Myth & Memory

Page 1

Myth & Memory

Suite 744, 2 Old Brompton Road, London sw7 3dq, uk Tel : 020 7689 7500  Mobile : 07836684133 / 07768236921 Email : Website :

[1] An Impressive Ancient British Celtic Red Sandstone Bust of a Female Deity Wearing a Beaded Torc and Head Band with Long Wavy Hair, Oval Eyes and Small Slit Mouth The stone with fossilised shell fragments 1st Century bc–1st Century ad

s i z e   : 36 cm high, 20 cm wide, 13 cm deep – 14¼ ins high, 8 ins wide, 5 ins deep / 38 cm high – 15 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection acquired London Art Market early 1980’s The name of the goddess changed according to the diVerent regions and local Celtic traditions, but she was essentially always concerned with the fertility of the land, the crops, animals and the welfare of the community. She also took an active part in battle against tribal enemies using her supernatural powers rather than weapons to bring about victory. Brigantia the High One was regarded as one such powerful warrior goddess and gave her name to the territory of Roman Britain equivalent to the present day six northern counties of England and to the confederation of tribes, the Brigantes who occupied the area. Springs, wells and rivers are of enduring importance as a focal point of Celtic cult practice and ritual. Rivers are important in themselves being associated in Celtic tradition with fertility and thus with the deities concerned with this fundamental aspect of life. The veneration of the sacred source of the river, the spring from which it rises, was often the site of shrines and temples where Celtic goddess figures were associated with the life giving powers of water. OVerings would made to these patron deities and British rivers often have Celtic goddess names: the River Severn gets its name from the Celtic goddess Sabrina.

[2] A Fine New Zealand Maori Whalebone Short Hand Club Patu Paråoa Smooth aged mellow patina 18th – Early 19th Century s i z e   : 39.5 cm long – 15½ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the late Peter Dineley c f : Similar examples are in the Maori Collections of The British Museum no. 716 Whalebone was favoured as a material for war clubs because of its strong texture and the rich patina it developed through long handling. Before the European whalers came to the Pacific, the Maori had no means of hunting whales and waited for them to become stranded on the beaches. Occasionally they would use a sacred Mauri or talisman, such as the one on Te Mahia Peninsula which resembles a whale, to bring the whales ashore. A Maori proverb states: My strength comes not from one source, but from thousands; from my ancestors. Tupuna or ancestors play a central role in Maori art and culture. They include all forebears from the founding ancestors who arrived in canoes from eastern Polynesia and gave rise to the diVerent Maori groups that exist today, to individuals who were born and died within living memory. Many patu have their own name that recalls the ancestors and the events of their past lives.

[3] A Small European Silver Mounted Pendant Bezoar Stone Late 17th – Early 18th Century

s i z e   : 2.5 cm high, 2 cm dia. – 1 ins high, 1 ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private West Country collection Small bezoar stones were often mounted so that they could be worn with a chain as amuletic pendants enabling them to be put into a goblet so that the magical stone could impart its medicinal properties to the liquid and also identify any presence of poison. Believed to possess special prophylactic qualities, bezoar were treasured as protective jewels by the nobility of the European courts. The inventory of the estate of Catherine of Braganza, who died in Lisbon in 1705, lists several gold and silver mounted bezoar stones.

[4] Fine Indo-Portuguese Goa Silver Filigree Mounted Large Bezoar Stone with Attached Pendant Chains Enabling it to be Hung in a Cabinet of Curiosities Old Smooth Polished Patina Late 17th – Early 18th Century

s i z e   : 9 cm high, 7.5 cm dia. (max) 3½ ins high, 3 ins dia. (max) Famed for their considerable powers as a universal antidote to poison and for alleviating melancholic conditions, the word bezoar derives from bad-sahr the Persian term for antidote. The stones are formed in the stomachs of central Asian goats from a mass of hair trapped in the gastro-intestinal system. They are also found in cattle, sheep and other ruminants who acquire nutrients from plants by fermenting their food in a specialised stomach and chewing a secondary cud. Desired for their magical healing properties, bezoar became valuable luxury commodities traded by the Portuguese for over 250 years, who often ornamented the stones in silver filigree work. In the 19th century apothecaries found the chemical compound Brushite in the stones which can exchange the toxic compound contained in Arsenic for Phosphate thereby rendering the poison harmless.

[5] A Collection of Three Greenlandic Arctic Eskimo Inuit Kayak Models each Complete with Their Hunting Figures and Equipment One figure wearing goggles two with inlaid eyes All three with harpoons float boards paddles harpoon rests and two flotation seal bladders Late 19th – Early 20th Century s i z e   : a: 55 cm long – 21½ ins long b: 65 cm long – 25½ ins long c: 64 cm long – 25¼ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Polar Explorer Lieutenant Commander Quintin Riley (1905–1980) Thence by descent An entry in Lieutenant Commander Riley’s diary for March 31st 1933 states Kidaze brought me my model kayak in return for a vest of Gino’s and a pair of Q R’s (old) trousers. Riley was a member of the British Arctic Air Route Expedition of 1930–31 for which he received the Polar Medal. He returned to Greenland in 1932 to undertake further meteorological and general studies of flying conditions. These three carefully made models skilfully portray the vessel and the hunting paraphernalia of Greenlandic Inuit. A hunter’s kayak is his most prized possession and symbol of manhood. Great attention is paid to the craftsmanship used in manufacturing the vessel, but it is not ready to go to sea until it has been given personal and shamanic marks and symbols. Inside the boat the hunter places amulets which are known only to him, and lashed to the cockpit are charms in the form of smiling male and female faces to protect him from the powerful and sometimes evil spirits that dwell in the sea. Kayaks are made in a number of regional styles, but in many cases this variation is meant only to reinforce the identity of local groups while also serving to make the hunters identity known at a safe distance. The origin of the kayak is not known, but it was probably developed when the peoples of the Arctic learnt to hunt large sea mammals in the icy waters more than ten thousand years ago. Its driftwood frame enclosed in a tight skin covering makes it strong and flexible and enables it to be hauled up on land or ice by a single hunter. It will not freeze or be cut by newly formed ice and when handled by an experienced paddler equipped with a spray skirt tied around the cockpit it is virtually unsinkable.

[6] An Italian Tuscan Renaissance Carved Marble Grotesque Mask Depicting Silenus the God of Wine with the Ears of a Donkey Open Mouth and Flabby Cheeks Perhaps an architectural element such as a key-stone 16th Century

s i z e   : 19.5 cm high, 21 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 7¾ ins high, 8¼ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep / 22 cm high – 8¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Canadian collection of the late Mavor Moore (1919–2006) Writer, Actor and Producer Thence by descent Silenus was a primitive deity of the woodland and the fountains whom people tried to catch in order to make him prophesy and sing to them. The son of Hermés and a Nymph, or of Pan, as the oldest of the Satyrs he was added to the train of Dionysus and was regarded as his teacher, trainer and constant companion. He is said to have prompted the god to invent the cultivation of the vine and the keeping of bees. He is described as a little old man, pot bellied with a bald head, snub nose, large donkey or ass’s ears, and with his whole body very hairy. He was usually drunk and had to be supported by his satyrs or by his donkey. When intoxicated Silenus was said to possess special knowledge and the power of prophecy.

[7] A Rare Venetian Renaissance Damascened and Engraved Bronze Court Table Bell with Armourials showing the Scales of Justice Inscribed in latin Bonis Nocet Quis Peper Cerit Malis translating as He Hurts the Good Who Spares the Bad Dated to the inner rim 1559 and with original bronze clapper Top of handle missing Smooth aged greenish brown patina with extensive silver and gold inlay remaining Mid 16th Century s i z e   : 11.5 cm high, 8 cm dia. – 4½ ins high, 8 ins dia. p rov e na nc e : With Danny Katz London early 1980’s Ex collection Michael and Jane Dunn New York Ex Frank Cowan New York 1990’s Thence by descent sold by his widow to Ross Levett Maine USA Ex Private American collection acquired 2008 from the above c f : Another Venetian Bronze Handbell Circa 1550 in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford Inscribed Pvlsv Meo Servos Voco: With My Ring I Call My Servants In the painting by Vittore Carpaccio Vision of Saint Augustine Venice 1502, a very similar hand bell sits by the Saint’s elbow on his study table Damascened work was popular in the mid 16th century on armour and weapons and an Italianate metalwork tradition derived from Islamic prototypes grew up to meet the wealthy indigenous demand. Sometimes referred to as Veneto-Saracenic decoration, interlaced foliate ornament and arabesque patterns were engraved with the use of silver wire inlays. Greatly influenced by the import into Venice of early 16th century Iranian metalwork, a new style of ornamentation developed combining Islamic motifs with European ancient classical decorative traditions. The quote engraved on the body of the bell is from Publilius Syrus (85–43 bc) a Roman slave from Syria, who by his wit and talent won the favour of his master who educated him and granted him his freedom. Known for his moral maxims and his theatrical mimes and improvisations he became a favourite of Julius Caesar. He is particularly remembered for a number of pertinent sayings such as Iudex Damnatur Ubi Nocens Absolvitur: The Judge is Condemned When the Guilty is Acquitted. He is also famous for the proverbial maxim A rolling stone gathers no moss.

[8] Hoard of Silver Rupees Recovered from the Wreck of the Taj Mahal Lying oV Sri Lanka near the Great Basses Reef by the famous British Science Fiction Writer Arthur C. Clarke (1917–2008) The Coins now contained in an Old Dutch 17th Century Pottery Bellamine Circa 1702–1703

s i z e   : approx: 2.5 cm dia. each – 1 ins dia. each / pot: approx: 11 cm high, 10 cm dia. – 4¼ ins high, 4 ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection William MacQuitty (1905–2008) British Film Producer gifted to him by Arthur C. Clarke Thence by descent Arthur C. Clarke was the author of 2001 A Space Odyssey amongst other science fiction books. He moved to Sri Lanka in mid-life for the climate and took up scuba diving. In 1963 he found the wreck of an Indian merchant ship and nearby hundreds of silver rupees scattered across the Great Basses Reef, many of which he recovered. The coins were struck during the reign of Aurangzeb (1658–1707) the sixth emperor of the Mughal empire and many were still inside their original money bags. Clarke donated most of the coins to the Smithsonian Museum, but these fourteen he gave to his good friend the film producer William MacQuitty.

[9] Native American New Mexico Hopi Kachina Ceremonial Dance Mask The Shaped Leather Helmet with Painted Crescent Shaped Eyes above a Dramatic Fringe of Red Dyed Horse Hair Early 20th Century s i z e   : approx: 42 cm high – 16½ ins high / 47.5 cm high – 18¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Among the Hopi ceremonies centre on masked Kachinas, the ancestral spirits whose beneficence is necessary for the prosperity of the people and for the maintenance of order in the Hopi world. Kachinas are masked dancers who participate in religious rituals during six months of each year, and murals found in New Mexico show that the cult is at least 600 years old. The Hopi believe that the Kachinas are supernatural beings, the spirits of their ancestors who live in the San Francisco mountains. At festival times, such as the Winter Solstice, they descend from their sacred mountains to visit the villages, bringing rain and fertility, awarding gifts and enforcing discipline. The masked dancers are all adult male priests who behind their ceremonial masks, impersonate the gods, and in doing so lose their own identity and became the embodiment of a Kachina spirit.

[10] Unusual Small Shapely Specimen of Seychelles Double Coconut or Coco de Mer an old silver mount for suspension Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 19.5 cm high, 22.5 cm wide, 12.5 cm deep – 7¾ ins high, 8¾ ins wide, 5 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private West Country collection The German 17th century botanist Georg Eberhard Rumphius (1627–1702) whilst working for the Dutch East India company found examples of these exotic double nuts floating in the seas just oV the Maldive Islands and so named them Lodoicea Maladivica. In fact they originate from two of the 115 islands that make up the Seychelles in the West Indian Ocean. Described in the 1737 inventory of the Royal Danish Kunstkammer at Rosenberg Castle in Copenhagen as complete, rare and beautiful the coco de mer became a legendary curiosity.

[11] An Unusual French Napoleonic Prisoner of War Work Coconut Bugbear SnuV Box in the Form of a PuVerfish with Beaked Mouth Starring Eyes and Scaly Body Circa 1810–1830

s i z e   : 4.5 cm high, 4.5 cm wide, 10 cm, long – 1¾ ins high, 1¾ ins wide, 4 ins long As early imports to Europe, like ostrich eggs, coconuts were great rarities and were costly objects carved by skilled craftsmen and mounted by silversmiths. Much later it was realised to be an ideal material in which to keep snuV as any box fashioned from it is dry and durable, but lightweight enough to be comfortable for keeping in the pocket. The Napoleonic prisoners of war cleverly accentuated the bugbear markings by carving the coconut into a grotesque and surreal face of a puVerfish. Blunthead puVerfish of the family Tetraodontidae are found in tropical and temperate seas and are small stout-bodied fishes which when threatened inflate a sac-like expansion of the gullet dramatically expanding their size and becoming spherical in shape. They are considered the second most poisonous vertebrate on earth, but it is considered a delicacy and eaten widely in Japan where chefs train for two years to become specialist fugu chefs. The small slices of puVerfish flesh are said to be delicious inducing a kind of euphoria.

[12] A Fine Netherlandish Carved Boxwood Panel Depicting the Crowning of Christ with Thorns in a Architectural setting Perhaps from a Private devotional retable Early 17th Century

s i z e   : 15 cm high, 11 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 6 ins high, 4¼ ins wide, 1 ins deep After the flagellation, a cohort of soldiers gathered around Christ in Pilate’s headquarters who stripped Him, put a purple robe around His shoulders, a twisted crown of thorns on His head and a reed in imitation of a sceptre in His hand. They knelt before Him and cried, Hail, King of the Jews then dressed Him in His own clothes and lead Him away to be crucified. Carved with a scene from Christ’s Passion, the panel would have provided a focus for prayer and meditation and may have been used in conjunction with a set text such as the Via Crucis or stations of the cross, a devotion which comprises fourteen images from the Passion before which prayers and passages of the gospels are recited during Holy Week. The Crown of Thorns is a parody of the crown of roses that the Roman Emperor wore at festivals, and is portrayed as a circular woven ring. The soldiers being recorded as having twisted thorns into a crown. Together with the cross, nails and whip, it is a potent symbol of Good Friday.

[13] A Spanish Colonial South American New Spain Peruvian Cast Silver Pendant Cross decorated with Nine Red Coral Beads and an Almandine Garnet set into Christ’s Perizonium Symbolic of his Blood two Birds to the base Probably from Lima The body worn smooth through devotional handling 18th century

s i z e   : 14 cm high, 10 cm wide – 5½ ins high, 4 ins wide / 18 cm high – 7 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex UK collection Acquired Robert Barley, 1990’s By the turn of the 17th century the Catholic faith and its churches had become a vibrant component of life across the Andes. Christian devotion and practice had been incorporated into the daily lives of many native communities and could be seen in the objects produced for the church by indigenous craftsmen and silversmiths. The images of lush flora and exotic birds conjures up semitropical regions where so many of the Churches stood. The birds depicted on this cross perhaps symbolise pelicans who fed their young with their own blood, indicative of the divine love of Christ for humanity and the nourishing of human soul by the Eucharist.

[14] A Rare Ancient Islamic Mamluk Egyptian Calligraphic Embossed Leather Book Spine Reading Glory To Our Lord The Sultan Al Malik Al Mansur The Eminence Mohammed May His Victory Be Glorified 14th Century / Circa 1361–1363 s i z e   : 3.5 cm high, 23 cm wide – 1½ ins high, 9 ins wide / 13.5 cm high, 31.5 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 5¼ ins high, 12½ ins wide, 2 ins deep (box frame) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection acquired Sothebys, October, 2007

In the arts of the Islamic book, the script has been admired from the earliest times for its inherent aesthetic qualities. No other culture in the world has produced so many bibliophile rulers. Numerous legends abound of Princes and potentates who having killed thousands spared the calligraphers and illuminators and carried oV a magnificent library of books in triumph. Mosques and Madrasas also had their own book collections and employed calli­graph­ ers, painters and book binders. The binding of a book took on a special form in the Islamic world extending the back with a flap that could be bent around the fore edge and in under the front cover. This protected it entirely except on the top and bottom edges. In early manuscripts the covers were usually of wood covered with elaborately tooled leather. Brown leather was the material most commonly used which could be embellished with blind tooled decorations, embossed or stamped and gilded.

[15] Tibetan Gilt Copper Repoussé Mask Head of Ferocious Snow Lion the Mane Flowing Down each side of the Face the Open Mouth Revealing a Red Polychromed Interior with Protruding Tongue Perhaps representative of a Lion-Headed Dakinis Simavaktra a Traveller of Space and one of the Symbols of Esoteric Knowledge 18th Century s i z e   : 29 cm high, 22 cm wide, 15 cm deep – 11¼ ins high, 8¾ ins wide, 6 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the late Richard Nathanson The Tibetan people perceive their country as a sacred cosmos, a holy landscape guarded by mighty gods and filled with centres of ritual and mystical power. Within this landscape, every natural feature, every building and every deed is charged with religious significance. Mountains are the seats of awe-inspiring deities, their caves places for meditation, and their winding trails emblematic of the path to enlightenment. The snow lion dwells high in these mountains, the symbolic guardian of ancient sages and saints whose heroic acts infused the universe with potent spiritual meaning.

