The Dust of Time

Page 1

The Dust of Time

Suite 744, 2 Old Brompton Road, London sw7 3dq, uk Tel : 020 7689 7500 Mobile : 07768236921 / 07836684133 Email : Website :

[1] Fine Ancient Egyptian Bronze Model of Horus the Falcon God Wearing the Double Crown of the Unified Egypt the Eyes Inlaid with a Ring of Gold Standing on a corniced rectangular bronze sarcophagus Late Period 664–332 bc

s i z e : 13.5 cm high, 18 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 5¼ ins high, 7 ins wide, 2 ins deep p rov e na nc e: Ex Private collection Dr Ferdinand Mainzer (1871–1943) Ex Private collection Lucie John (Née Mainzer) Ex Private collection Gisela Stone (Née John) Ex Private collection Evan David Robert Stone Q.C. Thence by descent During the period 747–332 bc in ancient Egypt the falcon was worshipped throughout the country as Re or Horus. Falcons were kept in the temples and used in the ritual of the divine cult and carefully mummified after their death. Some were enclosed within a fine sarcophagus such as this and then transported in a procession to their tomb. Others would be embalmed in groups and placed together in painted cedar-wood chests. During the late period a catacomb was constructed at Saqqara specifically for mummified hawks sacred to Horus. Most usually depicted as a man with the head of a hawk, Horus was not only a god of the sky, but the embodiment of divine kingship and protector of the reigning pharaoh.

[2] A Rare and Unusual Pair of Matched Sailors Scrimshaw Sperm Whale Teeth Engraved with Whaling Panoramas Ships Under Plain Sail and with Sails Furled a Whale Hung Up for Flensing others Harpooned and Attached to Small Boats One entitled Kent Whaleing off Horta Probably depicting the Whaling Ship Kent out of Dover built in 1811 that completed ten voyages from 1820 to 1853 for British Southern Whaling Circa 1830–1850 s i z e s : 7 cm high, 17.5 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 2¾ ins high, 7 ins wide, 2 ins deep 7 cm high, 17.5 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 2¾ ins high, 7 ins wide, 1¾ ins deep

From the time of the late 18th century the larger whaling ships occasionally made port in the Portuguese Azores. Horta is situated on Faial Island. These bigger ships were permitted longer voyages and after around 1800 expeditions of up to three, four and five years were the rule rather than the exception. Known as the art of the whale-men whaling scenes were scrimshawed by actual whalers and although artistically naïve, they are characterised by their sophisticated technical know–how manifested in the illustrations of the many different facets of the hunt. Scrimshaw depended upon the engraved and polished whale’s tooth and it was the availability of these that prompted the whale–men on board ship to painstakingly decorate them with scenes from their lives at sea.

[3] Two West African Yoruba Carved Ere Ibeji Twin Figures Late 19th – Early 20th Century

s i z e s   : a: 25 cm high – 9¾ ins high b: 25.5 cm high – 10 ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection The Netherlands a. A female twin figure with finely carved tiered hairstyle containing traces of rekitts blue the face with a wide mouth broad nose and large eyes the broad shoulders with long arms decorated with heavy cast bronze bracelets under her pendulous breasts she wears four strings of glass beaded waist bands A small section of the base broken and glued Painted inventory no. to base 0276–1 Egbado Area b. A very fine unusual and ancient male twin figure of long slender abstract form traces of scarification to the face beneath a stylised helmeted hairdo Smooth blackened crusty patina Osogbo Area c f : Ibeji George Chemeche 2003 no. 74 Among the Yoruba people twins are believed to be powerful spirits, fellow travellers with the gods and are referred to as Orisha Meji who it is said enter the world with many followers. Their importance in influencing the life of a Yoruba family is second only to that of the ancestors and the gods. When a twin dies, either as a baby or later in life, the parents consult Ifa to learn whether an ere ibeji or memorial image should be carved and by whom. They will provide the sculptor with kola nuts and a cockerel for sacrifice as he prepares to cut the tree for the wood with which he will carve the twin figure. During the period of carving the mother will send food and again present him with gifts of food when the ere ibeji is presented to her. Upon receiving the figure she will place it on her back tucked into her cloth wrapper as she would a living child and dance to her house listening all the way back to the songs for Ibeji sung by the women of her compound.

[4] An Antique Double Sided Seychelles Islands Coco de Mer of Female Form 19th Century

s i z e   : 29 cm high, 25.5 cm wide, 14 cm deep – 11½ ins high, 10 ins wide, 5½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex London Private collection The Coco de Mer is the largest known seed in the world, taking over 100 years to form and reach maturity, it grows in the tops of tall palm trees that are found in only two of all the 115 Seychelles Islands in the West Indian Ocean. Described in the inventory of the Royal Danish Kunstkammer of 1737 as complete, rare and beautiful, they were originally believed to be an aphrodisiac because of their suggestive form. Found by chance drifting in the sea currents, European sailors and merchant voyagers returning to port would gain a high price for these shapely coconuts that were eagerly sought after by early collectors of naturalia.

[5] A Rose Gold Pearl and Turquoise Set Portrait Miniature Eye Brooch The reverse with a Panel of Braided Hair Contained in Leather Box inscribed Goldsmiths & Silversmiths Company Ltd 112 Regent St London by Appointment to the King Late 18th Century

s i z e   : 2 cm high, 2.8 cm wide, 0.5 cm deep – ¾ ins high, 1 ins wide, ¼ ins deep case : 4.5 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 1¾ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection During the late 18th century small miniatures sometimes known as lover’s eyes and representing a single eye were in fashion set into lockets, brooches, rings and small boxes. Some were painted as memorial jewellery, but mostly their purpose was the adoration of a beloved subject and a way of evoking their face in their absence. The act of looking, the gaze with different types of glances, conveyed different emotions and messages, and so an expression of devotion was therefore easily conveyed in a gazing eye. Traditionally it is said that eye portraits became popular because George, Prince of Wales, had his mistress Mrs Fitzherbert’s eye painted by Richard Cosway in November 1785. Pleading with her to marry him he wrote, I send you a parcel and I send you at the same time an Eye. Royal Law forbade a Catholic widow from marrying a Prince but soon after his passionate letter was received he married his lover in a covert ceremony. Eye portraits were in vogue for no more than fifty years and by 1830 photography had emerged erasing the interest in miniature portraiture, but these lover’s eyes still retain their ability to hypnotise, to connect with and articulate an essence of a person you have never met.

[6] An Ancient Etruscan Terracotta Votive Model of an Eye 4th – 3rd Century bc

s i z e   : 4.5 cm high, 5.5 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 1¾ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Ambassador Reginald Bartholomew, New York, USA (1936–2012) U.S. Ambassador to Lebanon Spain and Italy 1980–1990 c f : A similar Votive Terracotta in National Museum of Archaeology, Florence, inv. no. 4785 The Etruscans were well known in antiquity for their religious observance. Among the Romans they were known not only for their respect for the divine, but also for their skill in interpreting this guidance through highly developed techniques of divination. The Etruscan priests concerned, known as Haruspices were so highly regarded that the Romans were willing to consult them in moments of crisis. The principal divination techniques were based on observing details of signs such as lightning, the appearance of the intestines of sacrificed animals and the flight of birds. The practice of offering anatomical votives at the sanctuaries of deities associated with healing and fertility increased in popularity from the 5th century bc onwards. They were made to ensure divine favour or to give thanks for health and protection. The votive models were stored permanently at the sanctuaries in huge numbers and were often carefully buried when the site was abandoned.

[7] Two Large Antique Fragments of Imperial Porphyry Probably Used for Cosmati Work 16th – 17th Century

s i z e   : 20 cm high, 43 cm wide, 8 cm deep – 8 ins high, 17 ins wide, 3 ins deep and 15 cm high, 29 cm wide, 6 cm deep – 6 ins high, 11¼ ins wide, 2¼ deep p rov e na nc e : Found in a London Marble Yard Ex London Private collection

The ancient Romans coveted porphyry, a hard purple-coloured volcanic rock peppered with white crystals of feldspar, and the Emperors Nero, Trajan and Hadrian restricted it to Imperial use. The Egyptian quarries known as Mons Porphyrites were opened in the 1st century ad and worked for four hundred years. Located in the eastern desert at Gebel Dokhan they were regarded by the Emperors as their exclusive property.

[8] An Indo-Portuguese Goa Finely Carved Ivory Figure of the Infant Christ as Saviour of the World Salvator Mundi The hair with traces of polychrome and gilding An old label to reverse of wood stand inscribed Messel Collection First half of the 18th Century

s i z e : 24.5 cm high – 9½ ins high / 29 cm high – 11¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Irish Private collection Ex Messel collection The Christ Child holds his right hand in a sign of benediction and in his left a sphere representative of the globe surmounted by a cross. This image had been a Christian symbol of authority since the Middle Ages symbolising Christ’s dominion over the world, but became particularly favoured from the period following the Council of Trent (1545–1563). The Jesuit missionaries were among the most enthusiastic promoters of the images of the Salvator Mundi throughout the East and it is one of the most remarkable produced in Goa revealing the Jesuit mission of militant Catholicism.

[9] A Fine and Rare Polynesian Austral Islands Stone Carved Shallow Leaf Shaped Dish Umete with a raised lug to one end Tamanu Collophyllum Inophyllum Wood Glossy smooth honey coloured brown patina 18th Century

s i z e   : 76 cm long, 35 cm wide, 8 cm high – 30 ins long, 13¼ ins wide, 3 ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection c f : Oldman Collection 1943 Plate 24, no. 454 and another similar sold in Drouot, Paris, December 9th 1989 Lot 85 Less is known of the Austral Islands traditional culture than of any other Polynesian Islands. The fatal diseases introduced by the missionaries shattered local communities and reduced the population by about 90 per cent of the their former size. By 1828 there was no one left on Rurutu Island with any real experience of carving artefacts. Thus the golden age of Austral Islands carving was very short-lived. It had began in 1820 when the Islands were well populated, not all of whom were engaged in carving, but from the evidence of present day museum collections there was a large number of craftsmen producing beautifully carved paddles, bowls and other artefacts for sale to the visiting merchant traders, whaling vessels and missionaries. Over the next two decades the population went into a stunning cataclysmic decline with nine out of ten people dying between 1821 and 1846 when around thirty men were left who preserved traditional skills and practices. The introduction of metal tools and nails helped and allowed this brief, but dramatic efflorescence in Austral carving. The profusely ornamented artefacts finding a ready market amongst the visitors to the Islands. Before the beginning of the 19th century much was left plain with subtle partly carved shapes as the wood was stone carved. W. Ellis in his Polynesian Researches (1829II:181) states that dishes such as this example were used to rinse the hands before eating. Food was also served and eaten from wooden dishes of varying sizes each with a distinctive oval shape and with a raised projection on the rim at the wider end. So it is probable that these dishes were used for both purposes.

