk Three Chinese export porcelain teabowls and saucers of similar form, each brightly decorated in famille rose enamels. the borders having multi-coloured panels. a. with two ladies and a fan b. with a lady reclining on a bed c. with a tree in a jardinière References: a similar example is in the Victoria & Albert Museum, No C.15 & A-1929; Howard 1994, p175, a similar

example; Lunsingh Sheurleer 1966, No 216, an example with the same design as b.

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Cup & Saucer Yongzheng period circa 1735 European market Diameter of Saucer: 4½ inches; 11.5cm

Ladies and gentlemen are permitted to have friends in the kennel but not in the kitchen. George Bernard Shaw

A Chinese export porcelain cup and saucer decorated in famille rose enamels with a central medallion of a seated dog surrounded by three leaf reserves with roosters and peonies on a blue ground. The special feature of this piece is the rare ‘lapis lazuli’ enamel ground as well as the depiction of the Chinese spotted hound. References: Williamson 1970, plate VI, four items with

identical decoration from this teaservice, in the Martin Hurst collection; Howard & Ayers 1978, No 144, a saucer.

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Beaker Qianlong period circa 1750 European market Height: 3¼ inches; 8.2cm A Chinese export porcelain beaker modelled as lotus bloom with three feet moulded as buds, painted in famille rose enamels. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, No 141, a matching teapot & cover..

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Pair of Teabowls & Saucers Qianlong period circa 1740 European market Diameter of Saucer: 4¼ inches; 11cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain teabowls and saucers modelled as flowers with feet formed from appliqué flowers on looped stems, painted in famille rose enamels. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, No 142 a single.

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15

Waterdropper & Stand

Yongzheng period circa 1735 European Market Diameter of Stand: 6Âź inches; 16cm A Chinese export porcelain waterdropper and stand, moulded as lotus leaves, with appliquĂŠ flowers, the spout modelled as a spiny stem, the interior with a small flowerbud concealing the drain hole, all painted in famille rose enamels with a rooster on a rock with tree peonies.

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Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Length: 6ž inches; 17cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover of unusual form with a double wall, the outer wall having panels of reticulation, decorated with flowers and gilded scrolling foliage. References: Cohen & Cohen 2015, No 5, a teapot of the same

form but decorated in underglaze blue.

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For every complex problem there is an answeer that is clear, simple, and wrong. HL Mencken


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Teapot & Cover Yongzheng period circa 1735 European Market Length: 7 inches; 17cm A small Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover, finely painted in famille rose enamels with a leaf-shaped panel containing a silver pheasant on a blue rock with tree peony, reserved on a ground of grisaille cell diaper with scattered flowers in gilt. The Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera, L. 1758) is less common on porcelain than the Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus, L. 1758) and is found on the 5th rank badge for the Chinese civil service.

References: Crosby Forbes 1982, No 8 a teabowl from this

teaservice; Williamson 1970, pl XXV, a tea caddy and pl XX a bowl; Howard & Ayers 1978, No 156, the teacaddy from the Martin Hurst colln’ Santos & Allen 2005, No 12, a milk jug.

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Teapot, Cover & Stand Qianlong period circa 1740 European market Diamater of Stand: 6Âź inches; 16cm A fine Chinese export porcelain black-ground teapot, cover and stand of bullet form with the lower section of the body and the domed cover modelled as flower blooms, the hexafoil stand and teapot with panels of flowers and landscapes reserved on a black ground with scattered flowers, the neck and the rim of the stand with an iron-red cell border. This elegant teapot uses the black enamel ground that was popular at that time. The black enamel is painted over an overglaze green enamel, reserved to form scrolling leaves. This resembles the black enamel painted directly onto the biscuit in earlier pieces and which is correctly known as famille noir.

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Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Length: 6ž inches; 17cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover with spout and handle modelled as Buddhist lions and the knop as a chicken, with circular reticulated panels to the sides and painted all over in bright famille rose enamels. This charming teapot would have appealed to the European market for Oriental curiosities that were all the rage in the mid-eighteenth century. References: a similar example is in the Victoria & Albert

Museum, London, part of the Salting bequest, No C.1482-1910;

Crosby Forbes 1982, No 12, a similar teapot; Williamson 1970, pl XXIV another with a different cover.

Feelings, feelings, and feelings. Let me try thinking instead. CS Lewis

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Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Length: 7 inches; 17cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover of unsual form, with zoomorphic spout and handle, the body covered with moulded prunus flowers and branches which extend to form the foot. This unsual teapot is a charming Chinese interpretation of the Meissen schneeballen type, with dense moulded white flowers all over the exterior. The spout is imitating a Chinese phoenix (fenghuang) and the handle emerges from a bird’s head.

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The only time to eat diet food is while you're waiting for the steak to cook. Julia Child (died August 13, 2004)


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Ewer & Cover Qianlong period circa 1740 European Market Height: 7 inches; 17cm A Chinese export porcelain cylindrical ewer and cover with appliquĂŠ flowers and a zoomorphic spout, painted in famille rose with the spout and handle in iron red. This is a charming example of this rare form with bird head spout.

References: Howard 1994, p155 (and front cover), No 169, a

similar example of the same shape but with European figures on it; Williamson 1970, pl XXIV another with a different design.

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Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Length: 8¼ inches; 21cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover with moulded and appliqué decoration of vine and squirrels in pastel enamels. This decoration shows a scrolling fruiting vine and some tiny modelled treeshrews (Tupaia sp) which are actually classified as primates rather than squirrels. The symbolism of these two, ‘grape and squirrel’ (songshu putao) was popular in Chinese art and implies a wish for ceaseless generations of sons and grandsons.

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Diogenes was asked what wine he liked best, and he answered as I would have done when he said, "Somebody else's." attr. Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)


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Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Length: 6 inches; 15cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover of bullet form, the cover and lower part of the body moulded as blooms, wiht applique lotus buds and flowers forming feet, painted in famille rose enamels with a pair of roosters inspecting a green beetle.

We hang the petty thieves and appoint the great ones to public office. HL Mencken

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Pair of Libation Cups The porcelain Kangxi period circa 1700 European or Chinese Market The mounts and bases European, late 18th or 19th Century Height: 4¼ inches; 11cm A pair of porcelain blanc-de-chine libation cups on European lapis lazuli stands, all with ormolu mounts. The shape of these ritual drinking vessels is derived from Chinese examples carved originally from rhinoceros horn. The mounts of lapis and ormolu are a later European addition and fine quality.

"I always feel sorry for people who don’t drink, because when they wake up in the morning, that’s as good as they’re gonna feel all day” Jack Lemon (written by Lawrence Roman (1921-2008))

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Teapot & Cover Kangxi period circa 1700 European or Chinese Market Length: 6 inches; 15cm A Chinese blanc-de-chine teapot and cover of pumpkin form with decoration of moulded floral branches, the cover fixed with a European gilt-metal chain attached to the handle and the mounted spout.

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Pair of Plates Yongzheng/Qianlong period circa 1735-40 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain dinner plates decorated in bright famille rose enamels with a central scene of a pair of Mandarin ducks, the rim with the eight Daoist immortals. References: Howard 1994, p65, a large dish with the same subject

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Charger Qianlong period circa 1750 European or Chinese Market Diameter: 15Âź inches; 39cm A finely painted Chinese porcelain charger in delicate tones with a kingfisher on a branch overlooking lotus with two geese. The kingfisher (fei) symbolises alluring female beauty, (fei is a homophone for jade). A pair of geese may symbolise an enduring marital fidelity. So it is possible that there is a subtcxt to this elegant design. A flying goose (feihong) also symbolises a long life.

But all husbands are geese, though our pride it may shock, From the first 'twas ordained so by Nature, I fear; Ould Adam himself was the first of the flock, And Eve, with her apple sauce, cook'd him, my dear." Samuel Glover (18th C.) from Dermott O'Dowd


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Pair of Chargers Qianlong period circa 1755-60 European Market Diameter: 16 inches; 40cm A pair of finely painted Chinese export porcelain chargers decorated in famille rose with a Chinese scene of a young couple greeting an older bearded figure bearing a sword. References: Howard 1974, p343, an armorial dinner service with the arms

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of Salvador, which has this scene in the centre.


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Pair of Libation Cups & Stands Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Length of stand: 7 inches; 17cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain libation cups and stands painted in famille rose enamels with Chinese scenes of domestic life with ladies and children playing, the rims with borders of flowers and fruit. The shape of these ritual drinking vessels is derived from Chinese examples carved originally from rhinoceros horn. The form is extremely rare in export porcelain such as this. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, a single example, with stand,

with appliquĂŠ decoration.

The drink and I have been friends for so long, it would be a pity for me to leave without one last kiss. Last words of Turlough O'Carolan, 1738.

Science is built up of facts, as a house is built of stones; but an accumulation of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house. Henri PoincarĂŠ, Science & Hypothesis, 1905

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Watch Stand & Cover Qianlong period circa 1770 European or Chinese Market Height: 7½ inches; 19cm A rare Chinese export porcelain watch stand decorated in famille rose enamels with appliqué flowers, of cylindircal form with a flared and ribbed base, the cover with floral knop. Such watch stands are rare in Chinese porcelain and were made for both the European market and also for the Chinese market where there was notable interest in European watches and automata. References: Beurdeley 1962, Cat 89, another example; Pinto de

Matos 1998, p307, another example; Howard & Ayers 1978, No 586; Jörg 1989, No 26.

It is error only, and not truth, that shrinks from inquiry. Thomas Paine Truth isn’t truth.

Rudy Giuliani

The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Thomas Paine To love truth for truth's sake is the principal part of human perfection in this world, and the seed-plot of all other virtues. John Locke

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Pair of Tureens & Covers Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Length: 12 inches; 30cm An unusual pair of Chinese export porcelain tureens and covers brightly enamelled in famille rose with peonies and flowers, of oval form with lion mask handles and large and elaborate coronal knops.

“Have you ever tasted a mint julep, Beach?” “Not to my recollection, sir.” “Oh, you’d remember all right if you had. Insidious things. They creep up on you like a baby sister and slide their little hands into yours and the next thing you know the judge is telling you to pay the clerk of the court fifty dollars…” PG Wodehouse

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Pair of Punchpots & Covers Qianlong period circa 1780 European Market Height: 9½ inches; 24cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain punchpots decorated in famille rose with flowers and fruit and appliquÊ floral sprays with tiny birds, the spouts and overarching handles modelled as faux bois and painted brown.

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Meatdish Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Length: 11 inches; 28cm A fine Chinese export porcelain meatdish decorated with the ‘tobacco leaf’ pattern in underglaze blue and famille rose enamels, with leaves and flowers, the rim lobed to imitate a leaf edge. The origins of the tobacco leaf design remain unclear though it is thought to have been inspired by designs on Indian textiles. It was very popular in the second half of the eighteenth century and appears in a wide range of versions which included pheasants or treeshrews and in so-called ‘pseudo-tobacco leaf’, with different colours, as well as a later nineteenth century versions in very thick bright enamels. References: Debomy 2013, p78, other examples like this, which the author classifies as pattern A1.1; Cohen & Cohen 2015, p74-5, Nos 48-9, a teapot

and mug decorated in the same pattern.

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Pair of Cups & Saucers Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter of Saucer: 4ž inches; 12cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain cups and saucers decorated with the tobacco leaf pattern in bright famille rose enamels and underglaze blue. References: Debomy 2013, p89, this is Pattern A1.1.


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Soup Plate Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain soup plate with lobed edge, decorated with a pseudo-tobacco leaf pattern in bright famille rose enamels and underglaze blue. References: Debomy 2013, p144, this is Pattern B2.

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Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1765 European Market Length: 8 inches; 20.5cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover decorated with a pseudo-tobacco leaf pattern in bright famille rose enamels, the cover with knop moulded as a bud. References: Debomy 2013, p210, this is Pattern C3.

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Pair of Plates Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain dinner plates with lobed edge, decorated with a pseudotobacco leaf pattern in bright famille rose enamels and underglaze blue. References: Debomy 2013, p144, this is Pattern B2.


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Pair of Urns & Covers Qianlong/Jiaqing period circa 1795-1800 Swedish or American Market Height: 15 inches; 38cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain pistol handled urns extensively painted in famille rose enamels in iron red, blue, green and gilt, the roundels with sepia landscape scenes.

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This elegant shape was popular in the late 18th century and into the 19th, in particular for interiors decorated in the federalist style in the United States. The form is derived originally from Classical urns, much copied and developed in European ceramics. This particular version was created by the Swedish Marieberg porcelain factory circa 1760. References: Cohen & Cohen 2014, Nos 47 & 48, with illustrations of the Marieberg examples and extensive related items.


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Pair of Candlesticks Qianlong period circa 1740 English Market Height: 8 inches; 20cm A very fine pair of Chinese export porcelain candlesticks decorated in famille rose enamels, decorated mainly in ron red, brown and blue. Porcelain candlesticks copying silver forms like these are quite rare as they are vulnerable to damage. These are very bright and elegant examples. References: Cohen & Cohen 2015, No 50, a pair of the same shape but different decoration.


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Plate Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate painted in famille rose with the Arbour pattern attributed to Cornelis Pronk. This plate has a design by the Dutch artist Cornelis Pronk, who was commissioned by the Dutch East India Company in 1734 to make drawings to be reproduced on porcelain. This is probably his fourth design for the VOC, produced in 1737, and is known in blue and white and famille rose but not in Chinese Imari, though the original drawing has not been found. The sources for the design are complex and Pronk worked by assembling elements from various prints and drawings in a manner that was standard procedure in his day. Yasumasa Oka (1985), has identified a drawing by Pronk of a cholon - or ‘Chinese teahouse’ in the gardens of Bosch en Hoven, near Haarlem, that is the same shape as the topiary here. Such teahouses were a popular feature of many Dutch gardens and were usually small buildings in which tea could be drunk - and an expression of the interest in the East at that time. The Bosch en Hoven cholon was also engraved by Hendrik de Leth - and it was replaced in the 1920s by a small chapel. The fours insects in the rim are taken from Maria Sybilla Merian’s Erucarum Ortus, published in full in 1718, and in an enlarged Dutch edition, European Insects, 1730. The flowers in the other eight panels are European in style but the sources have not been found. A Meissen teabowl with this pattern is in the New York Metropolitan Museum, No 64.101.165 from the Untermyer Collection, and another in the Gröninger Museum (CJ Jörg, pers. comm.), possibly Amsterdam decorated, which suggests that Pronk or the VOC may have had European examples made up as a trial or that an alternative place of manufacture was being investigated as it was becoming clear that the ‘Pronk’ venture in Canton was not proving cost effective. In fact this ‘arbour’ design seems to have been influential on other designs made in the ‘Pronk workshop’, probably created by someone else - perhaps in Batavia from where the venture was monitored.

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Two of the insects in the border panels are found on the Insect teaservice which is also attributed to the workshop. It has colouring and other features that match - and the cups have a very distinctive shape only found on a few services (Doctors’ Visit, Insect, Trumpeter, Parrot and Spaniel) - all connected with the workshop. One insect from the rim appears in the Archer pattern, another is repeated on the ‘fritillary’ vases. In addition, the palmette feature in the plate rim reappears in the ‘palmette’ services, in two colourways, which also echoes the design on the back of these plates. References: Scheurleer 1974, plate 202; Jörg 1980, p34, Nos 48-

50; Jörg 1989, No 52; Du Boulay 1966, p262; Le Corbeiller

1973, Cat 30; Ibid. 1974, fig 24; Forbes 1982, p42, No 69;

Litzenburg 2003, p177; Howard 1994, Nos 55-6; Clunas 1987, pl 48; Shimizu & Chabanne 2003, p207, No 158; Oka,

Yasumasa, 1985, Antiek, 20th year, no. 2, aug/sept 1985, pp6976; Mezin 2002, p53, No 28, a blue and white plate.

Go heaven for the climate, Hell for the company. Mark Twain


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Large Plate Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter: 10¼ inches; 26cm A Chinese export porcelain large plate brightly enamelled with a scene showing The Doctors’ Visit after a design by Cornelis Pronk, with a low table of European design on which rests a large kraak porcelain dish, the rim with waterbirds and reserves of fish trios. The scene on this plate is known as The Doctor's Visit to the Emperor after the Dutch artist Cornelis Pronk. It was the second drawing for the VOC, commissioned from Cornelis Pronk in 1735, and, like the others, it portrays a very Western view of life in China. For example the table is of a European design and the dish on it is of the kraak style, which is a type that was exported to the West in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and would not have been used by the Emperor. The parrot often symbolises a prostitute or painted courtesan in Chinese art, so would never have been included next to the Emperor. The design arrived in Canton in 1737 on the VOC ship Hogersmilde and presented the supercargoes responsible for placing the porcelain order with a problem familiar from the first Pronk design: both were highly detailed and therefore very expensive to produce, and so the supercargoes dared place only a small order. A second slightly larger order was placed the following year, but in 1739 another less detailed version of this design, omitting the standing figure, was sent to Canton in hope of reducing the price of production. The supercargoes were unable to obtain a satisfactory reduction in the price and reported that they would not be placing an order after all. However, the records from the VOC show that a large order of 60 dinner services of 371 pieces, thirty more of 94 pieces and 830 pieces of tea wares was placed. Strangely, pieces of the second version are now much less common than pieces of the first, despite being apparently ordered in far larger numbers. In this design the two seated figures on the right are each presenting a small fish to the Emperor on the left. This may be a reference to Le Comte’s Nouveau mémoire sur l'état présent de la Chine (1696) in which he compares the Chinese custom of prescribing rice and fish

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as a curative, to the Dutch tradition of selling fresh herring (Hollandse Nieuwe) as a cure for illness. This was referenced in Vol IV of The Religious Ceremonies of the World by B Picart & JF Bernard, first published in Amsterdam, 1723-1737, so Pronk may have been aware of the idea from the latter. The fish found here are interesting and although it is not possible to identify all of these, they seem to be mainly tropical marine fish from the IndoPacific region, where a number of Dutch naturalists were working in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Notable among them was VOC naturalist Samuel Fallours whose drawings were used for Louis Renard’s Poissons, Ecrevisses et Crabes, (1719, Amsterdam: Louis Renard) and later for the fanciful Vol. 3 of Francois Valentijn’s Oude en Nieuw Oost Indien, (1726, Dordrecht & Amsterdam: Joannes van Braam & Gerard Onder de Linden) which has fish laid out in trios, on land, as does a plate in Pluche’s Spectacle de la Nature, first published in 1732. The birds in this design are waterbirds, apart from the peacock and parrot in the main image. The source for the storks has not been found but the Avocet and the two ducks, (Garganey and Muscovy Duck), are from the 1718 edition of Theatrum Universale Omnium Animalium by John Jonston and engraved by Matthaus Merian the younger. The parrot is strikingly similar in pose to the parrot found on the next item. References: Jörg 1980, pp 26-7, items with this design; Howard & Ayers 1978, p294, discussion of Pronk designs; Pietsch, TW (Ed) 1995, discussion of the Fallours fish drawings in Renard’s

Poissons etc; Cohen & Cohen 1999, p35, a pair of famille rose

cisterns with this design; C&C 2008, a cistern and basin with identification of many of the fish; C&C 2012, p38, a plate;

Wirgin 1998, p177, a basin with different fish trio inside, in

Imari palette; C&C 2014-A, p34, for Pronk bird sources; Hunt et al (2010) The Book That Changed Europe, p235-6.