[16] A Rare German Renaissance Turned Rhinoceros Horn and Ivory Cup and Cover Smooth silky patina An old beetle hole to one side of cup Early 17th Century

s i z e   : 25 cm high, 8.5 cm dia. – 9¾ ins high, 3¼ dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the late Jean Claude Ciancimino Thence by descent Works of art fashioned from rhinoceros horn, narwhal tusks, nautilus shells or coconuts are still viewed as prime examples of Kunstkammer exotica long after they were first brought back as unworked natural materials to Europe by the Portuguese, English and Dutch merchants ships in the 16th century. Universally held in high esteem, rhinoceros horn was literally worth its weight in gold during the Renaissance. It was considered a divine wonder during the 17th century with powerful apotropaic properties that could protect its owner from poison, disease and even thunderstorms. Cups and goblets made from the horn were hugely popular with princely collectors both because of its rarity and because of its power to detect poison, and this belief persisted well into the 19th century.

[17] An Unusual Rare German Saxony Folding Steel Brass Silver and Green Stained Ivory Miniature Fork Probably for use when travelling Contained in a leather sheath 1st Half 18th Century

s i z e   : 4.5 cm long – 1¾ ins long (closed) / 8.5 cm long – 3¼ ins long (extended) / 6.5 cm long – 2½ long (case) In past centuries considerable artistic endeavour went into the making of fine cutlery for it demonstrated that its owner was cultured, had good taste and commanded wealth and power. Diners would take their own personal cutlery with them when invited to a banquet or whilst they were travelling. Using one’s own cutlery often provided a conversation piece regarding exquisite workmanship or precious materials, but importantly it also enabled the noble diner to be sure that his utensils had not been dipped in poison. It was not until the mid 18th century that suYcient eating utensils were available to invited guests, and then only in any real quantity in England and Switzerland. It would be kept and displayed in special boxes or cases on the sideboard and given pride of place as an indication of status.

[18] A Fascinating Collection of Eight Victorian Miniature Steel Folding Pocket Knives and a Pair of Miniature Scissors Probably apprentice pieces made to demonstrate ability and technique Mid 19th Century

s i z e   : 0.5 cm long – ¼ ins long (min) – 2.5 cm long – 1 ins long (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection Pocket knives are known as penknives by the British as they were originally used for thinning and pointing quills to prepare them for use as pens. Pocket knives are foldable with one or more blades that fit inside the handle and sit in a pocket. The earliest known date from the early Iron Age with one found on a Celtic Halstatt site in Austria with a bone handle dating to the 6th century bc. The ancient Romans are generally credited with the invention of the folding pocket knife which was a significant technological innovation making a knife safer to carry and much easier to conceal. However the folding pocket knife was not widely found or aVordable to many people before the advent of limited production in cutlery centres such as SheYeld in around 1650. Large scale production began in circa 1700 with models being made and marketed such as Fullers Penny Knife. Versatile tools that could be used for everything from opening an envelope to cutting string, the low cost made it a success with farmers, herdsmen and gardeners.

[19] Two Fine Ancient Native American Ceremonial Carved Stone Axe Heads 100 ad – 1200 ad

a. The greyish green stone with a ribbed and grooved head and sharply honed blade Old collection label F.S. Clark New Mexico USA and with monogram for the Robert Stonard U.K. collection s i z e   : 7.5 cm high, 14 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – 5½ ins high, 1½ ins wide, 1¼ ins deep b. A large red catlinite pipestone axehead with inscription Albuquerque New Mexico USA 98 and monogram for the Robert Stonard UK collection and an inventory number 03–05 for the F.S. Clark UK collection s i z e   : 14 cm high, 7 cm wide, 6.5 cm deep – 5½ ins high, 2¾ ins wide, 2½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection F.S. Clark Surrey Ex collection Robert Stonard Surrey Axe heads were more than utilitarian tools, they functioned as emblems of chiefly authority and power. Often surface finds unearthed by the farmer’s plough, axes of this type are found in many parts of the USA and Canada, but few are as beautifully formed as these two. They were made over a long period from 1500 bc to 1200 ad, and these examples may have been traded down from Mississippi County where many articles fashioned of costly and unusual stones were made for the Mississippian elite.

[20] Unusual Rare Pair of Chinese Carved Ivory Supports for a Hammock Decorated with Archaistic Scrolling Clouds Ming Dynasty 1580–1644

s i z e   : 78 cm wide – 30¾ ins wide (each) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Traditional hammocks originated in Central South America with the word coming from a Taino peoples word Arwahan meaning fish net. In the medieval English Luttrel Psalter of circa 1330 ad, an illumination shows the hammock as a hanging bed.

Hammocks were not originally designed for leisure, but for protection from animals, reptiles, insects and damp. During the Tang period in China wooden platforms known as Ji were sat on by kneeling, these were altered with rope and called rope chuang or hammock. In his book Borders of Chinese Civilisation by Douglas Howland he states that to sit down was regarded as an unusual custom viewed with shock. The Hou Jing biography records ascending the hall to occupy an outlandish seat with feet dangling. It was also reported by Cheng Dacheng, and quoted by Howland, that all the Ming court oYcials in the Purple Imperial Hall, (the Imperial Palace in the Forbidden City), were on great hammocks.

[21] A Tobacconist’s Shop Sign of Carved and Polychromed Oak Depicting a Kilted Highlander wearing Plumed Bonnet Taking a Pinch of SnuV or Sneesh from his SnuV Mull Mid 19th Century

s i z e   : 68 cm high – 26¾ ins high / base: 16.5 cm dia. – 6½ ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection The golden age of trade signs lasted from the 17th century to the mid 19th century. By 1614 it was claimed that there were already seven thousand tobacconists in London so the signs alerting potential customers must have been one of the most familiar sights on any town or city street. They were placed on the door post, on the counter or outside the shop. The early figures were of blackamoors wearing a skirt of tobacco leaves and a favourite address would have been At the sign of the Blackamoor. Later, Scotland’s kilted Highlander became popular. A tobacconist of the Haymarket in Edinburgh, David Wishart, had a six foot carved wooden Highlander outside his shop in 1720 and is thought to be the first to use the sign of the Scotsman albeit wearing a flat cap, jacket and trews, and carrying a broadsword and targe. Mr Wishart was a Jacobite sympathiser and advertised that he oVered a safe smoking parlour rendezvous behind his shop. Later the flat cap was converted into a plumed bonnet, and the trews became a kilt, the sword and targe, a snuV mull. The rise of Glasgow as Britain’s leading port dealing with tobacco from America, especially after the Act of Union in 1707, helps explain the use of the Highlander as a sign. Smaller figures such as this example designed to be seen in the round, were sometimes placed on a barrel of snuV inside the shop. Charles Dickens in Little Dorrit (1855–7) described a tobacconists on the corner of Horsemonger Lane in Southwark: The business was of too modest a character to support a life-size Highlander, but it maintained a little one on a bracket on the door post, who looked like a fallen cherub that had found it necessary to take to a kilt.

[22] An American Sailor’s Scrimshaw Oval Panbone Ditty Box with an Exotic Wood Top the Decorative Finger Joints Fastened with Metal Pins Mid 19th Century

s i z e   : 7.5 cm high, 12 cm wide, 9 cm deep – 3 ins high, 4½ ins wide, 3½ ins deep Ditty boxes were used for sewing paraphernalia in the home or for tools for mending nets on board ship. They are the oldest form of whale-men’s scrimshaw boxes, oval, but occasionally round, with panbone or baleen sides and wooden tops and bottoms. They are descendants of the 17th century Dutch Kapdoos that are part of the earliest tradition of objects made by whale-men from the by products of their trade. Both the ditty box and the kapdoos are very similar in construction to the bentwood American shaker box: a panel of panbone or baleen is steam bent around a wooden base and fastened with metal nails whilst still soft, an overlap joint carved into ornamental shapes secures the two ends and the wood lid has a skirt to match the sides.

[23] English Sailor’s Scrimshaw Carved Sperm Whale Tooth Seam Rubber Engraved to one side with a Regency Urn Fine old mellow patina Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 11.5 cm long, 4 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 4½ ins long, 1½ ins wide, 1 ins deep When the whale-men were not engaged in hunting whales or routine maintenance their spare time was spent carving materials harvested from the whales and not needed commercially. At the end of a long, often two to three year voyage, the resulting carefully crafted objects would provide treasured souvenirs for loved ones at home, or mementoes for use on board. Seam rubbers were a sailmaker’s tool, hand-made in one piece, for working and smoothing the cloth of sails, tarpaulins, canopies and hammocks on board ship. Thrifty captains who did not want the cost of new sails taken out of their share or lay insisted on patching worn out or torn canvas sails. Seam rubbers were also used for dungarees, jackets, slickers and other sailor-made and sailor-repaired garments.

[24] A Fine West African Mali Bamana Koré Initiation Mask in the Form of a Hyena Surukuw Old smooth worn patina Early 20th Century

s i z e   : 41 cm high, 19 cm wide, 20 cm deep – 16 ins high, 7½ ins wide, 8 ins deep / 55 cm high – 21½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Portugal Ex collection Jean-Paul Agogué Ex Private UK collection acquired from Gallery Albert Loeb, Paris, September, 2012 p u b l i s h e d  : F. Ndiaye; Arts & Peoples of Mali 1994 pg. 60 no. 75 The basis of daily life in Bamana Mali, a country about the size of Texas and California combined, consists of interpreting through priests and diviners all aspects of nature from the shape of the clouds to the songs of birds in order to eliminate negative factors, to improve the chances of good fortune, and to appease powerful deities. According to the Bamana nature must be assisted by human intervention to positively influence village life. This close relationship between man and nature informs much of their art and culture. Among the Bamana initiation societies were of profound social and political significance. In the villages where they existed every boy had to accomplish specialised rituals in order to accede to adulthood, and the Koré initiation insured the development of male identity. Every male had to be symbolically killed at the Koré, or else considered as belonging to the world of the women and non-circumcised boys. Every seven years an age set of teenagers is killed by the Koré. As they resuscitate under an adult identity, they have to renounce the privileges of childhood and must prove their bravery. Prior to this symbolic death the young boys are terrified as they do not know that it is a sham killing. Before returning to their village they live in the bush with three elders learning about herbal medicine, sexuality, the cycle of life and their obligations towards elders and ancestors. They are also subjected to physical hardship and humiliation, but as it is their most desired wish to become adult, they do not complain. After the Koré they are considered men and are free to choose between other initiation societies to increase their personal power. Each has its own symbols and masks: the Surukuw are hyenas, the Jaraw lions and the Suluw monkeys. The carved wooden hyena masks have a long snout, square mouth and prominently domed forehead. The stylised crested mane that rises above the skull like a small horn between the ears symbolises the tuft of hair that is removed from the animal by the hunter immediately after the kill. This representation prevents the mortal vengeance of the victim’s spirit upon the mask’s owner, and gives it immense spiritual power and energy.

[25] Six Japanese Carved Ivory Netsuke from a European Collection a. An Unusual Japanese Ivory Netsuke of a Dutch Merchant Kneeling in his Buttoned Coat and Baggy Trousers Unsigned 18th Century s i z e   : 3.5 cm high – 1½ ins high b. An Expressive Ivory Netsuke of a Young Japanese Fisherman Who has Caught a Ten Thousand Year Turtle he Wears a Woven Grass Waterproof Skirt Leggings and a Padded Jacket his Open Smiling Mouth has Traces of Red Polychrome Signed Masaka 19th Century s i z e   : 3 cm high – 1¼ ins high In Japan turtles were thought to live to a great age, after reaching one thousand years they grew a tail, became one of the Four Immortal Animals the Minogame and continued to live to be ten thousand years old. It is thus a symbol of longevity and endurance, and is considered to be a lucky omen to fisherman. c. A Japanese Ivory Netsuke of a Man Seated Wearing a Mon Decorated Kimono Clasping with Both Hands his Treasured Saké Gourd Unsigned Old worn smooth patina Early 18th Century s i z e   : 4 cm high – 1½ ins high

d. A Japanese Ivory Netsuke of the Immortal Chokaro Sennin with his Magic Horse Unsigned Old worn smooth patina age cracks to reverse 18th Century s i z e   : 4 cm high – 1½ ins high Chokaro Sennin’s horse could carry him for thousands of miles at a time and required nothing to eat. When not riding him the sennin kept the horse in a gourd and simply sprayed water from his mouth upon the dried and shrivelled form to get his wonderous animal ready for a fresh trip. e. A Japanese Carved Ivory Netsuke of a Seated Dog Wearing a Collar with a Suspended Bell Unsigned Old worn smooth silky patina one ear almost worn away from use 18th Century s i z e   : 4 cm high – 1½ ins high The dog Nu is considered a great friend of man and in its presence disguised cats, badgers and foxes are forced to retake their own shape. The dog is one of the twelve signs of the zodiac indicating the hours between 7pm and 9pm. They are held in high esteem by pregnant women and dog amulets are given to children as it is believed that dogs have an easy life. f. A Japanese Ivory Naturalistically Carved Group of Three Aubergines Nasubi with Typical Stained and Stippled Curled Calyx The Himotoshi slightly worn with use Smooth silky patina Signed Shuosai Hidemasa II Mid 19th Century s i z e   : 2 cm high – ¾ ins high In Japan the aubergine Nasubi is a very popular food, but is also a symbol of wealth and good luck.

[26] A Collection of Ancient Imperial Roman Porphyry Fragments Found at the Port Ostia Antica Twenty one pieces variously from Architectural Columns and Floor and Wall Inlays 1st – 3rd Century ad s i z e   : min: 6 cm x 6 cm x 2 cm – 2¼ ins x 2¼ ins x ¾ ins / max: 15 cm x 22 cm x 3.5 cm – 6 ins x 8¾ ins x 1¼ ins p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the late Professor of Archaeology Livinius Decousemaeker, Bruges, Belgium who worked at Ostia in early 1920’s Thence by descent Harbours were of greater magnificence and boldness of construct­ ion than many of the bridges and aqueducts built by the Romans. Hirt (Lehre Von Den Gebäuden pg 367) remarked of Ostia… that even the splendour of Nero’s golden house dwindles into nothing compared with the harbour of Ostia… all built by Claudius. In their waterworks the ancients seem to have surpassed themselves. The harbour of Ostia was originally built at the mouth of the Tiber by Ancus Martius, but by the end of the Republic was entirely covered with sand. An artificial island formed a breakwater in front of the large piers of the harbour and carried a lighthouse almost equal in size to the celebrated Pharus in the harbour of Alexandria. This was restored by the Emperor Claudius using chalk, mortar and Puzzuolan clay, sinking three enormous pillars into the sea on top of the huge shipwreck of the vessel that had once brought the Vatican obelisk to Italy. The outer harbour was built into the sea, and the basin enclosed by freestone walls, both connected by means of artificial canals and to the open sea by the Tiber. A coin struck in 103 ad shows a view of Ostia with large warehouses around the harbour walls, and a Pompeian wall painting shows these walls crowned by towers protecting and guarding the harbour.

[27] An Ancient South Siberian or North West Chinese Cast Openwork Bronze Belt Plaque Depicting Two Confronted Wild Yaks in the Hsiung-Nu Style 2nd–1st Century bc

s i z e   : 5 cm high, 11 cm wide – 2 ins high, 4½ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Hans Peter collection London Ex Private UK collection acquired Eskenazi Ltd, June, 2003 c f : Metropolitan Museum, New York has a very similar plaque depicting Confronted Bovines in the Eugene Victor Thaw Collection, catalogued as Southern Siberian, no. 113 pg. 139 These bronze plaques were made by a lost wax process probably formed in a two piece mould, and several versions of this example have been found throughout North China, Mongolia and Southern Siberia. In fact wherever the Nomadic tribal confederation of the Xiongnu expanded their rule from the 3rd to the 1st century bc in the eastern Eurasian Steppe. The Xiongnu or Hsiung-Nu tribes occupied the Ordos region within the great northwood loop of the Yellow River during the 2nd Century bc and introduced into Chinese territory this variety of the Steppe nomad’s art, known as animal style.

[28] An Interesting Ancient Chinese Gilt Bronze Rectangular Plaque Cast with a Row of Antelope Heads Over Two Argali Rams Pierced with a Hole to One End The reverse set with two lugs for attachment and malachite encrustation incorporating the cloth used in the casting process Traces of gilding over a brownish red patina Qin-Western Han Period 3rd–2nd Century bc

s i z e   : 4 cm high, 8.5 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 3¼ ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Swiss collection of Dr Franco Vannotti acquired Sept 1947 from L. Michon Paris Ex Private UK collection acquired from Eskenazi Ltd July 1989 e x h i b i t e d  : Cologne 1953 Staatenhaus, Paris 1954 Musée Cernuschi p u b l i s h e d  : W. Speiser Ostasiatische Kunst Und Chinoiserie Cologne. 1953, no.187 V. ElisseeV, La Découverte de L’Asie Paris 1954, no. 316 Eskenazi Ltd catalogue June 1989 no. 18 c f : Emma C. Bunker, Lost Wax and Lost Textile: An Unusual Ancient Technique for Casting Gold Belt Plaques A paper read at the Second International Conference on the beginning of the use of metals and alloys, Zhengzhou, China 21–26 October, 1986 which discusses very similar plaques and the way they were cast Qin Shi Huangdi was one of the most powerful men in world history. He is renowned for the ruthless manner in which he obliterated the other states of his day. Of all the men who have considered themselves the mightiest in the world in their lifetime, he was probably the most justified in doing so. He created the largest and most powerful empire in the world, both in geographical size and in population. Although his remarkable dynasty lasted for only 15 years, the empire he established lasted for more than 2000 years and on into the 20th century. The name of his dynasty Qin, or Cina, China has long been the name by which the entire country has been known to the West. A control freak and megalomaniacal in his methods of achieving control, he was also deeply superstitious, and began building his mausoleum as soon as he became King of Qin in 246 bc. His one great desire was to achieve immortality for himself and his dynasty, one that would last for 10,000 years, rather than the fifteen it actually did.