[10] Unusual Scottish Sailors Fid or Marlinspike of Rosewood Carved with an Acanthus Leaf Shaped Pommel and a Steel Shaft with a Silver Collar Inscribed James Kennedy Rigger Perth A silver cap to the handle with J.K. 1833 two silver eyelets for a Wrist Thong Circa 1833 s i z e : 28 cm long – 11 ins long / 31 cm high – 12¼ ins high (with base) Sailors fid’s were used for splicing, reeving and untangling the manila and hemp line used for the rigging of ships, for making grommets which are the equivalent to buttonholes in sails, canopies and tarpaulins and for any other task for which an oversize bodkin is useful in making rope and canvas. Steel marlinspikes performed the same functions, but could also be used with wire rigging.

[11] Faroese Sailors Scrimshaw Steel Knife the Handle and Sheath of Carved Baleen Inlaid with Whalebone Mother of Pearl and Brass Depicting Two Whales Harpoons a Whale­ boat and a Heart Late 19th Century

s i z e   : 17.5cm long – 7 ins long c f : Hull City Museum and Art Gallery Scrimshaw Collection (W5.268) Baleen was a challenge to carve, A heavy material Mysticeti made of complex protein keratin that develops as two parallel rows of narrow plates hanging from the roof of the whale’s mouth. It is extremely strong, fibrous, brittle and difficult to work, but it cuts and scrapes easily and could be steam bent. Most objects were made from planks or strips cut from dried and polished baleen plates. Right whale baleen had been used in Europe since the Middle Ages, and in the rest of the world from the 17th century, but the best baleen for suppleness and durability came from the western Arctic bowhead whale taken in large numbers in Alaskan and Siberian waters from the 1840’s. It is said that the Faroese whalers used these small knives in pilot whale drives.

[12] A Fine English Georgian Mahogany Collectors Table Box the Rising Lid Inlaid with a Conch Shell the Trayed Interior Containing Numerous Examples of Seashells a Dried Specimen of a Dogfish Two Seahorses Seeds Polished Fossil Coral Fossil Shells Minerals Agates and Artefacts One with a Label Pencil Stone from St Lorenzo-Callao Late 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 11 cm high, 43.5 cm wide, 34.5 cm deep – 4¼ ins high, 17¼ ins wide, 13½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Eila Grahame 1935–2009 Proud Descendant of the Grahames of Duntrune and Claverhouse In the late 18th century Mary Delany (1700–1788) declared: I’ve got a new madness! I am running wild for shells. The beauty of shells is as infinite as flowers. Talented hands have created idiosyncratic and often exquisite antique shell decorations and shell collecting was a necessary pastime for this ornamental art. Nature was reinvented as floral arrangements, birds, butterflies and insects were made out of hundreds of carefully chosen shells. Mary Delany was an artist, intellectual and respected member of the social and cultural elite in England in the 18th century. Politicians, explorers, botanists and musicians frequented her drawing room and she became a close friend of George III and Queen Charlotte. She also befriended the Duchess of Portland, a patroness of natural history and a well-known conchologist with a large and important collection of shells. Through her, Mrs Delany discovered the aesthetic delight of shells and started to create shellwork in original and intricate designs. However, although her later paper floral mosaics and collages are now in the British Museum collections all of her shellwork has been lost. All that remains are written descriptions.

[13] a. A Bering Strait Inuit Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Miniature Amuletic Female Mask Head the Chin with Baleen Inlaid Stud perhaps representing a Labret Used as a clothing attachment Early 19th Century

s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 1.5 cm wide – 1 ins high, ½ ins wide

b. A Greenlandic Ammassalik Eskimo Carved Whalebone Miniature Shaman’s Mask Head with Open Singing Mouth and Scarified Tattoos used as an Amuletic Clothing Attachment Early 19th Century

s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 1.5 cm wide – 1 ins high, ½ ins wide Miniature clothing attachments were often made in the form of masks as the Eskimo hunter used images of human faces in the performance of various rituals. They served as guardian spirits, both male and female, which occurred in Eskimo cosmology. As powerful protective devices they were sewn onto clothing with sinew thread through the holes made in them.

c. A Bering Strait Yupik Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Belt Fastener Depicting a Polar Bear the Eyes and Ears Inlaid with Baleen Early 19th Century

s i z e : 1.2 cm high, 0.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – ½ ins high, ¼ ins wide, 1 ins deep Tiny belt fasteners and ornaments carved from ivory, bone and animal teeth were made in a variety of shapes including seals, whales, bears, otters, birds, caribou and fish. These pieces were hung low on the belt’s edge and served as amulets to bring the hunter the depicted animal’s skill and to appease its spirit. The collective name for these accumulated attachments was Akkowlongaujit meaning to dangle and such belts were regarded as very special and often hung on the grave of the deceased.

[14] Rare and Unusual English Watercolour and Ink on Paper Depicting the Mountains Hills Crags Cities Sights and Notable Build­ ings Around the World All listed on a paper slide affixed to the picture showing their ordered heights on a scale marked in feet from the South American Andean Extinct Volcano Chimboraço down to the Racestand at Brighton The top of Kew Pagoda and finally A Layer of the Sea Signed James. S. Hughes and Dated Nov’ 13 1813 Sepia watercolour heightened with white and with outlines in ink In original gilt frame Circa 1813

s i z e   : 92 cm high, 131 cm wide – 36¼ ins high, 51½ ins wide / 110 cm high, 149 cm wide – 43¼ ins high, 58¾ ins wide (with frame) p rov e na nc e: Ex Private English collection In the aftermath of the French Revolution, Romanticism and the Picturesque became a popular learned alternative to the ordered world of Enlightenment thought. Mountains were regarded as both beautiful and sublime with the Alps beginning to be explored by English climbers such as Colonel Mark Beaufoy who ascended Mont Blanc four times. Books were published which taught people on how to attain romantic sensibility. William Gilpin in his Observations on the River Wye … relative chiefly to Picturesque Beauty … instructed leisured travellers to examine the face of a country by the rules of picturesque beauty. This painting presents both the picturesque nature of the world’s mountains together with their ordered height. It is a learned study and a Wish List.

[15] A Long Antique Specimen of a Narwhal Tusk Monodon Monoceros Smooth spiralling patina 19th Century s i z e : 235 cm long – 92½ ins long – 7 feet 8½ ins long / 250 cm high – 98½ ins high – 8 feet 2½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Lord Alistair McAlpine Ex Private collection Morris Braham McAlpine and Braham ran a Gallery together in Cork Street, London during the 1980’s Ex Private collection Article 10 certificate no. 594257/01 The Greenland Inuit traditionally used every part of the narwhal, burning the blubber in lamps, using the back sinews to sew boots and clothes, and the skin for dog sled traces. The tusks were tools of survival in a treeless landscape used as sled runners, tent poles and harpoons. Narwhal meat fed both dogs and humans and was a last nutritional opportunity before total darkness closed over the land. Mattak the layer of skin and blubber that was eaten raw was said to taste like hazelnuts and was prized by the Inuit as a seasonal delicacy. The narwhal’s fate is tied to the ice and prehistoric fossils have been found as far south as Norfolk to which the ice cover extended 50,000 years ago. The ice protects the narwhals from the orca that can attack the pods and gives them exclusive access to prey, especially the Greenlandic halibut that lie beneath. However, they must also avoid lingering too long in the fjords as they can get trapped as the ice expands and the cracks shrink preventing them from being able to breathe. Narwhals spend half the year in dense polar ice and with the warming of the arctic are now imperilled.

[16] Rare Exceptional New Zealand Måori Bugle-­Flute Pu Turino With soft and shallow surface decoration profusely carved with a dynamic scrolling motif made of two sections bound together with original and complete Kiekie vine roots at four points The bow shaped mouth piece of anthropomorphic form with small rounded sounding hole to the end Soft silky smooth medium brown patina 18th Century

s i z e   : 33.5 cm high, 4.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 13¼ ins high, 1¾ ins wide, 1 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Collected by Robert Nutter Campbell 4th Regiment of Madras Native Infantry on his return from Singapore 1829 Thence by descent Sold Sothebys, New York, May 17, 2002, lot 368 Ex Private English collection c f : A flute of similar age in Trinity College Museum, Dublin said to have been brought back by Captain Cook on his 2nd or 3rd Voyage (18823656) The bugle-flute is an instrument unique to the Måori which plays two notes, one for the male voice and one for the female voice, which are accentuated by the flautists technique. Used to announce the return of a chief to a village, for marking tapu periods and indicating a divine presence. Other musical effects could be produced to accompany both traditional singing and rituals observed by priests Tohunga. The Måori believe that the gods are responsible for the sources of musical inspiration and the fine crafting of their instruments expresses both respect and esteem for them. The shape of the Pu Torino flute resembles the small cocoon of the native moth that embodies Hine Raukatauri the deity of flutes whose voice is pure, high and attractive. In the older early Måori carvings, although lavishly decorated with vigorous surface patterns, this is never allowed to dominate form, it was to enhance the sculpture. From the time of the arrival of Captain Cook the later collectors appreciated more elaborate, highly decorated carvings rather than the simpler more natural carvings such as this flute. The masterly precision of Måori spiral ornamentation was not surpassed anywhere in the Pacific and is one of their artists’ special achievements.

[17] Fine Chinese Export Enamelled Silver Gilt Fan Decorated Both Sides with Landscapes of Trees and Pavilions the Guard Sticks Cast with Chinoiserie Figures Qing Dynasty Circa 1840–50

s i z e   : 28.5 cm long – 11¼ ins long / 47 cm wide – 18½ ins wide (open) Some of the finest export fans were made by the Chinese gold and silver smiths, the sticks being manufactured entirely of filigree as in this example. Occasionally these were

decorated with kingfisher feathers in imitation of cloisonné, but were more usually enamelled in blues and greens. Chinese export fans could convey an entire landscape scene resembling frozen lace leading its owner into a tiny exotic world. European fashion dictated the design of the fans, using landscapes and chinoiseries similar to those on Chinese porcelain which was all the rage in the West. Fans were among the curious trifles that met the increasing demand for objects displaying intricate craftsmanship. Made with great skill, fans are first recorded coming from China in 1794 on board the Empress of China.

