Talismen & Totems

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Talismen & Totems

Suite 744, 2 Old Brompton Road, London sw7 3dq, uk Tel : 020 7689 7500 Mobile : 07836684133 / 07768236921 Email : enquiries@finch-and-co.co.uk Website : www.finchandco.art

[1] A Rare Ancient British Celtic Limestone Bust of a Radiate Deity Sol Invicta Wearing a Halo of the Rays of the Sun 1st Century bc – 1st Century ad

s i z e : 42 cm high, 40 cm wide, 20 cm deep – 16½ ins high, 15¾ ins wide, 8 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection West Country U.K. c f  : Dr Anne Ross Pagan Celtic Britain no. 916, for a similar Stone Radiate Deity The genius of Celtic art lay in the moulding together of several disparate styles into something quite unique and distinctive. In both the Celtic and later classical religion, the sun god Sol Invicta the unconquered sun or Apollo as the Romano British knew him, had oracular and healing abilities. The human head was regarded by the Celts as being symbolic of divinity and otherworld powers, and the theme of the head which flows through all Celtic religious tradition is not a separate cult, but bound up with all other Celtic cults. The Celts perceived the presence of supernatural power as integral to their world. The sun, the sky and the dark places underground all had their own spirits. Every mountain, river, spring, marsh, bog, tree and rocky outcrop was endowed with divinity. A similar relief of this deity was found in Armagh in Northern Ireland and depicts the god with emphatically radiate hair. This relief was recovered from the site of the Protestant Cathedral in the city when it was restored and rebuilt in 1840. The hair forms stiV strands which radiate round the head. Another stone relief from Whitley Castle in Northumberland is known as Apollo. He is carved as a simplistic radiate figure and probably pertains to a native Celtic god Maponus rather than to the classical Roman deity, Apollo with whom he shared the skills of music and poetry.

[2] Rare Superb Large Exceptionally Long Blond Rhinoceros Horn Prestige StaV of OYce for Northern Nguni or KwazuluNatal Zulu Chief Carved with an unusual Octagonal Knop Fine smooth silky lustrous honey coloured patina Mid 19th Century

s i z e : 90.5 cm long – 35½ ins long / head: 8 cm high, 7.5 cm dia.(max) – 3¼ ins high, 3 ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection Jonathan Lowen inventory no. to head: JL. RII Ex Private collection of the Late Terence Pethica inventory no. 102, on a red label to the grip, published in the book of his collection The Art of Southern Africa Milan, 2007 Exhibited at the Royal Academy London 1996 Africa: The Art of a Continent published in catalogue Edited by Tom Philips page, 210, item 3.27d c f : An engraving of 1833 by E Casalis depicting Chief Mosheshwe holding a long knobkerrie as an indication of his status Knobkerries or staVs carved of rhinoceros horn were reserved for use by chiefs as symbols of status and personal dignity. Used as prestige items in a chief’s regalia, staVs of this length in rhinoceros horn were rare even in the 19th century when there were greater numbers of white rhinos in Southern Africa. As evidenced in 1844 when the Scottish big game hunter Roualeyn Gordon-Cumming obtained a long rhinoceros horn in exchange for a cup of gunpowder from Chief Sekgoma, the leader of the Bamangwato. He described it as a most wonderful knobkerrie made from a very rare species of the rhinoceros.... its chief interest consist in its extraordinary length which greatly exceeded anything I had ever seen of the kind before or have since met with (Cumming London 1850).

[3] Rare German Bavarian Kreussen Enamelled Stoneware Portrait Marriage Standing Cup with Finely Chased Gilt Copper Mounts The lid surmounted with a figure of a Knight in armour Fine condition Mid 17th century

s i z e : 29 cm high, 15 cm wide (max) – 11½ ins high, 6 ins wide (max) p rov e na nc e : Ex Cotswold’s collection In the first half of the 17th Century Kreussen, near Bayreuth in Bavaria, produced a dark greyish red stoneware with a brown salt glaze which they finely enamelled in bright opaque colours over high relief decoration. A unique innovation which was probably designed to imitate expensive Venetian glass, the technique was learnt from the German and Bohemian glass enamellers. The best examples date from the 17th century with the earliest known decorated with overglaze colours bearing a date of 1622. Sometimes, these large standing vessels decorated with the portraits of the newly-wed couple in all their finery were used for passing round and drinking healths at the wedding feast.

[4] Fine English Regency Brass Bound Rosewood Two Door Table Cabinet a Latin Motto Inscribed on a Brass Plaque to the Top Veluti In Speculum; As in a Mirror Probably made for a Library With two inset brass carrying handles standing on four brass lions paw feet the original gilded red leather lined doors opening to reveal drawers fitted to house cameos bronze plaques and other objects of art Attributed to George Smith (1786 – 1826) Upholsterer Extraordinary to the Prince Regent Circa 1810 – 20

s i z e : 24.5 cm high, 32 cm deep, 40.5 cm wide – 9¾ ins high, 12½ ins deep, 16 ins wide During the last years of the 18th century French influence had been much in evidence in England with Parisian marchand-merciers providing furniture for the Prince of Wales’s London residence, Carlton House, as well as fulfilling orders from other English aristocrats such as the Duke of Bedford. In reaction to this fashionable trend for Napoleonic designs and motifs, Thomas Hope, a banker, connoisseur and archaeological antiquarian, advocated a return to the pure spirit of Antiquity. In 1807 he published Household Furniture and Interior Decoration illustrating the designs he had used for furniture in his own house in Duchess Street. London. His ideas were popularised by George Smith, a London cabinet maker, who in 1808 published A collection of Designs for Household Furniture and Interior Decoration. This publication had considerable influence in promoting the so called antique or Modern Greek style fashionable during the Regency period. The renewed interest in antiquity introduced a taste for collecting cameos, bronze plaquettes, coins and medallions, and cabinets in the modern Greek style were deemed suitable for masculine surroundings such as libraries.

[5] Sailors Scrimshaw Narwhal Tusk Walking Cane with a Pronounced Spiral Grain and a Carved Walrus Tusk Handle Long brass ferrule Mid 19th Century

s i z e   : 92 cm long – 36¼ ins long C.I.T.E.S Article 10 available At Airy Hall, near Whitby, the former home of Admiral Moorsom, Commander of the Revenge at Trafalgar in 1805, there are two pillars built from twelve narwhal tusks brought to the port of Whitby, where the whaling fleet had been active since 1753. The narwhal is an Arctic whale growing up to five metres long, a relative of the white beluga whale, but it is too small and without enough blubber for it to have been hunted commercially by the whaling fleets of the 19th century. However, the scrimshanders prized the marine ivory tusk and often traded for them with the Inuit Eskimos, who traditionally took narwhal for their meat, oil and tusks which they made into harpoon shafts. Once found in considerable numbers in the Greenland Sea, Dans Strait and BaYn Bay, the narwhal was habitually referred to by the Arctic whalers as the unie. The myth of the fantastical unicorn and its spiralling horn persisted well into the 19th century. As the strength of the legend slowly diminished and the true nature of the horn was revealed, the tusks still continued to be regarded as rarities and exotic curiosities, and are so today.

[6] Three Rare Siberian Yakut or Evenki Amuletic Miniature Beaten Metal Guardian Spirit Masks Worn by Shaman Upon Ritual Garments 19th Century

s i z e s : A: 6.5 cm high, 5 cm wide – 2½ ins high, 2 ins wide B: 5.5 cm high, 3 cm wide – 2¼ ins high, 1¼ ins wide C: 5 cm high, 3.5 cm wide – 2 ins high, 1½ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex Russian collection A Rodionov Moscow collected in the field 1920’s c f  : University of Göttingen collection of Georg Thomas Asch (1729 – 1807) displays a Shaman’s robe with attached miniature masks The Siberian Yakut shamans were regarded by their neighbours, the Evenki as the most powerful in the land because of their ability to smith and smelt metal. Both the Yakut and Evenki shamans had elaborate heavy costumes that were sewn with rare and valuable elements of metal, ivory and wood and these ritual clothes and regalia established their authority, allowed them to venture safely into the spirit world, and embodied their mystery and power. Made of roughly cured wild reindeer skin, the coat was adorned with metal objects that served as a shaman’s armour when in confrontation with evil spirits. The masks were believed to be the soul of the shaman’s ancestors and therefore guardian spirits, and were held in special reverence. Siberia is a remote, inhospitable land infamous for its severe climatic conditions and by communicating with the spirits and supplicating them for success in hunting, healing and divination, the shaman helped their communities to survive in the far north. In return the shaman were shown great respect by being given a place of honour in the house, the best food, and conversation with the elders. Sometimes, for important rituals performed for the wealthier families, shaman were paid between one, and four reindeer.

[7] Two Victorian Taxidermy Specimens of Southern African Temminck’s Pangolin Manis Temmincki In good condition The larger mounted on Victorian Ebonised display board Late 19th Century

s i z e s : A: 17 cm high, 58.5 cm long – 6¾ ins high, 23 ins long / base: 38.5 cm wide, 14.5 cm deep – 15 ins wide, 5¾ ins deep B: 12 cm high, 33 cm long – 4¾ ins high, 13 ins long Although similar shape in shape to armadillos and anteaters, pangolins are covered in a body armour of bony overlapping yellow-brown scales which act as both protection and camouflage. They have no teeth and collect ants and termites from nests and mounds, which they rip open with large claws, with a long tongue that can extend up to 10 inches. Powerful muscles in their stomachs chew the insect prey they find and eat. There are seven diVerent species of pangolin all of which have a prehistoric appearance with scaly armoured bodies. Found in Southern Africa and Asia their habitats range from forest to savannah. Regarded as exotic curiosities in 16th and 17th century Europe, pangolin were often to be found in Wunderkammer collections.

[8] An Unusual Victorian Cumbrian Lead Miner’s Spar Box of Molton Antitmony Sulphide Depicting a Mountainous Rocky Landscape set against a painted backdrop of a cloudy blue sky Housed in an original glazed mahogany case Circa 1860 – 80

s i z e : 23 cm high, 37.5 cm wide, 21.5 cm deep – 9 ins high, 14¾ ins wide, 8½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Cumbrian collection c f : Lord McAlpine’s collection at West Green House, sold Sothebys 1990, lot 809 / 810 In Britain there is evidence that lead ore has been mined since prehistoric times, although the main period of activity was in the 18th and 19th centuries. Antimony sulphide is found in conjunction with lead ore in veins in association with galena, iron pyrites and other sulphide ores. The 19th century miners of the Northern Pennines called these scraps of ore and fluorspar, which they had gathered as they worked and hacked at the

seams in the mines, bonny bits. These they assembled and made into a spar crystal grottos’ or into landscapes to try and replicate the scenes underground. John Postlethwaite’s Mines and Mining in the English Lake District 1913 describes some of the inspirational natural phenomena the miners would have experienced: Cavities, called loughs, lined with crystalline quartz and other minerals are frequently met within veins, some of them not larger than a nut and others sufficiently capacious to admit several men. The interior of some of the larger loughs, when first broken into, form a spectacle of unrivalled splendour. The walls of the cavity formed of crystallised quartz, aragonite, dolomite, fluorspar, iron pyrites, blende, galena and other minerals arranged in the most grotesque order and reflecting the light in a variety of colours from thousands of prisms, produces an effect that cannot be described. The spar boxes were exhibited at competitions held regularly in the north of England such as that in St John’s Chapel in Weardale in the 1880’s. Using their experience of the scenes in the cavities of the lead mines, and following on in the 18th century tradition of constructing fluorite grottoes, the miners competed in classes held for both spar boxes and spa models. Although at first a traditional artistic hobby this local art form became a lucrative pastime for some of the miners.

[9] Collection of Ten Papua New Guinea East Sepik Province Prince Alexander Mountains Abelam Cassowary Bone Daggers Incised with stylised abstract geometric decoration probably used in rituals surrounding the cultivation of long yams some with stone drilled worn holes for use as attachment An old label attached reading Yina... used for Yam Cutting. Nyiygalimti Traces of red ochre lime and black charcoal pigments All with old smooth worn crusty patinas 19th Century

s i z e s : 33.5 cm long – 13¼ ins long (max) / 22 cm long – 8¾ ins long (min) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Cambridge Anthropologist Anthony Forge (1929 – 1991) who researched and wrote upon the Sepik Art and Environment in the Sepik (Proceedings of Royal Anthropological Institute, GB & Ireland 1965) and specialised in the yamexchange ceremony of the Abelam Peoples which he photographed in 1966. Part of his collection is in the Basel Museum of Ethnography Switzerland and in the Cambridge Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology. Some objects were exhibited in the 1991 Metropolitan Museum of Art Exhibition New Guinea Bone Carvings Sold at auction Sothebys, London 2nd Dec 2003, lots 394 and 400 The Abelam made a larger range of bone objects than any other Sepik group and the majority of them were fashioned from the leg bones of cassowaries. Being hard and durable it was an ideal material for the carving of elaborate abstract decoration and for extensive use in ritual ceremonies. The stylised geometric designs, often outlined with pigments probably represent spirits like those found on house posts and the gables of the ceremonial men’s house. In New Guinea mythology the cassowary is regarded as the mother of man. At five feet high it is second only to humans in size and an aggressive and dangerous creature. A primordial cassowary-woman is said to have created both the world and the first human beings. Whether a primeval ancestor or a living bird, all cassowaries are believed to be female and the fleshy wattles that hang from their neck are identified as breasts. However, the dangerous birds easily embody aggressiveness, the ideal quality sought by a male warrior. Bone daggers were supernaturally powerful objects that frequently played important roles in male initiation ceremonies and other rituals. Ornate examples such as these which have relatively blunt tips were probably created as ceremonial objects and were most likely to have been used in the cultivation of long yams. Cults associated with yams are paramount among the Abelam. These massive tubers attain lengths of up to 3.7 metres long and their cultivation is a sacred activity surrounded by magic and ritual. It is also highly competitive as an Abelam man’s social status is determined not only by his abilities as an orator and warrior, but also by his success in growing long yams. Each man has a permanent exchange partner chambera to whom he presents his longest and largest yams following the annual harvest receiving those of his partner in return. As the massive yams are presented they are measured and their dimensions carefully noted. Men who are able to present their chambera with longer yams than they receive gain prestige and renown. The exchange is a highly public aVair in which each man brings his best tubers to be displayed on the village dancing ground in front of the men’s ceremonial house. Lavishly decorated, the largest examples are suspended in a reclining position from long poles and crowds of people gather to witness the spectacle and inspect the yam growers’ achievements.