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ornament print circa 1710 pub: Paris, de Poilly illustrated in Grand Carteret (1907)

Milk Jug Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Height: 6 inches; 15cm A Chinese export porcelain milk jug of ‘helmet’ form with a famille rose panel with a mythological scene. The scene shows Flora and Cupid and is copied from a small ornament print, circa 1710, of a type made for use by craftsmen, especially enamellers decorating snuffboxes. In this case the Chinese artist, possibly under the direction of the European merchant placing the order, has dressed the goddess. The original of this print has not been found but it was illustrated in John Grand-Carteret’s Rire et

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Galanterie (circa 1907), p184, with a verse underneath: “Que cette Flore est agréable; J’admire ces vives couleurs; Et ne vois rien le plus aimable; Qu’un belle objet paré des fleurs.” It is inscribed “A Paris, chez de Poilly, A la Belle Image” probably for Jean-Baptiste de Poilly (1669–1728) or his brother Nicolas de Poilly (1675–1723) both sons of the better known François de Poilly (1623-93). References: Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, p134, No 6.56, a saucer.


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Teabowl & Saucer Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter of Saucer: 4½ inches; 11.5cm A Chinese export eggshell porcelain teabowl and saucer painted in famille rose with a mythological scene. This scene shows Earth by Francesco Albani (1578-1660) one of a series of the four elements, painted between 1625-8 for the Cardinal of Savoy, later King of Sardinia, and which are now in the Galleria Sabauda, Turin. Cybele is seated in her chariot surrounded by personifications of three of the Seasons (Flora as Spring; Ceres as Summer and Bacchus as Autumn) but harsh Winter is absent as Albani intended to flatter the Cardinal’s sunny disposition. A copy attributed to Poussin is in the Galleria d’Arte Bodda, Turin. All four designs are known on Chinese plates and teawares, their tondo format fitting very well.

References: Mezin 2002, p86-9, Nos 67-70, four plates with each of the scenes and illustration of a set of engravings by Nicolas (IV) de Larmessin (1684-1755); Williamson 1970, plate XXXIX, four plates including ‘Earth’ with gilt rim border and plate XXIV a teapot with this design; Howard 1994, p111; Beurdeley 1962, p179; Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, p318-9; Jörg 1989, p174-5; Le Corbeiller 1974, p64-5’ Sargent 2012, p297; Palmer 1976, p71; Howard & Ayers 1978, p323; Gordon1984, No 46; Puglisi, Catherine R. 1999, Franceso Albani, p144, Cat 60, the series, and note of two further engravers: A. Paquier & C. Ferreri; Scheurleer 1974, No 232, a plate; Pinto de Matos 2011, Vol 2, p228, No 320, a plate and illustration of the de Beauvais print version; Cohen & Cohen 2016, No 53, a plate with the same design but with the blue enamel rim; Cunha Alves 2016, p134, No 76, a teabowl and saucer with this design. engraving by Jacques Chereau after Francesco Albani


44

Coffee pot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1745 English Market Height: 8¾ inches; 22cm A rare Chinese export porcelain famille rose coffee pot and cover with a scene depicting Don Quixote putting on a barber’s bowl as the Helmet of Mambrino, after an image by Charles-Antoine Coypel (1694-1752) originally for the Gobelins tapestry factory. This pattern is one of the most sought after by collectors of European subjects on Chinese export porcelain. The traditional view is that there were two services, the first about 1745 and a second about 1750. There are significant differences between the two versions and the dating has always followed the idea that the earlier one is more detailed with finer quality enamels and the later one has been reduced somewhat. However there is no direct evidence for this. In fact a closer analysis of different examples of this pattern suggests three services and a different dating sequence. The first (A) would appear be a teaservice, painted as here in excellent quality and including the pony, Dapple to right of the figure of Sancho, but lacking the fleeing figure in the background (his blue horse remains) - though a teapot from this service illustrated in Willamson (1970) spreads out the composition and does include this figure. This dates to around 1745-50. The second (B) is a service of table flatware, dinner plates and meatdishes, very close in date to the teaservice, the composition lacking Sancho’s pony or any fleeing figure and his horse. Pieces from this service have a border with four Meissen style cartouches containing grisaille landscapes and birds, a rim very similar to the Scotsmen plate (circa 1745). The third (C), of dinner plates and chargers only, is the rarest and best quality. It includes all the elements of the original print and has very different enamels, thicker and in an unusual palette. The border consists of gilt flowers and edging and the cavetto has a chain border. This last is very diagnostic as it is used to date pieces from about 1755 onwards, most commonly around 1760. In Howard’s two books on armorial porcelain the earliest pieces with this border date to 1755.

56

Although a decrease in quality with time is usual, it is not always the case. The borders suggest otherwise. It is possible that the print was sent to Canton to be copied onto a service, initially a teaservice. The success of this first order could have prompted another order of larger pieces. The image is complicated and the Chinese artists could easily have decided to simplify bits that did not make sense to them. Such a reduction in so famous a story would have been noticed immediately by the customer back home. So then a supercargo with a later order would have been careful to get it right and it might have been placed with a specialised enamelling workshop that was producing very fine European subject images. An example of this is seen in the small hunt bowl (Cohen & Cohen 2008, No35) which is of much better quality than earlier punchbowls using the same James Seymour image. And the colours in that bowl are also distinctive and similar to those in the third Quixote service (C). The scene shows the figure of Don Quixote on his horse Rosinante as he is placing a basin over his head, beside him is his faithful squire Sancho Panza with his pony Dapple and on the other side are two women behind a tree. In this episode Quixote has encountered a barber who is holding a basin over his head to shelter from the rain (the woman on the left appears to be sheltering herself with her cloak too). With his characteristic ability to conjure up heroic adventures out of the mundane, Quixote has assumed the basin to be the Helmet of Mambrino, a legendary possession of a Moorish King, made of pure gold and rendering the wearer invulnerable. It was the goal of many of the Knights of Charlemagne to find it, not dissimilar to King Arthur’s Knights searching for the Holy Grail. Quixote commands the astonished barber to give him the helmet and, thinking he is mad, the barber drops it and flees. The story is popular and emblematic of all that Quixote represents. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p345, No 342, a dinner plate

service B; Lloyd Hyde 1964, plate XV, p15, service C; Buerdeley 1962, Cat 33, service C (dated 1755); Williamson 1970, pl XXIV, a teapot, service A; Cohen & Cohen 2013, p72, No 49, a meatdish from service B; Brawer 1992, p108, a plate B.


The Porcelain Image Source: Don Quixote & The Helmet of Mambrino 1714-1734 - Charles-Antoine Coypel (1694-1752) was

commissioned to produce paintings for the Gobelins factory to make a series of tapestries to illustrate The Story of Don Quixote. 27 were made with one more in 1751.

1723-30 - these images were also engraved as prints to be

sold separately or as a ‘suite’. This image was engraved by

Louis Surugue (1686-1762) in 1723. It reverses the Coypel image.

1725 - a copy of the Surugue print is produced by Jan van

C-A Coypel, tapestry (detail), c1714

Louis Surugue after Coypel, print, 1723-4

der Gucht (1697-1776), of Queen Street, Bloomsbury

(London) which reverses back the image to the Coypel

orientation; title in English, (plates used in English

edition published London: Walthoe 1731)

(1732 - an engraving by Bernard Picart, copying Surugue, but this omits the two ladies behind the tree.)

1732/3 - Paris editions, engraver unknown, after Surugue, vertical format.

1744 - a copy of the Surugue print, by Jacob Folkema

(1692-1767), a narrower vertical composition for a book

illustration. This is traditionally regarded as the source

used for the porcelain but it is as likely that the English edition by van der Gucht is the one used. Numerous later

editions were issued copying both of these.

Jan van der Gucht after Surugue, after Coypel, print, 1725/1731

Jacob Folkema after Surugue after Coypel, print, 1744

45

Teabowl & Saucer Qianlong period circa 1745 English Market Diameter of Saucer: 5¼ inches; 13.5cm en suite with the coffee pot

46

Plate Qianlong period circa 1750 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate with a central scene of Don Quixote and the Helmet of Mambrino, the rim with four cartouches of grisaille birds and landscapes. This is the second version (B) of this design (see the previous two items).

58


47

Plate Qianlong period circa 1745 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate with a biblical scene of European figures around a well, painted in bright famille rose enamels, the rim with gilt shell and scroll border. This scene is known in famille rose, grisaille and in puce enamel. It was popular and examples are all of good quality painting, suggesting orders over a relatively short period of time. This plate is a very good example. The source print has not been found, despite its popularity and the searching eyes of many collectors, curators and dealers. It is among a frustrating group of such ‘European subject’ export porcelain designs whose sources have remained stubbornly elusive. This scene does appear to show Eleazer fetching Rebecca from the Well, to be a husband for Isaac. The subject was often depicted in western art and there are many versions from this period, some with a few details that match this. Similar elements are also found in illustrations of Jacob and Rachel at the well of Haran - for example the rope hanging from the well but there should then be several sheep visible. The water poured into a ewer is also shown in depictions of the Woman from Samaria meeting Christ at the well, from the New Testament, though there are too many people here for that. It is tempting to imagine an artist connected to the China trade who might have assembled this scene from various elements to make this design as a new creation on porcelain. Although possible, that is unlikely. There are examples of some European subject designs resulting from work in this way but most of those are merely simplifications and relatively unsophisticated (with the exception of the Pronk designs). Such a process had been suggested for the well known design of The Judgement of Paris, another scene known in many variations in Western Art and popular on export porcelain. However, as can be seen on page 203 in this catalogue, a recent discovery shows that design is copied closely from a print that is a very rare mezzotint by John Simon, possibly based on a lost painting by Henri Gascar. So it remains for the precise source of this image to be discovered.

anonymous engraving after Poussin, Rebecca at the Well (1648)

Painting by Bendetto Luti, Rebecca at the Well (circa 1700)

References: Beurdeley 1962, Cat 136; Sargent 2012, No 165, plate; Litzenberg 2003,

No 202; Howard 1994, No 82; Howard 1997, No 138; Lunsingh Sheurleer 1972, pl 240; Kerr & Mengoni 2011, No 87;

woodcut by G Borluyt, illustrating the Woman of Samaria (circa 1557) reversed

60


48

Punchbowl Qianlong period circa 1760 English Market Diameter: 16 inches; 40.5cm A Chinese export porcelain punchbowl decorated in famille rose with a continuous scene to the exterior, of six ships all flying the flags of the British merchant navy. This fine bowl is elegantly painted with finely detailed ships on blue waves with dark rocks in the foreground. The flag flown on all the ships is the Red Ensign, used in this version from 1707-1801, as instituted by Queen Anne, who commanded that it be used by ships owned by “our loving subjects”. This flag was flown by the thirteen colonies of America until 1775. This was probably a private order by a ship’s captain who was himself in Canton. No other identical example is recorded though there exists an interesting range of different marine subject bowls and other porcelains. Similar bowls with wrap-around decoration like this mostly show specific battles with the print sources identified or the ships named. Another bowl with a British ship in North America is shown right. References: Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, Chapter 2, Sujets Marins.

interior of Chinese punchbowl, grisaille, (circa 1770-80) (Cohen & Cohen)

Gulf of Saint Lawrence, from Scenographia Americana (1768), engraved by PC Canot (detail)


49

Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm Provenance: ex-collection Rafi & Mildred Mottahedeh; ex-collection Leo & Doris Hodroff A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate decorated in famille rose with three ships, and a border of flowers and diaper bands in green and yellow, the motto ‘Gluckig Arivement’ under the ships. This is an early example of a marine subject and shows three ships flying Dutch flags, though one of them has been given the wrong colours by the Chinese artist. The inscription translates as ‘Happy Homecoming’. The design is known only on plates and is very rare, this example having a celebrity provenance.

64

Howard 1994, suggests that this is probably copied from a drawing rather than a print as no source has yet been found. He mentions that the central ship has a name (St Vevuil?) which might help track down the source. Might it be the Nieuwvliet a VOC ship in Canton in 1733, on which Daniel Tuineman was second mate when he ordered his armorial service? References: Howard 1994, p66, No 43, this plate; Howard &

Ayers 1978, p198, a plate; Kroes 2007, p152, No 59, Tuineman

service; Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, No 2.11; Beurdeley 1962,

Cat 141.


50 Dinner Plate

I love fishing. It’s like transcendental meditation with a punch-line. Billy Connolly, Gullible’s Travels (1982)

Qianlong period circa 1770 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate with a famille rose central scene of buildings at a waterfront, the rim with scattered flowers. The floral rim here is the same as two plates with designs after Johann Esaias Nilson prints, dated circa 1769, suggesting that this was made slightly later than the dates given in most sources for this design. As well as dinner plates, it is known on teawares and on one teaservice that also includes a pair of putti supporting a monogrammed cartouche. The scene is of the Nieuwe Stadsherberg on the waterfront of the River Ij in Amsterdam. This was an Inn where sailors could stay before departure on their voyages. It was built in 1662 and demolished in 1872. The precise print source for this has not been found and it may have been taken from a drawing or watercolour brought to China, derived from a print or drawn from life before a voyage. The orientation of the buildings has caused some confusion - it is a large block with two sides facing the water and this shows one side. Many of the prints show the other side which has a similar foreground (see the Nooms print right). Additionally the reversing of the image caused by the copying and re-engraving of images means that mirror print versions exist. The view published by Pierre Fouquet in 1768 (see right) seems to be reversed but the elements are all there. The plate itself is correct. Other prints have similar boats at the front and the ‘dolphin’ (timber pyramid on the far left of the plate).

engraving by Reinier Nooms (Zeeman) published by Dancker Danckerts circa 1665 (Rijksmuseum, RP-P-OB-20.596)

References: Scheurleer 1974, No 243, a plate; Scheurleer May 1968, Antiek, pp484-6; Le Corbeiller 1974, p108, No

45; Howard 1994, p100; Howard & Ayers 1978, Vol 1, p193;

Beurdeley p190, cat 173; Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, p13, No

1.3; Palmer 1976, p95; Litzenburg 2003, p152, No 143; Jörg 1989, No 37; Cohen & Cohen 2016, No 52, another plate.

66

engraved by C. Philips Jacobsz, 1768, after a drawing by J de Vlaming, published by P Fouquet Jr, Amsterdam (Rijksmuseum RP-P-1905-576-2, detail)


51

Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1770 Dutch Market Length: 7½ inches; 19cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover, decorated in Meissen-style with a famille rose panel of a harbour scene and two figures, one kneeling and the other wearing a crown. This is a scene of Peter the Great studying Dutch shipbuilding in Zaandam in 1697, which is also known on some Chinese export plates. The Tsar went incognito as Pyotr Mikhailov and stayed in the humble house of Gerrit Kist, who had worked as a smith in the Moscow shipyards. Peter also worked at the VOC shipyards in Amsterdam. References: HervouÍt & Bruneau 1986, No 15.55, a saucer with this design.

68

The problem is not the problem. The problem is your attitude about the problem. Captain Jack Sparrow


52

Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1770 European possibly Dutch Market Length: 7½ inches; 19cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover, decorated in famille rose with two ships in a harbour, the shoulder with a simple cell border. This style of decoration was popular among the people involved with the China trade and many variations of this are found. References: HervouÍt & Bruneau 1986, p342, No 15.1, a teapot

stand with this design.

Anyone who lives within their means suffers from a lack of imagination. Oscar Wilde

69


53

Pair of Teabowls & Saucers Qianlong period circa 1780 Swedish Market Diameter of Saucer: 5½ inches; 14cm Provenance: with Henry Moog, Atlanta A pair of Chinese export porcelain teabowls and saucers decorated with ships flying Swedish flags, the rims with simple iron red decoration. References: HervouÍt & Bruneau 1986, Chapter 2, Sujets marins.

70

Reader, suppose you were an idiot. And suppose you were a member of Congress. But I repeat myself. Mark Twain


54

Plate Kangxi period circa 1720 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate decorated in the Chinese Imari palette, with a central scene of a Dutch couple and a dog, surrounded by Chinese style decoration. This scene has long been known as the ‘Governor Duff’ design after the Dutch governor of Batavia Diederick Durven (1676-1740).

