Angels & Ancestors

Page 1

Angels & Ancestors

Suite 744, 2 Old Brompton Road, London sw7 3dq, uk Tel : 020 7689 7500 Mobile : 07836684133 / 07768236921 Email : Website :

[1] A Rare Ancient Kushan Northern India Uttar Pradesh Monumental Red Sandstone Torso Fragment of the Buddha Wearing his Monastic Robe Sanghati with Traces of a Lotus Halo the Body Well Defined with a Deeply Carved Navel 1st – 2nd Century ad

s i z e : 62 cm high, 76 cm wide, 23 cm deep – 24½ ins high, 30 ins wide, 9 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private American collection Exhibited Spink & Son London Treasures from the Silk Road no. 2, November 1999 Ex Private U.K. collection Exhibited Richard Philip London June 2009 Ex Private English collection c f : Kimbell Art Museum Fort Worth Texas has a similar sculpture illustrated In Pursuit of Quality page 111 Mathura Museum has a similar figure found at the Mound of Katra in the Northern District of Uttar Pradesh (Inv. no. A1) Mathura was the eastern capital of the Kushan Empire situated on the right bank of the river Yamuna, a tributary of the Ganges around 100 miles south of Delhi in Uttar Pradesh. Sited at the junction of India’s trade routes, the city by the 1st century ad was a thriving religious and commercial centre. Ptolemy described it as a City of Gods. Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism all coexisted peacefully together with the worship of nature spirits. Mathura’s heyday lasted from the 1st to 3rd century until the Sasanian incursions began around 350 ad, and despite a revival under the Gupta rulers of the 4th to 7th centuries, the city never regained its former glory. The sculpture produced in Mathura was typically made from a locally quarried mottled red sandstone, and stylistically was full figured and sensual, with both religious and secular subjects shown dressed in diaphanous clothing with multiple folds. Although essentially Indian, the influences of ancient Greece and Rome, assimilated via the Silk Road can be seen. This beautiful sculptural fragment was probably a seated figure of the Buddha known as a Kapardin image after the curl of hair Kaparda that was shown on his head. These Mathura images are important as they are the first appearance of the Buddha in human form. Formerly he was represented in anionic form, as a wheel or chakra, a pair of footprints or a lotus.

[2] A Bering Sea Yupik Eskimo Iinruq a Shaman’s Carved Walrus Ivory Amuletic Neck Pendant Depicting an Upside Down Man Wearing Labrets with Tattooed Patterns on His Shoulders and Holding Thunderbird Feather Danglers in Both Hands Smooth creamy patina Early 19th Century

s i z e : 5.5 cm high, 2 cm wide – 2¼ ins high, ¾ ins wide Shamanism goes back to the Ice Age spreading with migrating ancient settlers around the remote lands of the north Pacific. The Shaman’s main practice was to communicate with the spirits thereby supplicating them for success in hunting, for help in healing, and in divination, thus ensuring survival for the peoples living in a harsh northern environment. In their original beliefs, before the early 20th century, the Eskimo had no conception of a single supreme being. Their spirit world was made up of shades or Tunghât which exist quite independently of any central authority, and these can be seen by the shaman. The people have great faith in the power and wisdom of the shaman to whom all questions of religion and the mysteries of the invisible world are referred. The shaman can see the shades of both dead people and animals, as well as the Tunghât of inanimate objects such as trees and rivers, all of which are invisible to all others. Shaman are believed to make journeys to the land of the dead and these spirits will come at his call to do tasks of his bidding, and sometimes even the shade of a dead shaman will come to help. Shamanic regalia embodied their mystery and power, and without it a shaman could not establish his authority among humans or venture safely into the spirit world.

[3] A Collection of Ancient Roman Fragments of Imperial Porphyry Found at the Ancient Port of Ostia One a part of a Sarcophagus and the others from Columns 1st – 3rd Century ad

s i z e : min: 4 cm high, 10 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 4 ins wide, 2 ins deep max: 16 cm high, 24 cm wide, 12 cm deep – 6¼ ins high, 9½ ins wide, 4¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of Late Belgian Professor of Archaeology L.D. who worked in Ostia early 1920’s Thence by descent Porphyry comes from quarries in the eastern Egyptian desert at Gebel Dokhan and virtually every piece was quarried by slaves and Christian convicts. Known as Mons Porphyrites they were Wrst opened in the 1st century ad and worked until the 5th century ad. They were most actively quarried under the Emperors Nero, Trajan and Hadrian who exclusively reserved the colour purple for their own use, and regarded porphyry as solely an Imperial property. Ostia is Wfteen miles south west of Rome, situated at the mouth of the Tiber, and was an ancient and important port trading in grain, wine, livestock and olive oil from North Africa and Southern Italy to feed over one million Romans. It is often today overlooked in favour of the Roman colosseum and forum or Pompeii further south. Ostia is only now beginning to be properly considered and visited.

[4] An Interesting Anglo-Chinese Miniature Oil on Ivory Depicting a View of the Whampoa Anchorage in the Pearl River Estuary with European Ships Waiting in the Channel In original Cantonese Lacquer Frame and under domed glass By a Follower of Spoilum Circa 1810 – 1815

s i z e : 10 cm high, 14 cm wide – 4 ins high, 5½ ins wide 16 cm high, 20.5 cm wide – 6¼ins high, 8 ins wide ( frame) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private American collection Acquired New York 1972 Ex Private European collection c f : Another very similar view in the collection of the Peabody Museum of Salem illustrated in The China Trade by C.L. Crossman 1991 (pg. 114, plate 38) This is an interesting view showing Whampoa Island on the Peninsula between Hong Kong and Canton from Dane’s Hill, with the nine stage pagoda in the distance. The ships have their masts lowered and are waiting in the channel to take on cargo. A small cutter with white sails is taking westerners to and from Canton. The merchant ships are all Xying their flags, Dutch, American, British and Scandinavian. At the beginning of the 19th century China still called itself the Middle Kingdom and for thousands of years had conducted a policy of aggressive isolationism. Chinese citizens were forbidden to travel abroad. The information of the outside world that Wltered up to the Emperor was very little, and if accurate, was seldom believed. The Europeans were equally ignorant about China because it was a closed country. They made a number of attempts to establish diplomatic relations with the Emperor. Some foreign embassies, like Lord Macartney’s in 1793 were treated with exquisite politeness, while others like Lord Ameherst’s in 1816 were grossly insulted. The Emperor Chien Lung (1736–95) made his position clear in an edict sent to King George III in 1793. He pronounced that all barbarian countries were vassal states of the Chinese Empire and no foreign legations would be permitted to be established in Peking. Furthermore, the King of England as a vassal of the Emperor, should tremblingly obey the edict of the Son of Heaven. China’s position remained the same until after the end of the Opium War in 1842.

[5] An Unusual Rare Cased Victorian Skeleton of a Madagascan Aye-Aye Daubentonia Madegascariensis Showing its Hands with Unique Long Fingers and Large Strong Front Teeth

In later glass case Late 19th Century

s i z e : 47.5 cm high, 70.5 cm wide, 32.5 cm deep – 18¾ ins high, 27¾ ins wide, 12¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection John Crichton-Stuart 3rd Marquess of Bute 1847–1900 Thence by descent, sold Christies Scotland 25th March 1996, The Bute Collection Lot 11 Ex Private collection of a Scottish Naturalist The Aye-Aye looks like a lemur, which are a group of primitive primates now only found on the island of Madagascar, but it is unlike all the other lemurs, and is classified in a scientific family of its own. First described in 1782, it has an almost unique method of feeding that depends on three remarkable adaptations. The hands have long slender digits, but one of them is an extremely long finger that is used to tap gently along the tree branches whilst it listens with its remarkable, massive, bat-like and sensitive ears for the faint echoes that indicate a hole has been made by a wood-boring, grub feeding inside the timber. The Aye-Aye has teeth which are unique among primates, more like those of a rodent with large front incisors which grow continuously and that can gnaw through the toughest wood. Having located and uncovered the burrow of the insect it then uses its long thin finger to winkle out the grub which are beetle larvae, its favourite food. For a long time the Aye-Aye was considered extinct, but it was rediscovered in 1957. However, they are now critically endangered and are confined to a few isolated small patches of dense rainforest. Their original natural habitats having been destroyed for farmland. Nocturnal, arboreal and odd-looking, the local populace regard them as malign spirits, but Gerald Durrell called the Aye-Aye one of the most incredible creatures I have ever been privileged to meet. (The Aye-Aye and I. Gerald Durrell.)

[6] An Interesting French Toile Peint Bespoke Milliners Trade or Shop Sign in the Form of a Red Painted and Gilded Bicorne Hat as Worn by Napoleon Bonaparte Early 19th Century

s i z e : 25 cm high, 64 cm wide, 27 cm deep – 9¾ ins high, 25¼ ins wide, 10½ ins deep In 1732 Dean Johnathan Swift wrote of Dublin’s shop signs I have not observed the wit and fancy of this town so much employed in any one Article as that of contriving a variety of signs to hang over houses where punch is served.

Before the general spread of literacy and standardised postal addresses brightly painted signs hung outside shops and businesses to advertise the services or goods within. Shop signs are one of the most long established forms of European folk art. The golden age of trade signs was from the late 17th century to the early 19th century. In the late 18th century many large cities placed prohibitions on the installation of street furniture as streets became more crowded and inhospitable. This, together with the rise of literacy and the spreading of the use of plate glass allowing for elaborate window displays, put an end to this particular form of street art.

[7] An Unusual English Oil on Canvas Depicting an Otherworldly Scene Near Paddock Wood in Kent of the Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights Showing Red, Blue and Purple Waves Twirling Around the Stars in the Night Sky A label to the reverse inscribed: Aurora Borealis Jan 25 1938 seen from Paddock Wood. Display began about 6pm faint greenish light on northern horizon. At 7pm green-light had brightened and red patches appeared in W.N.W. and E.N.E. glow extended up sky until at 8.30 three quarters of sky was affected (stars disappeared) Only the southern quarter being normal. At one time broad bands of light stretched across zenith from W. to E. display faded at 9 but returned with brighter colours at midnight’ Oil on canvas laid on board Circa 1938

s i z e : 24 cm high, 57 cm wide – 9½ ins high, 22½ ins wide / 43 cm high, 75 cm wide – 17 ins high, 29½ ins wide (framed)

The term aurora borealis was given by Galileo in 1619 to the dazzling phenomenon of the northern lights and was derived from the name of the Roman Goddess of the dawn and the classical Greek name for the North wind. There exists an identical southern counterpart known as the aurora australis, or southern lights which is visible from high latitudes in Chile, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia and Antarctica. Predominantly seen around regions in the Arctic and Antarctic, this English occurrence of the phenomenon was very unusual. Resulting in a dancing otherworldly celestial light show, the aurora borealis starts from 60 to 250 miles high up in the earth’s atmosphere when electrically charged particles released from the sun enter the upper atmosphere and become trapped in the earth’s magnetic field where they collide with gases such as oxygen and nitrogen. Characterised by streamers of reddish or greenish light, it occurs most often near the northern or southern magnetic poles. The most spectacular natural light display to be seen in the earth’s sky, it occurs near equinoxes in March and September. Dark, moonless, clear and unpolluted skies are essential to viewing the aurora. Known in Scotland as the Mirrie Dancers the lights can often be seen in the far north west where light pollution is at a minimum.

[8] Collection of Seventeen Early Victorian Comet Brooches Commemorating the Spectacle Seen in 1835 of Halley’s Comet Shooting Across the Heavens Circa 1835 – 45

A. A faceted gold comet brooch set with an almandine garnet seed pearls and a blue turquoise to the trail. In original leather box B. A gold and silver set old cut diamond and blue turquoise comet brooch and trail C. A gold and yellow citrine comet brooch with diamond set trail D. A silver and gold multi-coloured paste set floral comet brooch with garnet trail E. A gold and black enamel diamond comet brooch with silver set diamond rail F. A gold and garnet set comet brooch with tapering gold trail G. A faceted gold pink topaz comet brooch with amethyst set trail H. A tiny gold almandine garnet comet brooch with green demantoid garnet trail I. A gold seed pearl and amethyst set comet brooch with stylised gold trail J. A gold and silver almandine garnet set comet brooch and trail K. A gold floral shaped blue turquoise and diamond comet brooch with unusual seed pearl and blue turquoise set leaf shaped trail L. A rare gold In Memoriam comet brooch with hair covered weeping willow curved over a funerary urn on a pedestal inscribed with initials DH with gold trail M. A gold and silver set garnet and seed pearl comet brooch and trail N. A tiny silver and old flat cut diamond set floral comet brooch and trail O. A gold enamel seed pearl and quartz cats eye comet brooch and trail P. A gold and almandine garnet comet brooch and trail Q. A gold and silver sapphire diamond and ruby set comet brooch and trail s i z e : min: 1.7 cm long – ¾ ins long max:5 cm long – 2 ins long case: 6 cm long – 2¼ ins long Of the 6339 now known comets, with more being discovered all the time, Halley’s is the most famous comet in history. It was named after Edward Halley (1656–1741) the Royal Astronomer who calculated its orbit in 1682. He determined that the comets seen in 1531 and 1607 were one and the same, and that it consistently followed a 76 year old orbit. Thus it was seen again in 1758, 1835, 1910 and 1986. Unusually very bright it is visible to the naked eye and it has been observed and recorded by astronomers since at least 240 bc. Clear records were made of its appearances by Chinese, Babylonian, Classical Greek, Roman and Medieval European Chroniclers. It is thought by theologians that the comet’s sighting in 12 bc, only a few years from the assigned date of Christ’s birth, could explain the biblical phenomena of the Star of Bethlehem. In Giotto’s painting of the Adoration of the Magi the Bethlehem Star was modelled on the fire coloured comet he had seen four years earlier in 1301 ad.