[10] A Fine Ancient Votive Roman Hollow Cast Bronze Arm of the God Apollo Holding an OVering Dish Upon His Hand Fine smooth light green patina 1st – 2nd Century ad

s i z e : 4 cm high, 16.5 cm long, 7.5 cm wide – 1½ ins high, 6½ ins long, 3 ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private German collection acquired 1930’s The bronze hand embodies the god Apollo’s power to help which is invoked or ensured by the oVering. Known as the enemy of darkness, Apollo was the god of light to whom each new moon is sacred. In the winter he withdrew to sunny climes, returning in the spring to dispel the powers of winter with his beams of light. OVerings were made and burnt on the great altar in his temple, and to ensure that the crops would ripen he received oVerings of the first fruits and other propitiatory gifts to induce him to avert the parching heat so harmful to the crops, animals and men. Apollo is the god of divination, the seer god, and in Ancient Greece revealed his will through the lips of inspired male or female prophets. A condition of frenzy was produced by the breathing of earthly vapours or drinking the water of oracular fountains, and the words spoken whilst in this state were fashioned by the priests into a reply to the questions asked of them. The most famous oracle of this kind was that of Delphi. However, in time and as a consequence of the avarice and partisanship of the priests, as well as the increasing decline of belief in the gods, the oracles gradually fell into abeyance. Apollo was then made one of the chief gods of Rome by Augustus (63 bc–14 ad) who believed himself to be under the God’s special protection and the oracles were revived throughout the Roman Empire, but were never again to have the political importance they once had in Ancient Greece.

[11] Japanese Carved Stags Horn Netsuke Depicting Playful Shishi crouching over a large ball which forms the Himotoshi The tail and mane with finely worked stylised curls the eyes inlaid with horn unusually floppy ears Well patinated with some patches of wear to the fur 18th Century / Early 19th Century

s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 3.5 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 1¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Belgian collection Shishi are mythical lion dogs of Chinese origin known in Japan as Komainu and in Okinawa as Shøså. They are believed to have the power to repel evil and are now habitually used to guard the gates and doors of temples and domestic houses, although they have only been used outdoors since the 14th century. They are really lions and not dogs, and probably came to Japan from India where they had taken up residence from China via the Silk road. They came from India with the Buddhist faith in which the lion is the symbolic protector of the dharma, the teachings of the Buddha. Eventually the lions also became the guardians of the entrance to Japanese Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples. As a netsuke the shishi has an amuletic role in protecting its owner.

[12] An Unusual Japanese Netsuke made from the Natural Upper Jaw of a Fox the Bone Lacquered Black and Red Himotoshi to the top Mid 19th Century

s i z e : 4.5 cm high, 7.5 cm deep, 5 cm wide – 1¾ ins high, 3 ins deep, 2 ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex Belgian collection In Japan the dragon is the oldest creature in mythology, but the fox is the oldest in superstition. He is the messenger of Inari the god of rice, who also sometimes appears in the guise of a fox, and is the guardian of the rice crop. However, in Japanese folklore the fox is thought to possess magical powers as it can transform itself into any form or being, including that of a human. The fox is also feared because of its cunning, but a hunter can turn this trait to good use, and the jawbone of a fox would possess amuletic qualities that when worn would assist the hunter in his pursuit of game

[13] Unusual Netherlands Bronze Swan Collar Etched with Baarland the Name of the Owner and the Castle where it lived on the Water of the Moat Complete with original bronze pin 17th Century

s i z e : 6 cm high, 7 cm dia. (max) – 2¼ ins high, 2¾ ins dia. (max) / 10 cm high – 4 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Found in the mud at the bottom of the Moat of Baarland Castle in the Netherlands during the restoration of the castle and grounds in the 1960’s Originally a native of northern Europe the mute swan Cygnus Olor was domesticated early on and raised in captivity first for its meat, and later for its great beauty. Medieval records show that there were domesticated flocks in Britain just prior to the 12th century and that swans were regarded as the property of the Crown. They could only be raised and traded under royal licence enforced by the King or Queen’s Swan Master and his deputies. Today an annual ceremony of swan upping is still performed on the River Thames in July where all mute swans are rounded up and marked for ownership either by the Crown or by the Vintners and Dyers Livery Companies, who were granted rights of ownership in the 15th century. The welfare of the birds is still taken seriously at this event at which they are inspected, weighed and ringed or marked with a nick to the beak. However, in the Netherlands hundreds of swans were owned by zwanendriften or swan herders in a tradition dating back to the Middle Ages. The young swans were caught and their wings pinioned so that they could not fly and their beaks marked with a tattoo of ownership. Upon their release as they could not fly they spent the winter stranded on the frozen marsh and ponds walking in search of food. At around two years of age they were caught by the herders by means of a wire loop around their neck and sold primarily for meat. This practice continued into the 21st century and was only recently outlawed in January 2017. This bronze collar was most probably made as a form of protection for the swan belonging to the owner of Baarland Castle, and would have prevented it from being taken by the swan herders from the castle moat.

[14] Pacific Fijian Four Pronged Hardwood Fighting Spear Saisai Dina with carefully wrapped Coir-Sinnet bindings The shaft shortened in the 19th Century to aid transportation Circa 1840 – 60 s i z e : 168 cm long – 66 ins long The multi-pronged saisai was unique among Fijian spears in that it was made of several pieces of carved wood either 3 or 4 long prongs, bound with coir-sinnet to the shaft which flared towards the front so that the prongs were broadly spread. These heavy spears were designed and used for war and were an especially diYcult weapon to dodge, the spread of the prongs giving it greater coverage. It was standard practice to rush in and club a man after he fell with a spear through him, as more credit and status was attained for a club kill. Spears were of particular value in defensive warfare and sometimes were even used as incendiaries with pieces of barkcloth or dry grass tied to their points and ignited. In 1855 Robert CoYn described one warrior’s lucky escape from a saisai when Chief Tui Levuka forbade his people to attend a cannibal feast being held by the Lovoni mountaineers….. but two or three did go and Tui Levuka was very angry and started with his four pointed spear to kill them. They saw him and fled up the mountain, the King got near enough to throw his spear once, but the points went each side of the fellow’s head and he got away, spear and all.

[15] An Interesting Sheep’s Horn and Silver Mounted Pocket SnuV Box with Inscription in Maori Pakeha Day Kote Pai A Rewi New Zealand 1864 Translating as A Gift To You On Whitemans Day From Rewi New Zealand 1864 Mid 19th Century s i z e : 1.5 cm high, 5.5 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – ½ ins high, 2¼ ins wide, 1½ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private New Zealand collection Acquired from Gerald Satin London 1960’s who purchased it from the descendants of the British Military Commander who was in New Zealand in 1864 Lieutenant-General Duncan Cameron Commander of Imperial Forces in New Zealand Rewi Manga Maniapoto (1807–1894) was a principal Ngati Maniapoto chief who led rebel Kingitanga forces during the New Zealand government invasion of Waikato in the New Zealand wars. The famous defeat in a hilltop peach grove at Orakau, known as Rewi’s last stand in April 1864 brought the Waikato War to an end and was immortalised in Rudall Hayward’s 1925 silent film, remade as a talkie in 1940, Orakau. Although the Maori led by chief Rewi lost the battle they are still remembered for their courage and their refusal to surrender. From March 31st to April 2nd the battle raged for three days between British troops and the Maori warriors. On the last day almost out of food, water and ammunition the Maori defenders of Orakau were oVered a last chance to surrender. This demand was met with a now famous reply, E Hoa Ka Whai Whai Tonu Måtou Ake! Ake! Ake! Friend we will fight on forever! Forever! Forever! Many attribute these words to Rewi, but others believe they were uttered by Hauraki Tonganui, a Taupo Maori chief. However, their intent was clear and the phrase helped create the impression that Orakau was a historic last stand for the Maori. This was the decisive victory that Lieutenant-General Cameron had sought, and presumably Rewi knew this and it was one of the reasons for his presentation of this horn snuV box to Cameron. Twenty years after the war the New Zealand state restored to Rewi a measure of his mana by building him a government house on a plot of land close to the site of his destroyed council whare which he called Hui Te Rangiora. It is here, in the soil for which he fought, that his bones lie buried, a sacred shrine to Maori patriotism in the heart of a Pakeha village.

[16] An English Silver Mounted Large Skull Cup Reputedly used as a Drinking Vessel by the Poet Lord George Gordon Byron 6th Baron Byron (1788–1824) at Newstead Abbey An inscription to the silver Skull Drinking Cup used by Lord Byron at Newstead Abbey Old smooth silky patina Medieval skull with silver mount the inscription 1870 – 90

s i z e : 5.5 cm high, 16.5 cm long, 13 cm wide – 2¼ ins high, 6½ ins long, 5¼ ins wide / 11.5 cm high – 4½ ins high (on base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of a West Country Brain Surgeon Thence by descent Newstead Abbey in Nottinghamshire was the ancestral home of Lord Byron. Once a 12th century Augustinian Priory, Newstead was granted by Henry VIII in 1540 to Sir John Byron. The ecclesiastical buildings were largely ruined during the dissolution, but in the 18th century these became a feature of the newly landscaped gardens to which William Byron, 5th Baron Byron added Gothic follies. However, the 5th Baron Byron became known as The Wicked Lord for his eccentricity and violence. He left the estate financially ruined so that when his great nephew George Gordon became 6th Baron Byron the yearly income of Newstead had fallen to just £800. Byron, however was impressed, the scale of the grounds and the extent of the ruins appealed to his extravagant and romantic sensibilities. In Thomas Medwins Conversations of Lord Byron published in 1824, there is a description by Byron of how the skull came into his possession: there had been found by the gardener, in digging, a skull that had probably belonged to some jolly monk or friar of the Abbey, about the time it was demonasteried. Observing it to be of great size, and in a perfect state of preservation, a strange fancy seized me of having it set and mounted as a drinking cup. I accordingly sent it to town… It is then recorded how the drinking cup inspired him to create a secret society which he called the Order of the Skull. I afterwards established at the Abbey a new order. The members consisted of twelve and I elected myself grand master, or Abbot of the Skull, a grand heraldic title he ordered a set of black gowns, mine distinguished from the rest and from time to time, when a particular hard day was expected, a chapter was held; the crane was filled with claret, and, in imitation of the Goths of Old, passed about to the Gods of the consistory, whilst many a grim joke was cut at its expense. Medwin also asked Byron about his particular predilection for skulls and crossbones noting that bones from the field of the Battle of Morat had been brought to him from Switzerland at his request. A skull cup was also referred to by Nathaniel Hawthorne after a visit to Newstead Abbey in the 1850’s Here, I think the house keeper unlocked a beautiful cabinet and took out the famous skull which Lord Byron transformed into a drinking goblet. It had a silver rim and stand, but still the ugly skull is bare and evident, and the naked inner base receives wine. I should think it would hold at least a quart – enough to overpower any living head into which this death’s – head should transfer its contents; and a man must be either very drunk or very thirsty, before he would taste wine out of such a goblet. Byron conversely loved his skull drinking cup so much that he wrote a six verse poem to it Lines Upon a Cup Formed From a Skull Start not – nor deem my spirit fled: /In me behold the only skull / From which, unlike a living head, / Whatever flows is never dull I lived, I loved, I quaff’d, like thee: / I died: let earth my bones resign / Fill up – thou canst not injure me; / The worm hath fouler lips than thine Better to hold the sparkling grape, / Than nurse the earth worm’s slimy brood; / And circle in the goblet’s shape / The drink of Gods, than reptiles food ….. (three more verses)

[17] A Pair of Chinese Bamboo Vertical Flutes Xiao each Inscribed in Their Original Box Inscribed Made by Zhang Lunshan of Yuping Guizhou A Scholars Object Early Republic / Circa 1912 – 1920 s i z e : 62 cm long – 24½ ins long (each) c a s e  : 4 cm x 4.5 cm x 65 cm long – 1½ ins x 1¾ ins x 25½ ins long p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Hong Kong collection Ex Hugh Moss 1994 The Chinese province of Guizhou is famous for its excellent bamboo flutes which are a symbol of the Chinese scholar. Its sound was sacred and was traditionally said to be carried by one of the eight immortals called Han Xiangzi. Each flute is inscribed with a poem extolling the inspiring sound that it produces and of the beauty of the Jade Lady who plays it: Under the bright moonlight to which family does this Jade Lady belong ? playing a song under a quarter moon the lofty thoughts of a scholar may match those of Sima Qian the ancient flying tunes of a thousand years past come alive in this Zhaoji studio Sima Qian was an ancient historian of the early Han dynasty (died 86 bc) and regarded as a paragon of scholarly virtues.

[18] Large Ancient Egyptian Anthropomorphic Mummiform Figure of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris a Funerary Papyri Container Polychromed gessoed sycamore fig wood decorated with a Hieroglyphic Panel Osiris and Winged Figure of Isis Rectangular Sarcophagus base and Atef Crown missing Late Period 747 – 332 bc s i z e   : 50 cm high, 10 cm wide, 8 cm deep – 19¾ ins high, 4 ins wide, 3 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection of a European Noble Family Acquired in the 19th Century Thence by descent From the late period onwards many tombs were equipped with the wooden statuettes depicting Ptah-Sokar-Osiris as an anthropomorphic mummiform figure. They were placed there to help the deceased, the texts inscribed on them containing oVering formulae and hymns to the funeral deities. Sometimes they were hollow and contained small rolls of papyrus inscribed with the Book of the Dead, the precious guide to the afterlife. Alternatively a small fragment of the Netherworld Book was placed in the sarcophagus base. The Book of the Dead was a funerary text known to the ancient Egyptians as the spell for coming forth by day. It was first introduced at the end of the Intermediate period and consisted of about 200 spells or chapters over half of which were derived directly from earlier pyramid texts or coYn texts. They were usually inscribed on papyri and simply placed in the coYn, but it could also be rolled up and inserted into a statuette or incorporated into the mummy bandaging. Ptah-Sokar-Osiris was an important image for the funerary cults, a combined god used for magical regeneration, whose ancestors were the corn mummies placed in the tombs as a symbol of rebirth.

[19] Antique Specimen of an Arctic Walrus Skull Complete with Tusks Odobenus Rosmarus 19th Century

s i z e : 23.5 cm high, 23 cm wide, 38 cm deep – 9¼ ins high, 9 ins wide, 15 ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Finch & Co Ex English Private collection The male walrus uses its tusks for many diVerent tasks. They are sharp enough to stab predators such as polar bears and to warn oV sexual rivals. They are also used to hoist themselves out of the water and onto ice floes. In about 870 ad a Viking Norseman named Othere recorded that he had made a voyage beyond Norway to hunt for Hvalross, horse whales which he declared have in their teeth bones of great price and excellence. Norse colonists living in Southwest Greenland historically paid a tribute in walrus tusks to the Papal Legate in Rome where they were regarded as a form of currency. For the next three centuries the Norwegians hunted the walrus among the islands of the far North taking as many as one thousand or more annually. Today, under protection, the walrus again number several thousand in the Barents Sea area.