However it has been shown that this costume is of a type worn as wedding dress by the Frisian community of Hindeloopen up to the mid-19th century. In the early 18th century this was a flourishing port town. The dog, symbolising fidelity adds to the design. References: Suebsman et al 2015, p97 (including an illustration

of the Hindeloopen costume); Sargent 2012, p193; Howard &

Ayers 1978, No 126, Lunsingh Scheurleer 1972, Fig 7; Herovuët

& Bruneau 1986, p152-3, including a coromandel chest with this design; Beurdeley 1962, Cat 192;


55

Figure Group Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch or Chinese Market Height: 9 inches; 23cm Provenance: ex-collection Martin Hurst

And she's got brains enough for two, which is the exact quantity the girl who marries you will need. PG Wodehouse, The Adventures of Sally (1922)

A Chinese export porcelain figure group showing a standing Dutch couple brightly decorated in famille rose enamels on a flattened base. This is one of four recorded examples of this unusual model on a rockwork base. This one was originally from the Martin Hurst Collection, one of the greatest collections of famille rose Chinese porcelain ever assembled and which formed the basis for The Book of Famille Rose by George Williamson (1970). This group is illustrated in that book on plate XLI. They were originally thought to illustrate 'Governor Duff' and his wife, referring to the Dutch governor of Batavia Diederick Durven (1676-1740) who was a Dutch colonial administrator and GovernorGeneral of the Dutch East Indies from 1729 to 1732. However this description has been applied to many European couples at this date and is discounted now (see the previous item in this catalogue). Some similar groups are known on square bases in different versions, one starting a dance, and one in the middle of the dance. The example here is possibly a prototype for the later dancing figures (see right). It has been suggested that, as well as being made for the export market, these figures of Westerners might also have been made as entertainments for the Chinese market, possibly even for the Qing court where the Qianlong Emperor had shown an interest in items decorated with Western figures and such depictions were seen as exotic. References: Williamson 1970, this example illustrated on plate

XLI; Howard & Ayers 1978, p627, another example of this group in the Mottahedeh collection; an example is in the National

Museum of Ireland, Dublin that is undecorated white porcelain

(details: DC:1884.914 - Figure group, Blanc-de-chine, made in

China, c.1720); Sargent 1991, p218-9, the example from the Copeland Collection.

two figure groups of Dutch Dancers, circa 1740-45 (Cohen & Cohen)

72


56

Plate Qianlong period circa 1770 European, possibly English, Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm

Aunt Agatha is like an elephant - not so much to look at, for in appearance she resembles more a well-bred vulture, but because she never forgets. PG Wodehouse, Joy in the Morning (1947)

A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate with famille rose decoration in the Meissen style, with a central view of the Pont St Angelo in Rome, the rim with further landscape panels. This rare plate shows an Italian topographical scene, painted in the style of many porcelains at Meissen, especially in the rococo iron red, purple and gold flourishes around the panels. The central scene shows the Pont St Angelo over the River Tiber in Rome. It was a popular view that had been drawn and engraved from the early 17th century onwards, by Mathaus Merian the elder, Petrus Schenk, GB Piranesi and many others. All vary in details of the boats and figures on the riverbanks and none match the design on the plate precisiely, which is quite roughly drawn. It was reproduced for the Vue Optique series by Nicolas Jean Baptiste de Poilly (1712–1780) and then again for the English Market in about 1760 for John Barrow’s Geographical Dictionary and in separate prints published by Robert Sayer, circa 1770. These last two are much smaller than the others and of the same orientation as the image on the plate. Either could have been the ones taken to China to be copied, indicating that this was made for the English market with appeal to English gentlemen who had spent time on a Grand Tour in Italy.

74

by Nicolas Jean Baptiste Poilly (1712–1780) (Author’s collection)

from John Barrow’s Geographical Dictionary, 1760. (Author’s collection)


57

Know then thyself; presume not God to scan, The proper study of mankind is Man. Alexander Pope

Saucer Dish Qianlong period circa 1740 European Market Diameter: 8¼ inches; 21cm A Chinese export porcelain saucer dish decorated all over the surface in famille rose with a scene of European figures in a garden. This finely painted dish is unusual in having no decorative borders, with the scene filling the whole surface of the dish, more in Chinese taste. It is just possible that this was intended for a Chinese consumer who wanted a Western design. The subject is Le Printemps, taken from an engraving by Nicolas de Larmessin IV (1684-1755) after a painting by Nicolas Lancret (1690-1743) from a set of the Four Seasons. This is the only one of this set of four found on export art and it was a popular images used over a period of time. A teaservice with this design but without the blue sky is also recorded. Several different Larmessin prints after Lancret are known on export porcelain: two from the Larmessin suite illustrating the Contes et Nouvelles of La Fontaine; L’Adolescence and Le Vieillesse from the Four Ages of Man (the paintings are in the National Gallery, London); and The Loves of the Groves, (also engraved by Andrew Miller) is known on a punchbowl and in a simpified form on a teaservice (see below). References: Sapage 1992, No 36, a teapot with this design; Antunes et al 2000, No 30, a teacaddy; Hervouët & Bruneau

1986, No 7.65, a similar saucer.

76

saucer, circa 1760, the birdcage has been lost, as have the dog and the sheep (Cohen & Cohen)

Les Amours du Bocage engraved by Nicolas de Larmessin after Nicolas Lancret (detail, reversed) (Rijksmuseum RP-P-OB-43.955

Le Printemps engraved by Nicolas de Larmessin after Nicolas Lancret (private collection)


58

Plate Qianlong period circa 1750 European, possibly English, Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain famille rose dinner plate with a central scene of two figures with buildings in the distance, the rim with a gilt spearhead border. The scene is an illustration taken from an engraving by Nicolas de Larmessin IV (1684-1755) after a painting by Nicolas Vleughels illustrating Le Villageois Qui Cherche Son Veau from Jean de la Fontaine’s Contes et Nouvelles. The young boy wanders the woods looking for his missing calf and climbs a tree for a better view. Meanwhile a couple arrive to sit beneath the tree and the young man declares loudly that he is graced with such a vision of loveliness that he can now see all that he would ever want to look upon. The boy overhears this and innocently asks that, if the man can see so much, can he also see his missing calf.

78

Around 1730, a collection of engraved illustrations for Fontaine’s Contes using paintings by a number of artists including Boucher, Le Mesle, Vleughels, Pater, Eisen, Lorrain and Lancret were published. Known as Le Suite de Larmessin after the principal engraver, these prints were initially sold as a print collection and then published in book form along with Fontaine’s text. Six of the prints from the Suite are reproduced on Chinese export porcelain, including this one, which is known in two versions. The earliest is only recorded en grisaille and follows the original print very closely, including the boy in a tree. The second version, seen here, omits the boy and is only found in polychrome. References: Hervouët & Bruneau (1986) p198, Nos 9.11-12; Cohen & Cohen 2002, No 53,

another; C&C 2015,

No

57,

another;

Mezin 2002, p108-9,

Nos 87-8, examples of

both

type;

Beurdeley 1962, fig

41-2, a plate and the print.

Le Villageois Qui Cherche Son Veau, engr Nicolas de Larmessin after Nicolas Vleughels.


59

Teapot, Cover & Stand Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Length of teapot: 7 inches; 18cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot, cover and stand decorated in polychrome with the seamstress design, the teepot of bullet form and the stand of lobed hexagonal form. The design was popular on Chinese porcelain being used many times. The earlier examples retain the interior setting but some later versions like this have moved the figure into a pastoral setting. This is derived from a small ornament print by Bernard Picart (1673-1733) published around 1710. Picart was a Huguenot engraver who moved to Amsterdam and became one of the most important engravers and publishers of his time. Many of his engravings are reproduced on Chinese export porcelain.

print, circa 1710 by Bernard Picart (Author’s collection)


60 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1745 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate, decorated in bright famille rose enamels with a European subject scene of musicians, the rim with a colourful rococo border. The print source for this scene has yet to be identified. It is in the style of Watteau or Lancret, with a seated lute player next to a barrel, the woman with a triangle and another man making advances on her, holding a pair of castanets. Up to about 1800 the triangle often had a series of jingling rings on it which are shown here in the lady’s hand. The barrel is curiously placed and is reminiscent of illustrations for one of the Contes by La Fontaine, Le Cuvier, that is also known on export porcelain. Such a scene is part of the tradition of fêtes galantes which were

80

popularised by Watteau and others at the beginning of the 18th century. These scenes had a variety of people in outdoor settings reading, playing music or having a picnic. They were a carefully coded system of pastoral semi-erotic activities that were well understood by the eighteenth century eye.

References: Hervouët & Bruneau (1986) p188, No 8.15 a plate; Howard 1994, p88, No 75, a plate; Veiga 1989, p167, a plate; Sargent 2014, p226, No82, three

examples in the Conde Collection. Post-publication Research Update

It has now been discovered that the source for this is part of a larger image of Autumn (from The Four Seasons) by Johann Esaias Nilson, some gouaches

for

which

are

in

the

Bibliotheque des Arts Decoratifs, Paris. A full set of engraved images has not been found but one is currently with a London dealer, showing Spring, and engraved by Johann Philip Koch (171696).


61 Plate Qianlong period circa 1740 Portuguese Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A famille rose dinner plate with a central scene of a European couple seated on a terrace, with a parrot on a swing between them, the scene framed by an elaborate rococo cartouche, the rim with four landscape panels in puce enamel reserved on a floral biancasopra-bianca ground. This rare scene is of a coded erotic nature, the man is playing a clarinet style instrument and the woman seems to be singing. The bird on a swing symbolises the flexible nature of virtue

in such circumstances. A parrot, with exotic gaudy colouring, was often associated with courtesans. Scenes such as this were popular in the eighteenth century and many variants are known on Chinese export porcelain. This scene has also been recorded on one tea and coffee service with a monogramme replacing the parrot and is also known en grisaille and en camaieu violine. This may have been inspired by elements of designs for a set of six of Beauvais ‘grotesques’ tapestries by Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer (1636-1699) known as the ‘Berain Grotesques’ because of the influence of Jean Berain (1740-1711) - or by other designs made at Beauvais. References: Cohen & Cohen 2000, cover item a coffee pot from the service

with a monogramme; Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, p185, No 8.8 a dinner plate of this type; Shimizu & Chabanne 2003, 221, No 174, a plate; Krahl & Harrison-Hall 1994, pl 67; Lunsingh Scheurleer1966, back cover image; Howard 1994, pl 203, teabowl and saucer.


62

Milk Jug Qianlong period circa 1775-80 European Market Height: 5¼ inches; 13.5cm A Chinese export porcelain milk jug of ‘helmet’ form painted in famille rose with a panel of European figures in an interior. This is from a single rare teaservice, a few pieces of which have been recorded. The scene is L’Occupation, plate 4 from Monument du Costume Physique et Moral de la fin du Dix-huitième siècle (1774) published by Denis Charles Buldet. The designs were created by Johann Heinrich Eberts (1726-1793) and drawn by Sigmund Freudeberg (1745-1801) a Swiss artist and print maker working mainly in Paris and later in Bern, and this plate was engraved by Charles-Louis Lingée. Two other designs from this suite are found on Chinese export porcelain, plate 3 (La Toilette, engraved by Nicolas Joseph Voyez) and plate 8 (La Promenade du Soir, engraved by François Robert Ingouf). Additionally plates 3 & 4 are the source for images on a large painted enamel on copper vase for the Chinese market, though both scenes have been transferred to an exterior setting.

painted enamel vase, detail Cohen & Cohen 2014B, No 8

Plate 4

References: Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, p167, No 7.75, a teapot.

Cuñha Alves collection, p268, cat 167

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Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, No 7.75

Plate 9

painted enamel vase, detail Cohen & Cohen 2014B, No 8

Plate 3


63

Pair of Dishes Qianlong period (1736-96) European Market Diameter: 4Âź inches; 11cm A pair of small Chinese painted enamel on copper dishes with lobed rims, with a central scene of European figures in a landscape.

84

My fellow citizens: the rise of this blusterous man bewilders the educated among us, conjoins opposing politicians, agonizes our international allies, threatens minorities, and touches the hearts of those who just don’t know any better. Let us stop propounding how mad all this is, but instead, do something. Liselotte Hßbner, Germany 1929


64

Plate Qianlong period (1736-96) European Market Diameter: 7Âź inches; 18.5cm A Chinese painted enamel on copper dish with a lobed rim, with a central scene of European figures in a landscape, the man drinking and the woman appearing to dance.


65

Cup & Saucer Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Diameter of Saucer: 4ž inches; 12cm A Chinese export porcelain cup and saucer painted in famille rose enamels with a scene of a European couple in an exterior setting. This is one of many such scenes painted as entertainments for the Western markets. The print source for this has not been identified. References: HervouÍt & Bruneau 1986, No 7.47, a saucer.

There is in every cook's opinion No savory dish without an onion. But lest your kissing should be spoiled, The onion must be thoroughly boiled. Jonathan Swift Me darlin' was sweet, me darlin' was chaste Faith, an' more's the pity. For though she was sweet an'though she was chaste, She was chased all the way through the city. Anonymous Irish verse, circa 1790

86


66

Cup & Saucer Qianlong period circa 1780 European Market Diameter of Saucer: 5½ inches; 14cm A Chinese export porcelain cup and saucer painted in famille rose with a scene of a soldier slumped on a collapsed gun carriage, a horse beside him, above is the letter C in a shield with a lion’s head crest above that. This is a rare design known on one teaservice wiht this armorial, linked to the Cust family. It is also know as a central roundel in the interior of some large punchbowls with two iron red panels on the exterior showing a fox and chickens, after Demarteau.

The print source for the scene was discovered by Louisa Mengoni, and is The Wounded Hussar, 1776, engraved by Valentine Green (1739-1813) after George Carter (1737-94) and published in London. The standing woman has been omitted though it not clear why. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p377, cup and saucer; V&A example Franks 891.+ ; Howard 1974, p332; Krahl & Harrison

Hall 1994, No 72; Litzenburg 2003, 134, a plate from this

service.

And as for Gussie Fink-Nottle, many an experienced undertaker would have been deceived by his appearance and started embalming him on sight. PG Wodehouse mezzotint, The Wounded Hussar, published London, 1776, engraved by Valentine Green (1739-1813) after George Carter (1737-94) (Author’s collection)

88


67

Punchbowl Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 11½ inches; 29cm A Chinese export porcelain punchbowl brightly enamelled in famille rose with an unusual hunting scene on the exterior, including a man standing on a cow. This is quite a late example of this type of bowl. The scene is derived from Hunting scenes much reproduced on Chinese porcelain. These were originally copied carefully from Euroean prints after artists, such as James Seymour and Thomas Burford. But their popularity meant that they were repeatedly copied and altered by the Chinese artists and other elements added, which were misunderstood. Hence the elephant added here in the centre and the charmingly surreal image of a man standing on a cow that seems to have collapsed under his weight. References: Howard 1994, p167, a milk jug with a similar elephant painted on it.

90

It was a confusion of ideas between him and one of the lions he was hunting in Kenya that had caused A. B. Spottsworth to make the obituary column. He thought the lion was dead, and the lion thought it wasn't. PG Wodehouse, Ring for Jeeves (1953) The farmer allows walkers across the field for free, but the bull charges. Sign on a Farm Gate


68

Plate Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm: A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate with a central scene of two hounds chasing a stag, the cavetto with an iron red scale pattern and the rim with panels of flowers in famille rose and bianca-sopra-bianca, reserved on a grisaille cell diaper ground.

92

References: Litzenburg 2003, p56, an identical plate; Pinto de Matos 1996, no 109.


69

Pair of Vases & Covers Qianlong period circa 1770 Dutch Market Height: 10 inches; 25.5cm The enamelling Dutch A pair of Chinese export soft paste porcelain vases and covers with appliquĂŠ flowers, with European polychrome decoration, added in the Netherlands, of four panels with European figures in landscape settings. References: HervouĂŤt & Bruneau 1986, Chapter 16.

93


70

Model of a Dragon Boat Kangxi period circa 1720 European or Chinese Market Length: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese biscuit porcelain model of a dragon boat, painted in green, yellow, and aubergine, with a double-storey pagoda on the deck with various figures. Boats were popular with the private trade, many bought by sailors; smaller models of junks, often as water droppers, are relatively common and were made well into the reign of the Yongzheng emperor, though they had all traditionally been dated to the Kangxi reign, some were found on the Ca Mau wreck, which sank around 1725. This is a large and particularly fine example of this type, well modelled with extensive detail, especially in the dragon’s head that forms the prow of the ship. The Dragon Boat Festival (Duanwu) was celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, a day supposed to be most poisonous in the calendar. The event commemorates the patriot-poet Qu Yaun (340-278), a minister to the Emperor Huai of Chu in the Warring States period (475-221 BC). He had adopted a philosophy of compromise to avoid the conflict that had torn apart China for centuries, but he was schemed against by other officals who pressured the Emperor to have him removed. He then spent some years wandering as a scholar-hermit, writing poetry. Eventually he drowned himself in the Milou River as a protest at the decadence of the Imperial Court and in despair at the prospect of invasion by the Qin. Stories relate that on hearing of his dramatic plunge the local fisherman rushed into their boats, scattering food (zongzi - glutinous rice dumplings wrapped in reed leaves) and beating drums to distract the fish from eating Qu Yuan. The modern events involve races in long boats, with drums and the eating of zongzi. References: Sargent 1991, p76, a boat model armed as a gunboat; an example formerly in the J. Pierpont Morgan Collection with three

western figures on the deck sold later at Sotheby's Monaco, 23 June

1986, lot 1054; StrĂśber 2000, p56, plate 21 a junk; The British Museum has a Ming fahua model of a ship, (Inv. No. OA 1937.7-

16.97); Cohen & Motley 2008, No 1.7, a biscuit porcelain model of a junk.

94

Into the face of the young man who sat on the terrace of the Hotel Magnifique at Cannes there had crept a look of furtive shame, the shifty, hangdog look which announces that an Englishman is about to talk French. PG Wodehouse, The Luck of the Bodkins (1935)


71

Pair of Figures Kangxi period circa 1710 European or Chinese Market Height: 10 inches; 25.5cm A pair of Chinese biscuit porcelain figures of boys standing on rock bases, painted in the famille verte palette. References: Pierson 2009, p98-9, No 142, a single example of this figure from the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, No C.12741910.

96


72

Figure Kangxi period circa 1720 European or Chinese Market Height: 14½ inches; 37cm A Chinese biscuit porcelain model of Guanyin seated on a lotus throne, painted in green, yellow, aubergine and black enamels, the figure on a hexagonal section stand with a pierced balustrade. Guanyin is the Chinese Buddhist deity equivalent to the Indian bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. He first appears in Chinese texts in the late Han as a male deity, but sometime during the Song dynasty he switches to more female characteristics and is frequently of indeterminate gender. He is the God of Compassion, his name meaning ‘listening to the Cries of the World’. He is a very popular figure in Chinese art from the Tang to the Qing, and because he represents purity, his symbolic attribute is the lotus. The pearl necklace is a symbol of royalty in Indian Buddhism and is retained in the Chinese depictions. In export art, he is often seen with a small child in an echo of the Madonna and Child of Roman Catholic imagery; the common veneration of these images in the Philippines is an example of religious syncretism. In Edo-period Japan, when Christianity was persecuted, statues of ‘Kannon’ with a child were secretly venerated by Christians as the Virgin and Child, often with a crucifix concealed inside. Some figures of Guanyin are also recorded with a crucifix and rosary around the neck.


73

Figure Group

98

Yongzheng period circa 1730-35 European or Chinese Market Height: 8½ inches; 22cm

Sargent, 1991, cites a very similar figure in eighteenth-century English Astbury-type ware from the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri, as evidence that the form was known in Europe.

A Chinese biscuit porcelain model of a horse and male rider, enamelled in green, black, yellow, aubergine and pink, on a rectangular base.

References: Similar groups are recorded in the Anthony

This figure group follows the style of earlier Kangxi-era examples of equestrian subjects. The form is derived from Ming roof tile figures, and these Qing examples may have been made as amusements for Westerners as well as for the Chinese market.