[29] An Interesting British Watercolour of an Inuit Greenlander in his Kayak Hunting a Seal with a Harpoon Possibly by one of the Royal Navy Expedition Members Led by Polar Explorer Sir John Ross with his Nephew James Clark Ross to search for the Northwest Passage John Ross explored the West Coast of Greenland and met the Inuit of Cape York (1818–1832) Circa 1820–30 In rosewood veneered frame

s i z e   : 15.5 cm high, 21 cm wide – 6 ins high, 8¼ ins wide / 26.5 cm high, 32 cm wide – 10½ ins high, 12½ ins wide (framed) An extensive ink inscription of the period to the reverse: Seal catching is an art to which all the Greenlanders aspire. They are trained to it from their infancy and by it they maintain their families – The first & principal method of taking the seal is with a harpoon and Bladder attached at either end of a strong cord – the Kaiak or canoe which they use is five or six yards long, sharp at the head and stern like a weavers shuttle, about 8 inches wide & 12 or 15 deep … the top is covered over with skins, in the centre is a round hole, with a visor of bone or wood and in this opening the Greenlander places himself, sitting on the bottom of the Kaiak, his coat he tucks so tight around the rim that no water can penetrate, on the right he places his Harpoon, in the front his line and behind the Bladder. Thus equipped he braves the watery element even during storms, & waits the appearance of a seal. Then holding his oar in his left hand he seizes the harpoon and buries it in the flesh of the animal, he throws the bladder into the water on the side by the seal which dives and unwinds the cord from its lodge on the Kaiak – the seal frequently drags the bladder a very considerable distance under the water and when it ascends from fatigue, or wanting to take a breath, the Greenlander hastens to the spot where he presumes the Bladder rise again and strikes the seal with a large lance, pursuing it till it is exhausted, he then sews up the wound to preserve the blood that remains & blows up the seal between the skin and flesh to render it more buoyant & enable him to drag it on shore fastened to the side of his Boat.

[30] Interesting Collection of Eight Bering Strait Eskimo Inuit Amulets and One Aleutian Islands Amuletic Figure All carved of walrus ivory Early 19th Century p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection a. A Yupik Eskimo carved walrus ivory amulet in the form of a singing Shaman with large ears and vestigial arms s i z e   : 6.5 cm high, 1.5 cm wide – 2½ ins high, ½ ins wide / 11.5 cm high – 4½ ins high (with base) b. A Yupik Eskimo diminutive carved walrus ivory female figure Iinrut made as a protecting spirit for a young girl s i z e   : 6 cm high, 2 cm wide – 2¼ ins high, ¾ ins wide / 11 cm high – 4¼ ins high (with base) c. A carved walrus ivory Bering Strait Inuit shaman’s amulet in form of a man A hole for attachment through his chest s i z e   : 4.5 cm high, 1.5 cm wide – 1¾ ins high, ½ ins wide / 10 cm high – 4 ins high (with base) d. A Northwest Coast Aleutian Islands carved walrus ivory seated human figure portrayed with his arms folded hugging his knees an amuletic device worn attached to a Hunting Hat or Visor s i z e   : 3 cm high, 2 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, ¾ ins wide, ½ ins deep / 9 cm high – 3½ ins high (with base) e. A Bering Strait Eskimo Inuit carved walrus ivory earring in the form of a human face with baleen inlaid labrets to each side of the mouth s i z e   : 2.5 cm dia. – 1 ins dia. / 10 cm high – 4 ins high (with base) f. A rare Walrus Ivory Bering Strait Inuit drag handle carved as a transformative Man-Seal creature. These creatures Half-Human Half-Seal are believed to live in the sea and if a hunter catches one of them in his net he is bound to suVer great misfortune. Somewhat like European Sailors and Mythical Mermaids he must be ever vigilant for their presence at sea s i z e   : 6 cm long, 2.5 cm wide – 2¼ ins long, 1 ins wide / 6.5 cm high – 2½ ins high (with base) g. A Bering Strait Inuit belt fastener in the form of an anthropomorphic seal’s face the carved walrus ivory with large inlaid baleen eyes and tattooed eyebrows s i z e   : 3.5 cm high, 2 cm wide – 1¼ ins long, ¾ ins wide / 9.5 cm high – 3¾ ins high (with base) h. A Bering Strait Inuit carved walrus ivory Hunting Hat or Visor Ornamental amulet in form of the head of a tusked male walrus s i z e   : 2 cm high, 1.5 cm wide, 1 cm deep – ¾ ins high, ½ ins wide, ¼ ins deep / 8.5 cm high – 3¼ ins high (with base) i. A Bering Strait Inuit Walrus ivory amuletic cord handle carved in the form of a swimming seal s i z e   : 7 cm long, 1 cm wide – 2¾ ins long, ¼ ins wide / 7 cm high – 2¾ ins high (with base) On the shores of the Arctic Ocean, life was never easy. The Eskimo made their adjustment to their extreme environment so long ago that at first glance their culture seems never to have changed. This is, of course, not the case as over the centuries they have developed many diverse skills to an extremely high degree; they made paper thin clothing from animal skins, they developed very exacting hunting techniques necessary in their very diYcult terrain, and they invented a system of transportation which was superbly adapted to the frozen land and sea.

[31] A Superb Victorian Collection of Exotic South American New World Birds Housed in a Fine Mahogany Case An old paper label to the reverse Charles Yeoman Established 1845 Taxidermist 96 High St Southampton Mid 19th Century s i z e   : 106 cm high, 99 cm wide, 33 cm deep – 41¾ ins high, 39 ins wide, 13 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection There are approximately ninety specimens contained in the case including: a Violet Sabrewing Hummingbird, Vermilion Fly Catcher, Gould’s Violet-Ear, Masked Tanager, Paradise Tanager, Ocellated Tapa Culo, GeoVrey’s Wedgebill, Painted Bunting, Red Crown Ant Tanager, Great Jacamar, Frilled Coquette, Collared Inca, Barred Antshrike, Great Jacamar and two specimens of the Brazilian Toco Toucan. Tanager together with several other New World bird names such as jacamar, toucan, macaw, cotinga, anhinga and aracari have all entered into the English language from the Amazonian Tupi peoples. Living in the tropical forests of South America they are good ornithologists who sometimes keep the colourful arboreal birds as pets and for their feathers which they carefully pluck and then let the birds regrow. These are made into headdresses and worn for ceremonial dances. Hummingbirds cannot be kept as pets and constitute one of the largest families of birds in the world. There are 39 species that combine brilliant colour with diminutive size. They are the western hemisphere’s richest gift to the avian world and their dazzling iridescent colours surpass those of the birds of paradise.

[32] An Ancient Etruscan Votive Terracotta Model of a Large Phallus With attached old collection label Etruscan 400–600 bc 3rd – 2nd Century bc

s i z e   : 12.5 cm high, 8.5 cm wide, 9.5 cm deep – 5 ins high, 3¼ ins wide, 3¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection of the late Beate Uhse Germany (1919–2001) Acquired from a 19th collection Exhibited in the Beate Uhse Erotic Museum 1996–2014 Berlin Germany The German stunt pilot and entrepreneur Beate Uhse was an extraordinary collector who opened the World’s first Sex Shop in 1962 and founded Beate Uhse A.G. the most successful company in the German Sex industry The Etruscans were an ancient people who had a profound belief in life. The unceas­ ing mutability of existence, its perpetual turbulent recurrence and nature that simultaneously devours and procreates are the essential themes of Etruscan religion and art. The worship of Priapus, god of the fruitfulness of the field and herds, was practised by the Etruscans and his statues were usually placed in gardens. His phallus was the symbol of the creative powers of nature and was considered a suitable votive device to be placed on a mortuary monument.

[33] a. A German Memento Mori Carved Ivory Paternoster Rosary Bead in the Form of a Skull Old smooth silky patina 17th Century

s i z e   : 3 cm high, 3 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 1½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Berkeley Family, Spetchley Park Worcestershire

b. A German Double Sided Carved Bone Wendekopf Rosary Bead with an Image of Christ Crucified and a Human Skull Fine worn smooth patina 16th Century

s i z e   : 2.5 cm high, 2 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 1 ins high, ¾ ins wide, ¾ ins deep

c. A German Small Carved Ivory Memento Mori Terminal Rosary Bead in the Form of a Skull Fine worn smooth silky patina 17th Century

s i z e   : 2 cm high, 2 cm wide, 2 cm deep – ¾ ins high, ¾ ins wide, ¾ ins deep Made for devotional use the function of these beads was to mark the beginning and end of a prayer cycle. Reminding the believer of his mortality, the paternoster or terminal bead on a rosary represents an act of inner contemplation. It is also evidence of the anonymity of death and perhaps of truths beyond the transient details of life.

[34] An Unusual South African Southern Nguni Peoples Carved Figural Pipe Standing with a Rifle on His Back in Ebonised Boots the Head Inlaid with Glass Beaded Eyes a Metal Liner to the Tobacco Bowl Late 19th Century

s i z e   : 16 cm high – 6¼ ins high / 23 cm high – 9 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Trevor Barton collection sold in The Trevor Barton collection of Unusual Smoking Pipes Christies, London, September 2010, lot 645 Ex Private European collection Although used by both men and women in Southern Africa, pipes were typically made by male artists and the pipe’s aesthetic excellence expressed in design as well as craftsmanship reinforces the belief that tobacco products were associated with powerful humans and ancestral spirits. The smoking of tobacco is highly enjoyed and valued and was an important social custom with a ritual importance which kept the ancestral spirits well disposed towards their living relations. H.A. Junod in his book The Life of a South African Tribe of 1912 describes how, when a Tsonga headman had prepared tobacco, he oVered some of the leaves to the ancestors, or when he had ground some snuV he put two spoonful’s aside, one for the paternal and one for the maternal ancestors and said… Here is some tobacco! Come all of you and take a pinch and do not be angry with me when I snuff, nor say that I deprive you of your share.

[35] A Fine Japanese Lacquered Four Case Inr̄o Decorated with a Samurai Helmet Kabuto to one Side and a Court Cap Eboshi Laying Together with a Pair of Samurai Armoured Gauntlets Han Kote to the other the Roiro and Mura-Nashiji Ground Decorated with Gold and Silver Hiramaki-e with Details Inlaid in Aogai With Silver Copper Ojime Kanshōsai Toyo Signed in raised gold lacquer: Kansh̄osai with Kao Late Edo Period Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 8.5 cm high, 4.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 3¼ ins high, 1¾ ins wide, 1 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Edward A. Wrangham (1928–2009) collection Ex Private London collection Acquired from Rosemary Bandini Ltd The original functioning of the inr ̄o was as a box for holding a seal which was later divided into two in order to carry the ink wadding as well. First developed in the 16th century, by the 17th century they had more compartments and often carried an assortment of medications like a small Yakuro or medicine chest. The most characteristic of Japanese lacquering techniques was maki-e which literally means sprinkled picture and the essence of maki-e is that the design is sprinkled in metal dust, usually gold or silver from a bamboo tube onto a coat of still wet lacquer which has been painted over a previously applied and dried lacquer ground. The artist Toyo lizuka who frequently used the name Kansh̄osai was a lacquer master who working from 1764 to 1772 specialised in togidashi, especially sumi-e-togidashi. This technique was used by lacquer artists to simulate the eVect of Ukiyo-e prints as they sought to exploit the immense popularity of woodblock prints during the 18th and 19th centuries. Toyo lizuka was succeeded by several related generations of artists who made inr ̄o and who adopted his name.

[36] A Collection of Three Sailor’s Scrimshaw Walking Canes a. An English Sailor’s Scrimshaw turned and fluted Whalebone Walking Cane crafted to demonstrate diVerent techniques with the mid section made to resemble a spiralling Narwhal Tusk Mid 19th Century s i z e   : 93.5 cm long – 36¾ ins long b. An American Sailor’s Scrimshaw Walking Cane with a Sperm Whale Tooth double ended handle carved to represent the American Eagle and a Hunting Dog the eyes inlaid with baleen the shaft turned from a solid piece of Whalebone Mid 19th Century s i z e   : 80 cm long – 31½ ins long c. An English Sailor’s Scrimshaw Turned and Carved Whalebone Walking Cane the knop forming a clenched Friendship Fist Mid 19th Century s i z e   : 85.5 cm long – 33½ ins long Made on board whaling ships during their long sea voyages, sailors mostly made walking canes to sell on their return to their home port to augment their share. The time spent scrimshawing did not aVect their wages as a peculiar form of payment had been established in the whaling industry in that whalers were not paid a regular salary. Instead their pay was based on a pre-set share in the profits. This was called a lay and varied from quite a large portion for the captain to almost miniscule shares for a greenhand or inexperienced seaman.

[37] Ancient Egyptian Limestone Relief Fragment Depicting a Red Painted Bennu Bird Probably from a Funerary Stela New Kingdom 1550–1069 bc

s i z e   : 10.5 cm high, 11 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – 4 ins high, 4¼ ins wide, 1¼ deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the late Monty Passes (1921–2019) Fashion Mogul Businessman and Art Collector and his Wife Barbie Passes who died 2011 Acquired early 1970’s To the ancient Egyptians the Bennu bird, in fact a type of grey heron, was a phoenixlike bird associated with the worship of the sun, creation and rebirth. Its name is derived from the Egyptian verb weben, to rise, and it was the prototype for the Greek phoenix. The bird was said to live at Heliopolis in Persea Trees, the tree of life. The Greek historian Herodotus writing in the 5th century bc reported that the people of Heliopolis described the phoenix bird as like an eagle with red and gold plumage reminiscent of the sun. They told him that it lived for 500 years before dying, resuscitating, building a funerary egg with myrrh and carrying it to the temple of the sun at Heliopolis. In the Book of the Dead the Bennu bird was represented as a kind of grey heron with long straight legs and beak. In Chapter 83 the spell for being transformed into a bennu bird was usually accompanied by a depiction of it. It is thought that, from the beginning of the New Kingdom, the bird symbolised the planet Venus and so the desire for transformation may refer to the changing phases of Venus.

[38] An Unusual Collection of Eight Eastern Indian Carved Ivory Erotic Panels Depicting Hindu Sexo-Yogic Postures Two showing Portuguese Merchants All with finely detailed interiors one containing a European Style Armchair Probably from Orissa The panels perhaps from a Box or Cabinet Late 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 10 cm high, 7.5 cm wide (max) – 4 ins high, 3 ins wide (max) and 7.5 cm high, 10.5 cm wide (max) – 3 ins high, 4¼ ins wide (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection c f : The 13th century Hindu Temple of Konarak in Orissa has sculptures representing Yoni-Ásana A 19th century Orissa manuscript in ink on paper illustrates a series of postures to enhance the act of love. The Oriental Institute Baroda In Hinduism sex is almost sacramental, essential to life and therefore worthy of serious study. There is a total absence of any sense of sexual guilt or sin, and sexual excitement is held to be evidence of the divine energy in man. Hindu tantra uses the imagery of pleasure as a mechanism for enhancing enjoyment in the direction of ecstasy. Sex to evoke great delight needs to be skilfully performed and many illustrated handbooks of posture and technique have been produced in India. These ivory plaques are most probably inspired by such a book or illustrated manuscript.

[39] Pair of Ancient North West Chinese Gilded Bronze Open Work Mirroring Belt Plaques Decorated with Confronting Bulls or Oxen Standing in Profile with all Four Legs Showing within a Rope-Patterned Frame in the Eurasian Animal Style Loop attachments to reverse Significant traces of mercury gilding on old smooth brown patina the reverse with green malachite encrustation 3rd–2nd Century bc

s i z e   : 3 cm high, 4 cm wide – 1¼ ins high, 1½ ins wide and 3 cm high, 4.5 cm wide – 1¼ ins high, 1¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection c f : A very similar pair in the Eugene Victor Thaw Collection, Metropolitan Museum, New York, no. 66 Bronze casting of high quality was the main metal technique used across the Eurasian Steppe with belt ornaments being the most distinctive artefacts produced. They were considered necessary regalia and decorated with visual symbols that identified the owner’s clan, rank and prestige. This concept diVered from the Chinese belt hook which indicated power and wealth, not clan and rank. Found in both North China and Inner Mongolia, the use of the animal form was also amuletic, imbuing the owner with the prowess and powers of the animal depicted. Herding, hunting on horseback and some small scale agriculture characterised the way of life for the pastoral nomads, and the art they produced reflects the animalistic culture that evolved over the centuries. Portable, lightweight bronze belt plaques, chariot fittings and other objects of personal adornment display skilled craftsmanship with highly abstract designs featuring both wild and domesticated animals, as well as dragons and other mythical creatures. Trade, intermarriage and warfare between the nomadic peoples and their settled Chinese neighbours led to a complex interrelationship that contributed over time to the cultural development of both groups.