[20] A French Brass Universal Equinoctial Ring Dial Signed Lorin Paris 1771 The outer ring marked with northern european cities and latitude scale the inner ring with an hour scale the central bridge showing the signs of the zodiac to one side and a date scale to the other a hole in the moving cursor for the sunlight Late 18th Century s i z e : 8.5 cm dia., 11 cm high – 3¼ ins dia., 4¼ ins high / 15 cm high – 6 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection The Netherlands The universal equinoctial ring dial is a form of sundial that links together the three disciplines of astronomy, navigation and surveying and the scientific instruments used by them, epitomised in the notion of the divided circle. Once known as astronomer’s rings their primarily function was probably for telling the time. In use the suspension ring is first set for latitude, and the cursor on the bridge set to the date. The hour ring, pivoted within the meridian ring so that the dial folds flat for convenience, is folded out and the dial suspended freely. It is carefully turned until the spot of sunlight from the hole in the cursor falls on the hour ring and indicates the time. The outer meridian ring, as well as the names of northern cities, has a latitude scale of degrees enabling it to be set to the correct latitude. Thus the dial is universal and could be used in any latitude, and for this reason was often recommended to sailors as well as travellers.

[21] Rare Regency Boxwood and Cherrywood Scale Model (15ft: 1 inch) of the 120 Gun First Rate Caledonia Ship H.M.S. Royal George Designed by Sir Robert Seppings in 1819 With a revolutionary rounded bow that made the vulnerable head rails normally used obsolete enabling heavier guns to be carried and a drier and more rigid passage underway The cherry wood frames pierced with gunport and pinned boxwood stringing the internal stretchers mounted at an angle on keel blocks Contained in a finely realised dockyard slipway with lined boxwood pavements interspersed with sandpaper shingle twin access steps and bitts All contained within the original removable glazed wooden case Early 19th Century

s i z e : 19.5 cm high, 40 cm wide, 14 cm deep – 7¾ ins high, 15¾ ins wide, 5½ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private British collection c f : Professor Andrew Lambert of Kings College, London has suggested that this model was possibly in the personal collection of Sir Robert Seepings (1767 – 1840) Naval Architect and Inventor of Seepings Blocks Sir Robert Seepings (1767–1840) was surveyor of the Navy from 1813 to 1832. Born in Fakenham, Norfolk he was apprenticed to H.M.N.B. Devonport Plymouth in 1782. By 1800 he had risen to be master shipwright assistant in the yard and had invented a device which greatly reduced to time required to repair the hulls of ships in dry dock compared to the laborious process of lifting which was then in use. For this invention he was awarded £1000 by the Admiralty and it became known as Seppings blocks. One of his most famous quotations was partial strength produces general weakness and he significantly improved the strength and seaworthiness of the Navy’s fleet. He improved the design of the bow and stern, but his greatest influence on ship design was in the introduction of diagonal bracing into the construction of the hull. He was instrumental, along with other innovators, in the introduction of iron elements into ship construction reducing the need for grown timbers which were increasingly in short supply. These stronger designs also oVered better protection to the ship’s crew against the enemy’s fire, permitted a powerful armament to be fitted in the bow and better allowed the ships to be kept on station during bad weather. In 1819 Seepings was Knighted. He died in Taunton in 1840.

[22] Arctic Greenland Inuit Eskimo Walrus Ivory Two Piece Toggling Harpoon The carved walrus ivory tapering shaft with a detachable arrow shaped head set with a primitive iron point Seal skin sinew thongs tie the head and shaft together Early 19th Century s i z e : 45 cm long – 17¾ ins long In 1887 Edward Nelson reported an encounter….. one hunter told me of an instance in which he and a companion, both in kayaks, had an encounter with one of these animals. They were hunting among the drift ice off Cape Vancouver one day in Spring, when his companion saw and killed a young walrus without knowing that the old one was about. A moment later the parent arose from the water and catching sight of them uttered a hoarse, bellowing cry and swam rapidly towards them. Both hunters paddled for their lives to a large piece of ice close by and landed upon it just in time to escape their pursuer. Here they were kept prisoners for nearly the entire day, and every time they tried to leave, thinking their enemy gone, they were pursued and forced to return to the ice again (Nelson 1887: 269) In the 19th century the Eskimo hunters were armed only with spears or harpoons. When they saw a walrus herd was hauled out on the ice, or a shore, the hunters would try to approach undetected in order to kill their quarry before it could escape. They often moved towards the animals in kayaks until they were close enough to spear their victims with harpoons. A float was attached to each weapon by a long line and the stricken prey was forced to tow it until exhausted. Pulled in by a line attacher the hunter would then quickly dispatch the walrus.

[23] Unusual Polar Inuit Spear or Harpoon Head Fashioned from a Narwhal Tusk Monodon Monoceros The shaft with old attachment holes 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 60 cm long – 23½ ins long p rov e na nc e   : Ex Netherlands collection c f  : Most of the Polar Inuit carried a spear formed out of the horn of a narwhal Sir F. Leopold M’Clintock, British Arctic Explorer 1857 Every July since time immemorial narwhals arrive in their summer feeding grounds in Inglefield Bay in Northwest Greenland and the Polar Inuit have hunted them. Their lances noted the American explorer Elisha Kent Kane in 1854 were quite a formidable weapon. The staff was the horn of a narwhal. Lieutenant Edward Chappell of the British Royal Navy stopped at the Savage Islands in Hudson Strait in 1814 where the Inuit showed him their arrows headed with sea-unicorn’s horn. When the famous American anthropologist Franz Boas visited the Canadian Northern Foxe Basin in 1884 he found that the narwhals horn was the favourite material for harpoons. Historically to the Polar Inuit narwhals were vital, their whole existence depended on the summer catch, all of their necessities of life came from the narwhal.

[24] Unusual Nepalese Himalayan Ritual Mist Mask Made from a Large Lingzhi Fungus Ganoderma Lucidum The nose formed from leather and pinned to the dry surface With a smooth silky patina through use 19th Century

s i z e : 28.5 cm high, 17 cm wide – 11¼ ins high, 6¾ ins wide Masks fashioned from large Lingzhi bracket fungus are ritually used in the villages of Nepal to dispel the malevolent spirits who are believed to dwell in the mountain mist. The natural contours of the wood like substance are used to form a face which is then rubbed with soot to blacken the surface. Buddhists take a pragmatic view of life and acknowledge that just as adversity, illness and peril cannot be completely eliminated from human aVairs, so malevolent deities can never be finally destroyed. However, through appropriate ceremonies the mask can help contain and redirect these demonic forces away from the household.

[25] Two Ancient Roman Fragments of Imperial Porphyry A fragment of a sarcophagus and a column 1st – 2nd Century ad

s i z e s : A: approx: 15.5 cm high, 21 cm wide, 13 cm deep – 6 ins high, 8¼ ins wide, 5 ins deep B: approx: 14 cm high, 26 cm wide, 21 cm deep – 5½ ins high, 10¼ ins wide, 8¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Belgian collection Porphyry comes from the Latin word for purple purpura and was used by the Romans to describe the hard volcanic rock peppered with white crystals of feldspar that was quarried in the Egyptian eastern desert at Gebel Dokhan. By law only the Roman emperors could use the colour purple and the dye was worth more than gold. First extracted by the Phoenicians and called Tyrian the dye came from crushed Murex Trunculus shellfish. Whole woollen fleeces would be dyed to the desired colour before being spun into the wool to weave the Imperial togas. The Egyptian porphyry quarries were known as Mons Porphyrites and were opened in the 1st century ad and worked for four centuries, mostly by slaves and convicts. The deep purple-red colour of the rock was highly prized by the Emperors Nero, Trajan and Hadrian who restricted it like the dye, to Imperial use, and regarded the Egyptian quarries as their exclusive property.

[26] A French Napoleonic Prisoner of War Work Sewing Casket with Lattice Worked Carved Bone Panels Depicting Classical Scenes The inside compartmentalised and decorated with marquetry straw work a fine scene to the lid in coloured straw of a three masted ship flying both the French and British flags brightly decorated houses along the shoreline A pull out drawer to the base Circa 1790 – 1810 s i z e   : 11 cm high, 22 cm wide, 12.5 cm deep – 4¼ high, 8¾ ins wide, 5 ins deep The number of French prisoners who were captured and held in British prisons from the Seven Years War in 1756 to Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo in 1815 was phenomenal. During their confinement the British government encouraged them to use their time and available resources productively, and so they gathered any available materials such as scraps of bone, wood, metal, string, wire, canvas, horsehair, nails and glass and used them to create objects. On designated days these wares were sold to British civilians in the prison marketplace, known as depot, markets. At these markets the local farmers and tradesmen would sell their goods to those prisoners who could aVord to buy them, usually high ranking oYcers who would receive money from their families abroad. However, the other ranks were totally without any sort of income and this made life especially hard. Owing to a long dispute between the British and French as to which country was responsible for feeding and clothing the prisoners, they received only a meagre ration of food, no clothes and no luxuries such as soap, or medication for their ill-tended wounds. Thus, the prison markets aVorded an opportunity for the prisoners to dispose of their own wares which were usually objects they had been trained to make in their own country as civilians. Cabinet makers and carpenters for example would make the wooden models and the carcasses for the straw work marquetry, which was very fashionable on the continent in the 18th century. The prisoners were particularly adept at plaiting straw, often finely decorating the bases of ship models or small boxes with it.

[27] A Rare Ancient Median Empire Votive Bronze of a Boar Probably from the Gilan Region on the Caspian Sea Kalouraz The animal standing with ears pricked a long snout displaying large tusks a band of beads around his sturdy neck Ancient smooth green patina with deep red patches of cuprite Circa 8th – 6th Century bc s i z e   : 8cm high, 12cm long, 4cm wide – 3 ins high, 4¾ ins long, 1½ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection Ex Private London collection of the Late Dr J.S. Tim Gordon Acquired David Aaron Gallery, Berkeley Square, London In the Ancient World boars symbolised courage and ferocity, and in Greek mythology the Erymanthian boar, a monstrous creature, is remembered in connection with the twelve labours of Heracles. The Medes were an ancient people who lived in what is today north eastern Iran. Their religion comprised an early form of Mithraism with priests they called Magi. On the edge of the Caspian Sea, in the northern province of Gilan, there is a historical hill called Kalouraz which is now thought to once have been a centre of government. The area was surrounded by burial sites and the excavated tombs revealed a number of small bronze sculptures in the form of deer, bulls and other animals. These most probably represented the animals used for ritual sacrifice and were votive oVerings buried beside the dead.

[28a] English Green Stained Ivory and Wrythen Silver Handled Steel Eating Knife and Three Pronged Fork with wrythen steel stem Contained in original embossed leather covered travelling case with loopholes for attachment to a belt The blade with Y shaped mark and dagger for the Cutlers Company, London Circa 1690 – 1700

s i z e : knife: 19.5 cm long – 7¾ ins long / fork: 16 cm long – 6¼ ins long / case: 21.5 cm long – 8½ ins long p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Bill Brown

[28b] English Ivory Handled Eating Knife Finely Decorated with Patterns of Tulips and Vines inlaid with Silver Picqué-Work painted with red and green enamel The long steel blade with P shaped cutlers mark Circa 1685 s i z e : 21.5 cm long – 8½ ins long p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Bill Brown

[28c] A Rare German Eating Knife with a Transparent Carved Red Baltic Amber Portrait Bust set upon an Amber Ivory Brass and Ebony Handle with Steel Blade Circa 1680

s i z e : 19.5 cm long – 7¾ ins long / 21 cm high – 8¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Bill Brown In the 17th century the handles of eating knives became much more elegant and decorative and changes to the shape of the blade occurred when eating habits dictated it was no longer necessary to spike food with a knife. As the use of forks became fashionable, knife blades became shorter with the sharp point removed. The early 17th century traveller, Thomas Coryat, brought back reports of the usage of forks from Italy where they were used, not to transfer food into the mouth as most usually supposed, but to prevent contamination by holding the meat in place when cutting on the plate. After much ridicule and resistance as an eVeminate aVectation the fork was eventually accepted in Britain, but was not widely used until 1670. Much of the cutlery that survives from this period derives from the old traditional custom of the groom giving his bride a pair of knives as a marriage gift. As fine examples, they were treasured and preserved as family heirlooms whilst most of the everyday cutlery has disappeared.

[29] A Fine Polynesian Fijian Iron Wood War Club Sali the Grip Inset with a Human Tooth the Long Broad Cheeks Carved with a Raised Diamond and Herringbone Motif Adjacent to a Wide Spur Superb old smooth silky dark brown patina Inventory mark to domed handle A / 982.28 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 98 cm long – 38½ ins long p rov e na nc e   : Ex English collection David Petty acquired Portobello Rd, 1980’s Ex Private French collection The human tooth most probably that of a vanquished enemy or of an ancestor inlaid to the grip of this club was set into the wood of the young living ironwood sapling long before it was cut down as the wood has completely enveloped and closed around it. Clubs were not just weapons used for killing, but valuable commodities and powerful symbols of authority, masculinity and the sanction of the ancestral gods. A weapon which had shed blood had demonstrated its mana, its supernatural eVectiveness to perform the task for which it was made and was thereafter considered to contain a motivating spirit. The highly developed crest or spur of the sali distinguishes it from the gata and this is thought to have been used like the beak of a spiked battle hammer to penetrate the skull and to parry an adversary’s blow. Far more attention to detail went into the making of Fijian clubs than was required for their technical efficiency in combat. Their form and level of decoration signalled the status and prowess of the owner, although important weapons were often given as exchange valuables at large solevu gatherings. Named after the clawed sali flower, of one of the wild banana plants of the musa species which grow in the Fijian bush, these clubs were symbolic embodiments of power as well as practical deliverers of destruction. In 1875 Chief Ratu Tanoa’s son, Ratu Cakobau sent Queen Victoria a club as a symbol of the cession of Fiji to her authority. In 1932 the club embellished with silver mounts returned to Fiji to be the mace of the Legislative Assembly.

