2021 David Aaron

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lond on | 2021

22 ber k eley sq uar e lo nd o n, w1j 6eh +44 20 7491 9588 info @ d avid aar o n. c o m www. d avid aar o n. c o m


8 HEAD OF APOLLO Hellenistic, ca. 2nd to 1st century bc 12 MOSAIC FRAGMENT WITH FISH Late Roman, ca. 4th–5th century ad 16 FRESCO OF AN ORNAMENTAL COLUMN Roman, ca. 60-79 ad 20 LIBATION TABLE Yemen, 7th century bc 26 CUNEIFORM TABLET WITH DEDICATION Babylon, Isin-Larsa Period, Reign of Rim-Sin I, 1822–1763 bc 30 COMPLETE HASAEAN FUNERARY STONE FOR ‘MATMAT’ Ras Tanura, Southern Arabia, 4th century bc 34 FRAGMENT OF A SCABBARD TERMINAL Assyrian, 883-859 bc 38 THE LAKENHEATH BRONZE AGE SHIELD England, 1300–975 bc 42 SINO-SIBERIAN DAGGER Minusink, Russia/ Central Asia, 1st millennium bc 46 TORSO OF APOLLO Roman, ca. 2nd century ad 52 PORTRAIT BUST OF A MAN Roman, 1st–2nd century ad

60 THE ‘ELVIS’ ACROTERION Roman, 2nd century ad 64 NEOLITHIC SESKLO IDOL Greece, 6th-5th millennium bc 68 TWO ABSTRACT IDOLS Anatolia, 2700-2300 bc 72 STEATOPYGOUS FIGURE Amlash, 1st millennium bc 76 HEAD FROM A STATUE WITH MAGICAL TEXTS Egypt, Late Period, 664–332 bc 82 FUNERARY MODEL OF A BOAT Egypt, Middle Kingdom, Dynasty XI-XII, 2087–1759 bc 88 IBEX-HEADED BRACELET 6th–4th century bc 92 GOLD WREATH Late 4th century bc 96 KYLIX DEPICTING EROTIC SCENE Greek, 5th century bc 100 LARGE IRIDESCENT AMMONITE From the Upper Cretaceous, Bearpaw formation, ca. 75–72 million years ago

1 HEAD OF APOLLO Hellenistic, ca. 2nd to 1st century bc Marble | h. 14 cm provenance Previously in the Private Collection of George Ortiz (1927–2013) from at least the 1960s Private Collection of Edward Lucie-Smith (b. 1933) London, received as a gift from the above in the 1960s With Mathias Komor (1909–1984), New York, inv. no. H889 Private Collection of Myron L. Mayer (1919–1981) and Nancy R. Mayer (1921–2019), New York, acquired from the above on 7 March 1964 (with copy of original 1964 invoice) Thence by descent alr: S00200429, Interpol certificate condition Preserved intact. The now-lost nose with remains of previous restoration. With overall minor surface wear including a few chips and brown staining, heavier on the left side. With Komor sticker to underside of base.

1964 invoice



George Ortiz

Edward Lucie-Smith

Finely carved, this small head of Apollo has idealized youthful features, a soft oval face, rounded chin and a smooth spade-shaped forehead which merges into what would have been the nose, now lost. His almond-shaped eyes with heavy lids sit beneath gently arching brows. With full bow-shaped lips ever so slightly turn up at the corners, giving a pleasant and placid effect. His centre-parted wavy locks are deeply drilled and are pulled back over the tops of his ears and bound at the nape of his thick columnar neck.

including music, archery, poetry, art, oracles, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge. He is the ideal of the kouros (nude male noble youth), which means he has a beardless, athletic and youthful appearance. note on provenance Son of the Bolivian ambassador to France, George Ortiz (1927–2013) created one of the most important private collections of ancient art. This piece was gifted to Edward Lucie-Smith by the collector at some point in the 1960s, possibly as thanks for allowing him to board at his Chelsea home. The two were introduced by distinguished British scholar and dealer John Hewett (1919–1994), who played an active role in shaping many collections of antiquities from the 1950s to the 1980s.

