Sages Saints & Satyrs

Page 1

Sages Saints & Satyrs

Suite 744, 2 Old Brompton Road, London sw7 3dq, uk Tel : 020 7689 7500 Mobile : 07836684133 / 07768236921 Email : Website :

[1] Finely Carved Netherlandish Alabaster Devotional Relief Depicting Saint Agnes of Rome Her Attributes the Lamb and Martyrs Palm Standing Beside St Stephen the First Christian Martyr Holding the Gospel Book and Palm Leaf and St John the Baptist Dressed in His Camel Skin Robe Holding the Cross and Book with a Lamb at His Feet An old paper label to the reverse Mathias Komor Works of Art New York H941 and in Red Lacquer an old inventory No: 1T11.14 67.59 Mid 16th Century

s i z e : 22.5 cm high, 21 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 8¾ ins high, 8¼ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep / 25.5 cm high – 10 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Acquired from Mathias Komor (1909 – 1984) a Dealer in New York working from 1930 to 1984 Ex Private English collection House altars came in many diVerent sizes and formats, the smallest could be carried in the pocket or in little cases whilst the larger examples were intended for meditative prayer in a Wxed place of worship such as a chapel. Originally destined for private devotion this expressive relief was most probably placed in a niche. The importance of the virgin martyrs as a focus for feminine devotion increased in the late Middle Ages and Saint Agnes was seen as an exemplar for virginous girls and the defence of chastity. Traditionally shown in art since the Middle Ages as a young girl in Xowing robes with a lamb, a pun on her name based on the Latin word Agnus meaning chaste or pure, St Agnes was the patron saint of betrothed couples, virgins and chastity. Espoused to Christ she was beyond the power of any man and so the phrase virgin in her case was another way of saying free woman. St Stephen is venerated as the Wrst martyr of Christianity and was, according to the Acts of the Apostles, a deacon in the early church at Jerusalem who aroused the enmity of members of various synagogues by his teachings. Accused of blasphemy at his trial he made a long speech denouncing the Jewish authorities who were sitting in judgement on him, and was then stoned to death. His martyrdom in 34 ad was witnessed by Saul of Tarsus, a Pharisee, who later became a follower of Jesus, known as Paul the Apostle. Saint John the Baptist was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early 1st century ad. He is revered as a major religious Wgure in both Christianity and Islam. Venerated as a saint and prophet, it is believed that he baptised Christ and some scholars believe that Jesus was Wrst a follower or disciple of John the Baptist.

[2] A Fine Indo-Portuguese Silver Filigree Rectangular Flat Topped Casket on Four Bracket Feet the Lace Like Openwork Silver Filigree with Floral and Foliate Motifs the Front with a Hinged Clasp a Silver Key in the Working Lock Attached by a Chain to One Handle Contained in original wooden travelling box Mid 17th Century

s i z e : 8.5 cm high, 14 cm wide, 9 cm deep – 3¼ ins high, 5½ ins wide, 3½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Dutch collection c f: A similar larger silver Wligree casket in the State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg Filigree silver objects have been produced since 2000 bc, and have been documented as being made as jewellery in Upper Mesopotamia since the 15th century where it is known as Talkari meaning wire thread work. The technique of Wligree consists of twisting two or more threads of silver or gold that can be moulded and bent into elaborate designs to create lace like patterns which by their pierced nature require minimal amounts of precious metal in their manufacture. The marvellous intricate decorative and elaborate Xoral and foliate designs suited the aesthetic ideals of the Moghuls and Indian indigenous elite, and an ever growing demand in the 17th century was met by an abundance of a highly skilled Indian workforce practising a centuries old tradition of gold and silversmithing. From the major production centres of Goa, Karimnagar and Orissa these exotic and costly objects were exported to feed the expanding European market and were often commissioned from Golden Goa by courtly collectors for their cabinets of curiosities.

[3a] A Rare Papua New Guinea Trobriand Kiriwina Island Massim Carved Black Palm Betel Nut Mortar Carved with Interlocking Scrolls InWlled White Lime the Body Tapering to a Loop Handle with Pierced Fins The base with inventory number 4738 and New Guinea Wbstr 1898. P. painted in yellow Mid 19th Century

s i z e : 13.5 cm high, 5.5 cm wide, 5 cm deep – 5¼ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 2 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection W.D. Webster (1868 – 1913) Bicester, U.K. inv. no. 4738 Ex collection Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt-Rivers (1827 – 1900) Rushmore Dorset acquired from Webster in 1898 (in catalogue of the collection Vol. 8 pg. 2189) Thence by descent Sold Christies London 2nd October, 1990, lot 76 cf : A similar Betel Nut Mortar in the Barbier-Mueller collection Geneva, Switzerland, formerly in the Beasley collection inv. no. 4154 Kiriwina is the largest of the Trobriand Islands and the entire Massim region’s contact with the west intensiWed in the last decade of the 19th century. Many Christian missionary stations were established during this period and consequently artefacts from

the area were collected and taken back to Europe at this time, but most objects are now in museums and do not often appear on the open market. Betel nuts are the seed of the Areca palm and the main stimulant used on the islands, although locally grown tobacco is also used. The main ingredients needed for chewing betel are the nuts, the fruit or leaf of the betel plant and lime made by burning coral. People with good teeth crush the nut, add the betel plant fruit and a little lime taken from a pot with the aid of a lime spatula. However, the elders of the community with fewer teeth use a mortar and pestle to crush the betel nut. The art of the Trobriand Islands is distinguished by its reWned curvilinear style. Objects are carved from ebony, black palm and turtleshell and then decorated with incised motifs that are Wlled in with lime to accentuate the designs. The Massim believe that all human activities can be furthered or hindered by magic, and material objects can play a role in this. A lime spatula or betel nut mortar over which the appropriate magic has been performed can greatly aVect, even kill, a person to whom it is lent for use.

[3b] A Rare Papua New Guinea Trobriand Kiriwina Island Massim Carved Boat Shaped Betel Nut Mortar

Decorated with a scroll pattern to the border infilled with white lime the side with inventory number in white 4741 and New Guinea Webstr. 1898. P. in yellow Standing on a Pitt Rivers Museum base inscribed in yellow: Mortar for Crushing the Betel Nut in Form of a Boat Ornamented with Broken Coil Pattern New Guinea Mid 19th Century s i z e : 7 cm high, 15 cm wide, 3 cm deep – 2¾ ins high, 6 ins wide, 1¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection W.D. Webster (1868 – 1913) Bicester, U.K. inv. no. 4741 Ex collection Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt-Rivers (1827 – 1900) Rushmore, Dorset acquired from Webster in 1898 (in the catalogue of the collection Vol. 8, pg. 2189) Thence by descent Sold Christies, London, 2nd October, 1990, lot 76

[4] A Regency English Silver Mounted Sailor’s Work Coconut Cup Carved with Rare Scene of Bare Knuckle Boxing Match and a Frigate Hope and her Anchor and an Armourial Hallmarked London 1807

s i z e : 17.5 cm high, 13 cm dia. (max) / 6¾ ins high, 5 ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Walter and Mary Hayes Burns, North Mymms Park, Hertfordshire Thence by descent Natural discipline is inherent in the nature of seafaring and common to ships and seaman everywhere. It owed almost nothing to the authority of oYcers and almost everything to the collective understanding of seaman. A ship at sea under sail depended utterly on disciplined teamwork and any seamen knew without thinking that at sea orders had to be obeyed for the safety of all. This was not a matter of unquestioning obedience, for those working aloft in the sails in particular had to exercise a great deal of initiative, but of intelligent co-operation in survival. This naval discipline rested on unstated consent, not force, and with competitive sports such as boxing, ship’s captains and navy commanders felt that they made physical conditioning more pleasant than compulsory drills which were engaged in half heartedly and considered by the sailors to be more work than play. Championships in boxing changed hands rapidly with sailor Champeens springing up overnight having bested all comers in their own ship. Ship’s boxers also gave exhibitions and competed in boxing matches ashore whenever possible, and it was thought that such bouts did much to publicise the Navy amongst young men.

[5] A Collection of Five Japanese Carved Ivory Netsuke A. Carved Ivory Netsuke of a Large Fierce Shishi Temple Dog Climbing Upon a Tama Late Edo Period Early 19th Century s i z e : 4 cm high, 2.5 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 1 ins wide, 1¼ ins deep B. Carved Ivory Netsuke of a Grimacing Tengu Mask having a Phallic Crooked Nose the Startled Staring Eyes Inlaid with Horn A two character signature between the Himotoshi to reverse : Hannya. Shuzan Late Edo Period Early 19th Century s i z e : 4 cm high, 2.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 1 ins wide, ¾ ins deep C. Carved Ivory Netsuke of a Puppy Dog Gnawing at an Overlarge Hat Takuhatsugasa Woven of Rice Straw and Worn by Mendicant Buddhist Monks Fine detail to reverse Meiji Period (1868 – 1912) Late 19th Century s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 5.5 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 1 ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep D. Carved Ivory Netsuke of a Wild Dog Yamainu Resting its Front Paws on a Large Ball its Eyes Inlaid with Horn Late Edo Period Early 19th Century s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 3 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 1½ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 1 ins deep E. Carved Ivory Netsuke of a Long Haired Chin a Noble Japanese Spaniel Lying on a Fan Formed from a Palm Leaf the Eyes Inlaid with Horn Meiji Period (1868 – 1912) Late 19th Century s i z e : 1.5 cm high, 5.5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – ½ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 4cm deep p rov e na nc e : All Wve netsuke are from an English Private collection The function of the netsuke was to act as a toggle or counterpoise at the opposite end of the cord which held the inro or other small accessory which dangled from the girdle. Originally a small gourd performed this task sometimes acting as an amulet and later on used as a Xask for sake. This appears to have come into use in the 16th century and in the early Edo period, together with other small articles, it was suspended from the girdle by a ring made of ivory. At the end of the 17th century the custom of hanging inro and money purses Kinchaku on a cord from seals imported from China and pierced with a hole to take the cord was well established. The Japanese carvers needing new employment increasingly began to turn their attention to these small objects. However, for some time netsuke do not seem to have been worn by the Samurai classes, but were cultivated by the merchants who prized them together with the tobacco pouch, just as much as the Samurai prized their swords. By 1781, in a list of artisans compiled by Inaba Michitatsu, Wfty seven carvers of netsuke are given, among whom are a shint̄0 and several Buddhist priests.

[6] Rare Pair of Late Gothic English Poppy Head Carved Oak Pew Ends with Three Bishops Wearing Their Mitres Symbolic of the Trinity Acacia leaves carved to reverse The other carved with foliate Acanthus Probably Suffolk Old worn smooth polished brown patina Circa 1450

s i z e : 44 cm high, 36 cm wide, 5.5 cm deep – 17¼ ins high, 14¼ ins wide, 2¼ ins deep 44 cm high, 37 cm wide, 6.5 cm deep – 17¼ ins high, 14½ ins wide, 2½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private SuVolk collection Ex Private Cotswolds collection Churches were not commonly furnished with permanent pews before the Protestant Reformation. The rise of the sermon as a central act of worship especially in Protestantism made the pew a standard item of church furniture. In some churches they were installed at the expense of the congregates and were their personal property, so that there was no public seating in the church. In these churches pew deeds recorded title to the pew and were used to convey them. Under this system they were originally purchased from the church and the purchase price went to the costs of building it. Ownership of the pews could sometimes be controversial and notices declaring that they were to be free in perpetuity were erected as a condition of building grants. Pews were inherited, but prestigious seating could be awarded to those who contributed large sums to the upkeep of the church. Certain areas were considered to be more desirable than others as they might oVer a better view of services and sermons or might make an individual or family more prominent and visible to the congregation. As attendance at church was then a legal requirement, the allocation of pews oVered a public visualisation of the local parish’s social hierarchy. The crowning feature of the pew in many SuVolk churches in the 15th century was the poppy or poupée head carved to each end either in the form of a trefoil with close knit foliage or with Wgures or animals of allegorical signiWcance. It is thought that the three Wgures wearing mitres could be representative of the Archbishops of London, York and Canterbury.

[7] Native American Plains Lakota Sioux Warriors Ceremonial Dyed White Tailed Deer and Porcupine Guard Hair Roach with a Brass Anthropomorphic Roach Spreader Attached to the Top with Deer Skin Thongs Late 19th Century

s i z e : approx 44 cm long, 34 cm wide – 17¼ ins long, 13¼ ins wide / 37 cm high – 14½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A. Warriors wore these Xamboyant roaches in the Grass and Hot Dance ceremonies. Made from dyed white deer tails, stiV moose or porcupine hair, the rows of tied hair were sewn together to form a U shaped base so that when it was Wtted over the crown of the head the hair fringes opened up like a cock’s comb. Warriors would grow a long scalp lock that was passed through the opening in the front of the roach to help secure it Wrmly. The back was then tied down by means of a buckskin thong fastened around the neck. Before 1870 roach spreaders were made of elk antler, after that they were fashioned from bone, brass, silver, wood, horn or rawhide. Their purpose was to spread the roach hairs apart so that it would appear to be more beautiful and to serve as a Wrm base to hold the scalp lock and any decorative feathers.

[8] Pair of Native American Central Plains Cheyenne Child’s Deer Hide Moccasins Decorated with Glass Seed Beads Sewn in Traditional Geometric Patterns Circa 1870 – 1890

s i z e : 12.5 cm long – 5 ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private West Country collection Before the coming of the white man, clothing was fashioned from the hides of elk, moose, buValo, mountain sheep and deer or antelope. Usually it was the women who were responsible for stretching, cleaning and tanning the hides although in some tribes these tasks were undertaken by the men. The cutting of the hides was done in a prescribed way according to the garment being made. Early moccasins were not usually decorated, but quill and beadwork adornment became common in the late 18th and 19th centuries, with beadwork largely replacing dyed porcupine quillwork by the 1850’s. Fashioned especially for a special ceremonial dress occasion, the designs on these small moccasins were meant as a talismanic protection against danger, and the loosely stitched hide soles allowed for the baby’s growth.

[9] Impressive Ancient Roman Eastern Empire Carved Marble Figure of an Imperial Eagle with Large Talons and Detailed Heavy Feathering Probably from a funerary monument 1st – 2nd Century ad

s i z e : 40 cm high, 30 cm wide, 22 cm deep – 15¾ ins high, 11¾ ins wide, 8¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex European Private collection Ex Private collection of a British Art Dealer The eagle was of great signiWcance to the Roman army and the symbol of an eagle was introduced by Marius as the standard of a Roman Legion. Carried on a pole by the aquilifer or eagle bearer a silver, or under the Empire, a golden eagle its wings spread out and with a thunderbolt between its talons led the force. In battle it was borne on the right wing of the legion and from the time of Augustus it bore the name and number of the legion, and a Xag and other ornaments such as medallions with portraits of emperors and generals were Wxed beneath it. Under the republic, during periods of peace, it was preserved in a small chapel beside the praetorium where it was held in religious veneration by the soldiers and regarded by them as aVording sanctuary. The God Jupiter’s primary sacred animal is the eagle which held precedence over all birds in the taking of auspices. The eagle was the God’s personal messenger and carried the youth Ganymede to Mount Olympus where he served as Jupiter’s cup bearer. As a symbol of Jupiter’s authority, a live captive eagle would be set free during the consecration of an Emperor. By Xying high into the air, the eagle was believed to carry the soul of the deiWed Emperor to heaven. Thus securing him a place amongst the Gods.

[10] Rare Nautilus Shell Indian Mughal Gujarati Gunpowder Flask Barutdan the Coiled Shell Overlaid with Architectural Reliefs in Mother of Pearl Set with Brass Pins the Top Inlaid in a Petal Shape with Red Mastic the Nozzle Formed from Six Waved Moon Shells Two brass attachments to the side for a belt loop The wood stopper a replacement Probably made for the internal Mughal market 17th Century

s i z e : 18.5 cm high, 16 cm wide, 11.5 cm deep – 7¼ ins high, 6¼ ins wide, 4½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Netherlands Private collection Firearms introduced to the subcontinent of India by Muslim armies in the 16th century changed forever the ways in which Indians fought battles and hunted. These new weapons also provided Indian craftsmen with a new opportunity to demonstrate their remarkable ability to embellish and adorn. Nowhere is this skill more evident than in these naturalistic and highly decorative, but functioning powder horns. The shells of the Nautilus have been used in the decorative arts for centuries and the Gujarati artisans found it a particularly appealing material. The pearly layers of the shell lend themselves to delicate sculpting and carving and although an essential hunting accessory, carrying charge powder for a musket, the exoticism of the material enriched the fashionable attire worn by the nobles of the Mughal court.