[30] An Interesting English Renaissance Polychromed Wax Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley KC PC (1520 – 1598) Chief Adviser to Elizabeth I Contained in a turned wood lidded circular box Probably a likeness after a portrait oil on canvas of 1587 now in the National Gallery London NPG. 362 Circa 1590 – 1595 s i z e : 3.5 cm high, 7.5 cm dia. – 1½ ins high, 3 ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection William Cecil served both Edward VI and Mary I of England, but exercised most power when chief minister and statesman to their sister Elizabeth I. When she ascended to the throne, Elizabeth’s first appointment was to make Cecil her principal Secretary of State making him the youngest member of her council. Throughout his life he was the Queen’s most influential minister tempering her actions with cautious, but decisive advice. As a result the Queen nicknamed Cecil her Spirit. He was created Baron Burghley in 1571 and was Lord High Treasurer and Chief Minister from 1572. The only serious threat to his influence came from Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester whose great dislike he returned.

[31] An Alaskan Yup’ik Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Amuletic Figure of a Young Caribou a Blue Glass Trade Bead Fastened to its Mouth 19th Century

s i z e : 3 cm high, 9.5 cm long, 2.5 cm wide – 1¼ ins high, 3¾ ins long, 1 ins wide / 9.5 cm high (on base) – 3¾ ins high (on base) p rov e na nc e : Ex London collection of the Late Dr J.S. Tim Gordon Acquired Finch & Co 2014 The most important land animal to the Eskimo was the barren ground caribou, a form of wild North American reindeer. Large herds of caribou once roamed throughout the upland regions of the Yukon, but by the end of the 19th century only one herd was left on Nunivak Island. In some areas, such as the interior of North West Alaska and the barren lands west of Hudson Bay, caribou were the foundation of the entire economy. Caribou are always on the move and there is a broad regularity in their migrations. They spend the summer on the tundra and the winter inside the tree line, and over thousands of years the Yupik learnt to ambush these quick moving animals as they passed a certain point. Of course the hunters could never be sure of which route the caribou would take, but by checking the weather and ground conditions they could make an educated guess and position themselves accordingly. They also consulted the shaman and with his help the appropriate spirits would guide the caribou’s movements in the most desirable direction. Amulets such as this are believed to portray the young unborn animals in the womb, having immature features, shown in a crouching position with thin legs and detailed hooves. Foetal caribou are taken during the spring hunt before their mothers give birth and their soft hide is prized for clothing. The function of the amulet, perhaps used by a shaman, is to insure the continued abundance of the species rather than to promote a successful hunt.

[32] Rare Pair of Tibetan Painted Shrine Doors Depicting a Mahasiddha or Great Adept Seated in a Cave Holding a Skull Drum Damaru and a Human Thigh Bone Trumpet Kangling with a Kapåla shown on the ground next to him and a Ritual StaV Khatvanga with Skulls Sacred Text OVering Vase and Robes a Lotus Blossom above Three Deer in the Distance The Other Panel Showing Two Tigers with Their Cub in a Mountainous Landscape Beneath a Tree by a River the Male Watching the Ascetic Performing his Rituals Tempera on cloth laid on wood 17th Century

s i z e : 41 cm high, 48 cm wide – 16 ins high, 19 ins wide and 41 cm high, 44.5 cm wide – 16 ins high, 17½ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection of Late Dr J.S. Tim Gordon Mahasiddha’s were Indian masters who transmitted the tantric lineages to the early

Tibetan translators. Most of them were not monks and those who were did not wear conventional robes. They lived in the jungles with the animals and acquired food from wherever they could. They are depicted in Tibetan art as wild, wrathful looking characters who expressed enlightenment in unconventional ways. The tiger is a symbol of the energy and fierce boldness of the enlightened mind and the tantric path. The seated long haired ascetic is shown wearing a meditation belt around his shoulder and may represent Milarepa, Tibet’s most beloved saint who lived a completely itinerant life. In his youth he was vengeful by nature and practised sorcery, but later filled with remorse for his evil ways he turned to Marpa, a teacher in the south of Tibet, who had studied for long periods in the great Buddhist monasteries of eastern India. After undergoing an exceptionally arduous apprenticeship Milarepa was initiated into the secrets of Buddhist meditation, and in particular into the mystical practices of Naropa, Marpa’s Indian master. Naropa was a Mahasiddha or Great Adept, a title bestowed on 84 especially holy saints known for their extrasensory insights and superhuman powers. Milarepa’s command of Naropa’s teaching gave him astonishing physical strength and enabled him to withstand the bitterly cold Himalayan winters. He left Southern Tibet and continued his spiritual guest in the solitude of the mountains. Wandering westward he came to a cave near Nyalam and spent such long periods in meditation that it is said there are impressions in the rock where he sat.

[33] A Fine Large Portuguese Goa Devotional Crucifix the Polychromed and Gilded Ivory of Christ Crucified on a Coromandel Cross Ornately Embellished with Baroque Silver Mounts standing on an integral Coromandel plinth The agonising Christ on the cross his head falling to his right with closed eyes mouth open in his call to God long hair carved in undulating locks to his shoulders the well defined torso with flexed muscles and rib cage the arms with veins threaded along their length his hands and feet pierced by silver nails his wounds polychromed red the edges of the perizonum gilded Fine condition 17th Century

s i z e : 32 cm high, 26 cm wide – 12½ ins high, 10¼ wide / 107 cm high – 42 ins high (cross and base) On the 20th August 1595 Father Jerome Xavier of the Jesuit mission wrote to the General of the Society reporting on his meeting with the Prince Regent Salim of the Mughal court: I say the same with respect to the Prince for he was seriously angry with the Mohammedan guide for bringing with him no image of the Mother of God, and when bidding another to make extensive purchases, he particularly ordered him not to fail to bring with him a fine picture of our Lord, and as a Portuguese painter had come with us, he at once desired a copy to be painted of a picture of the Blessed Virgin which we had with us. So also when he came with his Royal Father to our chapel and saw there the child Jesus and a crucifix, he immediately wished to have similar images made of ivory by his own workmen (Jesuit Missions to the Emperor Akbar. E.D. Maclagan. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1896. pg. 66–67)

[34] French Silver Plated Brass and Leather Lined Dog Collar Marked Remond 108 Quai D’Orsay Paris with Eight Small Bells and a Tiny Padlock Attached Late 19th Century

s i z e : 10.5 cm dia. – 4¼ ins dia. / 7 cm high – 2¾ ins high (with base) Kings, Queens and the Pharaohs were the very first to use dog collars which became more ornate as the status of dogs and dog ownership grew over time. The ancient Egyptians had special laws to protect their dogs from cruelty and the bones of domesticated dogs have been found in tombs that date back to 5000 bc. In Oxford the Ashmolean Museum has an ancient Egyptian palette of 3500–3000 bc depicting dogs wearing collars. In ancient Greece farmers and shepherds created the iron spiked collar as a way of protecting their dogs from attack by a wolf. By the Middle Ages dog collars had taken on the role of identifying a dog’s position and job. Royalty often kept dogs as ornaments as well as companions, and their collars were made of precious metals and jewels. Hunting dogs wore simple leather collars as a means of identification. Amongst the Renaissance merchant classes padlock collars began to be made as a way of authenticating a dog’s ownership. Hinged metal collars with a padlock could only be opened by the owner who had the key. By the 1700’s dog collars also had the name of the owner on them and by the 19th century the name of the dog appears together with the address.

[35] Victorian Taxidermy Specimen of a Parson Jack Russell Terrier Wearing a Silver Collar on a Red Velvet Cushion An old silver terrier show medal lying beside him Contained in original glass case Late 19th Century

s i z e : 44 cm high 56.5 cm wide, 33.5 cm deep – 17¼ ins high, 22¼ ins wide, 13¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private collection Drax Family of Charborough Park, Dorset Reputed to be Great Grandmother’s favourite pet dog, the case consigned to the attic over 50 years ago The most famous collection of 19th century taxidermied dog breeds is in the Rothschild Museum at Tring, where most specimens were mounted by the specialist taxidermist Roland Ward of the Jungle in Piccadilly, London. Before being put on display each mount was submitted to the breed judges, as each dog had to be passed as of the standard required for the permanent record of breed features. Today the museum collection shows how the physical characteristics of each dog have evolved over time providing an important historical record of each breed’s past. The Parson Jack Russell was originally a breed of a small white feisty energetic terrier called the Fox terrier of the 18th century. Named after the man credited with the creation of the breed, the Reverend John Jack Russell, who was a well known huntsman. In 1819 he bought a small white and tan terrier bitch named Trump from a milkman in the village of Elmsford, and this dog formed the basis for his breeding programme. By the 1850’s the dogs were recognised as a distinct type of Fox Terrier, but the conformation show variety was not oYcially recognised by the Kennel Club until 1990.

[36] A Rare West African Benin Kingdom Ceremonial Ivory ArmcuV Carved with Four Rows of Standing Triad Figures Symbolising the Oba and His Helmeted Warriors Old worn smooth orangey red patina Old repair to aged crack and split 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 11.5 cm dia. (max) 13 cm wide – 4½ ins dia. (max) 5 ins wide / 20 cm high – 8 ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection Ex Finch & Co Ex Belgian collection c f : British Museum London collection of Lady F.C. Campbell (inv. no. Af 1922, 0313.5 & 6) for similar examples The power structure of the Benin kingdom was entirely built around the Oba who held a divine right to rule. Craftsmen were organised in special guilds that worked in the palace producing fine works of art in brass, ivory, wood and beadwork exclusively for the Oba and his court. Throughout much of Benin’s history, the use of ivory was restricted and anyone who wished to commission the craftsmen IgbesanMwan placed his request through the Oba. However, during the 1700’s this prohibition was relaxed as the Dutch had replaced the Portuguese as the principal European traders on the rivers of the Niger Delta. In their eVorts to fill the demand for ivory in Europe, elephant hunting was intensified and thousands of tusks were exported each year. Hundreds were retained for skilled indigenous artists who created the earliest of Benin’s carved altar tusks, ornaments, containers and armlets such as this example. Each of the carved rows of images on the armcuV are repeated once so that each second row of standing figures are a duplicate of the one before. The surface is carved with intricate forms that are interwoven with the figural motifs to link each row to the next. The Oba appears in the centre of the first and third row accompanied by two helmeted warriors. His right hand grasps a ceremonial eben sword and with his left hand he firmly holds the forearm of one of the warriors who wear the chest bands of Edo warriors designed to increase endurance and strength. This gesture is also found carved on ancestral altar tusks and seems to indicate that Benin’s military might is under the control of the Oba. When dressed in elaborate beaded regalia the Oba would cover each wrist with an ivory armlet and this solid cylindrical cuV prevented snagging on the networks of coral beads as he twirled the eben ceremonial sword. Title holders also required armlets particularly when they tossed the eben repeatedly during the annual festival of Igue and before the 1700’s these were made of brass or bronze. In the 18th century the Oba extended the privilege of wearing ivory cuVs to those prominent men who could aVord to buy tusks on the open market, and these would be commissioned from the bronze casters. Interestingly Benin’s ivory carving remained at an expert level throughout the 18th and early 19th century whilst its metalwork slowly declined in quality

[37] Japanese Carved Boxwood Okimono of Thwarted Rat Catcher the Eyes Inlaid with Horn Well patinated and in good condition Signed in a rectangular cartouche: Shokyusai Inventory label inside trap 5111 Late 19th Century

s i z e : 12 cm high, 9 cm wide, 3.5 cm deep – 4¾ ins high, 3½ ins wide, 1¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Belgian collection The very detailed and highly naturalistic work of this okimono depicting the trade of the rat catcher gives life to his expression of fearful terror. The escaping rat causing him to contort his body and face which is a picture of surprise, anger and frustration. Rats are sacred to the Japanese deity Daikoku who is one of the seven gods of Fortune or Luck. As the God of Wealth and worldly prosperity he is often depicted with a symbolic mallet, with which he grants wishes, sitting upon two rice bales at which rats are nibbling. His messengers are the rats which are regarded as a warning against carelessness in protecting worldly possessions. However, Daikoku’s good humour and wealth are such that he cheerfully disregards the rats eating the rice from the bottom of his bales, and as the guardian of farmers, radiates a belief in plenty.

[38] A Pair of Bering Sea Norton Sound Eskimo Inuit Carved Spruce Wood Snow Goggles Coloured Black to the reverse of the narrow eye slits An old native repair to hairline crack at right hand side Old ink inscribed label to reverse 28 Mid 19th Century

s i z e : 4.5 cm high, 13 ins wide – 1¾ ins high, 5¼ ins wide / 12 cm ins high – 4¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private collection Amherst, M.A. U.S.A. Acquired at a local Auction Around the beginning of March the returning sun begins to produce a glare on the snow covered Arctic landscape especially north of the tree line. By late April the country acts like a giant mirror reflecting ever more direct bright light. Inuit hunters out in this environment suVered severe pain and even blindness if their eyes were not well protected. Snow goggles also increased their distance vision by focusing the light. The goggles varied according to the locality in which they were made and could be carved of wood, often driftwood collected on the shoreline, or whalebone or from the tusk of a walrus.

[39] A Rare Ancient Celtic Iberian Solid Cast Bronze Votive Head of a Man Black and Dark Green Smooth Encrusted Patina 6th – 4th Century bc

s i z e : 6.5 cm high, 3 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 2½ high, 1¼ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private Norfolk collection Acquired with other Antiquities from the personal collection of the Australian Artist Sir Sydney Nolan (1917 – 1992) c f : The George Ortiz Collection, John Boardman, no. 204, for a similar Votive figure This unusual bronze expressive and bulbous head of a man probably represents a hero of Celtic legend. It is remarkable in its similarity to modern 20th century sculpture. At the same time as its scientific rediscovery, Celtic art aroused the interest of sculptors and artists, such as the surrealists, who identified the visual arts of the Celts as a far distant precursor of the break with the classical tradition, which was a feature of European art of the early 20th century. Guided more by intuition rather than knowledge, they detected a strong spiritual presence in Celtic art expressed by the formal processes that they sensed as being related to their own, and it can be said that modern creative thought continues to be nourished by Celtic art.

[40] Melanesian Solomon Islands Santa Isabel Island Bamboo Lime Container Waamagu Finely decorated with incised abstract designs With old label inscribed Betel Nut Box Solomon Islands Got At …..? 14/8/78 Circa 1860’s – 70’s

s i z e : 14.5 cm high, 5.5 cm dia. (max) – 5¾ ins high, 2¼ ins dia. (max) p rov e na nc e   : Collected in the field 1878 Ex Private American collection, Boston M.A. c f  : Musée du Quai Branly, Paris, has comparable examples (S.G.56.165/166/169) These carefully decorated boxes were used by men for carrying lime, betel-nut and pepper leaves. The betel-nut is placed in the mouth and partly chewed. Then a leaf of the pepper plant is added, when these are mixed a small amount of lime is taken, and all is then slowly chewed to produce a mild intoxicating eVect. The lightly incised and widely spaced geometric designs were rubbed over with a mixture of volcanic ash or charcoal, and juice from the euphorbia tree (Bischofia Javanica) which provided a clear black outline. It is thought that the designs may have signified personal ownership and the possession of such artefacts may have helped to demonstrate socially significant individual identities. As tattooing was also of social importance perhaps the designs were expressions of a person’s characteristics.