In its style, the Apollo presented here has similarities to the Kassel Apollo, named for the best replica of the type now in the Kassel Museum but known from numerous other Hellenistic and Roman copies. The present head shares similar facial features with the Kassel Apollo, which seem closer in spirit to the Severe Style. The centre-parted hair and spade-shaped forehead are also similar, but the sculptor of this head has omitted the braid at the back, the small ringlets within the strands and the long tendrils that fall along the neck, perhaps because of its smaller scale. There are also strong stylistic similarities to the Head of Apollo (from the Lansdowne Collection) attributed to Kephistodotos the Elder (active early 4th century bc).

Edward Lucie-Smith (b.1933) is an internationally known art critic, historian and photographer. He has published over 100 books, and has written on art for many leading British papers and periodicals. His photographs are in many museum collections around the world. For a note on the lives of Mathias Komor (1909–1984) and Myron L. Mayer (1919–1981), who were also owners of cat. 2, Mosaic Fragment with Fish, see page 15.

Apollo is one of the most complex and important gods in the canon of Roman deities, and is the god of many things,



2 MOSAIC FRAGMENT WITH FISH Late Roman, ca. 4th–5th century ad Mosaic | w. 56.7 cm provenance With Mathias Komor (1909–1984) New York, inv. no. H889, from at least 1966 Myron L. Mayer, (1919–1981) and Nancy. R. Mayer (1921–2019), New York, acquired from the above 15 October 1966 (accompanied by original 1966 invoice) Thence by descent alr: s00200630, Interpol certificate condition Fragment of lower right corner, in good condition

1966 invoice




Marine mosaic (central panel of three panels from a floor), Roman, Eastern Mediterranean Imperial Period ad 200–230 Findspot: Turkey, Hatay, Seleucia Pieria (port city of Antioch), acc. no. 2002.128.1

Depicting a single large fish, most likely a grouper, facing left, with a rounded humped back, forked caudle fin and two smaller fins along the lower body. The suggestion of scales has been cleverly created using two-tone tessellation from a yellow ochre and a darker red stone. This fragment is from a larger square mosaic, most likely a floor pavement with the depiction of sea creatures and fish, as suggested by the remaining right-angled black border at the lower right corner.

Used in a variety of private and public buildings, mosaics provided a hardwearing and practical surface. The designs were highly influenced by earlier and contemporary Hellenistic Greek mosaics, and often included famous figures from history and mythology, hunting scenes and, as in this case, marine scenes. An intact example kept in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston (accession number 2002.128.1) gives a good example of what the full mosaic might have once looked like.

Roman mosaics are constructed from geometrical blocks called tesserae, placed together to create the shapes of figures, motifs and patterns. Materials for tesserae were obtained from local sources of natural stone, with the additions of cut brick, tile and pottery creating coloured shades of, predominantly, blue, black, red, white and yellow. Polychrome patterns were most common, but monochrome examples are known. Fish and general marine scenes were a popular subject for mosaics due to the large amount of Roman territory with access to the Mediterranean Sea and in particular in the buildings around Antioch, a city located on the Orontes River that was known for the beauty of its waters.

note on provenance Mathias Komor (1909–1984) was a renowned art dealer, based in New York, specializing in Old Master paintings and ancient Near Eastern, African and Egyptian art. He kept extensive records and a strict inventory catalogue now in storage at the Getty Research Centre. Many of the pieces which passed through his hands can still be found today with his collection stickers still attached. Myron L. Mayer (1919–1981), president of Korn, Mayer & Klein, real estate managers NY, co-founded his firm in 1965. Before that he had been a partner in Gruenstein & Mayer, also real estate managers, with whom he started his career in 1939.


3 FRESCO OF AN ORNAMENTAL COLUMN Roman, ca. 60-79 ad Plaster, polychrome | h. 169 cm exhibited Private Taste in Ancient Rome, The Art Institute of Chicago, March 1990 published Private Taste in Ancient Rome, The Art Institute of Chicago, 1990, no. 25 provenance With Pino Donati, Arte Classica, Lugano, from at least 1969 Private Collection of Mr and Mrs James Alsdorf (1914–1990), Illinois, USA, acquired from the above 10 Ocober 1969, (accompanied by original 1969 invoice) alr: s00200428, Interpol certificate condition Large fragment, in good stable condition, some areas of restoration to the surface