[18] Rare Melanesian New Caledonian Kanak Ceremonial Mourning Figure of a Masked Dancer From Northern Grand Terre Island Late 18th Century

s i z e   : 39 cm high – 15¼ ins high / 44 cm high – 17¼ ins high (with base) Radiocarbon Test Certificate available p rov e na nc e : Ex French Colonial collection Madame Virem­ouneix Noumea New Caledonia Ex collection of the Artist Robert Tatin based in Noumea 1961 to 1965 acquired from above in exchange for Several Paintings Commissioned by Her Ex collection Nicolai Michoutushkine acquired from above and taken to Vanuatu 1965–1994 then to Sweden in 1994 Ex Private Scandinavian collection acquired from above 1994 Ex Private English collection c f : Musée du Perigord Perigueux France (inv. no. F4) has a similar example This finely carved figure represents a masked dancer that would have performed during the ritual mourning ceremonies that accompanied the death of an important chief. The dancer embodied the spirit of the chief providing a link between the land of the living and the realm of the ancestors. Afterwards the figures served as symbols of chiefly authority, as ritual protectors and personal guardians. They were often placed by the door of a house to provide protection for the inhabitants. A photograph taken in 1911 in the Tiouakaz Valley on Grand Terre Island by the Swiss Naturalist Fritz Sarasin shows the entrance of a hut with two carved door jambs and a threshold. The base of the left door jamb is broken and in the empty crevice is placed a small figure representing the mask wearer intended to repel the evil spirits who could take advantage of the uncontrolled entrance to enter the dwelling. Sarasin described these figures as known guardians in all the regions of the isalnd. In contrast to most other areas of Melanesia a system of hered­ itary chiefmanship operated. Many diverse dialects were spoken, but there was a general cultural homogeneity throughout the area. Both religious, ceremonial and secular art was produced with wood carvings emphasising form. As in this sculptural figure, faces were portrayed with a broad crescent shaped mouth, flaring nostrils and bulbous features. The extinction of New Caledonian traditional culture in the early 19th century was so complete that little is now known of the significance of these extraordinary ritual sculptures.

[19] An Ancient Byzantine Bronze Latin Processional Cross with Discoid Finials Engraved with a Figure of Christ The reverse plain Greenish patina with patches of red brown Constantinople or Asia Minor 8th – 10th Century ad

s i z e   : 21.5 cm high, 18 cm wide – 8½ ins high, 7 ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Netherlands collection The Byzantine Empire was in existence for well over a thousand years from the inauguration of its capital Constantinople in the year 330 ad to the fall of the city to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 ad. Britain was a Roman province when Constantine the Great, who had himself proclaimed Emperor at York, took two decisions which completely changed the course of history. The first in 313 ad was to allow Christians throughout the Empire the freedom to practise their religion. The second was to make his capital in the East. Not long afterwards Christianity became the State religion and in time Constantinople was the most envied city in Christendom. The Holy feast days of the Byzantine Church were observed with numerous processions. Victory in battle, a good harvest and festivals such as Palm Sunday were causes for public celebration and for giving thanks to God. Organised by the Church, processions were led by the Clergy with a cross such as this example, mounted on a staff, a painted icon or holy relic leading the way. When not being carried or used as a part of the liturgical services, processional crosses were displayed in the church and were venerated as a focus for Christian faith.

[20] Collection of Seventeen Ancient Bronze Age Anatolian Marble Idols Stargazers the upward gazing heads of Killiya Type Early Bronze Age II Chalcolithic Period 3200–2500 bc

s i z e   : 2 cm high, 2.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – ¾ ins high, 1 ins wide, ¾ ins deep (min) 3.5 cm high, 6 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep (max) 15.5 cm high, 21 cm wide, 21 cm deep – 6 ins high, 8¼ ins wide, 8¼ ins deep (base) Pp rov e na nc e : Ex Ernst Schimdt collection Zurich Acquired 1970’s Ex Private English collection Acquired Christies 2011 Ex Private English collection The ancient kingdoms of Anatolia occupied most of what is now modern Turkey. An area referred to as the ancient near east, considered one of the cradles of civilisation. It was here that intensive agriculture was first practised and this led to the rise of dense urban settlements, the development of centralised government, and organised religion and warfare. It also saw the creation of the first currency anywhere in the world, and codes of law. Early advances were made that laid the foundations of astronomy and mathematics and the invention of the wheel.

[21] A Rare Australian Aboriginal New South Wales Western Victoria South East of the Murray River Region Stone Cut Dense Hardwood Narrow Parrying Shield Decorated with Totemic Designs to the Front Containing Traces of WhiteClay with a Solid cut handle behind Fine old dark patina the frontal surface showing dents and cuts from clubs and spears Early to Mid 19th Century

s i z e   : 80.5 cm high, 13 cm wide – 31¾ ins high, 5 ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection c f : Pitt Rivers Museum University of Oxford has a similar Narrow Shield collected by G.H. Cox Victorian 1864 (1886.1.1602.) National Gallery of Victoria Christensen collection (H195) has a similar Stone Carved Narrow Shield Decorated with Pipe Clay and Red Ochre Aboriginal shields dating from the 19th century from this area are rare as by the 1850’s most of Southeastern Australia was under European control with many aboriginal groups displaced and dispossessed of their land. Early collectors displayed a definite bias towards men’s weapons carved with interesting designs and robust enough to withstand the rigours of travel and the vagaries of storage which more fragile pieces would not survive. The shields from Western Victoria were used as protection and for warding off clubs and spears in close combat. Made of a dense, dark hard wood they are stone carved with incised patterns which are enhanced by white kaolin and red ochre rubbed into the grooves. This in bright sunshine would create an effect of a flashing light before the enemy’s eyes. These shields bearing complex designs were used only in warfare or in connection with ceremonial activities. Warfare between different groups was subjected to strict rules and ritualised clashes between opposing formations of tensed warriors, their bodies and shields glistening with colour, they enacted battles in which few were actually killed and the intention seemed to be one of ritual wounding.

[22] A Victorian Specimen of a Great Hornbill Buceros Bicornis Contained in a Glazed Wood Case a Trade Label to the Reverse Established 1834 William Hart & Son Bird and Beast Preservers West End Christchurch Hants Mid 19th Century s i z e : 100 cm high, 86.5 cm wide, 37.5 cm deep – 39¼ ins high, 34 ins wide, 14¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection U.K. Acquired Finch & Co 2008 The Great Hornbill is an enormous bird that lives in rainforests ranging throughout South East Asia, from Western India to Indo-China and south through Malaya to Sumatra. Its tail can reach to 3 feet in length and their spectacular over large downcurved bills surmounted by a grotesque horny casque are their special hallmark. Fascinating birds with unique habits they have peculiar idiosyncratic nesting rituals. A par will bond for life and mostly nest in natural tree cavities or enlarged woodpecker holes. When the female is ready to lay she retreats into the hole and is sealed in for the duration. Working together they plaster up the hole with mud, dirt and regurgitated matter, leaving a narrow slit in the centre just wide enough for the female to poke her bill through. She remains in the nest throughout the entire incubation period and until the young are at least half grown, sometimes for as long as three months. As a defensive measure against the raids of monkeys and tree snakes the barricaded nest is uniquely effective. The burden on her faithful mate to keep her and the offspring fed increases with time and usually when the nestlings are half grown the female helps the male chip enough of the hard entrance block away to enable her to assist him in finding suitable fruits, berries and insects. The young birds frequently plaster up the hole again from the inside having just enough room for food to be passed into them.

[23] A South African Zulu Ceremonial Carved Rhinoceros Horn Prestige Knobkerrie or Sceptre 19th Century

s i z e   : 42.5 cm long – 16¾ ins long Rhinoceros horn knobkerries were regarded as an essential part of a Zulu chief’s regalia functioning as a symbol of his personal dignity. They were not used as weapons, but carried or held ceremonially as insignia of rank and status. They were preserved as important heirlooms amongst the Zulu and transmitted through the generations. They still carry an aura of ancestral symbolism.

[24] A Commemorative Napoleonic Cocquilla Nut Drinking Cup Finely Carved with a Portrait Relief of Napoleon and the Imperial Eagle His crest and medallion amidst scrolling vines and the nuts bug bear face to the front Contained in leather velvet lined box with inscribed plaque to the lid: Napoléon S'En Servit Comme Coupe À Boir Pendant La Bataille Des Pyramides Fine smooth silky patina Late 18th Century s i z e : 4 cm high, 12.5 cm long, 9 cm wide – 1½ ins high, 5 ins long, 3½ ins wide case : 8 cm high, 13.5 cm wide, 17 cm deep – 3¼ ins high, 5¼ wide, 6¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection The battle of the Pyramids, sometimes known as the battle of Embabeh was a major engagement that took place on 21st July 1798 during the French invasion of Egypt. Napoleon succeeded on securing a decisive victory against the Ottoman army, decimating the forces of the Mamluk rulers. Employing the divisional square tactic, the French brigades with cannon at each corner, repeatedly repulsed the multiple cavalry charges of the Mamluks. Napoleon's great victory effectively sealed his conquest of Egypt, entering Cairo afterwards he created a new administration under his supervision signalling the end of seven centuries of Mamluk rule in Egypt. Named by Napoleon as the Bataille des Pyramides as he could see Giza on the horizon, today the battlefield is engulfed by the west bank suburb of Cairo and nothing remains of the famous site.

[25] A Rare Ancient Thule Eskimo Walrus Ivory Carving of a Heavily Pregnant Woman sitting with her head inclined to one side her hands beneath her pendulous breasts shielding her stomach Spade marks to her back probably excavated on St Lawrence Island Circa 800–1200 ad

s i z e   : 6.5 cm high, 3.5 cm wide, 6 cm deep – 2½ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 2¼ ins deep / 14 cm high – 5½ high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Netherlands collection Acquired Santa Fe U.S.A. For the ancient Eskimo peoples portable art with powerful spiritual qualities served as one of the most effective means to establish contact with the forces of the Arctic universe, and to promote physical and psychological survival in the rigorous polar regions. Reminiscent of a Palaeolithic venus, this rare figure was probably carved to avert infertility as a form of amulet or Iinrut or as a magical shamanic device. Carved with a large head showing coarse facial features and with short bent legs, the figure displays heavy proportions, but expresses a certain dynamism created by the frontal stare with a slightly open mouth, suggesting it had an important ritual significance.