[41] A Papua New Guinea Oro Province Collingwood Bay Lime Spatula Carved in the Form of a Shark incised with lines representing shoals of fish Containing traces of white lime with three pierced holes once holding shell beads Old dark smooth silky patina with traces of lime to the end An old label inscribed Beasley Collection Papua Collingwood Bay Judge Chubb Collection 1880 inventory no. 3026 19th Century

s i z e : 42 cm long – 16½ ins long / 46.5 cm high – 18¼ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Beasley collection (inventory no. 3026) Cranmore Ethnographical Museum Chislehurst Kent Purchased from the Judge Chubb collection Ex Midderman collection The Hague Netherlands Ex Sjois Hesselbeath collection The Netherlands Throughout Melanesia betel nut is chewed both in ritual and ceremonial contexts and as a social habit. The substance releases an alkaline stimulant which speeds up the heart rate and raises body temperature producing a feeling of energy. It consists of a paste made from the crushed kernel of an Areca palm nut, the fruit or leaf of the betel-pepper plant and a quantity of powdered lime obtained from burning pieces of coral or shell. A small bite sized piece is placed in the cheek and chewed in a similar manner to a wad of tobacco. Papua New Guinea has a long tradition of betel nut chewing and it is said that in earlier times special lime containers and spatulas were made from the skulls and bones of dead ancestors. By keeping a dead relatives skull the descendant obtained the right of ownership of all the deceased’s property and inherited all of their power within the community.

[42] A Curious German Oil on Canvas of a White Tailed Deer with Unusually Curved Foundering Hooves Set in an English Country Park By Wolfgang Dietrich Majer (Bernloch 1698 – 1762 Tübingen) Signed and dated bottom right Majer 1754 18th Century

s i z e : 53.5 cm high, 43 cm wide – 21 ins high, 17 ins wide / 62 cm high, 52 cm wide – 24½ ins high, 20½ ins wide (framed) More usually known for his portraits of the German professional classes, Majer was living in England when he painted this curious phenomena. Between 1750 and 1755 he settled and worked in London with his son Jeremias Meyer (1735–1789) who became an important miniaturist as Painter in Enamels to George III and Painter in Miniatures to Queen Charlotte. He was also one of the founders of the Royal Academy and friend of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Wolfgang Dietrich Majer was presumably commissioned to paint this exotic deer with deformed hooves in 1754, which he uncharacteristically signed. The deer was most probably kept in captivity as a pet within a country park and had been overfed on a rich diet of corn. This results in a chronic build up of acid in the hoof plates and causes the deer great pain. In order to ease this the deer walks on the back of each hoof and as the front no longer has any contact with the ground, the tips of the hooves do not wear down and so curl strangely upwards. These elongated curled hooves are known as foundering and are the result of too many carbohydrates being fed to the deer over a very short period.

[43] A Rare South German Baroque Large Carved Walnut and Ivory Figure of David with the Head of Goliath at his Feet his Eyes of Coloured Glass Attributed to Matthias Kolb An old 19th century label to base George – Carved Walnut and Ivory Judith with the Head of Holofernes in the Style of Van Boissart Flemish Early 18th Century from Mother Circa 1740 – 1750

s i z e : 35.5 cm high, 14.5 cm wide (max), 14 cm deep (max) – 14 ins high, 5¾ ins wide (max), 5½ ins deep (max) c f : The Green Vaults Dresden have a comparable figure of a Beggar Reading by Kolb Inv no. 11.213The Victoria and Albert Museum also have a Figure of Judith with the Head of Holofernes with a similar base Inv. no. 45 – 1870 Known in Germany as Kombinationgruppen dramatic works of art in carved walnut and ivory began to be produced in late 17th century South Germany. They became particularly sought after by the aristocracy and Royal Court of Elector Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria (1727–1777) who was a gifted amateur ivory turner. Many of these Baroque wood and ivory groups were produced by Simon Troger (1683–1768), but his most talented apprentice in the Munich workshop was Matthias Kolb. Kolb’s carving of the flowing drapery and his use of the straps on the shoulder bag are similar to those on his Beggar with a Book in the Dresden Green Vaults. Kolb’s carved bases are distinctly diVerent to Troger’s grooved and stylised plinths. They are smooth, naturalistically rendered asymmetrical mounds, simulating the ground and incised with abstract designs to imitate grass. His figures also often wear bonnets whereas Troger’s wear wide brimmed peasant hats. This large figure is at once both theatrical and innovative with jewel like coloured glass eyes giving a feeling of life to the particularly active subject, accentuating David’s biblical victory over Goliath.

[44] A Rare Polynesian Fijian Warrior’s Hardwood Throwing Club I Ula Kobo Remains of an old label to the shaft Throwing… (?) Old dry smooth dark brown patina Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 43 cm long – 17 ins long / 46 cm high – 18 ins high (on base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Birmingham City Museum Sold Sothebys Parke Bernet New York 27th April, 1976, lot 65 Ex Private collection Boston, MA, USA The origins of these I ula kobo lie in the buttress roots of the trained uprooted sapling from which it is made. Generally carried in the girdle worn around the waist, sometimes in pairs like pistols, ula were hurled with great precision and used formerly to be the favourite implement of assassination (Rev. Thomas Williams 1884 Fiji and the Fijians 47). This missile club was the most personal weapon of the Fijian warrior and was worn at all times. Known to European sailors as Handy Billy (Wilkes 1845) because of the speed and accuracy with which it was hurled and its conveniently portable nature, the ula was carried ready to hand as the situation demanded. Eye witness accounts in the 19th century testify to the great force and accuracy of the weapon, skulls sometimes being shattered resulting in certain death, while blows to the body knocked men oV their feet. Seaman J.G. Clark wounded on the beach of Malolo Island in 1840 described the sound and the stunning eVect of its impact as being like the report of a heavy cannon at close range.

[45] A Pacific Fijian Chief’s Ceremonial Sperm Whale Tooth Breast Pendant Tabua engraved to one side Tinatina which translates as Mother 19th Century

s i z e : 16.5 cm long – 6½ ins long Tabua are high status regalia made from the teeth of the sperm whale. They are presentation items which are regarded as the most important of Fijian valuables. Used extensively on the islands they were presented with formal speeches as pledges of allegiance to chiefs, and as aYrmations of kinship between inter-marrying clans at weddings, and at funeral mortuary rituals. Tabua are also used as requests for assistance, and indeed for any purpose where the gravity of the occasion needs to be expressed. In 1810 Richard Siddons wrote that in Fiji whales teeth were more valued there than gold and that they will give as much sandalwood for one large tooth as for five or six axes. This regard that they put upon large teeth is the more extraordinary, as they do not seem to make use of them except as ornaments. (Im Thurn and W.H Arton.1925.pg174) Tabua possessed, and still possess, an immanent potency which obliges the recipient to accede to the request which accompanies their presentation and Europeans, missionaries, merchants, voyagers and traders have all presented tabua to Fijian chiefs as an eVective means of pursuing their aims.

[46] Bohemian Baroque Boxwood Presentation Model of a Crucifixion Group the Virgin with St John and Mary Magdalen Mourning at the Foot of the Cross Christ with his Eyes and Mouth shown open Surrounded by Cherubs in Clouds the Lord God in Blessing above a Dove of Peace Hovering Attributed to Frantisek Preiss (Prague 1660–1712 Prague) On later black marble base, old collection number in ink to reverse: 2809 Late 17th – Early 18th Century

s i z e : 32 cm high, 10 cm wide, 9 cm deep – 12½ ins high, 4 ins wide, 3½ ins deep / 36 cm high – 14¼ ins high (with base) Preiss’s high altar for the church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Doksany displays the same vitality and eccentricity as found in this boxwood group. He was known for producing small presentation models of the work that he undertook for the church authorities. Many of his models were valued early on as works of art in their own right. Preiss is thought to have been apprenticed to Jeronym Kohl (1635-1709) working in his Prague workshop in the 1680’s on commissions with him. By the mid 1690’s he had set up a workshop of his own producing religious sculpture of the high baroque. Preiss is now regarded as Bohemia’s most outstanding sculptor prior to the work of Mathias Bernhard Braun.

[47] An Interesting and Early Collection of South American Amazonian Ucayali River Region Shipibo-Conibo Peoples Artefacts Assembled by a British Missionary Together with fifteen large and five small photographs of the region and its people one showing him standing with the village community Circa 1880 – 1910

s i z e : bag: approx: 22 cm high, 24.5 cm wide – 8¾ ins high, 9½ ins wide dance apron: approx: 21 cm high, 39 cm wide – 8¼ ins high, 15¼ ins wide beadwork necklaces and arm bands: 17 cm wide to 30 cm wide – 6¾ ins wide to 11¾ ins wide teeth necklaces: 34 cm long – 13¼ ins long and 40 cm long – 15¾ ins long teeth armband: 14 cm long – 5½ ins long photographs: small: 16.5 cm high, 10.5 cm wide – 6½ ins high, 4¼ ins wide large: 21.5 cm high, 30 cm wide – 8½ ins high, 11¾ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex English Private collection Janey Hope Bower Acquired by inheritance Thence by descent to her granddaughter The collection comprising: Ten beaded necklaces and two beaded arm bands. The necklaces made of glass trade beads on woven cotton or silk grass fibres some with abstract toad or monkey designs. A finely beaded women’s dance apron threaded with jingle rattles made from palm nut shells. / A woven cotton bag with shoulder strap painted with polychrome designs found on Shipibo-Conibo pottery storage fermentation jars probably used for foraging nuts, fruits and seeds. / An armband of Tamarin monkey teeth on cotton thread worn by boys. The Tamarin is regarded as the guardian spirit of small boys. / A necklace of Jaguar incisors and teeth on thick cotton thread. / A necklace probably for a shaman of monkey teeth on plaited fibre thread. / The collection of photographs containing one entitled: Ucayali Indians (Civilized) and another Ucayali Indians (Not Civilized). (further images of all items available on request) In everyday life for the majority of Amazonian peoples, clothing was minimal for all but ceremonial occasions. For women, an apron of beadwork and perhaps armbands and a necklace are the most they would usually wear. The Shaman would wear teeth necklaces, especially those made from the powerful jaguar, and the men liked both monkey, crocodile and peccary teeth. Those of the peccary displaying hunting prowess. As can be seen from many of the photographs men originally wore very little apart from the occasional armband, necklace and loin pouch.

[48] A Southeast Asian Thai Ayutthaya Bronze Right Hand of the Walking Buddha Raised in a Gesture of Reassurance Traces of old gilding and black lacquer 16th Century Ayutthaya Period

s i z e : 25 cm high, 10 cm deep, 6.5 cm wide – 9¾ ins high, 4 ins deep, 2½ ins wide / 30 cm high – 11¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private UK collection The art and culture of Thailand is dominated by Buddhism which originally came from India in the 4th or 5th century ad. It is thought that the Buddha was born around 480 bc and died at the age of 80, probably from food poisoning, surrounded by his disciples outside the small jungle village of Kushinara. At the age of 35 he renounced prosperity for several years of austerity. Then he renounced extreme asceticism in order to achieve enlightenment through yogic meditation. As an itinerant teacher he demonstrated the extraordinary powers associated with yogic concentration. He preached to all classes of Indian society for about 50 years, primarily in the large towns and cities of the river Ganges plain. He established a community unified through loyalty to him, and emphasised ethical rather than ritual purity. Although he renounced worldly wealth and secular power he was not specifically concerned with social reform, but rather with individual salvation through commitment to an absolute, infinite, eternal reality. The Buddha taught a middle way between the two extremes of self-indulgence an self-mortification, whereby moral living and mental awareness assure release from unsatisfactory existence.

[49] Victorian English Ivory Phrenology Head Divided into Numbered Areas as Taught by Dr Franz Joseph Gall (1758 – 1828) The title to each section shown around shaft Circa 1820 – 40

s i z e   : 6.5 cm high, 3.5 cm wide, 4 cm deep – 2½ ins high, 1¼ ins wide, 1½ ins deep Phrenology is a process that involves observing and feeling the indentations and shapes in a skull to determine an individual’s psychological attributes. Developed by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796 the discipline was very popular in the 19th century. Phrenologists believed that the human mind had a set of various mental faculties, each one represented in a diVerent area of the brain. These areas were said to be proportional to a person’s propensities. Gall thought that the brain was made up of 27 individual organs that determined personality and each of these was located under a specific area of the skull. By feeling the skull and using his knowledge of the organ positions, and shapes of heads, the phrenologist could determine the overall natural strengths and weaknesses of an individual. Although now discredited as a scientific theory, Gall’s assumption that character, thought and emotions are located in specific parts of the brain is considered an important historical advance towards modern neuropsychology.

[50] Fine Northern French Boxwood Love Token or Marriage Gift the Box-Lid Carved with an Allegory of Cupid Holding His Bow Leading a Dog on a Chain an Inscription to the Top Edge Sans Celle Cy. Les Tois Libre surrounded by flowering forget-me-nots emanating from hearts The back sides and base all similarly profusely carved with scrolling foliate designs tied with lovers knots All in the manner of Cesar Bagard of Nancy Probably made to hold a bodkin for threading ribbons or lace A label inside reading: Liebesgabe 17 JH Late 17th Century s i z e : 2.5 cm high, 8 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 1 ins high, 3 ins wide, 1 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private Netherlands collection Highly decorative, minutely and elaborately carved boxes and toilet sets are often attributed to Cesar Bagard of Nancy, although there was most probably more than one workshop producing these finely carved boxes. Born in Nancy in 1620 Bagard was the fourth child of the sculptor Nicolas Bagard. He became a pupil of the sculptor M Jacuin and specialised in sculpting colossal statues mostly intended for churches and public places. He was nick-named Le Grand Cesar and his output was large, much of which was destroyed in the Revolution. The fine scale carving now associated with his name closely resembles the carving on some of the stone pedestals used for his statues, but there is no evidence to link him with these. The wood carving is essentially Louis XIV in design being a good translation of the silver of the period, bearing the same motifs and following the same outlines. The objects are mostly carved in pear-wood and boxwood and cover the whole range of toilet accessories and other small-work found in silver of the same period. Most of these objects must have been commissioned by the French nobility as there is often a coat of arms, a monogram or a motto carved into the design, as on this example.