[9] After the Antique Marble Portrait Bust of Homer Marked to Reverse Franco Franchi Copio in Carrara with Omero to the Shoulder After the Ancient Roman Version of a Lost Hellenistic original of 2nd Century bc Found Near Baiae in 1780 and bought from Sir William Hamilton for £80 by Charles Townley now in the British Museum (18050703.85) Early 19th Century s i z e : 67.5 cm high – 26½ ins high The ancient Hellenistic portrait bust of the famous poet and author of the Iliad and the Odyssey is an invented image. This sculpture follows the well known antique model described by Pliny the Elder as having been invented for the library of the Attalid Kings of Pergamon in the 2nd century bc. His unruly hair and knitted brow suggest the intensity of the sage as he stares blindly into the distance visualising the events of his epic poems unfolding. The treatment of his eyes and his transfixed gaze reflect the classical tradition of the blind bard. Different ancient Roman versions exist of this model with one famous bust in the Louvre Homer Caetani purchased by Pope Clement XII in 1733 and taken back to Paris by Napoleon in 1797. Many of the grand tour collectors of ancient art in the late 18th and early 19th century preferred to show their interest in antiquity by displaying replicas of busts and statues rather than ancient originals. Fine copies were not only undamaged, but also demonstrated their knowledge of the antique marbles, and could easily be assimilated into rooms whose architectural detail was also directly copied from ancient originals.

[10] Three Oceanic Fijian Presentation Tabua Sperm Whale Teeth One with Old Plaited Coir Sinnet Binding One with Scratched Markings One with Remains of an Old Paper Label Old smooth rich orange and honey coloured patinas Early 19th Century

s i z e : 16.5 cm wide, 17.5 cm wide and 14 cm wide – 6½ ins wide, 7 ins wide and 5½ ins wide Article 10 certificate no. 580273/01 available p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Midlands collection Presentation whales teeth tabua have a profound significance to the Fijian. It is thought that they were originally introduced from Tonga and then widely adopted as the most symbolic talisman of Fiji full of mystical overtones and used only for presentations of great importance. The arrival of the European and American whaling ships at the end of the 18th, and into the 19th century gave the Fijians a new and steady supply of the teeth where previously they could only be obtained from the whales that occasionally stranded on the shores of the Islands. The teeth were used both polished and unpolished, large and small, but the ceremonial ritual form were always larger, carefully polished and anointed with coconut oil and turmeric to darken them. Sometimes they were smoked to a rich walnut colour, and orangey, reddish brown colours were highly prized for their lustrous patina. As the colour fades on exposure to daylight they were preserved by storing oiled wrapped in barkcloth in a dark place. At first glance the best examples look like they have been carved from highly polished, beautifully grained wood. Tabua were drilled at both ends for attachment to the square plaited fine coir sinnet cord and were worn around the neck displayed across the chest by men of rank and distinction.

[11] Japanese Lacquered Wood Portable Devotional Household Shrine Zushi the Two Doors Opening to Reveal a Gilded Interior with Miniature Carved Sandalwood Statues of the Buddha Amida the Lord of Boundless Light Standing in Blessing his two attendants dressed as Bodhisattvas surrounded by fire and flames symbols of wisdom The outside of the case lacquered in a lotus design of gold and silver Hiramakiyé the doors with chased and gilded brass clasps and hinges a suspension hook to the roof of the shrine Edo Period Early 19th Century s i z e : 11 cm high, 7 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 4¼ high, 2¾ ins wide, 1½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Zushi are also known as Butsadan and were Buddhist family shrines kept for private devotional use at home. They would contain images, such as these two examples, or memorial tablets and ornaments. Nearly always lacquered they are fine examples of both Japanese lacquer work and carving in miniature.

[12] Japanese Black Lacquered Wood Portable Devotional Household Shrine Zushi the Two Brass Mounted Doors Opening to Reveal a Gilded Interior with a Miniature Carved and Polychromed Sandalwood Figure of the Buddhist Deity Bishamon One of Seven Gods of Luck and sometimes known as the Guardian King of the North he holds a sword or spear in his right hand and stands on a wild hairy tusked boar the creature portraying the forces of evil The Deity Bishamon as one of the four guardians that keep the world safe from the attacks of demons Edo Period Early 19th Century s i z e : 10 cm high, 6 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 4 ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 1½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Lacquer is a kind of a varnish used from ancient times in Japan, China and other parts of Asia for preserving, strengthening and beautifying articles. Lacquer is to Japan what porcelain is to China. As an art form it is highly appreciated in Japan and their technical mastery of the material is without rival.

[13] An Ancient Northwest India [now Pakistan] Gandhara Carved Grey Schist Figure of the Buddha Seated in Meditation Dhyana Mudra Wearing Voluminous Robes on a Cushioned Throne a Frieze Below Depicting the Four Forms of the Buddha Flanked on each side by a Female Devotee 2nd – 3rd Century ad

s i z e : 39.5 cm high – 15½ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Ex Simon Ray Indian and Islamic Art Exhibition April 2005 No 3 c f : A similar example in the Peshawar Museum No 1928. found in the Takht-i-Bahai (Lyons and Ingholt 1957 pl 234) Once anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha became acceptable and replaced the aniconic symbols previously used to indicate his personal presence, they became one of the primary cult images of Buddhism, and one of the most distinctive products of the art of the Gandhara region. The masterly treatment of the drapery on this figure seated in a lotus position on his throne shows a clear understanding of the spirit and techniques of the Greco-Roman artistic tradition. The folds follow the contours of the body accentuating the lines of the limbs in a natural and unconstrained way. Asymmetrically arranged in alternating wide and narrow ridges across the chest, the resulting curves of light and shadow illustrate both the weight and flexibility of the fine material.

[14] West African Cote d’Ivoire Baule Peoples Wooden Loom Heddle Pulley Carved with a Female Head Smooth worn lustrous patina with signs of use Early 20th Century

s i z e : 16.5 cm high, 6.5 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 6½ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 2 ins deep The work of the 20th century artist Amedeo Modigliani in particular reflects the direct influence of Baule invention and forms. The pulley from which the double heddles of the men’s horizontal loom are suspended has provided Baule sculptors with the opportunity of creating an aesthetic tour de force. They often depicted human heads, faces or helmet masks with the female portrait head carved with the attributes of feminine beauty that accord to Baule ideals.

[15] African Cote d’Ivoire or Liberia Dan Peoples Blackened Wood Mask Gunye Ge or Zakpai Ge Smooth patination from use to the interior Holes for a raffia beard to bottom of chin Chips to top edge Early 20th Century

s i z e : 22 cm high, 14.5 cm wide, 8 cm deep – 8¾ ins high, 5¾ ins wide, 3¼ ins deep / 29.5 cm high – 11½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection Dan masks range in design from naturalistic to highly stylised and a bewildering variety of masks was used by the Dan for a great number of purposes. Dan masks with large round open eyes such as this generally belong to one of two categories: Zakpai ge masks have the responsibility of protecting the village against the danger of fire, while gunye ge masks are worn in running competitions. Both types have large eye holes which allow the wearer to negotiate difficult terrain when running.

[16] Indo-Portuguese Goa Ivory of Christo Vivo the Crucified Figure of Christ with His Eyes and Mouth Open Looking Upwards in His Call to God Finely carved with traces of red polychrome detailing his wounds Circa 1650 – 80

s i z e : 40.5 cm high, 23.5 cm wide – 16 ins high, 9¼ ins wide / 46.5 cm high – 18¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex collection The Bar Convent York U.K. Originally the centre for Portuguese colonial ivory carving was based in Sri Lanka, but after the capture of the island by the Dutch in 1658 the industry moved to Goa. Numerous Jesuit missions were established in 17th century Goa and a flourishing trade in the production of religious ivories for export was founded. Stemming from an indigenous tradition this industry was quickly exploited by the Portuguese firstly to fulfil the missionaries need for images required for the instruction of new converts, and secondly for the Catholic clergy and diplomatic court officials. Not all of the ivories were of a high standard, many of those produced were mediocre. The expressiveness of the face and care in the representation of anatomical detail such as the long flowing hair, beard, eyes and mouth of this figure of Christ suggests a superior quality of carving not normally employed unless it as a special commission for private devotional use. The Dutchman Jan Huygen van Linschoten (1563–1611) writing in his Itinerary of 1596 states that whilst in the service of the Archbishop of Goa, Vicente Fonseca, he handled a statuette of the crucified Christ that had been produced in such an excellent and industrious way that his hair, beard and face seemed as natural as if that of a living person….

[17] Interesting Collection of Eleven Prehistoric Palaeolithic and Neolithic British and Irish Flint and Stone Tools With old paper labels detailing find spots and with inventory numbers

p rov e na nc e : Ex Inness collection, Ex collection J. Brown of Salisbury Ex collection P. W. Reynolds A. A British Palaeolithic Coup de Poing Bifacial Flint Hand Axe Found in the Thames Gravel with old Inness collection label inscribed 38 Coup de Poing Milton St. Thames Gravel with black inventory no A.301 Middle Acheulian 300,000 – 200,000 bc s i z e : 9.2 cm long – 3½in long B. Another Similar British Palaeolithic Flint Hand Axe with black inventory no 302 300,000 – 200,000 bc s i z e : 8.3 cm long – 3¼ ins long C. A Northern Irish Neolithic Circular Hammer or Pecking Stone with Inness paper label Hammer Co. Antrim and label to the top inscribed 64.350, Circa 10,000 bc s i z e : 7 cm diameter – 2¾ ins long D. A Northern Irish Neolithic Cylindrical Whetstone of Greenish Black Basalt with white inventory no 351 and two old paper labels from the Inness collection inscribed Whetstone 65. Co. Antrim and Neolithic Late Large Whetstone Co. Antrim, 7000 – 6000 bc s i z e : 14 cm long – 5½ ins long E. A Northern Irish Neolithic Axe Head of Black Basalt with white inventory no 352 and old Blue paper label inscribed Found in a Ploughed Field Adjoining the Ormeau Bridge, Belfast…. 305. A red bordered Paper Inness collection label inscribed Neos. Late Axe. 563 Belfast. Co. Antrim, Circa 5000 bc s i z e : 14.3 cm long – 5½ ins long F. A Northern Irish Stone Axe Head with Inness paper label inscribed Neos Late Axe 114. Co. Antrim, Circa 5000 – 4000 bc s i z e : 12.8 cm – 5 ins long G. A Small British Neolithic Stone Axe Head White inventory no 354 and Red Inness collection label inscribed Neos Late Axe – Wiltshire, Circa 5000 bc s i z e : 9.5 cm – 3¾ ins long H. A Small Northern Irish Neolithic Stone Axe with Black collection no 355 an old paper label inscribed Near Moira May 1844 and an Inness collection label 71. Neos 805. Axe. Moira Co. Antrim, Circa 5000 bc s i z e : 12.4 cm – 4¾ ins long I. A Southern Irish Neolithic Stone Chisel an old paper label inscribed Found with Hammer Marked Thus When Trenching in the Lawn of Inniscarra House and Given to Me by Buchanan Walsh Esq. September 1885 and an Inness collection label inscribed Neo Late Chisel. Inniscarra. Co. Cork inventory no in white 356, Circa 5000 bc s i z e : 13 cm long – 5 ins long J. A Rare Large Northern Irish Neolithic Stone Anvil white painted inventory no 357 old Inness collection label inscribed Co. Antrim Stott. Coll.. Circa 6000 bc s i z e : 13.2 cm long – 5¼ ins long K. A British Neolithic Large Stone Axe Head with an old Inness collection label inscribed Neos. Late. Large Axe. Wiltshire. 69. white painted inventory no 358 Circa 4000 bc s i z e : 18.5 cm – 7¼ ins long

[18] An East India Company Calcutta School Watercolour of a Long Haired Spaniel Dog Attributed to Shaykh Muhammad Amir of Karraya Calcutta (active 1830’s–40’s) In an antique gilt wood frame Opaque watercolour on paper Circa 1830

A trade label for William Drummond, Bury Street Gallery, St James’s, London to the reverse inscribed: Indian Calcutta School Circa 1825–30 Favourite Dog Basto – Sent by Mr Fairlie A Springer Spanish Type Dog with White Coat and Dark Markings – Facing to Left, Watercolour and Bodycolour Ex Coll Owned by and Formed by Mr and Mrs W. Ogilvy. East India Co. 1822–37 at Farrackhabad 1830. At Balah 1835. Style of Mahammad Amir of Karraya Calcutta s i z e : 21 cm high, 27 cm wide – 8¼ ins high, 10½ ins wide / 37 cm high, 42.5 cm wide – 14½ ins high, 16¾ ins wide (framed) p rov e na nc e : Ex Early 19th Century Private collection Mr and Mrs W. Ogilvy, in India, Ex William Drummond, Bury Street Gallery, St James’s, London Ex Private London collection c f : V&A Museum Two Dogs in a Compound of a Calcutta House by Shaykh Muhammad Amir A product of the British connection Indian artists such as Shaykh Muhammad Amir from Karraya, a suburb of the city of Calcutta, painted subjects in a style deliberately designed to appeal to British tastes. Previously trained in the late Mughal techniques of painting he responded to his patron’s scientific interests and sense of discovery creating larger scale images of India’s flora, fauna, people, architecture and landscapes. Actively seeking out individual commissions, he often painted sets of pictures depicting his patron’s houses, servants, horses, dogs and carriages in the 1830’s and 1840’s. Demand remained strong for these company school paintings until the 1860’s when, with the coming of the camera and rise of the photographic image, the market rapidly declined.

[19] A Fine Specimen of an Antique Narwhal Tusk Monodon Monoceros with deep spiral twist and silky creamy patina Late 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 214 cm long – 84¼ ins long Article 10 certificate no. 578556/01 available p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Major Richard Cooper Acquired 1920 and Gifted 1940’s to Grandfather of English collector Ex Private English collection Narwhal tusks have long been believed to have magical properties. During the Middle Ages the tusks were sold as unicorn’s horns and physicians prescribed the powdered substance for every known ailment from plague to rabies. It was marketed as a precursor to Viagra and rivalled snake’s tongue and griffins claw as a detector of poison. Amongst the royal courts of Europe this was a very important asset to have. The French kings and German princes dined with narwhal tusk utensils and placed large and long tusks along banqueting tables in order to detect any trace of poison in their food. Martin Luther was given powdered narwhal tusk as a medicine, and the depressive Emperor Rudolf II regularly took a pinch as an antidote to melancholy. The spiralled tusks were valued at ten times their weight in gold and were used to make the royal sceptre of the Hapsburg’s, the staff of Ivan the Terrible, the sword of Charles the Bold and the throne of the Danish Kings.