[11] Pair of Historical French Revolutionary Lead Medallions Commemorating the Siege of the Bastille July 14 1789 and the Arrival of the King in Paris 6th October 1789 Marked Andrieu. B for Bertrand Andrieu (1761 – 1822) Framed in original gilt brass roundels Reputedly made from the lead stripped from the roof of the Bastille Circa 1790 – 1800

s i z e : 8.5 cm dia. – 3¾ ins dia. / frame: 13 cm dia. – 5 ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection of French Revolutionary artefacts The British ambassador in Paris at the time of the Revolution, Lord Dorset, sent a dispatch to the Foreign OYce surveying the main events of the day of the 14th July 1789 In the morning of Tuesday 14th July the Hospital of Invalids, the veterans retirement home, was summoned to surrender and was taken possession of after a very slight resistance. All the cannon, small arms and ammunition found therein were immediately seized upon and everyone who chose to arm himself was supplied with what was necessary. The cannon were disposed of in different parts of the town. In the evening a large detachment with two pieces of cannon went to the Bastille to demand the ammunition that was there, the garde bourgeoisie not being then sufficiently provided. A flag of truce was sent on before and was answered from within, notwithstanding which the governor (the marquis de Launey) contrary to all precedent, fired upon the people and killed

several. This proceeding so enraged the populace that they rushed to the very gates with a determination to force their way through if possible. The governor agreed to let in a certain number of them on condition that they should not commit any violence. These terms being acceded to a detachment of about forty in number advanced and were admitted; but the drawbridge was immediately drawn up again and the whole party instantly massacred. This breach of honour, aggravated by so glaring an act of inhumanity, excited a spirit of revenge and tumult such as might naturally be expected: the two pieces of cannon were immediately placed against the gate and very soon made a breach which, with the disaffection that as is supposed prevailed within, produced a sudden surrender of that fortress... Thus my Lord the greatest Revolution that we know anything of has been effected with, comparatively speaking – if the magnitude of the event is considered – the loss of a very few lives: from this moment we may consider France as a free country; the King a very limited monarch, and the nobility as reduced to a level with the rest of the nation.

[12] A Rare French Revolutionary Cap Badge or Button Depicting the Storming of the Bastille Composed of Cut and Painted Paper with Miniature Metal Cannon Entitled Prise de la Bastille le 14 Juillier 1789 In original gilt wood frame Circa 1790 – 1800 s i z e : 6 cm dia. – 2½ ins dia. / frame : 16.5 cm x 16.5 cm – 6½ ins x 6½ ins p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection of French Revolutionary artefacts

[13] Rare Polynesian Royal Hawaiian Whale Tooth Pendant Lei Niho Palaoa with Old Braided and Finely Plaited Olonå Fibre Cords Fine smooth golden patina Early 19th Century

s i z e : Tooth Pendant : 8.5 cm long, 3¼ ins long / 54.5 cm long, 21½ ins long (with attached cord) c f : John Hayter’s 1824 Portrait of Hawaiian Chief Boki and his wife Liliha painted when they visited England with the King and Queen of Hawaii. Liliha is portrayed wearing a Lei Niho Palaoa of this size and shape Like the crowns of European royalty, hook shaped pendants made from the teeth of sperm whales were worn by Hawaiian Ali’i as marks of noble birth. They served as visual symbols of exalted status and could be worn by persons of high rank of both genders. Often worn on necklaces made from tightly braided coils of human hair in multiple strands this example is strung with Wnely plaited and braided Olonå Wbres. Touchardia Latifolia is commonly known as Olonå in Hawaiian and is a species of Xowering shrub that belongs to the nettle family. It has always been cultivated on Hawaii and was considered one of the Wnest grades of Wbre, its intertwining strands making it one of the strongest natural Wbres on earth. It was often used as cordage on the wrist loop of påhoa daggers, and for fastening sharks teeth on the heads of Leiomano. Lei Niho Palaoa were worn as formal regalia as the 19th century Hawaiian historian David Malo has written: in battle or on occasions of ceremony and display. The name of these pendants translates as whale tooth necklace which was the preferred material used in the early 19th century when it could only be obtained through the chance strandings of sperm whales as they passed by on their annual migrations. Archaeologists have found other pendants in shell, bone and coral which indicates that it is the distinctive hook shaped form of the pendant, rather than the material, which serves as the symbol of chieXy authority.




[14] An Interesting Collection of Ancient Roman and Greek Theatrical Cast Bronze Attachments and a Silver Fibula all in the Form of Classic Tragic and Comedic Masks Please see website for description size and provenance Masks were an indispensable part of the equipment of a Greek actor. Their use goes back to the festivals of Dionysus in which the face was painted with lees of wine or with vermilion or covered with masks made of leaves or tree bark. The development of drama led to the invention of artistic masks of painted linen which concealed not only the face, but the whole head, a device said to have been invented by Aeschylus. The opening for the eyes was not larger than the pupil of the actor concealed under the mask. Similarly in the masks of tragedy the hole for the mouth was only a little larger than suYced to let the sound pass through, while the comedy masks had lips distorted far apart, and in the form of a round hole so as to make the voice louder. By moulding and painting them in diVerent ways and variously arranging the hair and the beard, the masks were made to represent many diVerent types of character of both sexes. The expression was made to agree with the dominant nature of the acting role. Roman masks were not introduced on stage until the 2nd century bc and were not generally used before the time of the celebrated actor called Roscius, an older contemporary of Cicero. After this period the only actors without masks were those who performed mimes. Admission was free to the theatre as was the case with all the entertainments intended for the people. Even children were admitted and women were generally present at the performance of tragedies, but from that of comedies those of the upper classes stayed away. The Wrst aim of Greek comedy was to make men laugh, but beneath it lay a more serious and patriotic motive. The poet who was secured by license of the stage wished to bring to light and turn to ridicule the abuses and degeneracy of his time. The Wrst Roman stone theatre was built by Pompey in 55 bc and contained 17,500 seats, previously a wooden stage was erected in the circus for each performance and then taken down. The Roman stage was considerably longer and wider than the Greek as there were nearly as many actors as parts, and the Romans were very fond of splendid stage processions. Roman comedy had no chorus, with intervals being taken up by performances on the Xute. Comic and tragic plays consisted partly of passages of dramatic dialogue and partly of musical scenes called Cantica. Roman tragedy was founded entirely on that of the Greeks, and they too performed both comic and tragic plays at the great festivals of Dionysus.










[15] A Rare African Democratic Republic of Congo Kingdom of Congo Carved Stone Devotional Sculpture of the Virgin Mary Wearing a Long Tunic and Veil Praying in Adoration Old damage to feet and one hand 18th Century

s i z e   : 31 cm high, 12 cm wide, 9 cm deep – 12¼ ins high, 4¾ ins wide, 3½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Sothebys Tribal Art Auction 1989 Ex Private Swiss collection c f : A similar Wgure in the same Pose and Attire in cast Brass 17th or 18th Century was exhibited in Ora Pro Nobis: Étude sur les Crucifix Bakongo, Brussels 2011 Congo’s conversion to Christianity diVered greatly from other examples of Portuguese colonial conquest. It was not wholly imposed by them, but was encouraged by the Congolese rulers of the 16th century who used their traditional power to impose the Catholic faith upon their people. In 1625 the Jesuits opened a college in the capital to educate the royal elite, and to assist in the general conversion of the country the church encouraged the production of imagery adapting local creative potential to visual symbols of Christian iconography. Old popular practices merged into Christian concepts, a Christian sculpture or object became a Nkisi, a place inhabited by an ancestral spirit with the power to interfere in daily matters. Similarly salt replaced holy water in baptism ceremonies as a protector against sorcery. Eventually Christian imagery in the form of rosaries and cruciWxes took over the role of the ancient amulets and the cruciWx, the symbolic icon of all Portuguese missionary expeditions, became fully integrated into the philosophy of the ancient Congo. As with the Wgure of Christ on the cross, the Virgin Mary became a powerful force evocative of the power of the royal elite and of a subject’s deference. In this sculpture the Virgin is portrayed wearing lengths of cloth artfully draped and arranged in overlapping layers accessorised with several necklaces and bracelets on each wrist. She is made to resemble the elite women of the Congo as they are painted in mid 18th watercolours in the missionary journal Missione in prattica: Padri Cappuccini ne Requi di Congo, Angola, et adiacenti circa 1750 now in Biblioteca Civica Centrale, Turin. They appear wrapped in extravagant lengths of imported textiles wearing similar jewellery. The sculptor was evidently trying to evoke the connections between wealth, power and prestige and Christianity in 18th century Central Africa.

[16] Bering Strait Eskimo Inuit Barbed Whalebone Harpoon or Spear Head Point Old smooth soft creamy patina Attached an old label reading Beasley Collection Esquimaux Bering Strait 27.7.24 18th Century

s i z e   : 12.5 cm long – 5 ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Harry GeoVrey Beasley Cranmore Ethnographical Museum, Chislehurst Kent Ex collection Kenneth John Hewett (1919 – 1994) London The greatest challenge to Eskimo survival was not the cold, but the diYculty of obtaining food since the only food resources the Arctic provided in any quantity was mammals and Wsh. It required considerable ingenuity and eVort to obtain these not only because of the behaviour of the animals, but because ice, wind and the barren landscape made it extremely diYcult for the hunter to approach their prey. However, once caught these animals and Wsh provided the raw materials for not only food, but for clothing, shelter, fuel, utensils, tools and weapons. These small carefully barbed whalebone points were used on harpoons with feathered shafts that were thrown in conjunction with a throwing board when hunting smaller sea mammals in open water with drag and Xoat gear from a kayak.

[17] Bering Sea Eskimo Inuit Carved Walrus Ivory Double Polar Bear’s Head Talismanic Attachment or Toggle 19th Century

s i z e   : 1.5 cm high, 2 cm deep, 5 cm wide – ½ ins high, ¾ ins deep, 2 ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Ernest Ohly, Berkeley Galleries, London Acquired circa 1962 Thence by descent Predator-prey symbolism and the parallels between human and non-human hunters was an important part of Inuit life which was manifest in both their art and culture. It was imperative that the human hunter placate the spirits or Inua of his prey and that he understand the character and nature of his non-human competitors. This Wnely carved attachment may have been a talisman to protect the wearer from attack by a polar bear that could mistake the hunter for its favourite food, a seal. It certainly would have been believed to help provide the wearer with the cunningness of a polar bear when hunting.

[18] Late Medieval South Netherlands Brabant Carved Walnut Sculpture of the Virgin and Child Seated Her Dress a Mass of Crumpled Silken Drapery the Naked Child Standing on a Soft Cushion Attributed to the Master of Soeterbeeck Probably intended to stand alone as a single devotional image her head cut back to take a Crown some worm damage to the chair, lower dress and base her right hand now missing Circa 1470

s i z e : 120 cm high, 64 cm wide, 36 cm deep – 47¼ ins high, 25¼ ins wide, 14¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Netherlands collection Ex English collection c f  : The Metropolitan Musuem, New York, exhibits in gallery 305, a very similar sculpture in walnut depicting St Bridget of Sweden circa 1470 by the Master of Soeterbeeck, gift of Pierpoint Morgan 1916. Accession no. 16.13.197 Netherlandish sculpture from the late Middle Ages and early renaissance periods is comparatively disregarded compared to the fame enjoyed by the celebrated painters of the same period such as Jan van Eyck, Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder. In 1454 regulations were established to formalise the relations between the sculptors and painters guilds of Brussels, both sets of artists then regarded to be on an equal footing. These regulations also set out to control the burgeoning market for sculpted altarpieces so that the high standards Brussels wished to lay claim to were maintained. Brussels and Tournai being the principal centres of production with established traditional workshops. Known as Beautiful Madonna’s these Brabant sculptures set new standards with their aesthetic reWnement. Unlike the images of the Madonna in the earlier medieval Gothic period these Wgures no longer contained relics to prove their validity as devotional images. By their form alone they were able to express the religious signiWcance that had once been conveyed by the relic which became of secondary importance. Art became an aid to a believers religious devotion.

[19] Fine Large Ancient Egyptian Alabaster Funerary Jar with Straight Sided Cylindrical Body Surmounted by an Everted Rounded Rim below which is a notched band in raised relief in imitation of twisted rope Old Kingdom Circa 2686 – 2181 bc

s i z e : 21 cm high, 12.5 dia. – 8¼ ins high, 5 ins dia. p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private British collection acquired early 20th Century Thence by descent Alabaster or Egyptian calcite, was one of the favourite materials of Egyptian artists. It is a white or translucent stone which is a form of limestone, calcium carbonate, more accurately described as travertine. From the early Dynastic period onwards it was increasingly used for the production of funerary vessels. Fine stonework was the hallmark of the wealthy upper class with the royal workshops producing Wnely crafted calcite objects as gifts from the Pharaoh to his relatives and friends. Alabaster occurs principally in the area of Middle Egypt, the main Pharaonic source being Hatnub which is 18km south east of the ancient New Kingdom city of el-Amarna.

[20] Rare English Silver Mounted Pendant Bezoar Stone First Half 17th Century

s i z e : 3 cm high, 2.2 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, ¾ ins wide, ¾ ins deep The word bezoar derives from the Persian påd-zahr which literally means antidote and the stones which were usually found in the stomachs of goats, camels or cows, became valuable commodities as a universal antidote to poison. They were also famed for their magical healing properties, and it was the Andalusian physician Ibu Zuhr (died 1161) known as Avenzoar, who made the earliest description of bezoar stones as medicinal items. Pendant bezoar stones were regarded in the same manner as other forms of amuletic jewellery, they were believed to possess special prophylactic qualities oVering protection from ill-fortune and disease. Worn on a chain next to the skin they would impart their special beneWcial eVects to drive oV melancholy whilst worn. Worn on a long chain from the waist they could be inserted into a goblet of wine in order to detect any poison and then neutralise it.

[21] German Bavarian Amuletic Silver Mounted Rock Crystal Charivari worn on a belt to protect and aid the hunter Late 18th Century

s i z e : 5.5 cm long – 2¼ ins long p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private Netherlands collection The belief that the wearing of certain stones or natural materials such as coral and amber would protect the wearer remained strong throughout the centuries. The ancient Greeks called rock crystal Kruos meaning icy cold as they believed it to be a form of supercooled ice. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder thought it was water ice permanently frozen after great lengths of time, and this idea was supported by the fact that rock crystal is found near glaciers in the Alps. Pliny also knew of its ability to split light into a spectrum. In both antiquity and in later medieval times rock crystal was held to be talismanic and to have amuletic properties. In the Middle Ages it was thought to be particularly eYcacious in ensuring a copious lactation after child birth, and large beads shaped from rock crystal were often found in the graves of high status individuals of this period.