[40] An Ancient Bronze Age South Siberian Scythian Tagar Amuletic Cast Bronze Stylised Recumbent Stag Plaque The reverse with single attachment loop Old smooth greenish black patina Circa 5th Century bc

s i z e   : 5 cm high, 10 cm wide – 2 ins high, 4 ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection acquired Rupert Wace, May, 2003 These small plaques of stags were probably used as clothing attachments for belts or horse bridles whilst the bigger images were used as the central ornaments on war shields. Predominantly of bronze, they are typical of the Steppes art of the Scytho-Siberian world produced from the 7th to the 3rd centuries bc. The stag had special significance for the Steppes peoples possibly as a clan totem. The looped antlers are a distinctive feature not found in Chinese images of deer, but the vigorously modelled stylised animal figures did have a long lasting and wide influence on all Eurasian cultures. Russian explorers first brought Scythian artworks recovered from burial mounds to Peter the Great in the early 18th century. In both gold and bronze, these formed the basis of the collection held by the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg which has the world’s best collection of Scythian art. Catherine the Great was so impressed by the material recovered from the burial mounds known as Kurgans that she ordered a systematic study to be made of them. In the Southern Siberian mountains of the Altay, modern archaeologists later discovered in the Pazyryk Kurgans a fantastic hoard of items buried with their owner for his use in the afterlife.

[41] An Ancient Roman Marble Altar Fragment Carved with Depiction of an Ornate Bronze Thymiaterion a Ceremonial Incense Burner or Censer used in Temples or in Household Private Devotional Lararium for Religious Rituals 1st Century ad

s i z e   : 52 cm high, 16.5 cm wide, 20 cm deep – 20½ ins high, 6½ ins wide, 8 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private West London collection Acquired 1970’s At every level of ancient Roman society religion was a matter of observance, not doctrine. By Cicero’s time (106 bc–43 bc), the public face of religion was entirely in the hands of colleges of priests, prominent citizens who were appointed or elected to perform the proper ceremonials and rituals on behalf of the community they represented. Domestically the father of the family fulfilled the same oYce on behalf of the household under his care, oVering daily prayers, gifts and burning incense at the lararium within which were displayed the figures of traditional household gods, the Lares, the Penates and the Genii and of such other divinities as the family held in especial honour. It was here that rituals were also performed associated with important family events such as a boy’s coming of age. These simple rituals were a part of daily life which no prudent Roman would have willingly neglected.

[42] A Fine Polynesian Tongan Islands Chiefly Two Handed Ironwood War Club Apa’Apai in the Form of a Coconut Leaf Stalk The Entire Surface Covered with Intricate Incised Geometric Motifs and with Sperm Whale Tooth Inlays of a Crescent and Roundel to Each Side of the Head Old smooth aged patina The butt lug missing Late 18th Century s i z e   : 5 cm high, 11 cm wide – 2 ins high, 4½ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private French collection Acquired by Anthony Meyer Paris Ex Private American collection Ex Private European collection The favourite weapon of warriors on the Tongan Islands was the ironwood two-handed club whose primary use was to kill people, but sometimes it would be used to kill pigs and occasionally for ceremonial purposes. It was the simple European nail which came into the hands of Tongan carvers from Captain Cook’s ships in 1773 that brought about a remarkable change in the surface decoration of the apa’apai. Initially Cook had noticed on his second voyage the partial surface engraving on the clubs. However, post contact the clubs took on a more elaborate surface decoration including inlays of whale ivory that clearly showed European metal tools had begun to supersede the traditional tools made from stone, bone or shark’s teeth. The millimetre-accurate geometric regularity of such clubs reveals a sophisticated system of mathematical calculation achieved using pieces of coconut fibre cordage which in turn illustrates the amazing creativity of the Polynesian artist craftsman.

[43] An Indo-Portuguese Goa Finely Carved Ivory of the Crucified Christ His eyes closed Head resting on his Chest Hair falling to one side His Mouth shown Open in his call to God Smooth silky creamy white patina with age cracks Late 17th Century s i z e   : 32 cm high, 21 cm wide – 12½ ins high, 8¼ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Belgian collection After the fall of Sri Lanka to the British in 1657 the Portuguese departed and established a larger trading presence in Goa. The town had always been a magnet for craftsmen from all over India even before the Sinhalese came to continue in the service of the Portuguese. The production of Christian ivories continued as it had done before in Sri Lanka, but now Goa became a major producer of luxury goods and a commercial centre. With the evolution of sea routes it developed into a worldwide trading hub with large numbers of European merchants Spanish, French, German and Flemish, beside the Portuguese settling there. The presence of the body of Saint Frances Xavier in Goa since 1554 and the cult developed by the Jesuits surrounding it, established an important market for the Catholic Missions in religious imagery. Devotional crucifix were apparently diYcult for the local Indian artists as they were unaccustomed to such a realistic representation of death given their belief in its transitory nature. Christian ivories went on to be produced in the Portuguese directed workshops of Goa for over 250 years supplying the diverse churches of the Portuguese Empire.

[44] An Unusual Sailor’s Scrimshaw Baleen and Walrus Ivory Paper Knife the Handle in the Form of a Whaler’s Double-Flue Harpoon with Attached Rope Mid 19th Century

s i z e   : 32 cm long – 12½ ins long The whale-men’s pride of occupation and celebration of their seafaring prowess is reflected in the many items of scrimshaw they made onboard ship. This accurate image of a harpoon is drawn from the whale-men’s own experience rather than being coped from published illustrations. Often away at sea for two to three years, scrimshaw was a means of allaying boredom, frustration and aggression within the confines of a small ship. Using the unwanted by products of the catch, the captain was tolerant of the long hours spent scrimshanting.

[45] A Sailor’s Scrimshaw Fid or Marlinspike fashioned from the Tip of a Narwhal Tusk Monodon Monoceros 19th Century s i z e   : 53 cm long – 21 ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection Fids were used on board the whaling ships for splicing, reeving and untangling the manila and hemp line used for the rigging of ships and boats, for making grommets which are the marine equivalent to buttonholes in sails, canopies and tarpaulins, and all other tasks for which an oversize bodkin is useful in working rope and canvas. Originally fids were made of hardwood, but they were also made out of sperm whale panbone, and very occasionally narwhal tusks or walrus penis bone. Panbone fids are the most common and are superior in strength and durability to wood. According to Captain Albert Veldkamp they tend to be self-lubricating and when one dries out or becomes worn out you simply throw it overboard and make another.

[46] A Fine Byzantine Silver and Gold Inlaid Pendant Cross with Flaring Arms Probably made for a Bishop or an Abbot Constantinople or Syria Superb condition 8th–9th Century ad

s i z e   : 8 cm high, 5.5 cm wide – 3 ins high, 2¼ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex UK Private collection acquired early 1980’s Ex Private English collection acquired from Rupert Wace Ancient Art London 2010 with accompanying Art Loss Register Certificate In the early Christian period it was common for Christians to wear an enkolpion: a cross, medallion or relic holder on a chain or cord around the neck as a source of divine favour or blessing. Pendant crosses were amongst the most popular and were made from the 6th century onwards. They were produced in a variety of materials and in various shapes and sizes. They were used at every level of society, but examples such as this were particularly used by the Bishops and higher clergy in the 8th and 9th centuries during the period of Iconoclasm when figurative representation was forbidden by the Orthodox church. The undecorated form of the cross was revered as a sign of the Christian revelation.

[47] A Tibetan Tall Boot of Gilt Copper Alloy with a Ruyi Head at the Toe Probably the Leg of a Buddhist Lokapåla a Protector Spirit or Guardian Figure 18th Century s i z e   : 43.5 cm high – 17 ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the late Richard Nathanson In Buddhism, a Lokapåla is one of the four heavenly kings or protector spirits, each one associated with a specific direction. Their names are Dhrtarastra for the East, Virupaksa for the West, Vaishravana for the North and Virudhaka for the South. They are easily identified in Tibetan and Chinese Buddhist sculpture by their armour and their boots, sometimes each having his own magic weapon. In Tibet these protector deities are indigenous mountain gods, spirits, demons or ghosts that have been subjugated by Padmasambhava or other great adepts. As guardians of Buddhism they are invoked and propitiated to aid a particular monastery and are often bound by an oath to protect that monastery and its practitioners. In rural communities they often protect a particular geographic region ensuring favourable weather for crops, and peace for the countryside.

[48] A Collection of Six Solomon Islands Fish Hooks Comprising:

One of Turtle Shell Mondoko Two Bait Hooks One Made from a Piece of Tridacna Shell from Ulawa the Small Pearl Shell Hook with Incised Lines Three Trolling Hooks of Tridacna and Turtle Shell Two Barbs with Attached Lures of Shell Coral and Glass Trade Beads One other Caroline Islands Two Part Tridacna Shell Hook An old note inscribed Fish Hooks Port Moresby HMS Diamond 1885/9 Late 19th Century s i z e   : min: 2.5 cm long – 1 ins long / max: 9 cm long – 3½ ins long HMS Diamond was a 14-Gun Amethyst-Class Corvette built in 1874 for the Royal Navy at Sheerness Dockyard. In October 1881 She was Commissioned for Service on the Australia Station and in 1889 returned to Chatham where She was Paid OV and Sold for Scrap In the Solomon Islands fishing was a male occupation, women only collected shellfish on the reefs or fish from the rockpools which they caught by hand. Sometimes the men would spear fish with a single pointed hardwood spear or shoot them with arrows. Line fishing was carried out with or without rods, with bonito being the most important fish both ritually and economically that was caught on a hook. Smaller fish were caught with spinning hooks and very small barbless hooks of pearl shell carved into a minute similarity of a fish were used when fishing with a rod un-baited from a special platform or jetty built into the sea. Codrington noted in his book The Melanesians in 1891 (pg. 316) that these small hooks are among the prettiest and most skilful products of native handiwork.

[49] An Ancient Etruscan South Italian Black Glazed Buccero Ware Thistle Shaped Drinking Vessel Fine intact condition Circa 4th Century bc

s i z e   : 10 cm high, 10 cm dia. (max) – 4 ins high, 4 ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection Acquired from Gerhard Hirsch Munich 1990 Ex English Private collection Buccero ware with its attractive metallic black glazed glossy surface was regarded as the national pottery of ancient Etruria. This surface was achieved through a unique reduction method in which the pottery was fired. The term comes from the Portuguese word Búcaro meaning odorous clay because the pottery was reputed to emit a special odour. Originally it was made by the potters of Etruria in imitation of the imported expensive metalwares from Phoenicia, Cyprus, Egypt and Syria. Some of the Etruscan black wares even had a surface covering of thin sheets of silver in order to try and visually duplicate the competing luxury imports.

[50a.] Pair of South American Chilean Huaso Metal Mounted Wooden Stirrups with Floral Decoration to the mounts and Carved to the Wood Mid 19th Century

s i z e   : 28 cm high, 27 cm wide, 20.5 cm deep – 11 cm high, 10½ ins wide, 8 ins deep / approx: 47 cm high – 18½ ins high (extended) The Huasos in Chile are similar to the Guachos of Argentina and the Llaneros of Venezuela except that the Huaso are also involved in farming as well as cattle herding. Their stirrups are quite diVerent from those of the Argentinian gaucho who used simple round wooden stirrups usually barefoot. The gaucho would insert their big toe into these small stirrups which after years of riding in this manner eventually deformed their toes, greatly aVecting the way they walked. The Huasos are generally found in Chile’s central valley and have today become an important part of the fiestas and parades that take place in the folkloric culture of the country. They are taught to ride from a very early age and now use their exceptional horsemanship, especially their signature sideways gallop, in Rodeo events. Mounted on Corralero, or carolling breed horses, unusual for their ability to run sideways, they corral a calf, pin it tightly against a cushioned wall and earn points for dexterity and the exact part of the calf that is pinned, with shoulders being worth considerably more than the hindquarters.

[50b.] Set of South American Chilean Huasos Bolas of Brass Mounted Ivory with Rawhide Rope and Skin Covered Grip Mid 19th Century

s i z e   : approx: 76 cm long – 30 ins long The Chilean Huasos are very skilled in the use of bolas or boleadoras. The method of throwing this eVective missile is similar on both sides of the Andes. They are grasped whilst galloping after cattle, or sometimes ostrich, and when at a convenient distance the rider lets the two heaviest balls slip through, retaining the skin covered grip in his hand, and begins twirling them round his head. He then casts them from him as stone would be from a sling. A good boleador can almost ensure his aim at the distance of one hundred yards. The bolas generally entangle the legs of the animal and causes it to fall. The Huasso then secures it with his lasso. Bolas were once used like this as weapons of war, both by the Chilean cavalry and the Indians as a destructive and deadly missile.

[51] A Curious Royal German Toy Model of a Tiger Formed of an Indian Tiger Cowry Cypraea Ilgris Linné Shell with attached Gilded Papîer Maché Head Paws Feet and Tail A label to the base inscribed in German translating to By Princess Anna Von Hesse Before Her Marriage with Grand Duke Franz of Mecklenburg and Schwerin. A Gift to Maria Her Former Pianoforte Teacher When She Took Her Leave of Her at the Prince Carl Palace in May 1864 Circa 1860–64 s i z e   : 5 cm high, 10.5 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 2 ins high, 4 ins wide, 2 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Royal collection Princess Anna Von Hesse gifted to Her Pianoforte Teacher Thence by descent Ex Private collection Bath UK Her Royal Highness Maria Anna Wilhelmme Elizabeth Matilde of Hesse (1843–1865) was married in May 1864 to Friedrich Franz Mecklenburg-Schwerin, but tragically died only eleven months later in 1865. Over the past 200 years the pastimes and activities of noble, aristocratic and upper class women have reflected their position in society and the constraints on their lives. Most, because of their social status were precluded from working for money, but they had boundless time to study and learn new skills. Their creative activities included sand painting, embroidery, rolled and cut paperwork, japanning, silhouettes, featherwork, watercolours and shellwork and they became very important to them. Shell collecting was a passion in the 18th and 19th centuries and sailors, particularly those voyaging to the East and West Indies, were bombarded with requests for exotic specimens. Rare shells were regarded as significant gifts among friends. Mrs Delany, a famous grotto and shell picture maker, mentions the sum of 15 guineas for a specimen of the tender shell’d nautilus. Throughout both centuries ladies visiting the seaside spent hours stepping daintily across beaches and over rocks looking for shells which would be taken home, carefully sorted into cabinets or made into all kinds of decorations.

[52] A Collection of Eleven White Ware Ceramic Sulphide Portraits of Roman Emperors Modelled by Leonard James Abington (1785–1867) after Josiah Wedgwood and produced by Ridgeway and Abington Hanley, Staffordshire Circa 1834–60 s i z e   : 20.5 cm high, 18 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – 8 ins high, 7 ins wide, 1¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Leonard James Abington Thence by descent These ceramic plaques were made to be incorporated into glass sulphide paperweights and were modelled by Leonard James Abington who became a partner in the pottery firm of William Ridgeway in 1834. He was the works chemist and also improved greatly on the relief modelling used on their popular jugs. Prior to his move to StaVordshire he was employed by the architect Benjamin Wyatt in the decoration of the Drury Lane Theatre, and on the interiors of the Bank of England. In 1819 he moved to Hanley becoming a Baptist preacher with his father-in-law in 1820, and editor of the Pottery Mercury. Between 1831 and 1838 he found new markets for the factory and his relief modelling and many of these historic portrait plaques of Roman Emperors and British Queens were purchased by Apsley Pellatt and other glass paperweight manufacturers.

[53] An English South StaVordshire Enamel Box Painted with Floral Bouquets in the Style of Sèvres Porcelain on a White Ground with a Gilt Copper Mount Said to have once belonged to the English Poet Lord Byron (1788–1824) A label to the reverse inscribed Given to My Paternal Grand Father and Mother by Lord Byron about 1796 Circa 1760–80 s i z e   : 3 cm high, 6 cm dia. – 1¼ ins high, 2¼ ins dia p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the late Judith Howard With its intense and delicate colours these enamel boxes were made in imitation of Sèvres porcelain with the rose pink made from gold oxide, known as rose du Barry in England. From 1789 Byron lived with his mother Catherine Gordon, a direct descendant of James I, in Aberdeen for ten years. In 1796 he suVered from scarlet fever and his mother took him to the Scottish Highlands to recover where they stayed in the mountains. Byron was deeply aVected by the scenery and the people he met, and the experience and memory of the great Lochnagar never left him. It later provided the inspiration for his 1807 poem Lachin Y Gair. He also met and fell in love with a girl called Mary DuV, and although only eight years old he later wrote that this had a profound influence upon him and that he was still thinking of her when he was twenty seven! In May 1798 the death of his great uncle the wicked Lord Byron allowed the ten year old to become the 6th Baron Byron and inherit Newstead Abbey and its estate.