(1911), plate 93; another illustrated in Hobson 1925, plate VI;

Rothschild Collection (Krahl, 1996, p476); the Yves MalliĂŠ de

Fonfais Collection, Paris (Buerdeley, 1974, p251); the Richard Bennett Collection, London, illustrated in Gorer & Blacker

the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, a pair from the

Edwin Vogel collection; Cohen & Motley 2008, No 1.2, a

similar example with a lady rider & 1.3 and 1.5 two models with

standing grooms.


74

Pair of Maiden Candlesticks Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Height: 14½ inches; 37cm A pair of famille rose porcelain candleholders modelled as standing maidens, each perched on a dragon, the backs flattened and with apertures for wall mounting. This form is a rare adaptation of the usual type, both as a wall pocket and also the inclusion of the dragons, though the heads of these also resemble the qilin heads in some export models. The dragon is a male symbol (yang), connected to the east and the light and adopted as a symbol of imperial authority. Dragons are rare in export porcelain figures, usually appearing as attachments to other objects, such as handles on vases. The first dragon rose out of the sea, appearing before the sage Fu Xi and filling a great hole in the sky made by another monster; thus a dragon controls the weather and the seasons.

100

Like so many substantial citizens of America, he had married young and kept on marrying, springing from blonde to blonde like the chamois of the Alps leaping from crag to crag. PG Wodehouse, Summer Moonshine (1938)


75

Pair of Figures Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Height: 10ž inches; 27cm A rare pair of Chinese export porcelain figure groups of riders carrying vases, seated on Buddhistic Lions, all brightly enamelled in famille rose. These are extremely rare figures, very well modelled and with lively colouring. The riders are not Chinese but also not European, more likely from one of the many nations along the Silk Road that traded with China. References: Sargent 2012, No 105, a figure of a western man on

a similar lion, Jingdezhen white glazed porcelain; Sargent 1991, p237, No 118, a rider on a blue lion.

104


76

Figure Group Qianlong period circa 1790 European Market Height: 8 inches; 21cm A Chinese export porcelain figure of a Hehe Erxian/Liu Hai group, with two figures seated on a rock, a threelegged toad between them, in bright famille rose enamels.

This shows the two laughing boys known as hehe erxian or the Twin Immortals of Harmony. They are the patron deities of Chinese merchants, particularly of Chinese potters, and in paintings they often accompany Caishen, God of Wealth. So in this case the boy on the left has a string of cash by his head and a lotus flower, and is also an emboidment of the Immortal Liu Hai. The boy on the right has a basket containing cash. The threelegged money toad, jin chan, is below them on the rock base to complete the symbolism. References: Litzenburg 2003, p215, a similar example; Sargent 1991, No 25 a famille verte biscuit porcelain group of the twins.


77

Figure Group Jiaqing period circa 1810 European Market Height: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain figure group of two laughing figures, one carring a lotus bloom and with the toad on his shoulder, the other holding a flattened basket containing cash, all brightly enamelled in famille rose. This is a lively and entertaining figure group showing the best quality of figures that was still being produced in the early 19th century in China. The figures are the same as the previous item, the laughing boys known as hehe erxian or the Twin Immortals of Harmony, linked with Caishen, the God of Wealth. Another Daoist God of Wealth (or Luck) is Liu Hai, (sometime considered an embodiment of Caishen) who is usually accompanied by a three legged toad. Originally a politician in the Five Dynasties period, Liu Hai vanquished a demon in the form of a golden toad, in the process severing one of its legs. The toad lived in dark places and had been lured out by Liu Hai with his string of coins. Afterwards the tripodal amphibian swore fealty to Liu Hai and was able to transport him anywhere he wished. The toad also had the useful habit of vomiting up quantities of gold and silver coins - hence many Chinese shops have a toad near the door with a coin in its mouth. He is usually depicted sitting on Liu Hai’s shoulder, as here in the left hand figure. The right hand boy has a flattened basket which is slightly open to reveal a row of Chinese cash, coins with holes in them.

Boyhood, like measles, is one of those complaints which a man should catch young and have done with, for when it comes in middle life it is apt to be serious. PG Wodehouse

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78

Plate Qianlong period circa 1750 Portuguese Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial dinner plate brightly decorated with a coat of arms at the rim, the centre with emblems of feasting, and scenes of hunting and fishing on the rim. This strikingly decorated plate is one of the better known examples of Chinese armorial porcelain and is from a large service of about 200 pieces that is represented in most museum collections around the world. The arms are for a bishop, with a mitre and tassels. The service was made for Monsignor Gaspar de Saldanha e Albuquerque (b 1720) His titles and positions are listed in Castro 1988, page 105: “Rector of the University of Coimbra, Prelate of the Patriarchal Church of Lisbon, Judge, Deputy of the Board of Conscience and Orders and President of the respective Tribunal�. Gaspar was Rector of the University from 1758-67 and later Dean. He was the son of Ayres de Saldanha e Albuquerque Coutinho Matos e Noronha, Governor of Rio de Janeiro and Dona Maria Leonor de Lancastre and Moscoso, one of nine children. His brother was Manuel, 1st Count of Ega (1712-71) who was Captain-General of Madeira and Governor of India and probably facilitated the order of this service for Gaspar. He was descended from Alfonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453-1515). References: Brawer 1992, p40, a plate; Phillips 1956, pl 37 a

plate and pl 38 a painted enamel on copper cover with the same

decoration; Beurdeley 1962, cat 79; Museum of Fine Art San

Francisco, No 55.2.3, a meatdish; Pinto de Matos 1998, p190, a plate.

There is no love sincerer than the love of food. George Bernard Shaw, Man and Superman (1903)

108

detail of portrait of Manuel, brother of Gaspar (workshop of Nicolau Ferreira)


79

Fruit Plate Qianlong period circa 1775 Portuguese Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain reticulated armorial fruit plate with a central coat of arms on basket-weave moulded surface, the rim with a reticulated border, the shape copying Meissen. The arms are for Sobral of Portugal. This family rose from fairly humble origins in the reign of King Jose I and his daughter Queen Maria I, as a result of Antonio Jose da Cruz (the name Sobral was added later) a priest of the Congregation of St Philip de Nery, who greatly helped Sebastio Jose Carvalho e Mello, the future Marquis de Pombal in his rise to power. This is the fourth service of seven made for Joachim Inácio da Cruz Sobral (1725-81), a very rich merchant from Baia in Brazil. He returned to Portugal in 1768 and took over from his late brother as Chief Treasurer and the Administrator of the Lisbon Custom House and Counsellor of the Royal Household. He was clearly a successful and influential man and in 1773 was created ‘Fidalgo’ and given the Lordship of the town of Sobral. He held many titles and built the Calhariz Palace in Lisbon. He died without issue in 1781.

Joaquim Inácio da Cruz Sobral

References: Alves et al. 1998, p233 a plate; Howard & Ayers

1978, p538, a plate; Pinto de Matos, 1998, p232, a plate; Castro

1988, p140 a tureen; Veiga 1989, p281, a porringer.

Sir, I admit your general rule, That every poet is a fool. But you yourself may prove to show it, Every fool is not a poet. Alexander Pope

110


80

Pair of Chargers Kangxi period circa 1710-20 Dutch Market Diameter: 20¼ inches; 51.5cm A pair of large Chinese export porcelain chargers painted in the Chinese Imari palette of underglaze blue and overglaze iron red and gold, with a central coat of arms and an inscription above ‘PAMEN’.

112

The arms have traditionally been attributed to the Dutch family of van Overveldt, though Kroes 2007 indicates that a number of other families have similar arms with a hare. He suggests that the likely commisioners were three van Overveldt bothers Nicolaas (1691-1717), Dirk Adrianus (1692-after1723) and Jacobus (1694-1737) all based in The Hague. Only large chargers and plates are known and the meaning of the motto is not clear. References: Kroes 2007, p115, No 16, this set.


81

Pair of Plates Qianlong period circa 1740-50 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair Chinese export armorial porcelain dinner plates with a central group of coats of arms, the rim with a simple gilt shell and scroll border. This is a large service with many unusual shapes and one of the primary target pieces for any collector of Chinese armorial porcelain. It was probably made for Theodorus van Reverhorst (1706-58) who was in Batavia as a member of the VOC’s Council of Justice or his brother Adriaanus. There are two smaller services with the same arms but different borders. The surrounding coats of arms are for his eight great-grandparents. He was not a shy man: his signature has elaborate curlicues and he was clearly proud of his armigerous ancestors. The brothers were the sons of Mauritius van Reverhorst (1666-1722) a surgeon and professor of Medicine in The Hague, notable for his theory of bile circulation inspired by Harvey’s work on blood, a theory finally verified, in modified form, in the late 19th century. Several members of the surgeons guild had armorial sservices made in China including Abraham Titsingh. Theodorus left the Netherlands for Batavia in 1735 on the VOC ship Hogersmilde, the ship that carried the order of the Doctor’s Visit design to the ‘Pronk workshop’. He returned in 1753 on the Naarstigheid, presumably carrying this porcelain with him.

signature of Theodorus van Reverhorst, circa 1737 with extravagant curlicues

Central arms for van Reverhorst: Quartely, 1 & 4, Azure two keys palewise or, 2 & 3, Argent three lozenges gules 2 and 1; on an inescutcheon or, a cross ancrée gules. Crest: issuing out of a marquis’ coronet a horse’s head proper between two wings azure and or. Clockwise from top right: 1. Or three crampons sable (Schrevelius) 2. Azure a chevron between two pinecones chevronwise, in base a fleu-de-lys or (van Peene) 3. Or an anchor sable (van Groenendyck) 4. Azure three stars or (de Vroede) 5. Argent on a cross gules five escallops of the first (de Bruyn) 6. Quarterly, 1 & 4, Sable two cocks’ heads or, combed gules; 2 &3, Argent a fess bretessed gules; on an inescutcheon or a lion rampant gules (Vereyck) 7. Argent a bare tree sable crowned with three brids of the same (de Winter) 8. van Reverhorst

82

Teabowl & Saucer Qianlong period circa 1740-50 European Market Diameter of Saucer: 4 inches; 10cm A Chinese export armorial porcelain teabowl and saucer of very small size. En suite with the previous item. References: Howard 1994, p170, a covered bowl; ibid p92, a plate; Lunsingh Scheurleer1974, cats 148, 173,

274, further pieces; Howard & Ayers 1978, p400-1, for a family tree and details; Le Corbeiller 1974, p97, a

saucer dish; Kroes 2007, p. 262, 316, No 233 this service

and Nos 175-6 slightly earlier services with these arms;

a plate in the Rijksmuseum (AK-NM-13384) and

another from an earlier service with these arms (AK-

NM-13492); Jörg 1989, p258, No 103; van Reverhorst,

114

M (1696) De otu bilis circulari ejusque morbis;


83

Teabowl & Saucer Yongzheng period circa 1734 Dutch Market Diameter of Saucer: 4½ inches; 11.5cm A Chinese export porcelain teabowl and saucer with two coats of arms accollée, a crown above and a branch of orange between them. The arms are of Nassau, (quarterly with Dietz; Vianden; Catznellogen) accollée with England (quarterly England impaling Scotland; France; Ireland; Brunswick, Luneburg and Saxony). The right hand coat is for Nassau, with a Ribbon of the Garter round it, for William IV, Prince of Orange (1711-1751). He married in 1734 Anne, Princess Royale of England, daughter of King George II. This service was probably made for their marriage and ordered through the Dutch East India Company. William IV was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1726. After a threatened invasion by the French in 1747 William was invited to become first hereditary General Stadtholder of the United Provinces, a post he held until his death in 1751 when he was succeeded by his son William V, who married Princess Frederica of Prussia. His descendants are the current monarchs of The Netherlands. References: Howard 1974, p797; another example is in the British Museum;

Ibid. p699, a Chinese armorial service with the Nassau arms accollée with Prussia; Kroes 2007, p499-500, No 422; another teabowl and saucer in the

Victoria & Albert Museum, London, No 3719-1901 illustrated in Kerr & Mengoni 2011, p49.

detail of portrait of William IV, Prince of Orange by Johann Valentin Tischbein

116

detail of print by J Jeffreys, showing both William IV and Anne, Princess Royal, with their combined arms between them.


84

Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1740-43 Dutch/Batavian Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A rare armorial dinner plate with a central coat of arms and the rim with an elaborate design of shell-scrolls. These arms were formerly attributed to the Snoeck family of Amsterdam but Jochem Kroes has attributed them to Elias Guillot (1695-1743) who was governor of the Coromandel Coast 1733-7 and died in Batavia. The Guillot family were originally from Bordeaux, where Elias was born. They moved to Amsterdam and several members of the family became wealthy merchants. Elias went to the Indies in 1714 as a junior merchant and master of the warehouse in Masulipatnam in 1715. He moved through the Coromandel Coast and by 1730 was a senior merchant, promoted to Governor in 1733. In 1737 he moved to Batavia where he probably ordered this service from Canton. He died unmarried in Batvia in 1743 and left his estate to various relations in London and Amsterdam. The border is striking and also known on blue and white plates with scenes of tea processing. Howard & Ayers 1978 suggest that the border may have been commissioned specifically for the tea processing plates and then used for this service too. As a merchant Guillot would have handled tea, so it is possible that he also ordered the tea processing series. The Pignatelli armorial service has a similar border and Le Corbeiller 1974 suggests the influence of Rouen faience. References: Kroes 2007, p324, No 242 with illustrations also of a

Japanese plate and a Samson copy; Howard and Ayers 1978 p396,

No 393 an example of this plate and also a later Japanese dish with the same arms; Le Corbeiller (1974) p103 two tea processing plates; Phillips 1956, p71 Plate 5 a plate from the Helena Woolworth McCann collection, arms attributed to Snoeck; Crosby Forbes (1982) a

dinner plate with the same border and a central scene of two cock-

erels, peonies and rocks; Sargent 2012, p249, No 124, plate with

roosters and the same border as this; Howard 1994, p85, a plate from

the Pignatelli armorial service which has similar border to this one; Cohen & Cohen 2015, No 85, a slightly larger example.

You should never say bad things about the dead, only good‌ Joan Crawford is dead. Good. Bette Davis, 1977

118


85

Pair of Beakers Qianlong period circa 1750 Italian Market Height: 3 inches; 7.5cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain armorial beakers, with a brightly painted coat of arms and a pink and gilt rococo scroll border at the rim. This is a well known service, with a distinctive decoration that is relatively rare and sought after by armorial collectors. There are only about 50 services of Chinese export porcelain with identified Italian arms. The arms are for Pignatelli. This service was made for a Prince Pignatelli of Naples. The Pignatelli family is large and has numerous collateral branches. This service was possibly made for a son of Nicolo II Pignatelli (1648-1730) 7th Marquis of Valle Oaxaca, 5th Prince of Noja, 8th Duke of Monteleone and his wife Giovanna. Other members of the family included Antonio Pignatelli, elected Pope Innocent XII in 1691 and Cardinal Domenico Pignatelli di Belmonte. References: Museum of Fine Art San Francisco, No 1982.75.26, a plate; Howard 1994, p85, a plate from this service.

120

marble cartouche from the Cathedral de Lecce, Naples, with the arms of Pignatelli accollĂŠe with Pinelli.


86

Pair of Plates Yongzheng period circa 1735 Italian Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain dinner plates painted with a coat of arms and a monogram to the rim, between pink and turquoise diaper bands, the centre with a bee in a cartouche made from butterfly wings. The arms are for Grimaldi di Castro, though the colours appear incorrect as the ‘argent’ has been painted with silver that has now turned black. The Grimaldi family originated from Genoa and were granted the Seigneurie of Monaco in 1331. In 1731 Prince James I succeeded his wife, Princess Louise Hyppolite, who had only just succeeded her father Prince Antoine I in the same year. By 1733 James had moved to the comfort of a life in Paris, leaving the title to his thirteen year old son, Prince Honoré III, who reigned for sixty years. These were most likely made for him at the start of his reign. References: Howard 1994, p77, Cat 59, a plate; Crosby-

Forbes 1982, p45, a plate; Alves et al. 1998, a plate; Cohen

& Cohen 2002, No 17, a plate.

Honoré III by JM Wirsch

122

All fungi are edible. Some fungi are only edible once. Terry Pratchett


87

Pair of Plates Qianlong period circa 1740-50 Danish Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain dinner plates with a marriage double shield, with monograms AC & ME, with Neptune and Venus, the rim with blue and gilt flowers. It is not known who these were made for but they resemble similar examples made for the Danish market.. References: Brawer 1992, p45, a plate in the Chazen Museum in

Madison, Wisconsin; Phillips 1956, pl 41, a plate.

124


88

Pair of Chargers Yongzheng/Qianlong period circa 1735-40 Belgian Market Diameter: 12¾ inches; 32.5cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain armorial chargers with a central pair of arms accollée, the rim with blue enamel branches of flowers. The arms are for the Belgian families Charlé accollée de Nollet. This was made for Paul Charlé (d1741) who married in 1697 Isabell de Nollet (d1725). They lived in Anvers and Amsterdam and their grandson Alexandre Thédore Joseph was created Baron de Waspick in 1830. Paul worked in Spain, did business with the Americas and was later involved wih the Compagnie d’Ostende. References: Cogels 2015, p80-81, three services with these arms including this one; Kroes 2007, 243, No 155, a plate

from this service.


89

Pair of Fruit Plates Qianlong period circa 1785 Russian Market Diameter: 7½ inches; 19cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain armorial small fruit plates with a reticulated border decorated in famille rose, with the central arms of Russia in sepia, and a border of ribbon and flowers. This is the second of three services known with the arms of Russia, one from about 1750-70 (dating uncertain) and a third one that is early 19th century. This one was ordered for Catherine the Great, who also collected many porcelain services from European factories. She ordered two services from Wedgwood, the 'Husk' service in 1770 and the 'Frog' service (some stylistic similarities to this one) for her Palace of Grenouillère at Tsarsköe Selo, St Petersburg, in 1773 which suggests that this Chinese service was probably ordered through the English East India Company as Russia had very limited direct trade with China at this date. The central image is the Arms of Russia which has a double headed eagle on whose breast is the arms of Moscow, a red shield with St George slaying the dragon. Around this is a collar for the Order of St Andrew, the highest order of chivalry in Russia. References: porcelain from this service of 1785: Howard & Ayers 1978, Vol II, p455, No 461, a dinner plate; a tureen and stand sold at Christie’s in 1964; a fruit plate exhibited at The China Institute, New York, 1973-4 (Cat 54); Coleman Brawer 1992, p53, pl29; porcelain from the earlier service: Hervouet & Bruneau 1986, p332. No 14.23, a dinner plate; Beurdeley 1962, p199, cat 210, a dinner plate from the Pierre Blazy Collection; Le Corbeiller 1974, pp110-112, a dinner plate from the earlier service and a fruit plate from this service, fig 60; Arapova & Menshikova et al. 2003, Cat 62 a dinner plate; a similar plate in the Metropolitan Museum bears the inventory mark of Gotchina, the summer palace of the empress.