[26] a. A Collection of Nine Antique Italian Coral Talismanic Amulets Two of Black Coral Five of Red Coral and Two of a Rare Variegated White and Red Mediterranean Coral All with Gold or Silver Mounts held on a Snake-Headed Gold Ring 18th and 19th Century s i z e : 4 cm long – 1½ ins long (min) / 6.5 cm long – 2½ ins long (max)

b. Fine Italian Gold and Carved Coral Rope Shaped Pendant Chain Set with a Red Coral Amuletic Figa A Hand Suspending on a Gold Hoop Eight Coral Charms a Dog, Pig, Heart Tricorn Hat, Mongoose, Ewer, Shoe and Horn Probably Neapolitan Mid 19th Century s i z e : 29 cm long – 11½ ins long / 50 cm long – 19¾ ins long (max)

c. An Italian Carved Lava Amuletic Figa

Holding Seven Red Coral Charms Suspended from a Gold Hoop on a Pendant Chain Late 19th Century s i z e : chain: 22.5 cm long – 8¾ ins long / 45 cm long – 17¾ ins long (max) pendant hand and amulets: 5 cm long – 2 ins long p rov e na nc e : All Ex Private English collection Coral has been thought since antiquity to have great amuletic powers. According to Greek mythology it originated as the spurts of blood gushed forth when the Gorgon Medusa’s head was cut off by Perseus. Later it recalled the bright red of Christ’s blood and in many medieval paintings the infant Jesus is shown wearing or holding a coral rosary as coral strengthened the heart. In his Materia Medica the ancient Apothecary and herbalist Dioscorides believed coral staunched bleeding. In Greek it was called lithodendron or stone plant and thought to be pliable, only becoming hard after being exposed to the air. The potent gesture of the figa, the hand-shaped amulet with the first finger and characteristic position of the thumb forming the mano cornuta, was directed to ward off the evil eye. Made of coral these were believed to be highly efficacious affording the wearer special protection. Coral horns were an ancient phallic symbol of plenty, a powerful apotropaic deterrent to bad spirits and a force for good luck.

[27] A West African Cote d‘Ivoire Baule Loom Heddle Pulley Fine old smooth silky dark patina Early 20th Century

s i z e   : 18.5 cm high, 6.5 cm wide, 6.5 cm deep – 7¼ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 2½ ins deep / 19.5 cm high – 7¾ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Modern British Artist Alan Davie (1920–2014) These pulleys from which the double heddles of the men’s horizontal loom are suspended have provided Baule sculptors with the opportunity of creating aesthetic tours de force. They are made to hold the pulley at the top of a man's loom from which the two heddles were hung and alternatively raised and lowered, thus creating the sheds and countersheds necessary in weaving. These West African looms produce a ribbon of fabric about four inches wide which is then made up into clothing for men. The pulleys are carved with the attributes of human beauty that accord to Baule ideals. Carved in miniature, this figure has an elaborate coiffure, facial scarification and half moon eyes with an elegant face that evokes a personality. Although regarded as unpretentious by their nature, these sculptures stand on equal terms with other pieces which are ten times the size.

[28] A Rare and Unusual Japanese Amuletic Natural Netsuke Made from the Clawed Foot of a Goshawk with Attached Hawking Bell The claws turned in for compactness a metal ring for cord attachment to one claw Smooth silky old patination 18th Century

s i z e   : 7 cm high, 4 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 2¾ ins high, 1½ ins wide, 1 ins deep Japanese falconry known as Takagari began as a sport in the 4th century ad. It became an honourable and popular pastime practised amongst the Samurai as well as the nobles of the Court and was held in high esteem. Goshawks became symbols of status with portraits commissioned by Samurai owners in the early Edo period of their individual birds of prey. Natural formed netsuke such as this example would have been worn by the hunter both as a mark of rank and to attain the amuletic power, properties and protection of the hawk.

[29] A Rare Polynesian Fijian Priest’s Tånoa or Kumete Shallow Bowl of Vesi Wood with Serrated Skirting Beneath the Rim Inwardly raked untapered legs the shallow bowl with ancient layered patina of Yaqona deposits a hanging lug Daliga to the underside the rim having five Tally mark depressions suggesting a succession of Chiefly or Priestly owners Old smooth silky interior with blackened aged patina to underside Late 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 16.5 cm high, 48 cm dia. (max) – 6½ ins high, 19 ins dia. (max) pProv e na nc e : John Cordy Ltd. Auckland New Zealand 1964 Lot 58 from the Sale of the Reizenstein Estate Offered for sale again at John Cordy Ltd in 2002 acquired by Peter Stratford of Auckland, New Zealand Ex Private English collection c f : Similar skirting can be seen on several Priests Dishes and Four Yaqona mixing strainers in the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology The saw tooth skirting together a remarkable blackened patina to the underside of this tånoa or kunete bowl points to a religious use in ritual Fijian Yaqona rites associated with invoking ancestor spirits. The saw toothed tavatava skirting can be seen on some examples of chief’s whale ivory or whalebone breast plates, earrings and broad-bladed wooden clubs. It is highly significant as this decoration is also used on priest’s oil dishes and directly links this bowl to a ritual use in invoking ancestor spirits. The chosen spirit was offered and drank the yaqona liquid through the medium of the priest whom it possessed for the occasion. The bowl or tånoa was used for mixing the intoxicating liquid presided over by the spiritually possessed priest bete who would then drink the first cup drawn from the bowl on the ancestor spirits’ behalf. The bowl was one of the sacred ritual objects kept in the spirit house and dedicated to a particular kalou or ancestor–spirit. The smoke blackened patina indicates that the bowl was hung bottom outermost from the wall of the spirit house burekalou in which a smouldering fire was constantly kept burning in the hearth. Shortly before the arrival of Captain Cook in Tonga in the 1770’s, carpenters from Manono in Samoa came to eastern Fiji to produce plank built voyaging canoes from the readily available stands of Vesi wood. These carpenters also became renowned for their superb kumete or tånoa bowls which were distributed by exchange throughout the region. The large bowls cut from a single block of sacred Vesi wood were used for the ritual brewing and drinking of a concoction made by the infusion of chewed wads of kava or yaqona pepperbush root piper methysticum in water, and although the origins of making this intoxicating liquid are pre-contact in date, the ceremonial chiefly rituals and Tongan style of kava preparation which became widespread in Fiji, date from the late 18th century.

[30] a. An Oil on Canvas by John Bratby R.A. (1928–1992) Entitled Two Figures of Patti in Red Raincoat with Three Istanbul Mosques Signed Bratby Late 1980’s / 1990 s i z e   : 122 cm high, 91 cm wide – 48 ins high, 35¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Exhibited National Portrait Gallery Label to Reverse catalogue no. 26 (11) c f : A similar Self Portrait in Missoni Cardigan with Patti in Red and Istanbul Mosques in Yale Centre for British Art Connecticut U.S.A. (B1998.24.2) John Bratby was a founder of the English Kitchen Sink school of Art. Many of his works were portraits of his friends, celebrities and family. This portrait is of his second wife Patti, who he met through a lonely hearts column and married in 1977. The background depicts Istanbul and three of its mosques, travel providing inspiration for much of his painting in the 1980’s. In 1956, Bratby and the other Kitchen Sink artists Edward Middleditch, Jack Smith and Derek Greaves were chosen to represent Britain at the Venice Biennale. Bratby’s social-realist scenes of domestic life anticipated the later Pop Art movement of the 1960’s. In the same year, 1956, his Still Life with Chip Frier was purchased by the Tate Gallery of London. This later portrait in his usual bright unforgiving palette of colour, shows off his devoted wife to the world with his unmistakable life-enhancing vulgarity.

[30] b. An Ebonised Edwardian Table from the Hastings Studio of John Bratby Reputedly used by him as a Palette for his Oil Paints Gifted to his wife Patti with a Table Mirror

s i z e   : 96 cm high, 92 cm wide, 44 cm deep – 37¾ ins high, 36¼ ins wide, 17¼ ins deep John Bratby favoured heavily impastoed paint of raw and vital bright pigments, thick as Axminster carpets. His handling of the paint on the canvas was deliberately crude.

[31] A Large Collection of Raw Amber mostly Found on the Shores of the Baltic Sea Some Dredged by Fisherman Off Dogger Bank all of Transparent Yellow Orange Colour showing erosion by sediment and attached barnacles Prehistoric – Acquired in the 19th Century

s i z e s   : approx: 2 cm x 2 cm x 1 cm – ¾ ins x ¾ ins x ¼ ins (min) approx : 6 cm x 4 cm x 1 cm – 2¼ ins x 1½ ins x ¼ ins (max)

p rov e na nc e : Reputedly from the collection of a German Meerschaum Pipe Maker and used in the preparation of Amber Pipe Stems The shores of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe were the ones exploited the longest for their large deposits of amber. Travelling across the North Sea amber also washes up on the shores of Eastern England and Scotland, most often after a storm. Traded since ancient times, mentioned in Greek mythology and later supported by special guilds of amber craftsmen who created stunning works of art, amber has always been a fascinating and highly valued commodity.