[22] A Rare Tibetan Gilded Copper Ceremonial Headdress Decorated with Images of the Five Celestial Buddhas who Represent the Primordial Buddha’s Divine Attributes Inlaid with coral and turquoise the sides displaying auspicious emblems Old repairs to cheek pieces 19th Century

s i z e : 42.5 cm high, 29 cm wide, 22 cm deep – 16¾ ins high, 11½ ins wide, 8¾ ins deep / 54 cm high, 21¼ ins high (with base) The image of the celestial crowned Buddha was interpreted diVerently by various Buddhist communities partly because tantric practices and rituals in Tibet were shrouded in mystery and secrecy in order to protect them from the more mainstream conservative devotees and also to give them added potency. In 1410 a renowned Buddhist teacher Lama Tsongkhapa, founder of the Gelukepa school in Tibet, placed a crown on the holy Jowo statue, the main image in the Jokhang temple in Lhasa. Known as the Jowo Buddha it is the most sacred statue in Tibet and is said to have been carried there by King Songtsen Gampo’s Chinese wife in the mid 7th century. Of Nirhanakaya form, the crown oVered by Lama Tsongkhapa transformed it into a Samboghakaya image and it has remained as such to the present day. The primordial Buddha who wears the crown is thus surrounded by the Wve celestial Buddha’s who represent his divine attributes and who are linked to the Wve elements, the Wve senses and the Wve key energy centres in the human body located in the head, mouth, heart, navel and feet. When worn in meditation by Vaj Rayana priests the ceremonial helmet transforms them into the very essence of the Wve Buddhas depicted seated around the rim. The triple dome of the headdress is said to be symbolic of the higher states of knowledge attained through tantric initiation and practice.

[23] Florentine Renaissance Carved Limestone Architectural Relief Fragment Depicting a Hadrianic ProWle Head Wearing a Crown of Laurel Leaves All´Antica Late 16th Century

s i z e   : 31 cm high, 26 cm wide, 14 cm deep – 12¼ ins high, 10¼ ins wide, 5½ ins deep / 38 cm high – 15 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Sold at a Country House auction 1960’s Acquired from Colefax and Fowler early 1960’s Ex Private English collection Hadrian (117 – 138 ad) Roman Emperor was a restless and ambitious man who was interested in architecture and who was passionate about Greece and Greek culture. Born into the Spanish elite he was adopted by the Emperor Trajan, his father’s cousin, and became his successor. As a ruler he consolidated and strengthened the empire rather than continuing Trajan’s campaigns. However, he was not the benevolent, cultured intellectual often portrayed, he was an experienced military leader and strategist who was on occasion breathtakingly ruthless. This suited the renaissance Florentine fascination with brutal combat and victory at all costs. The image of the warrior as hero in a Wgurative style together with classical and mythological themes was fashionable among patrician Florentine patrons. Architectural friezes and reliefs were produced in imitation of antiquity recalling the scenes on ancient sarcophagi. A sketch book known as the Codex Escurialensis contains drawings of the reliefs on ancient monuments such as the Arch of Constantine and Trajan’s column and this was used as a pattern book for both artists and architects. Many masons took antique relief sculpture as a source of compositional and Wgurative inspiration as well as an ideal with which to compete. In the artists sketchbooks the theme of combat often underpinned a vigorous, and often explicitly violet, ideal that predominated in the decorative imagery on Florentine public buildings.

[24] A Victorian Jewelled and Gilded Silver Seal Depicting a Blackamoor the Base with an Uncut Almandine Garnet the Turban with Large Baroque Pearl and Set with a Green Garnet the Moor Wearing Drop Earrings Set with Green Garnets His Eyes of Pearls his Shoulders set with Red and Green Garnets and a Pearl Contained in original fitted leather case Circa 1840 – 1860

s i z e : 5.5 cm high, 2¼ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex English Cotswolds collection The blackamoor was a favourite subject in European Renaissance art and was typically depicted as a male wearing a turban and covered with costly jewels. Considered exotic and richly decorative, the most famous Wgure is probably that in the Green Vaults in Dresden known as the Moor with emerald cluster created by Balthasar Permoser in 1724. The use of the moors head in art and as a heraldic device dates from the 13th century, and the term moro was intended to designate the Saracens, the Ethiopians, the Turks and the Libyans. The term has direct connections with the Venetian Empire and its commercial activities, as well as with the Middle East and the Crusader Knights Wghting for Salah ed Din.

[25] A Fine Large Victorian Scottish Dendritic Moss Agate Casket with Gilded Silver Mounts Set with Gems of Amethyst Garnet Peridot and Turquoise Circa 1860

s i z e : 11.5 cm high, 13 cm wide, 9 cm deep – 4½ ins high, 5 ins wide, 3½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Collections 12th Duke of Hamilton acquired at the Sale of the contents of Hamilton Palace 1882 Ex Private English collection Thence by descent Hamilton Palace is located north east of Hamilton in Lanarkshire and was the seat of the Dukes of Hamilton. It was demolished in 1927 as a result of dangerous subsidence caused by the removal of coal beneath the house. To try and forestall its demise, the 12th Duke of Hamilton sold the contents of the house in 1882 and this casket was one of the lots. Another was a Louis XIV armoire which is now in the Louvre Museum, Paris. Moss agate does not have banding and can be white or grey with brown, black or green moss or tree like dendritic inclusions, suggestive of vegetable growth. These dendrites are not organic, but inclusions of other minerals most often iron or manganese oxides. Agate is found worldwide, but Scotland is a proliWc source which produces interesting varieties. The sales catalogue for 1791 of the minerals dealer Le Brun describes agates that show dendrites some in the form of bushes composed of branches that divide into an infinity of very finely and elegantly drawn ramifications, others representing tree trunks in stronger lines and darker colours with a few leafless branches and he notes that his collectors were particularly fond of tree agate.

[26] A Japanese Jizai Okimono a Forged Ironwork Articulated Model of a Snake with Gilded Silver Eyes and Forked Tongue set it an Open Mouth Meiji Period (1868 – 1912) 19th Century s i z e : 42 cm long – 16½ ins long Having the undulating movement of a real snake, the body is composed of many cylindrical parts that move freely and enable the shape to be changed into any arrangement of Xowing curves or tight coils. Forged iron articulated animals started to be made in the mid Edo period of the 18th century. A Wgure of a dragon, now in the Tokyo National Museum, is inscribed with the name My ̄ochin Kis ̄ozai and the date 1713. His family were famous as makers of arms and armour, sword Wttings and equestrian equipment, their history in trade extending back to the Muromachi period, (1392 – 1573). Originally the Jizai were made as souvenirs for the daimyo and as a way of advertising their skills to potential customers for armour, but with the advent of peace in Japan during the mid Edo period, the ornamental ironwork pieces became more important products. The detailed Wne workmanship of the articulated jizai, at which the Japanese craftsmen excelled, captured the eye of 19th century Western visitors and an overseas export market began to be developed. During the late 19th century the armourers and metal-smiths were prohibited by law from manufacturing swords and many workshops closed with their main source of income terminated. Some of the iron workers turned their attention to the production of jizai okimono and for a while trade Xourished, but by the outbreak of the First World War production had all but stopped.

[27] A Japanese Carved Cherry Wood and Brass Mounted Scholar’s or Sage’s StaV Carried by Jur ̄ojin One of the Seven Gods of Fortune 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 131 cm long – 51½ Jur̄ojin is the Japanese god of longevity who originated in the Chinese Taoist immortal The Old Man of the South Pole and is identiWed as the personiWcation of the Southern Polar Star. He is a popular subject of Japanese ink-wash paintings in which he is always depicted as carrying a wooden staV from which sometimes hangs a scroll. On the scroll is written the lifespan of all living things, and it is often identiWed as a Buddhist Sutra or religious text.

[28] Two African Cote d’Ivoire Baule Spirit Figures Finely Carved with Detailed CoiVure ScariWcation Marks Carefully placed Limbs and Delicate Faces Probably bush spirit figures Old encrusted sacrificial patina with patches of polished handled wear Late 19th – Early 20th Century

s i z e : 30.5 cm high – 12 ins high and 29 cm high – 11½ ins high p rov e na nc e : Acquired 1967 from Herbert Rieser New York Ex Private London collection of the Late Pen (Pendarell) Kent (1937 – 2013) Director of Bank of England, Mastermind of the London Approach, Working for I.M.F. Organised Funding for Eurotunnel, lifelong collector of African Art Baule sculpture is one of West Africa’s most signiWcant art traditions which inXuenced many 20th century artists notably Amedeo Modigliani. To western eyes the essence of Baule style is a balanced asymmetry that excites whilst also suggesting stability and calm. The faces are tilted gently to one side whilst one eye is lower than the other, the hair is Wnely carved in zig zag ridges, and the downcast eyes together with the careful holding of their hands against their bodies all give a feeling of peaceful introspection. Baule Wgures are carved to represent two types of spirit: spirit spouses or mates in the other world or bush spirits who inhabit nature beyond the edge of human settlements. Both are similar in form and each type is referred to by the Baule as waka san, a person in the wood. Figural bush spirits are carved as intermediaries who may intervene in a person’s life to confer clairvoyance enabling them to divine through trance dances. They are also used to localise troublesome spirits and in this instance the Wgures receive libations and develop an encrusted surface as have these examples. Sometimes these Wgures become important spirit helpers and are displayed near the diviner during a public performance.

[29] An Orientalist German Silver Gilt Mounted and Lined Maple Wood SnuV Box the Lid with a Wne Painted Scene of Turkish Merchants Wearing Turbans One Smoking a Long Stemmed Pipe with their Ship and Ladies on the Harbour Quay by the Bosphorus Istanbul After Jean-Baptiste Vanmour (1671 – 1737) The silver gilt lined interior with scratch mark 1820 Early 19th Century

s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 8.5 cm dia. – 1 ins high, 3¼ ins dia. …. the city of the Sultans, the Queen of the East, Imperial Stamboul…. Frances Anne Vane Londonderry, wrote in her A Narrative of Travels to Vienna, Constantinople, Athens, Naples etc, in 1842. For centuries foreign artists focused on the combination of the shimmering waters of the Bosphorus, the Golden Horn, the Blue Mosque, and the Orientalist turbaned Wgures of Istanbul producing paintings, watercolours and etchings that paid homage to the historical richness and signiWcance of the city. JeanBaptise Vanmour was an artist and eyewitness biographer of the 18th century Ottoman Empire. Working mostly for diplomats and their circle he painted historically accurate studies of all aspects of Ottoman life in the multi-national Istanbul. His representations of the 18th century Ottoman world spread across Europe and shaped the image of the Turks, their world and Istanbul for a long time.

[30] A Fine Regency Gold Mounted Bamboo Walking Cane the Top with Raised Decoration of Scottish Thistles and a Latin Engraved Inscription Caelum Non Animum Mutant Qui Trans Mare Currunt Gold eyes to the shaft for a wrist thong Circa 1810 – 20 s i z e : 100 cm long / 39 ¼ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection The Latin inscription on this walking cane is taken from Horace, the Roman poet of 65 bc to 8 bc. It is a line from the Epistles Book I, XI line 27 which was published around 20 bc. The poem claims that the beneWts of travel and tourism are illusory, it is one’s philosophy of life and how it is lived that really matters. Horace is the most quoted of Latin poets and his philosophy of moderation had particular appeal in the late 18th and early 19th century. His position as one of the greatest of the ancient Roman poets rests on the perfection of form shown by his poetry and on the depth and detail of his self-portraiture; he shows himself to be one of the most likeable of men, urbane, humorous, tolerant, observant, a lover of the good things in life, and a lover of his country. In his lifetime his works were much appreciated by his fellow countrymen and the Odes had become a school text book before he died.

[31] Set of Six Ottoman Turkish Sherbet Spoons with Faceted Coral Stems Inlaid with Cut Steel and Balleen and with carved Walrus Ivory Bowls Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 21.5 cm long – 8½ ins long (each) It is said that sets of exotic sherbet spoons were exclusively produced by the craftsmen of the workshops in the grounds of the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul for the use of the Grand Viziers at their meetings in the Divan Kubbe Alti, but it is known from Orientalist paintings that the ladies of the harem also used these beautiful spoons for their afternoon refreshments. These consisted of fragrant compotes of dried fruit known as hosaf which would be eaten from a communal bowl with the aid of a spoon.

[32] An Ancient British Celtic Sandstone Head of a Man with Long Ridged Locks of Hair Typical Oval Face a Moustache above His Top Lip 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e   : 20.5 cm high, 13.5 cm wide, 12 cm deep – 8 ins high, 5¼ ins wide, 4¾ ins deep / 26.5 cm high – 10½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Cambridge Private collection c f : Pagan Celtic Britain by Dr Anne Ross; illus: 39b The Celtic cult of the head was widespread in Britain before the Romans and these austere carved stone heads often functioned as surrogates for actual decapitated human heads that had been taken in battle. The Celts regarded the head as the seat of the soul and thus capable of independent being. Its powers protected against evil and were a source of supernatural wisdom. The Celtic veneration of the head laid the foundation for the later Christian belief in the head as the locus of the soul, which partly explains the later reverence for the heads of saints and their preservation as sacred relics.

[33] A Set of Russian Tula Miniature Steel Fire Irons on Stand Decorated with Chased Floral Motifs Early 19th Century

s i z e : 10 cm high, 5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 4 ins high, 2 ins wide, 1½ ins deep Tula is a region in Russia in the Sredenerosky hills to the south of Moscow whose capital town of Tula has been famous for the remarkable steel work it has produced since the construction of the armoury by Peter the Great in 1712. The mastery of the craftsmen and their diamond cutting of the steel works of art, together with arms and armour, was unrivalled throughout Europe. Each object was chased, blued, chiselled, gilded, inlaid or pierced like parade weapons. The armourers spent decades acquiring the original skills and techniques apprenticed to masters, and in return for the noninterrupted supply of weapons to the government, the right to produce non-military luxury items was granted as a privilege to them. This privilege contributed greatly to the Xourishing of the art of Tula steel making and the armourers were then also given the right to produce various items at home and trade in them without being taxed either in Russia or abroad. After the royal visit of Catherine II to the armoury in 1787, Tula’s distinctive style came into its own and its products became highly sought after. The Tula masters

often presented their best works to the Empress, but she also bought articles at their annual Sophia trade fair in Tsarskoe Selo. Catherine the Great’s passion for Tula ware was so great that she merged her collection with that of her crown jewels and placed it in a special gallery at the Winter Palace. Enjoying Imperial patronage the armourers continued to produce exceptional steel decorative wares that had once originated as a sideline to armaments. Tula ware was admired so much in Europe that it was imitated in silver and silver gilt in the late 18th century by the Augsburg gold and silversmiths.

[34] Rare Pair of Russian Tula Blued Steel Scissors Decorated in Gold Damascene with a Scene of the Winter Palace St Petersburg on the River Neva Floral Arabesques to the reverse perhaps used for tapestry work Late 18th Century s i z e : 26 cm long – 10¼ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Cotswolds collection

[35] An Interesting Fine Stern Board of a Diplomatic Austrian Ships Dinghy Carved of Honduras Mahogany Inlaid with Ebony Coromandel Walnut and Snake Woods with Painted Decoration Detailing Aristocratic Armourial and Two Sailing Frigates Flying the Red Ensign and the Austrian Flag Old collection label to reverse Late 18th Century

s i z e : 46 cm high, 81 cm wide, 3 cm deep – 18 ins high, 32 ins wide, 1¼ ins deep The arms displayed on the ship’s dinghy board are those of Johann Phillip Carl Joseph Von Stadion, Count of Warthausen (1763 – 1824). Born in Mainz he was a statesman, foreign minister and diplomat who served the Hapsburg Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. From 1787 to 1790 he was ambassador in Stockholm and then in London from 1790 to 1793 where he presumably used his ship’s dinghy upon the Thames. He actively lobbied for England to join the coalition against Napoleon and reputedly went to Sicily at the time of Nelson when the Austrians were evacuated by sea. From 1793 to 1795 he had a measure of success as an envoy to St Petersburg where he played a large part in the formation of the 3rd coalition against Napoleon, which ultimately failed. After a period of retirement he was entrusted with a mission to the Prussian Court where from 1800 to 1803 he endeavoured in vain to eVect an alliance with Austria. After Metternich took over as Foreign Minister he became the Minister of Finance and during the last 10 years of his life spent a strenuous but partly successful attempt in reorganising the disordered Wnances of Austria, eventually founding the Austrian Central Bank. The historian Robert A. Kann has described him as a man of outstanding gifts perhaps the foremost diplomat in Imperial Austrian history (A History of the Hapsburg Empire 1526 – 1918).