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Catherine the Great is one of the most interesting and dominant figures of the eighteenth century. She was born Sophia Augusta Fredericka of Anhalt-Zerbst, 1729, in Stettin (now in Poland) and was the daughter of Prince Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst and Princess Johanna Holstein-Gottorp. Johanna's brother Karl August had been betrothed to Elizabeth Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great of Russia, but he had died of smallpox just before the wedding. In 1741 Elizabeth Petrovna seized the Russian throne and declared her nephew Peter Ulrich Holstein-Gottorp (1728-1762) as her heir. She invited the young Sophia to marry Peter (who was her second cousin) in 1744. Sophia was required to convert from Lutheranism to the Russian Orthodox Church and took the new name Catherine. Peter was very immature physically and mentally and the marriage was not consummated for some while though eventually a son Paul was born in 1754. Peter succeeded as Tsar Peter III in January 1762 but was removed in a coup in July that year, with Catherine's backing, and he was then killed in a supposedly drunken brawl. Catherine immediately took control and reigned as Catherine II for the next thirty four years always conscious of establishing the legitimacy of her rule, one reason for ordering the services with the Arms of Russia. Catherine is famous for her voracious appetite for handsome and intelligent young men and she had many lovers who were well rewarded even after they had been replaced in the royal bedchamber. They included: Gregory Potemkin, highly intelligent and an advisor for many years who selected most of her lovers; Gregory Orlov, who fathered a child with her, (Alexei Bobrinsky), and whose brother Alexis Orlov was instrumental in the killing of Peter III; Ivan RimskyKorsakov, ancestor of the composer, and lastly Plato Zubov, some forty years her junior. Such activity in a male monarch of the period would have been simply regarded as virility. One lover Stanislaw Poniatowski, by whom she had a daughter, Anna, she made King of Poland in 1764. Other more lurid tales of her appetites have no basis in fact and were most likely spread by her anti-monarchist enemies in France after she died. She was succeeded by her son Tsar Paul I, who she detested and who she hinted was not fathered by Peter III but rather by her first lover Serge Saltuikov. She added almost 200,000 square miles to Russia during her reign, including the Ukraine and the Crimea (1783) and waged successful campaigns against the Ottoman Empire and her cousin Gustav III of Sweden. She aimed to rule as an enlightened despot and she read widely and corresponded with the main figures of the French enlightenment (at the Russian Court French was the main language spoken) including Voltaire, Diderot and D'Alembert, though she strongly opposed the French revolution and declared six weeks of mourning in Russia after the execution of Marie-Antoinette. Upon her accession in 1762 she published a manifesto inviting foreigners to move to Russia, even offering to help pay with relocation costs. She encouraged the studies of economics and science, she wrote a manual for the education of children based on the ideas of John Locke and the Hermitage was founded with her personal collection of art and other objects. Voltaire called her the Semiramis of Russia after the Babylonian Queen. She died from a stroke at the age of 67 in November 1796, the same year that the elderly Chinese Emperor Qianlong abdicated in favour of his son Jiaqing.


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Plate Qianlong period circa 1770 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial octagonal dinner plate with a central coat of arms supported by a lion and a unicorn, the cavetto with a chain border, the rim with flower festoons. These are the Royal Ducal arms for Prince William Henry, 1st Duke of Goucester and Edinburgh, Earl of Connaught, KG PC FRS (1743-1805). William was granted use of the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of five points, the centre bearing a fleur-de-lys azure, the other points each bearing a cross gules. He was the third son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, son of King George II. His eldest brother became King George III in 1760. He secretly married Maria Walpole, the Dowager Countess of Waldegrave, an illegitimate granddaughter of Sir Robert Walpole and they had three children none of whom had issue surviving. He had an illegitimate daughter, Louisa Maria, by his mistress Lady Almeria Carpenter

detail of portrait of William Henry, circa 1780, attributed to Zoffany

References: Howard 1974, p616, a large jug and a fruit plate from

this service.

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The arms are quarterly 1. England and Scotland impaled, 2. France, 3. Ireland, 4. Tierced Brunswick, Luneburg and Saxony. It is surrounded by the Ribbon of the Garter. Significantly there is a white label of cadency, with five points, the centre with a blue fleur-de-lys and the outer four with the cross of St George. This special cadency label was awarded personally to William Henry.


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Cup & Saucer Qianlong period circa 1760 English Market Diameter of Saucer; 4¾ inches; 12cm A Chinese export porcelain cup and saucer with the an elaborate coat of arms containig a double headed eagle and the motto ‘Religion Liberty Loyalty’. This rare coat of arms is for the Flexman family. It was formerly attributed to the AngloPrussian Society (Howard 1974) but corrected in Howard 2003. It is not known who ordered the service but it might have been the Presbyterian minister Roger Flexman (1708-95), born in Devon, who published several sermons but eventually lost his faith. He was a Constitutional Historian and worked on the indexing of the journals of the house of Commons. He later became librarian in Dr Williams’s Library, and worked on the index of Samuel Johnson’s The Rambler. References: Howard 1974, p560, a milk jug, with the earlier attribution of the arms; Howard 2003, index, new

attribution to Flexman.

These are the famed insignia of my sires, Which in their proper colour you may see; Not bribes, as is the fashion in these days, But virtue, raised them to nobility. John Giles Knöringen (1565), written below his coat of arms

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Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm Provenance: ex-collection Mrs Vincent Astor

Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 6½ inches; 16.5cm

Pair of Soup Plates

A pair of Chinese export porcelain octagonal soup plates with a central monogram surmounted by a lion crest, the rim with swags of flowers. The initials appear to read WAS with the central A for the family name and the W & S for the first names of a couple, though they have not been identified. The crest is carried by a number of families including de Blois of Ireland.

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Pair of Deep Fruit Plates

A pair of Chinese export porcelain deep fruit dishes, with a floral monogram and a coat of arms incorporating an anchor. The arms have not been identified and may be invented for a man of maritime activity. The style is similar to a Swedish design using the initials of Carl Linnaeus in a similar manner.


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Charger Qianlong period circa 1740 English Market Diameter: 15 inches; 38cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial charger with a crest at the rim, the centre with blue enamelled peony, the riim with branches of flowers and fruit on a bianca-sopra-bianca floral ground.

The crest of a cockatrice between two wings above a ducal coronet is similar to those borne by a number of families and the source of this service remains unidentified. Howard says it is closest to Masters of Ewdon in Shropshire, possibly for a relative of Sir Harcourt Masters, a director of the South Sea Company. References: Howard 1974, p310, a plate from the Anthony du Boulay collection


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Teapot Stand Kangxi period circa 1720-22 English Market Diameter: 5½ inches; 14cm A Chinese export porcelain hexagonal teapot stand with a central coat of arms, decorated in iron red and gold with touches of blue, green yellow, black and some pink enamel. The Motto is in Italian: ‘Seguitando si guinge’ (By following it, you go along). This is one of the earliest recorded uses of the pink enamel that gave its name to the famille rose palette. This service was made for Sir John Lambert (1666-1723) an English merchant, born of French protestant parents (John Lambert of the Isle of Ré and Marie le Fevre). He was educated in England and married Madeleine Beuzelin of Rouen. He was a Director of the South Sea Company and was created a baronet in 1711 after loaning large sums of money to the British Treasury. The badge of the ‘red hand of Ulster’ denotes the baronetcy. He was involved in much of the fraudulent activity that resulted in the collapse of the South Sea Company in late 1720, and Lambert lost most of his wealth in that crash. So this service must have been ordered and paid for before then, suggesting the earliest date for the use of the pink enamel. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p407, a plate from this

service; Howard 1974, p206, a tazza; Sotheby’s London,

November 1968 (almost exactly 50 years ago) a hexagonal teapot

stand sold for £60; Le Corbeiller 1974, p46, an octagonal dish which is also illustrated in Tudor Craig 1925, p70; Bullivant Collection, Phillips, March 1988, lot 87, a tankard.

He that would learn without the aid of books Draws water in a sieve from running brooks. John Seyringer, Austrian Lawyer, 1697

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Pair of Cups Yongzheng period circa 1723 European Market Height: 3 inches; 7.5cm

If you have nothing good to say about someone, come sit next to me. attr. Alice Roosevelt Longworth (daughter of Pres Teddy Roosevelt)

A pair of Chinese export porcelain double handled cups with a coat of arms and an iron red gilt border at the rim. The arms are for Townsend impaling Harrison. The motto is for Townsend: ‘Haec Generi Incrementi Fides’ ("Faith has bestowed these honours on the family"). This is one of the earliest services of six made for Charles Townsend (1700-64), who became Lord Lynn in 1723 and married Audrey (Etheldreda) Harrison, sole heiress of Edward Harrison of Balls Park, an administrator who had been President of Madras from 1711-17. It was probably Harrison who ordered much of this porcelain Charles became the 3rd Viscount Townsend in 1738 on the death of his father. He was educated at Eton and King’s College, Cambridge, served briefly as MP for Great Yarmouth and entered the Lords in 1723, summoned using his father’s Barony in a special writ of acceleration. His father was known as ‘Turnip Townsend’ because of his interest in agriculture, particularly the cultivation of turnips, which he spoke about at length in Parliament. References: Howard 1974, p204, this service - and mention

of a total of six services made with these arms; Bullivant Collection, Phillips, March 1988, lot 75, four hexagonal

dishes from this service (£15,000).

Charles Townsend by Thomas Hudson (detail)

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Etheldreda Harrison by Jean-Baptiste van Loo (detail)


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Charger Yongzheng period circa 1723 English Market Diameter: 14¼ inches; 36cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial charger with the coat of arms at the rim, the centre with a vase of flowers in famille verte enamels, the cavetto and rim with several borders in iron red and gilt. The arms are for Fazakerley of Kirkby, near Liverpool. Lancashire. The arms of the main branch of the family, Fazakerley of Fazakerley, are very different. These arms were not formally Registered at the College of Arms until 1720 for William Fazakerley of Kirkby. This rare service was ordered by William Fazakerley who was a supercargo in the East India Company and in Canton from 1723. His account for some of this period has survived: He leaves London in December 1722, as Chief Supercargo for a fleet of four ships (the Duke of Cambridge, the Hartford, the Princess Anne and the Mountague). The ships are separated on the west coast of Africa but reunite on reaching Cape of Good Hope in March 1723, then sail on to Java by June, arriving at the Boca Tygris in midJuly. On 19 July he transfers to the ‘Factory’ (English Hong) on the Canton waterfront. On 1st September 1723, a contract is agreed with the merchant Suqua for china-ware, though it is not clear if this was part of that contract. He was mainly dealing with purchasing Bohea tea and was concerned at being cheated with old leaf mixed with new. He notes with satisfaction that the Ostend Company have fared much worse with inferior tea. On 20 October he writes that news was received that one of the boats transferring China-ware to the Hartford was sunk; “we were afraid of some Damage seeing several of the chests turn’d upside down”. However it seems they were able to recover most of it. Had he just ordered some of this armorial porcelain from Suqua it would have taken much longer to reach him as the order would, of course, had to go all the way to Jingdezhen, and then the porcelain brought back the 500 miles to Canton. On 10 January 1724 he is in negotiation with the Hoppo for a pilot to oversee their departure but the Hoppo has been made aware of a handsome clock on one

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of the ships that he would like to send to the Emperor as a present. The Hoppo remains intransigent and the clock is duly surrendered to prevent “great delays we could not afford”. By this time, his armorial porcelain could have arrived from Canton and, when they leave on the 21st January, be packed with Fazakerley’s private goods on board ship. The account ends at sea. Fazakerley returned to Canton and by 1728 was in charge of the English trade there. His association with Suaqua continued, the latter having been in control of the green tea and woven silk trades for some years. In 1730 Fazakerley awarded him two thirds of the EIC contracts. However a rival of Suqua, Ton Hunqua, reported to the EIC in London that Fazakerley, James Naish and Suqua had colluded to defraud the Company. Suqua was removed and Ton Hunqua given the main trade. Naish and Fazakerley were subject to an investigation. In 1732 Ton Hunqua was arrested by the new Hoppo, an ally of Sunqua. The Company resisted this, removed the Hoppo and restored Ton Hunqua, arresting Sunqua. However by 1735 when a Royal Commission had arrived in Canton to complete the fraud investigation into Fazakerley, nobody, not even Ton Hunqua would testify. Sunqua was released and resumed his trade. Fazakerley had returned to London by then and the case was never proved. It is not clear what happened to William after that but he seems not to have married and the Fazakerley property in Kirkby had been sold. It is likely that he left his estate to his cousin Nicholas Fazakerley MP for Preston, who died in 1767 and who ordered a service which had the original Fazakerley arms quartered with these arms with the three heads. Nicholas married Ann Lutwyche whose arms are impaled (see Howard 1974, p352, see image below). References: Litzenburg 2003, p88, a dish the same as this;

Howard 1974, p352; Howard 1994, cat 28 & 268, two services with the same design but

different arms; Howard 1997,

cat 117; Howard 2003, p147,

this service and similar one

with just the crest of a swan at the rim, also for Fazakerley.

Chong 1997, pp46, 61, 137.


98 Dinner Plate Qianlong period circa 1743 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm An armorial dinner plate very ornately decorated in rich famille rose enamels in rococo style, the central coat of arms surrounded by elaborate gilt scroll and shell framing and rouge de fer and white mantling, with two horses above a waterfall, all within a scalloped frame, the rim border having sprays of European flowers and four panels with monograms and crests. This is the most famous of all the Chinese Export Armorial services. The whole design is almost overpowering and has not a trace of Chinese influence. The original artwork is believed to have been painted by Arthur Devis Sr. (1711-87) and still survives. The arms are for Leake Okeover Esq of Okeover near Ashbourn, Derbyshire. Properly they are, on the dexter half, clockwise from top left: Okeover quartering Byrmingham, Pettus, and Leake impaling, on the sinister half, Nichol. The crest above the arms is an oak tree on a green mound and the rim crest is a dragon on a ducal coronet, while the monogram is LMO. The service was ordered by Leake Okeover in about 1738 and two deliveries were made: in 1740 (70 plates and 30 dishes) by Ralph Congreve, costing ÂŁ99 11s 10d; and in 1743 from Joseph Congreve, commander of the ship Prislowe, a further 50 plates and four large dishes. The cost of roughly ÂŁ1 per piece was very high and much more than usual for armorial services, reflecting the high detail and craftsmanship. In armorial porcelain this service has never been equalled for quality. Only plates and large dishes are known. Leake Okeover was the son of Thomas Okeover and Catherine Leake and was born in 1702. He married in 1730 Mary, daughter of John Nichol but died without heir in 1765, a year after his wife. He moved to the Tudor House at Okeover after his marriage and in 1747 built an extensive new house there. His ancestral estates at Okeover, first recorded in the possession of Ormas Acover in 1100, are still in the family having passed through cousins. Much of this service was sold in 1975 by Sir Ian Walker-Okeover Bt.

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Leake Okeover (1702-1765)

Okeover Hall 1686 (detail)

Leake Okeover and Mary Nichol in profile by Joseph Wilton, 1766 References: Howard 1974, frontispiece and p398; Howard

1994, p80, No 63; Howard & Ayers 1978, p413-5; Howard

1997, p57, including illustration of the original design;

Gordon 1979, p33, No13; examples can be found in the

Victoria and Albert Museum, London; The British Museum;

The Peabody Essex Museum, Salem and the New Orleans Museum of Fine Art.


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Soup Plate Yongzheng period circa 1733 Scottish Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain soup plate painted with an elaborate coat of arms, the rim with gilt floral sprays This was made for James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Hamilton and 2nd Duke of Brandon KT FRS (1703-1743). He married three times and was made a Knight of the Order of the Thistle in 1726 so this was made after that but before his third marriage to Anne Spencer in 1737. He held the office of a Lord of the Bedchamber, 1727-1733, and was one of the first Governors of the Foundling Museum in 1739. His widow married Richard Savage Nassau. James was the son of Lt.-Gen. James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton and Elizabeth Gerard. He was educated at Winchester College and Christ Church, Oxford. He married, firstly, Lady Anne Cochrane, daughter of John Campbell Cochrane, 4th Earl of Dundonald in 1723. He then married Elizabeth Strangways, daughter of Thomas Strangways, in 1727. His third wife was Anne Spencer in 1737. He gained the rank of Captain General in 1724 in the service of the Royal Company of Archers and died of palsy in 1743. He seems to have had charitable instincts and was one of the first Governors of the Foundling Hospital in 1739. He employed the architect William Adam on various projects including the hunting lodge at Châtelherault. A passage in the 1st Earl of Egmont's diary in 1734 does not give a favourable picture of his character, or any rate of his reputation. “The Duke of Hamilton has embarked with the Jacobite party, but having secretly offered to be with the Court if the King will make him a hereditary English Peer, the Jacobites, who have learned this, have renounced him, as a man unsettled, but all for his own interests. The King recalled him from Rome, where he was too busy with the Pretender's party ... yet at his return the King made him Lord of the Bedchamber, which place he slighted, though kept open a year for him." Tha family seat was Hamilton Palace, the grandest stately home in Britain with an art collection to rival the Royal Collection. Sadly by 1921 it had fallen into disrepair with the contents sold, It was demolished in 1927. References: Howard 2003, p265.