1969 invoice, page 1

1990 loan invoice

1969 invoice, page 2



1990 checklist

This beautiful fresco would have once adorned the walls of a residence or communal building. Ornamental in style, the intricate details are created in vibrant yellow ochre and red polychrome on a stucco ground. The central plain gives the impression of an intricate scrolling column post, possibly wrought in copper as suggested by the verdigris tones used to paint it. The fresco was created by the application of water-based pigments on a damp plaster surface, which stabilized when dry. It represents the ‘fourth style’ of fresco painting, or the ‘intricate style’, which was popular around 60–79 ad. The decoration found from this time often consists of warm red and ochre pigments, minimalistic architectural elements and larger-scale narrative scenes. A prime example of the Fourth Style is the Ixion Room in the House of the Vettii and the tablinum of the praedia of Julia Felix in Pompeii. One of the main contributions seen in the ‘fourth style’ is the use of of still life with intense space and light. Shading was very important in the Roman still life. This style was never truly seen again until the 17th and 18th centuries, in Dutch and English decoration.

Fresco in the IV Pompeian style, 62-79 ad, discovered in the tablinum (reception room) of Praedia of Julia Felix in Pompeii on 13 July 1755. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli

James and Marilynn Alsdorf in Kenilworth, Miami, 1950

note on provenance Pino Donati was the son of well-known art historian, writer and journalist Ugo Donati and Paola Maspoli, he was born in Molinazzo di Monteggio. As a young man he moved with his family to Rome, where he completed his studies and, following in his father’s footsteps, he began to take an interest in antiques, with a particular propensity for the ancient classics and for archaeology. With his father he opened a well-known antique shop in Lugano, which he managed, in collaboration with his son Stefano, until only a few years ago.

Cory Co. became a multi-million-dollar enterprise and the largest manufacturer of glass coffee equipment in the USA. His collecting began in the early 1950s as a form of recreation and out of his love for art. From the beginning, his primary interest was Oriental art, with items dating back to 1500 bc. He was appointed to the US Information Agency’s Cultural Affairs Committee by President Reagan and was reappointed by President Bush. In 1952, James married Marilynn Bruder. Together they built a life that was centered on art, philanthropy and family. As their interests diversified, so did their collection. ‘They were not strategic in their collecting,’ recalls granddaughter Bridget Alsdorf. ‘They were guided by what fascinated them and gave them pleasure, by knowledge and instinct. They were an incredible team.’

James Alsdorf (1914–1990) was the son of a Dutch diplomat who moved to Chicago and became an exporter. He studied in the 1930s at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School of Finance, but left to join his father’s firm. One of his customers, Harvey Cory, owned a line of coffee-making equipment and offered to sell the firm to him on credit. The


4 LIBATION TABLE Yemen, 7th century bc Alabaster | h. 11.5 cm, w. 36.5 cm, d. 27.5 cm exhibited Yémen au pays de la reine de Saba, Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris, 25 October 1997–28 February 1998 Kunst und Archäologie im Land der Königin von Saba, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, 9 Nov 1998–21 February 1999 Yemen nel paese della regina di Saba, Fondazione Memmo, Palazzo Ruspoli, Rome, 6 April–3 June 2000 La Regina di Saba, Arte e Leggenda Dallo Yemen, Palazzo Bricherasio, Turin, 26 September 2000–30 June 2001 Museo del Instituto Biblico y Oriental, León, Spain, 2009–20 published Antiquities and Primitive Art sale, Christie’s, London, 25 February 1975, lot 178 Jacques Ryckmans, On Both Sides of Al-Mandab, Un table à Libations avec inscription sabeenne provenant du Gawf du Yemen, Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, 13 May 1989, pp. 69–81 Les Metamorphoses Divines d’Alexandre, 1996, p.158 and pp. 369–370 Yemen au pays de la reine de Saba, Institut du Monde Arabe 1997, p. 80 Jemen, Kunst und Archäologie im Land der Königin von Saba, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, 1998, no. 45 Yemen nel paese della regina di Saba, Fondazione Memmo, Palazzo Ruspoli, Rome, 2000, no. 43, pp. 122 and 286 Alexandre le Grand sur la route legendaire des royaumes de Saba, 2000, p. 23 La Regina di Saba, Arte e Leggenda dallo Yemen, Palazzo Bricherasio, Turin, 2000, p. 46 Treasures from Ancient Yemen: On the Legendary Road of the Kingdom of Sheba, c. 2009, no. 12 provenance Most likely from Jawf, Yemen. Previously in the Private Collection of Mr G.R., UK, prior to 1975, most likely prior to 1970 Antiquities and Primitive Art sale, Christie’s, London, 25 February 1975, lot 178 Studied by Christian Robin in 1977 and was included in part of his thesis In the Collection of the well-known Swedish orientalist Oscar Anders Valfrid Löfgren (1898–1992), who was given this libation altar on his ninetieth birthday on 13 May 1988 by his friends and colleagues for his substantial contribution to South Arabian and Ethiopian philology Private Collection of Mr F.A. (b.1934), France, from at least 1996 (accompanied by French cultural passport 045496, and Spanish export license) alr: s00201737, Interpol certificate condition Consolidated break across body of table, staining to surface consistent with age. In otherwise excellent condition.