[32] An Interesting and Varied Collection of Antiquities and Curiosities from Prehistory to the Roman Period with Old Inscribed Labels Detailing the Dates and Sites Where They Were Found s i z e   : min. 0.5 cm – ¼ ins / max. 20 cm x 6 cm x 2.5 cm – 8 ins x 2¼ ins x 1 ins p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of C.F. Moysey Torquay, Devon. Archaeologist and local History Lecturer The collection comprising: ¶ The stamped impressed handle of a Rhodian pottery wine jar, the old label inscribed A handle of a Rhodian wine jar inscribed in Greek Mapeya Yakinoioy. Imported into Palestine about 300–200 bc from P.E.F. Excavations Hill of Ophel Jerusalem 1923–1925 ¶ A glazed box containing Romano-British fresco fragments with label inscribed Painted wall plaster. Verulamium Excavations 1932. To be kept in Darkness when not being examined ¶ A glazed box containing prehistoric flint scrapers. One with flints from Milverton and Bathealton all inscribed in ink with find spots and dates from 1915 to 1923 ¶ Another with flint scrapers from Avebury, Overton Hill, Waden Hill, Shepherds Shore and Windmill Hill. All inscribed with their find spot and the date found. One marked rabbit scraper ¶ A large section of ancient Romano-British mosaic flooring with label Roman villa Folkestone ¶ A glazed cardboard box containing a selection of ancient stone and faïence beads with an old label Beads found at UR period of earliest graves between 3500–3300 bc. Presented by C. Leonard Woolley and the Trustees of the British Museum. July 1928 and 29 ¶ Two strings of stone beads, another string of faïence and stone with label UR Neo-Babylonian C. 700–600 bc Three glass phials containing fragments with label UR period of earliest graves 3500–3300 bc and an ancient Egyptian faïence necklace ¶ A glazed box containing decorated ancient Samian pottery fragments with label Decorated Samian mostly from Richborough and Oldest bit form 29 ¶ A fragment of the Leaning Tower of Pisa from weathered stone replaced at Restoration of Tower in 1905 ¶ An ancient Roman carved bone writing stylus with attached label Roman bone pin from villa at Lydney Park Gloucestershire ¶ A glazed paper-box containing marble fragments one of green straw porphyry and one of Imperial purple porphyry with old label From the field on S.W. Of Baths of Caracalla Rome 1908 ¶ Two glass phials with cork stoppers labelled to the top Fragments from the Roman Forum’ containing pieces of mosaic. Another label’ The Forum Rome 1908 ¶ Two ancient Romano-British marble architectural fragments with label Fragments of the marble casing of an important building which stood on the great concrete foundation at Richborough probably erected about 100 ad and a Ruin by 300 ad(Luna Marble from Tuscany) [see 1st Richborough report p35] Found by C.F.M. Feb 14th 1903 ¶ Two other labels to the marble pieces Richborough Kent (Portus Ritupis) Feb 14 1903 ¶ Five sections of ancient Roman Imperial purple porphyry with an old label Baths of Caracalla Rome April 13 1866 ¶ A glazed paper box containing marble, limestone and porphyry floor fragments with label Pavement from the house of Sallust (86–35 bc) Tivoli ¶ Three pieces of ancient Romano-British pottery excavated at Colchester with label Colchester 1953 ¶ A small glazed paper box containing gold covered glass mosaic pieces with label Mosaic from manufactory Venice ¶ Another box with coloured glass pieces with label From the top of the Dome of St Peters Rome April 28 1865 ¶ A small glazed paper box containing sections of a mosaic pavement with label Pavement S. Marco Venice 26/5/64 ¶ A box containing samples of ancient coloured glass mosaic with label From the Vatican Manufactory 28/4/65. 1. Piece from San Paolo Fuori le Mura. The others from a group of houses ¶ Two pieces of ancient porphyry, one of green straw porphyry, the other of Imperial purple both with labels to the reverse picked up Bay of Naples by Aunt Pepploe and another specimen slab of Sienna marble marked Sienna Aunt Pepploe to the reverse. ¶ A small glazed paper box containing pieces of amber with label Amber 1865 ¶ A piece of Scottish granite with old label From Queen Victoria’s seat in Glencoe and another Scottish mineral sample with label Aunt Pepploe Scotland 1862 ¶ A round paper specimen box containing garnets and uncut crystals with labels inscribed crystals/garnets from the Moraine of Monte Rosa Macugnaga Val Anzasca August 2nd 1864

[33] A Fine Spanish Colonial Philippines Carved Ivory Head Depicting the Virgin Mary Fixings to the head for a Wig or Aurole of Silver A pencil inscription to reverse of the old velvet stand Given to Anne Rossa 1925 by Glyn Philpott and a paper label Given AR by her to … from Heywood Hill Early 18th Century

s i z e   : 13 cm high, 7 cm wide, 6 cm deep – 5¼ ins high, 2¾ ins wide, 2¼ ins deep / 18 cm high – 7 ins high (on 19th century velvet covered base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Irish collection Ex Messel collection For 350 years the Philippines were under Spanish colonial rule and Cult of Mary Santa Maria was of great importance. The cathedral of Manila, the first in the Islands, was built in 1578 on the orders of Pope Gregory XIII under the invocation of the Immaculate Conception and consequently in the Philippines, the Virgin was portrayed as a solitary figure, the Purisima or Queen of Heaven without the Infant Jesus. Almost every other church was dedicated to one of her titles and images of her were in great demand. Philippino carving of religious ivories developed from a mix of the cultures of Goa, India, China and colonial Spain and Portugal with many modelled after European 17th century engravings and oil paintings. These ivories were often made with wooden bodies which were clothed in rich luxurious garments and garnished in precious stones with strips of gold and silver. They would be perfumed on feast days with scented oils and the smaller figures such as this displayed on private devotional altars.

[34] A Rare Oceanic New Caledonian Kanak Coconut Flask with a Spout Made From Human Bone and Bound with Finely Braided Coir Sennit 19th Century

s i z e   : 8 cm high, 8 cm wide, 14 cm deep – 3 ins high, 3 ins wide, 5½ ins deep c f : Musée de l’Homme Paris has a similar example collected in 1874 (71.1930.20.26.1–2) This flask may have functioned as a ritual container for potent medicinal substances from foraged plants whose amuletic powers protected the wearer from harm. Comprising numerous islands in the South Western Pacific Ocean, Captain Cook was the first European to discover them on his second voyage in 1774. He named the area New Caledonia as the northwest of the island was remarkably like that of Scotland. By 1840, the first missionaries from the London Missionary Society arrived and unexpectedly found cannibalism to be widespread in the Islands. In 1849, the entire crew of an American ship called Cutter was killed and eaten by the Pouma people. In 1853, New Caledonia was annexed by the French and the indigenous Kanak were excluded from the developing economy, ultimately being confined to reservations. New Caledonia still remains under French political authority.

[35] a. An Ancient Egyptian Painted Fragment of a Cartonnage Case from a Sarcophagus Depicting a Scarab Beetle Gesso on Linen with an attached label Piece of a Mummy-Case with Scarabaeus Painted Tombs of the Kings Thebes J.E.S. and another to the reverse Scarabaeus. Tombs of the Kings Thebes. 12th Feb 1867 3rd Intermediate Period / 22nd Dynasty 945–712 bc

s i z e : 10 cm high, 8 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 4 ins high, 3 ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection of James Ewing Somerville (1843–1923) who visited Egypt and Palestine in 1866–67 having gained an M.A. in 1862 from Glasgow University Thence by descent Scarabaeus sacer was the sacred scarab beetle of the ancient Egyptians which was personified by the creator god and sun god Khepri associated with resurrection. He is sometimes depicted in tomb paintings and funerary papyri as a man with a scarab as a head, and as a deity closely associated with resurrection. Khepri was also believed to be swallowed by his mother Nut each evening and passed through her body to be reborn each morning. Because the Egyptians observed that scarab beetles emerged apparently spontaneously from balls of dung, not surprisingly they believed that the scarab was therefore sacred and associated with the process of creation.

[35] b. An Ancient Egyptian Finger Bone of a Mummy attached to a Card Mount Inscribed Fingerbone of a Mummy Deir El Bahri Thebes J.E.S. 1867 New Kingdom 1550–1069 bc s i z e : 5 cm wide – 2 ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex collection of James Ewing Somerville (1843–1923) who visited Egypt and Palestine in 1866 having gained an M.A. in 1862 from Glasgow University Thence by descent Deir el-Bahri or Bahari was an important Theban religious and funerary site on the west bank of the Nile opposite Luxor comprising temples and tombs dating from the early Middle Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period. The most important part of the site consists of a deep bay in the cliffs containing the remains of temples of Medtuhotep II (2055–2004 bc), Hatshepsut (1473–1458 bc) and Thutmose III (1479–1425 bc) as well as private tombs contemporary with each of these pharaohs.

[36] Unusual and Large Netherlands Silver Mounted Table Snuff Box made from a Great Green Turban Sea Shell Turbo Marmoratus from the Indo-Pacific with Knops to the Polished Side Serving as Feet Mid 18th Century

s i z e   : 5.5 cm high, 10 cm wide, 7.5 cm deep – 2¼ ins high, 4 ins wide, 3 ins deep c f : A similar example in the Metropolitan Museum New York (1995.327) from the collection of Catherine the Great with a Russian Niello engraved Silver Top having similar knops to the smooth shell to serve as feet During the Renaissance the collecting of exotic shells became a fashionable mania alongside curiosities in taxidermy and other naturalia such as narwhal tusks. Beautiful specimens of clams, conchs and other eye-catching tropical marine species were brought back to European ports and commanded high prices in the markets on the quayside. Many of the smaller examples were made into shell arrangements or used in huge shell grottos in vogue during the 18th century on English estates. Albert Seba, an Amsterdam apothecary (1665–1736) depicted the heads of monsters with shells and sold his collection, which included a cabinet of East Indian cypress wood containing 72 drawers full of examples to Peter the Great in 1717. However, no sooner had he disposed of this collection he began to build another, often buying from the ships as they docked in Amsterdam as he went on board to attend to the sick and exhausted crews. Table snuff boxes made from these exotic tropical shells were status symbols produced to impress and amuse acquaintances with a pinch of perfumed snuff.

[37] A Fine Gilt Bronze of Mars the God of War Wearing Ornate Classical Roman Armour with a Plumed Helmet and Swirling Cloak Attributed to Sebastian Slodtz (Antwerp 1655–1726 Paris) Shield to the base missing Raised upon a green straw porphyry base Late 17th – Early 18th Century s i z e   : 16.5 cm high – 6½ ins high The son of a master carpenter, the Flemish sculptor Sebastian Slodtz joined the Paris workshop of François Girardon and under his direction worked on the sculptural decoration of Versailles and its gardens. Working for the court of Louis XIV he became known for producing small bronze models which were often reductions of existing statues in the Royal gardens in Paris. The bronze reduction produced of his marble statue of Hannibal is similar in detail. He married the daughter of Domenico Cucci, a gold and silversmith who also worked for the King and which brought him into valuable contact with other craftsmen. The fine surface and gilding of the bronze suggests the involvement of his goldsmith father-in-law. Mars was a popular subject and at the Meissen porcelain manufactory Kandler produced a figure based on this bronze after 1730. The Elector of Saxony most probably had an example in his collection at Dresden.