[54] A Collection of Seven Japanese Carved Ivory Netsuke and One Okimono from a European Collection a. A Japanese Kyoto School Ivory Netsuke of Fukura Suzume a Stylised Sparrow of Typical Solid Stout form the Bulging eyes inlaid with polished horn looking directly ahead with its tail erect and sturdy wings outstretched The Himotoshi with wear Old smooth creamy worn rich patina with age cracks a darker tone to the underside Signed in elliptical reserve Masano Late 18th Century s i z e   : 3.5 cm high, 6 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep c f : Fairley collection no. 703 This well carved solid model of a bird represents the legend of the tongue-cut-sparrow and its significance as a Japanese symbol of good fortune rests on the homonym Fuku which means both good luck and to swell up. b. Japanese Ivory Netsuke of a Dutchman Wearing a Broad Rimmed Hat Holding a Gunbai War Fan his Coat Worn Over Baggy Trousers his Long Hair Curling at his Neck Smooth silky creamy patina Unsigned 18th Century s i z e   : 4 cm high – 1½ ins high The Dutch and Portuguese were called by the Japanese Nambanjin a term meaning Southern Barbarian, and during the 17th and 18th centuries the merchants were only permitted to trade at Nagasaki with contact with the rest of Japan forbidden. Consequently many netsuke carvers had never set eyes on a live nambanjin, and so likenesses were taken from the Nagasaki wood block prints and paintings depicting the Dutch and other foreigners. c. A Japanese Stained Ivory Netsuke of a Fisher Boy Climbing Upon a Huge Woven Basket Full of Clams Holding One Aloft in his Hand Unsigned Late 19th Century s i z e   : 2.5 cm high – 1 ins high d. A Japanese Ivory Netsuke of an Attractive Shell Group of Three Venus Clams Unstained fine smooth creamy patina Unsigned 19th Century

s i z e   : 1.5 cm high, 4 cm wide, 3 cm deep – ½ ins high, 1½ ins wide, 1¼ ins deep Hamaguri seawater Venus clams are found in the coastal waters of Japan, Korea and China and are said to taste best during the cherry blossom season. Because the shells are a joined pair, they symbolise martial harmony and so clam soup is often served at weddings. However the clam is also said to be a salacious symbol as it resembles women’s genitalia. e. An Early Japanese Ivory Netsuke of a Rakkan or Arhat One of the Saintly Disciples of the Buddha Depicted with a Shaven Head Large Ears and a Buddhist Cloak Seated in a Cave Old worn smooth patina Unsigned Early 18th Century s i z e   : 4 cm high – 1½ ins high Rakkan means deserving worship and implies the conquering of all human passions, the possession of supernatural powers and the exemption from transmigration. The figure perhaps represents the Rakkan Ingada Sonja. f. A Japanese Ivory Netsuke of a Seated Small Boy a Puppy Dog Held in his Arms the Dogs Eyes Inlaid with Translucent Horn with Darker Pupils he Wears an Apron Tied at the Back of his Neck Unsigned Late 19th Century s i z e   : 4 cm high – 1½ ins high Small images of puppies and dogs were traditionally given to children in Japan as protective amulets. g. A Japanese Ivory Okimono of a Foreign Dog Kame with a Carefully Etched and Finely Rendered Brindled Fur Coat his Front Paws Resting on a Barrel Stool a Collar Tied About his Neck the Eyes Inlaid with Polished Horn Unsigned Late 19th Century s i z e   : 4.5 cm high – 1¾ ins high It is thought that the Japanese during the early Meiji period on hearing foreigners say come when they called their dogs, mistakenly took this to mean dog and applied the word kame to all Western breeds.

[55] A Large Curious Southern Nigeria Cross River Old Calabar Kingdom Efik Decorated Brass Charger Dish Embossed with a central Female Figure standing in a Ceremonial Robe and Mask with a servant to either side and an entwined serpent below Circa 1860–90 s i z e   : 90.5 cm dia. – 35½ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection acquired Christies Tribal Art, 29 June 1994, lot 164 The Efik were the middlemen between the white traders on the coast and the inland tribes of the Cross River and Calabar district. By the mid 19th century Christian missions had begun to work among them and by 1900 most of the peoples in south east Nigeria were educated in European ideologies and culture, professed Christianity and dressed in a European fashion. Old Calabar or Duke Town flourished as an Efik City state and although it is now absorbed into Nigeria, traditional rulers of the state are still recognised. Large plain brass charger dishes and platters were imported from Britain and then decorated locally in Old Calabar. Regarded as important prestige items by the local chiefs they were displayed with great ceremony. Items of Efik decorated brass were also presented by the King and chiefs to important dignitaries and distinguished visitors to the area. These chargers are interesting transcultural aesthetic expressions resulting from a history of European contact and colonial rule. Although resembling a Benin royal ceremony, the central figure embossed to the centre of the dish is probably an Ekpe masquerader. Ekpe is a spirit who resides in the jungle and presides over society ceremonies.

[56] A Bering Strait Alaskan Punuk Eskimo Amuletic Walrus Ivory Toggle or Handle Depicting a Female Figure with Incised Linear Tattoo Marks on Her Face and Shoulders Two Holes for Attachment Signs of great wear smooth silky patina Circa 600–1200 ad

s i z e   : 7.5 cm high, 1.5 cm wide – 3 ins high, ½ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Excavated at Brevig Mission Port Clarence Northern Alaskan Coast John and Valerie Arieta 1993 Ex Private collection Dr Alan Black Although carved with a minimum of surface detail, this otherworldly human figure has precisely rendered facial features. The number and variety of objects which served as amulets in the Arctic is remarkable. Personal charms were nearly always carried somewhere on the body: sewn on clothing, attached to a belt or parka, suspended around the neck or carried in a pouch. Most owned several and a few owned literally dozens, all of which they had to carry about. Others were incorporated into weapons or tools, usually carved as handles. The power of the amulet was ascertained by a shaman. Alternatively awareness of an object’s potential as a charm might be revealed spontaneously in a dream. Once acquired and recognised for its power an amulet would be handed down from generation to generation either along family lines or along lineage or clan lines.

[57] Three Byzantine Bronze Double Sided Pectoral Reliquary Crosses once Containing Relics of the True Cross 10th – 12th Century

a. Engraved with a figure of the Virgin with Christ Child and Saints Peter and Paul above Her Head a Greek inscription Mater Theos Mother of God and to the reverse Saint George Georgios s i z e   : 13.5 cm high, 6 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 5¼ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, ¼ ins deep / 16 cm high – 6¼ ins high (with base) b. Engraved with Saint John inscribed Ioanit above and with the Virgin to the reverse Mater Theos s i z e   : 9 cm high, 4 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 3½ ins high, 1½ ins wide, ¼ ins deep / 11 cm high – 4¼ ins high (with base) c. Engraved with a figure of St George Georgios and to the reverse a figure of the Virgin Mater Theos s i z e   : 8 cm high, 4.5 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 3 ins high, 1¾ ins wide, ¼ ins deep / 10.5 cm high – 4 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Private collection Dusseldorf, Germany Acquired early 20th Century These early bronze pilgrimage crosses are engraved in an abstract linear style with explicit iconography. They were made to house a reliquary acquired by a pilgrim on his arduous journey to the Holy Land to venerate the site of the crucifixion and other holy places. The pilgrims wanted both a memento and an object representing Christ’s passion. These reliquary crosses were probably made to order from a stock of intercessory holy figures and saints following a pattern in size, imagery and construction, but reflecting the pilgrim’s specific devotional predilections. The pendant cross was then proudly worn both as an amulet and talismanic device for protection, and as a scared focus for private devotion.

[58] A Netherlandish Mechelen Carved Alabaster Devotional Figure of Saint Sebastian Traces of original polychrome to his face and long flowing hair One hand and one thumb replaced left arm reattached at the shoulder Early 17th Century

s i z e   : 22 cm high, 11 cm wide, 6.5 cm deep – 8¾ ins high, 4¼ ins wide, 2½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Netherlands collection Despite the many arrows that pierced and left holes in his young body, the face of the martyr Saint Sebastian shows no trace of suVering. The translucent nature of the alabaster, the knotted loin cloth about his hips and his contrapposto stance all bear homage to the more sophisticated German carved ivory cabinet pieces produced in the late 16th century. In England the reformation and Henry VIII’s break with Rome in 1531 killed oV the trade in alabaster altarpieces and devotional figures that had been flourishing for over 200 years. The reformation led to a fundamental change in religious practices and outlook. The English workshops shipped their entire remaining stock out of the country to the Catholic areas of Europe and in doing so probably saved them from destruction an important part of England’s medieval artistic heritage. Centres of production were formed in the Netherlands and Germany with craftsmen carving alabaster where they had once been specialists in carving wood. Mechelen (Malines) in the Netherlands became an important area during the mid 16th and early 17th centuries for making religious altarpieces and devotional figures of alabaster that were used both in domestic and ecclesiastical interiors.

[59] A Rare North East German Danzig Finely Carved Horn and Amber Powder Flask with Silver Mounts An amber panel to the base set with an oval relief of a stag hunt beneath an amber jewel the horn profusely carved with a Ducal Coat of Arms and an Ornate Trophy of Arms the spout carved as a fantastical grotesque fish with amber eyes 1st Quarter of the 18th Century s i z e   : 20.5 cm long, 3 cm deep (max) – 8 ins long 1¼ ins deep (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex collection of the late Peter Dineley c f : St Petersburg State Hermitage Museum inv. no: 4760 Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum Kunstkammer inv. no: 8358 and 8359 The use of amber was an aristocratic privilege in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, and this powder flash is remarkable for the successful combination of various materials. There has been a long tradition of making accessories for sporting guns, and in particular powder flasks, decorated with mythical scenes or armorials. It is probable that this flask was commissioned from a maker of guns and accessories in north east Germany where work in Baltic amber was more commonly undertaken. Used as a small container for gunpowder, essential for muzzle loading guns, powder flasks became elaborately decorated works of art, worn as emblems of power and status, when paraded as part of the ceremonial hunting dress of an aristocratic sportsman.

[60] Rare Exceptionally Large and Remarkable North Indian Rajasthani Carved Ivory Figure of Shrinathji the Hindu God Krishna as a Young Boy Wide eyed and smiling with polychromed black hair a braid down his back wearing heavy silver dancing anklets and gold studs in his delicately formed ears His stout voluptuous body probably once dressed for festivals Early 19th Century s i z e   : 31.5 cm high, 13 cm wide, 9 cm deep (max) – 12¼ ins high, 5 ins wide, 3½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of a West Country Titled Gentleman Shrinathji is the Hindu God Krishna manifested as a seven year old boy. The child deity was originally referred to as Devdman, The conqueror of Gods which refers to the overpowering of Indra by Krishna in the lifting of Govardhan Hill from which as a young boy he emerged. Shrinathji is the central deity of the Vaishnava sect known as the Pushti Marg, The Way of Grace. His followers Pushtimargis are mostly found in Northern and Western India in and around Rajasthan. Their main shrine is in the Shrinathji temple in Nathdwara which traces its beginning to 1669 when the sect was living in fear of persecution by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Today the Nathdwara temple is one of the wealthiest and more elaborate shrines dedicated to the worship of Krishna in India.

[61] A Rare Madagascan Southern Sakalava Peoples Plaque Depicting a Warrior with spear and Shield Wearing a Talismanic necklace and Headband with Attached Amulets Perhaps a memorial to an ancestor Early 20th Century

s i z e   : 61 cm dia. – 24 ins dia. (max) – 10 cm deep – 4 ins deep c f : A ceremonial rice spoon carved with a male figure with similar features was exhibited at the R.A exhibition of 1996 Africa, Art of a Continent and is in the collections of the British Musuem (BM AF.18 103) Also a pair of Sakalava figures in the Musée Cedratom in Toliara, Madagascar with very similar facial features and hairstyles Madagascar was first inhabited in the 7th Century ad by people related to the Polynesians who lived along the Swahili coast of Africa, but were driven out by Islamic merchants and traders. The Sakalava occupied the west coast of the Island and were known as the people of the long valleys. At the end of the 19th Century the island was colonised by the French who recorded items of Malagassy art in various texts, but it was not until the early 20th century that examples appeared in Europe. Malagasy art is principally associated with their funerary trad­ itions. The Sakalava bury their dead in the forest far from their village in wooden rectangular tombs which on each corner have large carved figures of birds, men or women sometimes with children, and famously copulating couples now known to tourists as Sari Porno. The sun rises in the north east and is associated with rebirth so on the north east corner of each tomb a carved figure representing the deceased is placed and in the opposite corner a figure of the opposite sex is to be found, reinforcing the idea of sexuality inherent in Sakalava beliefs.

[62] An Unusual Bering Sea Eskimo Inuit Harpoon Fore-shaft Made From the Upper End and Tip of a Narwhal Tusk Monodon Monoceros Early 19th Century s i z e   : 59 cm long – 23¼ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Netherlands collection Article 10 certificate no. 580682/01 A long fore-shaft on a harpoon was needed when hunting walrus or narwhal so that the head would penetrate the animal’s thick hide and blubber. For the Inuit hunter it is very important not only to understand hunting methods and equipment developed over many generations by his Arctic ancestors, but also to give great attention to the inua or spirit of the hunted animal. Thoroughly trained by his father and other men in the methods of hunting, learning the ritual practices and having the counsel of the shaman and elders who specialise in calming and placating the sea mammals spirits is also essential. Failing to perform certain rituals before, during and after the hunt endanger not only the hunter’s safety but could bring misfortune on the whole community.

[63] Two Arctic Bering Sea Eskimo Inuit Tomcod Fish Hooks of Walrus Ivory in the Form of Swimming Fish The hooks fashioned from iron nails the eyes inlaid with brass Mid 19th Century

s i z e   : 3.5 cm high, 8 cm long, 1.5 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 3 ins long, ½ ins deep 3 cm high, 6 cm long, 1 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 2¼ ins long, ¼ ins deep Eskimos design diVerent kinds of hooks to catch diVerent kinds of fish and these are decorated with the features of small fish to act as lures to attract the tomcod. Fishing forms one of the main sources of food supply among the western Eskimo with the season opening around the end of March or in early April when the Spring tides force their way through cracks in the ice. The tomcod remain in deep water during the Winter, but as Spring approaches they begin to return and holes are made through the ice to catch them by means oV a hook and line. During the month of May the fish become abundant, ascending all the tidal creeks to the upper limits. Big catches are made sometimes with dip nets, and the resulting quantities of fresh fish are packed away and frozen in grass bags ready for use in the lean Winter months.

[64] A German Anatomical Polychromed Papier Mâché and Plaster Sectional Model of a Thoroughbred Horse’s Head Demonstrating the Equine Musculature Late 19th – Early 20th Century

s i z e   : head: 37.5 cm high, 10.5 cm wide, 49 cm deep – 14¾ ins high, 4 ins wide, 19¼ ins deep / 59.5 cm high – 23½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private German collection The horse is one of the most important domestic animals in human history and their health and care is a foundation of veterinary medicine. Equine anatomy has long been a closely studied subject by horse breeders, veterinarians and especially artists. The thoroughbred is a tall, slim, athletic horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Flat racing has existed in England at least since 1174 ad when four mile races took place at Smithfield in London. Thoroughbreds are considered hot blooded, horses that are known for their agility, speed and spirit. The breed, as it is known today was developed in 17th and 18th century England when native mares were crossbred with imported oriental stallions of Arabian, Barb and Turkoman breeding. Remarkably, all modern thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions: the Byerley Turk 1680, the Darley Arabian 1704 and the Godolphin Arabian 1729, which were imported into England and put to a larger number of foundation mares of mostly English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries the thoroughbred horse spread throughout the world. They were imported into North America in 1730 and then into Europe, Australia, Japan and South America during the 19th century. In 1791 an oYcial General Stud Book was begun and today more than 100,000 foals are registered across the world each year.

[65] An Ancient Celtic Iron Age Bronze Cup Cast with the Upraised Head of a Clean Shaven Man with Spectacled Eyes and Wide Slit Mouth Possibly a Ritual Drinking Vessel The entire surface decorated with a cross hatching or basketry pattern An old inventory label to the interior inscribed 332 Smooth aged greenish brown patina 4th – 3rd Century bc

s i z e   : 5.5 cm high, 13.5 cm deep 10.5 cm dia. – 2¼ ins high, 5¼ ins deep, 4 ins dia / 7.5 cm high – 3 ins high (on base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private French collection Nice Acquired from Anatole France (1844–1924) Ex Private collection Paris Acquired from Ratton-Ladrier Ex Private UK collection Acquired from Rupert Wace London 2009 Much of the Celtic Art that has survived is in the form of specialist bronze and goldsmiths work and the Celtic smiths were held in high regard and achieved considerable status. The head occupied a central role in Celtic iconography and this example resembles those found on anthropoid-hilted short swords from Gaul, Britain and Ireland. One handled cups were used for domestic or ritual purposes and wine was frequently drunk at insular feasts, but the most common intoxicating drink was in fact known as Corma in Gaul. Barley was most often used in its manufacture, but rye, oats and wheat were also utilised. The grain was converted into malt, dried in a kiln until it was hard, ground up and made into a mash with water, fermented, boiled and then strained. Ale was often made in private houses for family use, but there were also professional brewers known as cerbsire. Mead made with honey, the name coming from the goddess Medb meaning she who intoxicates was also drunk and is perhaps the most characteristic Celtic alcoholic drink. The Celtic capacity for strong liquor became legendary. Diodorus Siculus, the Greek historian, commented on the quantity drunk at meals and the inevitable ensuing violence.

[66] An unusual Bering Strait Yupik Eskimo Double-Sided Comb Nuyitet Etched with Abstract Totems and with a Small Loop for Hanging on a Belt or as a Pendant Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 9 cm high, 5 cm wide – 3½ ins high, 2 ins wide / 13.5 cm high – 5¼ ins high (with base) Women on both sides of the Bering Strait wore ornate hair ornaments. They dressed their hair by parting it along the median line and arranging it in a pendant braid or club shape bun behind the ear. Sometimes the braids are united at the back of the head or they may be combed and arranged with strips of fur or strings of multicoloured glass trade beads. Often the strips of fur worn are those of the animal representing the family totem and is therefore a means of identification. Nuyitet combs such as this were also used by women as decorative hairpieces and the type with wider teeth were called tangle removers, Tegurriliurutet.