León 2009

Museo del Instituto Biblico y Oriental, León, photograph taken on 11 March 2009, the same day as the royal visit from the Queen of Spain

This rectangular libation table, carved out of a thick piece of alabaster, is engraved all around the edges with a Sabean inscription. The dedication is made to the god ‘Sami dhu-Zabyat’, and allows us to determine the provenance of this table most likely to Jidfir Ibn Munaykhir, ancient Kuha-l, in modern day Yemen.

like a stylized bull’s head. A shallow groove between the horns serves as a drain. The prominent eyes rest under vertical ears and horns. The abstract style of the bull’s head is softened by the curve of the drain on the forehead, elegantly flaring when joining the horns, and the white cream colour of the alabaster.

The table has a raised border and a smooth flat interior, slightly slanted to guide libations to the overflow shaped

The bull occupied an important role in South Arabian sacrificial rituals and its image can be found on sacrificial tables, funeral stelae, statues temple friezes and more. The bull is associated with the gods Sami and Wadd in the Yemeni Jawf, with Sayyin in the Hadramite culture, and with Anbay in Qataba-n. It is a symbol of fertility and reproduction, as well as rebirth after death. Given this dual function, the image of the bull appears both in temples and in funerary contexts throughout the 1st millennium bc and in the following centuries.



Libation tables were used to honour the dead and the gods. They concretized offerings of food, drink and blood: a channel allowed water or blood to flow on to the floor, thus recreating the sacrificial offerings being made.


Map showing Jawf, Yemen, where the Table is thought to be discovered


Illustration of inscription, from On Both Sides of Al-Mandab, 1989

note on provenance

tr a n s la tio n Sâdiq son of ‘Ammî’ anas, son of Hayw, son of Ya[r]ta, dedicated Milhuhumû, his children and his possessions to ‘Athtar, for Almaqah, for dhât-Himyam and for Samî.

Oscar Anders Valfrid Löfgren (1898–1992) was a Swedish orientalist. He studied classical philology and Semitic philology, obtaining a degree in 1927. Over the next 25 years Löfgren taught at various institutes and universities, but without finding a permanent job anywhere. Only in 1951 was he appointed Professor of Semitic Languages at the University of Gothenburg (where he had studied 60 years earlier), and in 1956 he moved to the University of Uppsala.

tr a n s c r ip tio n DQM BN ‘M’NS BN h.ywm bn y[]t’ hqny ‘ttr wsm’ d- z.byt mlh.hmw wwldhw[]wqnyhw b’ttr wb ‘lmqh wb d- th.mym wb sm’ Some libation tables were engraved with offering scenes or rituals, although in this stunning example a dedication was carved on its edges. Only the nose of the bull is exempt from engravings. The text starts on the front side, on the left of the bucranium, then continues clockwise. On the first four sides, the text was carved on a single line, then the letters diminished in size to allow two lines on top of each other.

His achievements mainly include translated editions of Amharic and South Arabian texts, such as the 1930 edition of the Ethiopian version of Die Athiopische Dodekapropheton. An expert codicologist, he published various catalogues of Arabic and Ethiopian manuscripts. With Renato Traini , he published the first 4 volumes of the catalogue of Arab manuscripts of the Ambrosian Library in Milan .

The mention of three generations in one dedication is particularly rare, making this libation table one of the finest examples of its kind.