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detail from a portrait of James Hamilton by William Hoare

Hamilton Palace, 1916


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Pair of Plates Yongzheng, circa 1730 English Market Diameter: 9¾ inches; 24.7cm A pair of hexagonal dinner plates with a central armorial with elaborate mantling, the cavetto with a double gilt spear border and the rim with six panels, five of peony and the sixth with a crest of an arm holding flowers, all reserved on a ground of iron red cell diaper. The arms are: Jephson: Azure a fess embattled or between three cocks’ head erased argent impaling Chase: Gules, four crosses patonce argent, on a canton azure, a lion passant or; Crest: arm holding a pansy (Jephson) This service was ordered for the marriage of William Jephson a wealthy barrister of Lincoln’s Inn who married Hannah Chase of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire. The hexagonal shape and the finely detailed iron red diapering are unusual and with the ample mantling this is one of the most sought after examples of early English armorials on Chinese export porcelain. Hannah Chase was the aunt of Sir Richard Chase who, ten years later, ordered his own service which echoed the design of this in its diapering (see the next item in this catalogue). William Jephson was born circa 1695 the son of Alexander and Priscilla in Stepney, London. The Jephson family was originally from Froyle, Hampshire but had a significant branch in Ireland including Colonel William Jephson MP (1615-1659) who served with Murrough O’Brien (Lord Inchiquin) in the daring relief of Castle Rathbarry, 1642. His relative Colonel Alexander Jephson was a ringleader of Thomas Blood’s plot to take Dublin Castle in 1663 (the same Blood who later stole the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London). Alexander’s father, Sir John Jephson lived at Mallow Castle and it was said of him that 'his love of pleasure was greater than his fortune' so he fell into debt. One night a gentleman appeared unannounced and, putting a large bag of gold on the table, asked Jephson if he would like to be free of debt. Jephson eagerly responded and the gentleman produced a white rat and said that he could have the gold, provided that he agree to have the rat with

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him at all meal times, sitting on the chair to his right. Eventually after some years he tired of his rodent companion and dismissed him. Immediately the gentleman appeared and whisked Jephson away out of the window. It is said that ever since a white rat will appear before a family member dies. This colourful and charismatic family also included William Jephson MP for East Grinstead and Secretary to the Lords of the Treasury under Charles II, and Robert Jephson (1736-1803) the poet and dramatist whose nephew, Robert, was poet laureate to the ViceRegal Court in Blackrock until one day caught mimicking the Marquis of Buckingham in a mirror and summarily sacked. Arthur Mounteney Jephson was an explorer who accompanied Henry Morton Stanley in Africa, writing very frank diaries which were later published. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p409, a plate; Howard 1974,

p259, this service; Bullivant Collection, Phillips, March 1988,

lot 167, four plates

Mallow Castle, Ireland


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Pair of Plates

Qianlong, circa 1745-50 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain armorial dinner plates with a central armorial and the rim with a brightly enamelled diaper ground. Arms of Chase: Gules four crosses patonce argent, on a canton azure a lion passant or. (On these plates it is a blue lion on a gold ground which is incorrect) Crest: a lion rampant sable langued gules holding between the paws a cross patonce or This service was ordered by Sir Richard Chase (17201788) of Much Hadham in Hertfordshire, the son of a wealthy Ironmonger from Gracechurch Street in London, who had bought a large Elizabethan House in Much Hadham called ‘The Lordship’. He also held significant land in Llanddewi in Wales. A good example of the rise of the merchant classes in the eighteenth century, Sir Richard was Sheriff of Essex in 1744 and Sheriff of Hertfordshire in 1745. He stipulated in his will that he should be buried outside the West window of the church and that the grave merely be covered in turf. The resultant mound is still visible today. The design of the cell diaper echoes that on the earlier service ordered by his aunt Hannah Chase (see the previous item). The plates in the later service were octagonal rather than hexagonal. This unusual service was originally believed to have belonged to Judge Samuel Chase, who was a signatory of the American Declaration of Independence. He is known to have owned an armorial service but this has now been shown to be the one in the American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum in New York and which bears his aunt’s arms (Towneley) which the Judge used for his own. Many members of the family settled in the US including Aquila Chase, a seventeenth century inhabitant of Newbury, Massachusetts, whose descendant has recently become HRH the Duchess of Sussex, References: Le Corbeiller 1974, p61, a plate from this service; Howard 1974, p259, this service; Howard 1994, p95, No 86, a plate; Bullivant Collection, Phillips, March 1988, lot 168, four plates; Cohen & Cohen 2007, No 36, a pair of armorial candlesticks from this service.

candlesticks from this service (Cohen & Cohen)

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102

Plate Qianlong period circa 1755-60 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial dinner plate with a central coat of arms, the cavetto with a gilt chain border and the rim with scattered flowers. The arms are of Coggan with Blackburn in pretence impaling Stephens, drawn directly from a bookplate, an example of which is in the Franks collection (no 6299). The bookplate has the name Charles Thomas Coggan. Coggan (1729-1802) must have

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ordered this service. His will, proved in 1802, lists him as of East India House, City of London and he is listed as a Clerke to the Commitee of Shipping in the EEIC in 1794. He married firstly in 1748 Sarah Blackburne and secondly in 1760 Martha Steevens by whom he had a daughter Mary. It is unusual to have included both wives’ arms in this way. References: Howard 1974, p556, a plate and a pair of salts;


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Plate Yongzheng period circa 1735 English or Irish Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial dinner plate wih a central coat of arms in a lozenge for lady, the rim with famille rose flowers and bands of diaper. The arms are for Izod from Chapelizod, a village near the east coast of Ireland, Izod is derived from Iseult or Isolde, from the Arthuran legends of Tristan and Isolde. It is not known who would have ordered this service. The Izod family history is unclear too. The records, many inconsistent, show two branches of the Izod family in Britain, one in Gloucestershire going back to the sixteenth century (who by tradition arrived from Ireland) and the other in Ireland with records from the seventeenth century. A protestant family originally from France, it looks most likely that

they settled in England and by the seventeenth century some were Rectors of Stanton including Henry Izod (1658-1728). Henry’s brother or uncle, Richard Izod, a Cromwellian soldier, was granted land in Ireland and moved there. His son Lionel (1689-1742) married an heiress Elizabeth Cochrane (1702-1743) who inherited much land at Grovebeg, part of which became Chapel Izod, as the place is now known. Lionel’s son William (1707-1789) built a fine house there in 1748 (now a ruin). William’s brother Kevan (Sheriff of Cork in 1753) had a daughter Elizabeth, who was the sole heiress of William. In 1773 she married Lorenzo Nickson and they had a son (born 1782) who changed his surname, becoming William Nickson-Izod, and who inherited the estates eventually. So the heiress with these arms who might have ordered these plates was Elizabeth (Howard 1994). Although her birth date is not known, to have been of child bearing age in 1782 she cannot have been born much before 1740, (and really the enamelling on this service puts it clearly in the Yongzheng period!) which would mean that the service was ordered at her birth. It’s also possible that it was ordered for an older sister or for a daughter of William’s who did not survive.

References: Howard 1974, p237.


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Soup Plate Qianlong period circa 1745 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial soup plate with a central coat of arms surrounded by brightly enamelled flags, the rim with landscape panels and sprays of gilt fruit and flowers. This rare plate is one of about five plates recorded, most in Dutch musuems including the Rijksmuseum. The arms have been attributed to the Ver Huell of Doetinchen in Eastern Gelderland, though they are not quite the same and it is not clear why they have

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such extravagant mantling. Lunsingh Sheurleer 1974 illustrates the plate from the Rijskmuseum, which he dates to 1785 and attributes the order to Christiaan Anthonie Verhuell, a sea-captain who was in Canton 1784-5. However the enamels and style suggest a much earlier date. Kroes discussses this and suggests a possible attribution to the Brull family of ’s-Hertogenbosch and Maastricht, whose arms are also similar and whose family member Jan Abraham Brul was a VOC assistant in the East Indies from 1739-50. The answer remains to be uncovered. References: Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, plate 271, the plate from

the Rijskmuseum which he dates to 1785 and attributes the

order to Christiaan Anthonie Verhuell, a sea-captain who was

in Canton 1784-5; Kroes 2007, p224, No 135, a plate.


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Pair of Sauceboats Qianlong period circa 1755 Scottish Market Length: 9½ inches; 24cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain armorial sauceboats with a gilt chain border, flowers and butterflies. The accollée arms are Ross of Balnagowan with either Aylmer or Porterfield or Portester but Howard says that the sinister coat is mistaken. It looks Scottish from the saltire and the ravens. The motto: ‘Nobilis est ira leonis’ is normally associated wih the Clan Stuart of Bute. References: Howard 1974, p563, a sauceboat identical to one of

these.


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Plate Jiaqing period circa 1806 Scottish Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial dinner plate with a central medallion of a seated classical figure next to a coat of arms, surrounded by a rope and anchors, the rim with four panels showing stylised images of the Four Continents. The arms are for Ker with Martin in pretence, probably made for William Ker (1775- ) of Gateshaw, Roxburgh, son of Gilbert Ker and Margaret Hood, who married his first cousin Jane Martin (1785- ), daughter of Ellis Martin and Elizabeth Ker, Gilbert’s sister. They married in Leith on 21 October 1806. The traditional dating for this service has been circa 1790 but it cannot be much earlier than 1806 though possibly a lengthy betrothal might push it a little earlier. Alternatively it has been

suggested that it might have been made for Jane’s parents who married in 1768, which is too early for the style and has the ‘in pretence’ the wrong way round. Gilbert’s brother Robert was a Lt-Colonel in the EICS and another of Gilbert’s sisters, Essex Ker, was married to a Captain Turner in the EIC, either of whom might have assisted with the order of this porcelain. Of William’s brothers, John was a Lieutenant in the 19th Regiment and died in Ceylon, George was in the Navy and Thomas was a merchant who died in Jamaica. The central figure holding the shield is Hope, who appears on other late 18th century amorials and pseudoarmorials for the American market. The concept of the ‘Four Parts’ of the world goes back to antiquity. Some early maps from the 8th century have the world as an island divided into four parts and later the iconology of these four parts was developed, especially in Cesare Ripa’s Iconologia (1593). By the late 18th century these had long been a popular series of images and many variations of them were produced. The precise print sources for the four images on this service have not been found. Here America has a bear and a tobacco pipe or tomahawk, Africa has an elephant and crocodile, Europe has a cap of liberty and olive branch with ships in the background, while Asia has a parasol, camel, pyramids and a pagoda in the distance. Given the dispersal of William Ker’s family to the corners of the globe, these images are entirely appropriate. References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p435, a plate and basket stand; Litzenburg 2003, p133, a warming plate; Tudor Craig 1925, p40, a pair of

chestnut baskets and a large basin; Howard 1994, p101, a plate; Lange 2005, p219, a plate; The Scots Magazine, Volume 68 (1806), p806, marriage notice

for William Ker and Jane Martin.

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Bowl Jiaqing period circa 1806 Scottish Market Diameter: 4¼ inches; 11cm En suite with the previous item.

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Set of three Baskets & Stands Qianlong period circa 1770 English Market Length of Stands: 10¾ inches; 27cm/ 9¼ inches; 23.5cm/ 8 inches; 20cm A graduated set of three Chinese export porcelain armorial reticulated fruit baskets and stands, with a central armorial surrounded by four insects and floral swags, the rim with a chain border. The arms are for Piggott (Per fess ermines and sable three pickaxes counterchanged) quartering Pelling (Per fess azure and argent three pelicans in their piety counterchanged) and Pepper (Gules three demi lions or - and this should also have a chevron argent with three sickles sable) with Paynton (Sable on a cross engrailed or five lozenges gules) in pretence. The motto: Labore et Virtute. The service was ordered by Francis Pigott who married Anne, daughter of Richard Paynton (d1749) of Banbury House. The ‘in pretence’ arms here denote that Anne was an heiress. His descent: 1. Francis Pigott (1666-1704) m (1688) Anne Pelling (d1755) 2. John Pigott (1690-1762) m Isabella Gillery (d1754) 3. Francis Pigott (1732-90) m (1770) Anne Dolly Paynton The Pelling and Paynton heiresses are shown but the other quartering is not certain - the arms are close to

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Pepper but no marriage with a Pepper has been found. It could be for Gillery. Isabella was the daughter and heiress of Thomas Gillery of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, an officer in the army of King William, who served in Ireland in 1691 as major to the Prince of Hesse's brigade, when the prince lay ill of wounds received at the battle of Aghrim, the command having devolved on Lord Cutts. Thomas was also wounded, and had a horse shot under him. His arms have not been found but could explain the third quartering. Francis was educated at Eton College, admitted to the Middle Temple in 1754 and married Anne Paynton about 1770, having a son Paynton. His grandson Gillery Pigott (1813-75) was a Liberal MP for Reading. His grandfather Francis (1666-1704) was a noted composer, organist and an associate of Henry Purcell, who he succeeded as organist at the Chapel Royal, St George’s, Windsor. His anthem I Was Glad was sung at the Coronation of Queen Anne in 1702. References: Howard 2002, p446 this service and the mention

of a bookplate in the Franks Collection (23614) that has identical quarterings and coat in pretence, although of

slightly different style, and is engraved 'Francis Pigott Esq’.


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Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1755 English Market Length: 7½ inches; 19cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial teapot and cover with a coat of arms delicately painted and surrounded by birds and flowers with sprays of bamboo. The arms are of Mosley of Ancoats: Sable a chevron between three pickaxes argent. Crest: An eagle displayed ermine. Motto: Mos Legem Regit The Mosley family are from Manchester, descended from Sir Nicholas Mosley (1527-1612) a cloth merchant, Lord of the Manor of Manchester and subsequently Lord Mayor of London. This service was probably made for Sir John Parker Mosley (1732-1798), (1st Baronet, 3rd creation, 8

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June 1781). He was the son of Nicholas Mosley and Elizabeth Parker, and he married in 1760 Elizabeth Bayley. He was High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1786. He inherited the estates of his cousin Sir John Mosley. He was succeeded by his grandson Sir Oswald Mosley, 2nd Bt (1785-1871). References: Howard 2003, p276, a cup from this service.


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Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1770 Irish Market Length: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial teapot and cover with a coat of arms, a gilt spearhead border and scattered flowers. The arms are of Watson with Darell in pretence. The Watson arms were granted in 1767: Per chevron gules and or a chevron barry wavy of six argent and vert between two castles in chief of the third and a bomb fired proper in base. Crest: A tiger rampant regardant proper in the sinister paw a bar shot sable, in the dexter a banner gules charged with a scimitar lying fesswise argent - hilt and pommel or. Darell coat: Azure a lion or ducally crowned, Motto: Per aspera belli

The service was made for Admiral John Watson, an Irishman who commanded naval forces of the coast of Malabar and was Commodor of the fleet of the East India Co. He married an heiress, possibly a sister of Sir Lionel Darell, a director of EEIC and was presented with the service by the Company in 1770. He was mortally wounded at the Seige of Tanna 1774, and a large monument by William Tyler was erected in his memory in St Thomas’s Cathedral, Bombay. References: Howard 1974, p493, a plat; Tudor Craig 1925, p94,

a meatdish illustrated


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Bowl Yongzheng period circa 1735 Scottish Market Diameter: 5¾ inches; 14.5cm Provenance: a gift from David Howard A Chinese export porcelain small armorial bowl with a coat of arms within a lobed panel reserved on a grisaille cell diaper with scattered gilt flowers, The arms are of Murray of Glendoick quartering Hepburn of Smeaton, with a badge for a Baronet of Nova Scotia, the crest on the reverse is: A dexter hand holding a mirror proper. This is from a teaservice made for Sir Patrick Hepburn-Murray, 4th Baronet of Glendoick (1706-1756) who was the grandson of the first baronet Sir Thomas Murray (d1684), created a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1676 and was married to Barbara, daughter of Thomas Hepburn of Blackcastle.

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Thomas and Barbara’s eldest son Sir Thomas (2nd Bt) died unmarried and was succeeded by his brother John (3rd Bt), who married Mary Murray. Their son was Sir Patrick, who married Anne Hay and had only one son Alexander who became the 5th baronet in 1756 at the age of 16 months. Alexander later joined the 17th Regiment and was killed by a cannonball at the Battle of Long Island, New York at the age of 21 at which point the baronetcy became extinct. The estates (including this porcelain) passed to Alexander’s sister and later by descent to the Forbes baronets of Pitsligo, in whose possession it was until the end of the 20th century. References: Howard 2003, p157, a teapot from this service.

detail of crest on the reverse of the bowl


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Bowl Yongzheng period circa 1735 Dutch Market Diameter: 5½ inches; 14cm Provenance: Gift from Joseph Vandekar to Mrs. Cecil H. Bullivant, November 4, 1953; The Cecil H. Bullivant Collection, Minehead, Somerset A Chinese export eggshell porcelain armorial bowl with a coat of arms in a medallion, in a ground of flowers painted in bright famille rose enamels. This delicate eggshell porcelain bowl is very finely painted with bright flowers. The arms are for the Dutch family of Scott, first born by Everard Scott (16391682). The service was probaly made for Balthasar Scott (1672-1741) who lived in Amsterdam. He studied Law and worked as a banker with his father Everard. He was an Alderman and Burgomaster and wasa Director

of the VOC from 1735, when he would have ordered this porcelain. He married twice but had no children, becoming one the wealthiest people in Amsterdam with two houses on Herengracht and a country house in Watergraafsmeer. The same decoration is found on the rim of the eggshell soup plates made for the Amsterdam surgeon Abraham Titsingh at the same date.

Balthasar Scott (1672-1741)

References: Kroes 2007, p179, No 91, a teapot from this service; Cohen & Cohen 2013, No 13, a Titsingh soup plate.


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Pair of Salts

Plate

Qianlong period circa 1748 English Market Length: 3ž inches; 9.5cm

Qianlong period circa 1750 Scottish Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm Provenance: ex-collection Leo & Doris Hodroff

A pair of Chinese export porcelain armorial trencher salts, the side with border panels of Whampoa and Plymouth.

A Chinese export porcelain armorial dinner plate with a central coat of arms and four rim panels showing Plymouth and Whampoa.

The arm are of Miller of Devon and later of Islington, London: Azure, an escutcheon between four mascles or. Crest should be: A demi lion rampant gardant holding a mascle or (but in this case a whole lion has been drawn by the Chinese artist. Perhaps this is for Sanderson Miller (17171780) an amateur architect and pioneer of Gothic revival, who designed follies for his friends, notably at Lacock Abbey. He collaborated with Thomas Anson at Shugborough. Anson’s brother, Admiral Anson, had a well known armorial service with similar border panels, which is now at Shugborough.

The arms are for Arbuthnott. This service was made for John, 5th Viscount of Arbuthnott, (1692-1756) who married, in 1710, Jean, daughter of William Morrison of Prestongrange House (a 12th C castle now the Royal Musselburgh Golf Clubhouse). John was son of Robert (1661-1694), 3rd Viscount of Arbuthnott, and Lady Anne Gordon, daughter of the Earl of Sutherland. He succeeded his older brother Robert (4th Viscount who died in 1710). He was a Jacobite, deeply implicated in 1715 uprising, and a Nonjuror. He died without issue and the title passed to a cousin.

References: Howard 1974, p329, a plate from this service;

References: Howard 1974, p327, a plate and p538, a meatdish

Bullivant Collection, Phillips, March 1988, lot 214, a charger.

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from a later service made for the 6th Viscount.