[36] A Nepalese Rock Crystal Gem Set Gilt Copper Model of a Tibetan Chörten the Apron-Like Necklace around the middle section set with Semi-Precious Stones Late 19th – Early 20th Century

s i z e : 16 cm high, 13 cm square – 6¼ ins high, 5 ins square The unique Buddhist civilisation of Tibet developed in almost complete isolation for more than a thousand years protected by the towering peaks of the Himalayas and the vast deserts of central Asia. Over the centuries monuments in the form of Chörtens were built along ancient roads, beside sacred fords across rivers, and at the top of mountain passes leaving an indelible Buddhist stamp on the Tibetan landscape. After the Buddha’s death and attainment of Parinirvana his body was cremated and fragments of his charred bones, teeth, hair and robe were distributed around the Buddhist world as holy relics. They were at Wrst placed in the tops of tall mounds of earth and stone which gradually evolved into built structures called stupas; the prototypes of all pagodas, dagobas and Tibetan chörtens. Even without relics chörtens became a symbol of unity, and of the ultimate attainment of Parinirvana achieved through levels of meditation. The levels also represent the Wve elements, the square base for the earth, the round dome for water, conical spire for Wre, the umbrella for air, and the peak Wnial, shaped as a Xaming seed, for the essence of the mind. It is considered highly meritorious to build, model or paint as many chörtens as possible. As symbols of the enlightened mind, with each aspect of its design signifying a facet of the enlightenment sequence and the path leading to it, individuals would own small models such as this example to provide a focus for private meditation or to donate to be set upon the altar of a monastery.

[37] Tibetan Gilded Bronze and Copper Ritual Altar Vessel for Sprinkling Consecrated Holy Water the Spout Emerging from a Makara’s Head Set with a Turquoise the OVering Wand Set with a Soapstone Plunging into an Apron Decorated with Auspicious Symbols 19th Century

s i z e : 16.5 cm high – 6½ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Until recent times Tibetans viewed every aspect of life from a Buddhist standpoint; education, land, agriculture administration and production were controlled or inXuenced by powerful lamas or monasteries. It was a world in which all boundaries between the temporal and spiritual spheres were erased, a world in which the Dalai Lama was at once head of state and the supreme authority in spiritual matters. As a result all Tibetan art is religious in purpose. Ritual holy water vessels were used for sprinkling consecrated water, which was a feature of many Tibetan ceremonies of initiation and in rites of puriWcation. They were also used sometimes in order to dissipate or cure illness. Occasionally these ritual objects gain an animate spiritual presence and are dressed and honoured by the monks as living beings.

[38] A Pair of French Finely Carved Ivory Library Busts of the Political Philosophers Voltaire and Montesquieu by Antoine Rosset (1749 – 1818) Signed to the shoulders A Rosset.F. the bust of Voltaire also marked St Claude Late 18th Century

s i z e : 17.5 cm high, 7 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 6¾ ins high, 2¾ ins wide, 1½ ins deep 17.5 cm high, 6.5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 6¾ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 1½ ins deep The Rosset family of sculptors from St Claude in the Jura in eastern France often worked together and specialised in portrait busts made of alabaster, marble and ivory. Claude-Antoine Rosset became the most famous, but it was his father Joseph Rosset (1706 – 1786) who was introduced to Voltaire who lived at the time in nearby Château Ferney. Although Voltaire complained about the number of times he was asked to sit for his portrait he eventually agreed and several busts and statuettes resulted from this Wrst sitting. They became friends playing chess together. A marble bust dated 1768 of Voltaire by Joseph Rosset is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum and his three sons most probably used this sculpture as a model for subsequent carvings. The Rosset family played a signiWcant role in the production and circulation of Voltaire’s image in sculpture. Voltaire (1694 – 1778) was a key Wgure in the French enlightenment, a highly inXuential philosopher, a champion of tolerance and social justice, dramatist, poet and historian. Montesquieu (1689 – 1755) was a French judge, political philosopher and man of letters. Born Charles-Louis de Secondant, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu, he is famous for his articulation of the theory of the separation of powers; the executive, the legislative and the judicial, which became implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. In 1748 he anonymously published The Spirit of Laws which went on to inXuence the founding fathers in their drafting of the American constitution.

[39] A Fine Oval Portrait Miniature on Vellum in Enamelled Silver Gilt Frame of the French Duke of Orléans Gaston de Montmorency (1608 – 1660) Wearing a Deep Lace Collar over Parade Armour An inscription engraved to the reverse Portrait of Gaston de Montmorency from the Lumsden Propert Collection Dr J. Lumsden Propert MD (1834 – 1902) formed a large collection of portrait miniatures which he housed at 112 Gloucester Place, Portman Square, London Early 17th Century s i z e   : 6.5 cm high, 4.5 cm wide – 2½ ins high, 1¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Lumsden Propert collection, London Ex Private collection Netherlands Gaston de Montmorency was the third son of King Henry IV of France and Marie de Medici. As the son of the King he was born Fils de France and later acquired the title Duke of Orléans. As the eldest surviving brother of King Louis XIII he was known at court by the traditional honoriWc Monsieur. He was Wrst married in 1626 to Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier who sadly died six days after the birth of her Wrst daughter. On two occasions Gaston was forced to leave France for conspiring against the government of his brother, the King, and Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu with whom he fervently disagreed. Whilst taking refuge from the wrath of Richelieu in Lorraine he fell in love at Wrst sight with Marguerite of Lorraine, the sister of Charles IV Duke of Lorraine, but as France and Lorraine were then enemies, he was refused the king’s permission to marry a sister of its Duke. Gaston arranged a secret ceremony in the presence of her family at Nancy in May 1632 and married the princess Marguerite. The marriage remained hidden from the King until November when Henry II Duke of Montmorency, on his way to the scaVold, betrayed his former co-conspirator and both Louis XIII and Richelieu learnt of the elopement. The King had the marriage declared null and void and it was not until Louis XIII was on his deathbed in 1643 that he accepted his brother’s plea for forgiveness and authorised the marriage. The couple remarried before the Archbishop of Paris in July 1643, and the Duke and Duchess of Orléans were Wnally received at court. After the death of his mother in 1642 Gaston inherited the Luxembourg Palace which became their Parisian residence. The Château de Blois in the Loire was the favourite country estate where their Wrst child was born in 1645, and where after the Fronde the Duke of Orléans was exiled by Cardinal Mazarin, and where he remained until his death in 1660.

[40] A Fine Ancient Middle Bronze Age Tréboul Short Sword with Tapering Blade and Pronounced Mid Rib the Butt with Four Rivet Holes and Three Remaining Rivets Circa 1500 – 1100 bc

s i z e   : 32.5 cm high, 7.5 cm wide – 12¾ ins high, 3 ins wide / 37 cm high – 14½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Alfred E. Mirksy (1900 – 1974) Sold Christies, New York, lot 55, 2006 Acquired Rupert Wace Ltd 2008 Ex Private collection Sir Richard Ground OBE (1949 – 2014) Derbyshire, U.K. For 2000 years bronze was the most advanced metal available and just as copper blades represented a great leap forward from the Xint implements of prehistoric times, so the discovery of bronze drove pure copper weapons into obsolescence. Bronze is an alloy, a mixture of copper and tin. A recipe for a good weapon was around nine parts bronze and one part tin. Bronze is harder than copper resulting in stronger weapons that could take a sharp edge better. They could also be made narrower and longer than copper ones. Bronze Xowed better than copper into moulds which increased the possibilities for more elaborate designs. Eventually hilts began to be cast in one piece with the blade, eliminating the weak point of a riveted joint between the hilt and blade.

[41] A Rare Unusual Japanese Gold Ground Six Fold Screen the Panels Displaying a Map of the Japanese Archipelago with Trade Routes Drawn in Red and Major Towns and Ports Shown in Black Ink on Paper The cardinal directions of the compass shown in each quarter and a long inscription All within a brocaded silk border Ink, colour and paper on gold foil and paper Meiji Period (1868 – 1912) Late 19th Century

s i z e : 98 cm high, 290 cm wide – 38½ ins high, 114 ins wide – 3 feet 2¼ ins high, 9 feet 6 ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex South African Private collection of Molly Van Loon Japan is an elongated crescent shaped chain of islands that extends for about 2800 kilometres oV the Asian mainland. In this map Japan is shown without the usual western geographical orientation. Hokkaidō is shown in the east rather than the north, and the south island with the town of Nagasakei is shown in the west. Japanese maps do not have a uniWed orientation scheme and much of their fundamental concepts of space can be traced to Buddhist cosmologies and Chinese geomancy which came to Japan in the 7th and 8th centuries. Thus their maps often bear little resemblance to the western concept of the real world.

As a people the Japanese had an indiVerence to exploration and in a feudal society it was forbidden for ordinary citizens to travel. The government of the Edo Period had no interest in accurate map making as they believed maps could be used by their enemies to gain military advantage. With the arrival of the Dutch and Portuguese the western techniques of map making became known and the theory of the earth as a sphere arrived with Francis Xavier in circa 1550. The Wrst accurate Japanese globe was a made in 1690 and a Japanese painted screen of 1645 shows a Japanese map of the world. From 1800 to 1821 the government of Japan sponsored a topographical survey of the country together with a map making project which was led by Inō Tadataka, and this is considered the Wrst modern geographer’s survey of Japan. The map based on this survey is known as the Ino-zu, the original being lost in a Wre at the Imperial residence in 1873. No foreign culture has ever totally dominated Japan. Periods of intense borrowing from continental culture, such as those of China and Korea, have always alternated with periods of retrenchment when the Japanese would assimilate what they had borrowed from abroad adapting it to their own needs and sensitivities and adjusting it to the indigenous environment. Emerging from an entrenched feudal system in the late 19th century, Japan eagerly assimilated western technology and culture. This map is an illustration of their remarkable gift for absorbing new ideas while remaining true to their own spirit.

[42] Exceptionally Rare South African Tsonga / North Nguni Black Rhinoceros Horn Prestige StaV or Sceptre Carved with the Head of a Chief With short haft drilled for a wrist thong Smooth old silky burnished patina lacking at the base where it has been held and used Mid 19th Century

s i z e : 39.5cm long – 15½ ins long / 43.5 cm high – 17 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection Acquired late 1980’s c f : Art of South East Africa 2002, K. Conru no.104, pipe bowl very similar in the style and mimicking the carved head-ring of the rhinoceros horn sceptre Ubuntu Exhibition, 2002, Paris, Musée National des Arts d’Afrique et d’Océanie, no. 38, head of a staV, exhibits very similar features and is ascribed to the Tsonga, North Nguni Johannesburg Art Gallery, Brenthurst Collection Catalogue, no. 299, a combined headrest walking staV has the same compact treatment of form of the ovoid head Among the Tsonga speaking groups living to the North of Kwa Zulu-Natal, Chiefs commissioned long staVs surmounted by male heads with head-rings. These are formed from circular tubes made from a gum-like substance that are sewn into the hair. Headrings were Wrst adopted in the Zulu Kingdom as a sign of marriage. Tsonga speakers associated their use more generally with the concept of wisdom, age and maturity. In the early 19th Century all the best specialist craftsmen were most probably attached to the Royal Court and the objects they produced were more elaborately carved and decorated than those made for the ordinary homesteads. Even as late as the 1880’s objects were being made for important oYcials in the long established Wgurative tradition, but this period saw a great deal of mobility in the entire region and carvers localised in one area became inXuenced by other works as populations migrated. Immediately recognisable as South African, the extremely delicate carved facial features of this sceptre are comparable to the best baboon master staVs. However the carver who produced this exceptional chieXy prestige item, although Wrmly in the Nguni traditional style, was probably working at an earlier date. The especially sensitive treatment of the head and face betray the hand of a master.

[43] An Unusual Spanish Sailors-Work Coquilla Nut Pendant CruciWx Finely Carved with Christo Morto 18th Century

s i z e : 6 cm high, 3 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 2¼ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, ½ ins deep 7.5 cm high – 3 ins high (on base) Coquillas are the nuts of the attalea funifera or as the Brazilians call the palm that produces the nuts piassaba. It grows in swampy or partially Xooded land on the banks of rivers and is extensively distributed on the eastern side of South America. The nut was Wrst introduced to Europe with the discovery of the New World in the mid 16th century, and became popular for small carved objects until the end of the 19th century. It was an especially popular material with sailors coming back on a long voyage from South America as when Wrst harvested the soft oily nature of the nut makes it ideal for carving and small turnery. As it dries out it hardens to a wood like substance with the appearance of walnut. Made for protection from ill-fortune as well as for prayer, the pectoral cross was a speciWcally Christian form of amulet. Rosaries with beads of coquilla nut can still be found and were sold until the 1870s outside the Madeleine in Paris. Eighteenth century eucharistic wafer boxes carved with episodes from the life of Christ can also occasionally be found, but this small Wnely carved cruciWx seems to have no other comparable example.

[44] German Long Banded Agate and Filigree Silver Rosary with a Pendant Carved Rock Crystal and Silver Gilt Mounted CruciWx Etched with the Symbols of Christ’s Passion a Skull and Crossbones to the Base Late 17th Century

s i z e : 73 cm long – 28¾ ins long (overall) / cross: 9.5 cm high, 5.5 cm wide – 3¾ ins high – 2¼ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Healing powers have been attributed to rosaries as well as the power to exorcise evil spirits and ward oV lightning. Certain materials such as agate and rock crystal were almost universally talismanic and their use as religious beads provided double protection. Banded agates were so highly prized by the ancient world that they were imitated in glass with the Romans setting up workshops on Crete to produce them. Rock crystal was regarded as a medical device in the Middle Ages and was thought to cure fever and gout. Since ancient times, prayers have been recited in cycles and rosaries form closed circlets or chaplets symbolising these cycles, as Saint Augustine admonished the faithful God is a circle whose centre is everywhere. The banded agate beads of the rosary bear natural circles within the stone that oVer amuletic protection as well as forming another meditative circle.

[45] Collection of Fifteen Fine English Ornithological Watercolours Ten by Sir William Strickland 6th bt (1753 –1834) and Five by his Brother George Strickland (1760 – 1832) Circa 1774 – 1810

p rov e na nc e : Ex Artist’s collection Ex Private collection Strickland Family of Boynton Hall, Bridlington, Yorkshire Thence by descent Ten studies by Sir William Strickland 6th bt (1753 – 1834) comprising: White Throats watercolour and pencil on paper initialled and dated w s 1806 s i z e : 36 cm high, 31 cm wide – 14 ins high, 12¼ ins wide Mistle Thrush watercolour & pencil on paper signed Sir William Strickland Bart and inscribed Boynton s i z e : 18 cm high, 24 cm wide – 7 ins high, 9½ ins wide Puffin watercolour and pencil on paper s i z e : 42 cm high, 30.5 cm wide – 16½ ins high, 12 ins wide Peregrine Falcon Perched on a Carved Block with Egg and Butterfly Above watercolour and gouache on paper s i z e : 34.5 cm high, 24.5 cm wide – 13½ ins high, 9½ ins wide Young Black Throated Diver at Rest watercolour pencil and gouache on paper initialled and dated w s 1810 s i z e : 33.5 cm high, 43 cm wide – 13¼ ins high, 17 ins wide Female Great Bustard Standing watercolour and gouache on paper s i z e : 39 cm high, 29 cm wide – 15¼ ins high, 11½ ins wide Bittern Standing on a Rocky Outcrop watercolour and gouache on paper s i z e : 35 cm high, 25.5 cm wide – 13¾ ins high, 10 ins wide Water-Hen watercolour and body colour on paper initialled and dated w s 1771 inscribed to reverse on paper strip The Waterhen ½ the Natural Size s i z e : 30 cm high, 18 cm wide – 11¾ ins high, 7 ins wide Goldeneye on Water with Dragonfly Above watercolour and body colour on paper s i z e : 29.5 cm high, 25 cm wide – 11½ ins high, 9¾ ins wide Scaup Duck watercolour and body colour on paper initialled and dated w s 1773 s i z e : 28 cm high, 44 cm wide – 11 ins high, 17¼ ins wide Five Studies by George Strickland (1760 – 1832) comprising: Pochard watercolour and body colour on paper inscribed to reverse Pochard initialled and dated g s 76 s i z e : 28.5 cm high, 45.5 cm wide – 11¼ ins high, 18 ins wide Moor Buzzard (Female) inscribed to reverse and Moor Buzzard (Male) inscribed to reverse with Half Size watercolour and gouache on paper s i z e : 29 cm high, 45.5 cm wide – 11½ ins high, 18 ins wide and 30 cm high, 45.5 cm wide – 11¾ ins high, 18 ins wide Redwing inscribed to reverse initialled and dated g s 84 watercolour and body colour on paper s i z e : 32 cm high, 46.5 cm wide – 12½ ins high, 18¼ ins wide Loxia the Crofsbill (Crossbills) inscribed to reverse watercolour and body colour on paper s i z e : 30 cm high, 49 cm wide – 11¾ ins high, 19¼ ins wide All of the Five Studies are inscribed to the reverse with the Size, Weight and Species of Bird

Sir William Strickland and his brother George were sons of Sir George Strickland, a Yorkshire agriculturist who introduced new methods of crop rotation and farm machinery, and who was also a patron of the artist Arthur Devis and of William Kent who remodelled much of the interior of Boynton Hall, and remade many of the earlier Wre surrounds in the Paladian style during the 1730’s. John Carr of York was also employed as an architect and made further alterations to the family seat 1765 – 1780. William the eldest son was a keen naturalist and honorary member of the British board of Agriculture. He established his own farm at Welburn in Yorkshire before succeeding his father as 6th Baron of Boynton in 1808. He toured America in 1794 and 1795 sketching scenic landmarks and collecting information on American farming practices for the Board which he later used as the basis for a critical assessment: Observations on the Agriculture of the U.S.A. London 1801. During his visit to Monticello in May 1795 Thomas JeVerson gave him drawings and a small model of his mouldboard plough which Strickland praised as an invention formed upon the truest and most mechanical principal of any I had seen The subsequent correspondence between them was marked by exchanges of publications, seeds and information on agriculture and natural history and continued until 1805. Sir William Strickland’s depiction of the Great Bustard is especially signiWcant as it was said that the last Great Bustard in Britain was shot at Boynton Hall around 1832. In the family archives there is an invitation to dine at Boynton Hall in which he describes the principal dish, a Great Bustard, as probably the last of its race.

