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Rituals & Relics

Suite 744, 2 Old Brompton Road, London sw7 3dq, uk Tel : 020 7413 9937, Fax : 020 7581 4445 Mobile : 07836684133 / 07768236921 Email : enquiries@finch-and-co.co.uk Website : www.finch-and-co.co.uk

[1] A Fine Italian Early After the Antique Bronze Figure of the Apollino by Giacomo ZoVoli (1731–1785) Signed to the base G.ZoVoli Fine light brown patina with traces of dark lacquer 18th Century

s i z e s : 35.5 cm high – 14 ins high p rov e na nc e   : Ex English Private collection c f  : A reduction by ZoVoli in the Hermitage Museum acquired 1933 from the Antikvariat All-Union Assn Inv. no. Hck–1908 Giacomo ZoVoli’s workshop was famous in 18th century Rome for producing fine quality reductions in bronze after revered ancient antique marbles. The Apollino is recorded as being in the villa Medici in Rome in 1704 and although its discovery and early history is obscure, it quickly became one of the most popular antique statues of the time highly praised and admired for the sweep and the whole contour of the body (Richardson 1722 p128). In 1806 Denon mentioned the statue together with the Farnese Hercules and the Borghese Gladiator, as a superlative masterpiece much needed for the Musée Napoléon. Today the marble resides in the UYzi (Tribuna) in Florence.

[2] An Interesting Watercolour and Brown Ink Anatomical Study of Five Human Skulls Placed upon a Table with a Book and a Figure of a Skeleton behind Signed and dated J Constable 1845 to bottom right and to the left To Dr Shaw with Jn Constables Complts Later re-inscribed in ink over original watercolour on paper

Circa 1845

s i z e : 25 cm high, 34 cm wide – 9¾ ins high, 13½ ins wide The Scottish Surgeon Alexander Shaw (1804–1890) was the brother-in-law of Sir Charles Bell who in 1806 published Bells Essays on the Anatomy of the Expression in Painting. He had a distinguished medical career in London and was noted for discovering the diVerence between sensory nerves and motor nerves in the spinal cord, and for describing the condition now known as Bell’s Palsy. In 1836 he returned to Edinburgh and died six years later while working on a new edition of his book with his former Middlesex Hospital colleague and brother-in-law Mr Shaw, who edited the third enlarged edition in 1844. After the death of her husband Sir Charles Bell in 1842 Lady Marion lived in Edinburgh with her brother, and their house became a centre for the literary, artistic and scientiWc society of the period. Plate I of the Essays shows an engraving which is a variant of this watercolour. The book illustration is an etching after an anatomical drawing by Sir Charles Bell produced in the early 19th century. It has only four skulls and shows no skeleton in the background. The watercolour shows Wve skulls and the skeleton behind. As it is dated 1845 it was possibly the gift of a Scottish anatomical artist to Shaw and Bell’s widow in remembrance of a friend, Sir Charles Bell.

[3] An Impressive Victorian Taxidermy Specimen of a Puma or Mountain Lion Felis Concolor Mounted for Display by Edward Gerrard and Sons London Set upon a wood plinth The Surrey Puma Late 19th Century s i z e : 74 cm high – 29 ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Walter Potter Museum collection Ex Jamaica Inn, Bolventor, Cornwall Ex Private Belgian collection acquired Sept’ 2003 Bonhams Sale of the Contents of Mr Potters Museum of Curiosities, Jamaica Inn, Bolventor, Cornwall, Lot 492 (illustrated) Curiously, this taxidermy specimen was used to rig an organised puma hunt on the 27th August 1966 which was recorded in the Daily Mirror. He became known afterwards as The Surrey Puma. Puma’s are also known as cougars and are now increasingly rare with some subspecies in danger of extinction. Their habitat is in the Western United States of America, Mexico, Central and South America and in South West Canada. Of all the predators, cats are the most efficient killers. All of the species, from the smallest to the largest, are basically similar in appearance and proportions to the domestic cat; the ideal predatory body form.

[4] Ancient Greek Alabastron Carved of Egyptian Alabaster with a Wide Disc Rim and Small Lug Handles The base marked with collection no. A7 / 68 Some restoration to neck and upper body Circa 6th Century bc

s i z e : 24 cm high, 6.5 cm dia. (max) – 9½ ins high, 2½ ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Nikos Paschalis (1918–1948) Grandson of George Paschalis founder of The Paschalion Archaeophylakeion Museum in Samos Greece 1912 Nikos Paschalis was stationed in Alexandria whilst with the British Army during the 2nd World War Thence by descent to his sister Assimina Paschalis living in Melbourne Australia by 1965 Thence by Descent These vessels were named for the material from which they were most usually made and were used for perfumed oils and fragrant ointments. Both the alabastron and the lekythos had narrow necks so that the precious liquid ran out in drops. Perfumed oil was extensively used in ancient times to anoint the body after a bath and in the Palaestra. The best oil came from olives, and the best was produced in Attica where the olive tree was considered a gift of the goddess Athene who by means of it had obtained victory in her contest with Poseidon for the possession of the country. The olive groves were under the special protection of the State and it was forbidden on pain of death to cut them down as they were regarded as the property of the goddess. Part of the oil obtained was sold by the farmer to the state at a fixed price and this oil was only used for festive purposes, especially for distribution in prizes to the victors in the Panathenaic contests. The manufacture of fragrant oils and ointments was an important industry in ancient Greece. A large number of preparations were used for embrocations of the body, pomades for the hair and beard, for perfuming clothing, and for adding to bathwater. The most expensive kinds of fragrance were brought from the East, such as the much prized Nardinum pressed from the flowers of the Indian and Arabian grass Nardus. For preserving these luxurious oils vessels of stone, and especially of alabaster, were preferred.

[5] A Very Rare Gold Falconer’s Call or Whistle with Pendant Loop Perhaps for a Noble Lady Blown with the aid of an inserted reed English or French 15th – 16th Century

s i z e : 5 cm long – 2 ins long p rov e na nc e   : Found in the 19th century Private English collection Originating around 1000 bc in the Asian steppes, falconry rose to become the favourite sport of European nobility and royalty during the Tudor age. With Henry VIII it was an obsession. He hawked both morning and afternoon if the weather was fine, and built a royal mews at Charing Cross to house his precious birds. Mews were originally built in London to house birds of prey while they moulted in the summer months. Shakespeare used many obscure falconry terms in his play Taming of the Shrew and numerous terms have entered the English language and are still in general use: fed up, haggard, hoodwinked and cadge. Birds were trained to return to the call or whistle which were frequently made of wood or bone, but rarely of precious metal like this example. The peregrine is the noblest and most challenging of falcons to train and will take grouse by climbing dot high above heather moorland before folding its wings in a mesmerising 1000 foot towering, magnificent stoop.

[6] A Rare Mongolian Chinese Golden Altai Eagle Hunting Bonnet a Jade Amulet in the Form of a Bear Attached to the Leather Plume and a Distinctive Cut Leather Ruyi Head Flap to the Rear Early 19th Century

s i z e : 9 cm high, 7.5 cm wide, 10 cm deep – 3½ ins high, 3 ins wide, 4 ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private New York collection The idea of hunting with birds of prey is said to have originated around 3500 years ago among the hunting nomads of the Central Asian Steppe. In the open plains birds of prey were much more useful as hunting equipment than any other weapon known at that time. By 945 ad the nomadic Khitans from Manchuria conquered part of north China and although the rest of China was ruled by the Song Dynasty, they were never able to completely control the Khitan, and for 300 years the Song paid tribute to the Khitan to stop them from taking additional territory. Over time the Khitan assimilated much of China’s culture, but they retained many nomadic traditions including that of hunting with eagles. In 1857 Thomas Witlam Atkinson whilst exploring in Mongolia describes being taken to hunt with an eagle: The Sultan and his two sons rode beautiful animals. The eldest boy carried the falcon which was to fly at feathered game. A well mounted Kirghis held the bearcoote (a large black eagle) chained to a perch which was secured into a socket on his saddle. The eagle had shackles and a hood and was perfectly quiet. (T.W. Atkinson Oriental and Western Siberia 1857) Eagle hunting is now practised in Mongolia by the Kazakhs who fled their native country during the Communist period. They continue to hunt in the traditional way on horseback. The trained eagles taking as prey foxes and wolves mostly in the Winter season when their fur stands out against the white snow.

[7] A Portuguese Jesuit Missionary’s Portable Gilt Bronze Crucifix Mounted on a Cross of Bombay Rosewood contained in a velvet lined Sharks Skin case First half 18th Century

s i z e : 34 cm high, 16.5 cm wide – 13½ ins high, 6½ ins wide / 35 cm high, 17 cm wide – 13¾ ins high, 6¾ ins wide (shagreen case) Supported by papal bulls and decrees that had been promulgated in the 15th century, the Portuguese king claimed jurisdiction over churches and Christian communities throughout Africa and Asia, a concept known as padroado real or royal patronage. The Franciscans were active in Southern India as early as the 1520’s, but it was the Society of Jesus, a new order founded in Rome by Ignatius Loyola in 1540, that dominated missionary activity in the Estado da India. Known as Jesuits, they were dedicated to working among laymen rather than to contemplation, and made education and missionary activity their primary goals. They established schools throughout the Portuguese Empire which both produced priests to carry on the order’s evangelical work and also helped train the administrators needed by the Portuguese government to run the Empire. The first great Jesuit missionary was Francis Xavier (1506–1552) who set oV for India at the behest of King Joåo III reaching Malacca, the Moluccas and Japan before dying whilst trying to gain entry to the Chinese mainland.

[8] A Pair of Fine and Rare French Carved Walnut Models of the Architectural Facades of the West Fronts of Two Gothic Cathedrals Notre-Dame de Paris and Probably Notre Dame de Rodez Both with apertures at the back enabling them to be lit up Late 18th Century – Early 19th Century

s i z e  : 70 cm high, 52 cm wide, 16.5 cm deep – 27½ ins high, 20½ ins wide, 6½ ins deep / 65 cm high, 38.5 cm wide, 16 cm deep – 25½ ins high, 15¼ ins wide, 6¼ ins deep Gothic art originated around 1140 in the Ile-de-France and was initially confined to the cathedrals and most important abbeys of this region, but was soon regarded as a model for the rest of France and eventually for Europe as a whole. The West front of Notre-Dame de Paris was begun in 1200 and over the intervening eight hundred years has become the symbol of Paris. The huge towers stand above double side aisles and so are wider and more stable allowing the buttresses to not have to protude too far. An impression was created of looking at a triumphal arch, and originally above the three portals running across the entire facade the builders created a Gallery of Kings. Here twenty eight statues of the Kings of Israel looked out over the Ile-de-Cite, but during the French Revolution in the anti royalist belief that they represented a succession of French monarchs they were taken down. In 1802 Napoleon in an elaborate ceremony at Notre-Dame re-established the culte catholigue and eventually reproductions of the original statues were returned to the gallery. Nowhere else in medieval architecture does a royal gallery display a succession of Kings shown in close array quite so impressively. The red sandstone Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Rodez was begun in the northern gothic style in 1277 and only completed in 1562. The west front has a flamboyant rose window above which is a renaissance gable. The north east tower is 87 metres high and remarkably for its beautiful proportions, its plain lower late 14th century storeys are surmounted by three octagonal upper tiers of 1526 built during Bishop Francois d’Estaing’s incumbency by Antoine Salvan, a local architect. Much of its original statuary was lost during the revolution.

[9] An English Exceptional and Large Cut Steel and Ebony Corkscrew with Fluted Wire Helix the Handle Fitted with a Badger Hair Brush Perhaps made for display at the 1851 Great Exhibition Mid 19th Century

s i z e : 27.5 cm high, 20 cm wide – 10¾ ins high, 8 ins wide Corkscrews came into use many centuries after the original cultivation of the vine. Their origin is shrouded in mystery and myth; such as that of the god Bacchus forging before a raging fire, a wire to imitate the curling tendril of a vine. No inventor is known, but it is thought that the idea may have come from the worm associated with bullet extractors for firearms around 1630. It is mentioned in a commission of 1631 Gun Maker’s Rates drawn up under Charles I as an accessory supplied with muskets, firelock and horseman’s pistols, harquebuzes and carabines, and these worms continued to be used for muzzle loading firearms until the 19th century. Indeed, the steel toy manufacturers of Birmingham such as Robert Jones & Son who registered the first design for a corkscrew in October 1840, are known to have produced both gun-barrel screws and corkscrews. The corkscrew may have been an English invention due in part to the nation’s preference for old fine wines. Historically these were matured entirely in casks, but later came to be aged in bottles. The earliest known reference to a steel worme used for drawing corks out of bottles, is in 1681, but it would seem such an instrument was in use for some time before that. In the Treatise of Cider of 1676 J. Worlidge recommends bottling as the only way to keep cider and describes the binning of tightly-corked bottles on their sides. So in all probability corkscrews were first invented for use with the juice of the apple, and not that of the grape.