[20] A Rare and Unusual Pacific Solomon Islands Santa Cruz Temotu Province Stingray Skin and Wood Rasp used in the Making of Ceremonial Clubs and Other Ritual Objects The Central White Button to the Middle Formed by the Belly Button of the Stingray Old black inventory No 103D to handle 19th Century

s i z e : 39.5 cm long – 15½ ins long / 43.5 cm high – 17¼ ins high (on base) p rov e na nc e : Ex collection John Charles (Jack) Edler 1996 Acquired Jim Elmslie Australia Ex collection Elizabeth Pryce, Sydney, Australia Sold at Sothebys Paris L’Art de Vivre Oceanie Elizabeth Pryce Collection 10th October 2018 Lot 35 Acquired Galerie Meyer Paris c f : British Museum have a similar example that is from the Harry Geoffrey Beasley collection Inv. No. Oc1944.02.1203 Ray and shark skin is similar as both are covered with hard enamel like placoid scales which is ideal for smoothing wood. This rasp was made to replicate the shape of a ray and was used like a fine grained file to produce a lustrous patina on ceremonial or fighting clubs. The design of clubs found on the Solomon Islands is one of restraint and symmetry with a feeling of elegance conveyed through the soft patina of the wood. Although these rasps could sometimes be used for grating sandalwood to make a perfumed coconut oil, their main use was to heighten the beauty of carefully made ritual artefacts.

[21] A Rare Large Ancient Egyptian Bronze Plume from an Atef Crown Perhaps from a Figure of Osiris The Grooves Once with Coloured Stone or Glass Inlays Traces of gilding to the edge Late Period 664 – 332 bc

s i z e : 31.5 cm high, 11.5 cm wide (max) 0.5 cm deep – 12¼ ins high, 4½ ins wide (max) ¼ ins deep / 34 cm high – 13¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Acquired 1960’s London The atef crown is effectively a white crown with a plume on either side and a solar disc to the centre which was worn in certain religious rituals by the Egyptian pharaohs. It was also shown worn by the god Osiris, sometimes on two ram’s horns which projected from the sides. Osiris was one of the most important deities of ancient Egypt whose principal association is with death, resurrection and fertility. He is usually depicted as a mummy whose hands project through his wrappings to hold the royal insignia of crook and flail. He wears the distinctive atef crown consisting of the tall white crown flanked by two plumes. As one of the earliest Egyptian gods many bronze images were produced of Osiris most of them with this very characteristic high headgear.

[22] South American Colonial Peruvian Bottle Gourd with Silver Mounts and a Screw Top Profusely Engraved and Coloured in Black Ink with Fantastical Birds Beasts and Native and Colonial Figures in Inca and Spanish Traditional Costume Surrounded with Floral Designs Perhaps made to contain Holy Oils 17th – 18th Century

s i z e : 28 cm high, approx: 11 cm dia. (max) – 11 ins high, approx: 4¼ ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London Collection In 1492 the sailor and explorer Christopher Columbus came upon very many islands peopled with countless inhabitants as he described the new territories that were to alter the geography, history and ethnography of the Old and New Worlds. His discovery encompassed an amazing group of civilisations which were to be subjected to a long process of adaption to religious, social, economic, political and military precepts that would favour Spanish and ultimately European expansion in America. Once the military conquest of the new lands had been achieved the Spanish crown established the figure of the Viceroy to assure political authority, to sustain its religious evangelisation and to execute administrative functions. Thus in 1535 the first of four vice royalties, New Spain, was established and it would endure for more than 300 years. Under the supreme control of the mostly Jesuit Catholic clergy, the fruitful cultural life of Colonial Peru and New Spain produced a lavish array of artistic expression that although from its beginnings had Christianisation as its goal, within a short time had acquired unique characteristics nurtured by images, symbols and signs from Mesoamerican beliefs. Eventually the designs and decorations, successfully combined indigenous and European motifs to represent the New World as an earthly paradise.

[23] A Collection of Six Japanese Antique Netsuke A. Japanese Carved Boxwood Netsuke Depicting an Angry Tiger Crouching on a Length of Bamboo his Eyes Inlaid with Horn Unsigned Worn honey coloured brown patina Edo Period 18th Century s i z e : 3.5 cm high – 1½ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection B. Japanese Carved Ivory Netsuke of Sarumawashi the Monkey Dancer Carrying his Monkey on his Shoulder the Eyes Inlaid with Horn Smooth silky creamy patina Unsigned Edo Period Late 18th Century s i z e : 7 cm high – 2¾ ins high


Japanese Carved Ivory of a Temple Lion Dog Shishi Decorated with a Delicate Shibiyama Inlay of Coral Malachite Horn and Silver Unsigned Meiji Period Late 19th Century s i z e : 3 cm high – 1¼ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private Collection D. Japanese Boxwood Netsuke of a Sabre Toothed Tiger and Her Cub Her Paw Raised Protectively on his Head the Eyes Inlaid with Translucent Horn The Fur Well Etched Down Her Back Old smooth honey brown patina Signed in a reserve to the back paw Toyomasa (1773–1856) Edo Period Early 19th Century s i z e : 4.5 cm high – 1¾ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection E. Japanese Carved Boxwood Netsuke of a Kappa Seated Upon a Tortoise the Eyes Inlaid with Translucent Horn Rich brown smooth silky patina Unsigned Edo Period 18th Century s i z e : 4 cm high – 1½ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection

F. Japanese Carved Ebony and Ivory Netsuke Depicting a Bamboo Shoot Across Which Slides a Snail Signed in a Rectangular Reserve Dene Uman Saku (this family of carvers were known for their netsuke of Noh Masks making this an unusual specimen) Edo Period Early 19th Century s i z e : 8 cm long – 3¼ ins long

[24] A Victorian Taxidermy Specimen of an African Giant Pangolin Manis Gigantea 19th Century

s i z e : 21.5 cm high, 70 cm long, 12 cm deep – 8½ ins high, 27½ ins long, 4¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection Pangolins are scaly anteaters and their bizarre appearance suggests they are from the age of the dinosaurs. First described and documented by the German Zoologist Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger in 1815 their bodies are covered in overlapping bony scales which act as

both armour and camouage. The keratin scales are movable and sharp edged and are developed from modiďŹ ed hairs like the horn of a rhinoceros. They are the only known mammals that possess this extraordinary feature. Living in hollow trees or burrows they are nocturnal and lead mostly solitary lives, meeting only to mate and produce a litter of one to three ospring which remain with the mother for two years. Like armadillos and anteaters, pangolins have no teeth and use their long tongue which can be extended as far as 16 inches to gather termites and ants. There are currently eight species of pangolin across the world and all of them are threatened by the heavy deforestation of their natural habitats and by poaching for their meat and scales.

[25] Ancient Romano British Sandstone Head with Typical Stylised Celtic Roman Features the Hair Arranged in Large Locks Combed Towards the Forehead a Long Slender Nose Thin Mouth and Prominent Chin 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e : 16.5 cm high, 12 cm wide, 15 cm deep – 6½ ins high, 4¾ ins wide, 6 ins deep / 24 cm high – 9½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Found in a Field Near Sibson Leicestershire 1970’s Ex Private Irish collection UK Export License Issued 2012 Although still Celtic in appearance this carved sandstone head shows the early influence of the romanisation of Britain. It is clear that the British Celts had connections with their tribesmen in north eastern Gaul who probably introduced the art of enamelling and brought over the gods and cult symbols they revered in Gaul. The British Celts’ hostility to the Romans and their provision of refuge for the refugee Gauls caused the Romans to turn their gaze upon this group of annoying and unprofitable islands and decide their subjection was necessary. In 55 bc Caesar invaded and took hostages before he left and in ad 43 Claudius began the conquest of Britain. The settlement of the South, once initial opposition was overcome was a comparatively simple matter, and with the imposition of Roman rule and the creation of the Civil Province of Britain, the south soon settled down and the people continued to live in much the same way as before with a nominal respect for the gods of Rome and the dull divinised emperors, and a continuing veneration for the old proved gods of their own Celtic tradition. In the north it was a different matter, and in between the years of the two Roman invasions many members of the native population anxious to avoid Roman domination moved into the North.

[26] An Ethiopian Christian Devotional Double Sided Tablet Pendant the Two Carved Wooden Doors Opening to Reveal Finely Painted Images of the Virgin and Christ Child St George Slaying the Dragon and to the reverse Christ Crucified with Virgin and St John standing at the Foot of the Cross the Fourth Image Depicting Saint Mathew and Daniel with Two Lions

An old paper label to the underside reading A Charm Taken from her Neck by an Aylpinian [Abyssinian] Girl and Given to Captain Lambarde During the Campaign of 1868 18th – 19th Century s i z e : 10 cm high, 7.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 4 ins high, 3 ins wide, ¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex 19th Century collection of Captain Lambarde Thence by descent Ex Private collection of the Late William H. Stokes (1921–2015) The paper label attached to this fine pendant refers to the British expedition of 1867–68 to Abyssinia to rescue captive missionaries held by the Emperor Theodore, or Tewodros II, by a combined British and Indian army detachment under the command of General Sir Robert Napier. Captain Lambarde of the 45th Foot is recorded as having been present at the siege of Magdala for which he was awarded the Abyssinian campaign medal. During the battle to relieve Magdala the Emperor, realising the struggle was lost, shot himself with a pistol that had been presented to him by Queen Victoria. Christianity reached the old Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum from Alexandria in the 4th century and over the next two centuries became widespread through the missionary activities of the Nine saints from Syria. The cross as a devotional image has been in use since the Aksumite emperor Ezana adopted Christianity in the 4th century ad and began to issue coins engraved with the symbol which he believed would spread his message. For the Ethiopian church the cross is not merely representative of Christ’s suffering and death, but more importantly a mark of his resurrection. In this way the image functions as an amulet and icon that has the protective effect of averting evil.

[27] An English Medieval Nottingham Alabaster Panel from an Altarpiece Depicting a Soldier Wearing a Pointed Basinet and Tippet of Mail His Hand on the Shoulder of a Man in a High Crowned Hat and Long Gown Said to Represent the Centurion at the Foot of the Cross From a Scene of the Crucifixion Extensive traces of original polychrome to the floral background Late 15th Century

s i z e : 32.5 cm high, 13 cm wide – 12¾ ins high, 5 ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection English alabaster altarpieces were produced as an integrated whole, polychromed in oils and supplied with a frame at the time of making in the same way as Netherlandish carved wooden altarpieces. Designed as works to provoke thought rather than emotion, the figures in the scenes often held scrolls aloft to narrative purpose calling attention to Gospel texts. Alabaster altarpieces could be found in Parish churches and the private chapels of the landed gentry, and were often commissioned or bequeathed so that a knight or merchant might be prayed for. As the will of Thomas Cole, skinner of London, in 1484 states; he bequeaths to the altar of the Lady Chapel in the parish church of St Antonys a table of alabaster which I have redye to thentent that I may be hereafter more specially prayed for ther. However, not every church had one and they were not routine or cheap works of art, just that in England alabaster was a normal rather than exceptional material accessible to a relatively wide range of patrons and pockets.

[28] A Portrait of the Two Masted Brig Helianthus of London Sailing Out of the Bay of Naples the Smoking Volcano Vesuvius Beyond the Ship Fully Rigged Flying the British Ensign with the Captain and Crew on Deck Inscribed Helianthus of London 1854 John Reynolds Master Signed Michele Fondo.P. Gouache and Ink on Paper Circa 1854

s i z e : 53.5 cm high, 75 cm wide – 21 ins high, 29½ ins wide Michele Funno also signed his works Fondo and was an Italian pier-head painter working in Naples. He portrayed many of the first schooners to visit the port between 1835 and 1865 with around twenty five of his gouache known to date. For the vernacular artist seascapes, like landscapes, were not important in themselves, but provided essential backgrounds for ship portraits. They could be read providing the viewer with information of the location, type of ship and its importance. Ship’s likenesses were in great demand amongst Captains and owners, and this portrait of the Helianthus was almost certainly commissioned from the artist by the master John Reynolds. This desire for portraits of sailing ships continued throughout the 19th century, but the introduction of steam driven vessels with iron hulls, and then the advent of photography, marked a notable decline in demand for, and the quality of, such pictures.

[29] A Sicilian Trapani Red Coral Figure of the Archangel Michael Dressed in Classical Roman Military Attire Casting Out of Heaven Two Horned Satanic Devils Probably once part of a Capezzale or Devotional Plaque 17th Century

s i z e : devil: 6.5 cm high, 5 cm wide, 3 cm deep – 2½ ins high, 2 ins wide, 1¼ ins deep saint: 9 cm high, 6.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 3½ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 1 ins deep Saint Michael is the leader of the Archangels and his name in Hebrew means who is like God. He was one of the guardians of the people of Israel and therefore assumed to be the protector of the church. In the Book of Revelation, St John saw Michael in heaven leading a war against Satan whom he cast down to earth. Thus he is often portrayed in armour wielding a sword and trampling Satan underfoot. His intercession was thought so powerful it could save people from Hell. Red coral was found in abundance by Wshermen off the coast of Sicily, and Trapani became a centre for the production of coral works of art from the 16th to the 18th century. By 1628 a guild of coral workers the ‘Arte dei Corallari’ was established and they worked closely with gold and silversmiths to produce intricate decorative ecclesiastical objects. Coral was considered to be the petriWed blood of the mythological Medusa, but came to be symbolic of the blood of Christ, possessing powerful apotropaic properties, and so was often used in rosaries. Carved coral figures were created to decorate capezzale, devotional plaques of engraved copper set with coral inlay and painted in fine enamel. These and precious coral encrusted reliquaries, cruciWxes, chalices, dishes and boxes were among Sicily’s most successful exports for over 250 years. However, with the decrease of coral in the Mediterranean Sea and the decline of the painstaking craftsmanship needed to create the coral works of art, the industry gradually passed away.