[67] An Ancient Bering Strait or Thule Eskimo Inuit Carved Walrus Ivory Bowman’s Wrist Guard Etched with Raven Totems and a Barbed Line Design Remains of old Sinew attachment Fine aged smooth creamy patina 1200 – 1500 ad

s i z e   : 8.5 cm high, 4 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 3¼ ins high, 1½ ins wide, ½ ins deep / 12.5 cm high – 5 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Oxfordshire collection Wrist guards have been part of the Eskimo’s bow hunting tradition for at least two thousand years. Lashed to the inside of the archer’s lower left arm they are used as a cuV to protect against the impact of the bow string when the arrow is released. Made from a curved section of a walrus tusk so that it will fit the shape of the wrist, this example is decorated with etched raven totems. Bows and arrows were used to hunt the caribou that were highly valued for their antlers and skins as well as for meat. To a lesser extent, arrows having a flint head set into a barbed antler shaft to give greater penetration, were used for hunting polar and brown bears. Numerous seasonal Arctic birds such as gulls, geese, duck and ptarmigan, provided a supplementary food source and were taken with bow and arrows, a blunt bolt to the end often being used to prevent damage to the pelts that were used to make the hunters’ winter coats.

[68] A Fine Four Case Gold Ground Kinji Lacquer Inr̄o Decorated in Gold Silver and Red Hiramaki-e Depicting Rosei Reclining on a Day Bed in the Shade of a Tree his Face Showing Through a Semi-Transparent Uchiwa Fan Overlaid with a Minute Slice of Iridescent Shell The reverse detailing his dream in light togidashi on a gold ground Signed in raised gold script Koma Kyūhaku Saku A ceramic Ojime and Netsuke of gilt metal inset with carved Carnelian Agate panel depicting peony flowers are attached to the cords Late 18th Century s i z e   : 8.5 cm high, 6 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 3¼ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, ¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection In the original 8th century Chinese folk-tale Lu Sheng (Rosei) leaves his village in search of an illustrious career in the civil service. This tale inspired the 15th century Japanese Noh play Kantan and was modified to reflect the Buddhist philosophy of Noh Theatre’s elite warrior audience. In the drama Rosei falls asleep at an Inn while waiting for his meal and dreams that he is visited by a grand entourage that invites him to become Emperor. When the innkeeper awakens him Rosei immediately realises that his 50 year reign as Emperor was only a vain dream. Rosei’s awakening is comparable to a spiritual awakening or enlightenment that recognises the transience of human life and the vanity of ambition. Rosei thus abandons his dream of self-advancement and returns to his village. The iridescent shell across the face of the semi-transparent fan held by Rosei creates a veil that reminds the viewer of the altered state of the dreamer and the insubstantial nature of his dream. On the reverse of the inr̄o, Rosei’s dream is depicted as a ghostly procession of servants carrying ceremonial umbrellas and palanquins that can only be glimpsed dream-like when the inr̄o is turned in the light.

[69] An Exceptional German Carved Ivory Vanitas

A Salamander and Snake Crawling Through the Partly Decomposed Skull with Scraps of Skin Dangling from the Face the Exposed Muscles Partly Decomposed Early 17th Century s i z e   : 4.5 cm high, 7 cm deep, 4.5 cm wide – 1¾ ins high, 2¾ ins deep, 1¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection Ex Private collection of the Late Robert Noortman (1946–2007) Sold Sothebys Amsterdam 2007 Ex Finch & Co 2008 Ex Private London collection 2008–2020 A dramatic representation of decomposition, this superb memento mori was made as an object for private meditation. North of the Alps they were popular objects from the Renaissance onwards as a constant reminder of the transience of earthly life and an admonition to do penance. Actions taken in life could aVect one’s fate after death, and penance or good works undertaken whilst alive were said to be more than twice as eVective as reliance on family prayers after death. The aim was to minimise the time the soul spent in purgatory, and so the seven works of Mercy: to feed the hungry, to give drink to the thirsty, to clothe the naked, to shelter the homeless, to visit the sick, to visit the prisoner and to bury the dead, were all taken very seriously as it was important to maximise one’s spiritual well-being. Emphasising the vanitas aspect with the carved scraps of skin, invasive snake and lizard, the sculpture shows an all pervading interest in anatomy, which was a new science around 1620.

[70] A Polynesian Tuvalu Ellice Islands Fish Hook Kou Boru Probably from Nukulailai or Mitchell Island the most Easterly of the Ellice Islands 19th Century

s i z e   : 17 cm high, 6.5 cm wide – 6¾ ins high, 2½ ins wide c f : Harry G. Beasley Fish Hooks; 1928, illustrates one very similar in his own collection, plate XLIIIA pg. 31 The shank and point are made from a hard, close grained wood Pemphis acidula, known as the Ingia bush, which is so dense it is heavier than water. The two pieces are tied and bound with stout plaited coconut fibre sennit. Only the Tautai or master fisherman was allowed to make them and they were used for catching Palu Ruvetus Pretiousus, a type of oil fish. The bait for these hooks consists of a whole fish usually a flying fish split lengthways and laid scale to scale either side of the barb thus stretching across the hook and not along its length. In swallowing this the Palu, whose jaws are very thin and pliable, gets the barb behind the angle of the jaw. Sometimes when the fish is hooked the fisherman will jerk the line so as to hit its head with a stone sinker.

[71] A Tibetan Gilt Copper Repoussé Panel Depicting a Standing Snow Lion with Typical Broad Mouth Flowing Mane and Bushy Tail 18th–19th Century

s i z e   : 37 cm high, 42 cm wide, 16 cm deep – 14½ ins high, 16½ ins wide, 6¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the late Richard Nathanson The celestial animal and national emblem of Tibet, snow lions symbolise power and strength and are traditionally placed above temple doors or on altars inserted into the Torana; the arch of glory, which surrounds the divinity. Their function is to act as guardians and defenders and in this panel he is shown with his jaws parted as if emitting a menacing growl to ward oV evil spirits. They are thought to live in the highest mountains, representing the yogis who live as hermits up in the Himalayas. The snow lion is the protector of the Buddha and is depicted supporting his throne. A single roar from his great mouth was considered to be so powerful that it could cause dragons to fall from the sky.

[72] A Rare Italian Renaissance Engraved and Gilded Steel Scribe’s Manuscript Knife the Long Ivory Handle Carved with a Lion’s Head the Elongated Blade with an Armorial and to the Reverse a Nobleman in Fashionable Attire Circa 1615–1630

s i z e   : 37 cm long – 14½ ins long / 39 cm high – 15¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection c f : Michael Finlay; Western Writing Implements of the Age of the Quill Pen Plains Books 1990; The Scribe’s Knife: A Chronology of the Pen Knife no. 74 Circa 1615–1630 for an illustration of this shape Every medieval European Christian monastery had a scriptorium a place for writing, a room devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts mostly carried out by monastic scribes. Writing was a skill that was diYcult to learn and to become a Master Scribe took years of experience and consequently was a highly valued vocation. Their tools of the trade such as these knives were often proudly displayed, and were used to sharpen quills, scrape away mistakes, and hold the parchment in place whilst writing. Erasing mistakes by scraping the ink oV the page was a painstaking job as it was diYcult to achieve without ruining a piece of parchment. Some pagan manuscripts were reused for writing new biblical texts because of the high cost of the material. The old ink was scrapped oV with a scribe’s knife and written over to create a palimpsest, Greek for scraped again. Occasionally a scribe would rent his frustration in the margins of a manuscript, one such note reads: A curse on thee, O Pen. A good scribe’s knife was therefore indispensable.

[73] Pacific Northwest Coast Tlingit Peoples Red Cedar-Wood Ceremonial Oil Dish with an Image of an Eagle to Both Ends The top inlaid with brass roundels Circa 1830–50

s i z e   : 11 cm high, 35 cm wide, 26.5 cm deep – 4¼ ins high, 13¾ ins wide, 10½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Acquired Christies, London, lot 131, Fine Tribal Art, April, 1990 The Northwest coast is a broad and rugged zone of interlocking inlets and islands separated from the rest of the continent by the massive barrier of the Coast range of mountains. Geographically it has always resisted approach and travel by land, but has been bountifully productive to the peoples with a culture orientated to the sea. Having an unusually distinctive and complex culture their art was a way of making the natural and the supernatural world visible. Made of a single piece of red cedar-wood, this bowl is relief carved with the clan motif of an eagle identified by the slightly curved beak split vertically at the base of the design. Every Tlingit is a member of two groups, Moieties and identifies as a Raven or an Eagle, with each moiety comprising smaller kinship groups known as clans. The bowl was a status symbol with the image of the eagle representing the emblem of the matrilineal clan to which it belonged. They were used for serving rendered seal or candlefish Eulachon oil that accompanied the smoked salmon at Potlach ceremonies and feasts, and they became so permeated with oil that they still exude it after a century or more. Only the wealthy chiefs and clan nobles held Potlach ceremonies on important occasions, such as funerals and weddings, where the host bestowed lavish gifts on his guests and all his noble titles would be read out. One of the valued gifts at a Potlach was the oil presented and served in a bowl such as this.

[74] An Unusual Japanese Jizai Okimono a Fully Articulated Model of a Crayfish Naturalistically Modelled in Intricately Worked and Patinated Copper A two character signature to the reverse Hiroyoshi Meiji Period Late 19th Century

s i z e   : 18.5 cm long, 6 cm wide, 2.5 cm high – 7¼ ins long, 2¼ ins wide, 1 ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection of Japanese Jizaiokimono When practical Imperial rule was restored to the Empire of Japan under the Emperor Meiji in 1868, the Samurai were forbidden by law to openly wear swords. The great honoured swordsmiths of Japan had to find alternative markets in order to avoid bankruptcy and so began to make decorative objects that would appeal to a wealthy upper class clientele. The Miōchin armourers had made marvellously articulated models of insects, fish, snakes and crustaceans during the 16th and 17th centuries to give as gifts, and as a way of displaying their skill, but now the Japanese swordsmiths turned to making okimono – an object to stand in an alcove in order to survive. The Komai family produced exquisite gold and burnished steel boxes, trays and vases whilst other smiths specialised in making jizai okimono. A tour de force and a feat of ingenuity they often depict animals, fish or insects which directly appeal to the Japanese collector’s desire for intricate and minutely detailed objects.

[75] Spanish Colonial Peruvian Shell Shaped Mother of Pearl Priming Flask with Engraved Silver Mounts and Pineapple Stopper Late 17th Century

s i z e   : 9 cm high, 7 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 3½ ins high, 2¾ ins wide, 1 ins deep From the 16th century onwards, priming and powder flasks for guns made of exotic materials often became Kunstkammer objects rather than hunting accoutrements once they reached the shores of Europe. The Spanish first landed on the coast of Peru in 1532 encountering the vibrant Inca Empire that stretched almost the entire rugged length of the Andes. After the establishment of the Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542 a remarkable exchange of cultures between Europe and the New World began to flourish bringing trade in goods, services and ideas between the two. The art of silversmithing was also transformed when great lodes of silver in the mountains above the town of Potosi were discovered. Native metalworks and European immigrant silversmiths made every variety of domestic, sporting and ecclesiastical object and struggled to keep pace with commissions.

[76] A Silver Mounted English Turned Ivory Pocket SnuV Box Containing Two Samples of Polynesian Tapa Cloth and One of Linen Flax A folded note inside inscribed in ink A Piece of Linen Brought from Georges Island by Captain Cook and Given to E.K.D by Mrs Richardson Captain James Cook visited the King George Islands in 1774 on his Second Voyage Now in French Polynesia the Islands were first discovered by the Dutchman Willem Schouten in 1616 Late 18th Century s i z e   : lidded box: 3 cm high, 5 cm dia. – 1¼ ins high, 2 ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection East Anglian Family Thence by descent Tapa was strong cloth made by felting wet inner bark fibre with a grooved mallet. There were many types of tapa made across the Pacific from many kinds of bark, as thick as leather or as thin as lace. Superior tapa, white and extremely thin and supple was highly valued. On Tahiti it was called Hopuu and made from the inner bark of the paper Mulberry tree. The word tapa is European adapted by English and American sailors from the Samoan term for an uncoloured border and the Hawaiian term kapa meaning bark cloth. Use of the word spread throughout Polynesia with missionaries referring to tapa as native cloth. Cook marvelled at the properties of Polynesian tapa and brought back a considerable number of samples. However, the missionaries later generally regarded it as heathen and brought back very little of it, importing English broadcloth as soon as they could. Tapa was used for the adornment and wrapping of sacred objects, idols and other things such as ancestral skulls. Sections or rolls of beautifully made tapa cloth were regarded as significant gifts with white tapa in particular used for the robes of priests on the Cook Islands. By the late 19th century Bibles were wrapped in tapa.

[77] A Medieval Gothic Tournai Bronze Standing Figure Depicting the Remarkable Dominican Bishop Saint Albertus Magnus Albert the Great (1193–1280) Wearing a Bishop’s Mitre and Holding a Book Perhaps Part of a Lectern or Baptismal Font Solid cast lost wax method Circa 1450–1475

s i z e   : 32.5 cm high – 12¾ ins high / 33.5 cm high – 13¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex collection of the late Jan Durven Snr. Eindhoven, Netherlands Acquired 1930’s c f : Three examples in the New York Metropolitan Museum 1975.I.1419/1418/1417 Two Tournai Bronze Figures of Saints Anthony Abbot and Gregory the Great in the Bonnefanten Museum, Maastricht, Netherlands A Swabian by birth, Albert joined the Dominicans at Padua in 1223 against the wishes of his noble family. He became known for his comments on the writings of Aristotle and the use of his philosophy in Christian theology. He was also interested in the physical sciences and his treatises, which fill 38 volumes, include some on astronomy, chemistry, geography and physiology. During his systematic study of minerals he discovered arsenic. He taught at Hildesheim, Ratisbon and Cologne where Thomas Aquinas was his student. He became a Master at Paris and organised the house of studies at Cologne in 1248, thereby founding Germany’s oldest university. In 1260 he became Bishop of Ratisbon (Regensburg) earning the aVection of his parishioners by refusing to ride a horse and going about his huge diocese on foot. They named him Boots the Bishop. Unsuccessful as an administrator, he resigned his see in 1262 and was asked by Pope Urban IV to preach the 8th Crusade in all German speaking countries, thereby raising funds for the cause. He took a prominent part in the Council of Lyons in 1274, and at Paris in 1277 he staunchly defended the orthodoxy and teaching of his disciple Aquinas whose death in 1274 had grieved him greatly. He became unwell in 1278 and died in the Dominican St Andreas Church in Cologne in November 1280. Commonly called the Universal Doctor and placed by Dante among the lovers of wisdom, he was beatified in 1622.

[78] Large Spanish Jet Faceted Octagonal Amuletic Pendant Rosary Bead Aged polished mirror black surface Minor chips to faceted corners Early 17th Century

s i z e   : 3.5 cm high, 4.5 cm dia. (max) – 1¼ ins high, 1¾ ins dia. According to the Roman naturalist Pliny, jet prevented snake bite and was thrown up by the sea. Pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela often acquired mementoes made of jet, a local material believed to have powerful amuletic qualities as from the time of the Middle Ages the town was major centre of jet carving. Nuns, no matter how wealthy, were restricted to the habit of their order, with the Cistercians wearing an almost completely white robe. Their jewels were limited to jet rosaries, sometimes worn as collars in Spain which strikingly set oV the white fabric. Normally women of the upper classes owned gold, coral or amber rosaries and in choosing jet the nuns believed they were performing a kind of self-denial, confining the colours that they wore to white and black.

[79] A Fine Spanish Gold Filigree and Coral Bead Rosary with Pendant Gold Openwork Cross Early 18th Century

s i z e   : 69.5 cm long – 27¼ ins long / approx: 140 cm long – 55 ins long (total length) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Prayer beads are used by believers of many diVerent faiths including Hindus, Buddhists, Muslims and Christians to help count prayers. The Catholic rosary’s circular form has diVerent levels of religious and psychological meaning. In meditation the circle centres the mind in contemplation, as St Augustine admonished the faithful God is a circle whose centre is everywhere. He prescribed returning within yourself for it is in the inward man that truth dwells. The solitary, thoughtful manipulation of the beads enhances this contemplative state of mind, and the repetitious handling of the beads helps the worshipper concentrate on spiritual needs. Coral was highly prized in Mediterranean countries for its red colour and powerful amuletic and apotropaic properties. According to classical myth coral acquired its bright red colour from the spurting blood of the Medusa when Perseus cut oV her head. In time it came to represent the blood of Christ. Dioscorides (40–90 ad) believed coral staunched the flow of blood and the physician Galen (130–210 ad) produced prescriptions for medicines using ground up coral. Babies and young children were often given coral teething toys as a protection against the evil eye and all magic spells.

[80] A Rare Pair of Micronesian Caroline Islands Mortlock Islands Idols The crouching Male and Female figures with stylised facial features the oval eyes inlaid with shell Smooth old brown patina displaying extensive use and handling Late 19th Century

s i z e   : a: 16.5 cm high – 6½ ins high b: 16 cm high – 6¼ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Captain Robert E. Donnelly reputedly collected in the field circa 1900’s c f : A similar example of a single figure in the Collections of Metropolitan Museum New York 2003.8

These striking abstract squatting figures with almost mask-like heads occur throughout the western Caroline Islands and probably functioned as ancestor images. An American sailor Horace Holden, shipwrecked in 1832, described a religious structure on Hatobei Island… carved images are placed in different parts of the building and are supposed to personate their deity (Holden 1836 pg. 85–86, cited in Wavell 2002 pg. 67) One hundred years later Atsushi Someki, a Japanese anthropologist, stated that these seated figures were ancestor images kept in special positions in the house, and as in other locations in the Pacific, they depict remote or recent forebears who could be honoured with oVerings and asked for assistance in times of need.