[46] An Ancient Greek Carved Marble Lion’s Paw Table Leg the Rising Column with Convex Flutes Separated by Raised Ribs the Paws Displaying Outstretched Claws 4th – 3rd Century bc

s i z e : 24.5 cm high, 10 cm wide, 23 cm deep – 9¾ ins high, 4 ins wide, 9 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private German collection acquired 1970’s Thence by descent Sold June 2008 Gorny and Mosch lot 195 Ex English collection Tables served in ancient times only for the support of vessels necessary for meals, not as with us, for writing and reading, as well as eating. As the couches on which people reclined at meal times were not high the tables were lower than ours. Some were quadrangular and had four legs, and this was for a long time the only form customary among the Romans. Others had circular or oval tops and rested on either one leg or more frequently three, to which the shape of animals feet was given. The Greeks set a high value on the artistic adornment of their tables and the feet were wrought in the Wnest metal, ivory, marble or stonework. Another kind of ornamental table was the delphica in the form of a Greek tripod with a round top. Tables were also included in the furniture of a temple, especially those which stood directly in front of the statue of the god on which were laid the oVerings not intended to be burnt.

[47] A Fine West African Ghana Fanti Fertility Figure Akuaba Carved with the Feminine ideals of Beauty including Highly Arched joined up Eyebrows on a Flat Forehead small Breast and Mouth Abstract designs etched to the reverse of the head Old rich smooth lustrous light brown patina 19th Century

s i z e : 26.5 cm high, 6.5 cm wide – 10½ ins high, 2½ ins wide / 29.5 cm high – 11½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex English Gloucestershire collection cf : Museum Für Volker Kunde Munich Inv. no. I-1318 for a similar Wgure The Fanti peoples are grouped in the coastal regions south of Asante territory and are Akan speakers who share Asante traditions and beliefs. These Wgures were carved for women who often carried them on their backs inside their clothing and cared for them as if they were real babies. It was thought that the Wgures ensured fertility and if the woman was already pregnant, the health and beauty of the unborn child. After

a successful birth, the Wgures were placed by the household altar and sometimes were later given to girls as instructional aids in preparation for motherhood. The Fanti are a matrilineal society and descent is therefore principally from mothers to children. It was believed that it was crucial for the women to give birth to daughters who would continue the line.

[48] A Fine West African Ghana Fanti Fertility Figure Akuaba Carved with ScariWcation Marks to the Face and Torso a Flat High Forehead Displaying Highly Arched joined up Eyebrows a small Mouth and Breasts Old smooth rich lustrous light brown patina 19th Century

s i z e   : 24.5 cm high, 11 cm wide – 9¾ ins high, 4¼ ins wide / 27.5 cm high – 10¼ ins wide (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex English Gloucestershire collection cf : Museum Für Volker Kunde Munich Inv. no. I – 1318 for a similar Wgure

[49] A Pair of French Napoleonic Empire Cast Lead Bronze Patinated Roundels Depicting Napoléon Bonaparte (1769 – 1821) as Emperor of the French and also in ProWle with the Empress Joséphine By the Medallist Jean Bertrand Andrieu (1761 – 1822) Both plaques stamped Andrieu Fecit Circa 1805

s i z e : 14 cm dia. – 5¼ ins dia. (each) / 15 cm dia. – 6 ins dia. (frames) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Napoléon Bonaparte became Emperor of the French on the 18th May 1804 with a coronation held in Notre Dame Cathedral on 2nd December 1804. Two separate crowns were brought for the ceremony, a golden laurel wreath recalling the Roman Empire and a replica of Charlemagne’s crown. Napoléon entered wearing the laurel wreath and kept it on throughout the ceremony. Raising the crown of Charlemagne over his head in a symbolic gesture he then placed it upon Joséphine’s head. As a keen observer of Bonaparte’s rise to absolute power, Madame de Rémusat, astutely explained men worn out by the turmoil of the Revolution... looked for the domination of an able ruler and people believed quite sincerely that Bonaparte whether as consul or Emperor would exert his authority and save them from the perils of anarchy (Memoirs of Madame Rémusat 1802 – 1808).

[50] A North India Madhya Pradesh Banded Red Sandstone Carving of Ganesha the Elephant-Headed Multi-armed Hindu God Bringer of Luck and Success His trunk curled around his great battle axe one hand holding the broken tusk standing next to the Goddess Parvati a string of beads accentuating her full figure 11th – 12th Century ad s i z e : 23 cm high, 34.5 cm wide, 19 cm deep – 9 ins high, 13½ ins wide, 7½ ins deep 26 cm high – 10¼ ins high (on base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private West Country collection The elephant-headed Ganesha, a son of Shiva is a beloved divinity in India who is worshipped with much enthusiasm and great festivals are organised in his honour. He is regarded as a destroyer of obstacles, a dispenser of wealth and wisdom and a bestower of success. He also has a reputation for being wily and acting only after thought, and if angered or ignored, he is no longer a remover, but a creator of obstacles. On entering a temple a worshipper will acknowledge Ganesha before any other God. His shrine will be located in the entrance and before homage is paid to the main deity Ganesha must be satisWed. Ganesha was born from Parvati and was created from the mixture of unguents and dirt she rubbed from her legs as she washed in the river. By her own energy she empowered the small model of the male Wgure she had made and brought it to life as her son Ganesha. At the time of his birth Shiva was away from home and on returning he found an unknown young man standing guard outside the bathroom of his wife Parvati. He challenged him and Ganesha, equally unknowing of his father, challenged him to a Wght. The result was never in doubt for Shiva is the greatest of the Gods and the father killed his own son by cutting oV his human head. When Parvati found out what had happened and explained the circumstances to Shiva the god undertook to restore Ganesha to life. He immediately ordered one of his servants to bring him the head of the Wrst being he met. This was an elephant and so Ganesha was returned to life with an elephant’s head. In recognition of his courage in the defence of his mother’s chamber Ganesha was given custody over all doorways, and this can be seen in thousands of examples throughout India where an image of the corpulent divinity is placed in a lintel above an entrance.

[51] Large Ottoman Curved Crescent Shaped Powder Flask of Elephant Hide on a Woodcore with Walrus Ivory Finial and Bone Bottle Shaped Nozzle set on an Ivory Plate with a Shutter below pulling out to release the Gunpowder 17th Century

s i z e : 21 cm high, 20.5 cm wide, 7.5 cm deep – 8¼ ins high, 8 ins wide, 3 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex French collection A similar shaped powder Xask of ribbed buValo horn is in the collections of the Dresden Armoury which was once in the Turkish chamber. This collection of magniWcent Turkish weapons and related artefacts was established in the late 16th century by the Elector of Saxony. It had its own designated area within the armoury and attests to the great fascination that Europe had with the Ottoman culture especially after the Siege of Vienna in 1683. Powder Xasks were used for charge powder and were often made of horn and so referred to as powder horns. Whether made of wood, leather, metal or shell they all had a device for measuring the charge of powder attached to the outlet. Their size and shape varied across the world, but generally the older ones are larger as gunpowder was much less powerful than later on. Ottoman powder Xasks are distinctive in style and were used to charge their ornately decorated muzzle loading guns.

[52] Netherlandish Alabaster Tomb Figure of a Lady Kneeling in Prayer Wearing Linen Coif and Collar over Open Fronted Vlieger or Gown Garments Reserved for Married Women a Baby in Swaddling Clothes at Her Feet First Half 17th Century

s i z e : 32 cm high, 16 cm wide, 12 cm deep – 12½ ins high, 6¼ ins wide, 4¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Belgian collection Tomb sculpture has existed as an art form since the dawn of civilisation and its imagery expresses the hopes and fears of mankind in the face of death and his striving for immortality. Alabaster and stone were the chief materials used in the production of church monuments in the late 16th and early 17th century. This alabaster Wgure once knelt beside a reclining eYgy of a relative, most probably a family group. The tomb monuments of this period often had whole families integrated into a single sculptural group, all kneeling together in pairs or on the same level, father and sons to the left, mother and daughters to the right. The children who had already died were shown holding skulls. The eYgies varied in size with a diVerence in scale between the parents and the youngest children. The ideal of a loving, united, religious family was Wrmly expressed in these funerary monuments.

[53] An Unusual Rare Japanese Lacquered Boxwood Inro in the Form of a Lidded Calligrapher’s Ink Stone Case Carved in High Relief with a Lotus Bud amidst Leaves the Base with Recess for the Ink Stick or Sumi

The interior of the lid etched with poetic inscription The recess to the base signed Taishin with seal mark denoting Monkey Year 1848 The Himotoshi to the lid either side of a tightly rolled lotus leaf and in a triangular pattern to both of the sides and base two to top and four to the bottom The inside showing signs of use with extensive traces of black ink around the brush well and rubbing to the centre Late Edo Period Circa 1848 s i z e   : 3 cm high, 9 cm long, 7 cm wide – 1¼ ins high, 3½ ins long, 2¾ ins wide c f : See no. 850 in Neil K Davey Netsuke 1982, for a lidded box Hako Netsuke by the same artist Japanese ink sticks or sumi are usually made of soot from various woods or charcoal and animal glue, sometimes with incense or medicinal scents added. To make the ink, the stick is ground against an ink-stone with a small quantity of water to produce a dark liquid which is then applied with a Wne brush. Artists and calligraphers may vary the thickness of the resulting ink according to their preferences by reducing or increasing the intensity and time of ink grinding. Presumably this inro would have been worn and used when travelling and painting from nature.

[54] Ancient South Arabian Calcite-Alabaster Funerary Stele Carved with the Head of a Bull Symbol of the Deity Almaqah and Inscribed Beneath with a Two Line Dedication Probably Naming the Deceased and their Tribal AYliation 1st Century bc

s i z e : 19 cm high, 11 cm wide, 3 cm deep – 7½ ins high, 4½ ins wide, 1¼ ins deep / 22 cm high – 8¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Swiss collection Acquired from Rupert Wace Ancient Art Ltd, 1995 c f : For other examples see: Falls Church, Virginia, the American Foundation for the Study of Man, Arthur Sackler Gallery, Washington D.C also illustrated in exhibition catalogue Jemen Kunst und Archäeologie im Land der Konigin von Saba Wilfried Seipel, K H M Vienna 1998, no’s 352, 353 South Arabia is a very ancient land and as early as the 4th and 3rd millennia bc there is evidence for irrigation, animal husbandry, the manufacture of practical or ornamental and ritual objects from stone, clay and bronze, and the erection of funerary structures. Yet it is not until the early Wrst millennium bc that evidence of writing has been found. No literary texts survive from Pre-Islamic Arabia, but there are some ten thousand inscriptions which provide evidence of the commemoration of people’s lives, military exploits and building works. Large numbers of these ancient inscriptions were collected and deciphered by European travellers and scholars in the 19th century and these writers often referred to the great wealth of the Sabaens and other states of Southern Arabia. This prosperity was built upon the trade carried out successfully, both overland across Arabia and also via the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, from the Wrst millennium bc. The Old Testament mentions Yemen, the land of the Queen of Sheba or Saba, from which she is said to have travelled to meet King Solomon in the tenth century bc presenting him with spices, gold and precious stones carried on a great train of camels.

[55] A Netherlands Late Medieval Ballock Dagger the Oak Wood Trumpet Shaped Grip with Brass Pommel Engraved with a Representation of a Saint the Narrow Iron Blade with Single Edge 15th Century

s i z e : 32.5 cm long – 12¾ ins long p rov e na nc e : Found in the Mouth of the North Sea Canal oV Amsterdam, 1950’s Ex: Netherlands collection The port of Amsterdam was Wrst used commercially in the 13th century and daggers have been found over time around the mouth of the channel leading to the port. The engraving on the brass pommel most probably represents Saint Barbara who was the patron saint of armourers. The quality of the engraving suggests that the makers procured the engraved plates from silversmiths or copperplate engravers. Medieval culture was full of phallic imagery and the ballock dagger, which Wrst appeared around 1300 ad, was shaped from a single piece of wood to resemble an erect penis and testicles with a bulbous pommel and a rounded lobe either side of the blade in place of the guard. However, this imagery was probably not meant to be regarded as erotic, but apotropaic, a defence to ward oV evil and ill-fortune. In the 15th century the grip of the dagger was altered in shape to Xare out like a trumpet with the pommel capped with an engraved metal plate as in this example. A German Wght master wrote in his manual on martial arts in 1445: Now we come to the dagger: God helps us all Knights initially thought the dagger as a weapon to be unimportant, but by the 14th century it had become an essential part of their equipment.

[56] An Ancient British Middle Bronze Age Dagger of Ogival Form the Blade with Grooved Linear Borders the Butt Pierced with Two Rivets Circa 1500 – 1100 bc

s i z e : 23.5 cm high, 5.5 cm wide – 9¼ ins high, 2¼ ins wide / 30.5 cm high – 12 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Found in the River Thames, Sonning, Berkshire 1955 Ex Private collection Sir Richard Ground OBE (1949 – 2014) Derbyshire, UK The number of Bronze Age weapons found in the Thames between Marlow and the estuary, especially in the part of the river that Xows through the western half of Greater London, is thought to be due to the succession of battles extending over centuries fought for the same stretch of river. The Thames not only formed a tribal boundary, but was also a valuable prize to be won because it gave control of a useful trade route. It gave access to the continent at a time when the importance of bronze made the distribution of tin and copper from the western parts of the British Isles a Xourishing trade. Not all Bronze Age weapons need have been lost in battle, many may have been dropped accidentally and others perhaps oVered to a river deity in accordance with Celtic customs of the early Iron Age. Battles, accidental losses and votive oVerings were all more likely to happen where the river could be easily forded. The regular crossing places of the Thames were linked by tracks such as the ancient Icknield Way, and these stretches of the river became natural meeting places that have produced a concentration of archaeological Wnds.