In 1987 he signed an agreement with the Antiques Division of the Brill Editore publishing house in Leiden for the sale of his private library. Under the agreement, the library became Brill’s property at the time of his death in 1992.

It is important to note that this is perhaps one of the most widely published and exhibited South Arabian artworks in private hands, and that it was selected to be included in many museum publications and exhibitions for its extraordinary quality, rarity and provenance.


5 CUNEIFORM TABLET WITH DEDICATION Babylon, Isin-Larsa Period, Reign of Rim-Sin I, 1822–1763 bc Indurated limestone | h. 11.7 cm published Douglas R. Frayne, Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Period, Toronto and London 1990 (RIME, pp. 293–94 Antiquities sale, Christie’s, New York, 4 June 2015, lot 115 recorded Recorded in the CDLI database (https://cdli.ucla.edu/) as no. P480740 provenance Previously with Elias S. David (1891–1969), New York, from at least 1969 (possibly documented in 1966) Thence by descent Sold at: Antiquities, Christie’s, New York, 4 June 2015, lot 115 Paris art market, acquired at the above sale Private Collection, acquired from the above alr: s00200430, Interpol certificate condition Minor cracks have been repaired and very small areas of infill but otherwise in excellent state or preservation; an image of the tablet prior to conservation can be seen below in the 2015 publication.


Frayne’s 1990 publication indicates that a bronze and a limestone tablet with this inscription were once in the collection of E.S. David. It is possible that the tablet published here and its bronze ‘twin’ are mentioned in a 1966 inventory and valuation report produced by Piero Tozzi of objects in storage in the collection of E.S. David.



o bv er s e 1. {d}nin-e2-gal 2. nin gal me kilib3 szu-na dab5-be2 3. ug3 szar2-ra-asz igi-bi gal2 4. na-de5 mah szita5-du3 sag-[ge6] 5. a-ra2-bi za3 nu-sa2 6. nir-gal2 ukken-na du11-ga-ni igi-sze3 du 7. mu-ni a-re-esz gi7 8. dingir zi ki a-a ugu-ni-ta 9. ka ba-ni sze-ga 10. dumu gal {d}suen-na 11. nin-a#-ni-ir 12. si#-ma-at-{d}inanna 13. dam ki-ag2 14. {d}ri-im-{d}suen

re ve rse 15. lugal larsa{ki}-ma 16. dumu-munus ARAD2-{d}nanna-ke4 17. u4 {d}nin-e2-gal nin-a-ne2 18. mu sa6-ga-ni in-sa4-a 19. e2 a2-ag2-ga2 kilib3 ur4-ur4 20. ki-tusz nam-dingir-bi-sze3 tum2-ma 21. nam-ti {d}ri-im-{d}suen 22. u4 da-ri2-sze3 gal2-le-de3 23. u3 nam-ti-la-ni-sze3 24. mu-na-du3 25. diri u4-bi-ta-sze3 26. e2-szu-si3-ga-bi mu-un-dagal 27. temen mu# pa3-da nam-nin-a-ka-na 28. u4 su13-ra2-sze3 im-mi-in-gar

note on provenance

Rectangular in form, one side convex and one flat, with fourteen lines of Sumerian cuneiform on each side, recording the restoration of the Temple E-a-ga-ga-kilibur-ur for the goddess Ninegal by the wife of King Rim-Sin of Larsa, reading: “For the goddess Ninegal, great lady who holds all the me’s in her hands, who looks at the numerous people, supreme advisor who looks after the black-headed people, whose ways are not rivalled, aristocrat whose word excels in the assembly, whose name is noble enough for praise, reliable goddess from (her) father who engendered her, whose utterance is favourable, great daughter of the god Sin, her lady, Simat-Eshtar beloved spouse of Rim-Sin, King of Larsa, daughter of Warad-Nanna, when the goddess Ninegal, her lady, called her good name, she built for her E-a-ag-ga-kilibur-ur, the residence suitable for her divinity, to establish the life of Rim-Sin forever, and for her own life. She enlarged its e-shu-si-ga more than it had been previously. She placed there for the future her foundation inscription proclaiming her queenly name.”