[10] A Curious Sharkskin Covered Specimen Box Containing a Collection of found Dolphin Teeth Old paper label inscribed Teeth of the Dolphin Grindelval from Westmanshaun Bay Faroe Islands… Early 19th Century s i z e  : box: 2.5 cm high, 6 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 1 ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 1½ ins deep Long ago, a native of Poros in Ancient Greece called Coeranus watched as a group of dolphins fell into a net and were captured at Byzantium. He gave their captors money as a ransom and set them at liberty, and for this he earned their gratitude. He is said to have been sailing in a fifty oar-ship with a crew of Milesians when the ship capsized in the strait between Naxos and Poros, all were drowned save Coeranus who was rescued by dolphins, seemingly repaying this good deed. They swam with him on their backs to a headland where there is a caverned rock, and this spot is now called Coeraneus. Later when he died his body was put on a pyre by the seashore whereupon the dolphins assembled and observing from some point, as though they were attending his funeral, watched the body ablaze and remained at hand until only ashes were left and then swam away. (Aelian 210 ad On The Characteristics of Animals)

[11] A Georgian English En Grisalle Watercolour and Ink Study of a Dolphin Found on the Beach at Hastings Inscribed From the Life at Hastings 1790 and to the mount True Dolphin Delphinus Delphis… 5 Feet Long at Hastings 1790 Late 18th Century s i z e  : 16.5 cm high, 23.5 cm wide – 6½ ins high, 9¼ ins wide / 28 cm high, 33 cm wide – 11 ins high, 13 ins wide (framed) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private English South Coast collection There are thirty two species in this most diverse Cetacean family and all are highly intelligent and social animals. The common dolphin is most beautifully marked and streamlined with a long beak and pointed flippers. Living in hierarchical groups of 20 to 100 or more, they sometimes join together to form huge pods. Feeding on fish and squid which they hunt by using echo-location, they are capable of diving for as long as five minutes to depths of 280 metres. With the same number of cells and layers in the cortex of their brain as man their intelligence in terms of brain volume, convolutions and social interactions among individuals exceeds that of humans. However, although they have behaved benignly and in many cases aVectionately towards us, we have systematically slaughtered them.

[12] A Rare North West Coast Tlingit or Haida Relief Carved Wooden Gun Stock Decorated with Motifs of a Crouching Bear and a Ravens Head Probably the stock of a blunderbuss A piece of old stretched hide nailed as a grip to the wood The old iron shoulder piece marked US Early 19th Century

s i z e : 52 cm long – 20½ ins long c f  : An example with same shaped stock sold at Christies June 1992, lot 141, now in the Thaw collection, T210. Fennimore Art Museum, Cooperstown, New York

In August 23rd 1794, whilst exploring and trading in the waters of Behm Canal, George Vancouver encountered two separate groups of canoe-borne Tlingits. The two groups clearly fostered a hostility for each other which was not uncommon among Tlingit clans of the period. Vancouver witnessing this observed, On a nearer approach they rested their paddles, and entered into a parley; and we could then observe, that all those who stood up in the large canoe were armed with pistols or blunderbusses, very bright and in good order (Vancouver 1801, pg 226) Lieutenant George T. Emmons saw and sketched a blunderbuss at Juneau in 1888 and noted that it had belonged to a chief’s family for several generations (Emmon’s notes, Burke Museum archives, 1991 pg. 299). These guns were therefore acquired in trade on the North West coast as new, carved and passed from one clan leader to another through the generations as treasured objects of a historical past.

[13] An Ancient Roman Marble Head of the Goddess Athena or Minerva Wearing her attribute of the Corinthian Helmet Perhaps from a relief on a sarcophagus 2nd Century ad

s i z e : 12.5 cm high, 10.5 cm wide, 9.5 cm deep – 5 ins high, 4 ins wide, 3¾ ins deep / 21 cm high – 8¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Antoni Sikorski collection London Acquired 1950’s c f  : A similar small Roman head of Athena in the Musée De L’Arles Generally regarded as the goddess of war Athena / Minerva appears in myth to be the true friend of all bold warriors such as Perseus, Heracles and Odysseus. She is connected with her father Zeus in the ability to send storms and bad weather, but her courage is a wise courage and so she is represented as a protector and defender. She presides over the whole moral and intellectual side of human life and thus represents wit and intelligence. From her are derived all the productions of wisdom and understanding, every art, craft and science whether of war or of peace. Importantly to both the Greeks and Romans she was also a goddess of victory, and as Athene Nike she had a special temple on the Acropolis where a 30 metre high statue in ivory and gold, now lost, once presided.

[14] A German Carved Ivory Skull Memento Mori Old smooth creamy patina In fine condition 17th Century

s i z e  : 4 cm high, 3.5 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 2 ins deep To plan one’s own funeral is to confront one’s own mortality, and in Pre-reformation England people prepared for their own death as a matter of course as the states of life and death were inextricably intertwined and not invariably opposed. The Reformation had a dramatic impact on people’s attitudes towards death. The loss of belief in purgatory distanced the dead from the living. Contact had traditionally been sustained with the dead through the intercession of priests, but the outlawing in 1529 of masses for the dead greatly reduced the clergy’s role in the death ritual and gradually over time death became a private rather than a shared devotional experience.

[15] An Italian Florentine Gilt Bronze of the Crucified Christ after a Model by Giambologna Extensive gilding to entire surface over dark brown bronze small patches of wear Late 16th Century / Early 17th Century s i z e  : 22.5 cm high, 21.5 cm wide – 8¾ ins high, 8½ ins wide This sculpture of the crucified Christ is modelled after a bronze Christ on the cross which was given by the master Giambologna to the convent of St Maria degli Angiolini in Florence around 1588. The delicate image of the dead Christ, his head gently fallen over his right shoulder, his lean youthful anatomy with emphatically delineated rib cage and gently protruding belly repeats Giambologna’s work. The particular configuration of the fold in the part of the loincloth that sags vertically from the knot over the right thigh directly duplicates this model and distinguishes it from casts made after other Giambologna models of Christ on the cross. However, the drops of blood that issue from Christ’s side and the handling of the hair, hands and feet are diVerent. By 1600 small crucifixes were being produced in large numbers in the Florentine workshops and one of Susini’s assistants, Francesco Pezutelli, is known to have specialised in casting crucifixes.

[16] An Exceptional New Zealand Maori Taiaha of early form the long flared blade terminating in a stylised projecting tongue shaped head decorated with scrolling ornament three eyes retaining haliotis shell inlay Marked with Hooper Inventory collection no. 236

Old dark brown silky glossy patina Late 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 198 cm long, 9.5 cm wide – 78 ins long, 3¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection James Hooper Totems Museum Arundel no. 236 Acquired Bishops Stortford Hertfordshire 1945 Sold Christies London 21st June 1977 Lot 45 Ex Private European collection Fighting to the Maori was an integral part of life and every adult male became a warrior when circumstances demanded. Rigorously trained from youth in martial exercises and weaponry, the emphasis was on individual hand to hand combat. Success was entirely dependent on speed and agility as no defensive armour was ever used. There were prescribed fighting techniques for each weapon and the taiaha, a type of quarterstaff, was wielded with both hands in a variety of thrusts, parries and feints. The carved, distorted, double-faced head with a point representing a tongue issuing forth in the typical Maori gesture of defiance, was used as a distraction thrust into an opponent’s face in order to permit a blow with the flattened narrow blade. When the taiaha belonged to men of rank it also served as a chiefly staV of office.

[17] A French After the Antique Bronze Plaque Depicting the Education of Alexander the Great (356–323 bc ) within a Neo Classical Empire setting In original oak frame Old ink inscription to reverse Early 19th Century

s i z e : 7 cm high, 26.5 cm wide – 2¾ ins high, 10½ ins wide / 14 cm high, 34.5 cm wide – 5½ ins high, 13½ ins wide (frame) p rov e na nc e   : Ex English collection The greatest General in all antiquity, Alexander was tutored in his youth by Aristotle who is shown seated teaching the boy wearing his helmet, whilst his father Philip II and his mother Olympias of Epirus look on. It is said that Alexander showed early intelligence and power of command; at 18 he led the Macedonian cavalry with distinction at the battle of Chaeronea in 338 bc, which saw the defeat of Thebes and Athens by Macedon. When his father was murdered in 336 bc he succeeded without opposition as the only capable male heir to the Kingdom of Macedon, and the leadership of Greek City states. He immediately put to death Philip’s baby son, by his latest wife Eurydice, also known as Cleopatra, whose birth threatened his expectations. In his lifetime he was widely acclaimed as divine, the son of Zeus, and he seems to have believed in his own divinity and was encouraged in this belief by his mother. He strove to emulate those other sons of gods, the Homeric heroes. His most lasting achievement was to extend the Greek language and institutions over the eastern world in such a way that he brought about an absolute break with the past. No region once conquered and settled by Alexander resumed its old ways uninfluenced by the conquest.

[18] A Pair of English Ashford Inlaid Black Marble Obelisks After the Antique 19th Century s i z e : 55 cm high – 21¾ ins high The Florentine pietre-dure and Roman inlaid stone work found a ready market amongst the wealthy Grand Tourists of the 18th and early 19th centuries. The Dukes of Devonshire were also impressed and began to commission local craftsmen in Derbyshire to create similar inlays in Ashford black marble, a dark limestone quarried near Ashfordin-the-Water. Henry Watson is regarded as the major figure in the development of the industry inlaying Ashford black marble in the 1750’s at his local water powered mill. The designs inspired by those of the Italian workshops consisted of randomly shaped pieces, regular geometric patterns or naturalistic pictures of flowers or butterflies. The earlier work is inlaid with local stones such as Blue John fluorspar, brown rosewood marble, oak-stone barite, dukes red marble and fossil limestones, together with green Russian malachite or Connemara marble.

[19] A Fine Ancient Egyptian Blue-Green Glazed Faïence Ushabti decorated with a T-Shaped text in Blue for Ankhep a Blue Seed Bag over the left shoulder 30th Dynasty 400 – 350 bc

s i z e : 18 cm high – 7 ins high / 22 cm high – 8¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Major General Sir John Charles O Marriott (1895 –1978) Thence by descent to John Marriott (1921–2007) and his partner Count R.L. Sangorski (1940–2014) Acquired first half 20th century Funerary figurines are mummiform in appearance and developed during the Middle Kingdom out of the statuettes and models provided in the tombs of the Old Kingdom. By the Late Period (747–332 bc) the term Ushabti meaning answerer was in general use. Their purpose was to spare their owner from menial tasks in the afterlife which would be required in order to produce, prepare and cook food. The Shabti stood in for both the deceased, in whose name they would answer the call to work, and the servants of the deceased. Most are decorated with Chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead which is therefore known as the Ushabti chapter. Initially the deceased was provided with only one statuette, but by the New Kingdom the numbers left in tombs had increased significantly so that there might be 365 figures, one for every day of the year, accompanied by 36 overseers. It is said that over 700 were found in the tomb of Sety I (1294–1279 bc). Their use died out during the Ptolemaic period (332–30 bc).

[20] A Rare Sri Lankan Arm Rest or Short Prop used to take the Weight of the Body at the Elbow by Mystics in Meditation or by Scribes and Holy Men whilst Reading or Decorating Manuscripts or by Princely Rulers Holding Court Carved with two stylised mythical rearing lions upon a turned ivory shaft Late 17th Century

s i z e  : 45.5 cm high, 17.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 18 ins high, 7 ins wide, 1 ins wide c f  : The Indian Heritage: Court Life Under Mughul Rule Robert Skelton; et al, V&A 1982 pg. 118–119. no 359 for an example of a Mughul Jade Short Prop Short crutch-like arm rests were known in Mughul India as Zafar Takieh meaning cushions of victory, and sometimes concealed a short blade or dagger in the stem for use as self protection. These props enabled the comfortable maintenance of the seated position on carpets for long periods of time. Whether reading, meditating, discoursing or holding court, a prop was needed to avoid great discomfort. Symbolising royal authority, mythical lions are portrayed in the south of India and Sri Lanka as ferocious animals with open mouths displaying sharp threatening fangs and a curling upturned snout. The lion has always had an iconic status in the Indian sub-continent. The Buddha’s first sermon was called Simhanada, the lion’s roar and in Hindu mythology the King sat on the Singhasan the lion’s seat. In fact Singh meaning lion has been a common middle name among Hindu’s, as well as Sikhs, since the 7th century ad.

[21] Venetian Renaissance Bronze Figure of Infant Bacchus Depicted Holding Bunches of Grapes Attributed to Andrea di Bartolomeo di Alessandri known as Andrea dai Bronzi or Il Bresciano (1530–1569) Mid brown polished silky patina Mid 16th Century

s i z e : 23 cm high – 9 ins high / 32 cm high – 12½ ins high (with base) 11 cm wide, 9.5 cm deep – 4¼ ins wide, 3¾ ins deep (base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Hugo and Ruth Klotz, New York Believed acquired from the Weinburg collection Frankfurt inventory no. 155 Sold at Christies New York September 2006 Lot 147 Ex English Private collection Andrea dai Bronzi worked as a sculptor-foundry-man in Venice within the milieu of the more famous masters Sansovino and Vittoria. His work is of a type frequently associated with Niccolo Roccatagliata. However, his sculpture is of a generation earlier and this putto accords well with his elaborate complexes in bronze such as the base for the Reliquary cross of St Theodore of 1567 in the Accademia, Venice or the firedogs from the Bute collection. Andrea dai Bronzi’s real name Andrea di Bartolomeo di Alessandri has only recently been established, but he was also known from his native Italian county town as Il Bresciano. His masterpiece is considered to be the signed Paschal candelabrum for Jacopo Sansovino Church of Santa Spirito in Isola, now in Santa Maria della Salute, Venice.

[22] An Interesting South German Bavarian Oberammergau Carved Pinewood Sculpture of a Female Elephant A Christmas crib figure 18th Century

s i z e : 14.5 cm high, 21 cm long, 6.5 cm wide – 5¾ ins high, 8¼ ins long, 2½ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private German collection Karl Gröber The woodcarving skills of the Ammergau craftsmen were already being praised for their quality by a travelling Florentine in 1520. By the 18th century they had formed a guild with their own rules and regulations and there developed a new industry in creating Christmas crib sculptures of animals and figures. In Bavaria the counter-reformation revived a sense of joy in creating these scenes to which an ever increasing number of additional figures could be made. This tradition of sculpture had its roots in the Middle Ages, but the Christmas crib was now seen as a three dimensional representation of the Christian idea of divine salvation. The enormous displays of scenery and figures in Bavaria enticed members of the community into the churches to view them, only the very wealthy could afford such elaborate creations in their own houses. All manner of animals and figures, often inspired by images in engravings, were carved and like the popular dramatic performances of the Middle Ages the scenes incorporated various secular aspects.