[30] A Fine French Burr Walnut Snuff Box Decorated with Three Human Skulls Illustrating the Anatomical Theory of Phrenology Developed by Dr Gall (1758–1828) Pioneer in the study of the localisation of Mental Functions in the Brain With a tortoiseshell lining and to the reverse a list of Dr Gall’s 27 Fundamental Faculties Circa 1810 s i z e : 2.4 cm high, 7.8 cm dia. – 1 ins high, 3 ins dia. The theory of phrenology was first developed in Vienna in circa 1800 by the physician and anatomist Dr Franz Joseph Gall. Viewed in the early 19th century as progressive and enlightened, it fascinated Viennese society. During his lifetime Gall collected over 120 skulls in order to test his hypotheses. He believed the bumps and uneven geography of the human skull were caused by pressure exerted from the brain underneath. Gall then divided the brain into 27 sections that corresponded to certain behaviours that he called fundamental faculties and marked these places on the skull where he believed them to occur. These distinct zones were located on the skull and marked with character traits such as profundity, benevolence and even the faculty of strangulation and murder. The popularity of this theory by which particular character traits could be distinguished on the surface of the skull became a favourite party game at Viennese social gatherings. His concepts of brain localisation were revolutionary and eventually caused both scientists and religious leaders to take exception against this theories, including Emperor Franz Joseph II of Austria. His work became so controversial it was forbidden in Vienna. Although today regarded as pseudoscience, Gall’s study of phrenology did help establish psychology as a science and set the groundwork for modern neuroscience by spreading the idea of functional localisation within the brain.

[31] A Georgian Shagreen Cased Silver Travelling Writing Necessaire Complete with Silver Pen Nibs Ink Pots and a Rock Crystal Seal Etched with Two Love Birds Circa 1760 – 1790

s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 7.5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 3 ins wide, 1½ ins deep Probably used for writing billet-doux when at social or court events to engage a prospective lover in a secret tryst, this fine objet-virtue belongs to a different antique age long before mobile communication.

[32] An Interesting Indian Rajasthan Carved White Marble Labyrinth a Uni-Cursal Water Maze Centred around a Svastika Motif Entry and Exit Holes to Enable a Steady Flow of Water to one Side The back unfinished 18th – 19th Century s i z e : 60.5 cm x 72 cm x 8.5 cm deep – 23¾ ins x 28¼ ins x 8¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Exhibited Simon Ray London July 2004 Ex Private English collection This fascinating and curious marble labyrinth is a uni-cursal water maze was most probably made to be used in a landscaped garden terrace where the continuous flow of water would emulate a contemplative Moorish or Mughal water garden in miniature. The water would endlessly flow in, and after a complete circuit of the maze, gently flow out again. The central svastika design is a cross with each extremity bent at right angles to the right. In India it is an auspicious sign and means all is well. It is found in other religions across the world; among the Native Americans it is a sign of the infinite and of the sun. In Buddhism it is the symbol of the wheel of Dharma, and in Zen Buddhism represents the seal of the Buddha mind that is transmitted from great master to great master, the patriarchs who stand in lines of direct transmission from the Buddha Shakyamuni.

[33] A Rare Collection of Thirteen Pieces of Siberian Evenk Shamanic Forged Iron Regalia Used as Amuletic Attachments on Ritual Costume Comprising Three Flying Loon Birds the Shamans’ Pathfinder Three Cone Shaped Musical Danglers One on a Long Spiral Chain Two Discs with Attachment Rings Representative of the Moon Five Human Effigies Two Large and Three Miniature The Shamans’ Spirit Assistants 19th Century s i z e : min: 3.5 cm high, 1¼ ins high max: 25.5 cm high – 10 ins high Siberian shaman of the Evenk, Yakut and Sel’kup peoples all wore body encasing costumes which were heavily ornamented with amuletic iron attachments. Decorated with iron cut outs of anthropomorphic figures the shaman’s clothing served as his armour and when in confrontation with evil spirits the iron figures acted as his army. The loon bird assisted as the shaman’s pathfinder in all three of the cosmic realms of the shamanic universe as the bird is capable of functioning underwater, on the water’s surface, and high up into the air. In shamanic rituals it was of crucial importance that shamanic power be reflected in the dress and regalia used. An amuletic charm-laden coat was considered vital to the whole ritualised drama. Much of the ironwork found on the costume referred to both animals and humans who served as helping spirits, and when danced in the jangling noise was believed to attract friendly spirits. With all its attachments a coat could weigh up to 23 kilos, but it was believed that the mark of a true shaman was that he could handle the heavy ungainly attire easily. Serving as communicators between the earthly and spiritual realms, shaman were indispensable to their community as advisors, healers and diviners.

[34] Ancient Late Hellenistic or Early Roman Marble Figure of the God Pan of the Athens / Rome Type Shown standing upright on his furred goat legs and draped in an animal skin long tresses of hair falling to his shoulders a shaggy beard holding his pipes or syrinx in his hand Incrustation and damages to the surface the lower legs missing 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e : 36 cm high, 17 cm wide, 6 cm deep – 14¼ ins high, 6¾ ins wide, 2½ ins deep / 41 cm high – 16 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Sold Sothebys, London 8th/9th December, 1986 Lot 306 Ex collection of Dieter Wyss (1923–1994) Thence by descent Sold Christies London, 13th October 2008, Lot 26 Ex English Private collection c f : Four Statuettes of Athens / Rome Type in Rome in the Villa Albani Inventory No’s 508–511 With their wild half-human character, figures of Pan symbolised Dionysiac untamed nature. His image is closely related to those of satyrs with whom he would roam the countryside often accompanying Dionysos on wine drinking, musical and erotic pursuits. He is shown carrying a Syrinx, a set of pipes named after the nymph Syrinx who was transformed into a reed bed and from which Pan made his pipe. This bucolic Pan figure was perhaps part of a decorative relief panel mounted on a pillar and displayed freestanding in an ancient villa garden or peristyle court as found in the city of Pompeii. Reliefs with figures and masks of a Dionysiac theme were particularly popular in garden decoration during the 1st century ad.

[35] A Rare Mughal North Indian Carved Ivory Stand for a Hookah Pipe with Pierced Work Rail Below a Smooth Flat Top Standing on Pedestal Feet 18th Century

s i z e : 10 cm high, 37 cm dia. (max) – 4 ins high, 14½ ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Netherlands c f : A very similar Hookah stand is shown being used by Hafiz Abd Al-Rahman Khan in a Gouache on paper Delhi Circa 1810 Page, 261, Fig. 113, Furniture from British India and Ceylon by Amin Jaffer The west has always regarded the hookah hukka as an important object in Indian society, as a symbol of pleasure and decadence, and as the focus of rules concerning caste purity which forbade or tolerated the sharing of mouthpieces. They were keenly collected in the 19th century for museum displays and a selection can still be seen in the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford. Hookah bowls were made of jade, rock crystal, silver, brass or pottery. The earliest known were spherical and rested on rings, but during the first half of the 18th century this spherical bowl gradually merged with its ring base to form a flat bottomed bell shape which did not need a separate ring, but would sit on a flat ornamental stand. The hookah or hubble bubble is a pipe in which tobacco, first introduced by Portuguese traders in the late 16th century, often scented and mixed with narcotics is smoked through water. It consists of a base or water bowl, a detachable bowl for the tobacco and other substances such as the very intoxicating ganja, and a long usually flexible snake or tube through which the cooled smoke is drawn. The British in India would sometimes use small ivory tripod tables for smoking a hookah as it was more accessible when seated in a chair. However, this example is of the type used by the Mughal court when traditionally seated.

[36] A Fine Large Regency Derbyshire Veined Blue John Fluorspar Neo-Classical Urn of Purple Colour Standing on a Square Base with Ormolu Bronze Pineapple Finial Circa 1790 – 1820

s i z e : 54 cm high, 16 cm dia. (max) – 21¼ ins high, 6¼ ins dia. (max) Blue John is a semi-precious mineral mined in the caverns of Treak Cliff, Castleton in Derbyshire. It was first discovered by the Romans over 2000 years ago when mining lead from the caves. Beloved for its deep purple veining and translucency, large pieces were transported back to Italy as two Blue John vases discovered at Pompeii demonstrate. However, after the Roman retreat from Britain the mines were abandoned and lay forgotten until the 18th century when they were rediscovered and a small local industry grew up centred on turning decorative objects from the mineral. In the 1770’s Matthew Boulton, famous for his Ormolu workshops in Birmingham, began mounting Blue John classical urns, candelabra and perfume burners. It became even more fashionable as a material when George III commissioned Thomas Wright and Matthew Boulton to make him a marvellous clock with the case made of Blue John mounted in ormolu by Boulton. The architect Robert Adam also used it incorporated into his splendid house interiors, especially the surrounds of fireplaces, like that of Kedleston Hall near Derby.

[37a] A Few Strands of Napoleon’s Hair Contained in a Paper Wallet Inscribed in Ink Hair of Emperor Napoleon Cut from the Side of His Head After Death at St Helena in the Presence of Major W. Crocket to Whom it was Presented by One of the Lieut- and given by Crocket to Me at Portsmouth when Assisting with Her Return Home s i z e : 6 cm x 3 cm – 2¼ ins x 1¼ ins p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection After his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo under the command of the Duke of Wellington, the British exiled Napoleon to the remote island of St Helena in the South Atlantic. There he lived in isolation at Longwood, where he died six years later at the age of fifty-one.

[37b] A French Empire Fine 18ct Gold Napoleonic Seal in the Form of a Campaign Tent the Four Supports Modelled as the Legs of a Horse Perhaps a Reference to Napoleon’s Famous Horse Marengo a Hunting Horn Tromphe Perinet to the Top a Crowned N Engraved to the Base which Opens to Reveal a Secret Chamber With associated collectors label inscribed Seal of the Emperor Napoleon the 1st and to Reverse This Seal was Given Me by Mons Grevillier Agent de Charge Paris whose Wife was Sister to the Emperor Napoleon’s Premier Valet de Chambre who had a Quantity of Things Belonging to Napoleon’ An old trade label stuck to the front reading Walton Jeweller Diamond Worker etc 2 Ludgate Street London Circa 1805 – 1815 s i z e : 3 cm high, 2 cm deep, 1.5 cm wide – 1¼ ins high, ¾ ins deep, ½ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Napoleon Bonaparte (1789–1821) was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. As one of the greatest known commanders, his campaigns are still studied today by military schools all over the world. His political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated decisive and controversial leaders in history. He implemented fundamental liberal policies in France and throughout western Europe and his Napoleonic code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations.

[38] A Rare Arctic East Greenland Ammassalik Eskimo Inuit Carved Whalebone Pregnant Female Figure Wearing Typical Coiffure of the Region Smooth old worn polished patina 18th Century or Earlier

s i z e : 10 cm high, 3 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 4 ins high, 1¼ ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Maurice Bonnefoy (1920–1999) New York Acquired early 1960’s Ex Private English collection acquired from the deceased Estate c f : A similar example in walrus ivory in the Robert and Lisa Sainsbury Collection University of East Anglia UK (UEA 107) Acquired 1957 In this beautiful rendering of female fecundity, the flowing rounded forms have an affinity with the sculpture of European Palaeolithic traditions. From the side the arms can be seen as stylised curves blending into the rounded pregnant abdomen. Facial features are omitted and the breasts always pendulous and heavy. The distinctive T-shaped hairstyle worn by this figure is characteristic of Eskimo women from the coastal regions of Greenland, especially Ammassalik in the east. Descendants of the Thule Eskimo, their long hair is tied up with a band so as to project above and behind the head, and those from Ammassalik have the top knot directly above the head. Another figure illustrated by Fitzhugh (Paleo-Eskimo Cultures of Greenland 1984 page 534) from north western Greenland has it placed further back. Several wooden, whalebone and walrus ivory figures have been collected from Greenland, all of them recognisably female and pregnant.

[39] An English Carved Walnut Articulated Lay Model of a Horse for an Artist’s Studio The Wooden Ball Joints Allowing for the Repositioning of the Horse’s Anatomy Section by Section Probably made by Robertson’s of Long Acre, Covent Garden, London Late 19th Century

s i z e : approx: 55 cm high – 21¾ ins high / base: 40 cm wide, 13 cm deep – 15¾ ins wide, 5 ins deep Horses were favourite subjects for artists to be commissioned to paint in the 19th century and articulated lay models of horses, sometimes with riders, were used to stand in for full sized animals as posing live ones was a difficult and prolonged business. Without real life models sessions could be timed and breaks regulated for the artist, and the work carried out painlessly. Some objects were also simply too large to get inside a studio and in such cases scale models were used. John Cotman (1752–1842) in addition to plaster casts from the antique, owned a collection of model ships and an assortment of scaled down body armour. Constable’s studio props included a model windmill made for him by his artist friend John Dunthorne, and a plaster model of a horse made by Gainsborough which Constable purchased from him in about 1800.

[40] A Fine Anglo-Indian Vizgapatam Ivory Veneered and Floral Lac Engraved Games Table with a Removable Ivory and Tortoiseshell Veneered Chess Board Revealing an Inlaid Horn Ivory and Sandalwood Backgammon Board Raised upon an extraordinary quadruped lattice worked satinwood pedestal base with paw feet Circa 1840 – 1875 s i z e : 80.5 cm high, 61 cm dia. (max) – 31¾ ins high, 24 ins dia. (max) c f : Games Table in the Visa Khaptnam Municipal Corporation Museum Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India Also an Anglo-Indian Davenport of Ivory and Tortoiseshell Veneered Sandalwood commissioned by G.N.Gajapathi Rao Maharaja of Vizianagram made by L.Venkatadas From the third quarter of the 19th century the workshops of Vizagapatam began to produce large scale pieces of carved furniture, principally games tables. Several items of Vizagapatam furniture have been found in local Indian princely collections indicating that the craftsmen of the region were working in the manufacture of both traditional and European style objects. The Maharaja of Vizianagram G.N.Gajapathi Rao, was a great patron of Visgapatam furniture in the mid 19th century commissioning examples for himself and as presents, including ivory chairs that he presented to Prince Albert that were subsequently displayed at the Great Exhibition of 1851. It is said that important articles of furniture had inlays made out of ivory that came from the Maharaja’s own elephants whose tusks were periodically shorn and given to the carvers to be worked.