[51] A Southwest New Mexico Native American Zuni Pueblo Sacred Stone Fetish in the Form of a Bear A turquoise arrow head attached to his back with sinew thread Old silky smooth patina through use 19th Century

s i z e : 5 cm high, 15 cm long, 3.5 cm wide – 2 ins high, 6 ins long, 1½ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private New York collection Ex Private London collection of the Late Dr J.S. Tim Gordon Acquired Finch & Co 2006, catalogue 8, entry number 37 The Zuni kept stone fetish images as personal spirit helpers. Regarded as powerful and sacred, they were made as representations of the Zuni gods and were consulted for guidance on all important family matters. The Native American belief in the supernatural power of nature led the Zuni to believe that spirits dwelt in those rocks around them that physically resembled an animal or human being. They were petrification of these forms that contained the soul or breath of the spirit inside. When these rocks or stones were carefully made into fetishes they would act as mediators between the Zuni people and the supernatural. The owner of this bear fetish would be empowered with the strength and characteristics of the animal represented and so the animal ally was joined in spirit with the hunter who sought out its blessing.

[52a] A North Italian Renaissance Bronze Domestic Mortar Decorated with Fruiting Vines and a Horned Mask of Bacchus Bearing an Armourial for Isabella d’Este Marchesa of Mantua (1474–1539) Old smooth greenish brown patina 16th Century

s i z e : 9 cm high, 11.5 cm dia. – 3½ ins high, 4½ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Cotswolds collection

[52b] Italian Renaissance Bronze Scribes Inkwell Decorated with Maned Lions Heads Draped Swags between Old smooth silky brown patina 16th Century

s i z e : 5.5 cm high, 6.5 cm dia. – 2¼ ins high, 2½ ins dia. p rov e na nc e : Ex Cotswolds collection Bronze mortars were used in almost every house of any standing in Europe during the Renaissance as evidenced by their regular appearance in wills and household inventories. A mortar made the pounding of herbs, spices and medicinals much easier tasks. Mortars made of bronze did not become impregnated with damp, salt or any other substance and so were preferred over those made of wood. Isabella d’Este (1474–1539) was one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance. Famous for her great patronage of the arts, she was also a leader of fashion. Born into a noble family in the city state of Ferrara she was classically educated and at the age of six was betrothed to Francesco Gonzaga, the heir to the Marchese of Mantua. In 1490 she married him and became the Marchesa. He had by then become Captain General of the Armies of the Republic of Venice, and so by necessity, was often away from his family seat La Reggia, leaving Isabella to act on his behalf. In 1509 he was captured and held hostage in Venice. As the Marchesa, Isabella took control of Mantua’s military forces and held oV the invaders until his release in 1512. She hosted the Congress of Mantua held in the same year and helped settle some of the diVerences between Florence and Milan. Upon his return Francesco II felt humiliated and betrayed by his wife’s superior political ability and the marriage ended. Isabella lived independently and travelled until his death in 1519 when she returned as Regent to rule Mantua for her son Frederico.

[53] Ancient Egyptian Large Intricately Carved Greywacke Heart Scarab with Polished un-inscribed base Traces of gold foil to the edge Late Dynastic Period 730 – 332 bc

s i z e : 1.5 cm high, 5 cm deep, 4 cm wide – ½ ins high, 2 ins deep, 1½ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private collection South Wales Acquired from a 19th century collection In Ancient Egyptian culture the scarab has a long tradition in contexts associated with both the living and the dead. The passage of the sun across the heavens was ascribed to the agency of an invisible beetle who pushed it across the firmament. The Greywacke stone used to carve the beetle reproduces the actual black colour of the insect that reinforces the themes inherent in the scarab’s funerary associations. To the Egyptians the heart rather than the brain was regarded as the source of human wisdom and the centre of emotions and memory. It was believed that the heart could reveal a person’s true character, even after death and so was left in the body during mummification. In order to prevent the heart from testifying against its owner at the moment of judgement a heart scarab was wrapped within the bandages.

[54] A Greek Hellenistic Votive Terracotta of a Grotesque Female Fertility Figure Displaying a Receptive Cteis Inventory no. 13 inscribed to reverse 4th – 2nd Century bc

s i z e : 4.5 cm high, 4 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 1¾ ins high, 1½ ins wide, 1 ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection George and Florangel Lambor George Lambor (1927 – 1997) was the Founder of the Antiquities Dealers Association and Agora Magazine Sex and nature worship was popular in Ancient Greece with many shrines dedicated to the fertility of both humans and the soil. Linked to the worship of the gods Demeter and Dionysus, the deities responsible for the fruits of the harvest, the symbols of the cteis and phallus were used to bring fertility, good luck and to give magical protection against evil spirits. Priapus, the favourite god of women, the son of Dionysus, was the deity of fruitfulness and his image was found everywhere in Ancient Greece as a boundary marker, signpost, carved on a door lintel for protection, or in gardens in order to make the plants grow well. The best specimens of Ancient Greek terracotta figures were found in tombs, but many came from the sites of temples and houses. It was a Greek practice to dedicate terracottas in temples and shrines and the guardians of these sacred places would periodically empty those under their charge of all the votive oVerings which had accumulated there. Some of the metal objects would be melted down and reused to make basins for the temple service, but the terracotta figures and vases were thrown away. Terracottas depicting grotesque figures, caricatures, parodies, mimes, dwarfs and others were very popular in the Hellenistic period. A favourite was a dancing dwarf with a huge phallus, sometimes shown fighting his own monstrous member. This terracotta is the female counterpart displaying her vagina or cteis.

[55] Two North West Alaska Inupiak Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Bowhead Whale EYgies Arveruag Used as sinkers during the seasonal hunt Early 19th Century

s i z e s : A: 4.5 cm high, 18.5 cm long – 1¾ ins high, 7¼ ins long B: 1.5 cm high, 7.5 cm long – ¾ ins high, 3 ins long p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private London collection Dr J.S. Tim Gordon Acquired Finch & Co 2008, catalogue 13, item number 3 The Bowhead whale was a very important source of food, oil and baleen, but was too large for one man to take alone. They were hunted by crews of eight men in open sealskin lined wooden framed boats called umiaks. Success in the dangerous enterprise of hunting the large bowhead whale depended upon a combination of superior equipment, technical skill and variety of ritual observances all designed to appease the whale’s spirit. The eight men included six paddlers, one harpooner and one helmsman. Each was able to concentrate on his specialised task in contrast to the single kayak hunter who had to propel and steer his craft as well as carefully handle the harpoon and lance. The paddlers kept the craft moving at exactly the right speed whilst the helmsman held it on it course. The harpooner could make a precise and powerful downward thrust using both arms from a standing position on the relatively firm base of the umiak. Instead of one or two floats, which was all that could be conveniently carried on a kayak, three or four were employed from an umiak. Each umiak had a number of whaling amulets or charms Arveruag, which had been imbued with magical powers by a shaman, fastened to it. Once the whale was killed, sinkers were attached to the first lines drawn around the captured whale making it fast to the boat. These sinkers were images of Bowhead whales carved out of graphite, marine ivory or wood, and insured the propitiation of the whale’s spirit. The rituals surrounding the hunt insured not only that the season’s whaling would be productive, but that the whales would return in future years.

[56] A Tibetan Cast and Gilded Copper Portrait Sculpture of a Buddhist Hierarch or Lohan Dressed in Flowing Robes with Short Cropped Hairstyle and Elongated Earlobes standing barefoot upon a Lotus Throne holding a Lotus Bud and Root With complete reliquary cavity to the back 17th Century

s i z e : 12 cm high, 5.5 cm dia. (base) – 4¾ ins high, 2¼ ins dia. (base) p rov e na nc e : Ex Private London collection of Dr J.S. Tim Gordon The Tibetan people have always venerated their Buddhist teachers in remembrance of whom portrait sculptures of great power have been created. Many of these were small and easily transported and would have served as reminders of the inspired teachings of the Lohan or hierarch. As well as evoking the saintly attributes of their subjects the images sometimes capture the individual characters of these historical figures with unique facial features and distinctive physical peculiarities. The Tibetan teacher’s ability to elucidate existential realities and to communicate the serenity that comes with the experience of Buddhahood is at the very core of Tibetan Buddhist culture. They were regarded as all important in introducing the meaning of Dharma to disciples and showing them the Path to Enlightenment from their own experience. These sculptures incorporate both the characteristics of these teachers; that of enlightened being, and of idiosyncratic personality. It is this mix of nobility of spirit and charismatic power that still continues to inspire generation after generation of Tibetans, to seek an authentic spiritual master.

[57] A Rare Collection of Seven West African Yoruba Carved Ivory Olori Ikin used in Divination Ceremonies The eyes inlaid with horn 19th Century

s i z e s : max: 10 cm high – 4 ins high / min: 6 cm high – 2¼ ins high p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private collection Seward Kennedy c f : African Museum Berg en Dal A Closer Look Hans Witte pg. 242, no’s 242, 243 for similar examples The Ifa priest throws sixteen palm nuts from one hand to the other during divination rituals, but another important seventeenth nut, known as olori ikin is placed in a circular string of cowrie shells next to the divination tray. This nut, the chief of the palm nuts is sometimes represented by a small ivory human head such as these, most probably for reasons of prestige. It was usually believed to represent Eshu, but it is now thought to be a reference to the deity that governs the Ifa oracle, known as Orunmila.

His job is to control the cosmic forces whilst Eshu acts as the messenger between them. Both Eshu and Orunmila have their own cults with their own speciďŹ c rituals, but belong together as supplementary aspects of the same principle which constitutes a balanced order for the world. Eshu as the messenger confronts the cosmic forces with each other. Orunmila assigns each of these forces its own particular role, settles disputes between them and generally makes sure that they do not exceed their limits. Orunmila’s role is therefore to guarantee a certain degree of peace and quiet. His best known cult material is the Ifa oracle which is the most complex method of divination practised by the Yoruba, but is regarded by them as being the most reliable. Eshu is associated primarily with conict, communicating messages between gods, witches, ancestors and people. Orunmila is associated with reconciliation. He is the sage and the judge who calls to order any force that is in danger of exceeding its boundaries. All Yoruba revere and worship both Eshu and Orunmila as without their unifying work performed by both mediation and the oracle, the universe would disintegrate.

[58] Ethiopian Orthodox Christian double-sided Rhinoceros Horn Plaque Carved with a Scene of the Nativity to One Side and the Crucifixion to the Reverse 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e   : 5 cm high, 5 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 2 ins high, 2 ins wide, ¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Belgian collection Christianity reached the old kingdom of Aksum in Ethiopia from Alexandria in the 4th century ad through the work of Frumentius at the Royal Court. Frumentius was consecrated the first Abuna or patriarch by Athanasius of Alexandria around 340 ad establishing the dependence of the Church on the Coptic Christian Church of Egypt. During the next two centuries the missionary activities of the nine Syrian saints spread the word of the four Gospels dealing with the life and teachings of Christ. At first translations from Greek into the local language of Ge’ez would have been used and then with the arrival of the nine saints translations from Syriac were added. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is unique in its observance of Jewish practices, such as the keeping of the Sabbath, circumcision and the distinction of clean and unclean meats. The Church also claims a connection with biblical Israel through the Queen of Sheba, and in Aksum a local tradition maintains that the Ark of the Covenant was carried there by Menelek, a son of King Solomon and the Queen. By the 17th century the capital of the Christian Kingdom had been established at Gondar which emerged in the 19th century as the centre of a unified Empire in Ethiopia’s northern and central highlands.

[59] A Southern French double-sided Horn Reliquary Pendant Containing Holy Relics of Named Saints and Martyrs in a Rolled Paper Display behind Faceted Rock Crystal Panels framed in an oval case with silver suspension loop 17th Century

s i z e   : 6.5 cm high, 5.5 cm wide – 2½ ins high, 2¼ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private English collection Relics of the saints and martyrs are venerated in the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church, as well as some Anglican churches. The use of reliquaries became an important part of Christian practices from at least the 4th century ad initially in the Eastern church which adopted the moving and dividing of the bodies of saints much earlier than the West, probably because the new capital of Constantinople, unlike Rome, lacked buried saints. Reliquaries provide a means of protecting and displaying relics which were often considered more valuable than precious stones and more to be esteemed than gold (Martyrdom of St Polycarp). Reliquaries in the form of jewellery housing tiny relics first appeared in the early 16th century. Designed with portability in mind, they were often acquired by the faithful on pilgrimages.

[60] Fine Japanese Boxwood Tonkotsu Tobacco Box Carved as a Rope Bound Bale of Rice being Nibbled by Rats their Eyes inlaid with Horn Signed in rectangular reserve 19th Century

s i z e : 6 cm high, 6.5 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 2¼ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Belgian collection Suspended tobacco containers made of hard materials were known as Tonkotsu and were originally intended for outdoor use to protect tobacco from the elements when carried by Samurai training in the field, or by hunters and farmers. At the beginning of the Edo period (1603–1868) tobacco was an expensive and coveted product valued for its perceived medicinal properties. In the 18th century smoking became more refined and fashionable accessories began to be made for the aZuent merchant classes, and these townsmen adopted the rural tonkotsu for urban use giving the container a new stylistic function through elaborate carving and designs that could convey the wearer’s personal taste. In the towns it became important to have a tasteful assemblage of a pipe case, ojime or slide bead, and tobacco box or pouch and it was the combination of these elements that defined the wearer’s aesthetic, not the quality of each individual object, which today is so important for the modern collector.

[61] Thai Siam Carved Ivory EYgy Figure of Deity Kuman Tong a Protective Household Shrine Figure Traditionally Depicted as a Young Boy The Golden Ghost Boy Inscribed in Black Ink to Reverse: Siam BT Webster Oct 1897 P. W.D. Webster (1868 – 1913) was a dealer who importantly was the first to produce illustrated catalogues of his selling stock Mounted on a Pitt Rivers base inscribed in yellow Siam Lieutenant General Augustus Lane Henry Fox Pitt Rivers (1827 – 1900) was a passionate collector who formed a remarkable collection much of which can be seen in the Museum that bears his name in Oxford however many objects were sold from the collection housed in Dorset by both Sothebys and Christies during the second half of the 20th Century First Half 19th Century

s i z e : 14 cm high, 4.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – 5½ ins high, 1¾ ins wide, 1 ins deep / 17 cm high – 6¾ ins high (with base) p rov e na nc e   : Ex W.D. Webster purchased 1897 from him by Lieutenant General Pitt Rivers Ex Pitt Rivers Museum Farnham, Dorset, sold Sothebys 29th May 1956 Ex English Private collection The Golden Ghost Boy is believed to bring good luck and fortune to the house and its owner provided that he is properly revered and displayed. Although not part of traditional Buddhist beliefs and practices the Kuman Tong as a tutelary deity has been popular in Thailand since ancient times. These eYgies were originally obtained by shaman from the desiccated foetuses of babies who had died within the womb. The shaman would paint the dry bodies of the Kuman with Ya Lak a kind of lacquer used to coat amulets, and then cover them in gold leaf. Hence the term Kuman Tong meaning little golden boy.