[23] Fine Japanese Netsuke in the Form of a Working Model of a Western Wall Gun with a Gold Inlaid Iron Barrel and Wooden Stock with Matchlock Mechanism A loose metal ring acts as the Himotoshi Unsigned Circa 1800 ad

s i z e : 6.5 cm long – 2½ ins long / 7 cm high – 2¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Virginia Atchley collection Illustrated in the Virginia Atchley Collection of Japanese Miniature Arts by N K Davey and V Atchley pg. 158 c f  : A similar example in the British Museum (OA+28) Illustrated in Netsuke The Miniature Sculpture of Japan by R Barker and L Smith 1976 In the 16th century the Portuguese introduced tobacco and pipe smoking to Japan and by the end of the 17th century every well off Japanese man wanted to carry a tobacco pouch and pipe case. Netsuke were needed to hold these inside their clothing and the earliest produced in any quantity were the carvings of tall figures in wood and ivory that represented the Dutch and Chinese merchants who lived segregated in Nagasaki, or of the Taoist Immortals called Sennin, or the Buddhist saints known as Rakan. The Chinese had long used toggles of hard-stone and seals of carved ivory that were often surmounted by a carving of a lion dog or other auspicious creature. After 1720 when Japan lifted the ban on the importation of foreign books, Japanese craftsmen began to copy the images they saw of these and other curiosities, such as the Goanese carvings of the Christ Child and Chinese nude medical figures. All of which set a fashion in Japan for ivory that had not previously been greatly used as a material.

[24] Fine Japanese Ivory Okimono of Family of Rats Feasting on Bean Pods Their eyes inlaid with horn their fur partly stained Unsigned Meiji Period / Late 19th Century

s i z e   : 2.5 cm high, 5.5 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – 1 ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 1¼ deep Rats are the messengers of Daikoku the god of worldly prosperity. His rats should be looked upon as a warning against carelessness in protecting material possessions. In Japanese legend the other gods became jealous of Daikoku when they saw how the people brought him oVerings praying for prosperity. They wanted to get rid of him and asked Emma-O, the King of Hell to send his slyest demon, Shiro, to kill him. The demon found Daikoku sitting on rice bales in a barn, but the god heard his footsteps and sent his chief rat to see who was there. When the rat discovered Shiro, he fetched a branch of holly and attacked the demon with this prickly weapon and chased him back to the portal of hell.

[25] Collection of Five Royal French Documents Signed and Sealed variously by King Louis XIV, Louis XV and Louis XVI Together with an English Vellum Lease of 1814 All contained in a gilt titled leather wallet 17th and 18th Centuries s i z e  : (of Wallet): 26.5 cm high, 22 cm wide – 10½ ins high, 8¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private Southern French collection Louis XIV (1638–1715) married Marie Thérèse of Spain and was known as the Sun King. He was the greatest monarch of his age establishing the parameters of successful absolutism. His long reign marked the cultural ascendancy of France within Europe symbolised by his Palace of Versailles. Louis XIV fell in love with Versailles when he first saw it and it became the love of his life. For years before he lived there it was never out of his mind, and his courtiers called it his undeserving favourite. When Louis XIV died at Versailles in 1715 he was succeeded by his great grandson Louis XV (1710–1774) who came to be known as the well beloved. Among his innumerable mistresses the two most famous and influential were the Countess du Barry and Madame de Pompadour. Louis XVI (1754–93) was King of France from 1774 to 1793. He failed to give consistent support to ministers who tried to reform the outmoded financial and social structures of the country and allowed France to become involved in the War of American Independence 1778–83, which exacerbated the national debt. To avert a deepening social and economic crisis he agreed in 1789 to summon the Estates General. However, encouraged by the Queen, Marie Antoinette, he resisted demands from the National Assembly for sweeping reforms and in October was taken with his family from Versailles to Paris as hostages to the revolutionary movement. Their attempted flight to Varennes in June 1791 branded the royal pair as traitors. Louis reluctantly approved the new constitution in September, but his moral authority had collapsed. In August 1792 an insurrection suspended Louis’s constitutional position and in September the monarchy was abolished. He was tried before the National Convention for conspiracy with foreign powers and then guillotined in Paris in 1793.

[26] A French Dieppe Carved Ivory Figure Group Portraying the Emperor Napoleon I with his Wife Marie-Louise and his Son Joseph-Francois-Charles crowned Roi de Rome Standing on an Empire Stool

An ivory plaque to the Ebonised plinth entitled Famille Bonaparte Circa 1812 – 14

s i z e : 16 cm high, 11 cm wide, 6.5 cm deep – 6¼ ins high, 4¼ ins wide, 2½ ins deep / 28 cm high – 11 ins high (with base) In 1809 Napoleon divorced his first wife Josephine, who was childless, and married the Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. His longed for son was born in 1811. In 1810 Napoleon had visited Dieppe with Marie Louise and it is documented bought an ivory ship from Louis-Charles-Vincent Belletête. In the early 19th century there were more ivory carvers at work in France than in any other European country, and their standing was enhanced when Napoleon’s client Kings and court nobles flocked to Paris to consume French goods. Paris and Dieppe rapidly attracted ivory workers from other countries such as the aged and famous Giuseppe Maria Bonzanigo (1744–1820) who had worked all his life in Turin, Italy, which Napoleon added to the French Empire. At the request of the Empress Marie Louise, Bonzanigo constructed a coin cabinet, now in the Louvre in Paris, of ebony and ivory ornamented with a portrait of Napoleon’s second Empress, imperial emblems and allegorical figures.

[27] A Native American Central Plains Cheyenne Knife Sheath decorated with a geometric design formed of glass beads sewn on deer hide with tin cone and horse hair tassels Fine and original condition Circa 1860 – 70

s i z e : 43.5 cm high, approx: 9 cm wide – 17 ins high, approx: 3½ ins wide / 44.5 cm high – 17½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex J.C. Guerin, Paris Across the northern states of America the fur trade initiated a dynamic stream of people and goods which accelerated the communication and diVusion of art styles. Ideas and motifs rippled back and forth across the country and were carried down the major rivers by traders. Both Native and Euro-American traders ranged across huge distances; it is known that some Iroquois fur-traders penetrated as far as Western Canada. The fur traders bought the tradition of wearing a knife on a belt around the waist to the native American tribes. The blade was often of traded British Sheffield steel, but the decoration on the sheath was wholly indigenous and unique to the American Indians. Amongst the Cheyenne the production of beadwork was restricted to women who formed craft guilds.

[28] Ancient Luristan Miniature Bronze of a Stag with Antlers Old smooth greenish patina 10th – 8th Century bc

s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 5 cm long, 1 cm wide – 1½ ins high, 2 ins long, ½ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex Antoni Sikorski collection Acquired London 1950’s Naturalistic representations of animals were found in burial contexts in Lorestãn in the Zagros mountains during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Zagros is the largest mountain range in Iran forming a natural geographical border, and they are considered sacred by the Kurdish people. These small bronze figures were most probably votive oVerings that were laid near the dead. The stag was revered as one of the swiftest animals and therefore capable of helping to speed the spirits of the dead on their way.

[29] An Ancient Romano-British Bronze Cheekpiece from a Horse Bit the Terminal formed as an Alert Hound Smooth reddish brown patina 2nd – 3rd Century ad

s i z e : 7.5 cm long, 2 cm wide – 3 ins long, ¾ ins wide / 7.5 cm high, 3 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Crellin Family found in the 19th Century in the grounds of Denton Foot Cottage Gilsland Northumberland Authenticated by Chesterholm Museum Vindolanda Trust Exhibited Tullie House Museum Carlisle 2008–2012 And so, having reformed the army quite in the manner of a monarch he set out for Britain and there he corrected many abuses and was the first to construct a wall, eighty miles in length which was to separate the barbarians from the Romans (Historica Augusta. Hadrian 11.2.) Hadrian’s Wall is regarded as one of the finest surviving remains of antiquity north of the Alps. A permanent reminder of the glory that was Rome. Constructed between ad 120 to 128 the complex of frontier installations ran from sea to sea over 73 miles long with an extension down the Cumbrian coast and with numerous support forts on both sides of the wall. Nether Denton was one of these ancient military sites, not far from Denton Foot Cottage where this object was found. The wall was a testimony to the Emperor Hadrian and the Roman governments ability to defy both natural geography and political boundaries. However, rather than combating any real political threat, the wall served its purpose in occupying the energies of the Roman army, and for nearly 300 years Britain possessed an awesome artificial frontier, designed to keep out the Brittunculi, the wretched Britons.

[30] Rare Tierra del Fuego Selk’Nam Peoples Axe made from the Jaw Bone of a Guanacos a Wild Llama Bound on a hide covered wood shaft 19th Century

s i z e : 38.5 cm long, 20.5 cm wide, 6 cm deep – 15¼ ins long, 8 ins wide, 2¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Parisian Private collection Known as the Land of Fire, Tierra del Fuego is home to the southernmost peoples of the world living at the very tip of South America. Cold climate hunter-gatherers, the Selk’nam were land dwelling nomads who inhabited the archipelago together with their seafaring neighbours, the Yamana and Kawésgar. Until the early 20th century they achieved a total self sufficiency through activities they had practised for centuries; gathering wild fruits and berries, hunting guanacos, rhea, ostrich and seals and by fishing and collecting shellfish. The guanacos, their principal game, is a large camelid whose meat, fat and marrow formed their staple diet while the skin was used to make capes and cover their huts, the bones to make tools such as this axe, and the tendons, cords. Essential to their survival, the guanacos itself survived for more than 10,000 years on its island reserve, their numbers managed by the Selk’nam in such a way that it never became extinct. From 1520 when Megallan discovered the narrow channel that enabled ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, the peoples of Tierra del Fuego were feared by Europeans who regarded them as blood-thirsty savages. However, missionary orders were established by the end of the 19th century and as a consequence the population of the indigenous peoples began to shrink. The immigrants from Europe, Chile and Argentina brought new diseases to which they had no natural resistance. Showing exceptional powers of adaption to a harsh, if rich, environment, the Selk’nam were the last to be evangelised. Between 1886 and 1887 a Romanian born Argentine adventurer called Julius Popper launched an expedition to Tierra del Fuego. At the head of an army of mercenaries, Popper established a dictatorship, pillaging the regions resources including its gold, and ordered the genocide of the Selk’nam people. By the late 1890’s Chile and Argentina began parcelling out the land encouraging colonisers to rear livestock in order to stimulate economic growth in the islands. Prior to this, the nomadic Selk’nam comprised more than 3000 people, by the 1920’s this figure had dropped by more than ninety percent. The fragile population was unable to withstand the onslaught of the arrival of more European settlers, and a culture that had existed for thousands of years was swept away in a matter of decades.

[31] A Sailors Scrimshaw Walrus Tusk Cane Handle carved with the head of a large male Walrus Probably American Late 19th Century

s i z e : 12 cm high – 4¾ ins high / 19.5 cm high – 7¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private American collection In the 1840’s the American whalers began in earnest to hunt the whale in Arctic waters. However, the whales found there had no teeth and so the scrimshanders used the ivory tusks of the walrus for their carvings. Ranging in size from 18 to 32 inches the tusks were used by the walrus for digging shellfish out of the sea bed to eat. In fact their family name Odobenidae means those that walk with their teeth as it stands on its head and moves slowly backward using its tusks and stiV cheek bristles to extricate the shellfish. The tusks are also used for climbing steep ice banks and for defence. The whalers often traded goods with the Eskimo to obtain walrus tusks which they knew as morse ivory.

[32] A Sailors Scrimshaw Friendship Fist Carved Whalebone and Sperm Whale Tooth Walking Cane with Inlays of Baleen Old yellow creamy patina Mid 19th Century

s i z e : 92 cm long – 36¼ ins long p rov e na nc e   : Ex Cotswolds Private collection Scrimshanders, both American and British, did not use the canes they produced on board ship, but gave them as keepsakes to sweethearts and relatives when they arrived home, or sold them to quay side traders when their ship returned to port. As the boat steerer of the whaler Clifford Wayne of Fairhoven, Massachusetts, wrote in the ship’s logbook in 1844, Nothing do we do but make canes to support our dignity with when we get home.

[33] A Rare Tibetan or Northern Nepalese Terracotta Head of the Wrathful Deity Panjara Mahakala the Lord of Death and the Great Power of Time with Bulging Eyes and Snarling Mouth Drawn Open to Reveal Delicate Fangs wearing a Fiery Crown set with Four Human Skulls an Image of the Buddha and Entwined Snakes about his Neck Traces of red pigment and gilding Some old losses and old Tibetan repaired crack 17th Century

s i z e : 34.5 cm high, 31 cm wide, 15 cm deep - 13½ ins high, 12¼ ins wide, 6 ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Mamaroneck Private American collection Westchester County New York Purchased from Spink and Son, London in 1970’s Ex Private French collection of John I Dintenfass M.D. Purchased 1985 from above Fierce Mahakala is one of the eight Dharmapalas and has remained a popular deity with Tibetans. His favourite habitat is the cremation ground and is always depicted with leaping flames in the background. He is often given a shrine of his own in monasteries and is worshipped in many different forms, with this one being the most usual. In Buddhism the supreme vow is to undertake to attain enlightenment. To neglect this vow is to fall again into Samsara, the cycle of birth, death and rebirth over which Panjara Mahakala presides. Under his guise of the Great Power of Time he represents the absolute impermanence and unreality of the conventional world of separate things.