[38] A Fine New Caledonian Kanak Spirit Figure

The wood carved with stone tools evidenced by parallel indentations along the surface Applications of candlenut oil mixed with red ochre together with a long period of ritual handling has produced a warm glossy rich red brown silky patina Small longitudinal crack to back of the head Early 19th Century s i z e   : 30.5 cm high – 12 ins high / 35 cm high – 13¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Collected in the Field by Emile Demaret Paris. General Inspector of the Colonies in 1930’s Acquired by Christine Valluet, Paris Ex English Private collection c f : Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Montpellier (inv. no. 1088) collected by A. Berard 1845 Musée Guimet d’Histoire Naturelle Lyon (inv. no. 2282) Musée Des Beaux Arts Angouléme (inv. no. 34.1518) Château-Musée Boulogne-Sur-Mer (inv. no. 988.3.179) All the above have similar examples Named New Caledonia by Captain Cook in 1774 the Islands from the early 19th century onwards became a theatre of missionary competition between opposing Christian faiths. This evangelical zeal had profound repercussions entailing the disappearance of many customs as well as the impoverishment and transformation of culture and art. The colonisation and annexation of New Caledonia by France in 1853 completed the process. These magical standing statuettes commemorate an ancestral spirit which provided protection to their owners, and were sometimes used to confer fertility upon a couple. They were amongst the first objects to be brought back by 18th century mariners and merchant traders, as can be seen by their early presence in European collections. Commander August Berard, a government official in charge of the protection of religious missions and whaling stations from 1842–1846 collected a spirit figure in 1845 that can be viewed in the Montpellier museum of Natural History which is greatly comparable to this fine example. In 1841 on Ouvea Island the sandalwood trader Captain Cheyne recorded one day on the shore, I observed the King having two wooden figures in front of him, representing a male and a female about 9 inches in length, to whom he seemed to address devotions. In 1864 the missionary R.P. Montrouzier noted that these figures were often hidden in special enclosures in the forest, the wizard goes secretly to the place in the forest where the little hut is and the rude human figure. He puts material in the mouth and closes it as if to swallow it. The figurines were often kept carefully wrapped in fabric and bindings of tapa cloth and flying fox fur, as were the handles of many kanak clubs, and this ceremonial wrapping was thought to preserve the spirit figures magical power. Over sixty of these small anthropomorphic sculptures exist in museum and private collections, all of a similar form and posture, but of a varying quality of craftsmanship suggesting that they were made by domestic carvers according to need. This kanak figure with its animated posture and intense expression is a particularly fine example.

[39] A Dramatic Pair of Great White Shark Jaws Drawn in Watercolour and Pencil with an Old Inscription On Monday the 17th June 1765 Caught a Shark 20 Feet 3 Inches Long and 16 Feet Round as the Ship Bute was Riding in Mauritius Roads the Last of the Land Bearing from S.W.S. To N.E. E/2 Offshore at 3 Miles and ½ and in a 11 Fathoms Water Hard Rock and Sand by me Rob Townsend 18th Century / Circa 1765 s i z e : 30 cm high, 25.5 cm wide – 11¾ ins high, 10 ins wide / 32 cm high, 27 cm wide – 12½ ins high, 10½ ins wide (framed) p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection The Great White shark Carcharodon Carcharias is not actually white, but ranges in colour from grey to brown with white underparts. Its skeleton consists of cartilage and its long pointed snout contains a series of large powerful triangular serrated teeth. It ranges the open seas of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans and only seasonally enters coastal waters. It feeds on a variety of aquatic animals, including other sharks, seals and dolphins and also scavenges on dead animals. An extremely large, up to 6 metres long, and aggressive fish, it has acquired the formidable reputation of a man-eater and has been, and indeed still is, involved in many attacks on humans.

[40] An Ancient Greek Marble Relief Fragment Depicting the Head of a Galloping Horse Probably one of a Racing Chariot Team 4th – 3rd Century bc

s i z e   : 7.5 cm high, 10 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – 3 ins high, 4 ins wide, 1¼ ins deep / 13 cm high – 5 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Amongst all the animals in ancient Greece it was horses that were held in the highest regard. In art they appear amongst the oldest figural images, and as figurines and attachments on the handles of terracotta and bronze vessels. The large number of personal names containing the Greek word for horse, hippos: Hipparchos, Hippias, Hippobotos, Hippodamos etc, attests to the care, prestige and power associated with them as well as their presence in daily life. Wealth was measured by the number of sheep, cattle and goats owned by a household whereas horses were an indication of rank and social status.

[41] A Pair Ottoman Turkish Sherbet Spoons with Shaped Tortoiseshell Bowls and Red Coral Brass and Ivory Stems 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 24 cm long – 9½ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of an English Artist c f : See Topkapi the Treasury J.M. Rogers 1987, 114b. for three very similar examples Used by the ladies of the Palace harem for their favourite compotes of dried fruit known as hosaf, large sets of these spoons were also produced for the use of the Grand Viziers at their meetings in the Divan, the Kubbe Alti in the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul. Artists, architects and all manner of skilled craftsmen engaged in all the various branches of the decorative arts were employed within the grounds of the palace using exotic materials from around the world. Rather than relying on placing orders with independent masters, the Ottoman rulers co-opted the best artists they could find into their own palace workshops. Records show that by the end of the 16th century over 1500 craftsmen were on the palace payroll, which by the end of the 18th century had reduced to a mere 186.

[42] Two Monumental Unusual Imperial Egyptian Porphyry Boulders in their Natural Quarried State s i z e : 35 cm high, 31 cm wide, 22 cm deep – 13¾ ins high, 12¼ ins wide, 8¾ ins deep / 41 cm high, 39 cm wide, 14 cm deep – 16 ins high, 15¼ ins wide, 5½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Most of the Imperial purple porphyry used and recycled in the later Cosmati church floors, altars, door frames and pulpits were taken from earlier ancient Roman villas or other ruins. Through the 12th and 13th centuries successive generations of Cosmati

designed and created the most exquisitely intricate pavements in the churches of Rome and their work became so famous that patrons of churches in other cities would pay handsomely to have their new paving installed. A Cosmati worker Petrus Oderisius came to England in the second half of the 13th century commissioned by King Henry III to lay the sanctuary pavement of London’s Westminster Abbey. Traditionally it is believed that the ďŹ rst Cosmati family members some of whom signed their work with the name Cosma, learnt the craft of Opus Sectile in Constantinople. Becoming master stonecutters they brought together elements of the Byzantine and Islamic traditions merging them with their own native Roman heritage.

[43] English Sailors Scrimshaw Whalebone Walking Cane Turned to Resemble a Narwhal Tusk the Fluted Handle Mounted with a Silver Cap and Two Eyelets for a Wrist Thong First Half of the 19th Century

s i z e : 89.5 cm long – 35¼ ins long When the whale men were not engaged in looking out for and hunting whales, or the routine maintenance of the ship, their spare time was spent carving materials harvested from the whales that were not needed commercially. At the end of a long two or three year voyage following the migration of the whales through the oceans, the carefully made objects would be sold on their return to port to augment their share, or to present as gifts to loved ones. The time spent scrimshawing did not affect their wages as a peculiar form of payment had been established in the industry in that whalers were not paid a regular salary, rather their pay was based on a pre-set share in the profits. Known as a lay, the sum varied from quite a large portion for the captain to very small amounts for a greenland, an inexperienced seaman.

[44] An Aboriginal West Australian District of Victoria Paddle Shaped Spear Thrower Meru An old paper label to the shaped blade inscribed Natives Wommera. W. Australia. J.B. Roe 19th Century

s i z e : 57 cm high, 11 cm wide – 22½ ins high, 4¼ ins wide / 61 cm high – 24 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex collection James Brown Roe. J.P. (1833–1907) Second in Command of a Government Exploratory Expedition along the Murchison River in 1858 c f : W.J. Macleay collection (H1100) has a very similar example collected by George Masters 1869 in the Macleay Museum University of Sydney, Australia Spear throwers add an extra point to the arm and so greatly increase the velocity of the spear thrown making the throw more powerful and accurate. This type of spear thrower was used in conjunction with two or three different types of spears and was called a Meru. A shallow hole at the end of spear shaft accommodated the throwing peg of the spear thrower. The continual nomadic existence of the Australian aboriginal peoples restricted the weapons and goods that could be carried with them from place to place. Spear throwers were regarded as too heavy for long journeys so an ingenious method of cutting them from the mulga tree Acacia Aneura was devised. Unflaked boulders from nearby hillsides were gathered and the outline of the spear thrower cut from the tree, the entire manufacture of the thrower taking about three hours. Techniques described in detail by Mountford pp 312–316 1941 An unrecorded method of Manufacturing Wooden Implements with simple stone tools Traus. Roy. Soc. S.Aust. Vol 65. No 2 Adelaide

[45] A Collection of Ten Arctic Bering Strait Inuit Carved Walrus Ivory Amuletic Artefacts Early to Mid 19th Century

p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection a. A Bering Strait Inuit Amuletic Walrus Ivory Carving of a Squatting Shaman his hands clasped to his face his mouth open singing s i z e : 4 cm high, 1.5 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 1½ ins high, ½ ins wide, ½ ins deep b. A Bering Strait North Yukon Inuit Carved Walrus Ivory Bentwood Hunting Visor Amuletic Ornament in the Form of a Seated Man his arms folded over his Knees Eyes and Ears inlaid with Baleen Holes to Reverse for Sinew attachment used as a Protective Device when Hunting at Sea s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 2cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, ¾ ins wide, 1 ins deep c. A Bering Sea Inuit Carved Walrus Ivory Amuletic Upside Down Pendant Effigy Figure of a Female Worn Around the Neck with a Sinew Cord strung through the Legs by Pregnant Women to Ensure a Successful Birth s i z e : 5 cm high, 1.5 cm wide, 0.5 cm deep – 2 ins high, ½ ins wide, ¼ ins deep d. A Bering Sea Inuit Miniature Anthropomorphic Walrus Ivory Cord Attacher Depicting a Transformative Man with Large Nostrils and Tattoos used to Attach Lines and Tools to the Kayak s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 2 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 1 ins high, ¾ ins wide, ½ ins deep e. A Bering Sea Yukon Inuit Carved Walrus Ivory Cord Attacher Depicting the Face of a Singing Shaman with Tattooed Eyebrows s i z e : 2 cm high, 1 cm wide, 0.5 cm deep – ¾ ins high, ½ ins wide, ¼ ins deep f. A Bering Sea Inuit Amuletic Carved Walrus Ivory Belt Fastener in the Form of a Miniature Swimming Seal Nagtuqat s i z e : 4 cm long, 2 cm wide, 0.5 cm high – 1½ ins long, ¾ ins wide, ¼ ins high g. A Bering Sea Inuit Walrus Ivory Amuletic Fishing Net Grip the Handle Carved in the Form of a Double Headed Salmon Kepirtat s i z e : 2 cm high, 5.5 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – ¾ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, ½ ins deep h. A Bering Strait Inuit Walrus Ivory Amuletic Drag Handle Carved with a Double Janus Head of a Woman Wearing Labrets to the Centre of Her Lower Lip Slit Eyes Denoting a Masked Face used for Hauling Heavy Weights over the Snow or Ice s i z e : 1.5 cm high, 4 cm long, 1.5 cm deep – ½ ins high, 1½ ins long, ½ ins deep i. A Bering Strait Inuit Walrus Ivory Small Amuletic Float Plug Carved in the Form of a Seal’s Head used as a Nozzle for a Seal Skin Float Attached to the Shaft of a Spear s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 3 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 1 ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 1 ins deep j. A Bering Strait Inuit Amuletic Walrus Ivory Bentwood Hunting Visor Ornament in the Form of a Tusked Walrus Attachment holes to reverse the Kayak Hunters would Wear Visors to Shield their Eyes from the Glare the Brims Embellished with Carvings of Walrus Heads to ensure a Successful Hunt s i z e : 5 cm high, 3 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 2 ins high, 1¼ ins wide, ¾ ins deep

[46] An Ancient Roman Carved Turquoise Bust of an Emperor Perhaps Domitian (a.d 81–96) a Cloak over his Shoulder Small chips to the back of Bust and Shoulder Late 1st – 2nd Century ad

s i z e   : 3 cm high, 2 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 1¼ins high, ¾ ins wide, ½ ins deep / 8.5 cm high – 3¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Acquired 1950’s c f : The Guy Ladriére Collection for a similar Turquoise Bust (no. 2) Late 1st Century ad A Roman Bust perhaps Vespasian carved of Chalcedony Late 1st Century ad Museum of Fine Arts Boston USA (98.768) After the Romans captured Asia Minor, Palestine and Egypt large quantities of gemstones of immense value, and a great store of knowledge about gem-cutting tech­niques, found their way to Rome. Turquoise had been valued for thousands of years particularly for its pale sky blue colour and was principally found in Persia. Pliny the Elder called it callais and regarded it as talismanic, a bringer of good fortune and the ancient Egyptians used it as far back as the 1st Dynasty associating it with the goddess Hathor whose titles included Mistress of Turquoise. They revered the stone so much that it became the first gemstone ever to be imitated in the form of the blue glazed ceramic faïence.