[57] Rare Early Fijian Sperm Whale Tooth Necklace Vuasagale Composed of Twelve Whole Teeth Bound Together with Sennit Cord Through Stone Drilled Holes Old inventory number to one tooth 0399 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : approx: 10.5 cm long (max tooth) 27 cm wide – 4 ins long (max tooth) 10½ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of the Late Adèle van Rijckevorsel (1921 – 2017) Netherlands With the advent of commercial whaling in the PaciWc the precious whale teeth so valued by the Fijians became more plentiful and the sabre toothed long split teeth necklaces began to be made by the Tongan craftsmen Tufunga Fono Lei and worn in Fiji, Tonga and Samoa. The earlier Vuasagale necklaces made from the smaller teeth gathered from the jaws of stranded whales became forgotten in favour of the more ornamental and dramatic ones. Both types of necklace functioned as highly regarded objects marking the status of high ranking Fijians, but they were without the ritualised spiritual overtones of the large ceremonial tabua, and so did not possess the restrictions of taboo objects placed upon them.

[58] Victorian English Hunting Horn Engraved by C.H.Wood with Scenes of Greyhound Coursing Entitled Coursing and Finish of the Course and with the inscription From an Affectionate Mother to her Beloved Sons RJ & JD Blackwell 1866 Signed in small script Eng’ with a Penknife by C. Wood Circa 1866 s i z e : 38 cm wide, 9 cm dia. (max) – 15 ins wide, 3½ ins dia. (max) Working in the tradition of sailors scrimshaw, Charles H Wood specialised in producing engraved nautilus shells and horns such as this example. He boasted that the designs were achieved solely by means of a penknife, and his work is generally inked and engraved in the manner of scrimshaw. A large nautilus shell profusely engraved by him was exhibited at the 1851 Great Exhibition. He had previously presented it to Queen Victoria who he claimed had accepted several examples of his craft. It is believed that he travelled to America on board the steam ship Leviathan. Having produced cowrie shell cameos of the ship on the journey he set up shop on the dockside and sold the signed cameo shells as souvenirs.

[59] A Rare Irish Celtic Limestone Slab Carved with a Relief of a Youthful Dancing Deity the Figure Showing Deliberate Sexual Ambiguity

An inscription written on the Arc above his head an apotropaic divinity perhaps from a shrine set up near a sacred spring 1st – 2nd Century ad s i z e : 54.5 cm high, 35.5 cm wide, 16.5 cm deep – 21½ ins high, 14 ins wide, 6½ ins deep / 58.5 cm high – 23 ins high (with base) provenance  : Ex Irish Private collection acquired 1930’s Ireland Thence by descent Ex Private English collection At the end of the Iron Age complete human Wgures were more commonly represented in Celtic art and were often associated with sanctuaries and shrines which were built around sacred springs. When the Romans conquered Celtic Europe over the Wrst centuries bc and ad they introduced methods of representing their gods that were alien to the Celts. However, the practice of keeping divine beings as realistic images in human form became common over time as they became integrated into Romano-Celtic culture. They adopted Roman ways of expressing the divine and Celtic perceptions of the supernatural became deWned with much greater clarity than before. Celtic cult images from the pre Roman Iron Age of the god Cernunnos are rare, one exists on the 1st century bc Gundestrup Cauldron, but later on more than Wfty representations of the youthful dancing god are recorded. A great deal of Celtic religious imagery appears for the Wrst time in the Roman era inXuenced by Roman forms of expression.

[60] Dutch East Indies Javanese Royal Presentation Gem Set Walking Cane the Shaft Inlaid with Exotic Woods in Patterns of Delicate Vines the Gold Top Mounted in Diamonds and Rubies with Initials PBX for Muslim King Paku Buwono X (1866 – 1939) the 10th Susuhunan or Ruler of Surakarta Late 19th – Early 20th Century

s i z e : 98.5 cm long – 38¾ ins long provenance  : Ex Dutch collection Surakarta is a large city in Central Java lying on the river Solo and has a tropical monsoon climate. It was part of the Dutch East India VOC until 1800 when it passed into the hands of the Dutch crown. Alongside the Dutch ruling elite there existed a Javanese aristocracy which functioned as an intermediary between the indigenous population and the colonial civil service. Paku Buwono X reigned from 1893 to 1939 and was the longest ruling Susuhunan of Surakarta. His reign coincided with the movement for Javanese independence which he supported. He also was a patron and supporter of the new local political groups such as the Budi Utomo, the Wrst Javanese political society. Although he believed in independence he was very aware of the importance of both local and international diplomatic relations. Many important visitors were entertained at his palace or Kraton in Surakarta and he was renowned for his generosity and giving of lavish diplomatic gifts. A very similar walking cane to this example was presented to the Belgian ambassador in 1900.

[61a] A Bering Strait Inupiak Eskimo Walrus Ivory and Iron Toggling Harpoon Head First Half 19th Century

s i z e : 16 cm long, 4.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm high – 6¼ ins long, 1¾ ins wide, 1 ins high Combining both art and technology, the elegance of this toggling harpoon head is shown in its resemblance to a swimming seal. Seals have always been crucial to the livelihood of the Inuit and the techniques for hunting them have been understood for hundreds of years. The essential implement is the harpoon head. This device has been developed especially for hunting mammals and Wsh living in the Arctic seas. These animals cannot be tracked or intercepted as land animals can, and it is not easy to kill them in the instant they appear at the surface of the water even if they are close to the hunter. A line must be Wrst secured into their hide so that their escape can be impeded until death blows can be administered with a diVerent weapon. Two varieties of harpoon heads were used for this purpose, barbed harpoons and toggling harpoons such as this example. These are predominantly used north of the Bering Strait where the sea ice persists throughout the year.

[61b] Two Unusual Bering Strait Iupiak Eskimo Walrus Ivory Votive Attachments Depicting PuYns First Half 19th Century

s i z e : 1.5 cm high, 1.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – ½ ins high, ½ ins wide, 1 ins deep and 1.5 cm high, 1.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – ½ ins high, ½ ins wide, ¾ ins deep

[62] Unusual Bering Sea Eskimo Inuit Double Headed Walrus Ivory Amuletic Drag Handle Portraying a Whiskered Seal and a Tusked Walrus The eyes inlaid with baleen First Half 19th Century

s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 2 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 1 ins high, ¾ ins wide, 1 ins deep / 9.5 cm high – 3¾ ins high (with base) The larger sea mammals pose a direct physical threat to the Inuit hunter in the Arctic. Walrus can be quite dangerous as a big bull can weigh more than an entire crew of eight men plus their umiake boat and equipment. An annoyed walrus does not shrink from attacking a large boat, not to mention a lone man standing beside a crack in the ice. As walrus frequently congregate and often travel in pods of dozens or even hundreds, walrus hunting had to be conducted with considerable caution. Serving as a magical aid for both protection and hunting success, these talismanic carvings helped the hunter in his arduous task.

[63] An Ancient Egyptian Hollow Cast Bronze Votive Head of a Cat Sacred to the Goddess Bastet Mounted on an old museum marble base entitled Head of a Cat Emblem of Bast. Bubastis To the underside a further inscription in pencil …12/5/193? Ex coll Hon. Auber0n Herbert Late Dynastic Period Circa 664 – 332 bc s i z e : 6.5 cm high, 4.5 cm wide, 5.5 cm deep – 2½ ins high, 1¾ ins wide, 2¼ ins deep / 8.5 cm high – 3¼ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection 1930’s acquired early 20th Century Thence by descent Cats were important in Ancient Egypt both as domestic pets and as symbols of the deities Bastet and Ra. There were two indigenous species, the jungle cat Felis chaus which is only found in Egypt and Southeastern Asia, and the African wild cat Felis silvestris libyca. Bastet was the cat goddess and particularly popular as the protectress of the household. She was the local deity of the town of Bubastis whose name means she of the bast (ointment jar). She was regarded not only as the daughter of the sun god, but also as the more protective aspect of the mother-goddess, in contrast to the aggressive image of the lioness-headed Sekhmet. Portrayed as a cat-headed woman sometimes carrying a sistrum or rattle and accompanied by a group of small kittens, she could be found in the temples, in the home and in funerary contexts.

[64] An Ancient Roman Marble Hand Wearing a Finger Ring from a Large Over Life-Size Statue Circa 2nd Century ad

s i z e : 11.5 cm high, 20 cm wide, 10 cm deep – 4½ ins high, 8 ins wide, 4 ins deep / 17.5 cm high – 7 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Spanish collection acquired 1970’s Thence by descent Ancient Roman Wnger rings were mostly made of gold and engraved with an image that could be used as a personal seal. The image was usually also an amuletic one providing everyday protection to the wearer. The use of a cupid as an image denoted the ring’s use as wedding jewellery. Towards the end of the Roman Empire increasing emphasis was placed on precious stones and less on the gold work in which they were set. For the Wrst time the very hardest stones were used. Uncut diamonds occasionally, sapphires and above all emeralds from the newly discovered Egyptian mines in the Red Sea Hills. These were set in the natural hexagonal prisms in which the stones are found. One form of gold working that was popular at this time was a kind of metal fretwork called opus interrasite in which patterns are cut out of gold with a chisel. This method was further developed by the Byzantine goldsmiths.

[65] Rare Netherlandish Silver Mounted Coconut Drinking Cup Carved with the Armourial of Charles V and his Motto Plus Ultra held between the twin pillars of hercules and two ferocious lions 16th / 17th Century

s i z e : 11.5 cm high, 7 cm dia. – 4½ ins high, 2¾ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Dutch collection In its native habitat the coconut is a never ending crop and has been used for all kinds of eating and drinking vessels for centuries. However, as early imports to Renaissance Europe, like ostrich eggs, they were regarded as great rarities, valuable and costly objects to be carved by skilled craftsmen and converted into silver mounted goblets and dishes. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was born in Ghent, part of the Habsburg Netherlands in 1500. He was heir to three of Europe’s leading dynasties; the Valois of Burgundy, Habsburg of Austria and Trastámara of Spain. As a Habsburg he inherited Austria and other lands in Central Europe and was elected to succeed his grandfather Maxmillan I as Holy Roman Emperor. He was also the grandson of the Catholic monarchs of Spain and as such inherited the Crown of Castile which was beginning to develop an empire in the Americas and Asia, and the Crown of Aragon which included a Mediterranean empire extending to southern Italy. He was the Wrst king to rule Castile and Aragon as a uniWed country and was often referred to as the Wrst King of Spain. The union he created between the Holy Roman Empire and the Spanish Empire was the closest Europe came to a universal monarchy since the time of Charlemagne in the 9th century. Charles V died in 1558 having abdicated in favour of his son two years previously, exhausted from his eVorts in war and uniWcation, at a monastery in Spain.

[66] Venetian Renaissance Cast Bronze Inkwell Standing on Lion’s Paw Feet Below Three Imperial Eagles with Outspread Wings a Lion’s Mask and Two GriYns to Their Chests The lid missing Workshop of Tiziano Aspetti Smooth thick dark greenish black patina Second half 16th Century

s i z e : 8.5 cm high, 12 cm dia. (max) – 3¼ ins high, 4¾ ins dia. (max) The three powerfully modelled eagle’s heads with their large wings spread wide suggests Italian antiquity and it has been said that the art of small bronzes during the Renaissance was born of striving for the renewal of classical excellence seen in the ancient bronze objects of Greece and Rome. Reproducing the masterpieces of antiquity on a small scale so that they became treasured ornaments on a scholar’s desk was inspired, cleverly combining the fine and applied arts.

[67] Indo-Portuguese Goa Carved Gilded and Polychromed Ivory of the Assumption of the Virgin into Heaven with the Christ Child Raised upon Billowing Cloud of Winged Angels The whole on a later coromandel wood bracket 17th Century

s i z e : 20.5 cm high, 8 ins high / 32 cm high – 12½ ins high (with bracket) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection It was to the advantage of the Portuguese that the great Asian empires of the early 16th century including those ruled by the Ottomans, the Mughals and the Chinese, focused their attention on their lands rather than on the sea. The important commercial centres on the coast were often independent city states and the Portuguese quickly captured the strategic ports of Goa, Hormuz and Malacca. The Jesuit missionaries travelling from Portugal aimed their Wrst eVorts at conversion in Asia at the political elite, and in 1578 an unexpected opportunity arose in India when the Mughal Emperor Akbar invited them to his court to speak on Christian teachings. Using Catholic texts, images and works of art they participated in debates with representatives of India’s other religions, but although they successfully attracted the Emperor’s interest they failed to eVect his conversion.

[68] A Rare Oceanic South Eastern Solomon Islands Malaita Black Wood Hand Club with Plaited Fibre Grip the Blunt Ended Blade with a Rounded Projection to the Centre Fine old glossy smooth black patina 19th Century

s i z e : 75.5 cm long, 12 cm wide (max) – 29¾ ins long, 4¾ ins wide (max) cf  : A very similar example in Turin Ethnographic Museum collected in 1872 Collezione Bertea. Another in the British Museum Collections inventory no: OC 1925 – 48 acquired in 1925 from Devizes Museum The group of islands known as the Solomon’s were discovered in 1567 by a Spanish expedition under the command of Alvaro Mendana de Neyra. Then they were lost for 200 years, though European explorers visited the Islands during that time they were unaware that they were the same group. It was only in 1838 after D’Urville’s voyage that the Islands were placed on the map with their present name. The Spanish called them Solomon as they believed gold could be found there due to the clubs the sailors saw with heads of gold, in fact these were ceremonial clubs with pyrite inlaid heads. Warfare was endemic in the Islands and clubs were made to deXect spears, to administer the coup de grâce and for general hand to hand Wghting. The enemy was struck with the edge of these clubs and not the top. Richard Parkinson in his Thirty Years in the South Seas of 1907 states that some of these clubs have received a fine polish from years of handling and they are carried by their owners as a form of status or display weapon, although there is no doubt that they also serve a very practical purpose as well. Such a carefully crafted club was most probably used on ceremonial occasions as well as in combat.

[69] Curious Rare Ancient Roman Marble Head of Grotesque Nubian Dwarf Displaying Signs of Achondroplasia Probably Alexandrian 1st – 2nd Century ad

s i z e   : 34 cm high, 21 cm wide, 23.5 cm deep – 13½ ins high, 8¼ ins wide, 9¼ ins deep / 46 cm high – 18 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private British collection Acquired UK Art Market 1970’s The ancient Egyptians perceived dwarfs as special people with signiWcant sacred associations and owning a dwarf conferred high social status. Equally dwarfs enjoyed a good standard of living often being employed in the temples. Amongst the Imperial Roman elite they also enjoyed privilege and prestige. Julia, the niece of the Emperor Augustus kept a dwarf called Coropas who measured two feet four inches high, and a maid Andromeda who was almost as small. Physically deformed they were popular as entertainers in Greece and Rome providing a vaudeville repertoire of playlets mimicking everyday situations. As mime artists in ancient Rome they depicted the life of the lower classes and it was their chief aim to rouse the laughter of the spectators in every possible way. They were full of obscene expressions and abounded in the most outrageous buVoonery, cheating and adultery were the favourite subjects. Together with pantomimes, they enjoyed the greatest popularity during the Empire.

[70] Two Fine Tibetan Amuletic Silver and Turquoise Floral Pattern Encrusted Filigree Buddhist Prayer Boxes Worn for Protection Against Evil InXuences Attached with chains or braids through the four barrel shaped loops Both with removable tin bases for the insertion of relics and prayers One with gilded filigree silver top and attached Beasley label Tibet Ex Righi Coll. MH/18th Century s i z e : a: 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm (max) 2 cm deep – 3¾ x 3¾ (max) ¾ ins deep b: 9 cm x 9 cm (max) 2 cm deep – 3½ ins x 3½ ins (max) ¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Righi collection Ex Harry Beasley collection (1881 – 1939) Cranmore Ethnographical Museum, Chislehurst, Kent Thence by descent Ex Private English collection sold at Auction 2018 Tibetan Buddhism is noted for the great belief in the prevalence of magic deriving from the old traditional legends regarding malignant spirits who are responsible for illness and other misfortunes. Tibet imported the tantric Buddhism of eastern India which also enshrined practices of a magical nature. The Tibetans believe that turquoise has auspicious and talismanic properties associated with health and luck. Often of local origin, the semi-precious stone is perceived as a link between heaven and earth, and its use together with the scarcely less popular coral was noted by Marco Polo in the 13th century. Amuletic charm boxes such as these were worn for protection especially when travelling and were attached to the body or clothing through the barrel shaped loops. They contained wood block printed prayers on paper, pebbles painted with auspicious symbols and pieces of cloth or silk. It is said that lay oYcials used smaller examples to hold a knot of hair near the top of the head.