[34] An Oil on Paper laid on Board of Stonehenge Entitled in Pencil to the Reverse Stonehenge Summer Sunrise and Signed Gideon Fidler Teffont Magna Nr Salisbury Early 20th Century s i z e : 14 cm high, 18.5 cm wide – 5½ ins high, 7¼ ins wide Gideon Matthew Fidler (1857–1942) was the younger brother of the impressionist painter Harry Fidler. Both sons of a Wiltshire farmer they lived and worked in the villages west of Salisbury such as TeVont Magna. Gideon also painted in Scandinavia, exhibiting works at the Royal Academy in 1895 one of which was entitled In Gamie Norge. He also exhibited at the Royal Society of British Artists and the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolour.

Stonehenge today after the repositioning and straightening of 23 megaliths between 1901 and 1964 does not seem very very diVerent from the ruins as it was Wrst depicted in recognisable form. A ‘trilithon’, one of the Wve individually linteled pairs of tall uprights that once stood in an arc at the centre of the site, is missing from the famous portrayals by Turner and Constable as it fell down in 1797 and was repositioned in 1958. However, it is possible that the Stonehenge the Welsh cleric GeoVrey of Monmouth describes in his 1136 ad Historia Regun Britannia is the one we see now. The monument and the questions asked about it have not changed in 650 years, it is the answers that are now put forward to those questions, and the wider context in which Stonehenge is viewed, that has profoundly changed. Huge numbers of people now visit the stones, well over the equivalent of the whole of Britain’s population in GeoVrey of Monmouth’s time have viewed them in the past Wve years. Stonehenge retains its mysterious power and its place in the history of Britain. It is much more than just a monument to the past.

[35] An Unusual and Rare African Democratic Republic of Congo Carved Ivory Portrait Figure of a Black Protestant Missionary his Hair Tied in the Portuguese manner beneath a European hat lace up leather shoes upon his feet his teeth filed Late 19th Century

s i z e : 21.5 cm high – 8½ ins high / 28.5 cm high - 11¼ ins high (on old base) 13 cm dia. – 5 ins dia. (base approx) p rov e na nc e   : Ex European Private collection c f  : Marc Leo Felix; White Gold Black Hands 2014 volume 8, pg. 262, fig 27 To the Congo peoples their world of imagery was manifested in visible gods, but the white man’s missionaries taught them belief in one god capable of definite and sharp presentation neither in person nor in picture, and so knowledge of such as god was a difficult matter. Consequently many preferred, instead of making figures of this new far-oV god, to make sculptures and images of the missionary in their midst. During the last decades of the 19th century Catholic and Protestant missionaries from both Europe and America began to visit the interior of the Congo in some numbers, and the old Catholic syncretic beliefs that previously existed in the 18th century along the Atlantic coast were resurrected through their eVorts. Many converted to this creed and the Congo artists began to produce ivories depicting the Virgin Mary and Christ Child, Crucifixion scenes and figures representing the missionaries, both white and black. All of these sculptures were purchased by both the peoples of the Congo and the expatriate communities, many when they left for home taking the figurines with them, symbols of their colonial presence in Africa.

[36] Two Small Ancient Imperial Romano-Egyptian Marble Heads Portraying the Goddess Fortuna her hair arranged in graceful wavy lines and drawn back into a chignon Perhaps Alexandrian 1st Century ad

s i z e : A: 6 cm high, 4 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 2¼ ins high, 1½ ins wide, 2 ins deep / 15 cm high – 6 ins high (with base) B: 5 cm high, 3.5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 2 ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 1½ ins deep / 14.5 cm high – 5¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Gustave Mustaki collection Acquired in Alexandria early 20th century Exported to the UK under an Egyptian Government License 1947 Small votive statuettes of the goddess Fortuna were used in the shrines of private households. The bringer of good fortune, she also oVered protection to seafarers in her association with the cult of Isis. The main annual festival for the worship of Isis-Fortuna also marked the opening of the season for navigation. By the 1st century ad hair dressing had become a science and occupied a considerable part of a fashionable lady’s time. The natural hair was often insufficient for the towerlike coiVures and so false plaits or wigs were used. Sometimes a removable carved marble hair dress was placed upon the head which could be replaced by a new one according to fashion. The custom of dyeing the hair a reddish-yellow colour is mentioned by Cato as being a Greek custom introduced to Rome, with a caustic soap made of tallow and ashes being imported from Gaul especially for the purpose. The long wars with Germany engendered a predilection for the blond hair of German women, and in consequence, it became a valuable commodity as the Roman women hid their own hair under fair wigs of German locks.

[37] A Fine Chinese Calligraphic Large Convex Scholar’s Wrist Rest the Bamboo Carved with a Poem after Wang Wenzhi (1730–1802) comparing the Artist’s work with Wan Xizhi (303–361) Sealed Menglou The reverse surface engraved with delicate bamboo shoots and a poem sealed Shanfu Qing Dynasty 19th Century

s i z e : 34.5 cm long, 8.5 cm wide – 13½ ins long, 3¼ ins wide / 37.5 cm high – 14¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Brian McElney O.B.E. The bamboo wrist rest in function, material and decoration, reflects the work and ideals of the Chinese scholar. Bamboo carvers, whether amateur or professional, were also skilled in painting, poetry, calligraphy and even seal carving. The silky lacquered upper surface of the wrist rest is carved with an inscription copying an 18th century poem, and this practice of collecting and copying classical poetry was common among scholars and was a product of both scholarly and aesthetic interests. The reuse of these poems in contemporary works of art was regarded as a homage to Chinese literature as well as a means of expressing the calligraphers own interest in poetry and art.

[38] A Pair of Berlin or Gleiwitz Cast Ironwork Portrait Busts Depicting Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe (1749–1832) and Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805) Attributed to Leonhard Posch (Austria 1750–1831 Berlin) The sculpture of Goethe engraved to the shoulder Posch F. Early 19th Century

s i z e : 14 cm high – 5½ ins high / 14.5 cm high – 5¾ ins high p rov e na nc e   : Ex English collection Leonhard Posch produced a series of cast iron portrait busts of philosophers in the early 19th century who had played an important role in relating the literary movement of Romanticism to contemporary philosophical themes. Schiller was a German poet and man of letters remembered for his influential insistence on the importance of aesthetics, and on the primacy of the imagination on artistic expression. The keynote of the Romantic movement was a belief in the value of individual experience and this marked a reaction from the rationalism of the Enlightenment and orderliness of the Neoclassical style. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer, scientist, patron and amateur artist. He was one of the giants of European culture and his writings on the visual arts, particularly on the growth of Romanticism were hugely influential, especially on his fellow philosopher, Schiller. He was a friend and patron of many artists including Caspar David Friedrich and Tischbein. Delacroix, inspired by Goethe’s Faust produced a set of lithographs illustrating the literary work.

[39] A Western Australian Aboriginal Wunda Shield the carved hardwood with fluted abstract zig zag motif divided into three sections each groove painted alternately with red and white pigment the reverse with a loop handle Traces of red ochre on a fluted adzed design Areas of a shiny patina on handle otherwise an old dry dusty surface overall 19th Century

s i z e : 71.5 cm long, 16.5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 28¼ ins long, 6½ ins wide, 1½ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex English Private collection The narrow hardwood shields of long elliptical form in Western Australia were used for parrying spears and other weapons thrown by an enemy or rival, and also for blocking injury during close combat. Wunda are decorated with zig zag lines derived from the form of a snake in the desert sand. Aborigines appreciate personal skill and artefacts made by a craftsmen renowned for his art are eagerly sought after. A shield or weapon that has won many fights is passed on from group to group illustrating the impetus given to inter-tribal trade by the desire to benefit from the embodiment of supernatural powers or the qualities incorporated into the object by a skilful warrior, hunter or fishermen, and which will therefore improve the skill of the person receiving and using them.

[40] Antique Specimen of Narwhal Tusk Monodon Monoceros 19th Century

s i z e : 106 cm long - 41¾ ins long / 116 cm high - 45¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private collection Bristol UK CITES Article 10 certificate available In medieval times the Narwhal was known as the Unicorn of the Sea and during the Italian Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci wrote a treatise on how to capture unicorns. As the narwhal lived in the most inaccessible seas of the Arctic the myth of the unicorn persisted up until the end of the 18th century with the advent of the European whaling industry. The Vikings hunted the narwhal and obtained tusks in trade from the Inuit. They sold these tusks as unicorn horns and said nothing about their true origin. The merchants who carried the tusks to Europe and the Middle East, to China and Japan, seldom knew that these horns were the enormously elongated teeth of an Arctic whale and if they did, kept the knowledge to themselves. It was, after all, in everyone’s interest to maintain the unicorn legend. At the peak of its prestige and popularity unicorn horn was worth ten times its weight in gold. To the vast majority of people the existence of a beautiful white horse with a wonderful twisted horn vouched for by Aristotle, Pliny and the Bible seemed infinitely more believable than the existence of an Arctic whale with a long single ivory tusk.

[41] An Ancient Egyptian Votive Bronze Statue of the Cat Goddess Bastet Holding an Aegis in her Left Hand The right hand once holding a sistrum now missing Old fine smooth dark brown greenish patina Late Period 664 – 332 bc

s i z e : 10 cm high – 4 ins high / 16 cm high - 6¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex English Private collection Mr S.B. London Acquired early 20th Century Ex collection of his Son Mr J.B. London (1920–1972) Thence by descent to his grandson The cat was important to Ancient Egypt both as a domestic pet and as a symbol of deities such as Bastet and Ra the great cat of Heliopolis. There were two indigenous feline species: the jungle cat Felis chaus and the African wild cat Felis silvestris libyca of which the jungle cat was only found in Egypt and southeastern Asia. The earliest Egyptian remains of a cat were found in a tomb at the Predynastic site of Mostagedda suggesting that the Egyptians were already keeping cats as pets in the late fourth millennium bc. The ancient Egyptians held a number of animals to be sacred as the living manifestations of various gods. Sacred animal cults were overseen by their own priesthoods who cared for the animals and ultimately arranged for their mummification and burial. These cults grew in importance from the late New Kingdom onwards reaching a peak in the Late Period (747 – 332 bc) when they formed an important part of the economy. The centre for the cult of sacred cats was at Tell Basta and Beni Hasan, with numerous galleries at the Sacred Animal Necropolis at north Saggara containing mummified remains.

[42] A Collection of Four Bering Sea Eskimo Inuit Hunting Amulets Carved of Walrus Ivory A. A Hunter’s Block Attacher Used to Secure the Harpoon Line to the Float or to the Toggle Handle for Ice Hunting in the form of a diving Bowhead Whale Early 19th Century s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 3 cm wide – 1 ins high, 1¼ ins wide B. A Drag Handle in the Form of a Polar Bear’s Head with two drilled eyes and small carved ears Early 19th Century s i z e : 5 cm long – 2 ins long C. An Ancient Arctic Hunter’s Harpoon Finger Rest in the Form of a Polar Bear’s Head Circa 800 – 1200 ad s i z e : 4.5 cm long – 1¾ ins long D. An Ancient Pendant Hunting Amulet in the Form of a Smiling Swimming Seal a small attachment hole to its tail Circa 800 – 1200 ad s i z e : 4.5 cm long – 1¾ ins long The Shamans communicated with the spirits supplicating them for success in hunting to help the Inuit community survive in the harsh northern snow and ice bound landscape. Clothing, regalia and amulets such as these examples embodied the Shamans power and spiritual mystery. Masks, drums, headdresses, harpoons and amulets were the tools, weapons and armour of the Shaman establishing his authority with the people, and allowing him to venture safely into the spirit world.

[43] A West African Nigerian Yoruba Female Skull of a Sacrificial Victim with Traces of Blue Paint Early 19th Century

s i z e  : 15 cm high, 19 cm deep – 6 ins high, 7½ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private UK collection An old typed card from, 52 Fountain House, Park Lane, W1 reading: A Yoruba Female Skull with Some Blue Painted Decoration (Nigeria) Lot No. 29 in a Sale at Sothebys on 11th December 1967 The occasion of a Yoruba King’s death was a time of dire distress in the palace as apart from those who were bound by their special oYce to die with the king, immolation was more or less indiscriminate in order to furnish the monarch with a large retinue in the next world. The Reverend Samuel Johnson, Pastor of Oyo in his book The History of the Yorubas (Lagos 1921) reports that nearly everyone tried to hide in every available nook or corner and even in the ceilings of their apartments. It was also a time of mourning for the relatives of those who had received the death cloth as it was called, for they knew that in the evening they would bury a relative who had been strong and healthy in the morning and up to the time the fatal cup was taken. The fatal cup was the favoured method of death by poisoning. In 1886 the practise of human sacrifice was banned in many of the Yoruba regions of Nigeria which had traditionally taken place at the funerals of Kings and at the festival of a deity.