[81] A Collection of Thirty One English Carved Ivory Dog Whistles Depicting Hunting Hounds Including Greyhounds Blood Hounds Beagles English Pointers Lurchers and One unusual Crossed Wild Boar / Dog with Protruding Tusks The eyes inlaid with glass or horn 19th Century

s i z e   : 7 cm long – 2¾ ins long (max) / 4 cm long – 1½ ins long (min) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection formed over thirty five years In 1876 Francis Galton invented a silent whistle Galtons Whistle which emitted sound in the ultra-sonic range which dogs and domestic cats can hear. It is believed that the feral ancestors of cats and dogs evolved this higher range hearing in order to detect the high frequency sounds made by small rodents, their preferred prey. Galton’s invention overtook the old form of hunting dog whistle as it conveniently made no loud sound only a quite hissing. One of the crucial requirements for really successful hunting is a well trained pack of hounds or individual gun dog. Whistles were used for training on command and to communicate instructions such as when to go and when to stop. All hound breeds can be traced back to a distinctive early type of running dog which can be found in ancient Roman frescoes with long ears and a slender body. The Egyptians also kept hunting dogs known as gaze hounds for their ability to see a long way in the desert. With the change in hunting conditions the breeding and maintenance of the larger hounds declined and was replaced by the smaller modern varieties of dog.

[82] An Interesting Silver Mounted German Saxony Charivari a Talismianic Necklace Composed of: Two small Bezoar Seven pieces of Oak Root and Petrified Wood one with Silver Mount inscribed Maritzburg 1882 a Silver Mounted Dogs Tooth and Nine Silver Mounted Brown Bear’s Claw’s The wood amulet dated 1885 The other amulets late 18th – early 19th Century s i z e   : 46 cm long – 18 ins long Amulets, from the latin amuletum in turn taken from the Arabic noun hamalet are believed by their wearers to lend power and provide protection. Special magical powers were ascribed to particular materials, with bezoar for example, able to detect poison. Charivari are traditional with hunting dress in Saxony and Bavaria worn for the promise of a successful hunt. They became status symbols and treasured heirlooms believed to protect the owner from ill-fortune, danger and death. Passed down, the charivari went on working for successive generations of a family.

[83] A Bering Strait Arctic Thule Eskimo Bow Drill with Pictographs of a Man Hunting Caribou a Group of Animals and a Lone Young Deer and to the Reverse a Reindeer Foraging and a Running Caribou Smooth rich and creamy patina 18th Century or Earlier

s i z e   : 35 cm long, 2 cm high, 1 cm deep – 13¾ ins long, ¾ ins high, ¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection These tiny engravings or pictographs resembling European prehistoric cave paintings, are unique in Eskimo culture. They combine unusual technique and artistry to portray

in miniature, scenes from a vast, stark and harsh arctic environment. Bow drills were used to make holes or create a combustible level of heat and were generally found among people living north of Norton Sound. To drill a hole the bow’s thong is wrapped around the shaft. The drill bit is positioned and other end of the shaft is placed in the socket of the mouthpiece which is gripped in the teeth. When the bow is moved from side to side the shaft rotates and drives its tip into the surface of the object being drilled. The speed and the depth of the hole is controlled by varying the amount of pressure being exerted through the drill point. The relationship between the caribou, the spirits or inua and man was carefully and continuously strengthened through ritual and ceremonial activity, because the caribou was an immensely important provider of many materials; fur, hide, antler, sinew and meat. They were critical to the maintenance of Bering Sea culture.

[84] A Fine Gold Mounted Foreleg of a Miniature Southeast Asian Mouse-Deer Tragulus Javanicus for use as a Pocket Pipe Tamper Contained in an Original Shagreen Case Late 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 7.5 cm long – 3 ins long / case: 8.5 cm long – 3¼ long The smallest known hoofed mammal, the Java mouse-deer is about the size of a small rabbit. Measuring about nine inches to the shoulder, they weigh only 5 or 6 pounds. Primarily herbivores they are crepuscular and mostly shy and solitary, although they will defend their territory with sharp, protruding canine tusks. Known as Pak Pelandok in Malaysia they were probably first brought back to Europe by members of the East India Company who established a trading base in Malaya in 1786. Historically in Indonesian and Malaysian mythology the mouse-deer is considered a wise creature who through his intelligence and cunning is able to prevail over his much larger enemies.

[85] A Dutch Mollen Hood for a Merlin Falco Columbarius Known as The Lady’s Hawk Leather green felt red wool and chicken feathers Late 19th Century s i z e   : approx: 13 cm high – 5 ins high The Merlin is a small species of falcon from the Northern Hemisphere. They are swift and skilled hunters and have for centuries been well regarded as a falconry bird. In medieval Europe the Book of St Albans listed the Merlin as the falcon for a Lady. In the Book of Falconrie of 1575 Tuberville praises the merlin… Assuredly, divers of these Merlyns became passing good hawkes and verie skilfull. Their property by nature is to kill Thrushes, Larks and Partridges. They flee with greater fiercenes and more hotely than any other hawke of prey. The name Merlin strictly speaking is reserved for the female, the male is spoken of as a jack. When fit, the merlin is exceptionally strong and courageous and may be flown with some success at wood pigeons. However, the main flight for which they are reserved and for which they are renowned is that at sky larks.

[86] A New Zealand Maori Whalebone Short Hand Club Patu Paråoa Fine aged smooth mellow creamy patina 18th – Early 19th Century s i z e   : 35 cm long – 13¾ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the late Peter Dineley c f : Similar examples in the Maori Collections of The British Museum no. 712 described as 18th Century Unlike other hand clubs elsewhere in the world that are used for bludgeoning downward blows, Maori patu were designed for jabbing and thrusting movements, for quick in fighting in which the fraction of a second was too important to waste in raising the weapon to strike a blow. The whalebone was cut from the pan-bone of a sperm whale with a sandstone saw. Grooves were then cut from the front. The back was then sawed away to take out the resulting slab. This was then formed into a club shape by chipping and sawing with stone tools. Each individual club was weighed and balanced to suit the hand and preference of the warrior for whom it was being made. Such clubs were used over many generations and became associated with the Maori who wielded them. Regarded as heirlooms, they were Taonga Tuku Iho – treasures passed down from the ancestors.

[87] An Interesting Pair of Scandinavian Oak Panels Carved with Figures from Norse Mythology

The face of the God Freyr with his moustache to the top of each panel The first with a figure depicting Heimdallr blowing the great Gjallarhorn beneath two representations of the Moon Two Seated Figures representing Ask and Embla The First Two Humans Created by the Gods next to the heads of the Serpent that Encircles the World Two More Guardian Figures with Horns at the Base The second with Two Figures Seated Beneath a Sun probably Thor and Odin. An arch decorated with a ring chain with another two figures beneath Both panels Framed within two Ecclesiastical Architectural Arches Perhaps fragments of a portal from a wooden church Stavkirke Incorporated into a bookcase in the 19th Century 14th – 15th Century s i z e   : 158 cm high, 41.5 cm wide – 62¼ ins high, 16¼ ins wide / 160 cm high, 43 cm wide – 63 ins high, 17 ins wide (framed) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Morris Braham, England Ex Lord McAlpine c f : The Gosforth Stone Cross in Cumbria of the 9th or 10th Century ad has a depiction of Heimdallr with his horn beside two open mouthed serpents The name Freyr means lord and he was especially associated with Sweden and is some­ times seen as an ancestor of the Swedish Royal House. He was the ruler of peace and fertility. The god of rain, sunshine and a good harvest. Son of the sea God Njörd who was closely associated with ships, he had a magical ship Skioblaonir which always caught a favourable breeze and could be folded together like a napkin and carried in a pouch when it was not being used. This whole family of gods called the Vanir were honoured with ship’s funerals, and the priests of Freyr’s cult in Iceland were actually buried in ships. Freyr had a twin sister Freyja who was his counter part, the goddess of love, fertility, battle and death. Both of the gods were protected by Heimdallr, guardian of Asgard and shown blowing his great horn the Gjallarhorn the Resounding Horn, one of the greatest treasures of the gods. Always awake and alert, watching over the realm with sharp eyes like an eagles, in his hand the great horn whose blast could be heard throughout the world.

[88a.] Native American Plains Dakota Eastern Sioux Warriors Dyed Porcupine Quill Feather Hair Rawhide and Tin Cone Hair Ornament sometimes used for Dancing With an old roundel label inscribed Mohave Apache Neck Ornament Porcupine Quill and Feather 167 19th Century Circa 1830–60 s i z e   : approx: 37 cm long – 14½ ins long

[88b.] A Native American Plains Dakota Sioux Warriors Dyed Porcupine Quill Buckskin Tin Cone and Horsehair Dance Collar 19th Century Circa 1860–80

s i z e   : approx: 24 cm long, 6 cm wide – 9½ ins long, 2¼ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private American collection Dr W.C. Martin Acquired John and Valerie Arieta 1991 Ex Private UK collection Dr Alan Black To the Europeans the Plains tribes epitomised the wild, untamed and therefore romantic Native American. However, they thought of themselves as practical hunters, they were systematic organisers and classifiers. As the universe was intricately patterned into hierarchies and divisions so was the nation. However, the hunting groups were not tied to a village or particular hunting ground. They envisioned the earth as a total environmental unit and this was their home. To cope with this freedom there was strict military discipline and leadership, and societies were formed with ceremonies designed to benefit everyone. The tension between freedom and responsibility led to a need to establish a highly regimented society which was satisfied by a complicated system of honours and rewards. The beautiful objects produced were all symbols of authority and supernatural power, they were embodiments of prestige and responsibility long before they were ever works of art. To their owner they were evidence of fragile relationships with space, the creator and with their disciplined world.

[89] Prehistoric Native American Hopewell Mound Peoples EYgy Platform Pipe in the Form of a Seated Toad An old label to the underside inscribed Massac Co. Ill. Circa 100 – 400 ad

s i z e   : 5 cm high, 3 cm wide, 9 cm deep – 2 ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 3½ ins deep / 8 cm high – 3¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex West Country Private collection In the ceremonial use of tobacco, the pipe bowl was regarded by Native Americans as a miniature altar on which was eVected the burning of tobacco as incense, either as an oVering to the gods or in honour of important personages. Animals were the dominant theme of Hopewell art from toads and ravens to bears and otters, all of whom were believed to have helped the creator at the beginning of the world when they spoke with a human tongue. They were regarded as living in societies parallel to humans capable of accepting and receiving gifts, grieving for the dead and having souls that transcended death, and as such they were treated by the Mound Peoples with appropriate respect.

[90] Indo-Portuguese Goa Carved Ivory Devotional Statuette of the Virgin Mary Her Hands Clasped in Prayer The ivory base carved with acanthus leaves Traces of gesso and polychrome Slight damage to finger tips and base Mid 17th Century

s i z e   : 21.5 cm high, 6 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 8½ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of a West Country Titled Gentleman Carved in the Portuguese colony of Goa by a Goanese artist under Portuguese commission, these ivories epitomise the interweaving of European, Indian and Asian decorative and figurative traditions. Missionary institutions were major buyers of religious works of art from local workshops, and the images produced reflect the main interests of the Jesuits and Franciscans and the saints they used in their propagandist and teaching roles. Missionary work had been established in Goa in the late 16th century. The wealth obtained through trade with the East, especially in spices and silks, had generated a desire to spread the Catholic faith along the trade routes. Religious figures such as this were produced to both help convert the local population and to export back to Europe. Much of the ivory used in their carving came from another Portuguese colony: Mozambique in East Africa where its export was strictly controlled.

[91] Rare Polynesian Tongan Islands Red Wood War Bow Kaufana Naturally Curved Notched at One End for Securing the Bow String a Long Groove along the Length of its Belly 18th Century s i z e   : 168.5 cm long – 66¼ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection c f : A very similar example collected on Cook’s Voyages in the Levrian Museum Widdicombe House collection (1922.939) The Ashmolean Museum Oxford has an example which is part of the Forster Collection (Forster 67.1886.1.1260) Edge-Partington 1895 plate 48 Bows of Red Wood collected by Cook on his 2nd Voyage 1772–1775 Captain James Cook wrote on his second voyage…. on the inside of the bow is a groove in which is put the arrow from which it should seem that they use but one. (A voyage towards the South Pole etc Vol I pg. 221) A coloured plate in Costume de Guerre by M Jules Dumont D’Urville 1826–1829 depicts a Tongan warrior with his face and upper body decorated with dark paint and pigments on the right hand side holding aloft a bow and a single arrow. It is thought that the discharging of a single arrow in battle constituted a ritual act of war which was reminiscent of the former importance of the bow and arrow as weapons of war. Tongan two-handed clubs, finely finished and inlaid with whale ivory glyphs, represent some of the finest examples of Tongan art. Although not symbolic of social status, the red wood bow is a much rarer artefact.

[92] A Rare Bering Sea Eskimo Walrus Ivory Amuletic Drag Handle Carved with a Transformation Figure of a Toothy Polar Bear Backed with a Human Face Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 2.5 cm high, 2 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 1 ins high, ¾ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep In Winter, game is brought home over the ice with the aid of drag handles. Breathing hole sealing begins as soon as the ice is firm enough for travel. Equipped with a light toggling harpoon fitted with an ice pick, and wearing ice creepers to keep him from slipping on smooth new ice, a hunter sets out to explore for seal breathing holes. These are often visible from a distance by their domed appearance, the result of frozen spray and moisture from the seals’ breath. Finding one, the hunter thrusts a long stalk of grass down through the dome until it comes to rest floating in the middle of the hole below. When the seal approaches, the hunter detects its presence by the sound of rising bubbles. He steadies himself and when the straw begins to rise, he strikes downward through the snow dome. When the seal has expired, he enlarges the hole, hauls the seal onto the ice and drags it home using a short tow line with an amuletic handle such as this example to help appease the seal’s spirit.

[93] An Ancient British Celtic Red Sandstone Head of a Deity Perhaps from a Shrine with Oval Eyes and Downturned Slit Mouth Traces of fossilised shell in the stone 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e   : 32 cm high, 17 cm wide, 19 cm deep – 12½ ins high, 6¾ ins wide, 7½ ins deep / 35 cm high – 13¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection acquired London Art Market early 1980’s The human head had an overwhelming significance to all Celtic people. The head symbolised divinity itself and was the possessor of every desirable quality. As the centre of spiritual power it was a conspicuous recurring image in their rituals, warfare and mythology. The head appears in their art from the earliest known representations in Central Europe to the illuminated manuscripts of the Christian Irish. The Celts were headhunters, but their collecting of these trophies was not just to boast of their valour and prowess, they believed a protective power resided in them. Stone heads were often sculpted as oVerings and placed in sacred springs, bogs and rivers where the gods resided. Extensive archaeological evidence shows these sites to be particularly favoured for votive oVerings, but it has also been shown that the Celts constructed permanent shrines of timber and other ritual enclosures where the gods could be propitiated.

[94] A Fine Rare Portuguese Macao Carved Ivory Devotional Plaque Depicting St Jerome Kneeling Before Christ Crucified

Gripping the Cross in One Hand Holding a Stone in the other Symbolic of His Asceticism His Hands and Feet with the Stigmata a Sign of His Passionate Christian Devotion His Cardinal’s Hat and Robe Hanging in the Tree God the Father in the Clouds above a Lion at the Saint’s Feet above Him Two Medieval Church Towers The scene probably based on a European engraving Mid 17th Century s i z e   : 12 cm high, 8.5 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 4¾ ins high, 3¼ ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Berkeley Family Spetchley Park Worcestershire catalogued in a 1949 inventory as A Carved Panel (4 7⁄8 '' x 3½'') of St Jerome Kept in the Strong Room c f : Asian Civilisations Museum Singapore for a Similar Jesuit Plaque depicting St Jerome painted in bright polychrome (no. 2011–01507) In 374 ad St Jerome became seriously ill in Antioch and two of his travelling companions died. In this state he dreamt that he appeared before God’s judgement seat and was condemned for being a Ciceronian rather than a Christian. He took this experience very seriously and became a hermit in the desert of Chalcis in Syria for five years. He gave up the Classics he knew and loved and learnt Hebrew in order to study scripture. Proficient in both Greek and Hebrew, he went on to complete the enormous task of producing a standard Latin text of the Bible which he revised according to the meaning of the original texts. He then began to translate the Gospels and the Psalter and over time produced all, or nearly all of the Bible in what became known as the Vulgate version. A passionate and devoted Catholic scholar St Jerome had a diYcult temperament and a sarcastic wit, but it has been said of him that his immense learning was unmatched by any other Christian writer except St Augustine.

[95] Unusual Western Australian Aboriginal Minang Peoples Saw Knife Taap The Hardwood Inset with Possum Teeth a Gum Handle with Attached Fibre Wrist Thong Late 19th Century

s i z e   : 21.5 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 8½ ins long, 1¼ ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Melbourne Museum, Australia c f : Edge Partington Ethnological Album of the Pacific Islands Series III pg. 129, no. 1 with Shark’s Teeth Macleay Museum, Sydney, New South Wales, Two Saw Knives collected by George Masters 1869 with Quartz Flake Blades H1081, H1080 Taap appear to be unique to the Southwest region of Western Australia and were mostly collected around King George Sound. They can be found with quartz flakes, sharks’ teeth or possums’ teeth blades and were used to cut and separate the flesh of animals. Men of this region carried at least one aYxing them to a belt made of possum fur. When the ship Mermaid spent several days at King George Sound in December 1821 Philip Parker King and his crew obtained one hundred spears, thirty throwing sticks, forty hammers, a few hand clubs, and one hundred and fifty Taap knives. King recorded that hammers, spears and knives were oVered for barter with their value ranging from half to one-eighth of a ship’s biscuit.