[71] Rare North Eastern Madagascar Tanala Ampinga Shield the Carved Wood Frame with Two Deeply Scooped Oval Cavities with a Central Handle to the Reverse the Front with Typical Stretched Bull’s Hide Covering The handle with old smooth polished patina from use The hide covering showing cut marks Late 19th Century

s i z e   : 53 cm high, 44 cm wide – 21 ins high, 17¼ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection c f : Joseph Mueller Collection, Geneva, inventory no. BMG1030 – 17 Dating from before the colonisation of the island by the French in 1897 this shield was used for parrying spears and was made by the Tanala people. They are a unique group who inhabit the forested inland region of south east Madagascar. Their name means people of the forest and they are skilled woodsmen, food gatherers and hunters, trading in honey, beeswax and other forest products. They also grow rice as part of a slash and burn agricultural practice. They can trace their origins to a noble ancestor named Ralambo who is believed to be of Arab descent. Historically they were famous for being great warriors having led a successful conquest of the neighbouring Antemoro people in the 18th century. They have a talent for divination and practise astrology which was brought to the island by the Arabs. Observing patrilineal descent the Tanala lived in large compounds consisting of a father, his sons or group of brothers. Tanala society was divided into nobles, free people and slaves and although the nobles ruled they were always assisted by an advisor who was a commoner. The king was accountable to his people who had the power to remove him from his position of leadership.

[72] A Fine George III Cut Steel and Gold Presentation SnuV Box Made for Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson 1st Duke of Bronté (1758 – 1805) The Gold Interior with an Inscription to the Lid This Box was made by a True Born Briton, John May of Birmingham and Presented to the King of the Ocean Horatio Vist. Nelson June 10th 1802. Whose Daring Deeds of Arms Rais’d England’s Flag Triumphant O’er the World The base highly polished to form a mirror Circa 1800 – 1802 s i z e   : 7.5 cm dia. 2 cm high – 3 ins dia., ¾ ins high p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English Family collection Acquired prior to 1910 Thence by descent On the 2nd April 1801 at 1.30pm just oV the coast of Denmark, Nelson put his telescope to his blind eye and said to his Flag Captain Foley ‘I really do not see the signal’. By ignoring the signal for recall and retreat the battle was swung decisively to the British advantage and the Battle of Copenhagen was forever remembered as a great victory. Later in 1801 Napoleon began massing forces to invade Britain and Nelson was placed in charge of defending the English Channel. He spent the summer reconnoitring the French coast, but apart from a failed attack on Boulogne in August he saw little action. On 22nd October 1801 the Peace of Amiens was signed between the British and the French, and Nelson in very poor health, retired to Britain to stay with Sir William and Lady Hamilton. The three of them embarked on a tour of England and Wales visiting Birmingham, Warwick, Gloucester, Swansea and Monmouth amongst other towns and villages. Nelson found himself received as a hero and was the centre of celebrations and events held in his honour. In 1802 he bought Merton Place, a country estate in Surrey where he lived brieXy with the Hamiltons until Sir William’s death in April 1803. The following month war broke out again and Nelson prepared to return to sea. This Wne box was made and presented by John May, most probably a patriotic member of the Birmingham business community who may have known Matthew Boulton, a founding member of the Lunar Society and a manufacturer of silver plate, ormolu and small decorative objects, such as this box, known as toys.

[73] An Oceanic Admiralty Islands Matankol Peoples Figural Hardwood Lime Spatula Finely Carved with Standing Male Warrior a War Charm on the Nape of his Neck the Hairstyle shown as a Stylised Sphere with Serrated Hooks Representing Spear Heads below 19th – Early 20th Century

s i z e : 47 cm long – 18½ ins long / 51 cm high – 20 ins high (with base) cf  : Joseph Mueller Collection Geneva Inventory no. 440 A&B Richard Parkinson in his Thirty Years in the South Seas of 1907 states that Quite extraordinary care is exercised on the manufacture of the long wooden trowels with which the burnt lime is taken out of the lime containers. These trowels are made from a dark wood and the lower end flattened like a spatula while the upper end it ornamented with a carefully carved decoration. Here we find a human figure and the crocodile head as the principal motif. The Admiralty Islands lie to the north of Papua New Guinea and are part of the Bismarck Archipelago. Their society was based on patrilineal clans and great reverence was accorded to ancestors, with their religion based on a fear of their most recent ancestors whose spirits were believed to punish breaches of a strict moral code. However, their inXuence did not last forever, and as these ancestors retreated into the past their inXuence was replaced by more recent spirits. The Matankol warriors of the Admiralty Islands wore war charms hung on the back of their necks and these were made of a thigh bone of an ancestor with attached feathers. The Wgures carved on these lime spatulas display these appendages, and it is thought they represent particular ancestors. The Matankol were the primary producers of wood carvings and decorated objects with diVerent islands having their own specialities. Mouk and Rambutyo are two of the islands that produced lime spatulas which are amongst the most exceptional carvings made in the whole area.

[74] A Sinuous Baroque Bentheim Sandstone Mythological Sculpture of the God Hercules Wrestling the Giant Antaeus a Lion Skin Paw Feet and Mask Head Draped Around His Torso the Long Hair of Antaeus Falling Down His Back Attributed to Antwerp Sculptor Jan Pieter van Baurscheit the Elder (1669 – 1728) On integral square base now damaged Circa 1710

s i z e : 186 cm high – 73¼ ins high – 6 feet 1¼ ins high provenance  : Sited in the Gardens of 17th Century Beresford Hall, Derbyshire, demolished in 1856. Built by Charles Cotton (1630 – 1687) near the banks of the River Dove in Beresford Dale near Hartingdon. A friend of Wsherman Izaak Walton, Charles Cotton a Poet and Writer, built a Piscatoribus Sacrum, known as The Temple, a Fishing House, in 1674 to celebrate their friendship, their entwined initials can still be seen carved into the stone above the door. Beresford Cottage was purchased by the Felton Family in the early 1960’s as a holiday home. The sculpture was taken from the garden and re-sited for safety to Bollitree Castle Gardens in 1988 Ex collection Felton Family Ex English collection cf  : Three statues of Hercules by Baurscheit the Elder are in the collections of the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, in particular Hercules and Cacus, which is monogrammed to the integral square base IPVB.F, have close stylistic similarities to this sculpture The attribution of this sculpture to Van Baurscheit has been confirmed by the Rijksmuseum curator, Frits Scholten In Greek myth Antaeus was the son of the god Poseidon and Gaia, earth, who lived in Libya. Heracles or Hercules, wrestled with him while on his way to fetch the golden apples of the Hesperides. Whenever he was thrown he arose stronger than before from his contact with his mother, the earth. Heracles perceiving this lifted him in the air and crushed him to death. The strength shown in the wrestling Wgures and in Hercules grip can be seen in the sculptor’s working of the taut muscles, tortured facial features and in the compression of Antaeus’s ribcage. At the end of the 17th century the clash between two strong muscular men symbolised stadholder William III’s struggle against the King of France. Jan Pieter Baurscheit the Elder was an Antwerp sculptor and architect who was often engaged by patrons in the Dutch republic. The son of a mayor he was born in Wormersdorf and moved to Antwerp where he was apprenticed to Pieter Scheemackers the Elder and joined the Guild of St Luke in 1694. Appointed assistant director of the Antwerp mint in 1709, sculptor to the King in 1714 and to the Emperor in 1717, he established one of the leading workshops for sculpture in Antwerp which was continued after his death by his son Jan Pieter Van Baurscheit the Younger (1699 – 1768). Van Baurscheit the Elder is also known for his religious sculpture which can be seen in the churches around Antwerp, such as a baroque carved wood pulpit in the church of Saint Carolus Borromeus. Other works by him are held in the collections of the Royal Museums of Fine Arts in Brussels. However, his sculpture in Bentheim sandstone known as Bentheim Gold by the Dutch merchants, was mostly carried out for gardens in the Netherlands. An engraving by Heindrik de Leth circa 1730, shows the pleasure gardens of Bosch en Haven, a country estate belonging to Jacob Alewyn Ghyzen near Haarlem, with the sculpture of Hercules and Cacus by Van Baurscheit placed against clipped box hedges. This sculpture is now in the collections of the Rijksmuseum.

[75] A Fine Mughal Indo-Portuguese Gujarati Fish Shaped Mother of Pearl and Brass Mounted Priming Flask Barutdan 17th Century

s i z e : 20 cm long, 5.5 cm high (max) 3.5 cm deep – 8 ins long, 2¼ ins high (max) 1¼ ins deep / 13 cm high – 5 ins high (on base) Hunting was a favoured pastime of the Mughal court and these priming Xasks were essential to the hunt. With matchlock, wheel lock and Xint lock guns it was necessary to use Wner powder in the pan than in the charge. The act of Wlling the pan was called priming, and the Xask to hold the Wne powder, the primer. In Europe it was a small counterpart of the Xask used for charge powder, but in India and the East a great variety of shapes were used. These were favourite objects for decoration, and the primer being small and constantly carried became a valuable and often fashionable hunting accessory.

[76] A PaciWc Micronesia Marshall Islands Spinner Fishing Hook Composed of a Thick Section of Giant Clam Shell Tridacna Gigas the Shell Barb Bound with Twisted Sennit Fibres to the Shank 19th Century

s i z e : 14 cm long – 5½ ins long Living primarily on low lying atolls, narrow crescent shaped islands of raised coral, that provided little apart from wood and Wbre, the craftsmen of the Marshall Islands turned to the seas that surrounded them for durable materials to make these hooks. The shell, known in Marshallese as Ludju or Mejil Labelab, has a rough surface which is intentionally left unworked as the irregularities and white lustre of the surface make it more attractive and deadly for the bonito Wsh when spinning as artiWcial bait through the sea.

[77] A Rare Sailors Work Slavers Whip a Natural Cat of Nine Tails Fashioned from the Long Spiked Tail of a Giant Atlantic Eagle Ray Myliobatis Aquila The handle crafted from knotted hemp fibres with a turks head turban sailors knot and wrist thong to the top Late 18th – Early 19th Century s i z e : 96.5 cm long – 38 ins long Eagle rays swim in the Atlantic Ocean from Britain to Senegal as well as the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. They are more active than Stingrays feeding on crustaceans and molluscs they forage on the sea bed. They are large graceful Wsh with pointed wing like pectoral Wns and extraordinary long thin tails. These were sometimes put to use by sailors and made into an instrument of punishment. During the horriWc transportation of slaves across the Atlantic they were often forced to dance on deck as William James, third mate on the Britannia in 1768 reported: While they are upon deck it is thought necessary that they should take exercise for which purpose the chief mate and boatswain are stationed with a cat of nine tails, to compel them to dance, as it is called.

[78] A French Faux Wood Pocket SnuV Box the Base with a Secret Compartment a Sliding Cover Revealing an Erotic Painted Scene Depicting an Amorous Couple Circa 1840 – 60

s i z e : 2 cm high, 7 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 3¼ ins high, 2¾ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep In Ancient Rome a celebrated festival was held annually on the 17th March in which a monstrous phallus was carried in procession in worship to Priapus and his generative powers. His worshippers followed indulging loudly and openly in obscene songs, conversation and attitudes, and when it halted the most respectable of matrons ceremoniously crowned the head of the Phallus with a garland. Unlike those of Ancient Rome, people in the 19th century regarded sex as shameful and any work of art, from antiquities to contemporary, deemed to be in the least erotically exciting was suppressed. Boxes such as this would have been hidden away and were often kept locked up in secret collections of erotica.

[79] A Collection of Thirty Oceanic Fijian Hardwood I Ula’s Displaying the Various Types Used as Throwing or Missile Clubs for Hunting or Fighting Weapons One inlaid with a human tooth several with notched markings signifying a tally of kills All with old smooth silky patinas 18th – Early 19th Century s i z e : min: 37.5 cm long – 14¾ ins long / max: 45 cm long – 17¾ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Acquired over the last 40 years Prior to the arrival of the British colonialists and missionaries on the Islands, warfare was central to Fijian art and culture. A man’s social standing and prestige was determined not only by hereditary status, but also by his achievements as a warrior and the most prestigious of all Fijian weapons was the club. Oral traditions on the Islands suggest that their indigenous weapons being used in the 19th century were identical to those that had been used for at least 200 to 300 years before. These small clubs were created to be hurled as projectiles with a speciWc revolving technique that was learnt from boyhood. It was the most personal weapon of the Fijian warrior with virtually every man wearing at least one, and often two through his girdle much like a brace of pistols. Primarily they were meant for throwing at an enemy with the aim of killing him outright, or temporarily stunning him so that he could be Wnished oV with a heavy two handed club. Typical throwing clubs used for Wghting had heavy rounded or Xuted heads issuing from a straight thick shaft made from a single piece of wood. The lighter clubs were used for hunting pigeons and large Xying fox bats. Some were used for dancing, and others were regarded as sacred being used in divination ceremonies, as well as for ritual healing and in the malignant cursing of enemies. Most clubs were created by uprooting a young tree and trimming oV the roots to form a head similar to the shape of a European mace. Each one was commissioned from specialised craftsmen known as Matai Ni Malumu who made the club to suit the physique, status and needs of the customer. The buttress roots of hardwood tree saplings were often trained by binding with coir or pandanus leaf cords when young to produce the bulbous shaped indented head. The handle grips generally shared a common motif consisting of a series of zigzag or wavy lines called tavatava and this decorative carving was added by a second specialist who took no part in the initial balancing and shaping of the weapon. These Wnishing touches were added by means of shark’s teeth or the spines of sea urchins set in a wooden handle. Known to European sailors in the 19th century as Handy Billy because of the speed and accuracy with which it was hurled and its conveniently portable nature, I Ula were essentially close range projectile weapons. They were often carried in addition to a heavier, bigger club in battle, but in times of peace they were everyday weapons that did not hinder a warrior’s movements unlike a larger spear or club.

[80] A Large European Carved Limestone Celtic Votive Head of Male Warrior Wearing Typical Flowing Moustache Small Beard and Curling Locks of Hair StiVened with Lime Wash the Slit Mouth Open as if in Command Circa 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e : 31cm high, 22cm wide, 25cm deep – 12¼ ins high, 8¾ ins wide, 9¾ ins deep / 42cm high – 16½ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex British collection From about 500 bc, Wrst Greek and later Roman historians mention peoples living in a large area of non-mediterranean Europe as Celts. These classical chroniclers seem to have recognised these communities as having suYcient shared cultural traditions to justify their being given a common name, Keltoi by the Greeks, and Celtae or Galli by the Romans. The earliest allusions to Celts by such Greek historians as Herodotus (485 – 425 bc) were followed by Polybius (200 – 118 bc) and Livy (59 bc – ad 17) who discuss the expansion of the Celts from their central European homelands during the 4th and 3rd centuries bc. They document the presence of Celts in Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Asia Minor, speciWcally central Turkey. They testify to the successful Roman resistance to the Celts in Italy, after the ignominy of the sacking of Rome by them in 387 bc, and describe the huge defeat suVered by the Celts at the battle of Telemon in northern Italy in 225 bc. The Celts in Greece who sacked the sacred site of Delphi in 279 bc were defeated by King Antigonos Gonatas of Macedon in 278 – 277 bc and in Turkey by Altalus of Pergamon in 240 bc. The Celts in Spain fell under the shadow of Rome from 2nd Century bc and the Celtic heartland known by the Romans as Gaul was conquered by the Romans under Julius Caesar in the mid 1st Century bc. Britain was not referred to as Celtic by the ancient historians, but Caesar recognised the close similarities between Britain and Gaul especially in their political organisation. Tacitus (55 – 120 ad) and others chronicled the conquest of Britain between 43 and 84 ad some mentioning the Werce nature of the Celts who went into battle naked. Celtic art therefore belongs to an artistic tradition in the early history of Europe which is no less important than that of the classical world. Art was central to Celtic identity and was closely related to the objects which it decorated. The Celts were used to seeing art as an integral part of their everyday lives.