Elias S. David (1891–1969) was one of the most prominent dealers of ancient Near Eastern art in the mid-20th century. Born in the Middle East, probably Lebanon or Iraq, he first began dealing art in Paris, and then moved to New York at the start of WWI. He briefly had a gallery but preferred to work from home. Many masterpieces passed through his hands and are now in some of the great museums of the world, including the Louvre, the Metropolitan and Cleveland Museum of Art. He had many friends in the art world, including fellow dealer Piero Tozzi, scholar Edith Porada, and collectors Natacha Rambova, Leon Pomerance, Norbert Schimmel and Alastair Bradley Martin. Charles K. Wilkinson, curator of Near Eastern Art at the Met from 1956 to 1963, was a frequent guest at the David home. Correspondence between Wilkinson and others at the Met from the 1940s to the 1960s not only documents his activities as a dealer, but informs us how his generosity towards the museum led to his being honoured as a Fellow of the Museum for life, a privilege extended to his wife after his death in 1969. Most of the collection that was passed on to his family was appraised by Tozzi in the 1960s/1970s and kept in storage for 40 years.

The goddess Ninegal was known as the ‘Queen of Heaven’ and was later assimilated into Inanna in the Old Babylonian period, and further combined with the goddess Ishtar by the Akkadians to become Inanna-Ishtar. She was the patron goddess of the Eanna temple at the city of Uruk. During the post-Sargonic era she became one of the most widely venerated deities in the Sumerian pantheon.



6 COMPLETE HASAEAN FUNERARY STONE FOR ‘MATMAT’ Ras Tanura, Southern Arabia, 4th century bc Stone | h. 25.5 cm, w. 62 cm published A. Jamme, Sabean and Hasaean Inscriptions from Saudi Arabia, Istituto di Studi del Vicino Oriente, Università di Roma, 1966, p. 74, pl. XVII, Ja 1048 recorded Online Corpus of the Inscriptions of Ancient North Arabia database, ref SHI 33 http://krcfm.orient.ox.ac.uk/fmi/webd/ociana provenance Originally discovered prior to 10 January 1962, most likely by Aramco workers, it was photographed at the company camp at Ras Tanura not far from Jawan, so it is possible it came from there (according to a letter, 1962, between Aramco employee James P. Mandaville and epigraphist Fr. Albert Jamme, which the 1966 publication refers to). With Jeff Miller, of Museum Antiques Ltd, from at least 1978, who reputedly acquired this object from a dealer who had acquired it from the archaeologist in the US directly a number of years before. Private Collection of Judith Jacoby, Virginia, USA, acquired from the above on 11 November 1978 (accompanied by purchase notes, cheque from 11 November 1978 and further correspondence with Fr. Jamme). US art market alr: s00150550, Interpol certificate condition A minor loss to the face of the inscription together with a small loss to the base, neither loss impacts the overall inscription. Museum quality custom mount. A large and impressive example.





ras tanura SAUDI ARABIA OMAN Judith Jacoby proof of purchase YEMEN

Map showing Ras Tanura, where the stone was first documented Jeff Miller business card

Large funerary stone, inscribed in a Hasaean dialect using a variety of South Arabian monumental script, with three inscribed lines for the man Matmat, recording both patrilineal and matrilineal descent. Translated by Dr. A. Jamme, it reads:

can be added a few coins with the caption ‘Abiyatha’. The condition of these inscriptions, all on funerary stelae, is very poor: only a few words and proper names can be recognized (ibid., cat. 228). The article, used only with people’s names, is ‘han-’.

nfs/wqbr/mtmt/ 1: Tombstone and grave of Matmat,

Potts writes on page 379, “More importantly, however, over thirty inscriptions written in monumental South Arabian letters have been found at Thaj, Ayn Jawan, Qatif, Abqqaiq and al-Hinna [all near the Arabian gulf]. Typically, these inscriptions are funerary in character, appearing on grave stelae. Most of them follow the formula ‘memorial/ monument and tomb (nfs wqbr) [note the wording on the present inscription] of PN1 [personal name], son of PN2, of the group A, of the group B’”. Called ‘Hasaean’ or ‘Hasaitic’ after al-Hasa’, a traditional Arabic term for the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, the inscriptions could be “better described as ‘Hagaric’ because they were probably written by inhabitants of the kingdom of Hagar, better known by the Greek name of Gerrha” (ibid., p.122). Their language is not a South Arabian one but rather a dialect of ancient North Arabian. The names in these texts are Semitic. Although most of the Hasaitic inscriptions have been found out of context, one example of this type (CIH699), found interestingly enough at Uruk in southern Iraq, was