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Dish Qianlong period circa 1740 English Market Diameter: 10 inches; 25.5cm A Chinese export porcelain dish with a coat of arms at the rim, the centre finely painted with birds and flowers, the rim also with Meissen-style panels of figures in a landscape. The arms are Sharpe impaling Cartwright, the latter incorrectly drawn (the ground should be ermine). They are for John Sharpe (1700-1756) of East Barnet and MP for Callington, Cornwall (1754-6) who married Olive Cartwright of Holborn in 1724. John was the son of William Sharpe of Beake St and Margaret, daughter of Charles Beake of Golden Square. John’s brothers included: Joshua, a solicitor in Lincoln’s Inn; Gregory who was Chaplain to George III and Horatio, who was

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Pair of Plates Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm En suite with the previous item

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made Governor of Maryland from 1753. John’s son Fane William Sharpe, succeeded him as MP for Callington and his bookplate is recorded with these arms, (engraved Fane William Sharpe, Student of Ch. Ch. (Christchurch College, Oxford). John Sharpe was a friend of Walpole and spent his early career in the American Colonies, in South Carolina and Massachusetts, and was a Guardian of Frederick, 6th Baron Baltimore. It was through his influence that his brother was made Governor of Maryland. References: Howard 1974, p285; Howard 2003, p193 (arms given as Sharpe impaling Wyman)


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Pair of Plates Qianlong period circa 1740 English Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain armorial dinner plates with a coat of arms at the rim, the centre finely painted with birds and flowers, the rim also with panels of figures in a landscape. The arms are of Thompson of Yorkshire quartering Beilby and Roundell in pretence. This service was made for Beilby Thompson (1686-1750) of Escrick, son of Henry Thompson MP and Mary Beilby, who married Sarah, Lady Dawes (d1773) daughter and co-heiress of Richard Roundell of Hutton Wansley in Yorkshire. His son Beilby Thompson was an MP and his grandson was created 1st Baron Wenlock. References: Howard 1974 p304 a plate;

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Spoon Tray Qianlong period circa 1740 English Market Length: 4½ inches; 11.5cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial spoon tray with a central coat of arms, sprays of iron red flowers and a gilt spearhead border, with the Motto: Nil Volentibus Arduum (Nothing is impossible to the valiant). The arms are for Rudge of Evesham quartering Chalmers (?). The Rudge arms were granted in 1634 to Edward Rudge, Sheriff of London. Howard suggests the porcelain service was probably made for his grandson John Rudge (1669-1740) a deputy Governor of the South Sea Company, a Director of the Bank of England and MP for Evesham (16961740). However John’s monument in St Andrew’s Church Wheatfield has differences in the coat of arms and there is no connection between the Chalmers and Rudges. References: Howard 1974, p296, a plate.

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Beilby Thompson


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Cup & Saucer Qianlong period circa 1760 European Market Diameter of Saucer: 4¾ inches; 12cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial cup and saucer with a central coat of arms, the rim with landscape panels on a gold ground. The arms are for Sainsbury of Froyle, Hampshire: Azure, the lozenges conjoined in bend within a bordure erminois (painted gold here). Howard says this was probably made for Thomas Sainsbury (1730-1795) a grocer who was Master of the Company of Bowyers and Lord Mayor of London in 1787, who bore these arms with a mullet for difference. Thomas (right) was the son of Samuel Sainsbury (1692 - 1748) and Elizabeth, and was married to Eliza Maria Fry (1752 - 1800). References: Howard 1974, p421, a teabowl.

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Cup & Saucer Qianlong period circa 1745 English Market Diameter of Saucer: 4 3/4 in A Chinese export porcelain armorial teabowl and saucer painted en grisaille and gilt with iron red, with a central coat of arms and the rim with a du Paquier style border. The arms are for Saunders, probably made for Thomas Saunders (1713-1775) who married Christian, daughter of Thomas Pitt of Boconoc, Cornwall. Saunders was Governor of Fort St George, Madras, (1750-1755). He was considered a successful and honourable man, he resigned for the sake of his health and left for Europe on 14 January 1755, carrying with him what was considered by Robert Orme as only a ‘Moderate fortune’ when a corrupt man in his position might have made much more. Orme later remarked, he was ‘the Man on Earth I should dread [most] as an Enemy’. References: Howard 1974, p349, this service.

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Thomas Sainsbury


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Cup & Saucer

Yongzheng period circa 1730 English Market Diameter of Saucer: 4½ inches; 11.5cm Provenenance: ex-collection K Risk A Chinese export porcelain armorial cup and saucer, with a central coat of arms, surrounded by branches of bamboo, the rim with a dense border of three lappets of peony on a Y-diaper ground of rouge-de-fer and gilt. The arms are of Grantham: Ermine a griffin segreant gules. Crest: A demi griffin gules (though wrongly painted azure armed gules). The family of Grantham of Goltho was prominent in the early 17th century and were still in Lincolnshire in the early 18th century where they refurbished the Church of St George’s Goltho, now a lonely church in the middle of field. However it is not known who might have ordered this but they must have been wealthy as this is a very fine example of the type. References: Howard 1974, p253, a milk jug from this service Bullivant Collection, Phillips, March 1988, lot 160, part teaservice.


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Teapot stand Kangxi/Yongzheng period circa 1722-30 English Market Diameter: 5 inches; 12.5cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial teapot stand of lobed hexagonal form with a central coat of arms, painted in rose verte enamels.. This little piece is an example of the type of fascinating puzzle that can keep enthusiasts of heraldry and genealogy entertained for hours. Previously unrecorded this purports to show a marriage between a male Percy and either a de Touchet of France or a Fane/Vane, though none has been found in the records during this period. The dexter coat is the quartered arms of Percy of Northumberland and Lucy of Cockermouth (or a lion rampant azure quartering gules three luces haurient argent). They have been quartered thus since the marriage in 1381 of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland to Maud Lucy, heiress of Cockermouth Castle, Cumbria. The male lines of the Earls of Northumberland had died out by the end of the seventeenth century and the Earldom was recreated in 1722 for Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, the grandson of the 11th Earl who had died in 1670. Under the coat is what appears to be a swan holding branches in its wings and a red label with three bars in its feet. This label is used to denote the eldest son - and significantly it was added to the arms of the famous Harry “Hotspur” Percy, son of the 1st Earl, who died in 1403 at the Battle of Shrewsbury.

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There are two possibilities for the sinister coat: 1. (Azure three hands appaumée or) is for the French family of de Touchet, from Notre Dame du Touchet, near Mortaine, in Normandy. Their crest is a swan, (sideways with one wing up). The de Touchets were Seigneurs of Beneauville, from the 13th C until the Revolution. They were distantly related to the Tuchet family, Barons Audley and Earls of Castlehaven, but they had different arms. 2. (Azure, three sinister gauntlets appaumée or) for the related Fane/Vane families, (Fane, Earl of Westmorland etc) and (Vane of Raby Castle, Baron Barnard, Earl of Darlington, Duke of Cleveland etc) both springing from different sons of John Vane of Tunbridge, Kent (d1488) and bearing the same arms. The hands could be armoured gauntlets, (they do seem to have lines across them) though in most drawings of these arms they look more like mittens. This would make more sense as, like the Percys, the ‘Fanes and Vanes’ are a widespread family. No marriage has been found for either family but could be hiding in some obscure collateral branches of the family trees. Fans of heraldic puns will enjoy that this has three pikes for the coat of Lucy (Latin for a pike is lucius) and that the charge for the Touchets is a hand.

Percy quartering Lucy

de Touchet

Vane


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Teapoy & Cover Qianlong period circa 1755 English Market Height: 5Âź inches; 13.5cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial teacaddy and cover with a coat of arms, sprays of flowers and a Buddhistic lion knop to the cover with a chain border to its rim. The arms are of the Blackwell baronets of Sprowston, Norfolk. The baronetcy was was created in 1718 for Lambert Blackwell (d1727) a diplomat to the Court of Tuscany and the Republics of Genoa and Venice. His mother was a daughter of the Cromwellian General Lambert. He was a director of the South Sea Company and Member of Parliament for Wilton 1708-10. His son Sir Charles (1700-41) was succeeded by his son, Sir Lambert (1732-1801) 3rd and last Bt, who died unmarried. The service was made for the 3rd baronet. References: Howard 1974, p564, a teapoy the same as this;

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Sir Lambert Blackwell

Teapot & Cover Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Length: 8½ inches; 21.5cm A Chinese export porcelain teapot and cover with a coat of arms, the rim with a puce ribbon band and scattered sprays of flowers. The arms have not been identified but may be Sampson of Kent or Castelain of Artois, though neither are exact matches.

References: Howard 2003, p471, a teapot stand matching this teapot.


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Saucer Dish Jiaqing period circa 1800 American Market Diameter: 8 inches; 20cm

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Howard has identified at least 24 different versions of this type with initials replacing the sun motif so it was a popular type made for the American Market.

A Chinese export porcelain saucer dish painted with a simplified coat of arms, flanked by the fgures of Liberty and Justice, the rim with three thin bands of puce decoration.

References: Brawer 1992,

This is a simplified version of the Arms of New York as established in 1778 under Governor Clinton, the central motif of a rising sun having been replaced with a set of gilt initials WRC - which may refer to a member of the Clinton family.

Beurdeley 1962, cat 218;

p80, a coffee cup; Howard & Ayers 1978, p514, a

similar saucer; Litzenburg 2003, p145,

a saucer;

Howard 1974, p753-5,

including a saucer with

the fully correct arms; Phillips 1956, pl 102;

engraved letter from a 1778 document of Governor Clinton


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Bowl Jiaqing period circa 1800 American Market Diameter: 11½ inches; 29cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial bowl with the American eagle design behind a shield with initials JS, the rim with a delicate series of grisaille bands. This elegant and simple bowl has a design that is derived from the Great Seal of the United States and is an example of a type made for the American market at the end of the eighteenth century. Examples are known with various different initials and the enterprising Chinese merchants used it as a basic template for the Americans, who they called “Flowery Flag Devils” and “Second-chop Englishmen” newly arrived in Canton in the late 18th century. Similar teaservices are known to have been ordered by President John Adams (1735-1826) and President Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) References: Howard & Ayers 1978, p 506-7, two coffee pots; Litzenburg 2003, p268, a

coffee pot; Lange 2005, p256, a coffe pot; Mudge 1981, p200m No 315; Mudge 1986,

p189, fig. 83.


And a Few Friends Some items from Cohen & Cohen

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Garniture Kangxi period circa 1700 Dutch market Height: 9½ inches; 24cm An unusual Chinese export porcelain five piece garniture consisting of two gu-form beaker vases and three covered baluster vases of faceted hexagonal section, painted in underglaze blue with flowers and butterflies. Five piece garniture sets were very popular in Europe at this date and designs for furniture, fireplaces and room panelling allowed for this with brackets and niches for the display of such sets. Many such arrays followed the designs of Daniel Marot (1661-1752) a French Huguenot designer and engraver who moved to Holland after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) and later to England with William and Mary, introducing the court style of Louis XIV to both countries. One of his designs for a chimney piece included spaces for 300 pieces of porcelain.

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Pair of Salts Qianlong period circa 1750 English or Danish market Height: 4ž inches; 12cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain blue and white tripod salts modelled after a baroque silver form, painted with buildings in mountainous landscapes. This form is very rare and would appear to be copied from a European shape possibly copying a Danish silver type. References: Litzenburg 2003, p219, a single example with

different decoration to the outside of the cup.

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Saucer Dish Kangxi period circa 1700 Dutch or English market Diameter: 8Âź inches; 21cm A fine Chinese porcelain saucer dish painted with a courting couple on a terrace beside a building.


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Soup Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 European or Chinese market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export eggshell porcelain rubyback soup plate, finely decorated in famille rose enamels with a bird on a branch the rim with scattered flowers.

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Soup Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 European or Chinese market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export eggshell porcelain rubyback soup plate, finely decorated in famille rose enamels with a bird on a branch the rim with scattered flowers.


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Soup Plate Yongzheng period circa 1730 European or Chinese Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export eggshell porcelain rubyback soup plate, finely decorated in famille rose enamels with a spray of flowers, a large butterfly and an elegant snail, the rim with floral branches

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Teabowl and Saucer Yongzheng period circa 1730 European market Diameter of Saucer: 4½ inches; 11.5cm A Chinese eggshell porcelain teabowl and saucer densely painted in famille rose with a central image of a black and white cat beside a vase of flowers, with four diaper borders linked by scrolling leaves and flowerheads, the central image repeated inside the teabowl.


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Massive Charger Yongzheng period circa 1735 European market Diameter: 18ž inches; 47.5cm A Chinese export porcelain massive charger brightly decorated in polychrome with a central scene of a courting couple watching mating chickens.

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Massive Charger Yongzheng period circa 1735 European market Diameter: 18ž inches; 47.5cm A Chinese export porcelain massive charger brightly decorated in polychrome with a central scene of people at a table drinking tea.


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The Martin Hurst Punchbowl Yongzheng/Qianlong period circa 1735-40 European market Diameter: 15¾ inches; 40cm Provenance: ex-collection Martin Hurst A Chinese export porcelain punchbowl painted in famille rose enamels with a continuous scene of chickens and pheasants, the rim with a pink Y-diaper border, the interior with a rooster on a rock with peonies. This wonderful and famous bowl is from the Martin Hurst collection which formed the basis for George Williamson’s important publication The Book of Famille Rose. There the bowl is described as “illustrating the high water mark of Famille Rose decoration”. We can only agree with this! References: Williamson 1970, plate II, this bowl is illustrated and eulogised; References: Howard & Ayers 1978, No 137, another example.

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Fishtank Qianlong period circa 1770 European Market Diameter: 23 inches; 59cm A Chinese export porcelain fishtank decorated with a variant of the tobacco leaf pattern in famille rose enamels, with lion mask handles and the rim brightly decorated with flowers, the interior with carp, lotus and pondweed. This variant of the tobacco leaf pattern is rare being known on a pair of vases in the Swedish Royal collection and three large jardinières. The pattern is unusual in having no underglaze blue in the design and pastel shades used throughout. References: Wirgin 1998, p107, one vase illustrated from the pair in the Swedish Royal collection; Cohen & Cohen 1999, p23, a single

jardinière; Debomy 2013, p133, a fish tank with this design which

he classifies as A9.2 pattern; Cohen & Cohen 2014B, No 28, a pair of jardinières in this pattern.

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The problem with nationalism is it starts with folk dancing and ends with barbed wire. Simon Winder, author of Germania (2010)


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Pair of Dinner Plates Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A pair of Chinese export porcelain dinner plates decorated in blue enamel and grisaille with the ‘parrot on a perch’ design attributed to the Pronk workshop. These appear to be the only recorded examples of this design in this unusual size. All other pieces are from a single teaservice using the blue enamel. However a recent discovery of a teapoy with this design in famille rose shows that this was also produced in polychrome, in colours that match the Meissen service. This is a very rare pattern that has been attributed to the ‘Pronk workshop’ because of its distinctive style, and further corroborated by the unusual shape of the cup in the teaservice which is known in some other examples with Pronk or Pronk-attributed designs (see Cohen & Cohen 2015, No 76). The parrot shown here is also in the same pose as the parrot in the Doctor’s Visit design. The actual design has been attributed to Pieter Schenck in some auction catalogues because of a significant Meissen service with this design (see image) and Schenck’s prints of views and devices were used by Meissen extensively. Schenck had been sent to Japan by the VOC around 1700 but a definitive account of this has yet to be established. Although not by Pronk himself it is reasonable to assume that this is from the same workshop. As the venture came to an end because it could not be made financially viable, it seems that a wider range of porcelains were being put together in the workshop using some elements of the Pronk designs and some from other sources. These may have included patterns such as the trumpeter, the palmette, the ‘insect’ pattern, the various garnitures of square section vases using elements of Maria Merian’s prints, and this design. It is possible that a piece of the Meissen porcelain was taken to China to be used as the model for this. The parrot in this design is also known on some garniture vases, in a much reduced version - and the spaniel also appears on some plates, with the parrot on the rim, that are clearly a little later and roughly drawn. A mezzotint by Pieter Schenk of a portrait of his daughter, Cecilia, has a similar parrot in the background. References: a teabowl and saucer from the service is in the Victoria

& Albert Museum, London, No 642&A-1903; Sargent 2012, p290,

a yellow/purple palmette cup of this shape; Cohen & Cohen 2015, No 76, a cup and saucer with this pattern.

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newly recorded example of this design in famille rose.

dinner plate, Meissen circa 1735-40 image courtesy Christophe Perlès, Paris

detail of Doctor’s Visit plate in this catalogue (reversed)

detail of mezzotint by Pieter Schenck (Rijksmuseum, RP-P-1906-3546)

print by Jan Verkolje 1684 (reversed) (Rijksmuseum, RP-P-1898-A-19811)


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Teapot, Cover & Stand Qianlong period circa 1740 Dutch Market Diameter of Stand: 5¼ inches; 13.5cm A rare Chinese export porcelain teapot, cover and stand painted in a restrained palette of famille rose with a mythological scene, the teapot of bullet form and the stand of lobed hexagonal form. This is from a rare teaservice, pieces of which are published in several collections. The colouring is unusual as the drawing is mainly done en grisaille with a little rouge-de-fer for the hands and faces, with areas of colour in the robes in puce and blue. The image shows Vertumnus & Pomona as described in Ovid’s Metamorphoses, book 14. The male god Vertumnus has disguised himself as an old woman in order to become close to Pomona the goddess of fruitfulness. The subject was a popular one with artists of the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, with its disguised erotic subtext. This image is derived from one of a small series of engravings made by Crispin de Passe the elder (ca. 1564-1637) between 1602 and 1607. This is the only one from this series found on Chinese porcelain, though

many other illustrations of the Metamorphoses were used in China, from those of Antonio Tempesta and Willem Baur in the early 17th century, to Sebastien Leclerc and François Chauveau for the Benserade translation of 1676, and the Bernard Picart series in the 18th century for the edition with notes by Abbé Banier. At least 10 of the images from this last edition of 1732 have been found on Chinese export art in various media. References: Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, p309, No 13.68, a saucer; Brawer 1992, pp130, a teapoy with this design.

print circa 1602-7 by Crispin de Passe I Rijksmusuem (No RP-P-OB-15.992)

188


140

Punchbowl Yongzheng/Qianlong period circa 1735-40 Dutch Market Diameter: 15½ inches; 39cm A Chinese export porcelain punchbowl decorated in famille rose enamels with a colouriful procession of European figures on horseback in a continuous scene around the exterior, the interior with flowers. The images on this bowl show a procession of European figures on horseback in a composition that was inspired by Chinese scroll paintings of such diplomatic missions, with a propaganda subtext of supplication. It has been suggested that this was made to commemorate the centenary of an Embassy in 1655, but the enamelling dates this piece to the very end of the Yongzheng period, (about 1735) and in any case there were many different embassies so probably it was just made for Dutch merchants who were renewing trade in the early 1730s after a quieter period dominated by the English. In the early 17th century the Portuguese had the monopoly of trade with China, dominating from their base in Macau. The Dutch VOC tried to break this by sending diplomats to the Shunzhi Emperor in the new Qing court, with at least six Embassies between 1655-85. The second of these is well documented, as the steward was Johan Nieuhof (1618-1672) who wrote and illustrated an account of this journey between 1655-58, published in 1665, with an English translation by John Ogilby in 1669. It is in two parts, the first covering the journey from Batavia to Peking and back and the second an overview of China at that time. Nieuhof had entrusted the publication to his brother Hendrik and Jacob van Meurs and he had continued travelling. He disappeared circa 1669-70 in Madagascar. The illustrations were very influential and formed the basis for much chinoiserie design in the West. The original drawings by Nieuhof were rediscovered in 1984 in the collection of Roland Bonaparte. One image by Nieuhof from a later book is known on Chinese porcelain, a rather roughly drawn version of the New Gate at Batavia found on Kangxi blue and white plates, though other designs may have been inspired by his works. References: Gyllensvard 1990, p124, a fishtank with the same

decoration of a similar procession, in Kina Slott, Drottningholm,

Sweden; Howard & Ayers 1978, No 229, another puchbowl with

the same design.