[96] A German Turned Ivory Octagonal Vessel or Pyx with Knopped Cover of Exceptional Quality Perhaps for Private Devotional Use in a Chapel to Hold the Communion Host Superb smooth silky cream coloured patina 1st Half 17th Century

s i z e   : 9 cm high, 8 cm dia. (max) – 3½ ins high, 3 ins dia. (max) Three important princely and Imperial courts were based in the cities of Dresden, Munich and Vienna from the late 16th to the 18th century. Patronage was lavished on these three courts during the Baroque period and some of the works they produced in turned ivory are amongst the finest ever made. The first half of the 17th century was the era of the mechanised world view and a golden age for the natural sciences. The fashionable delight of the aristocracy was turning and princely lathes were the most sophisticated mechanical tools available. Turning was considered an act of creation entirely diVerent to carving, which was considered a craft. Turning was a mechanical skill which could only be practised by means of a machine. As Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria engraved in 1608 on an ivory vessel he had turned Ebur Ars Nobilitat, Artem Auctor Maximilianus Dux Bavariae translating as Art ennobles ivory the creator (of this vessel) Maximilian Duke of Bavaria on the other hand, ennobles art.

[97] Large Carved Ivory Phrenology Head Showing Thirty Seven DiVerent Zones of the Brain A Key Naming the Function of Each Area Engraved Around the Collar First Half of the 19th Century

s i z e   : 9.5 cm high, 5 cm wide, 6.5 cm deep – 3¾ ins high, 2 ins wide, 2½ isn deep Phrenology was developed by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796 and concerned the measurement of bumps on the skull to predict mental and psychological traits. Gall believed that the brain is the organ of the mind and that certain areas have a localised specific function. The central idea that measuring the contour of the skull to predict personality traits became a popular pastime in the early 19th century. By the 1840’s there were more than twenty eight phrenological societies in London with over 1000 members. The Scottish phrenologist George Combe established the Phrenological Society of Edinburgh and was asked by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to read the heads of their children. Phrenological theory is now discredited and termed a pseudoscience, but it was influential in the development of the study of psychiatry and psychology in the 19th century. Gall’s assumption that character, thoughts and emotions are located in specific areas of the brain is considered an important historical advance toward neuropsychology.

[98] Interesting Carved Limestone Papua New Guinea East New Britain Tolais Peoples Spirit Figure Pokopoko Ingiat Sculpted to the front with shortened limbs and enlarged head wearing a shell and fibre breast ornament traditionally worn by the Tolais about his neck An old paper label to reverse in ink Papua New Guinea A.347 Late 19th – Early 20th Century

s i z e   : 30 cm high, 11.5 cm wide, 7 cm deep – 11¾ ins high, 4½ ins wide, 2¾ ins deep The Tolais people live on the Gazelle Peninsula and the Duke of York Islands of East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Small limestone spirit figures were once traditionally carved for the Iniet secret society initiates. Ritual sculptures of animals and humans were produced to represent various ancestral deities and spirit entities. These ceremonial figures were often collected by the European Catholic and Methodist missionaries who first visited the area in 1875. In 1878 an Englishman, George Brown, led a punitive expedition against the Tolais who had reportedly eaten four missionaries. Several villages were burnt down and the peoples beliefs repressed and curtailed. By the 1900’s little remained of their previous indigenous religion.

[99] A Fine Japanese-Portuguese Jesuit Carved Ivory Figure of the Crucified Christ With high forehead closed almond-shaped large eyes with highly marked lids and thin elongated slits the open pouty mouth with tight lips and manicured moustache Smooth silky creamy patina Traces of red and black polychrome An old printed paper label to reverse depicting an Imperial Eagle holding a Heraldic Shield with ink inventory no. C/306 Late 16th Century – Early 17th Century

s i z e   : 25 cm high, 24.5 cm wide – 9¾ ins high, 9½ ins wide / 31 cm high – 12¼ ins high (with base) c f : A similar example in the Asian Civilisations Museum Singapore 2012.00383 East Asian religious ivory carvings represent one of the most extraordinary artistic products of the cross-cultural interaction between the European Catholic powers in Asia and their Japanese and Chinese trading partners. They were first manufactured by non-Christian Japanese near Nagasaki, the Jesuit missionary base in Japan, and by unconverted Chinese craftsmen working in Chinese territory. Nagasaki was the site of the most flourishing Jesuit arts workshop in Asia. The Japan mission was founded by Francis Xavier who reached Kagoshima in 1549 with paintings and other devotional objects which were used as aids to conversion. The Jesuits achieved only modest success on the main island of Honshu, but in Kyushu the local war lords Daimyōs accepted Christianity and with the approval of the Shogun Oda Nobunaga by 1593 had successfully converted over 215,000 Japanese. The Jesuits organised these converts into lay confraternity groups who could practice the Catholic faith where there were insuYcient numbers of priests, thereby laying the foundations for a continuing Christian tradition. By 1580 the Jesuits had founded colleges in Japan under Papal patronage that taught both converts and the sons of prominent non-Christian families. In 1583 an Italian Neapolitan lay brother Giovanni Niccolo (1563–1626) founded a Jesuit art school. This was referred to as a Seminary of Painters, but incorporated arts and craft workshops like those that were begun in Latin America. In 1614 Christianity was prohibited by the Tokugawa government and the Seminary of Painters and all of the Japanese Jesuit art school moved to Portuguese Macau. Production continued with many of the ivories after this date carved by Chinese as well as Japanese immigrant converts. Many of the religious ivories and paintings were produced for Portuguese colonial markets, but some were intended for the newly converted Philippines and Spanish America. These fine works of Christian art are one of the world’s first testaments to the Asian ability to adopt western styles in the name of trade.

[100] A Remarkable Collection of Three Victorian Model Dioramas of Traditional British Butcher’s Shops A variety of Beef Lamb and Pork carcasses hanging on show alongside Joints of Meat the Butcher and his two assistants standing in front of each display Contained in wood and glass fronted shadow boxes Late 19th Century

a. The Shop with painted reverse glass curtains the butcher standing with a knife sharp­ en­er attached to his Coat s i z e   : 52 cm high, 72 cm wide, 18 cm deep – 20½ isn high, 28¼ ins wide, 7 ins deep b. A Royal Warrant displayed above the rows of carcasses the Butcher and his assistants in their aprons one chopping a side of meat s i z e   : 51.5 cm high, 72 cm wide, 18 cm deep – 20¼ isn high, 28¼ ins wide, 7 ins deep

c. A large cased display the Butcher with a nodding head sharpening his knife a Cat walk­ ing towards the flagstone pavement canvas skirts to the tables displaying joints of meat s i z e   : 49.5 cm high, 90 cm wide, 26 cm deep – 19½ ins high, 35½ ins wide, 10¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Butcher’s shops have been a prominent feature of everyday life in Britain for over four hundred years and in the time before refrigeration whole carcasses were hung outside as part of the shop’s display. The meat was jointed up by the butcher on request in order to retain its freshness. Great suspicion surrounded the butchery trade in Victorian times and they were often suspected of selling inferior products or even passing oV the flesh of dogs or cats. The proud display of handsome looking sides of meat like this thus provided the general customer with an assurance of value and quality. Model butcher shops such as these are also thought to be educational aids. One in the Bethnal Green Museum of Childhood suggests that they were not designed to be played with, but to be learnt from.

Bibliography Aboriginal Australia; National Gallery of Victoria, 1981–1982 Andersen, Jorgen; The Witch on the Wall, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1977 Ayers, James; The Artist’s Craft, Phaidon, Oxford, 1985 Baddeley, Jon; Nautical Antiques & Collectables, Sotheby’s Publications, 1993 Barry, Jeanne; Inua, Smithsonian Ins., 1982 Béguin, Gilles; Buddhist Art, River Books Ltd., 2009 Blüchel, K.G; Game and Hunting, Tandem Verlag, 2004 Brake, Brian; Art of the Pacific, Oxford University Press, 1979 Brown, Steven C; Spirits of the Water, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2000 Bruemmer, Fred; The Narwhal Unicorn of the Sea, Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury, UK Buck, Sir Peter; The Coming of the Maori, Whitcombe & Tombs Ltd., 1949 Burch, Ernest, S; The Eskimos, Macdonald Orbis, 1988 Clunie, Fergus; Yalo i Viti, Fiji Museum, Suva, 1986 Clunie, Fergus; Fijian Weapons & Warfare, Fiji Museum, 2003 Coe, Ralph T; The Responsive Eye, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2003 Coe, Ralph T; Sacred Circles, Arts Council of Great Britain, 1976 Conru, Kevin; The Art of Southeast Africa, 5 Continents, Milan, 2002 Cranstone, B.A.L; Melanesia A Short Ethnography, BMP, 1961 CunliVe, Barry; The Pre History of Europe, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994 Davies, Susan, M; Collected 150 Years of Aboriginal Art and Artefacts, The University of Sydney, 2002 Dodd, Edward; Polynesian Art, Robert Hale and Company, London, 1967 Dubin, Lois Sher; The History of Beads, H Abrams, 1987 Dyke Van, Kristina; African Art from the Menil Collection, Yale University Press, 2008 Edge-Partington; Ethnographical Album of the Pacific Islands, SDI Publications, 1996 Ewins, Rod; Fijian Artefacts, Tasmanian Museum, 1982 Farley, Julia and Hunter, Fraser; Celts Art and Identity, British Musuem Press, 2015 Fitzhugh, W and Crowell, A; Crossroads of Continents, Smithsonian Institute Press, 1988 Fitzhugh, William, Hollowell, Julie, Crowell, Aron L; Gifts From The Ancestors Ancient Ivories of Bering Strait, Yale University Press, 2009 Fitzhugh, William and Kaplan, Susan A; Inua Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982 Flayderman, E. Norman; Scrimshaw and Scrimshanders, N. Flayderman & Co., Inc., New Milford, 1972 Frank, Stuart M; Ingenious Contrivances, Curiously Carved, David R. Godine, Publisher, Boston, 2012 Gardner, Arthur; English Medieval Sculpture, Cambridge at the University Press, 1951 Geary, Christraud M; Oceanic Art in the Teel Collection, MFA Publications, 2006 Ginzberg; African Forms, Skira, Italy, 2000 Green, Miranda, J; Exploring the World of The Druids, Thames and Hudson, 1997 Gribbon, Deborah; Meisterwerke im J Paul Getty Museum, Thames and Hudson, 1998 Grimes, J.R, Feest, C.F, Curran, M.L; Uncommon Legacies, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2002 Gundestrup, Bente; The Royal Danish Kunstkammer 1737, Denmark, 1991 Hail, Barbara A; Hau, Kóla!, HaVenreVer Musuem of Anthropology, 1980 Hartman, P.W.; Elfenbeinskunst, Wien, 1998 Hathaway, Nancy; The Unicorn, Penguin, Penguin Books, 1980 Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta & Krüger, Gundolf; James Cook Gifts and Treasures from the South Seas, Prestel, Munich, 1998

Heermann, I; Schmuck Der Südsee, Prestel, 1990 Hendrickman, Lars; Four Centuries of Medieval Sculpture, Bonnefantenmuseum, Maastricht, 2016 Herle, Anita & Carreau, Lucie; Chiefs and Governors Art and Power in Fiji, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge, 2013 Hooper, Steven; Pacific Encounters, British Museum Press, 2006 Hooper, Steven; Fiji Art & Life in the Pacific, UEA, 2016 Howarth, Crispin; Varilaku Art for the Solomon Islands, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2011 James Cook and the Exploration of the Pacific, Thames and Hudson, London, 2009 Jonaitis, Aldona; From the Land of the Totem Poles, American Musuem of Natural History, 1991 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; Artificial Curiosities, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, 1978 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; Kaufmann C, & Newton, D; Oceanic Art, Harry N Abrams, Inc., New York, 1997 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; James Cook and the Exploration of the Pacific, Thames and Hudson, London, 2009 Kjellgren, Eric; Oceania: Art of the Pacific Islands in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007 Koloss, Hans-Joachim; Africa Art and Culture, Prestel, Munich, Germany Prestel, 2006 Koudounaris, Paul; The Empire of Death, Thames and Hudson, London, 2011 Laue, Georg; Memento Mori, Munich 2002 Laue, Georg; Scientifica, Munich, 2004 Laue, Georg; Exotica, Munich, 2012 Levenson, J; Encompassing The Globe, Smithsonian Institution, 2007 Linton, Ralph and Wingert, Paul, S; Arts of the South Seas, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1946 Loverance, Rowena; Christian Art, The British Musuem Press, 2007 Macgregor, A; Tradescants Rarities, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1983 Mack, John; Ethnic Jewellery, The British Museum Press, 1988 Miller, Polly & Leon Gordon; Lost Heritage of Alaska, The World Publishing Company, 1973 Miles, Charles; Indian & Eskimo Artifacts, Bonazo Books, NY Neich, Roger; & Pereira, Fuli; Pacific Jewellery & Adornment, University of Hawaii Press, 2004 Newton, Douglas; Arts of the South Seas, Prestel, Munich, 1999 Oldman, W.O; The Oldman Collection of Maori Artefacts, The Polynesian Society, Auckland, 2004 Pal, P; Asian Art at the Norton Simon Museum, (vol. 1,2 & 3,) Yale University, 2004 Parkinson, Richard; Thirty Years in the South Seas, Crawford House Publishing, 1999 Pei, Fang Jing; Treasures of the Chinese Scholar, Weatherhill, New York and Tokyo, 1997 Penney, David, W; Art of the American Indian Frontier, Phaidon Press Ltd., UK, 1992 Petridis, Constantine; The Art of Daily Life Portable Objects From Southeast Africa, The Cleveland Museum of Art, 2011 Phelps, Steven; Art and Artefacts The James Hooper Collection, Hutchinson, London, 1976 Phillips, Ruth B; Trading Identities, University of Washington Press, 1998 Phillips, Tom; Africa, The Art of a Continent, Passavia Druckerie, Passau, Germany, 1995 Pinto, Edward H; Treen and Other Wooden Bygones, Bell and Hyman, 1979 Randall, Richard H; The Golden Age of Ivory, Hudson and Hills, 1993 Randall, Richard H; Masterpieces of Ivory from the Walters Art Gallery, Richard H Randall, Jr., Sotheby’s, 1985 Rissole, Joseph; The Arts in Latin America 1492–1820, Yale University Press, 2006

Robins, Gay; The Art of Ancient Egypt, British Museum, London 1997 Sandars, N.K; Prehistoric Art in Europe, Penguin Books, 1968 Scammon, Charles. M; The Marine Mammals of the North Western Coast of North America, Dover Publications, 1968 Scott, Jonathan; The Pleasures of Antiquity, Yale, 2003 Sieber, Roy; African Furniture & Household Objects, Indiana University, 1980 Seipel, Wilfred; Exotica, Skira, Vienna, 2000 Selman; 18th Century Ethnographic Collections in the Hancock Museum, Newcastle, 2003 Sharkey, John; Celtic Mysteries, Thames and Hudson, London, 1975 Stanley, Tim; Palace & Mosque, V&A Publications, 2004 Stepan, Peter; Picasso’s Collection of African & Oceanic Art, Prestel, Munich, 2006 Syndram, Dirk; Gems of the Green Vault in Dresden, Koehler and Amelang, Munchen, 2000 Syson, L; and Thornton, D; Objects of Virtue, BM Press, 2001 Tanner, Julia; From Pacific Shores, University of Cambridge, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1999 Taylor, Colin, F.; The Plains Indian, Salamander Books, 1994 Taylor, Colin, F.; The Native Americans, Tiger Books International, London, 1995 Townsend, Eleanor; Death and Art, V&A Publishing, 2009 Torrence, Gaylord; The Plains Indians Artists of Earth and Sky, Skira Rizzoli, Paris, 2014 Trnek, H and Vassallo e Silva, N; Exotica, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisboa, 2001 Trusted, Marjorie; The Making of Sculpture, V&A Publications, 2007 Trusted, Marjorie; Baroque and Later Ivories, V&A Publishing, 2013 Varjola, Pirjo; The Etholén Collection, Vammalan Kirjapaino Oy, Finland, 1990 Vincent, G.T, Brydon, S, Coe, Ralph T; Art of the North American Indians, The Thaw Collection, University of Washington, 2000 Vogel, Susan, M; African Art Western Eyes, Yale University Press, 1997 Waite, D and Conru, K; Solomon Islands Art, 5 Continents Editions, 2008 Walker, R.A; The National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, 1999 Walters, Anna Lee; The Spirit of Native America, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, 1989 Wardwell, Allen; Island Ancestors, Univ. of Washington Press, 1994 Warner, J.A; The Life and Art of the North American Indian, Hamlyn, 1997 Waterfield, H; and, King, J.C.H; Provenance, Somogy Art Publishers, 2006 Wild, Anthony; The East India Company, Harper Collins, 1999 Williamson, Paul; Netherlandish Sculpture 1450 – 1550, V&A Publications, 2002 Williamson, Paul; Medieval Ivory Carvings, V&A Publications, 2010 Winters, Laurie; A Renaissance Treasury, Hudson Hill Press, New York, 1999 Woodcock, George; Peoples of the Coast, Hurting Publishing, Edmonton, 1977 Zandvliet, Kees; The Dutch Encounter with Asia 1600–1950, Rijksmueum, 2002 Zimmer, H; The Art of Indian Asia, vol. 1&2, Pantheon Books, 1955 Zwalf, W.; Buddhism Art and Faith, British Museum Publications Ltd., London, 1985 Design and typeset by Prof. Phil Cleaver & Jennifer Penny of, o7816 675178 Photography by Phil Connor, 07831 151549 Printed and bound in Great Britain by Pureprint

© 2020 Finch & Co  isbn 978 1 912930 85 2 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the permission in writing of the publisher.