[62] A Rare Melanesia Bismarck Archipelago New Ireland Namatanai Area Ceremonial Carved Limestone Kulap Male Ancestor Figure Restored around the waist consistent with ritual use 19th Century

s i z e   : 40 cm high, 10.5 cm wide, 9 cm deep – 15¾ ins ins high, 4 ins wide, 3½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Linden-Museum, Stuttgart, Germany Ex collection Ernst Heinrich Stuttgart an early 20th century collector His collection label attached Thence by descent Probably collected in the field by Wilhelm Wostrack, District OYcer stationed at Namatanai 1904 to 1910 responsible for imposing German Rule over Central and Southern New Ireland. He sent figures to the Linden Museum in 1908 Carved limestone Kulap figures represent recently deceased ancestors. Distinctive to New Ireland they were created by specialists to serve as ritual temporary homes for the spirits of the dead who might otherwise wander and cause havoc among the living. The images were housed in small shrines constructed in the forest outside the village where only men were allowed to view them, although women would gather outside the shrines to mourn. As they vary in style and attributes it is thought that they were made to portray specific individual ancestors whose supernatural powers could be harnessed to benefit their living descendants. The figures were believed to contain the soul of the deceased whom they represented and would be removed in secrecy from the shrine and ritually broken and discarded once the period of mourning was over in order to symbolically release the spirit into the realm of the ancestors. The Reverend George Brown provided the earliest recorded history of these figures and noted that with the advent of Christianity on the Island the Kulap figures and associated cult of the dead had virtually disappeared by 1910.

[63] Early Renaissance South Netherlands Carved Walnut Crucifixion Scene the Central Panel from an Altarpiece Christ is shown on the cross between the two thieves whilst men on horseback look on one with a long lance to spear Christ’s side wearing a turban-like headdress his horse looking up at the saviour the mourning Virgin with St John below the sun and the moon are shown in the sky All contained within classical architectural surround Lower section and sides with old damage Probably Brussels Circa 1500 – 1525 s i z e : 80 cm high, 38.5 cm wide – 31½ ins high, 15¼ ins wide p rov e na nc e : Ex Private European collection The altarpiece is the most prominent element in a church interior and they aVorded the opportunity for sculptural embellishment. They were designed to enhance the meaning of Christ’s teachings, and the multi figured altarpiece as well as telling the story of Christ’s passion also oVered solace and protection to those praying before them. From the beginning of the 16th century the sculptural narrative of the altarpiece became increasingly ambitious reaching its zenith in the altarpieces produced in Antwerp in the years between 1520 and about 1540. By this time the shape had developed from the squared appearance of the earlier case to an undulating arched form filled with densely populated scenes set within ornate architectural frameworks. Once the central part of an altarpiece that also had carved scenes of the Passion and Infancy of Christ above and the Lamentation and Christ carrying the cross to the sides, this panel was rescued for private devotional use.

[64] Alaskan Bering Strait Inupiak Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Drag Handle a Fearsome Polar Bear’s Head The nostrils inlaid with baleen An old sealskin cord attached Early 19th Century

s i z e : 3 cm high, 8 cm long, 3 cm wide – 1¼ ins high, 3¼ ins long, 1¼ ins wide / 10 cm high (on base) – 4 ins high (on base) p rov e na nc e : Ex London Private collection Dr J.S. Tim Gordon Acquired Finch & Co 2014 In the Arctic winter the Eskimo hunter brings game home over the ice with the aid of a drag handle. These were carved of wood, walrus ivory, whale bone or antler, in a variety of forms and designs to suit the purpose for which it was to be used. The handle, attached to a permanent loop of sealskin cord, was used for hauling dead seals or other heavy game and were symbolically shaped as a seal, polar bear or walrus to assist the hunter in finding his prey and in order to appease the spirit of the hunted animal.

[65] A Collection of Four Bering Sea Inuit and Alaskan Thule Eskimo Carved Walrus Ivory Miniature Amulets: A: Arveruag Thule Hunter’s Amulet in the Form of a Bowhead Whale with a hole to its tail for attachment to Parka or Hat Excavated at Shismaref Alaska 1000 – 1600 ad s i z e   : 5 cm long – 2 ins long

B: Amuletic Belt Fastener in the Form of a Polar Bear’s Head Early 19th Century

s i z e : 1 cm high, 1.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep – ¼ ins high, ½ ins wide, 1 ins deep

C: Hunting Amulet in Form of an Arctic Fox With Long Bushy Tail Thule 1000 – 1600 ad

s i z e : 5.5 cm long – 2¼ ins long

D: A Hunting Amulet in the Form of a Polar Bear a Hole Through the Neck Possibly for use as a pendant Early 19th Century

s i z e : 5 cm long – 2 ins long p rov e na nc e a ,b,c & d : Ex Private London collection of Late Dr J.S. Tim Gordon Acquired Finch & Co 2015 The Eskimos have made carvings of small animals for thousands of years which only show minor changes in form through time. Their culture is not shared with other polar peoples such as the Lapp, and is uniquely characteristic of them. The unity of their artistic expression appears to have been present for some 3000 years and rather than decreasing as time went on has increased right up to the present day. This remarkable tenacity of a culture over vast distances seems to be a special function of nomadic ways of life.

[66] Rare Oceanic Marshall Islands Chief ’s Woven Pandanus Leaf Fibre and Black Dyed Hibiscus Belt of Abstract Design 19th Century

s i z e : 34 cm high, 29 cm wide, 5.5 cm deep – 13½ ins high, 11½ ins wide, 2¼ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex collection Lieutenant-General Augustus Henry Lane Fox PittRivers, Farnham, Dorset Sold Christies, Amsterdam, 24th May 2000, lot 219 Ex Private European collection c f : A Marshall Islands Women’s dress mat of woven pandanus leaves of similar design in the New York Metropolitan Museum, U.S.A. inventory no. 1983.545.36 The superb designs and consummate skill of the Marshallese women fibre artists is evident in articles such as this rare belt. Made from un-dyed tan coloured pandanus leaves and hibiscus bast dyed black, the fibres are precisely interwoven to create a complex abstract design. The women wore skirts formed from two dress mats, one at the back and one at the front, hanging full length to the ankles and wrapped around the hips over the front mat to allow the richly patterned borders to be seen. Men wore a single mat at the waist tucked into a belt at the front, passed between the legs and tucked into the belt again at the back to form a loincloth. These belts were plainer. It was on important ceremonial occasions that chiefs and other high ranking men wore a single mat full length at the front like an apron over a voluminous fibre skirt secured with an ornately plaited fibre belt such as this example. Made exclusively by women, the ornamental black dyed hibiscus bast designs were sewn using delicate needles made from bird or fish bone. The complex geometric patterns appear to have been purely decorative. Although the belts and mats took a considerable time to produce they were intended for constant use, and when properly cared for could be worn for about a year. They are a testimony to the ability of the Marshall Islanders to create striking works of art from the most basic materials.

[67] A Pair of South Indian Tamil Nadu Silver Vanki Upper Arm Ornaments Decorated With Images of Krishna Amidst Fantastical Peacocks and Scrolling Foliage 19th Century

s i z e : 12 cm high, 6.5 cm wide, 8 cm deep – 4¾ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 3 ins deep Stone sculptures from the 12th century demonstrate the continuity of the ancient forms of jewellery made in the South of India. Temple dancing girls known as Devadasis wear elaborate ornamented upper arm bracelets and large discal earrings, whilst a 17th century ivory in the Spirangam temple museum of Tirumala Nayak and his queen from Thanjavor in Tamil Nadu shows the style of the jewellery, and specifically the upper arm bracelet, had changed little over the centuries. The two heavy continuous V shaped sections are of a special type to Tamil Nadu and are called Vanki. Worn above the elbow they appear in an 18th century painting of Krishna playing the flute. The image from Thanjavor, shows the deity dancing wearing Vanki such as these.

[68] Fine French Dieppe Carved Ivory Triptych depicting the French Fleet Engaged in a Naval Battle with detailed miniature scenes of the Ship’s crew broken sails gunpowder clouds small boats and drowning men Probably depicting the battle of Bévéziers (Beachy Head) in July 1690 during the Nine Years War The scene shown in silhouetted relief when held before light After an engraving by Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin Battle of Beachy Head Early 19th Century

s i z e : 14 cm high, 9 cm wide, 1.5 cm deep – 5½ ins high, 3½ wide, ½ deep The eight hour battle of Bévéziers or Beachy Head near Eastbourne was a naval engagement fought on the 10th July 1690 and was the greatest French tactical naval victory over their English and Dutch opponents during the Nine Years War. The Dutch lost six ships of the line and three fire ships. Their English allies lost one ship, but the French did not lose a single vessel. Control of the English Channel temporarily fell into French hands, but Vice Admiral Tourville failed to pursue the Allied Fleet with suYcient vigour, allowing it to escape to the mouth of the River Thames. Subsequently criticised for not following up the victory, he was relieved of his command. The English Admiral Torrington did not fair much better. He had strongly advised against engaging the superior French fleet, but had been overruled by Queen Mary and her ministers who issued a direct order to do battle. He was court martialed for his general reluctance, defeatism and performance during the battle and although later acquitted, he was dismissed from the service by King William.

[69] Rare New Spain Spanish Colonial Mexico Table Cabinet Decorated with Geometric Star Inlays of Tortoiseshell Bone and Ebony with Strap Hinges and Central Lock Plate of Gilded Chased Brass The two doors opening to reveal an interior similarly inlaid with seventeen drawers and one secret compartment the inside door panels later painted with scenes after Antoine Watteau (1684 - 1721) The top and sides also inlaid the back decorated with rosewood trellis marquetry Standing on four turned ebony feet The cabinet late 17th Century The door panels painted in Europe circa 1720

s i z e : 66 cm high, 70 cm wide, 53 cm deep – 26 ins high, 27½ ins wide, 21 ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Private collection David Guardi Ker (1779 - 1844) acquired for Montalto, Co. Down, Ireland Thence by descent Ex Private collection Mr and Mrs David Ker The conquest of Latin America, attempts to convert indigenous people to Catholicism, and the development of vast territories presented an unprecedented challenge to European authorities and the Church. The abundant natural resources of the newly discovered land financed the Europeans monumental enterprise and created favourable conditions of the development of industrial arts in the European style. From the beginning European artists established themselves in the new settlements and began producing household goods and furniture. In many cases joiners came to Latin America as part of a ship’s crew, and as a result joinery was one of the first trades to be practised. They followed European methods and customs and established guilds modelled on those of Spain and Portugal. In Mexico, the master’s joiners guild was given its first ordinance in 1548. European furniture was logistically diYcult to import, expensive and vulnerable to tropical insect attack. These factors stimulated the development of workshops capable of meeting local demand. Indigenous workers were frequently employed and placed under the guidance of master craftsmen most of whom were educated and trained in Europe. The marquetry of contrasting woods, the inlays of tortoiseshell and the bone motifs of Spanish colonial Mexican furniture were undoubtedly influenced by the decorative repertoire of Mudéjar art which employs eight pointed stars in geometric patterns arranged across flat surfaces.

[70] Indo-Portuguese Ivory Central Triptych Panel Carved with the Scene of the Crucifixion together with the Mourning Virgin Mary and Saint John Second Half 17th Century

s i z e : 12 cm high, 7 cm wide, 1 cm deep – 4¾ ins high, 2¾ ins wide, ½ ins deep p rov e na nc e : Ex Belgian collection During the 17th and 18th centuries Goa was the major commercial and artistic centre and a magnet for craftsmen from all over India. With the development of shipping and sea routes Goa connected Southern and Northern India with the rest of the world. The city became a trading hub in luxury goods and as a consequence large numbers of European merchants trading in precious stones, gold, ivory and exotic curiosities settled in Goa. Soon after the missionaries followed, and it was the Jesuits in particular who influenced and developed a market for religious images. From early on the Portuguese were engaged in the ivory trade, setting up workshops employing indigenous craftsmen and exporting the resulting works of art back to Europe. In the late 16th century the body of the Jesuit Saint Francis Xavier was brought back to Goa and a Catholic pilgrimage cult grew up around his sacred shrine. Images for private devotional use then became sought after locally and were produced in Goa to satisfy the demand.

[71] An Ancient Hellenistic Greek Marble Head of Aphrodite the Goddess of Love The Wavy Strands of Her Hair Parted in the Middle and Gathered in a Large Knot Her Ears Pierced Late 4th to 3rd Century bc

s i z e : 9 cm high, 9 cm deep, 6.5 cm wide – 3½ ins high, 3½ ins deep, 2½ ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex English East Anglian Private collection Acquired in Late 19th Century Thence by descent through three generations The Goddess Aphrodite was the subject of some of the most ambitious and inspired sculpture produced in the ancient world. The most famous marble known today is the 2nd century bc Venus de Milo displayed in the Louvre Museum in Paris. Found on the Greek Island of Melos it is thought to be a copy of a lost original from 300 bc. The finest statue of the goddess is said to be the Aphrodite of Cnidus carved by Praxiteles in around 365 bc which shows her naked having disrobed for her bath. To the Ancient Greeks Aphrodite came to personify sexual pleasure and was devoutly worshipped as a universal force. She oversaw the reproduction of all animals and was the protector of all seafarers, probably as a result of her birth on the island of Cyprus. She was the patron deity of prostitutes and her temple at Corinth was famous for its oYcial harlots whose fees helped enrich Aphrodite’s cult.

[72] A Late Bronze Age Celtic Bronze Spear or Javelin Head With an old ink inscribed label attached: Found in a Romanie Camp Near Old Woodstock Obtained by Me From the Labourer who said He Found it When Working 5th – 4th Century bc s i z e : 16 cm long, 4.5 cm wide, 2 cm dia. – 6¼ ins long, 1¾ ins wide, ¾ ins dia p rov e na nc e   : Ex English Private collection acquired Mid 19th Century Thence by descent Most ancient commentators noted that the Celts had an unusual manner of fighting battles. Their chief weapons were heavy long bladed swords, spears and javelins which they wielded and threw with devastating efficiency. Throwing and thrusting spears and javelins were of equal importance to swords, and a variety of diVerent weights and shapes were made suiting them to their intended purpose. Powerful weapons were essential to counteract the phalanx, the robust military formation that was favoured by the Greeks and other Mediterranean armies. Celtic warriors attempted to breach this solid mass of soldiers by making a ferocious frontal assault. Ancient writers have dwelt upon the terrifying eVect an army of Celts had on their opponents: their great stature, their wild cries, their gesticulations and prancing, the clashing of arms and blowing of trumpets, all combined to terrify and confuse the enemy. For as long as these demonstrations of forceful enthusiasm and bravado struck terror into the foe, the Celts drove all before them, for they were always most formidable while they were fresh, Strabo noted. However, the initial onslaught often resulted in high casualties and if it failed, the impetus of the attack could peter out very quickly. Ancient sources confirm this reporting how the Celts could become totally disheartened if they did not achieve an immediate breakthrough. Strabo commented, The whole race is war-mad, high spirited and quick to fight, but otherwise straight forward and not at all of evil character.