[44] Rare Pacific Fijian Chief ’s Ritual Flesh or Cannibal Fork Icula Ni Bakola of Carved Hardwood Contained in a cardboard box inscribed to the lid: Cannibal Fork, Has Been Used, Brought Home From Fiji 1857 by Capt. J.P. Luce. H.M.S. Esk Old dark glossy patina Early to Mid 19th Century s i z e : 29 cm long – 11½ ins long pProv e na nc e  : Captain John Proctor Luce (1827 – 1869) was in Command of H.M.S. Wanderer a Five Gun Royal Navy Vessel launched in 1855 until 1864 when he took Command of H.M.S. Esk following the death of Captain Hamilton, after whom the town Hamilton in New Zealand is named, at the Battle of Gate Pah in the Maori Wars in April 1864. Captain Luce returned home in H.M.S. Esk from Auckland in 1867 dying two years later. Most of Captain Luce’s collection of artefacts gathered on his travels including Maori items and Fijian clubs was donated to the British Museum by Margaret Luce some of which can be seen on display Thence by descent to his Great Grandson Icula ni Bakola means fork for human victim and the eating of Xesh, whether human or animal, presented a problem for priests and chiefs who were the living representatives of the gods and therefore in a tapu state. Flesh from a human victim known as puaka balavu or vonu balavu, long pig or long turtle was ritually eaten, as was pork and turtle meat, as a sacrificial oVering. On these occasions special forks would be used, with the assistance of attendants who carefully manipulated them to avoid contact with the lips, to place the meat directly into the mouth. After their first use the forks were hung up as tapu relics in the spirit house of the chief or priest to whom they belonged. Each was individually named and passed down through the generations. After 1854 and the conversion of Chief Ratu Seru Cakobau to Christianity, followed by other neighbouring and subordinate chieftains, the ritual Xesh forks were gradually made available for trade. Baron von Hügel was visited in September 1875 by Chief Ratu Seru Cakobau who teased him by saying that on his recent trip to the mountains he ought to have been eaten: This he illustrated by making the most hideous faces and catching hold of me with his hand by the chest, much like a poulterer would a fowl, to see if it’s fit for the table (Journals of Baron von Hügel; 1990 pg. 147)

[45] Fine Victorian Flamed Mahogany Two Door Collectors Cabinet of twenty drawers containing Fossils to include Sharks Teeth Corals and a large bone Minerals to include Agate and Mica specimens and six drawers filled with Pacific and Indian Ocean Sea Shells Two further hidden drawers to the upper frieze Circa 1840 – 1870

s i z e : 117 cm high, 113 cm wide, 55 cm deep - 46 ins high, 44½ ins wide, 21¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection of the Hext Family Coniston Thence by descent The culture of collecting, the seeking out, sorting, organising, displaying, storing and cataloguing of items of natural, scientific, archaeological or aesthetic interest is an ancient and deeply rooted psychological need, even prehistoric man is said to have made collections of found objects. The scope of collecting is unlimited with some people arbitrarily accumulating many objects that meet a general thematic requirement. Other collectors known as completists aim to acquire all the items in a well defined set, whilst others seek a limited number of items per category. Sometimes monetary value, quality and condition is important, but is irrelevant to others. Collecting is usually a lifelong pursuit, and is always a passionate expression of a desire for knowledge, order and beauty.

[46] Two Indo-Portuguese Goa Turned Ivory Apothecary’s Mortars with their original Ivory Pestles Age cracks and small chips to foot rims Old smooth silky creamy patina Late 17th – Early 18th Century

s i z e : A: 15 cm high, 8.5 cm dia. (max) – 6 ins high, 3¾ ins dia. (max) 18 cm long – 7 ins long (pestle) B: 13.5 cm high, 8.5 cm dia. – 5¼ ins high, 3¾ ins dia. 23 cm long – 9 ins long (pestle) s e e  : Finch & Co catalogue no. 25, item no. 12, for other examples The extremely rapid development of the Portuguese Estado da India was an astonishing accomplishment in view of Portugal’s relatively small size and great distance from the continent. Their desire to dominate the maritime spice trade took them to the Indian Ocean where in the 16th century they established their state headquarters in Goa, which remained in Portuguese hands until 1961. However, they never achieved a monopoly over the spice trade, and within decades the Venetians had revived their land based trade, but the Portuguese were unrivalled in the field of luxury goods. The works of art that survive from the period tell of extraordinary skills of the artists and craftsmen working in India and Sri Lanka. The Portuguese directed and instructed the manufacture of the exotic treasures many of which were exported back to Europe.

[47] An Unusually Large and Fine Kanak New Caledonian Bird Beaked and Headed War Club 19th Century

s i z e : 79 cm high, 40.5 cm deep, 12 cm wide – 31 ins high, 16 ins deep, 4¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Collected by a Southern French Entomologist in New Caledonia in the Early 20th Century Thence by Descent c f  : A similar large war club photographed at the Musée du Trocadéro in 1895, Musée du Quai Branly, Paris New Caledonian clubs come in a range of extraordinary shapes from phallomorphic to bird headed and in the early 20th century these Kanak weapons influenced and inspired sculptors such as Henry Moore (Studies of Sculpture from the British Museum pg. 105) and artists such as Max Ernst and Andre Breton. Clubs such as this were owned by high ranking men and would have signified their status as someone to be treated with respect. Warfare was widespread throughout Island Melanesia until colonial influences bought it to an end after 1840. The particular kind of tactic practised consisted of ambush and other kinds of surprise attack. Ancestors were considered particularly important in supporting and strengthening the living during warfare, and so there was a critical need to secure the dead and wounded from the enemy as the physical remains contained the power to attract ancestors to the places where they were kept. To the Kanak, relations between the living and the dead were dependent on the bodies of the deceased.

[48] A Fine New Caledonian Kanak Hardwood War Club with Large Mushroom Shaped Phallic Formed Head with Distinctive Expanded Flange at the Butt Small old chips to edge of head through use Natural polished dark brown patina Early 19th Century s i z e  : 64 cm long – 25¼ ins long

[49] Collection of Kayan and Kenyah Dyak East Kalimantan Indonesia Mens Earrings Carved in Relief from the Beak Crest of a Rhinoceros Hornbill (Buceros Rhinoceros) A. A Plain Unadorned Earring Carved from the Large Crest of a Rhinoceros Hornbill s i z e  : 7.5 cm high, 3.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 3 ins high, 1½ ins wide, ¾ in deep / 11 cm high – 4¼ ins high (on base) B. An Earring Carved in the Round with a Double Headed Dragon or Aso a Powerful Mythological Protective Force Worn by Headhunters s i z e  : 5 cm high, 4.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 2 ins high, 1¾ ins wide, ¾ ins deep / 9.5 cm high – 3¾ ins high (on base) C. An Earring with Traditional Foliate Scroll Motifs Representing a Hunting Dog s i z e  : 7.5 cm high, 3.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 3 ins high, 1½ ins wide, ¾ in deep / 11 cm high – 4¼ ins high (on base) 19th Century p rov e na nc e   : Ex Hampshire Private collection The Rhinoceros Hornbill is a word that has special significance for the Kayan and Kenyah Dyak people of Borneo playing a central role in most of their creation myths by symbolising the giving of life, and as a henchman of their vociferous gods helping to wreck havoc on their enemies. Warriors, headhunters and men of rank wore earrings cut from the upper crest of the beak of the Hornbill to enhance their attractiveness and to proclaim their skills and status. The highest status was reserved for those leaders who led war expeditions and hunted heads in areas never before occupied by the Dyak. Regarded as savage and cannibalistic by Europeans in the mid 19th century, the Dutch colonial government in Borneo curtailed Dyak traditional activity mainly by means of missionary conversion to Christianity. However, headhunting resurfaced in the mid 1940’s when the Allied Powers encouraged the practice against the Japanese occupation of Borneo.

[50] Two Ancient Romano-British Bronze Votive Figures of the Hero Heracles / Hercules Smooth brown patina 2nd – 3rd Century ad

s i z e : A: 9.5 cm high – 3¾ ins high / 14 cm high – 5½ ins high (with base) B: 8.5 cm high – 3¼ ins high / 13.5 cm high – 5¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Crellin Family Found in the 19th Century in the grounds of Denton Foot Cottage, Gilsland, Northumberland Authenticated by Chesterholm Museum, Vindolanda, exhibited at Tullie House Museum, Carlisle 2008–2012 Thence by descent Heracles was a popular figure with the ancient Greeks, who had a conspicuous predilection for semi-divine heroes. He was the greatest of the heroes in Greek mythology and of all his mythical contemporaries: Perseus, Theseus, Jason or Asclepius, he became the closest to full divine honours. Unusually he had no grave and so his remains did not belong to any one city or state, from the funeral pyre he translated directly to Mount Olympus. Without hesitation the Romans later adopted him as Hercules, the powerful god of physical strength who was especially worshipped by the Roman legions.

[51]A Rare Chinese Baked Clay Head of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara Guanyin the face with delicate contemplative feminine features a tall headdress and pendulous earlobes Traces of polychrome and gilded gesso on buff baked earthenware Early Ming Dynasty / 15th Century

s i z e : 22 cm high, 16.5 cm wide, 14.5 cm deep – 8¾ ins high, 6½ ins wide, 5¾ ins deep / 36 cm high – 14¼ ins high (with base) The Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, the Chinese goddess of compassion and mercy, Guanyin has historically been one of the most popular and favoured Buddhist deities in China. Her full name Guanshiyin means she who hears the cries of the world. She was known as the compassionate Bodhisattva during the Tang and Song dynasties (7th and 13th centuries) and portrayed as a male figure, but by the Ming dynasty the deity was depicted as a beautiful serene female figure. This was probably in part due to the lack of suitable figures for women to worship. Many of Guanyin’s reputed powers, as for example, her ability to send sons are specifically concerned with women’s issues. As a Bodhisattva, Guanyin is an enlightened being who has put oV entering paradise in order to help others attain enlightenment. Her worldly ornaments such as her headdress, are in sharp contrast to the usual austere and plain images of the Buddha, emphasising her non-ethereal status. However, it is still commonly believed that anyone who can recite Guanyin’s name in times of distress will be heard and rescued by her, which is why she is the most worshipped deity in Buddhism.

[52] Two German Finely Carved Boxwood Portrait Reliefs of Saints Peter and Paul In ebony frames with old labels to reverse and inventory no’s. 1217 Mid 17th Century

s i z e : 14 cm high, 12 cm wide – 5½ ins high, 4¾ ins wide 17 cm high, 15.5 cm wide (frame) – 6¾ ins high, 6¼ ins wide (frame) The power to declare sainthood derives from Christ’s commission to St Peter: I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven,

and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven (Matthew 16:18) Saints have an ancient role as intercessors between God and man. As God could seem too awesome to be approachable the prayerful could ask the saints in heaven to intercede for them with God. They are therefore not prayed to, but asked to pray to God on behalf of the devout follower. Christian names were originally taken from those of the saints in the hope that the namesake saint would then watch over the child. St Paul was executed in Rome during the persecution of the Emperor Nero on the same day as St Peter, the 29th of June, and they share this as their feast day. Peter was cruciďŹ ed upon an inverted cross, whereas Paul as a Roman citizen was entitled to be executed by beheading with a sword, the sword becoming his major attribute.

[53] A Central African South Eastern Congo Katanga Luba Ceremonial Carved Ivory Adze Handle Inscribed with old inventory no. 1094 Smooth aged golden patina 19th Century

s i z e : 30 cm high – 11¾ ins high / 32.5 cm high – 12¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex European Private collection c f  : Marc Leo Felix White Gold Black Hands 2012 Vol. 4 pg. 133 fig C2 & 3 Ceremonial adze were carried over the shoulder by Luba dignitaries and were symbols of the legitimacy and dignity of a chief, or of a diviner celebrating their importance as an advisor to a person in authority. Once having a forged flat iron blade protruding from the head, this ceremonial tool was an emblem of leadership and an indicator of status. Those adze made for diviners were not embellished with figurative elements such as the carved female heads which were often associated with kingship and royal authority. In Luba society the enlightenment, counsel and therapeutic benefits aVorded by diviners provided an essential complement to the legislative role of the governing elite. The status and rank of the Luba diviners as advisors to royal and chiefly authority is shown by their ownership of these fine ceremonial adze.

[54] Exceptional New Zealand Maori Taiaha of early form the long flared blade terminating in a stylised projecting tongue shaped head decorated with scrolling ornament Old rich dark brown silky glossy patina Late 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 177 cm long, 7 cm wide – 69¾ ins long, 2¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection James Hooper Totems Museum Arundel Inv no. 244 Sold Christies London 21st June 1977 Lot 45 Ex Private European collection Before the arrival of Captain Cook the Maori did not have metals and used hardwoods such as ake-ake (dodona) and manuka (leptospernum) as well as hardstones and the bones of cetaceans to make their weapons. The taiaha became known as the most characteristic weapon of the Maori as it was almost constantly in the hands of persons of distinction. In fact they were thought of as carved staVs of rank. Not only was it a weapon capable of scientific use, possessing a traditional role in warfare somewhat like that of the English quarterstaV, but it was indispensable to the chiefly orator as he trod the marae and delivered his speech. The management of the taiaha as a fighting weapon was studied with as much care and attention by a Maori warrior as a European swordsman gave to the mastery of a glistening steel blade. The Maori also understood the etiquette of the taiaha in adding force to an argument or accentuating an oratorical flourish, and these moves were much practised by men of rank. The taiaha was also believed to possess great powers of prophetic augury and in the hands of those capable of performing the proper incantations the result of a battle could be ascertained beforehand. The method was to lay the taiaha upon the ground before the war party whilst the chief performed the necessary karakias and if the gods were propitious, the taiaha would turn itself slowly over before the assembled eyes of the community to the utter confusion of the enemy.