[41] An Unusual Silver Ethiopian Coptic Christian Processional Cross the Long Shaft Decorated with Intertwined Swirling Knots Representing the Tree of Life the Solid T-Shaped Handle with Lattice Auxmite Crosses 19th Century

s i z e : 19 cm high, 10 cm wide – 7½ ins high, 4 ins wide Ethiopia was the only region of Africa to survive the expansion of Islam as a Christian State. As the largest pre-colonial Christian Church of Africa it now boasts some 46 million members the majority of whom live in Ethiopia. According to Ethiopian lore, known as the Kebre Negast, Queen Makeda, who ascended the Ethiopian throne in the 10th century bc, travelled to Jerusalem to learn from King Solomon who was renowned for his wisdom and knowledge as a ruler. The Queen was so impressed by him that she converted to Judaism and together they had a son. King Solomon had a dream in which God declared their son would become the head of a new order. In response he sent Makeda home, but told her to send their son back to Jerusalem when he came of age to be taught Jewish law. This she did and their son, Menilek I, was schooled by Solomon who offered to make him a prince of Jerusalem. However, Menilek refused and returned to Ethiopia anointed by Solomon and God to be King of Ethiopia. This ancient legend of Kebre Negast demonstrates the importance of Judaism and subsequently of Christianity to the Ethiopian people. It still serves as an important source of national pride and is used as a justification for the belief that Ethiopians are a chosen people of God.

[42] A Transatlantic Slave Trade Wrought Iron African Slave Collar or Neck Iron 18th Century – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 16.5 cm wide, 14 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 6½ ins wide, 5½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Christopher Gibbs c f : A Similar Collar in Merseyside Maritime Museum Liverpool Exhibition Transatlantic Slavery Catalogue Entry No 89 Another in National Portrait Gallery London Exhibition David Livingstone and the Victorian Encounter with Africa Catalogue Entry No 3.32 Wrought iron slave collars were used with chains to shackle and restrain captives regarded as human commodities on their journey from the interior of Africa to the coast. For over three hundred years, millions of Africans were enslaved and transported across the Atlantic to be used as cheap labour in the American colonies and Caribbean. Africans were seized in wars or raids and sold on from one trader to another. On arrival at the coast they were usually imprisoned in forts before being loaded onto ships. Few would have ever seen the sea, a ship or a white man before. They found themselves thrown together with people from different regions, speaking different languages, in conditions of deprivation and horrific violence, and in this way they crossed the Atlantic ocean. On arrival in the Americas, those that had survived were parted from their families and shipmates and sold to different owners. They faced further journeys as they were led to plantations where they were put to work. The vast majority knew only a life of hard labour ending in a death far from home. David Livingstone’s humanitarian work in Africa enlightened the Victorian public to the horrors and iniquity of the slave trade. In order to reinforce his message when he published his Narrative of an expedition to the Zambezi and its Tributaries in 1865 he decided to emboss an emblem of slavery on the cover in gold detailing a gang of chained captives being beaten by one of their black captors indicating the barbarity of the regime.

[43] Ancient Imperial Roman Terracotta AnteWx Decorated in High Relief with the Head of the Mythical Gorgon Medusa 1st Century ad – 2nd Century ad

s i z e : 19 cm high, 22 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 7½ ins high, 8¾ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private French collection Acquired early 1900’s North Africa The Gorgon Medusa was a legendary monster whose gaze could turn beholders to stone and over time underwent a visual transformation from grotesque to beautiful, as did sphinxes and sirens. Throughout human history, monsters have emerged as figments of the imagination in various cultures. These fearsome supernatural beings share many characteristics. They are usually gigantic, malevolent, ugly, reptilian, and bizarre. They can devour humans and live in remote places such as caves or at the bottom of deep lakes. They represent nature’s threatening forces and our innate fears and anxieties. Of the three gorgon sisters, only Medusa was mortal. They lived in the Western Ocean conceived as the frontier of the inhabited world. They had large heads covered in dragon scales, boars tusks in their mouths and golden wings. Whoever looked at their hideous faces turned instantly to stone. But Medusa’s beauty heightened the horror and she was perceived to be both enchanting and dangerous, the ultimate femme fatale. With her feral hair, striking features and powerful face, Medusa comes alive as a decorative ante-fix illustrating the myth of Perseus who triumphantly raised her severed head and realised that he now possessed the power of her deadly gaze as well as the miraculous blood which could both heal and poison.

[44] A Papua New Guinea Middle Sepik River Iatmul Area Carved Wood Ancestor Portrait Head with Inlaid Shell Eyes Made to Replace a Revered Disintegrating Lost or Broken Over-modelled Ancestral Skull Early 20th Century

s i z e : 20 cm high, 14.5 cm wide, 10 cm deep – 8 ins high, 5¾ ins wide, 4 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection K.J. Hewitt Ex John Giltsoff Ex collection Sanne Nies, acquired from J. Giltsoff Ex Kevin Conru acquired from above The first European travelled up the Sepik River late in 19th century, 1886, when the protectorate was being established and New Guinea was called Kaiser Wilhelmsland. Placed under the tutelage of the Emperor the Neu Guinea Compagnie managed every aspect of the country, the plantations, all geographic, naturalist and ethnographic research, the administration, public health, communications by boat, and the very lucrative trade in the hunting of birds of paradise and the exportation of their feathers. The Iatmul are now the most well known and largest community living in the Sepik region, numbering around sixteen thousand people. The majority of their villages are on the banks of the river Sepik. All have a dance ground at the centre and ceremonial houses looking over the central dance area at each end. All dwelling houses are raised on stilts to avoid the seasonal floods of the river when canoes become the only means of travel. Warfare was conducted on a small scale and was usually limited to ambushes and well planned raids of enemy villages where trophy heads would be taken. Men were accorded status, prestige and power through headhunting, and only after taking an enemy’s head would a man be entitled to wear on ceremonial occasions the distinctive face paint or particular ritual insignia such as the homicide aprons. However, the overmodelled skulls known as Midjangu or Kaik were those of identifiable ancestors rather than of those taken in headhunting raids. The technique of over-modelling enabled the creation of portraits of the dead which were masterpieces of artistic expression. Mostly kept by families of the deceased, they were also displayed in the ceremonial house on painted racks or in swaying baskets suspended from the roof of the upper chamber. Sometimes they were placed at specifically constructed openings in the facade where they would gaze down on events on the performance ground and keep watch against enemy headhunting parties. As a memorial to an ancestor, an over-modelled skull was an important ceremonial object and when it suffered damage or became too fragile for display, a replacement would be carved. The design of the wood heads would always accentuate the nose as it was considered an attractive facial feature in men, a sign of Tshvia, an assertive personality.

[45] Pacific Fijian Chief ’s Presentation Sperm Whale Tooth Tabua Scrimshawed with Three Masted Whaling Ship Flying the British Ensign Early 19th Century

s i z e : 7 cm high, 17.5 cm wide, 5.5 cm deep – 2¾ ins high, 6¾ ins wide, 2¼ ins deep The British whaling ships visited many exotic places in their never-ending search for the whales and Fiji was a popular port of call together with Tahiti and the Marquesan Islands. During the first half of the 19th century the British and American whalers were able to provide the islanders of the Pacific with a huge increase in the supply of teeth which had previously only been available from the occasional whale stranded or captured and killed in shore. Mostly plain undecorated teeth were traded, but in rare cases scrimshaw teeth such as this example were acquired by the islanders to become tabua. There is no evidence for the copying of European designs by Fijian craftsmen and anyway, the subjects were typically whaling scenes, ships or fashionable ladies, none of which were relevant to Pacific culture and traditions. In 1847 John B.Williams of Salem writing from Fiji mentions the sale of teeth to the islanders whales teeth are the most valuable article in the Feejees....for twenty teeth about 200 gallons of coconut oil may be obtained.

[46] An Interesting British Whaler’s Skinning Knife the Grip Scrimshawed with Whaling Scenes Showing a Three Masted Ship with a Whaling Barque Alongside from which Men Harpoon Diving Sperm Whales The reverse etched with a Large Atlantic Cod Fish the Steel Blade Marked Fast Handle Bona Fide John Wigfall & Co Sheffield Housed in a leather scabbard Mid 19th Century s i z e : 16.5 cm long – 6½ ins long John Wigfall started producing butcher knives in 1843 and later expanded to table cutlery in the 1860’s. They made a range for all types of use with these known as Skinner or Indian Trade knives. Their trademark of Bona-Fide became a subsidiary of Joseph Elliot & Sons in 1905. Sailor’s knives were used for protection on foreign shores as well as utility implements on board ship. The sailor’s jack knife is thought of as the universal tool of the scrimshander and it was a regular part of his equipment. Blades were often converted from files that were no longer usable and were not always as prestigious as this example, but the handles were often carved or carefully scrimshawed with favourite scenes and motifs.

[47] Central Indian Relief Carved Sandstone Architectural Rectangular Panel or Revetment Showing Two Long Tailed Parakeets Perched on Acanthus Leaves Underneath a Foliated Cusped Arch with Two Fully Opened Lotus Flower Bosses Late 17th – 18th Century

s i z e : 101 cm high, 53 cm wide, 11 cm deep – 39¾ ins high, 21 ins wide, 4¼ ins deep – 102 cm high – 40¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Many Indian artists and sculptors began to work for Muslim rulers after the armies of Islam conquered large portions of Northern India in the 12th and 13th centuries. These new patrons did not use ornament that contained representations of the human figure. They were especially fond of floral arabesques, geometric patterns and calligraphic decoration. These limitations seemed to inspire the artists to produce a brilliant and varied repertoire of abstract vegetal and calligraphic ornament. These panels were usually placed above rectangular dadoes in horizontal or vertical rows that reached all the way to the ceiling. Dramatic use of them is made in the great Gwalior fort built by the ruler Man Singh in around 1500 ad just before the rise of the Moghuls. The flowering plant isolated against a plain ground contained within an arched niche first appeared during the rule of the Emperors Jahangir (reigned 1605–27) and Shah Jahan (reigned 1628–88). It is during Jahan’s reign that the European inspired acanthus leaves and plant began to be seen. However, the plants depicted in this period within the cusped archways are much more stylised, whereas in this plaque they appear as naturalistic forms. The decorative format and motifs, such as the acanthus, on this plaque would suggest it was carved in a regional workshop inspired by Imperial Mughal ateliers.

[48] A Collection of Seven German Silver Mounted Pendant Talismanic Hunting Amulets Charivari Two Articulated and Opening to Reveal the Inner Jaw Formed of Weasel Stoat and Deer’s Teeth Late 17th – 18th Century

s i z e : 2.5 cm long – 1 ins long (min) – 3.5 cm long – 1¼ ins long (max) The word amulet comes from the Latin amuletum which is thought to be derived from the Arabic noun Hamatet. They are believed to provide protection and lend special magical powers to their wearer. The talismanic amulets worn by hunters in Bavaria on the belt of their lederhosen are known as charivari and are thought to have the ability to appease and calm all intended prey as well as providing protection. These powers were ascribed to the particular natural materials they are made from, in this case weasel and stoat jaws, who are renowned for their cunning and ability to mesmerise their prey. Highly prized in Germany, they acted as both status symbol and talisman to farmers and traditional sportsmen and were handed down through the generations.

[49] Fine Large South German Carved Boxwood Devotional Figure of the Crucified Christ Wearing a Crown of Thorns His Eyes and Mouth Open in His Call to God Iron Nails to His Hands and Feet 2nd Half 17th Century

s i z e : 46 cm high, 30 cm wide – 18 ins high, 11¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Christianity has the strongest visual tradition of all world faiths, but for the first three hundred years there was practically no Christian art produced. However, from the moment of the Roman Emperor Constantine’s conversion; his vision of a cross and his hearing of the injunction In this, conquer, Christianity made use of every possible image. Christian art came to be executed by the most talented artists to be found in Europe to convince people of Christ’s divine mission. Apart from the depiction of the Virgin and Christ child, Christianity’s core image is of a man dying on a cross, and this visual experience brings a need for devotion. Spiritual practice suggests that disciplined endeavour is useful preparation for divine revelation, and so the daily stilling of the mind from the clamour of the world by means of prayer will bring an enduring experience of God.

[50] An Ancient Roman Sculpted Marble Pair of Lions Paws Possibly from a Funerary Monument 1st – 2nd Century ad

s i z e : 14 cm high, 25.5 cm wide, 13 cm deep – 5½ ins high, 10 ins wide, 5 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Acquired 1980’s Lions were rare in Ancient Rome, but they were popular beasts and were imported into Rome in significant numbers specifically for damnatio ad bestias, staged animal fighting. Professional fighters were trained in schools such as the Roman Morning School, so called because of the timing of the games, and they were taught not only how to fight, but about the behaviour and training of the lions and other animals such as elephants, tigers, wolves, bulls and wild boar. Dressed only in a tunic and armed only with a spear or sometimes a sword, the fighter was released into the arena to kill the animal. The first staged hunting was arranged by Marcus Fulvius Nobilior in 186 bc at the Circus Maximus in Rome. The custom of submitting criminals to the lions was brought to Ancient Rome by two commanders Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus who defeated the Macedonians and his son Scipio Aemilanus who conquered the African city of Carthage in 146 bc. It was originally a military punishment probably borrowed from the Carthaginians. The sentenced would be tied to columns or thrown to the animals. Strabo witnessed the execution of a rebel slave’s leader Selur in this manner, and Cicero was outraged that a man was thrown to the lions to amuse the crowd just because he was considered ugly. The practice was abolished in Rome in 681 ad, and it is thought that the mass export of animals to Rome over six centuries damaged the wildlife of North Africa.