[47] A Fine and Unusual Chinese Canton Export Carved and Pierced Filigree Ivory Gaming Box Containing Four Oval Boxes of Counters and Two Board Brushes The inside lined in red velvet Probably made for the game of Loo Late 18th century – Early 19th century

s i z e s : 8 cm high, 22 cm wide, 17.5 cm deep – 3 ins high, 8¾ ins wide, 7 ins deep Pp rov e na nc e : Ex Irish Private collection Ex Messel collection Loo by the turn of the 18th century was England’s most popular card game. Played by three to eight people using a 52 card pack with gaming chips or counters, it is a game played for tricks which in each round the players may pass or play. Any player failing to take a trick is looed and adds 5 more gaming chips to the pool. The game is thought to have originated in France as a four or five card flush called fiddlesticks which reached England with Charles II and the restoration of the monarchy circa 1660–85.

[48] An Oceanic Fijian Carved Vesi Hard­ wood Gata or Snake War Club Kiakavo Of distinctive spur form a panel of carving to the handle with an old drilled hole for a wrist thong Fine smooth glossy patina Early 19th Century s i z e   : 101 cm long – 39¾ ins long The heavy two-handed war club was the favourite weapon of the Fijian warrior and consequently one of the most widely used on the battlefield. The cutting edge is formed by the converging cheeks which were designed to cut through and snap bone. Various different types of clubs were designed to inflict different types of injuries. They were made with elaborate surface designs by many different craftsmen who put far more attention into their manufacture than was necessary for their required purpose, but the clubs were symbolic embodiments of power and status as well as practical deliverers of destruction. It is said that the spur on these clubs represents the gaping jaws of a striking gata or Pacific Boa snake of the Eugyrus species.

[49] An Indian Eastern Bengal Cast Bronze of the Hindu Goddess Radha her Well Emphasised Form Bedecked with Jewellery Her hand proffering an Offering to Krishna One hand missing the eyes once inlaid Old silky smooth black patina Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 29.5 cm high – 11½ ins high / 32 cm high – 12½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Netherlands Private collection Hinduism is said to be the oldest religion in the world. It is based on the recognition that Brahman is the highest principle in the universe and pervades all of existence. Vishnu is the preserver god of the Hindu and his followers also worship Rama and Krishna who are incarnations of Vishnu. Adherents of this sect are monastic and devoted to meditative practice and ecstatic chanting. Radha is the female counterpart of Krishna and her name means prosperity, success and lightning. She has been known as the goddess of love from the 12th century onwards and is considered an incarnation of Lakshimi, the wife of Lord Vishnu and goddess of wealth, fortune and prosperity. According to legend Radha was married, but had mystical intimacy with Krishna. Born a milkmaid, she is regarded as a goddess of heaven.

[50] A Fine English Silver Seal Engraved with an Armourial Coat of Arms Displaying Two Unicorns Contained in original velvet lined and silver studded shagreen case Mid 18th Century

s i z e   : 2.5 cm high – 1 ins high / case: 4 cm high –1½ ins high The art of the seal and its cutting was well developed by the 4th millennium bc. Its greatest period was during the Sumerian civilisation around 2700 bc when the delicacy of the work reached a height not to be surpassed until the best period of Greek and Roman lapidaries. These seals, however were not jewellery, but apart from beaten gold and gold-work generally, they are the earliest examples known of what may be called the ancestors of European jewellery. There is a direct line of descent from the seals used in the ancient world to those used in Medieval Europe and later. Seals were used to authenticate a document or valuable package with an impression in sealing wax. The use of heraldry began with European warriors who needed a means of identification on the battlefield and used an armourial device on their shields. By the end of the 10th century most western royal chanceries used them and by the middle of the 13th century ordinary freemen and petty knights were allowed the distinction of an armourial. During the 18th century seals were considered an important item for a gentleman to own in order to establish his credentials and familial bearing.

[51] Ancient Late Iron Age Near Eastern Levantine Philistine Carved Limestone Votive Double Spirit Figure with Clasped Hands and Expressive Oval Faces Circa 1200–586 bc

s i z e   : 15 cm high, 10 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 6 ins high, 4 ins wide, 1½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection c f: Ancient figurine of a Votive Limestone Bird from the Jordan Valley Gigal 1 Site in the collection of Israel Musuem Jerusalem The Philistine Kingdom existed in parallel to the Israelite Kingdoms during the Iron Age. Their distinctive material culture was derived from Aegean origins and rapidly absorbed Cypriot, Egyptian and local Caanite influences. Part of an interesting population movement known as the Sea Peoples which took place at the beginning of the 1st Millennium bc they established themselves in the southern limits of the Levant close to the Mediterranean sea. Based on archaeological remains they were not ignorant as their name implies, but a cultured and refined people. However, in Biblical text they are regarded as the arch-enemies of the Israelites. In Ancient Egypt from the time of Rameses III, 1185 bc , they are mentioned in the hieroglyphs on the walls of the Medinet Temple in Thebes. Figurines representing human spirits were used for personal and collective rites of a shamanistic nature. Similarly figures of domestic animals were used to enhance fertility. Shamans acted as mediators between the earthly and supernatural worlds, responsible for healing the sick, predicting the future, increasing the crop yield and for making rain.

[52] An Arctic Bering Strait Eskimo Inuit Amuletic Walrus Ivory Finger Rest Tegumiarun Carved in the Form of a Double Headed Seal with Inlaid Eyes of Baleen Whiskers etched to face Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 4 cm high, 3.5 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, ½ ins deep Finger rests were used with large harpoons to catch the Beluga or white whale and bearded seals, Mukluk. The Beluga was an important quarry and had special significance to Bering Sea people. It was accorded the utmost respect. When a Beluga was caught a song was offered to its spirit and it was customary in many regions never to hunt them with iron bladed weapons. They were hunted with large harpoons similar, but heavier to bladder darts, and these weapons were thrown by hand without a throwing board, aided by carved finger rests such as this. The animal effigy was positioned close to the harpoon and its quarry in order to gain its amuletic powers. Seals were regarded as especially fine catchers and acted as helping spirits. South of the Bering Strait the walrus ivory finger rests were often carved as seals, to the North they were shaped as polar bears.

[53] An Ancient Pre-Columbian Central South American Quimbaya Cast Openwork Filigree Gold Nose Ornament 400–1200 ad

s i z e   : 0.8 cm high, 5 cm wide, 0.5 cm deep – ¾ ins high, 2 ins wide, ¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Christopher Gibbs acquired 1980 Given as a gift Ex Private London collection In Panama the peoples of the Quimbaya region were remarkably culturally advanced and known for their great skill as goldsmiths. The techniques they employed probably initiated in Peru, but spread across Columbia and central America into Mexico, and their sought after products were traded across a wide area. In 1520, Albrecht Durer wrote: I have seen nothing in all my lifelong days which so filled my heart with joy. He had just viewed an exhibit in Brussels of Central American goldwork which was essentially the Aztec Moctezuma’s peace offerings to his Spanish conquerors. In the quality of their work the ancient jewellers of Mexico and Central America rivalled the finest craftsmen of Europe, but after showing off their treasures in the Renaissance courts of Europe the Spanish converted most of it into bullion.

[54] A Fine Netherlandish Ivory Relief Portrait Plaque of the Philosopher Democritus Contained in a Fruitwood Frame Carved with Flowering Tendrils Titled in ink to the reverse Democrite With old collection label Last Quarter 17th Century

s i z e   : 8.5 cm high, 6 cm wide – 3¼ ins high, 2¼ ins wide / 11 cm high, 8.5 cm wide (frame) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Netherlands collection Amsterdam was a principal European port and many ivories were produced there from the 16th century onwards as a result of the trade with Africa. Devotional subjects were favoured at first, but in the 17th century numerous small scale reliefs and figures began to be carved, their inspiration taken from drawings and engravings. Democritus (460– 370 bc) was known as the laughing philosopher and in legend he is said that in order to retain his cheerfulness, he blinded himself so as to put an end to his desire for women. Together with Leucippus he founded classical atomism. He conjured up a magnificent vision of the universe with a total absence of purpose and design. This was too much for Plato and Aristotle and was only wholehearted embraced by Epicurus until it was rediscovered in the 17th century and formed the basis of modern science.