[55] A Remarkable Pair of English Lead Figures of Leopards Their Open Mouths Revealing Their Fangs with Wide Eyes and Small Ears Probably from a Heraldic Device 17th Century

s i z e : 24 cm high, 56 cm wide, 14 cm deep – 9½ ins high, 22 ins wide, 5½ ins deep and 23 cm high, 56 cm wide, 14 cm deep – 9 ins high, 22 ins wide, 5½ ins deep / 29 cm high – 11½ ins high – 28 cm high – 11 ins high (with base) These unusual lead figures are remarkable for their survival as lead was always regarded as a valuable material. It was much loved by Henry VIII’s church commissioners during the dissolution as it added greatly to the value of the monastic spoils. However, it was once cheaper than bronze being referred to by Bassanio as ‘thou meagre lead’, but for garden statuary, fountains, cisterns and armourials the silvery grey patina in an English light is a delightful feature. Probably part of a family crest these leopards may have stood on the gate piers of a grand house. A 17th century lead sculpture of a boar once adorned the gate pier of Myddleton House at Waltham Cross and bears similarities to these leopards. They are a suitable attribute for a gate as leopards symbolised vigilance, for they were believed to sleep with their eyes open.

[56] Two Rare Ancient Etruscan Large Votive Amber Beads One carved with the Archaic Face of the Goddess Core or Persephone the other of biconical oblate disc shape

Circa 600 – 500 bc

s i z e : A: 4.5 cm dia, 2 cm deep – 1¾ ins dia., ¾ ins deep / 6.5 cm high – 2½ ins high (on base) B: 3 cm high, 3 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 1¼ wide, 1 ins deep / 9.5 cm high – 3¾ ins high (on base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Horatio and Patsy Melas Alexandria Egypt Acquired Prior to 1967 Moved to Switzerland and London Thence by descent c f  : Metropolitan Museum, New York, Inv. no. 1992.11.28 for a similar head Amber was imported from the Baltic by the ancient Etruscans and regarded as a luxury item of high status. Prized for its colour, it also had a special significance as it was possessed of electrical properties. When rubbed amber develops a negative electrical static enabling it to pick up fibres or lint and this phenomenon was observed by Plato and Aristotle during the 4th century bc. Indeed our word electricity comes from elektron, the Greek name for amber. Amber’s electrical properties and its golden sun-like colour underlie the amuletic and curative properties ascribed to it.

[57] A French Carved Ivory Portrait Relief of Jacques-Henri Bernadin de Saint-Pierre (1737–1814) Enlightenment Author Botanist Traveller and early Advocate of Vegetarianism Signed and dated to the shoulder A: Rossett. Sculpsit 1805 Circa 1805 s i z e  : 13.5 cm dia. – 5¼ ins dia. p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private British collection Jacques-Henri Bernadin de Saint-Pierre was a leading figure in the French enlightenment. An author and botanist, he travelled widely through Russia, Poland, Austria and Mauritius. He is best known today for his popular children’s book Paul et Virginie. At the age of twelve he read Robinson Crusoe and subsequently travelled with his uncle, a sea captain, to the West Indies. Educated as an engineer, he later joined the French Army and was involved in the seven years war against Prussia and England. In 1768 he went to Mauritius and studied the botany of the Island. In 1771 he met and became a pupil and friend of Jean Jacques Rousseau. Together they studied the flora of the environs of Paris. In 1795 he was elected to the Institut de France and became manager of the Botanical gardens. He also became a director of the zoo situated in the Jardin des Plantes and formulated his ideas on vegetarianism. He maintained that a carnivorous animal in devouring its prey alive committed a sin against the laws of its own nature. He became a passionate advocate, and early pioneer and practitioner of vegetarianism. Both the philosopher Voltaire, and his mentor Rousseau influenced his thoughts and writings. In 1803 he was made a member of the Académie Française. He died aged 77 in 1814 having lived through both the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.

[58] Two Curious French Naive Carved Walnut Architectural Models Probably based on the Louvre Palace in Paris both Carved with Napoleonic Associations A. A cylinder with fretwork rose window to the top possibly used to insert discs of coloured glass to create a light box in front of a window beside which stand two pairs of gentlemen arm in arm and shaking hands underneath them inscriptions J E Rome / Pierre and Napoleon a Dre To the centre pediment is carved a battle scene with the Emperor on horseback on the left another shows Napoleon on his famous horse Marengo on the right a scene of a Soldier holding a gun preventing the Emperor’s entrance and underneath the motto On N . Passe Pas Some losses to chain and cannon Circa 1810 – 1820 B. A second architectural model signed and dated to the cylinder barrel Boularot 1849 and to the other side POC Rochel Bonaparte PC Paris a central figure of Napoleon standing with his telescope upon a concentric ball Four Figures of Gentlemen with Inlaid Glass Eyes stand Two to each side with Uplifted arms acting as Supporters to the Emperor. Underneath the left pair the words Pierre 3 and Louis N2 and on the right Napoleon 2 the central cylinder barrel with fretworked rose window hung about with interlinking chains the reverse has a hinged door to the bottom revealing a narrow chamber and carved with Boularot Aveyron NCA Estaing 1812 Circa 1812 to 1849 (the figure of Napoleon 1880–90) s i z e  : 69 cm high, 45 cm wide, 16 cm deep – 27¼ ins high, 17¾ ins wide, 6¼ ins deep / 65 cm high, 48 cm wide, 15.5 cm deep – 25½ ins high, 19 ins wide, 6 ins deep Aveyron is a department located in the north of the Occitane region of Southern France named after the Aveyron River in the prefecture of Rodez. Estaing is a community in the Aveyron. Boularot is a family name associated with the area in the 18th century and 19th centuries so it is possible that this particular model was made by three generations of the same Boularot family. Begun in 1812 with additional modelling in 1849 and with the central figure of Napoleon completed probably at the end of the 19th century. Scale models of buildings were systematic rather than inventive as they were made to represent a tangible structure that helped explain to potential clients the essentials of an architectural project. These models were produced by amateurs with an artistic flair and a sense of national patriotism and history and were instructive as well as decorative.

[59] A Superb Rare Southern African Northern Nguni Blond Rhinoceros Horn Ceremonial Sceptre Silky smooth lustrous patina 19th Century

s i z e  : 71 cm long – 28 ins long / 63 cm high – 24¾ high (on base) s e e  : Finch & Co catalogue no. 22, item no. 20, for a Blond Rhinoceros Horn Knobkerrie Of elegant form with a long delicately tapering shaft this chief’s sceptre has a fine colour and patina. It is made from the horn of a white African rhinoceros which naturally have much longer horns than the black rhino. Batons, sceptres and knobkerries fashioned from rhinoceros horn were used by the Zulu to denote significant status. They were an essential part of a chief ’s regalia functioning as a ceremonial staV of oVice and as a symbol of personal dignity. In the 19th century rhino horns of exceptional length were rare and there was a direct correlation between their prestige value and their length.

[60] A South African Tsonga Prestige StaV depicting a ChieXy Zulu Elder wearing a Head-ring Beard and Loincloth Attributed to the Baboon Master Old smooth silky reddish brown patina Late 19th Century s i z e  : 91 cm long – 35¾ ins long At the end of the 19th century there were several migrant Tsonga craftsmen working in the colony of Natal carving hardwood figural staVs for sale to the emerging European market. Many British soldiers were brought to fight in the Anglo-Zulu war and then later in the South African war. They all wanted keepsakes to take back with them; as Colonel Henry Fanshawe Davies of the Grenadier Guards noted in April 1879 in a letter home: I bought a Zulu’s walking stick at Durban. The most famous of the carvers came to be known as the Baboon Master as working in the region of Pietermaritzburg and Durban in the 1880’s and 1890’s he carved staVs incorporating the form of a baboon into the handle astride two male heads. He also carved fine single South African Zulu male and female figures, and it is now thought that his distinctive carvings were also used as ceremonial and important prestige items by the indigenous Zulu people of the area.

[61] An Ancient Egyptian Miniature Calcite Cosmetic Pot Early Dynastic Period / Circa 3100 bc

s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 3 cm dia. – 1½ ins high, 1¼ ins dia. / 5 cm high – 2 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Horatio and Patsy Melas collection Alexandria Egypt Acquired prior to 1967 Moved to Switzerland and London Thence by descent From the early Egyptian dynastic period precious unguents and other cosmetic preparations were stored in small jars. In this and the Old Kingdom miniature vessels were carved from hard stones such as travertine, diorite and limestone. In the New Kingdom alabaster, prized for its translucency became the material of choice. When not in use cosmetic pots and unguent jars were often stored with other cosmetic items in small wooden caskets specially fitted with drawers and compartments.

[62] An Ancient Greek Miniature Bronze Jug with channelled spout used for scented and perfumed oils Smooth dark green patina 6th – 5th Century bc

s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 3 cm dia. – 1½ ins high, 1¼ ins dia. / 5 cm high – 2 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Antoni Sikorski collection London Acquired 1950’s Oil was extensively used in ancient times. Apart from in food and for burning in lamps, it served to anoint the body after bathing and in the palaestra, or wrestling school. Greek athletes rubbed their bodies with oil and pumice before contests and then removed the dust and sweat from the body with the aid of a curved bronze scraper called a strigil. The most used was olive oil with the best coming from the Greek state of Attica where the olive tree was considered a gift of Athena. Scented oils were made for perfuming the dress, bath water, and for massaging into the skin, whilst pomades were made for the hair and beard. Cold or hot pressed oils from olives or nuts such as almonds, were mixed with scented flowers, grasses and other herbal aromatics and then preserved in vessels of stone, alabaster or bronze.

[63] Expressive and Dramatic Native American Woodlands Iroquois Seneca False Face Society Mask of Carved Wood with Accented Metal Eyes a Crooked Bent Nose and Long Tresses of Black Horse Hair Attached to a Horsehide Strip Circa 1860’s – 1880’s

s i z e : 25 cm high, 18 cm wide, 10 cm deep – 10 ins high, 7 ins wide, 4 ins deep approx: 56 cm long – 22 ins long (with hair) c f  : Peabody Museum of Salem, Mass E27945, for a similar example These masks were worn by members of the Hidigonsa Shano a club of masked dancers in curing ceremonies. Embodying a supernatural being their origin is believed to date from the mythical past when the leader of the supernatural forest dwellers, the Great Humpbacked One, challenged the creator to a test of strength. As punishment the giant was given the task of helping humans combat sickness. The masks were carved from the wood of living trees and are therefore also considered to be living and breathing. Traditionally red painted masks were carved from trees in the morning, and black ones in the afternoon. The false face ritual is performed by members of an Iroquois medicine society during the Spring and Autumn with smaller versions sometimes occurring mid Winter. Wearing masks embodying the spiritual being the members go through the houses of the community driving away sickness, disease and evil spirits using turtle shell rattles which they shake and rub along the floors and walls to expel the unwanted spirits. If a sick person is found, a healing ritual is performed using tobacco and chanting. Once the tobacco is burned the ashes are blown over the invalid. The community then gathers at the long house where the false faces enter and sit on the floor. The people bring tobacco which is collected as they arrive and burned when the ceremony begins. The ritual renews and restrengthens the power of the gathered masks as well as that of the great spirit Hadui. The ceremony continues with dancing and at the end a white corn mush is given to the assembled crowd who eat and then retire home.

[64] A Rare Ancient Sardinian Nuragic Solid Cast Figure of an Archer Holding his Bow over his Shoulder Wearing a Leather Cap with a Long Plume 10th – 7th Century bc

s i z e  : 6.5 cm high, 3 cm wide, 6.5 cm deep – 2½ ins high, 1 ins wide, 2½ ins deep / 15 cm high – 6 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private collection Antoni Sikorski London Acquired 1950’s c f  : George Ortiz Collection Royal Academy London 1994 no. 175 & 178 for similar bronzes Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean where the Nuragic civilisation developed in the 18th century bc to the 2nd century ad. The name comes from the characteristic fortress or tower like constructions, seven thousand of which still dot the landscape and have become symbolic of Sardinia. The Nuragic civilisation was based on clans each led by a chief who lived in the complex Nuraghe tower whilst the people lived in village communities in straw thatched round houses. They traded widely and had links with the Mycenaeans, Spain, Italy, Cyprus and the Lebanon using eYciently built ships of up to 15 metres in length. It is now believed that they were the first bronze age people to practise viticulture in the western Mediterranean. Sardinia was rich in metals which were mined and used to make bronze weapons and statuettes by the lost wax technique. These have been discovered in various sites on Sardinia as well as in the Greek colony of Crotone. Nuraghe bronzes portray the figures of chief-kings, artisans, musicians, wrestlers and fighting warriors. Their warlike society had precise military divisions that included archers and infantry men, all of whom worshipped mythological heroes by the names of Sardus, Iolaos and Aristeus who had been important military leaders. The troops wore diVerent uniforms denoting the clan or military unit that they belonged to. Their hair was cut very short and often covered by a leather cap such as this figure wears. These bronzes were votive dedications representing aristocratic warriors and hunters with the shared characteristics of a square pouch over their chests, helmets or caps on their heads and their right hand extended forward in a gesture of oVering.

[65] A Bronze Arm and Hand from a Buddha Sakyamuni from Thailand the Hand with delicately rendered Fingers raised in the Teaching Gesture Fine smooth old greenish brown patina Ayutthaya Kingdom 17th Century

s i z e : 10 cm high, 13.5 cm long, 4.5 cm wide – 4 ins high, 5¼ ins long, 1¾ ins wide / 11 cm high – 4¼ ins high (on base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex European collection In contrast with other great religious teachers of the world such as Confucius, Jesus or Mohammed, the Buddha was known as Sakyamuni the silent sage of the Sakya clan. This clan inhabited a region of Nepal where the Buddha was born. The Buddha was simply known as the wise or enlightened one and acted as a permanent spiritual signpost for the people. The Buddha is said to have foreseen that his teachings over the centuries would become an organised religion and evolve a distinct mythology, but he also taught that the mendicant monks would always daily remind the people of the true path. Today, it is still the custom in Thailand for young people to adopt holy orders for a short period of time to learn the teachings of the historical Buddha.