[51] Northern Thailand Lån Nå Bronze of Standing Buddha Shakyamuni his Face with Serene Contemplative Expression and Downcast Eyes his Hair of Closely Packed Curls 15th Century

s i z e : 35 cm high, 13 cm wide, 9 cm deep – 13¾ ins high, 5 ins wide, 3½ ins deep 40 cm high – 15¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Netherlands Private collection In 1281 King Mengrai captured the Northern Mon city of Lamphun and established the kingdom of Lån Nå which lasted until the 16th century when the Burmese invaded. Isolated inland, this northern kingdom developed independently from the central Thai principalities of Sukhothai and Ayutthaya, although both were artistically influential as were Burma and Sri Lanka. Throughout the history of Buddhism images of the Buddha follow a specific iconography. He wears monk’s robes, his earlobes are distended to indicate that he once was rich and wore jewels, and he has an Ushnisha, a cranial protuberance to the top of his head, to signify his advanced intelligence. This bronze image of the Buddha expresses his accessibility to the devotee in its simplicity of form and style.

[52] Collection of Antique Japanese Bachi Plectrum Used for Playing Traditional Stringed Instruments Samisens and Biwas Meiji Period 19th Century

s i z e : min: 19 cm high – 7½ ins high max: 24.5 cm high – 9¾ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Japanese collection housed in London The Biwa came from China as a gift to the Emperor Jimmȳo in about 935 ad although its name is of Bactrian origin. The Bugaku-biwa has a gourd shaped body made of dark close grained shitan wood. The neck is carved of willow and the tuning pegs are of peach wood. The instrument rests on a mat between the player’s knees and the four waxed silk strings that pass over the three, four or five frets are played with the bachi. The sound produced is rich and full of power. The Japanese deity Benten, bringer of happiness and the only female among the gods of Fortune, is often depicted playing a biwa, an instrument of which she is reputed to be very fond. Samisen are more box-like in construction with a long neck and was much favoured as a musical instrument by high class geisha. Although developed from a Chinese original, Samisen obtained the status of a national iconic instrument. The body was usually covered in cat-skin, the value of which was measured by the number of nipples present. Two sounds were produced, each different, by means of a blow from the bachi and the vibration of the strings.

[53] Fine Pair of English Georgian Grand Tour Embroidered Silk Pictures Depicting Views of The Temple Erecthens at Athens and The Ruins of the Pantheon at Athens Both in original Verre Églomisé frames Most probably inspired by engravings Circa 1780 – 1800

s i z e : 31 cm high, 41.5 cm wide – 12¼ ins high, 16¼ wide / 37.5 cm high, 47.5 cm wide – 14¾ ins high, 18¾ ins wide (framed) The Erechtheum or Erechtheion (spelt Erecthens in the silk works title) is an ancient Greek Temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens which was dedicated to Athena and the God Poseidon. During the Ottoman period it was the residence of the Turkish Commanders’ harem and the whole site of the Acropolis was taken up by a

Turkish garrison. The debate over the restitution of the Elgin marbles continues, as it has done since 1833 with the founding of the independent Greek State, but the basic facts are often ignored. The ambassadors oďŹƒcers removed the marbles with a valid consent from the proper authorities and if they had not done so the steady destruction caused by the Turks and casual tourists would have substantially reduced the surviving relics that we see today. Of course the French or Germans would probably have gained permission to carry out a similar exercise to Lord Elgins and the debate would now involve Paris or Berlin rather than London. It should be remembered Elgin’s removals took place over several years with minimal complaints from the Greeks, a country that then had no separate existence. His actions were chiey regretted by Lord Byron and other romantic British visitors who were concerned for the appearance of the Parthenon (not Pantheon as titled on the silk-work) as a picturesque ruin rather than the preservation of its sculptures as works of art.

[54] An Early Medieval Northern British Carved Limestone Corbel Head of a Man Wearing a Cap an Interesting Pictish Abstract Geometric Symbol Carved to the Side Circa 1000 – 1100 ad

s i z e : 26.5 cm high, 24.5 cm wide, 29.5 cm deep – 10½ ins high, 9¾ ins wide, 11¾ ins deep / 30.5 cm high – 12 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Yorkshire collection Medieval art is full of faces, some of which haunt the beholder by grinning or staring, others are exalted expressive masks, others strike awe in the viewer by virtue of their stern solemnity. They are holy faces that show no expression because passion was regarded as evil and a sin. Medieval physiognomy was always torn between heaven and hell. The ancient Romans and Greeks sculpted innumerable portraits of their famous philosophers, orators, poets, statesmen and emperors, but medieval portraits of important figures do not exist. The medieval sanctuaries have many images of saints, prophets, demons and devils, but their visages do not belong to the real world, they are ghosts. Like nature, the natural face was considered unworthy of artistic transmission to posterity. The soul would be raised to heaven and the body resurrected to eternal life, but flesh and bones, it was believed, would turn to dust and ashes and thus the earthly faces of mortals were not to be remembered in portraiture.

[55] Oceanic Fijian Hardwood Warrior’s Throwing Club I Ula Drisia a Human Tooth Embedded in the Top the Neck with Notched Marks Signifying the Tally of Kills the Flared Handle with Zigzag Tavatava to Facilitate a Better Grip The end indented and with a hole for a wrist thong Old dark smooth worn silky patina 18th Century s i z e : 40 cm long – 15¾ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection The Fijian warriors’ most personal weapon, the ula, was formed from the specially trained buttress root of a hardwood tree sapling. The missile club was worn stuck in the girdle, sometimes in pairs like European pistols. A tally of kills would be kept by nicking or notching the upper neck of the handle and Baron Von Hugel remarked on one he had collected at Sagunu in 1876 there are 50 notches in it and the chief assured me it is the register of people it has killed. On my doubting it he got quite angry, and assured me that it was ‘edina, edina sara’ and so I fancy there may be some truth in it, especially as I had great difficulty in getting it at all. The Ula was generally held by a warrior in a full fisted grip with all four fingers and thumb firmly grasping the lower part of the shaft and was hurled end over end in flight striking a heavy and formidable blow to the head.

[56] A Rare Pacific Palau Islands Shell Shaped Turtle Shell Spoon a Woman’s Tolúk a Form of Ritual Currency With a label reading: A Womans Valuable (Toluk) Late 19th Century Belauan People (Palue Is.) Caroline Islands 19th Century s i z e : 12.5 cm long, 8 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 5 ins long, 3¼ ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection sold at auction 2016 Once known as the Pelew Islands, Palau is an archipelago of over 200 islands only eight of which are inhabited. The women of the islands regarded these spoons as their exclusive property and they were used together with larger turtle shell dishes on special occasions as a form of currency in ritual exchange. Their ceremonial importance meant they were often gifted as heirlooms through the female line. The turtle shell was first heated in hot water and then shaped by placing it in a wooden mould where it cooled and hardened into the desired shape.

[57] A Rare and Interesting Ancient Athenian Greek Painted Glazed Ceramic Fragment in the Form of a Bearded Satyr’s Head Modelled with an Open Mouth and Painted with a Wild Amazed Facial Expression the Remnants of his Pointed Ears Declaring he is a Familiar of the God Dionysos First Half 5th Century bc

s i z e : 6.5 cm high, 5 cm wide, 5.5 cm deep – 2½ ins high, 2 ins wide, 2¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Deuil La Barre France Acquired in late 19th Century – Early 20th Century Greek potters produced two main types of wares from about 1050 until the end of the 1st century bc. Elaborate ceramics decorated and glazed and plain, coarse roughly decorated pottery. Different functions, and differences in the affluence of the customer dictated the quality of the wares. Pottery workshops existed all over Greece and local clays can be identified by their different colour and composition. Athenian potters used a red-orange clay of the best quality. The Greek workshops devised a significant variety of vessel types and the shape usually defined its use. Numerous vessels were designed for use at banquets and some in the form of animals or humans were used as perfume containers or as special vessels for rituals or festivals. In the most important Athenian festival, the Great Panathenaia, the state gave decorated amphoras of unique design containing olive oil as prizes to the winners of athletic contests. Many different types of vase were used as votive or grave offerings with special types used exclusively in funerary rituals. The cult of Dionysos, and his attendant satyrs and nymphs, was prominent throughout the Greek world. The God of wine, revelry and theatre his rituals and myths were often the source of inspiration for vase painters in both Athens and the Greek colonies. Both Greek and Etruscan workshops of the 6th century bc produced vessels in the shape of human heads, body parts, animals or fruit and these functioned as containers for precious oils or perfume and most had a spout at the top to access the liquid contents. Perhaps this head on the top of a vessel functioned as a temple perfumier or incense burner with fragrant smoke issuing from his open mouth.

[58] A Medieval English Carved Oak Misericord Depicting a Salamander 15th Century

s i z e : 24 cm high, 24.5 cm wide, 6 cm deep – 9½ ins high, 9¾ ins wide, 2¼ ins deep The salamander is an amphibian which has been ascribed with fantastic mythical and magical qualities. Of lizard form in ancient mythology they have an affinity with fire and were thought to be able to extinguish it. In the Christian religion they came to symbolise the virtue of the righteous man and his power to resist the fiery temptation of sin. One of the earliest surviving descriptions of a salamander was given by Pliny the Elder (23–79 bc) an animal like a lizard in shape with a body speckled all over; it never comes out except during heavy showers and goes away the moment the weather becomes clear. All of these traits are consistent with the Golden Alpine salamander found in Europe. Pliny goes on to recount that they have an ability to extinguish fire with the frigidity of their bodies and that they have both medicinal and poisonous properties. Alpine salamanders are known to excrete toxic physiologically active substances which are used to deter predators when they are threatened. They hibernate in and under rotting logs, and so when wood was brought indoors and put on the fire the salamander would mysteriously appear from the flames. Terrified, the salamander exudes a milky substance that makes its skin moist and more able to withstand the heat. Found under the seat of a choir stall these misericords helped save the aching feet and backs of medieval choristers and monks during long services. Not allowed to sit down until it was over, the hinged carved flap would help support the hips as well as reminding the cleric of his religious duties.

[59] A Bering Sea Yupik Eskimo Inuit Carved Walrus Ivory Female Figure Tattoos to Her Eyebrows Her Mouth Open Suggesting She is Singing Soft smooth creamy patina Early 19th Century

s i z e : 8.5 cm high, 2.8 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 3¾ ins high, 1 ins wide, ¾ ins deep c f : A similar figure of 6 cm high is in the National Museum of Natural History Washington (Unalakleet 32931) The Yupik believe that all things have an awareness, and this belief underlies their traditional view of the world. Humans, animals, fish, trees and plants inhabit a sentient world where even the soil, rocks and old buried bones were aware of their actions. Everyone was encouraged to act with care and compassion in their knowing and responsive world. Marine ivory and wood figurines are sometimes created to start a discourse with the spirits. When a couple have been without children for a long time and desire a baby the husband will carve a figure which is fed and cared for as if alive. Both male and female effigies occur as fertility figures, their power and beauty reaching back through generations. Figures are also carved to stand in for people that are absent from the village during certain festivals, and as important ceremonial objects used for shamanistic rituals, as well as functioning as powerful protective spirits.

[60] An Ancient Imperial Roman Carved White Marble Male Portrait Head Possibly of a Senator with Intensely Wrinkled Forehead and Short Full Beard and Hair Rendered by Irregular Incised Chisel Strokes Old extensive damages 3rd Century ad

s i z e : 24.5 cm high, 16 cm wide, 20 cm deep – 9¾ ins high, 6¼ ins wide, 8 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of an Art Expert Amsterdam Netherlands Formed 1950–60’s Thence by descent the Estate Sold at Auction 2018 Among the greatest artistic achievements of the Roman Empire are portrait sculptures. Said to be a natural expression of the Roman genius they are as much a psychological portrait as a realistic reproduction of a specific physiognomy. Derived from an ancient tradition of making funerary effigies, Roman portrait heads can be fascinating in their realism and expressive power. Determination can be read into the face of this confident man and his portrait has character. His stern humanity speaks to us across the millennia with a brooding face, an undiminished force and compelling directness.

[61] South American Colonial Peru Silver Mounted Coconut Box for Yerba Maté Tea Decorated with Scrolling Leaves and Vines the Silver Clasp Modelled as a Long Haired Maiden Playing a Guitar the Strap Hinges with Cherubs Heads a Suspension Ring to the Top Late 18th Century

s i z e : 11.5 cm high, 16 cm wide, 11 cm deep – 4½ ins high, 6¼ ins wide, 4¼ ins deep There was a widespread consumption of yerba maté tea in the Viceroyalty of Peru which was grown in Paraguay. Originally an Andean custom Mati was the Quechua word for the squash plant that produced the gourds that Mati tea was traditionally drunk from. The drinking of maté tea crossed all the social boundaries, it was only the style of the vessel that varied. The poorest used simple dried gourds, and the wealthiest drank from bowls of various materials entirely encased in precious metals. Boxes and containers such as this example served as Hierberas to hold the yerba maté tea leaves, although some coconut boxes are said to have been used to hold coca leaves. Paraguay tea was a popular and fashionable beverage served with ceremony both in Colonial Peru and Bolivia.

[62] An Ancient Indian Uttar Pradesh Mathura Railing Pillar Fragment Carved of Mottled Pink Sandstone Relief Decorated with Lotus Medallions One with a Human Face Perhaps Representing a Nature Spirit or Divinity The sides with lozenge shaped sockets for the railings the front and back each with three facets the lower portion translating to a rectangular section 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e : 101 cm high – 39¾ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Ex Kapoor Galleries New York c f : Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio, USA has a similar railing section with pillar and cross bars formed of one piece of stone (Czuma & Morris. 1985. no. 28. pg. 89–90) Pillars such as this formed the boundary for enclosures around the central stupa in early Buddhist monuments. They were first carved in imitation of wooden railings that demarcated the circumambulatory path around the religious enclosure. The stupa in early Buddhist art represents the final release of the Buddha which occurred at Kushinagara in a grove of Sal trees, just as the Buddha was born in a Sal grove. A bed was prepared in the shade of a pair of trees and while lying on it the Buddha discoursed with his disciples for a while before passing into nirvana. Lotuses are often found carved on ancient Mathura railing pillars as the lotus represents the full blossoming of the pure compassion that embraces all living beings without exception.