190

And those who never smiled at the sun, Kept watch on thorns under the moon, God, in the pure light of Heaven, Will see face to face one day. Johann Georg Jacobi (1740-1814) Litany for the Feast of All Souls


141

Pair of Nodding Head Figures Qianlong period circa 1750 European Market Length: 9 inches; 23cm An extremely rare pair of porcelain figures of reclining maidens each holding a book, decorated in bright famille rose enamels with an iron red dress, the heads separate and nodding, on a leaf shaped base painted with flowers. This form is rare, with only one other pair being recorded. It appears to be linked in style to a few other pairs of figures of seated maidens with phoenixes or deer. The ladies appear to be pregnant which is a very unusual depiction in Chinese art. However the books shown here are a literal representation of a Chinese metaphor: reading a book nourishes the growth of ideas in the mind like a child developing in the womb. References: Cohen & Motley 2008, p100, a pair of seated ladies holding spaniels with phoenixes beside them; Cohen & Cohen

2014B, No 33, a different pair of this same model; Victoria & Albert Museum, London No FE.25&A-1978, a reclining lady with an infant

beside her on a similar leaf base; Sargent 2012, No 254, two reclining ladies in a different position without books, with nodding heads, c

1750; Yi-Li Wu (2010) Reproducing Women: Medicine, Metaphor, and Childbirth in Late Imperial China.

The place is very well and quiet and the children only scream in a low voice. Lord Byron, letter to Lady Melbourne, 1813. I turned to Aunt Agatha, whose demeanour was now rather like that of one who, picking daisies on the railway, has just caught the down express in the small of the back. PG Wodehouse

192


142

Figure Jiaqing period circa 1820 Chinese Market Height: 19 inches; 49cm A Chinese porcelain figures of a standing sage or official, decorated in famille rose enamels with detailed robes and bright colours, the head with an elaborate hat, the hands separate and fitting into apertures in the wrists. This relatively late figure is of exceptional quality and fine decoration. It has holes in the hat where extra decoration could be attached in other media such as precious metals and jade. It also has holes in the chin and upper lip where real hair could be attached to give a more realistic beard!

He was, as I had already been able to perceive, a breath-taking cove. About seven feet in height, and swathed in a plaid ulster which made him look about six feet across, he caught the eye and arrested it. It was as if Nature had intended to make a gorilla and had changed its mind at the last moment. PG Wodehouse, The Code of the Woosters (1938)

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143

Pair of Saucer Dishes Kangxi/Yongzheng period circa 1720-5 Portuguese or Italian Market Diameter: 10½ inches; 26.5cm A rare pair of Chinese armorial porcelain saucer dishes brightly decorated in verte imari enamels with a coat of arms surrounded by elaborate decoration in the ‘grotesque’ style, the rims with bulls’ heads. The arms are disputed, either for the Portuguese family Ataide or the Italian family of Marini. The coat is very simple and thus fits with numerous families, the crest is also a popular one. The consensus today seems to be that this was made for D. Luis Peregrino de Ataide (1700-55), 10th Count of Atouguia, Counsel to the Portuguese King John V, who was married in 1720 to Clara de Assis Mascarenhas, daughter of Fernando Mascarenhas, Count of Óbidos. A number of services with these arms are recorded with variations of the surrounding decoration but all of similar taste. One service appears to have the initials LA. However Howard & Ayers 1978, illustrate a book plate, circa 1750, belonging to Pietro Marini of Barnabita that is very similar to this: in the shape of the shield, the number of bars and the crest and crown. They also mention that the Marini family controlled a large fleet of merchant ships at this date. This type of decoration, including the winged sphinxes and the tented drapery is inspired by the designs of Jean Berain (1640-1711) and was very popular in the early eighteenth century, especially evident in the designs for the Beauvais tapestry factory by Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer (1636-1699). References: Pinto de Matos 2011, p53, No 421, a plate the same

as this, and examples of other Ataide services; Harrison-Hall and

Krahl 1994: cat 16, tureen in the BM, (Franks.734.a); Scheurleer

1966, pl. 99; de Castro, 1993 p70; Howard & Ayers 1978, Vol

II, p450, Nos 457 and 457a (this design) and illustration of arms

of Marini and discussion of the heraldry; Castro 1987, p55; Pinto

de Matos et al 1998, p214, No 43; other examples are in the

Fundação Oriente, Lisbon; Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga,

Lisbon; Museum het Princesshof, Leeuwarden.

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Jerónimo de Ataíde, 6th Count of Atouguia (1610-55) showing the Ataide arms upper left.


144

Meat Dish Qianlong period circa 1755 Prussian Market Length: 14½ inches; 37cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial meatdish with lobed rim and decorated in famille rose with a central elaborate armorial with two wild men as supporters, on the rim the crest of a black eagle and a narrow border with a variant of the Greek key motif. The arms are for Frederick the Great as King of Prussia, the standard Grossewappen for the Prussian Monarchy of 1747. This is one of the most famous and sought after armorials on Chinese export porcelain. The dish comes from a large service with many unusual shapes and with a dramatic and complex history. Armorial services for the German market are rare and mainly for princely families including the Anhalt-Zerbst and Mecklenberg-Schwerin. The first German East India Company had been founded in 1684 by the Elector of Brandenburg (Frederick the Great's grandfather) but none of its ships reached China. A second Company was founded by Frederick in 1751, the Königliche Preussische Asiatische Companie zu Emden based in Emden and several ships made successful journeys to Canton but this company closed at the start of the Seven Years' War in 1756. The porcelain trade of this company also had to contend with competition from the growing manufacture of hard-paste porcelain in Meissen. There are several stories and legends surrounding this service, including a romantic story of the returning ship running aground on the East Frisian island of Borkum and the porcelain salvaged and sold off, having originally been intended as a present for Frederick. Another story has it as a present from the town of Leer to Frederick the Great after his success in the Seven Years War but he refused it because he had no money left to offer a reciprocal gift. It was certainly a very large service and seems to have been scattered early on. Jörg (1989) has shed light on all this having discovered a notice in a Dutch Newspaper posted by the Emden Prussian East India Company on 23 August 1756 advertising for sale '200 blue and white and enamelled porcelains, among which several Royal dinner are outstanding'. He has correlated this with two Prussian Company ships which were in Canton in 1755, the Burg von Emden and the König von Preussen. The cargo of the former mentions a service with wavy rims while the latter does not - so he suggests that this service was carried to Europe aboard the Burg von Emden in 1756. This ship was not wrecked so the more dramatic elements of the legends seem apocryphal. The border on this plate is only known on one other service, that for the family of Famars of Amsterdam, which may have also been ordered through the Prussian Company at the same time. Le Corbeiller illustrates a plate with a different filigree gilt border after Meissen. Other pieces are known with only the eagle crest and the Hermitage Museum has a warming plate with these arms. References: Howard 1994, p110, No 104, a tureen stand from this service; Le

Corbeiller 1974, pp80-83, several pieces illustrated and a discussion of the service;

Beurdeley 1962, p195, Cat 195, a dinner plate from this service; Jansen 1976, p157, Cat

375, a dinner plate; Williamson 1970, plate XXXVIII, a dinner plate; Jörg 1989, a dinner

plate and discussion; Maertens de Noordhout & Kozyreff 2000, No 3 a dinner plate;

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, No 156, a wine cooler and a tureen and cover, with the knop

moulded as a black eagle; Arapova, Menshikova et al. 2003, Cat 38, a warming plate, with

drilled holes which may have been part of some ormolu mounted assembly, and is of a

198

later date than the main service; Cohen & Cohen 1999, p26, Cat 19, two plates from the Famars service; Suebsman et al 2015, No 92, a plate.

Frederick the Great (1740-1786) is one of the

towering figures of the eighteenth century. He was born

in 1712 to Frederick William I and Sophia Guelph,

daughter of King George I of England. His paternal grandfather was the first King of Prussia and married to

another Sophia Guelph who was sister to George I of

England. Such a narrowing of the gene pool was not

unusual in Royal circles, yet Frederick was intelligent and cultured. His father was coarse and tyrannical,

hating his son who was fond of French Literature and

music and had no interest in government and war. At the age of eighteen Frederick, who had been repeatedly

humiliated and ill-treated, planned to escape to England. He was arrested, imprisoned, and forced to witness the

beheading of his friend and accomplice, Lieutenant Katte. Frederick submitted to his father and was

released. In 1733, at his father's request, he married Elizabeth of Brunswick-Bevern, but he separated from

her shortly afterwards and for the rest of his life showed

no interest in women.

After his accession to the throne in 1740

Frederick immediately showed the qualities of leadership and decision that were to characterize his reign. In the

War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48) and the Seven

Years War, he established his military reputation and

despite the defeat at Kunersdorf (1759) he ended victorious thanks to the accession of his admirer Peter

III of Russia in the 1762. The Peace of Hubertusburg

(1763) made Prussia the foremost military power in

Europe. Frederick is widely recognized as the eighteenth

century's greatest general and military strategist.

Frederick instituted important legal and

penal reforms and promoted education. He was tolerant in religious matters, personally professing atheism to his

intimates. At his famous midnight suppers at Sans Souci, his residence at Potsdam he was surrounded by a

group of educated men, mostly French, that included

Voltaire, d'Alembert, La Mettrie, and Maupertuis. Nearly all his writings were in French. He played the

flute creditably and he composed marches and concertos.

At his death in 1786 Frederick had increased

the size of his Kingdom by half as much again, taking

Silesia from the Austrians, a large part of Poland (1772)

and adding Franconia in 1779. He was succeeded by his

nephew Frederick William II.

"At such moments I have realized that the

advantages of birth and that vapour of grandeur with which

vanity soothes us is of little service or, to speak truly, of none. These distinctions are foreign to ourselves and but embellish

outwardly. How much more preferable are the talents of the

mind! How much is due to men whom nature has distinguished by the mere fact that she has created them!"

Frederick the Great in a letter to Voltaire.


1

2

5

3

4

7

13

14

17

15

16

19

25

26

29

27

28

31

6

9

10

8

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21

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A

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1 = J체lich 2 = Magdeburg 3 = Mecklenburg 4 = Cassuben 5 = Brandenburg 6 = Geldern 7 = Stettin 8 = Pomerania 9 = Cleves 10 = Berg 11 = Wenden 12 = Crossen 13 = Kammin 14 = Halberstadt 15 = Ruppin 16 = Meurs

17 = J채gerndorf 18 = N체rnberg 19 = Principality of Schwerin 20 = Principality of Ratzeburg 21 = Mindne 22 = Wenden 23 = Hohenzollern 24 = Marck 25 = Regenstein 26 = Tecklenberg imp. Linden 27 = Lauenberg 28 = Rostock 29 = Ravensberg

30 = Hohenstein 31 = Leerdam 32 = Ravenstein 33 = Stargard 34 = Buren 35 = Schwerin 36 = Breda A = Brandenburg (Sceptre of the Holy Roman Empire) B = Prussia C = OrangeNeuch창tel D = Unidentified


145

Plate Qianlong period circa 1755-60 American Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain armorial dinner plate with a central armorial, the cavetto with chain border and the rim with panels of birds and landscape, all painted en grisaille. The arms are of Vaughan impaling Hallowell, with the motto: ‘In Prudentia et Simplicetate’. The plate is from a well known service made for Samuel Vaughan. There are two versions of this, one lacking the name underneath the coat of arms and Howard suggests that this means at least two orders, or deliveries, were made. It is also possible that a change was

200

made in Canton during decoration of the pieces by the supercargo overseeing the order as there is little difference otherwise. The book plate serving as the source for this includes the name, as is often the case for book plates. However armorial porcelain rarely does, so this might have been correction of an error mid-production. Samuel Freer Vaughan (1720-1802), of Irish origins, was a young member of a trading company in London sent to manage their estates in Jamaica. He travelled via Boston where he met and married Sarah Hallowell (1727-1809) an heiress whose family owned the ‘Kennebec Purchase’ about 1.5m acres of the best agricultural land in Maine. The Vaughans moved between London, America and the West Indies. In London he was a supporter of John Wilkes and in America he was acquainted with Benjamin Franklin, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. References: Howard 1974, p359; Howard 2003, p238; Howard

& Ayers 1978, p486.


146

Saucer Dish Qianlong period circa 1745 Spanish-Mexican Market Diameter: 14 inches; 35.5cm A Chinese export porcelain saucer dish brightly enamelled in famille rose with a double headed eagle motif surrounded by vases of flowers and a blue border to the rim.

The double headed eagle shown here is a symbol of St Augustine , who was known as ‘the Hipona Eagle’, suggesting that this dish was made for a Spanish Augustinian order based in Mexico, though others were based in Macao, the Philippines and India. References: Howard 1994, p231, a Wanli jar with the eagle;

Castro 1988, p29, a similar blue jar; there is similar famille rose

dish in the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts.

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147

Plate Qianlong period circa 1780 European Market Diameter: 9 inches; 23cm A Chinese export porcelain dinner plate painted in famille rose enamels with a scene of two boys playing with a cat, the rim with panels of landscape reserved on a puce cell diaper ground. This is a previously unrecorded example of European figures on Chinese porcelain. It is probably not derived directly from a European print source but rather a creation of the Chinese artist using a Chinese scene and substituting European figures.

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Where shall I find a style to catch a stroll, Chablis on ice, a crisply toasted roll, The agate succulence of cherries ripe? The sunset's far, the ocean's splashing cool Can offer solace to a sunburned nape. Mikhail Kuzmin


New Research

The Judgement of Paris

This is one of the most popular European mythological subjects painted on Chinese export porcelain in the eighteenth century and was much repoduced over about fifteen years from 17451760, mainly in famille rose but also in monochrome puce enamel and en grisaille. It is known on a wide range of shapes, including bowls, winecoolers and teawares, as well as plates and chargers. Two different compositions of this subject are recorded: A. The most common, with Cupid seated on the far right on the ground (H&B Nos 3.71-5) B. A less common version, known en grisaille, as smaller images in the centre of plates. This has Cupid standing between Paris and Venus, with a number of other differences. The subject shows the contest that started the Trojan War, when Paris is tasked with selecting the most beautiful of three goddesses and awarding her one of the Golden Apples of the Hesperides. Each offers him a reward and the young man selects Venus, who has promised the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen, incoveniently married to the Greek King Menelaus. Her seduction and abduction leads to the launching of a thousand ships and the lengthy Trojan War. Not only was this a popular subject for any gentleman educated in the Classics but it also proved a suitable excuse for variations of artistic compositions that would appeal to the male gaze. It was painted many times from the sixteenth century onwards and this particular layout is known in countless variations. Consequently the precise print source for this design had been attributed to many different artists and it had even had been suggested that it was a composite image taken from more than one source, created for the porcelain. However the design source for A has now been established though B remains to be definitively attributed. Design Source: A. This is after a mezzotint (circa 1720-40) by John Simon (circa 1675-1751), which would appear to be the direct source - it is of the correct orientation and has all the elements in the right positon. It is inscribed ‘J. Simon inv. fec. & ex.’ The BM copy has a pencil note that it is copied after a painting by Henri Gascar (1635-1701) but no trace of a work by Gascar of this subject has been found. Simon was a Huguenot engraver, born in Paris who moved to England at the beginning of the eighteenth century, working as a rival to John Smith and producing copies of portraits and classical subjects after a range of artists including Rubens, Watteau, Nicolas Larmessin and Rosalba Carriera. Gascar (also Gascars or Gascard) was a French painter, mainly a portraitist, who worked in England under the patronage of Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth, (Charles II’s mistress). He had been in Rome in 1659-67 and moved to London in 1674 where he was influenced by Sir Peter Lely. He returned to Paris in 1680, later travelling to Italy and Poland before settling in Rome where he died. B. The source for this version has not yet been found. The arrangement of the figures is closest to a painting by Alessandro Turchi (1578-1649) but no engraving of it has been found - the order of the figures is the same and only Juno is in a different pose. References: Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, Nos 3.71-6; Chaloner Smith, John (1883) British Mezzotinto portraits etc. 4 vols, London, p177 the John Simon print.

A

Chinese famille rose dinner plate, circa 1745-50 (image courtesy Nicolas Fournery)

print circa 1730-40 by John Simon, possibly after a painting by Henri Gascar (British Museum, No 1877,1013.1034)

Alessandro Turchi (1578-1649)

B 203


Objects acquired from Cohen & Cohen are now in the following museum collections: British Museum, London Bristol Museum Jeffrye Museum, London Foundling Hospital Museum, London Groniger Museum, Groeningen East India Company Museum Lorient Adrien-Dubouché National Porcelain Museum, Limoges Sèvres Ceramics Museum Peabody Essex Museum, Salem Mass. Kenton Foundation, California New Orleans Museum Of Art Virginia Museum Of Art, Richmond Va Minneapolis Museum Winterthur Museum Norton Museum of Art, Palm Beach Fl Los Angeles County Museum of Art The Tea Museum, Hong Kong Hong Kong Maritime Museum Nanchang University Museum The Mint Museum, Charlotte, North Carolina The Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore The Musée Guimet, Paris The Metropolitan Museum, New York Muzeum Żup Krakowskich Wieliczka

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