[66] A Thai Bronze Robed Torso of The Walking Buddha Shakyamuni the details of the naked chest and abdomen still defined under the encrusted green patinated surface Sukothai Period 14th – 15th Century

s i z e : 24.5 cm high, 17 cm wide, 7 cm deep – 9¾ ins high, 6¾ ins wide, 2¾ ins deep / 31 cm high – 12¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Major Michael Pitt-Rivers acquired 1950’s Ex collection William Gronow Davies MFH Thence by descent The Buddha is facing toward the viewer displaying the gesture of reassurance with his left hand rather than with the customary right hand. He is poised to step forward, his right arm swinging outward. The image of the walking Buddha first appeared in Sukhothai where the first Thai kingdom was established in 1238. The iconography is said to have been derived from representations of the Buddha Shakyamuni descending from the heavens after preaching to his mother. Buddhism in Sukhothai had close associations with Sri Lanka, so it is possible that the idea was borrowed from there rather than India. Much importance is attached in Sri Lanka to the Buddha’s meditation and cognition while pacing back and forth Chankamana after his enlightenment at Bodhgaya.

[67] A Large Japanese Carved Walrus Ivory Okimono of a Human Skull Surmounted by a Snail a Toad and a Snake Memento Mori The eyes inlaid with horn Signed Mitsuchika Meiji Period Circa 1900 s i z e : 6.5 cm high, 7 cm deep, 5 cm wide – 2½ ins high, 2¾ ins deep, 2 ins wide In Japan there is a proverb called the San Sakumi which observes; the snake eats the toad, the toad eats the snail, but the slime of the snail means the death to the snake. Toads are always associated with Gama Sennin whose spirit is said to have entered a toad, hence his name Gama. Always caring for the toad he is believed to have invented an elixir to prolong life which he periodically administered to his toad. Buddhists, as well as Christians, use the symbol of the skull as a vanitas or memento mori, a warning that in the end all physical beauty deteriorates into a skeleton. It is wise therefore not to be vain, but to concentrate on spirituality.

[68] A South Pacific Polynesian Society Islands Bonito Fishing Hook with a Shaped Shank of Mother of Pearl with Attached Mother of Pearl Hook Bound with a Double Hackle a Leader of Woven Plant Fibre Attached to a Length of Line 19th Century

s i z e : 18 cm high – 7 in high / 30 cm high – 11¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Parisian Private collection The bonito was hunted from canoes with a long bamboo rod during a nine month period from October to June. C.H. NordoV in his Notes on the Offshore Fishing of the Society Islands ( Journal of the Polynesian Society Vol. 399, no’s 2 & 3) comments that after 8 years of fishing with the natives he is convinced that the bonito distinguish between the various shadings of the shank colours and can react to them. For this reason the fisherman generally carries a dozen hooks with him and selects the appropriate one according to weather conditions and the time of day there will be one at which the fish will strike freely; yet all twelve have been chosen by an expert fisherman. He also notes that old successful bonito hooks were prized not just for their utilitarian value, but because in the course of many years of catching countless numbers of fish they had acquired enormous and powerful mana.

[69] A Fine and Rare Fijian Ceremonial Chief’s Staff I Titoko Engraved to one end for use as a grip With an old label inscribed in Ink: Antique Chiefs Staff Carving Worn With Use Fiji The hardwood with fine rippled smooth and silky patina 18th – Early 19th Century s i z e : 145.5 cm long, approx: 4 cm dia. – 57¼ ins long, approx: 1½ dia. p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private French collection c f  : A very similar staff in the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart, Tasmania, Inventory no: M3524–2 The common rougher form of this staff is known and used as a walking staff for hiking across difficult territory. The everyday importance of the ordinary Titoko is indicated by Captain Charles Wilkes: our next difficulty was to ascend a very steep and slippery path, leading up to a mountain spot, to the town of Vunimbua the capital of the Soloira district, and the residence of its chief. The earth was so moist after the late rains, that we were obliged to use long Titokos or walking sticks to preserve our footing. The natives here, but more especially the women who are much ill-used, and employed as beasts of burden, carry a Titoko with them whenever they go on a journey (Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838–1842 Vol. 3, pg. 70)

[70] A Rare Italian Roman Rectangular Bronze Devotional Plaque Depicting Two Sorrowing Cherubim Displaying St Veronica’s Veil Attributed to Domenico Guidi (1625–1701) or Ercole Ferrata (1610–1686) Apparently un-recorded Mid 17th Century

s i z e : 17.5 cm high, 21.5 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 7 in high, 8½ ins wide, ½ ins deep / 21.5 cm high – 8½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Edward Cheney Badger Hall Shropshire Ex collection Francis Capelcure Sold at Christies 1905 Lot 54 Ex English Private collection The attribution to Domenico Guidi or Ercole Ferrata is based on its stylistic and thematic similarity to a set of eight bigger marble reliefs, four by each sculptor, that are set over the small doorways, porticelle, round the choir of Borromini’s major Roman church of Sant’Agnese in Agone situated on Piazza Navona, Rome. These reliefs depict the same plump and attractive cherubim in flight bearing the symbolic instruments of Agnes’s martyrdom, a sword, a brazier and a lamb for which Ferrata was paid in 1658 and Guidi in 1669. The cherubim flank a short column against which Christ was tied and whipped at the command of Pontius Pilate, surrounding the column lie the symbolic instruments of the Passion, a leather cat of nine tails to the left and a scourge of thorny twigs to the right. St Veronica of Jerusalem is said to have wiped the face of Christ with her veil whilst he was carrying the cross to Calvary. According to early Christian tradition the linen cloth became imprinted with the image of Christ’s face and became one of the most revered relics of the Christian church. The legend states that St Veronica bore the veil away from the Holy Land and used it to cure the Roman Emperor Tiberius of an illness. It was seen in Rome in the 8th century and was in St Peter’s by 1297. St Veronica’s act of kindness is represented in the sixth of fourteen Stations of the Cross and this plaque was probably one of a series used in a shrine context in a private devotional chapel.

[71] A Central Australian Aboriginal Churinga of Unusual Form Decorated Both Sides with Intricate Totemic Designs An old stone drilled hole permitting its use as a Bullroarer Possibly Wardaman Peoples Old dry crusty patina Early to Mid 19th Century

s i z e  : 15 cm long, 12 cm wide – 6 ins long, ¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Collected in the Australian outback early 20th Century Later sold to a contemporary art dealer Churingas are manufactured with great care and patience as they are sacred objects representing the ancestral and the individual spirit of its owner. Each Aboriginal tribe is divided into totems related to animals, plants or objects, and the legends and relationship of each totemic group are recorded on the churingas. The highly conventionalised abstract designs are engraved on them by means of possum teeth, and it is these designs that record the legends. The various engraved symbols help the tribal elder who knows the legend to recite it correctly. Some central Australian wooden churingas have a small hole drilled through one end, and if a string is fastened through it, they can be whirled around above the head. They produce a loud humming sound which women believe to be the voice of a dangerous spirit; they are known as bullroarers.

[72] A Large Australian Northeast Queensland Aboriginal Rainforest Sword Club 19th Century

s i z e  : 143 cm long, 10 cm wide – 56¼ ins long, 4 ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex English Private collection c f  : W.J. Macleay collection H589 for a similar club collected 1885 by J.A. Boyd, The Macleay Museum University of Sydney, Australia Sword clubs used for fighting with intent to kill or maim opponents originated in the Cardwell and Bloomfield areas of North Queensland. Roth noted in 1910 (Vol III 210 pl. LXI fig 16) that clubs of this type were made on the Bloomfield River and were always used with one hand stretched over the shoulder, the weapon hanging behind the back and brought forward from above down with a more or less sudden jerk; well directed, a blow from it can split a man’s skull. In 1875 Macleay’s ship, the Chevert anchored oV Cape Grenville in the far north of Queensland. The local aboriginal people, the Wuthathi helped to renew the ships water supplies in return for food and European trade goods, with tobacco being regarded as the most important item of trade. For six days the ship remained at the Cape whilst Macleay’s zoologists assisted by local tribesmen collected specimens of the local indigenous fauna and flora, and various ethnographical artefacts. In August 1882 J.A. Boyd bought a shield and a spear for half a pound of tobacco, twelve shillings and eight pence.

[73] An Ancient Roman Silver Figure of a Rearing Horned Goat the Finial of a Ladies hair pin 1st – 2nd Century ad

s i z e : 3 cm high – 1¼ ins high / 7.5 cm high – 3 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Antoni Sikorski collection Acquired London 1950’s Ancient Roman matrons tied up their hair with a fillet in a tower shaped top knot, but unmarried women wore their hair in a simple a style as possible. Generally it was parted or fastened up in a knot on the neck or worn in tresses arranged round the front of the head. During the Imperial Roman period more elaborate styles were in vogue and the arrangement of the hair formed an important part of a lady’s daily toilet.

[74] An Ancient Egyptian Basalt Stone Cosmetic Palette Set with four lugs around the rim Late Dynastic Period / 664 – 332 bc

s i z e : 3 cm high, 12 cm dia. – 1¼ ins high, 4¾ ins dia. p rov e na nc e   : Ex Horatio and Patsy Melas collection Alexandria Egypt Acquired Prior to 1967 Moved to Switzerland and London Thence by descent

[75] An Ancient Greek Expressive Miniature Terracotta Head of a Priest of Serapis Wearing a Diadem 3rd Century bc

s i z e : 4 cm high, 2.5 cm wide, 3 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 1 ins wide, 1¼ ins deep / 10.5 cm high – 4¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Antoni Sikorski Acquired London 1950’s The worship of Serapis was developed in the time of the Ptolemies in Alexandria. The conception of the God was widely extended to include the Egyptians Osiris, the Greek Pluto, god of healing Asclepius and Zeus-Jupiter. This new worship together with the cult of Isis rapidly spread from Egypt over the Asiatic coast, the Greek Islands and Greece itself, and found a firm footing even in Rome and Italy in spite of repeated interference on the part of the state. Under the Empire, particularly in the time of Hadrian, it extended throughout the Roman world. Serapis was especially worshipped as a god of healing and his temples were connected with dream oracles which were much sought after.

[76] A Fine Sailors Scrimshaw Whalebone and Sperm Whale Tooth Walking Cane the Knop Carved in the Form of a TurksHead Knot the Eye for the Wrist Thong Inlaid with Baleen Mid 19th Century

s i z e : 82 cm long – 32¼ ins long It was on the handle of a walking cane that the scrimshander usually lavished his greatest attention and to the sailor the symbol of the turks-head knot was a favourite device. This particular knot when worked with a logline will form a turban, and so was called a turks-head. They likened the endless knot with no seams or visible beginning or end, to love and so it became symbolic of interdependence and of a union. The spiral patterned shaft is turned to resemble the tusk of a narwhal, and is made from the white bone from the broad pan of the jaw of a younger sperm whale.

[77] Fine South German Ivory Knife Handle Carved with the Figure of Eve After the Fall the Serpent Entwined in Her Hair Traces of red and black polychrome Mid 17th Century

s i z e : 10 cm high – 4 ins high / 17 cm high – 6¾ ins high (with base) The quality of this carved figure suggests the artist was working from a contemporary engraving. From the late Middle Ages until the late 17th century it was customary for the bridegroom to present his bride with a fine pair of decorated knives contained in a sheath with strings which enabled her to hang them at her waist, rather like a chatelaine would be in later Victorian times. Sometimes they would be accompanied by a small embroidered purse. The serpent in the Old Testament is portrayed as more crafty than any other wild animal and so he tempted Eve to eat of the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil and give some to Adam. This was the the moment of the Fall of Man, the first disobedience to God’s wishes. On eating the fruit they realised that they were naked and so made themselves loincloths. Eve is here portrayed after the fall pointing at herself in the knowledge of her sin.

[78] French Carved Ivory and Engraved Gilded Steel Gravoir 16th Century

s i z e : 39 cm long – 15¼ ins long Gravoir were used by scribe’s, monastic or otherwise, as a scrapping knife to carefully erase mistakes when writing or illuminating parchment or vellum manuscripts. The blade would remove the error from the stretched calf, sheep or goat hide or chicken skin, so that it could easily be corrected. More than one scribe would work on a manuscript at the same time as each production involved several assembled and folded sheets gathered together called quires. Typically all the text would be written and entered on the page in regular ink leaving blanks for rubricated titles and for coloured and decorated initials that would be added in subsequent phases of production. The placement of a cycle of illustrations had to be carefully planned from the outset so that the scribes would leave blank areas in the appropriate places. Illuminations served to glorify the sacred, mark textural divisions, communicated ideas and information, supplemented the written content and recorded the generosity and piety of donors.

[79] Native American Eastern Plains Dakota Sioux Engraved Red Catlinite Pipe Bowl in the Form of a Stylised Horses Head its Open Toothed Mouth Providing the Tobacco Bowl marked to the mane W.O.R. Smooth polished patina with black tobacco smoke stained bowl and stem Small chip to inside of bowl Circa 1850 – 1880

s i z e : 7 cm high, 10.5 cm wide, 3 cm deep – 2¾ ins high, 4 ins wide, 1 ins deep c f  : A similar pipe bowl in the Saint Paul Historical Society collection N. Feder; 200 Years of North American Indian Art no. 73 Illustrated The tobacco smoked by the Native Americans in the 19th century was Nicotiana rustica which produces a heightened state of awareness and has a hallucinogenic eVect. The smoker in a transcendent state would therefore come into close association with the animal sculpted on the pipe. Each animal served as a spirit guide or totem and would aVord protection to the person smoking. Pipes were also smoked communally, and passed from person to person the ritual became a spiritual act, a way of unifying the mind of the community and of sending a powerful prayer or message to the greater universe, the creator and ancestors who could intercede on the tribe’s behalf. Catlinite is a soft red clay or slate named for the famous American painter and recorder of Indian life, George Catlin (1796–1872). The main source was a quarry at Pipestone, Minnesota and the stone was widely traded throughout the Plains. The quarry is now a National Monument.