[81] A Central Polynesian Austral Islands Exceptionally Tall Ceremonial Paddle with Anthropomorphic Figures to the Circular Finial and with Complex Schematic Surface Imagery Late 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 227 cm long – 89¼ ins long – 7 feet 5¼ ins long p rov e na nc e : Found in a Private House in Ireland It is believed that Austral Islands paddles were displayed at times when one chief visited another, but no early accounts exist of any ceremonies connected with their use. William Anderson, who accompanied Cook on his third voyage to the PaciWc, noted that canoes in Tupuai Island were managed with small paddles whose blades were nearly round, but the careful ornamentation on these paddles leads to a ceremonial rather than a functional use. Like the paddle shaped rapa of Easter Island they probably served as dance paddles used to accentuate the movements of the body during ceremonial sacred and secular performances on the Marae. Their general form is obviously traditional and whatever their original function it was likely of pre-contact origin. The indication is that early on these paddles were produced like other Austral Island art forms such as drums for local use and for trade to the Society Islands, and were present before the arrival of Europeans. Carved with frontally posed Wgures apparently dancing with upraised arms their use as dance paddles would correspond with their decoration. The arrival of the missionaries in the 1820’s put a stop to drum making and other associated ritual objects which were deemed to be heathen practices. With the conversion of the Islanders to Christianity and a growing demand from visiting whalers and European ships for exchange valuables and Polynesian curiosities the carvers turned their hand to creating paddles. Between 1821 and 1840 many beautifully carved paddles were manufactured, of small and medium size, and although introduced metal tools were used in their initial shaping, the carvers preferred their indigenous tools made from shark’s teeth or shell for the Wner surface carving. This exceptionally tall paddle, too long for easy transportation back to Europe, is meticulously carved, every square centimetre is cut with arcs, latticework, concentric circles and anthropomorphic motifs which are thought to allude to successive generations of ancestors. It is most probably an early traditional island artefact and was not made solely as a response to the demand of 19th century collectors for exotic curios.

[82] An Unusual Interesting Set of Twelve Ivory Historical Caricature Portrait Reliefs Depicting some of the Leading Catholic Clergy Responsible for the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 and Implicated in the Subsequent Persecution of the Protestant Huguenots All in old wood frames After a set of engravings published anonymously in two volumes in 1691 by the Huguenots Heros de la Ligue ou la Procession Monacale par Louis XIV pour la Conversion des Protestants de son Royaume Probably carved in London by an exiled huguenot from the workshops of Dieppe To the reverse of each an ink inscribed label naming the character portrayed for example: 1 du Viger, Conseiller du Parlement de Bordeaux, qui perdit au jeu tout ce qu’il avait gagné contre les Protestants 9 Monsieur le Tellier, Chancelier, qui signe la Revocation de l’edit par complaisance 10 Baumier, Avocat du Roy à La Rochelle, Persécuteur Perpétuel Also having printed labels Art Treasures Exhibition Wrexham 1876 W.B. Buddicom Late 17th – Early 18th Century

s i z e : 16 cm high, 14.5 cm wide, 2 cm deep – 6¼ ins high, 5¾ ins wide, ¾ ins deep (framed each) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of Victorian Industrialist W.B. Buddicom Thence by descent Sold at auction 1989 Ex Private London collection Exhibited at The Art Treasures of North Wales and the Border Counties Wrexham 22nd July 1876 and listed in the catalogue c f : A set of seventeen of these Ivory Portrait Reliefs were sold at Sothebys 1998 Lot 99 The Edict of Nantes was issued in 1598 by Henry IV of France, and it granted the Protestant Calvinists substantial rights within the predominantly Catholic state with the aim of promoting civil unity. It marked the end of the French wars of religion and oVered general freedom of conscience to individuals together with the reinstatement of the Huguenots civil rights, including the right to work in any Weld or profession. Louis XIV encouraged by his Queen, Madame de Maintenon revoked the Edict of Nantes by means of the Edict of Fontainebleau on the 22nd October 1685. It was said that bending all else to his will Louis XIV resented the presence of heretics among his subjects. Religious toleration in France had always been a royal, rather than a popular policy and after 1685 the Huguenot population were no longer protected. Freedom of religious belief was no longer enshrined in law and they were forced and coerced to convert to Catholicism, and if they refused, persecuted. Many Xed to other countries taking with them knowledge of important techniques and styles which had on eVect on the quality of the silk, silversmithing, watchmaking, jewellery, furniture and plate glass industries. Skilled artisans from the ivory workshops of Dieppe went to London, especially after the bombardment by the Anglo-Dutch Xeet in 1694. The famous silversmiths Paul de Lamerie and Paul Revere were among the estimated two hundred thousand to one million displaced Protestant Huguenots refugees that Xed France. Many came to London, but other European rulers such as Frederick Wilhelm Duke of Prussia actively encouraged them to seek refuge in their nations giving them incentives to set up as artists and craftsmen in Europe’s cities.

Bibliography Africa America Oceania, Le Collezioni Etnologiche Del Museo Civico, Torino, 1978 Andersen, Jorgen; The Witch on the Wall, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1977 Audenaerde Thys van den, D.F.E; Musée Royal De L’Afrique Centrale Tervuren, Ludion Editions sa, Gand, 1994 Audenaerde Thys van den, D.F.E; Treasures from the Africa-Musuem Tervuren, Verlag, Berlin, 1995 Ayers, James; The Artist’s Craft, Phaidon, Oxford, 1985 Baddeley, Jon; Nautical Antiques & Collectables, Sotheby’s Publications, 1993 Barry, Jeanne; Inua, Smithsonian Ins., 1982 Bassani, Ezio; African Art and Artefacts in European Collections 1400 – 1800, British Museum Press, 2000 Béguin, Gilles; Buddhist Art, River Books Ltd., 2009 Blüchel, K.G; Game and Hunting, Tandem Verlag, 2004 Brake, Brian; Art of the PaciWc, Oxford University Press, 1979 Brown, Steven C; Spirits of the Water, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2000 Burch, Ernest, S; The Eskimos, Macdonald Orbis, 1988 Burn, Lucilla; Greek and Roman Art, British Museum Press, 1991 Clarke, Christa; Central African Art, Neuberger Museum of Art, 2001 Clunie, Fergus; Yalo i Viti, Fiji Museum, Suva, 1986 Clunie, Fergus; Fijian Weapons & Warfare, Fiji Museum, 2003 Cranstone, B.A.L; Melanesia A Short Ethnography, BMP, 1961 Coe, Ralph T; The Responsive Eye, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2003 Coe, Ralph T; Sacred Circles, Arts Council of Great Britain, 1976 Conru, Kevin; The Art of Southeast Africa, 5 Continents, Milan, 2002 Cranstone, B.A.L; Melanesia A Short Ethnography, BMP, 1961 CunliVe, Barry; The Pre History of Europe, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994 Desautels, Paul.E; The Gem Kingdom, Random House, 1971 Dodd, Edward; Polynesian Art, Robert Hale and Company, London, 1967 Dubin, Lois Sher; The History of Beads, H.Abrams, 1987 Dyke Van, Kristina; African Art from the Menil Collection, Yale University Press, 2008 Ewins, Rod; Fijian Artefacts, Tasmanian Museum, 1982 Fagg, William; Collecting African Art, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1979 Farley, Julia and Hunter, Fraser; Celts art and identity, British Musuem Press, 2015 Felix, Marc; Beauty and the Beasts, SMA African Art Museum, 2003 Fitzhugh, W and Crowell, A; Crossroads of Continents, Smithsonian Institute Press, 1988 Fitzhugh, William, Hollowell, Julie, Crowell, Aron. L; Gifts From The Ancestors Ancient Ivories of Bering Strait, Yale University Press, 2009 Fitzhugh, William and Kaplan, Susan A; Inua Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982 Flayderman, E. Norman; Scrimshaw and Scrimshanders, N. Flayderman & Co., Inc., New Milford, 1972 Frank, Stuart M; Ingenious Contrivances, Curiously Carved, David R. Godine, Publisher, Boston, 2012 Freer-Cook, Gervais; The Decorative Arts of the Mariner, Jupiter Books, 1996 Foscett, Daphne; British Portrait Miniatures, Fletcher & Son Ltd, 1968 Gardner, Arthur; English Medieval Sculpture, Cambridge at the University Press, 1951 Garlake, Peter; The Kingdoms of Africa, Phaidon Press Ltd. Oxford, 1978 Geary, Christraud. M; Oceanic Art in the Teel

Collection, MFA Publications, 2006 Ginzberg; African Forms, Skira, Italy, 2000 Green, Miranda, J; Exploring the World of The Druids, Thames and Hudson, 1997 Grimes, J.R, Feest, C.F, Curran, M.L; Uncommon Legacies, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2002 Gundestrup, Bente; The Royal Danish Kunstkammer 1737, Denmark, 1991 Hail, Barbara A; Hau, Kóla!, HaVenreVer Musuem of Anthropology, 1980 Hales, Robert, Islamic and Oriental Arms and Armour, Published by Robert Hales C.I. Ltd., 2013 Hartman, P.W.; Elfenbeinskunst, Wien, 1998 Haskell, Francis & Penny, Nicholas; Taste and the Antique, Yale University Press, 1998 Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta & Krüger, Gundolf; James Cook Gifts and Treasures from the South Seas, Prestel, Munich, 1998 Heermann, I; Schmuck Der Südsee, Prestel, 1990 Herle, Anita & Carreau, Lucie; Chiefs and Governors Art and Power in Fiji, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge, 2013 Hooper, Steven; PaciWc Encounters, British Museum Press, 2006 Hooper, Steven; Fiji Art & Life in the PaciWc, UEA, 2016 Howarth, Crispin; Varilaku Art for the Solomon Islands, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2011 James Cook and the Exploration of the PaciWc, Thames and Hudson, London, 2009 Johannesburg Art Gallery, Art and Ambiguity, 1991 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; ArtiWcial Curiosities, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, 1978 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; James Cook and the Exploration of the PaciWc, Thames and Hudson, London, 2009 Kaeppler, Adrienne, L; Kaufmann,C, & Newton, D; Oceanic Art, Harry N Abrams, Inc., New York, 1997 Kecskési von, Maria; Kunst Aus Afrika, Prestel, 1999 Kjellberg, Pierre; Objets Montés, Les editions de l’Amateur, 2000 Kjellgren, Eric; Oceania: Art of the PaciWc Islands in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007 Koloss, Hans-Joachim; Africa Art and Culture, Ethnological Museum, Berlin, Prestel, 2006 Koudounaris, Paul; The Empire of Death, Thames and Hudson, London, 2011 Koloss, Hans-Joachim; Africa Art and Culture, Prestel, Munich, Germany Laue, Georg; Memento Mori, Munich 2002 Laue, Georg; Exotica, Munich, 2012 Levenson, J; Encompassing The Globe, Smithsonian Institution, 2007 Linton, Ralph and Wingert, Paul, S; Arts of the South Seas, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1946 Mack, John; Emil Torday and the Art of the Congo 1900 –1909, British Museum Publications Mack, John; Ethnic Jewellery, The British Museum Press, 1988 Miles, Charles; Indian & Eskimo Artifacts, Bonazo Books, NY Neich, Roger; & Pereira, Fuli; PaciWc Jewellery & Adornment, University of Hawaii Press, 2004 Newton, Douglas; Arts of the South Seas, Prestel, Munich, 1999 Oldman, W.O; Catalogue of Ethnographical Specimens, Oldman Sale Catalogues, reprinted Oldman, W.O; The Oldman Collection of Maori Artefacts, The Polynesian Society, Auckland, 2004 Pal, P; Asian Art at the Norton Simon Museum, (vol. 1,2 & 3,) Yale University, 2004 Parkinson, Richard; Thirty Years in the South Seas, Crawford House Publishing, 1999 Pei, Fang Jing; Treasures of the Chinese Scholar, Weatherhill, New York and Tokyo, 1997 Penney, David, W; Art of the American Indian Frontier, Phaidon Press Ltd., UK, 1992

Petridis, Constantine; The Art of Daily Life Portable Objects From Southeast Africa, The Cleveland Museum of Art, 2011 Phelps, Steven; Art and Artefacts The James Hooper Collection, Hutchinson, London, 1976 Phillips, Tom; Africa, The Art of a Continent, Passavia Druckerie, Passau, Germany, 1995 Pinto, Edward H; Treen and Other Wooden Bygones, Bell and Hyman, 1979 Robins, Gay; The Art of Ancient Egypt, B.M London 1997 Rubin, Patricia and Wright, Alison; The Art of the 1470’s Renaissance Florence, National Gallery Publications, London, 1999 Sandars, N.K; Prehistoric Art in Europe, Penguin Books, 1968 Scott, Jonathan; The Pleasures of Antiquity, Yale, 2003 Seipel, Wilfred; Exotica, Skira, Vienna, 2000 Selman; 18th Century Ethnographic Collections in the Hancock Museum, Newcastle, 2003 Sharkey, John; Celtic Mysteries, Thames and Hudson, London, 1975 Sloane, Kim; Enlightenment, Discovering the World in the 18th Century, British Museum Press, 2003 Stanley, Tim; Palace & Mosque, V&A Publications, 2004 Stepan, Peter; Picasso’s Collection of African & Oceanic Art, Prestel, Munich, 2006 Syndram, Dirk; Gems of the Green Vault in Dresden, Koehler and Amelang, Munchen, 2000 Syson, L; and Thornton, D; Objects of Virtue, BM Press, 2001 Tanner, Julia; From PaciWc Shores, University of Cambridge, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1999 Taylor, Colin, F.; The Plains Indian, Salamander Books, 1994 Taylor, Colin, F.; The Native Americans, Tiger Books International, London, 1995 Torrence, Gaylord; The Plains Indians Artists of Earth and Sky, Skira Rizzoli, Paris, 2014 Trnek, H and Vassallo e Silva, N; Exotica, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisboa, 2001 Trusted, Marjorie; Baroque and Later Ivories, V&A Publishing, 2013 Varjola, Pirjo; The Etholén Collection, Vammalan Kirjapaino Oy, Finland, 1990 Vincent, G.T, Brydon, S, Coe, Ralph T; Art of the North American Indians, The Thaw Collection, University of Washington, 2000 Visonà, M, Poyner, R, Cole, H, and Harris, M; Art in Africa, Thames and Hudson, London, 2000 Vogel, Susan, M; African Art Western Eyes, Yale University Press, 1997 Waite, D. and Conru, K; Solomon Islands Art, 5 Continents Editions, 2008 Walker, R.A; The National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, 1999 Walters, Anna Lee; The Spirit of Native America, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, 1989 Wardwell, Allen; Island Ancestors, Univ. of Washington Press, 1994 Warner, J.A; The Life and Art of the North American Indian, Hamlyn, 1997 Wild, Anthony; The East India Company, Harper Collins, 1999 Williamson, Paul; Netherlandish Sculpture 1450–1550, V&A Publications, 2002 Witte, Hans; A Closer Look, Afrika Museum, Berg en Dal, 2004 Zandvliet, Kees; The Dutch Encounter with Asia 1600-1950, Rijksmueum, 2002 Zimmer, H; The Art of Indian Asia, vol. 1&2, Pantheon Books, 1955 Zwalf, W.; Buddhism Art and Faith, British Museum Publications Ltd., London, 1985 Design by Prof. Phil Cleaver & Alexander Conway of Photography by Phil Connor, 07831 151549 Printed and bound in Great Britain by Pureprint

© 2018 Finch & Co No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the permission in writing of the publisher.