[63] A Rare New Zealand Maori Human Bone Fish Hook Shaped Ceremonial Pendant Hei Matau With old paper label inscribed C.17 No 50 18th Century or Earlier

s i z e : 7.5 cm high, 2.5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 3 ins high, 1 ins wide, 1½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Inness collection UK Ex J. Brown of Salisbury collection Ex P.W. Reynolds collection UK Made from one piece of human bone these one piece fish hooks, particularly amongst the Maori, are mostly relics of deceased ancestors. In Maori legend the god Maui pulled up the land of New Zealand out of the ocean with a fish hook made from the jaw bone of his ancestor Muri Rangawhenua, and so these hooks became more than just utilitarian objects. Often worked from the shoulder or jawbone of a prominent individual, the hook became a valued ceremonial pendant, worn hung from the ear or around the neck, which conferred great prestige or mana on the owner. Originally made from the bones of either ancestors or those with a renowned prowess in fishing the hook pendants eventually became purely ornamental and were copied in greenstone.

[64] Late Medieval Northern French Carved Oak Figure of the Christian Martyr Saint Maurice Depicted Wearing Armour and the Attire of the legendary Roman Theban Legion Traces of original polychrome Probably once holding a Lance Circa 1500

s i z e : 123.5 cm high, 45 cm wide, 20 cm deep – 48½ ins high, 17¼ ins wide, 8 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection An Egyptian, Maurice was born in Thebes in the 3rd century ad and rose through the ranks of the Roman army as an acknowledged Christian to become commander of the Theban Legion. He was in charge of over one thousand men all of whom were Christians. The Legion was dispatched to Gaul to assist Emperor Maximian in putting down a revolt and then ordered to clear the Great St Bernard Pass across Mont Blanc. Before going into battle they were instructed to offer sacrifices to the ancient Roman gods and pay homage to the Emperor. Maurice pledged his men’s military allegiance to Rome, but stated that their faith was in the one true God and service to Him superceded all else. He declared that to wantonly kill innocent Christians who were not enemies of the Emperor was inconceivable to his soldiers and so refused the direct order to harass local Christian believers. Maximian then had every tenth Theban soldier killed, a military punishment know as decimation. More orders were given and again, encouraged by Maurice, they refused and a second decimation followed. When a final refusal to attack fellow Christians was received, Maximian ordered all the remaining members of the legion to be executed. The place of their martyrdom in 287 ad was known as Agaunum and is now a site of pilgrimage, the Abbey of St Maurice-en-Valais in Switzerland. St Maurice became a patron saint of the German Holy Roman Emperors and in 926 ad Henry the Fowler (919 – 936 ad) ceded the present Swiss canton of Aargau to the Abbey in return for the Holy Relics of Maurice’s lance, sword and spurs. These relics became important insignia of the Imperial throne and were part of the regalia used at the coronations of the Austro-Hungarian Emperors right up until 1916. Maurice is also connected to the legend of the Holy Lance of Vienna, said to have been the spear that pierced Christ’s side when on the cross. In Switzerland the town of St Moritz is named after him and over 650 religious foundations in Europe are dedicated to him. He is the patron saint of the Duchy of Savoy, of the Swiss Valais and is revered in Piedmont and Sardinia. He is the patron saint of sword-smiths and soldiers, especially the Papal Swiss Guards, and weavers and dyers, especially the Gobelins tapestry manufacture. In art, as can be seen in an oil on wood by Lucas Cranach the Elder, he is usually represented as Negro foot soldier. Although he has often been portrayed as black since the 12th century, his image sometimes resembles that of an Egyptian, where he is still venerated by the Orthodox Coptic Church. By the mid 16th century images of Saint Maurice stopped being produced, his popularity undermined, it has been said, by the developing Atlantic slave trade.

[65] British Celtic Apotropaic Limestone Head of Cernunnos the Horned Deity with Typical Bulging Eyes Triangular Nose and Slit Mouth 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e : 19.5 cm high, 11.5 cm wide, 12.5 cm deep – 7¾ ins high, 4½ ins wide, 5 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Worcestershire formed 1980’s Authenticated by Dr Anne Ross 1990’s Ex Private collection Cornwall Acquired from above collector 2007 Cernunnos was a horned god and one of the most ancient Celtic deities. He predates Roman influence in Western Europe with images occurring from as early as the 4th century bc. Known as the Lord of the Animals essentially he was a god symbolising fertility and fecundity in nature. As the patron god of hunters his horned head was an appropriate symbol for a people who decapitated their enemies and revered the head, a people given to fighting, cattle lifting and hunting. The horned god was their leader in war, symbolic of virility, lawgiver in times of peace, protector in times of danger. He was an all purpose tribal god and his deep rooted nature and association with fertility made him unacceptable to emerging Christianity who destroyed any maternal traces of his cult whenever they could. The Romans, however, took great care not to antagonise the god of place, the named warrior of the Celts, and equated him with a member of the more familiar classical pantheon such as Pan, or as an armed warrior equivalent to Mars.

[66] A Collection of Six Japanese Antique Netsuke A. Japanese Carved Ivory Netsuke of a Lean Wolf Showing the Exposed Ribs of the Ferocious Animal with his Paw Resting Upon a Human Skull the Eyes Inlaid with Ebony Signed in Oval Reserve Tomonobu Superb smooth creamy silky patina Edo Period Late 18th – Early 19th Century s i z e : 3.5 cm high – 1¼ ins high c f  : For another by same artist see N.K. Davey Netsuke no. 436 B. An Unusual Naturalistically Carved Rootwood Netsuke Depicting a Fungus Invaded by Black Ants Formed of Lacquered Metal Probably Iwami School Edo Period Early 19th Century s i z e : 2.5 cm high – 1 ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection c f  : See N.K. Davey Netsuke no. 768 for a similar example by Jikwan Ganbun C. Japanese Carved Ivory Netsuke of an Angry Tiger Seated on a Length of Bamboo his Long Tail Winding up his Back Superb Smooth Silky Patina Unsigned Edo Period Late 18th Century s i z e : 3.5 cm high – 1½ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection c f  : See N.K. Davey Netsuke no. 948 for a similar example Ex Isobel Sharpe collection. Ex J. Fairley collection D. Japanese Carved Boxwood Netsuke of a Fearsome Shishi Dog Crouching on a Rock Beside a Flowering Peony his Tail Curled Over his Back Smooth Dark Brown Patina Unsigned Edo Period Late 18th Century s i z e : 3.5 cm high – 1½ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection E. Japanese Carved Ivory Netsuke of a Hirsute and Ferocious Temple Guardian Dog Shishi Holding a Ball with Another Loose in his Mouth Unsigned Edo Period 18th Century s i z e : 2 cm high – ¾ ins high F. Japanese Carved Ivory Netsuke Depicting a Monk Dressed in His Flowing Robes his Hand Trapped in an Huge Clam As these molluscs are a salacious symbol the Monk is crying a warning to others Smooth silky creamy patina Unsigned Edo Period Early 19th Century s i z e : 2 cm high – ¾ ins high

[67] An American Portrait by James Earl of Massachusetts (1761–1796) of Mr Janner Inscribed to the Reverse Mr Janner Aged 41 by J.Earl 1793 No 5A Newham Street Oxford Street London Oil on Canvas 18th Century

s i z e : 36 cm high, 30.5 cm wide – 14¼ ins high, 12 ins wide c f  : A portrait in oils by James Earl in the Royal Ontario Museum, Canada, of William Jarvis with his son Samuel Peter Jarvis (Inv. No 981.79.1) James Earl was an American portrait painter to the American royalists who spent the greater part of his career working in England as many of his sitters were former American colonists who had fled to London during and immediately following the end of the American Revolution. His ancestors were Quakers who emigrated from Exeter to Rhode Island in about 1634. At the beginning of the 18th century his grandfather settled in Worcester Country Massachusetts and James Earl was born in a village called Paxton in 1761. Ralph Earl (1726–1808), the father of James and his elder brother Ralph, was a farmer who joined the local militia during the Revolution in which he achieved the rank of Captain. However his son Ralph (1751–1801) became a loyalist and because of his activities in this cause left America and established himself as a painter in England from 1778 to 1785. It is thought that he taught his younger brother James and as he was also a loyalist, encouraged him to go to London. In April 1787 James exhibited two portraits at the Royal Academy and was resident at 6 Sweetings Alley, Royal Exchange. In 1789 he married Georgiana Caroline Pilkington (1759–1838) the widow of Joseph Brewer Palmer Smyth, an American loyalist from New Jersey. Both James Earl and the Smyths lived at 42 Great Peter Street, Westminster. In 1787 Smyth returned to North America to substantiate claims for his lost property. In a letter he wrote in August 1788 from Niagara to his wife he said I hope Mr Earl is well in health and Desire my Best Respects to Him. Smyth died shortly before returning to England and Caroline was left with two children, Elizabeth Ann and William Henry. Earl enrolled in the Academy schools March 24th 1789 and is thought to have been a pupil of Benjamin West. He was an accomplished and popular painter and thirty four of his portraits painted during his seven years in England have been recorded so far. Many of his pictures have been misattributed to better known artists such as Sir William Beechey, George Romney, Mather Brown, Joshua Reynolds or to his brother Ralph Earl. Indeed four of his portraits of the Beauclerk family were attributed to Beechey, and those of Lord Aubrey and his wife to George Romney when they were sold by Sothebys in 1949. Another portrait of Lady Massereene in the collections of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond USA was until recently attributed to Sir Joshua Reynolds. His portraits are not as stylised as those by his brother, and his subjects are portrayed with an almost photographic individuality. His portraits of men are direct and without flattery, and he had a particular interest in portraying the eyes of his subjects with an almost jewel-like quality. In 1794 he travelled to Charleston Carolina an expanding, affluent town, leaving his family in London. His obituary states that he had resided for nearly two years in this city. He died of yellow fever and had made a will two days before his death. James Earl had a remarkable ability to capture a likeness, and his pictures are important additions to the body of 18th century American portrait painting. He was also the father of Augustus Earle (1793–1838) who lived a life of exploration as a draughtsman on board ship, and who famously was the artist on board the Beagle with Charles Darwin when he sailed to the Galapagos.

[68] Fine George III Apothecary’s Pestle of Imperial Porphyry Set within a Brass Collar with a Turned Mahogany Handle Probably from an Ancient Fragment of Egyptian Porphyry Circa 1780 – 1800

s i z e : 33 cm long – 13 ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private New York, USA collection The colour of royalty, Imperial porphyry was highly valued by the Emperors of Ancient Rome. The hardest rock known in antiquity it was prized for important monuments and building projects. Imperial grade porphyry came from a single quarry in the eastern desert of Egypt. The early Christians were often condemned to work as slaves in the dry heat of these quarries mining porphyry. After the quarries were abandoned the porphyry was extensively recycled by the Scalpellini of Rome. These craftsmen would slice it thinly from ancient columns and use it in the cosmati pavements of the cathedrals and as inlay in altars and furniture. Fragments would often be used for mortars and pestles used by apothecaries, as porphyry was also considered to have apotropaic properties, capable of averting evil influences and helping to cure ills.

[69] A French Carved Burr Walnut Hunting Powder Flask Decorated with Royal Fleur de Lys and a Hare between Two Crossed Flintlock Guns The reverse with a large Fleur de Lys set amidst a bower of roses the lid unscrewing to reveal a plugged powder compartment the sides indented for a carrying strap Early 18th Century s i z e : 18 cm high, 9 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 7 ins high, 3½ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection Powder flasks were used to carry gunpowder, an inflammable mixture of saltpetre, sulphur and charcoal which has been known to mankind since very early times. Gunpowder as an explosive for the projection of missiles was almost certainly discovered in Europe early in the 13th century when the means for purifying nitre was discovered to make an explosive powder. The first powder was a coarse meal called Serpentine powder, and it was not until the process of corning or forming grains of the powder was discovered in the 15th century that powder of any considerable strength could be produced. For some time the corned powder was used only in small arms as the early cannon were not strong enough to withstand its explosion. During the latter half of the 15th century it was noticed that the strength of the powder increased with the size of the grains to suit the purpose for which the powder was to be used. A coarser grained powder gives nearly the same muzzle velocity with much less pressure. From about 1250 to 1450 powders differed only in composition, all being simple mixtures of the ingredients not grained. From 1450 to 1700 powders differed in both composition and grain. Since 1700 the composition of all powders is substantially the same, but they differ greatly in grain size. Hunting equipment has been required by sportsmen for as long as men have hunted smaller game, shot birds or caught fish. Powder flasks were essential and were favourite objects for fashionable, and sometimes expensive decoration proclaiming the social status and wealth of their owner.

[70] Bering Strait Inuit Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Amuletic Pendant Figure of a Man His Hands Clasped Together Over His Stomach his Mouth Shown Open His Ears with Walrus Hair Plugs Two old pendant holes to the reverse Late 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 6.5 cm high, 2 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 2½ ins high, ¾ ins wide, ¾ ins deep The shaman was an important member of society who at once dwelt in the community and also in the realm of the spirits. His position was socially important and it often brought wealth in the shape of presents of food, garments and amulets both for recognition and as a reward for his skills as a healer and diviner. The angakog as he was known had a considerable influence upon art as his descriptions of the spirit beings whom he encountered were of great importance to the artists of the community. One of the principal reasons that traditional Inuit carvings were small is because as a nomadic people, large ones would have been far too burdensome to carry as they moved around during the course of their annual cycle. No large sculptures were ever produced until after European contact and only in any volume after the mid 20th century.