[80] A Native American Southwestern Zuni Sacred Clown Mudhead Mask of Hide decorated with an Abstract Design of Pink Clay and Soot the Protruding Mouth Painted with Red Pigment the holes to the edge once attached with feathers Old encrusted patina the reverse worn smooth from wear Circa 1900

s i z e : 16 cm high, 20 cm wide 6¼ ins high, 8 ins wide / 27.5 cm high – 10¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private collection Koyemshis or mudheads are Zuni and Hopi clowns who wear masks and conspicuous body paintings of clay and soot. The clowns are the antithesis of the harmoniously dancing Kachinas. Both wise men and jesters at the same time, their special duty is to act as the servants and speakers of the mute Kachinas. Frank Hamilton Cushing (My Adventures in Zuni 1882.83:4-5) describes the clowns or mudheads dancing …sprawling about the ground in front and behind the row of dancers in attitude’s grotesque yet graceful, I observed for the first time ten most ludicrous characters, nude save for their skirts and neck cloths of tattered blanketing, their heads entirely covered with flexible round warty masks. Both masks and persons were smeared over with pink mud giving them the appearance of reptiles in human form that had ascended from the bottom of some muddy pool and dried so nearly the color of the ground and the surrounding houses that at first it had been difficult to distinguish them.

[81] An Italian Ivory Janus Faced Memento Mori Rosary Bead with the Head of the Crucified Christ and a Human Skull 17th Century

s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 2.5 cm deep, 2 cm wide – 1 ins high, 1 ins deep, ¾ ins wide s e e  : Finch & Co catalogue no. 25, item no. 20, for a South German double headed ivory rosary bead Rosaries assisted the devoted in accurately repeating from memory the correct number of prayers and incantations required by their faith. The use of beads as an aid to devotion began in the medieval monasteries around 1000 ad. Apart from the learned monks, priests and abbots, the laity were illiterate and unable to understand Latin and so could not sing or recite the psalms. When given a set of 150 prayers they would use rosary beads to count them, and the double headed paternoster would remind the viewer of their own mortality and encourage a recitation of the Lord’s Prayer.

[82] A South German Carved Ivory Memento Mori Rosary Bead in the form of a Human Skull Late 17th Century

s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 3 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 1½ ins deep The popularity of memento mori is said to have had its origins in the terrors experienced during the Black Death, but the interest in the inescapable nature of death dates from well before 1348. It combined the natural anxiety felt over the uncertain future faced by the soul after death with a reminder to do whatever one could about it. Essentially for the faithful this meant prayer, and the skull attached to a rosary acted as a paternoster bead encouraging the recitation of the Lord’s Prayer. The insecurity felt over the time and type of one’s death, and the dual concerns of penance and purgatory, underlay much of the artistic production of devotional objects from the Middle Ages to the end of the 17th century.

[83] Ancient Cypro-Classical / Hellenistic Carved Limestone Votary Head and Shoulders of an Athlete Wearing a Fillet Traces of red polychrome to the fillet 4th – 3rd Centuries bc

s i z e : 26 cm high, 21 cm wide, 15 cm deep – 10¼ ins high, 8¼ ins wide, 6 ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Thomas Scoular Campbell (1880–1966) Thence by descent Although Cyprus was liberated from the Persians by Alexander the Great in 333 bc the island did not enjoy a long period of freedom. After the death of Alexander in 323 bc his successors quarrelled and Cypriot rulers became entangled in antagonisms, sometimes with tragic eVects such as the annihilation of the royal family of Salamis in 311 bc. In 300 bc the Ptolemys finally became rulers of Cyprus and Alexandria. They introduced the political and cultural institutions of the Hellenistic world to the island, ruling Cyprus from Alexandria through high officials who resided in Paphos, where the capital had been transferred because it was easily accessible from Alexandria. They abolished the independent kingdoms of Cyprus and established a unified rule and a single currency. The Greek alphabet, which had been introduced to the island in the Classical period, but existed alongside the syllabic script, was now dominant throughout the island. At the beginning of Ptolemaic rule Macedonian elements were still evident in Cypriot art, but the importation of bronze and marble sculpture from the Aegean, and the ease with which artists and sculptors could travel eventually began to undermine the old traditions of Cypriot limestone sculpture. These beardless youthful male heads were produced on the island of Cyprus for setting up by worshippers in sanctuary enclosures.

[84] A Romano-British Votive Bronze of Tyche-Fortuna Robed in a Long Flowing Tunic and Mantle holding a flaming torch and sprigs of ripe wheat 1st – 2nd Century ad

s i z e : 9 cm high – 3½ ins high p rov e na nc e   : Ex European Private collection Ex English Private collection Worshipped as a bringer of good things, Fortuna was identified by the Romans with the Greek goddess of luck, Tyche child of Zeus the Deliverer. The Greeks believed that Tyche worked obscurely, lifting up one man and pushing down another; she was chance personified. In Italy, Fortuna was originally the bringer of increase, the luck of good crops and plentiful flocks. Gradually her cult assumed a much wider role, perhaps because luck is no respecter of persons. In fact her festival held every June was one of the few in ancient Rome in which slaves could attend together with free persons. Normally slaves or prisoners were considered to pollute any religious ceremony at which they happened to be present, so that elaborate precautions were taken to exclude them before proceedings began. Immensely popular the cult of Fortuna survived into the Middle Ages as Fortune’s Wheel.

[85] An Ancient Romano-British Bronze Head of a Bull forming the handle of a Patella Smooth worn greenish patina 2nd – 3rd Century ad

s i z e : 9.5 cm high - 3¾ high / 15.5 cm high - 6¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Crellin Family Found in 19th Century in the Grounds of Denton Foot Cottage Gilsland, Northumberland Authenticated by Chesterholm Museum, Vindolanda, exhibited at Tullie House Museum, Carlisle 2008–2012 Thence by descent A Patella is a bronze, deep frying pan used for cooking that could also be taken and displayed on the table. It uses and Latin name are mentioned by Apicius whose recipes have come down to us through the centuries. When the Roman legions invaded Britain in 43 ad they heralded many changes and by bringing us into the Roman Empire they gave us unprecedented access to a new world of sophisticated tastes, diVerent foods and ways of cooking. They were responsible for bringing many fruit and nut bearing trees such as walnuts, figs, vines and mulberries. They introduced game such as pheasants, guinea fowl and fallow deer. A vast range of herbs and plants were brought to grow here and have renamed in cultivation ever since: garlic, leeks, onions, lettuce, radishes, cabbage, fennel, mint, rosemary and sage. They imported the commodities they thought essential to their diet such as olives and olive oil, dates, almonds, ginger, pepper, cinnamon and of course, wine. Interestingly, as this bulls head comes from the north of Britain, most of the cattle on the military sites in that area were of the shorthorn type, and it is known that beef was supplied as the meat ration for the Roman garrisons.

[86] A North West Coast Haida Ceremonial Feast Spoon Carved of Mountain Goat Horn the bowl riveted with copper pins to the handle decorated with mythical beasts Circa 1850 – 60

s i z e : 27 cm long – 10¾ ins long p rov e na nc e   : Ex English Private collection Haida feast spoons display a carved miniature version of the same family crests that are found on the totem pole in front of the owner’s house. They were used to transfer food from serving containers to dishes and to eat with. Individual horn spoons were the most elaborately decorated items at a feast, the black mountain goat horn providing a field for artistic display second only to that of totem poles. Dishes, bowls, trays, ladles and spoons in a variety of shapes and sizes were part of the expected settings for a Haida feast, and those that were particularly well designed drew much comment from the guests.

[87] An Unusual and Interesting Collection of Eleven French Oils on Canvas Depicting Various Conditions of Ocular Disease as seen through an early Ophthalmoscope Each one numbered and titled on a black background Service de M Rollet and in red with the particular condition such as Neuro Retinite Desceadanite Retinite Proliferate Diabete and Choroïdite Myopique perhaps from an Ophthalmologists Surgery Second half 19th Century

s i z e : approx: 27 cm high, 18.5 cm wide – 10½ ins high, 7¼ ins wide (each) approx: 29 cm high, 21 cm wide – 11½ ins high, 8¼ ins wide (each) (framed) Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) produced an optical model of vision which constituted a revolution in fundamental scientific thinking about optics and the eye, but it was only with the introduction of the ophthalmoscope by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1851 that the optics of the eye could actually be seen and studied. However, the ophthalmologists still had to learn to perceive and interpret what they saw through the instrument. The misinterpretation of the ophthalmoscopic appearance of the optic nerve continued to influence the ideas about the cause of eye disease. Thomas Clifford Allbutt (1836– 1925) of Leeds remarked in 1871 that the number of physicians who are working with the ophthalmoscope in England may, I believe, be counted upon the fingers of one hand. Many still believed like Jabez Hogg (1817–1899), surgeon to Westminster ophthalmic hospital, that the ophthalmoscope enabled the clinician to differentiate between sensorial blindness which had its seat in the retina, optic nerve or tubercle, and those large numbers of cases of amaurosis, which originated, not in the eye, but in the sympathetic irritation excited by diseases of near or remote organs. These included tooth decay, excessive indulgence in smoking or chewing tobacco, disordered stomach, bowels, liver, kidney or uterus. Hogg did not expect to see ocular pathology in these types of diseases despite their well documented association with sudden loss of sight. The early users of the ophthalmoscope were confronted with problems of visual interpretation so that eye diseases were classified as either functional or structural. Functional diseases, those that excited the eye by sympathetic irritation, expressed their symptoms through altered physiology rather than by alterations in structure. Whereas structural, or sensorial diseases demonstrated clear structural changes seen as hypertrophy or atrophy. These developments are thought of as the beginning of modern ophthalmology, but ideas on the causes of eye disease only changed slowly.

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Phillips, Tom; Africa, The Art of a Continent, Passavia Druckerie, Passau, Germany, 1995 Pinto, Edward H; Treen and Other Wooden Bygones, Bell and Hyman, 1979 Pownall, Glen; Primitive Art of the New Zealand Maori, Seven Sea Publishing Pty, Ltd., Wellington, 1972 Price, Monica. T; Decorative Stone, Thames and Hudson, 2007 Robins, Gay; The Art of Ancient Egypt, B.M London 1997 Ross, Doran, H; Elephant, University of California, Los Angeles, 1992 Roy, Christopher.D.; Kilengi, Kestner Gesellschaft, Hanover, 1997 Russell, Carl. P; Firearms, Traps & Tools of the Mountain Men, Alfred A Knopf, New York, 1967 Sandars, N.K; Prehistoric Art in Europe, Penguin Books, 1968 Scammon, Charles M; The Marine Mammals of the North Western Coast of North America, Dover Publications, 1968 Scott, Jonathan; The Pleasures of Antiquity, Yale, 2003 Sieber, Roy; African Furniture & Household Objects, Indiana University, 1980 Seipel, Wilfred; Exotica, Skira, Vienna, 2000 Selman; 18th Century Ethnographic Collections in the Hancock Museum, Newcastle, 2003 Sloane, Kim; Enlightenment, Discovering the World in the 18th Century, British Museum Press, 2003 Stanley, Tim, Palace & Mosque, V&A Publications, 2004 Starzecka, Dorota C, Neich, Roger & Pendergrast, Mick; The Maori Collections of the British Museum, British Musuem Press, 2010 Syson, L; and Thornton, D; Objects of Virtue, BM Press, 2001 Tanner, Julia; From Pacific Shores, University of Cambridge, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1999 Taylor, Colin, F.; The Plains Indian, Salamander Books, 1994 Taylor, Colin, F.; The Native Americans, Tiger Books International, London, 1995 Torrence, Gaylord; The Plains Indians Artists of Earth and Sky, Skira Rizzoli, Paris, 2014 Trnek, H and Vassallo e Silva, N; Exotica, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisboa, 2001 Trusted, Marjorie; Baroque and Later Ivories, V&A Publishing, 2013 Varjola, Pirjo; The Etholén Collection, Vammalan Kirjapaino Oy, Finland, 1990 Vincent, G.T, Brydon, S, Coe, Ralph T; Art of the North American Indians, The Thaw Collection, University of Washington, 2000 Visonà, M, Poyner, R, Cole, H, and Harris, M; Art in Africa, Thames and Hudson, London, 2000 Vogel, Susan, M; African Art Western Eyes, Yale University Press, 1997 Walker, R.A; The National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, 1999 Walters, Anna Lee; The Spirit of Native America, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, 1989 Wardwell, Allen; Island Ancestors, Univ. of Washington Press, 1994 Warner, J.A; The Life and Art of the North American Indian, Hamlyn, 1997 Whitfield, P. Dr.; The Marshal Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Animals, Marshal Publishing, London, 1998 Wenley, Robert; French Bronzes in the Wallace Collection, The Wallace Collection, 2002 Witte, Hans; A Closer Look, Afrika Museum, Berg en Dal, 2004 Zandvliet, Kees; The Dutch Encounter with Asia 1600–1950, Rijksmueum, 2002 Zimmer, H; The Art of Indian Asia, vol. 1&2, Pantheon Books, 1955 Zwalf, W.; Buddhism Art and Faith, British Museum Publications Ltd., London, 1985 Design by Prof. Phil Cleaver & Kay Kim et al design, 020 7490 3976 Photography by Phil Connor, 07831 151549 Printed and bounded in Great Britain by Pureprint

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Rituals & Relics  

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