[55] A Rare Polynesian Austral Islands Chief ’s Sacred Fly Whisk Handle Tahirira'a from Tubuai Island With two jugated seated figures carved with remarkable faces and two cylindrical horns like projections on their foreheads possibly representing the ears of the Deity Tarianui Great Ears serrated borders to their limbs which sit above a columnar grip terminating in a raised disc engraved with a double frieze of tiny stylised heads probably representing pigs The decorative shaft ornamented with original plaited coir sennit and human hair binding The long cocoa nut fibre whisk missing A small chip to the corner of one leg Old smooth silky red brown patina Late 18th Century

s i z e   : 36 cm high, 4.5 cm wide (max) 4.5 cm deep (max) – 14 ins high, 1¾ ins wide (max) 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Benjamin Franklin Grouard, Santa Ana, California U.S.A. colleague of Elder Addison Pratt and Joint Founder with Pratt on Tubuai of a Mission for the Mormon Latter Day Saints the Fly Whisk collected by Grouard during his stay on Tubuai 1844–1852 Thence by descent to his grand daughter Ms. Stafford of Los Angeles California, U.S.A. Purchased by Ralph Altman of Altman Antiques, Los Angeles, early 1950’s Ex New York Private collection c f : Robert and Lisa Sainsbury Collection University of East Anglia (U.E.A. 895) Peabody Museum Salem Mass USA (E13.216) have comparable examples The practical function of these intriguing objects was to brush away the numerous irritating flies that existed on the Austral Islands from the backs and shoulders and from a Chief’s food. However, it was more importantly a baton denoting high status and rank. Austral Islands fly whisks that were collected and bought back to Europe from Central Polynesia were often previously attributed to Tahiti, the largest of the Society Islands, but it is now almost unanimously agreed that they made in Tubuai or Rurutu Island. It is probable that some examples were acquired in the Society Islands as trade in ritual and ceremonial objects made by Austral craftsmen was well established with the communities on Tahiti. There are large and small varieties of double figure fly whisks which have twin janus headed figures sitting above a columnar grip. As only smaller and more compact examples were collected by Captain Cook when he discovered Tubuai Island in 1777 it is possible that the larger ones are a local post contact development of the late 18th century.

[56] A Northern India Mughal Small Carved Ivory Casket with Gilt Metal Mounts The interior divided into six sections for spices or medicinal substances Late 17th Century

s i z e   : 4.5 cm high, 10.5 cm wide, 5.5 cm deep – 1¾ ins high, 4¼ ins wide, 2¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Cserno collection Netherlands The North Indian Mughal craftsmen had an extraordinary love of surface embellishment and decorated their products with floral and abstract patterns using many different techniques. The enormous wealth of the Mughal emperors was a magnet which attracted talented craftsmen from many countries to the Royal workshops where they developed their skills and passed them on over generations. In the late 17th century the craftsmen began to reconcile the long standing decorative Mughal motifs with those of newly introduced flowering plants and created more naturalistic, formal floral compositions as carved on this box. Boxes and caskets were made for both domestic and foreign markets, some completely of ivory, others set with ivory plaques or profusely inlaid, with those destined for European export often the most ornately decorated.

[57] An Ancient Central American Late Classic Mayan Jaina Terracotta Sculpture Depicting a Maize God Standing with his Hands in his Sowing Bowl From a Necropolis on Jaina Island Traces of old Maya Blue pigment Partial paper label to reverse Circa 600–800 ad

s i z e s : 25 cm high – 9¾ ins high Pp rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of a retired Professor of Archaeology at the University of Bristol Jaina is a small limestone island just off the coast of Campeche separated from the mainland by a tidal inlet. It is one of the most enigmatic archaeological sites in the Maya area. It was used as an elite necropolis probably by the nobles and rulers who lived inland in a region of South West Yucatan called the Puuk. The terracotta figures were mostly portraits of Mayan deities and were made partly in moulds and then embellished by hand with fine details. After firing at a low temperature they would be painted often with a unique pigment called Maya Blue produced by mixing indigo with a special clay and then heating it. The resulting blue pigment was extraordinarily stable and highly resistant to the effects of light, acids and time. This particular clay was found only at a place in the Yucatan the Maya called Sakalum and they continued to manufacture it all the way through the Spanish conquest, and it has even been found used in colonial murals in Central Mexico.

[58] Two Fine West African Yoruba Carved Ere Ibeji Twin Figures Early 20th Century

s i z e s : a: 29 cm high – 11¼ ins high b: 26 cm high – 10¼ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection The Netherlands a. A tall male twin figure Ere Ibeji with long sturdy body and elongated arms the well carved hands clasped to his side decorated with bronze bracelets his face and torso worn smooth from repeated libations wearing an upswept pointed hairdo his head with prominent ears Iiobu Oyu Area b. A tall female twin figure Ere Ibeji with long elegant body and arms the face worn smooth with a fine patina from repeated libations with a pointed upswept hairdo she has scarification to her face and wears beaded anklets and bracelets together with old cast bronze bracelets Iiobu Oyu Area Christies Auction label 8 Dec’ 1992 lot 66 c f : Ibeji by Mareidi & Gert Stoll 1980 no. 123 & 124 Ibeji by George Chemeche 2003 no. 62, 63, 64, 65, 67 In West Africa the Yoruba people have a rate of twin births four times that of anywhere else, and twins posed a difficult problem for the Yoruba. They violated the normal pattern of things as women normally only give birth to one child at a time and twins were subject to a higher rate of infant mortality. Twins were expensive as there were two mouths to feed with special luxurious food, and this was given to them whether alive or dead. Twins also had the capacity to deliver unexpected good or bad fortune to their parents. The mothers of twins would not deny them anything in fear of this ill fortune, and could often be seen in the local market place singing and dancing and begging for money in order to be able to placate their offspring. Established procedures were followed in the care of twins which ensured the continued fertility of the mother and the birth of further children. One procedure consisted of commissioning from recognised sculptors carved images of the twins. These were kept in the house and ritually fed, washed and dressed on a regular basis. Their bodies were rubbed all over with a red camestic paste made from the camwood tree, which was believed to have healing and other magical properties. Over time this ritual dressing produced a smooth reddish brown patina wearing away any prominent features to an abstract form.

[59] Bering Strait Chukchi Eskimo Amuletic Carved Walrus Ivory Belt Fastener in the Form of a Shamanic Singing Female With long tresses of hair tied at the back Scarification marks to the chin The ears with Baleen inserts Early 19th Century

s i z e : 4 cm high, 2 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 1½ ins high, ¾ ins wide, ¾ ins deep Art to the Eskimo people is an act, not an object, a ritual not a possession. They do not have a word for art or artist, there are only people. No distinction is made between utilitarian and decorative objects. They simply say A man should do things properly. Carving, like singing, isn’t a special achievement. To the Eskimo when they feel a song within them they sing it, when you sense a form emerging from the walrus ivory, you release it. The great artists of the West sometimes thought in these forms and even expressed them, but they were exceptions only reaching this conclusion after long experience and contemplation, whereas the Eskimo learn it as a mother-tongue and daily give it social voice and expression. It is their attitude not only toward carving walrus ivory but toward all things.

[60] Australian Aboriginal Central Desert Region Early Exceptionally Narrow Shield Engraved to Both Sides with Undulating Lines and Coloured with Red Ochre Old pitch repair to a spear hole behind handle Smooth old patina formed from long use Early to mid 19th Century

s i z e s : 76.5 cm long, 7.5 cm wide – 30 ins long, 3 ins wide The Australian Aborigines of the Central Desert were nomads and did not practice any form of agriculture or have any domesticated animals., except for the companionable dingo dog. They remained hunters and food gathers for centuries living in an unusually arid and exacting country where a life full of hardship was the norm. They spent much time making and decorating their weapons, which were mainly used for hunting, as they had developed a code of laws that was so well balanced they did not need warfare, with all its attendant horrors, to maintain social balance. Fashioning shields from the hardwood shrubby trees such as Acacia, known as Mulga, with great skill and care they would use a possum tooth engraving tool to create distinctive undulating lines which were then coloured with natural earth pigments.

[61] An Ancient British Celtic Carved Gritstone Votive Head of a Male Deity or Shrine Figure With triangular long nose typical spectacle eyes forming complete ovals the pupils carved to slightly project clearly defined lips curling upturned whiskers which taper to a pointed chin Set upon a integral round base 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e s : 25 cm high, 18 cm dia. (max) – 9¾ ins high, 7 ins dia. (max) Pp rov e na nc e : Ex Private British collection c f: Dr Anne Ross Pagan Celtic Britain illustrates two similar heads: The Maponus Head (24a) from Northumberland and (27b) a Head on a base with similar countenance found near Appleby, Cumberland Diodorus Siculus noted of the British Celts … the Celts of the hinterland have a strange and peculiar custom in connection with the sanctuaries of the gods; for in the temples and sanctuaries which are dedicated throughout the country a large amount of gold is openly placed as a dedication to the gods … (Diodorus Siculus V: 27 Tierney 249) It was necessary to the Celts to have shrines to perform their rites and so it was essential to have official priests interpret them, act as intermediaries and officiate at the sacrifices which were of great importance to all Celts. Caesar was quoted as saying … when a private person or a tribe disobeys their ruling (the Druids) they ban them from attending at sacrifices. This is their harshest penalty. Men placed under this ban are treated as impious wretches; all avoid them, fleeing their company and conversation, lest their contact bring misfortune upon them (Caesar VI, 13 Tierney 271). Springs, wells and rivers were of first and enduring importance as a focal point of Celtic cult practice and ritual. The veneration of natural springs and wells as sacred places is evidenced by the number of Celtic carved stone heads that have been unearthed near them. Many of these are three dimensional and free standing and were placed at these shrines to propitiate success for the Celtic warriors and to protect the community from evil forces.

[62] Fine Western Polynesian Tongan Iron­ wood War Club of Apai'apai Form with Rounded Spatulate Head Carefully Carved in Zoned Engraving and with Fifteen Anthro­ pomorphic and Zoomorphic Glyphs The butt with half moon shaped attachment for a wrist cord Smooth silky soft patination Slight damage from original use to top edge old small stress crack to lower middle of long handle Mid to late 18th Century s i z e : 122 cm long – 48 ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private North Country collection In the 18th century an extensive exchange network existed between Tonga, Samoa and Fiji. Cook arrived in the 1770’s on his second and third voyages as well as other European explorers and named Tonga the Friendly Islands. Valuable information on the area came from the account by William Mariner of his four year stay on Tonga between 1806 and 1810, and by the 1820’s the London Missionary Society and the Methodist Mission were stationed on the Islands. Within ten years they had converted the Tongan chiefs to Christianity. The warriors favourite weapon on Tonga was the long two handed club. Its primary use being to kill people, or sometimes, pigs. The important clubs were distinguished by their superb workmanship. The Reverend John Thomas observed that many of the gods had what was called the hala, or way, which was a carved club – most sacred, by which the god was supposed to enter the priest (Larson 1960:67). The Missionaries became intensely involved in the local politics of the Islands as they vied for converts and success. Reports of baptisms were one measure of success, but another was the demonstrable overthrow of pagan idolatry. Thus idols became a target for iconoclasm, but curiously artefacts were also preserved and paraded as missionary performance indicators. Many of the captured objects were sent back to Europe as examples of the triumph of Christianity to display in mission Museums and fund raising exhibitions. An unintentional consequence of their actions was that the missionaries became collectors, and this led to the survival of the confiscated artefacts.

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