[73] A Rare Central African Democratic Republic of Congo Suku Power Figure Njila of Remarkable Abstract Form Holes to the ears for the insertion of fetish material Superb old smooth light brown patina 19th Century

s i z e : 21.5 cm high, 6 cm wide, 7.5 cm deep – 8½ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 3 ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Belgian collection c f : A similar example in the Berg en Dal Afrika Museum 74.15. The Southern Suku make these graceful, abstract and sculptural protective power figures in the shape of birds. Half human, half bird, they are intended to depict a bird of prey such as a sparrow-hawk in hybrid human form. Their function is to act as a guardian spirit figure and as a promoter of fertility. A Njila may also be a general power object belonging to a successful hunter, healer or diviner. This fine example has two cavities for medicines which are to control and neutralise calamitous influences. These bird people are used in ritual contexts and embody the role of ancestors who act as mediators in the event of accidents or illness.

[74] An Unusual Indo-Portuguese Ivory Apothecary’s Mortar Old silky smooth honey coloured patina Age cracks and small chips to bowl and foot First Half 17th Century

s i z e : 11 cm high, 10 cm dia. – 4¼ ins high, 4 ins dia. In a desire and aggressive drive to dominate the maritime trade in spices during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Portuguese created their Estado da India. Composed of fortresses, trading posts and strategic coastal cities, it stretched all the way from Mozambique to Macao. Their headquarters was established in Goa which remained in Portuguese hands until 1961. Although they never achieved a monopoly over the spice trade, they did dominate the field of luxury goods, instructing and employing local artists and craftsmen in the manufacture of objects and furniture from exotic materials, all of which would be profitably exported back to a Europe hungry for such treasures.

[75] Turkish Ottoman Sherbet Spoon Tortoiseshell Bowl and Black Enamel Brass and Red Coral Stem Early 19th Century

s i z e : 23 cm long – 9 ins long s e e  : Finch & Co catalogue no. 13, item no. 34, for a collection of sixteen Turkish spoons Made from exotic and valuable natural materials spoons such as this were used at table in the Topkapi palace to help oneself from a communal dish of hosaf, a luxurious fruit compote of stewed dried apricots, plums, pears and figs cooked in a spiced cinnamon and clove scented syrup and then cooled. The nearer side of the spoon being used for eating or sipping the juice and the far side for helping oneself to a portion. It is said that the ladies of the harem were very partial to this dish in the late afternoon.

[76] French Carved Alabaster Portrait Bust of the Dramatist Pierre Corneille (Rouen 1606–1684 Paris) Mid 17th Century

s i z e : 25 cm high – 10 ins high Corneille is generally considered one of the three great 17th century French dramatists together with Moliére and Racine. Born in Rouen, the son of a lawyer he was educated at a Jesuit college where drama was part of the curriculum. He presented his first play, a comedy entitled Mélite to group of travelling actors in 1629 who made it part of their repertoire. The play was a success in Paris and Corneille moved to the city in the same year. He quickly became a leading playwright of the French stage, describing his style of comedy as a painting of the conversation of the gentry. In 1634 he was selected to write poetic verses for Cardinal Richeleu’s visit to Rouen. He became one of the Five Poets selected to realise Richelieu vision of a new type of drama that emphasised virtue. The Cardinals ideas were to be expressed by the Five in dramatic form. Corneille found this too restrictive, fell out with Richelieu and returned to Rouen. In the years following he produced what is considered his finest play Le Cid based on the legendary medieval Spanish figure Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar known as El Cid. The play was described as a tragicomedy and was an enormous popular success. However, it became the subject of an argument over the norms of dramatic practice as it intentionally defied the usual classical tragedy / comedy distinction. Known as the Quarrel of Le Cid, controversy raged and Richelieu’s Académie Francaise determined the play was defective as it did not respect the classical unities of time, place and action. Accusations of immortality were then levelled at the play in the form of a now famous pamphlet campaign. These attacks were founded on the classical theory that the theatre was a site of moral instruction. A war of pamphlets ensued with Corneille writing inflammatory verse and other playwrights pillorying Le Cid and its so called violations. Eventually Richelieu called upon the Académie to analyse the play who ruled that it broke too many of the unities to be regarded as a valued work. The controversy coupled with this ruling drove Corneille back to Rouen where he withdrew from public life. In 1640 he returned to Paris and paying closer attention to the classical dramatic rules had, by 1643, written two more tragedies. His popularity grew and his first collection of plays was published. In 1641 he married and by 1652 he had produced five more plays. The last was a comedy that gained very poor reviews, and disheartened he decided to quit the theatre. He focused on writing an influential verse translation of the Imitation of Christ by Thomas á Kempis which he completed in 1656. In 1659 he was persuaded to return to the stage and wrote Oedipe which was much favoured by Louis XIV. He then published Three Discourses on Dramatic Poetry which were essentially a defence of his style and a final response to the famous quarrel. For the next fourteen years he wrote one play per year, but none of them were as successful as his earlier works. His final tragedy Suréna was written in 1674 after which he retired, he died in 1684. Voltaire thought highly of Corneille, and he created a twelve volume annotated set of Corneille’s dramatic works. His proposal to the Académie for this project praised Corneille, describing him as achieving for the French language what Homer had done for Greek.

[77] Rare Polynesian Hawai’i Islands Chief ’s Wrist Ornament Kupe`e Palaoa Carved of Sperm Whale Tooth Two old worn holes to the reverse for attachment Superb old creamy smooth patina 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : 3 cm high, 6.5 cm wide, 4.5 cm deep – 1¼ ins high, 2½ ins wide, 1¾ ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex J. Timmermans collection Brussels Ex collection P. Mestdagh Lying on the outer extreme northern edge of the Polynesian triangle, Hawai'i was a highly stratified society where scarce natural materials were regarded as highly valuable. Whale ivory, boars’ tusks and the red feathers of the Honey Creeper Liwi were all reserved for use by chiefs and royalty. Objects fashioned from these materials were of special significance and were believed to encapsulate cultural ideas about fecundity, prestige and aptitude. Most importantly they acted as vessels for mana, and it was thought that by wearing these ornaments one could take on the mana of its former owner, whether a revered ancestor, beloved elder or fallen enemy, and thereby be empowered by its supernatural qualities.

[78] Two Polynesian Marquesas Islands Hakakai Ear Plugs carved from Sperm Whale Tooth Old smooth silky cream coloured patina 18th – Early 19th Century

s i z e : approx: 5 cm long – 2 ins long (each) p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private Belgium collection Carved from the teeth of a sperm whale these ear plugs were one of the few forms of ornamentation worn by the Marquesans. Hakakai made from pig’s tusks or whale’s teeth were worn by both men and women with the carved projection pointing backwards from behind the earlobe, the oval shaped disc showing at the front. A small stick was placed through the hole in the spur which held the plug in place. Captain David Porter (1780–1843) visited the Islands in 1813 and in his Journal of a Cruise (reprinted in 1986) no examples of ear plugs with carved ornamental figures are described or were collected, which suggests that the more ornately carved and larger forms developed later on in the first half of the 19th century. Before the advent of the whaling fleets, sperm whale teeth could only be obtained from chance strandings and were highly regarded as the most rare and precious natural objects on the Islands. Porter in 1813 remarked No jewel however valuable, is half so much esteemed in Europe or America, as is a whale’s tooth here.

[79] Alaskan Yupik Lower Yukon River Carved Sprucewood Salmon Club or Priest Anautaq in the Form of a Seal A wedge of iron under the head to weight the priest The eyes once inlaid Fine old smooth light brown patina Early 19th Century

s i z e : 3 cm high, 20 cm long, 5 cm wide – 1¼ ins high, 8 ins long, 2 ins wide p rov e na nc e   : Ex collection Robert Riggs (died 1970) Germantown Philadelphia Ex I.S.A. Barnett (died 2001) thence by descent Ex Stephen Barnett The greatest challenge to the Eskimos’ survival was not the cold, but the diYculty of obtaining food and to catch the available game in a polar environment required considerable ingenuity and eVort. Seals are especially good catchers of fish and by fashioning a priest in the form of a seal the hunter would hope to gain the animal as a helping spirit. Several species of salmon ascend the rivers of the Bering Sea coast from June to October, and owing to their great numbers they constituted a large and relatively stable food and oil resource. Caught in gill nets the salmon would be quickly dispatched with a priest, and then dried or frozen for use in the lean seasons when there was little else for people to eat. In the area of the Lower Yukon eighty per cent of the peoples annual food supply was derived from fish. The economy of the villages was based almost exclusively on harvesting huge quantities of salmon and other saltwater fish that entered the river each summer to spawn. However, almost every part of the fish was used, even the skin of the salmon was carefully dried and sewn into clothing, bags and pouches.

[80] A Fine German Carved Ivory Figure of Christ Crucified Christo Vivo His eyes and mouth open wearing the crown of thorns long locks of hair falling across his shoulders the perizoma tied with a cord of rope his wounds shown bleeding Smooth silky creamy coloured patina Fine condition Late 17th – Early 18th Century s i z e   : 28 cm high, 18.5 cm wide – 11 ins high, 7¼ ins wide Christian belief and religious practice have shaped Western European art for nearly 200 years. The subject of Christ’s life and death have formed the language with which artists and sculptors have addressed the universal questions of love, hope and suVering. The purpose of such art is to engage the viewer emotionally and intellectually and thereby encourage meditation on the human experience. Paintings and works of art celebrating the life, and mourning the death, of Christ were deliberately made to strengthen the faith of the believer. His teachings held that every life was in some measure divine, and thus the language of Christian art speaks to us of love and hope, of suVering and loss.

[81] Rare Erotic American Sailors Scrimshaw Sperm Whale Tooth Engraved with a Ship in Full Sail Flying the Union Flag above a Masonic Eye and Motto Deus Meum Que Jus below the Square and Compass with Key Anchor Skull and Crossbones to the Reverse the Number 33 above an Engraving of a Topless Fashionable Courtesan Holding a Red Rose Circa 1840 – 1860

s i z e : 14.5 cm high – 5¾ ins high The American Golden Age of Whaling took place roughly between 1825–65. This span of forty years saw the rise and decline of an important industry and its numerous dependent businesses that aVected the Eastern seaboard from Baltimore Maryland to Portland Maine and the oVshore Islands. At the height of the trade the Yankee scrimshanders numbered some 20,000 New York and New England whale-men who spent their leisure time on long arduous voyages fashioning pieces of scrimshaw from the teeth of the sperm whale. The decorative motifs found on scrimshaw are varied with the subjects ranging from the mundane to the bizarre. Some were drawn freehand especially those inspired by a sailor’s own experience, others were copied usually by pricking through a template such as a drawing or a print which was pasted over the surface. The representations of women in fashionable dress are said to be copied from the American Harpers Weekly or Godey’s Lady’s Book. These pretty women were the sailors’ pin-ups of the time, but as most scrimshaw was eventually taken back home and given to friends and family erotic images are very rare.

[82] A Superb Large French Napoleonic Prisoner of War Work Model of H.M.S Temeraire a Royal Navy 98 Gun Second Rate Ship of the Line With bone planked hull pinned to a wooden framework baleen gunwales and turned brass cannon the stern quarter gallery carved from a single piece of bone with name plate Temeraire the balustrades attached a Royal Armourial of the Lion and Unicorn carved above The polychrome painted figurehead depicting the Roman God of War Finely detailed elements including mica glazed lanterns in the rigging buckets buoy’s and longboat rigged to the stern Mounted on an original decorative marquetry worked wooden base board with carved bone balustrading Circa 1805 – 1815

s i z e : 69 cm high, 102 cm long, 32.5 cm deep – 27¼ ins high, 40 ins long, 12¾ ins deep / base: 6 cm high, 87 cm long, 26.5 cm deep – 2¼ ins high, 34¼ ins long, 10½ ins deep 20th century custom made display case (circa 1960’s): 84 cm high, 126 cm wide, 46 cm deep – 33 ins high 49½ ins wide, 18 ins deep p rov e na nc e   : Ex Private collection Channel Islands, UK Acquired from the Parker Gallery, London, 1968 Thence by descent An epitaph found inscribed on a headstone in a churchyard in Odiham, Hampshire, put up in memory of a French paroled prisoner of war, Pierre Julian Jonneau, who died there on the 4th September 1809, aged 29, accurately displays the sympathy felt at the time for both the famous ship Temeraire and for the Napoleonic prisoners of war. (An extract from eleven verses): 1,3,4,8,9,10 and 11 ode t o a p r i s on e r o f wa r b on e s h i p mode l ¶ The Fighting Téméraire / No tusk from trackless jungle brought, / No bone of slaughtered whale / Her wreathed and Tritoned sternposts wrought / And bulwarks eggshell frail... ¶ Mellow as ancient ivory / And fine as carven jade, / From beef-bones of captivity / The shapely hull was made, ¶ Whose making helped upon their way / Such limping hours and slow / As measured out the leaden day / That none but prisoners know... ¶ Still, though the world in change bewhelmed, / From the small mimic bows / The antique warrior, mailed and helmed, / Looks out with frowning brows, ¶  Like those beneath whose sightless stare / The sullen smoke-drift rolled / Round her, well named the Téméraire, / In famous Wghts of old ... ¶ What of her builder? Did he sail / Home to his France at last, / To tell in happier times the tale / Of wars and prisions past?  ¶ Or is, upon some gravestone hoar, / The legend plain to see: / He was a Prisoner of War, / But Death has set him free? Between 1803–1814 it is estimated some 122,000 captured soldiers and sailors were brought to Britain where they were incarcerated and lived under dire circumstances. It is a curious fact that many of the greatest works of art have been created in places and under conditions which one would think would have mitigated against any success in the construction of a masterpiece. The prisoners did not work from scale plans and so the ship models were often not accurate portrayals of the vessel they had graced with its name. Allowed to sell their wares to the local populace many of them were commissioned to produce favourite and more expensive works of art. The Fighting Temeraire was one of the last second rate ships of the line to have played a distinguished role in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 and became a famous symbol of British naval victory.

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