[71] An Ancient Near East Iron Age Bronze Model of a Bull or Auroch his Two Horns Raised Above His Head and a Hump Projecting from His Back with Prominent Eyes Standing four square on his bovine hooves Smooth greenish patina with patches of red Circa 1200 – 800 bc

s i z e : 7.5 cm high, 3.5 cm wide, 9.5 cm long – 3 ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 3¾ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Cambridge collection of the Jones Family Acquired 1971 Stretching from Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt and Iran to Anatolia, the Armenian highlands and the Levant, the ancient Near East is considered one of the cradles of civilisation. In this vast area was invented the practice of intensive year round agriculture which led to the rise of the first dense urban settlements. Many of the institutions that we know today were developed, such as centralised government, organised religion and warfare, and the first system of writing, alphabet and currency. Early advances were made in the fields of astronomy and mathematics, codes of law were drawn up, and the wheel was invented. Many animals including dogs, cats, sheep, goats, donkeys and pigs were first domesticated in the Near East. Amulets have been found with images of domestic animals that demonstrate they were thought to have protective functions as well as being used to express the importance of fertility and fecundity in the natural world. The impressive large aurochs, humped bulls, that survived into the Iron Age in Anatolia and the Near East were worshipped as sacred animals. From early times the Bull was a holy animal linked to the god of magic and incantation. Ritual observance involved sacrifice, a ceremonial hunt or the use of sacred objects, carefully crafted to function as temple equipment or offerings. Animals were linked to the gods whose qualities they shared: in Mesopotamia the storm god Adad was linked to the bull, partly because of the similarity between the rumble of thunder and the roar of a vigorous mighty bull.

[72] A Rare and Finely Detailed Pair of English Renaissance Royal Portrait Plaques of Gilded Silvered and Enamelled Iron Depicting Queen Elizabeth I and Queen Mary of Scots Circa 1574 – 80

s i z e :12 cm high, 9 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 4¾ ins high, 3½ ins wide, ¼ ins deep 12 cm high, 9.5 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 4¾ ins high, 3¾ ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection This portrait of Queen Elizabeth I is the same likeness as that on the Phoenix Badge or Medal of which there is an example in the British Musuem, that has the date of 1574 scratched on it. In 1620 John Luckius stated that is was a votive medal of the estates of the Kingdom of England, made in honour of their Queen Elizabeth, after winning of certain noble victories against the Spaniard about the year of Christ 1574. It may be more likely that this medal was made in 1572, the year of the Queen’s recovery from smallpox and the execution of the Duke of Norfolk, two great dangers she successfully overcame. Cast from a wax model the phoenix medal was possibly the work of one of the mint engravers, maybe John Rutlinger.

The gold silhouette and enamel phoenix pendant jewel now in the British Musuem also shows the same profile portrait and this likeness is attributed to Nicholas Hilliard. Hilliard was apprenticed to Robert Brandon, one of the Queen’s two Royal goldsmiths and married his daughter Alice Brandon. Brandon was also the City Chamberlain of London and he supplied the Queen with gold chains, gold and silver gilt cups, bowls and other forms of plate which were given as gifts by the Queen to members of her court and to foreign princes and diplomats. Nicolas Hilliard served an apprenticeship of seven years to Brandon in the 1560’s and was elected a freeman of the Goldsmiths Company in 1569. His Wrst known miniature of the Queen is dated 1572 and by this date he had become goldsmith and portrait miniaturist to the Queen. His portrait of Mary Queen of Scots was most likely to have been done in 1576 prior to his leaving for France for two years, and while she was being held in captivity by the Earl of Shrewsbury. From the 1570’s the government sought to manipulate the image of Queen Elizabeth as an object of veneration and devotion, in order to deliberately replace the prereformation cult of the Virgin and Saints with their attendant images and religious ceremonies. It could therefore be possible that these plaques were made to be used as official model portraits of the two Queens and attributed to a collaborative association between the mint and Hilliard working as a goldsmith.

[73] A Japanese Stag’s Antler Pipe Case SenryuZutsu Realistically Carved to Simulate a Length of Bamboo Signed in a Gourd Shaped Seal Hakusai with a Rectangular Seal Mark Below Edo Period – First Half 19th Century

s i z e : 21 cm long – 8¼ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection Known generally as Kiseru Zutsu pipe cases are fine examples of Japanese decorative art that combines a beauty of form with a distinct function. Made in many different materials such as papier-mâché, wood, ivory, bone and stags antler, single section pipe cases are called Senryu-Zutsu. Tobacco smoking began in Japan at the end of the 16th or beginning of the 17th century and was introduced by the Portuguese and also brought back from Korea by soldiers of the Hideyoshi campaign. In spite of efforts by the government to suppress it the habit soon became general amongst men and women. Originally the pipe Kiseru was very large and sometimes carried over the shoulder and actually used as a weapon in brawls. It gradually dwindled to tiny proportions with a bowl capable of holding only a pinch of tobacco about the size of a pea. Consequently these tiny pipes have often been mistaken by ignorant Westerners to be opium pipes. The smoker inhaled a few whiffs and then emptied his pipe to refill, and two or three refills was considered sufficient. Ladies used a longer pipe of around 18 to 24 inches whereas a man’s was only 6 to 8 inches. They were often engraved or inlaid and fitted to pipe sheath such as this example, which would be either thrust under the girdle, or together with a tobacco pouch, hung from it by means of a cord and netsuke.

[74] A Rare Carved Ivory Indian Rajasthan Chess Piece a Pawn Depicting a Woman Kneeling Dressed in a Full Skirt and Bodice Her Long Hair Tucked Behind Her Ears and Flowing Down Her Back Old green staining visible to the base the ivory now dark with age Fine smooth silky patina The hands missing the breaks rubbed smooth Mid 17th Century s i z e : 5.2 cm high, 3 cm dia. – 2 ins high, 1¼ ins dia. The elements of early chess were shaped in imitation of warfare and in particular of Indian warfare, but it was primarily a game albeit one with symbolic overtones, which helped to imbue it with status and prestige. The game was modelled on a traditional historical image of war, one in which the elephant corps remained important, and not on a close observation of contemporary military reality. As a complex game chess has proved to be extraordinarily stable. Hundreds of years have passed bringing new patterns of thought and leisure, as well as computer programs, and yet the rules of chess have altered hardly at all.

[75] An Ancient Fragment of an Assyrian Basalt Stone Relief Thought to Depict King Sargon II Who Ruled 721–705 bc 8th Century bc

s i z e : 18.5 cm high, 13 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 7¼ ins high, 5 ins wide, 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection William Ohly, Exhibited Berkeley Galleries London 1947 Thence by descent to Ernest Ohly Sold by Ernest Ohly to Dr Presenger in 1995 Ex Private English collection acquired from Dr Presenger early 2000’s This portrait relief of an ancient ruler shows him wearing an earring of the classic Assyrian type with a curled hairstyle intermediate between that of previous reigns and the shorter squared cut which became fashionable in the 7th century. Assyrian sculpture consists mostly of stone panels which originally lined the walls of huge royal palaces. They were carved between about 870 and 620 bc and constitute one of the most eloquent witnesses of ancient Mesopotamian civilisation, an empire which stretched at its greatest extent from the Mediterranean to the Gulf, from the mountains of Iran and Turkey to the deserts of Egypt and Arabia. Sargon II ruled between 721 and 705 bc. He seized the Assyrian throne by force and founded a new capital city named after himself Dur-Sharrukin, the Fortress of Sargon, which is now known as Khorsabad in Iraq. The city included a magnificent palace, a grandiose and enormous construction that expressed the king’s desire for order through buildings laid out on a grid plan, all profusely decorated with carved stone panels. The complex was discovered by a French archaeologist, Paul Émile Botta in the mid 19th century and many artefacts are now in the Louvre Museum, although many of the panels were removed from the walls in antiquity as the city and palace were abandoned upon the king’s death on the battlefield. Although the design, style and subject matter are unmistakably Assyrian it is reported that Sargon II mentions deporting skilled workmen from conquered states to Assyria, and the quality of the carving and exceptionally high relief of the stone sculpture of this period probably reflects the experience of men from Syrian cities like Carchemish where an independent school of sculptors was accustomed to producing sophisticated panels and bas reliefs in harder stone.

[76] Bering Sea Yupik Eskimo Inuit Carved Cedar Wood and Walrus Ivory Short Fishing Spear for use at an Ice Hole when catching Tomcod 19th Century

s i z e : 38 cm long – 15 ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex European collection Acquired Portobello Road London 1980’s This short spear is used to catch fish through holes made in the ice. It has a central point of walrus ivory flanked by springy side prongs with wedge like tabs that close round the body of the fish once it has been impaled. Tomcod fishing is a Winter activity conducted in shallow water through freshly made holes in the ice. These are made by chopping with ivory or antler tipped ice picks, then clearing out the floating ice with netted scoops. The tomcod are abundant from November onwards, but the North winds blow very cold rendering it uncomfortable to remain for hours in one position on the ice. To remedy this the fishermen arrange small shelters of grass mats held on a framework of sticks to the windward side of the ice hole. In the late 19th century an Inuit fisherman could catch up to 200 pounds of tomcod in a day, but by the 20th century, 10 to 40 pounds was the average result of a good day’s fishing.

[77] Bering Strait Inuit Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Amuletic Hunting Cord Attacher in the Form of a Seal’s Head Old smooth creamy-brown patina 19th Century

s i z e : 1.5 cm high, 2 cm wide, 3.4 cm deep – ½ ins high, ¾ ins wide, 1¼ ins deep Harpoon lines are made by cutting a continuous spiral strip from the hide of the bearded seal whose skin is of the proper thickness. The width of the cut determines the strength of the thong, seal harpoon line generally has a tensile strength of several hundred pounds and a width of four millimetres in diameter. Attachers were most often used for ice hole, or floe edge hunting for seals which begins as soon as the ice is firm enough for travel. Attachers keep the line from slipping through the hand, and the animal effigy positioned close to the harpoon and its quarry placates and honours the spirit or inua of the seal enabling it to be more easily caught by the hunter.

[78] An Ancient Celtic Iberian Large Bronze Belt Plaque and Clasp Decorated with Fine Damascene Silver Work in Celtic Scrolling Motifs 2nd Century bc

s i z e : 8 cm high, 21.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep (max) – 3¼ ins high, 8½ ins wide, ¾ ins deep (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of Eric Vaule Connecticut USA Acquired 1970’s Ex European collection The Celts represent one of the common origins of the variegated Europe of today. First centred in Austria and Switzerland, Celtic culture spread both east and west. In western Europe the Celts occupied Gaul, southern England and parts of western Italy. By 450 bc they were in Spain, the western most region of the vast territory that they occupied, and here they co-existed and assimilated with the indigenous Iberian population. Celto-Iberian art was distinguished by the unique use of both silver and gold Damascene work and this technique was used to spectacular effect on weapons and large belt buckles such as this example. Probably made as an object of prestige for the warrior elite of the Iron Age, they were spread throughout Iberia in the form of gifts and then imitated by the craftsmen employed by the elite. This profoundly decorative art form remained deeply rooted in Iberian culture until Spain became a Roman province around 140 bc.

[79] A Rare Large Ancient Danurian Celtic Woman’s Bronze Anklet Formed of Two Lost Wax Separately Cast Sections each made of Two Hollow Cubist Egg Shapes 3rd Century bc

s i z e : 10 cm high, 17 cm dia. – 4 ins high, 6¾ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Irish Private collection Acquired from Ward & Co Works of Art LLC, New York, U.S.A. 1990’s c f : A smaller example cast with three sections in Vienna Naturhistorisches Museum From the first half of the 3rd century bc onwards, anklets made from hollow egg shapes of distinct cubist appearance became the main item of jewellery denoting women of high status and rank among the Danubian Celts of Central Europe, and as the century progressed the anklets slowly developed into exaggerated oversized forms. It is often forgotten that for five centuries before Christianity the Celts made up the largest known family of European peoples outside the Mediterranean. This was a fact reported by the ancient Classical Greeks and Romans who describe the Celtic invasions into their territories, and who credit them occupying huge swathes of central Europe.

[80] Rare Melanesia New Ireland Namatanai Area Ceremonial Limestone Kulap a Male Ancestor Figure Traces of original stippled pigmented ornament Repairs to waist consistent with ritual use 19th Century

s i z e : 48.5 cm high – 19 ins high p rov e na nc e : Acquired Christies London, Important Tribal Art, June 1984 Lot 41 Ex Private English collection These enigmatic carved limestone figures appear to have been restricted to the Namatanai district of south-eastern central New Ireland. Known as Kulap they represent recently deceased ancestors and were created by specialists to serve as ritual temporary homes for the spirits of the dead who might otherwise wander and cause havoc among the living. The images were housed in small shrines constructed in the forest outside the village where only men were allowed to view them, although women could gather outside the shrine to mourn. As they all vary in size and attributes, it is thought that they were made to portray specific individual ancestors whose supernatural powers could be harnessed to benefit living descendants. The figures were believed to contain the soul of the deceased whom they represented and would be removed in secrecy from the shrine and ritually broken and discarded once the period of mourning was over in order to symbolically release the spirit into the realm of the ancestors. The Reverend George Brown provided the earliest recorded history of these figures and noted that with the advent of Christianity on New Ireland the Kulap figures and associated cult of the dead had virtually disappeared by 1910.

[81] An Ancient Roman Marble Head of a Young Satyr or Pan with Smiling Face Displaying his Pointed Ears and Two Small Horns to his Forehead 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e : 24 cm high, 16.5 cm wide, 20 cm deep – 9½ ins high, 6½ ins wide, 8 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection William H. Stokes (1921–2015) Acquired 1960’s–70’s UK Art Market Satyrs were the followers and servants of the god Bacchus, the Greek god Dionysos. They are the spirits of the wild mountains and valleys, and are portrayed in ancient mythology as bestial in their desires and behaviour. Consequently they were given the bodies of horses or goats with human heads having horse-like ears or horns. Dionysos was a popular deity, and like Bacchus, was the potent god of wine, vegetation and ecstasy. His early wildness and his worship as the great remover of inhibitions was gradually tamed by the development of seasonable festivals, processions and sacred drama. As the god of fertile nature he is depicted on wine cups holding a vine branch while a horse tailed satyr pipes to him on a double flute. Pan was the favourite of Dionysos. The son of Hermes, he was born in Arcadia where he played on the syrinx and haunted caves and rural idylls accompanied by revelling satyrs. He was playful and energetic, but irritable especially if disturbed during his siesta.

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