bn/zrbbt/’lt/’h/ 2: son of Zurubbat, those of ‘Ahns/d’t/’b/s’d 3: nas, her of the father of Sa’ad‘b/ 4: ‘ab. The southern Arabian states organized the ancient trade routes which traversed the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula and the eastern expanses. A number of inscriptions discovered on the southern shores of the Arabian Gulf, mainly in Hasa’ province in Saudia Arabia, but also in southern Iraq, are regarded as forming a distinct group because they are written in a variety of the Sabaean alphabet with some particular letter forms (D.T. Potts, The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity, Vol. II, From Alexander the Great to the Coming of Islam, Oxford, 1990, pp. 69–85). To them


Handwritten note by A. Jamme from letter, 7 March 1979

Albert Jamme taking a paper squeeze of an inscription during the Wendell Expedition, c. 1951

discovered in 1857 by William Kennet Loftus standing at one end of a small burial chamber, the inscription facing inward. Abdullah S. Al-Saud (in Potts 1990, p. 399 ), writing about the site of Ayn Jawan, north-west of the Gulf of Tarut, not far from Bahrain, writes: “The site was discovered in 1943 before the end of the Second World War, when the Saudi Aramco company decided to convert the land next to the port of Ras Tanura into a quarry. In the course of the operation, the Aramco workmen found mysterious constructions buried under mounds of sand. In 1945 a fragment of an inscription in South Arabic was unearthed, revealing the presence of the tomb of a woman named Ghatham bint Oumrat ibn Tahiou. note on provenance James P. Mandaville, Jr. began to undertake epigraphic research as his pastime and forwarded many inscriptions found by Aramco colleagues to Father Albert Jamme (1916–2004), an epigraphist at the Catholic University, Washington, D.C., expert in ancient Semitic languages, and a leading researcher in the reading, interpreting and classifying of ancient South Arabian inscriptions.

James P. Mandaville letter to Fr. Jamme dated 6 February 1962: “JA1048: I am enclosing another photograph (unidentified) which I found in our files. This is of an inscription physically similar to the one from Jawan described by Winnitt. It presumably was found by ARAMCO workmen. The photograph appears to have been taken at the Company camp at Ras Tanura, not far from Jawan: and the stone may have come from the same area.”


7 FRAGMENT OF A SCABBARD TERMINAL Assyrian, 883-859 bc Gypsum | l. 26 cm provenance Almost certainly from room g 25 from the North-west palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud In the Private Collection of Colonel Norman Colville (1893–1974), Cornwall. (There is an entry in the Western Asiatic Department’s deposit book at the British Museum written on 29 March 1939 stating that Mrs Colville left “three fragments of stelae for opinion”, which may refer to this one.) Thence by descent (accompanied by inventory valuation by Sotheby’s from 1976 which references this fragment) alr: s00156102, Interpol certificate condition Fragment in very good state of preservation, mounted in old collection frame.

Sotheby’s valuation, 1976



Fragment of Assyrian wall panel, c. 883-859 bc Gypsum, Kalamazoo Museum, Michigan, Ass. 65.253.

Assyrian relief panel, c. 883–859 bc Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York

Taken from a larger gypsum wall carving, this triangular fragment displays the hilt and scabbard of a dagger or ‘akinakes’. Decorated with a pair of outward-facing rampant lions, each with interlocking forelegs and open claws, a motif that was repeated multiple times throughout the extensive wall carvings found in the north-west palace at Nimrud. The double lion hilt was thought to be the ‘royal Scabbard’ as Darius himself was depicted wearing the most ornamental version, though his personal guards, attendants and warriors were also portrayed with very similar hilts. Situated in the ‘cradle of civilization’, the earliest known human habitation of the site of Nimrud, near modern-day Mosul, dates from the 6th millennium bc. However, the site is best known as the capital of the Assyrian empire during the 8th and 9th centuries bc. During this period, Nimrud had a succession of Assyrian palaces and temples built upon it. It is renowned for the sculptures excavated from its north-west palace by A.H. Layard in the late 19th century. The reliefs and gateway statues found here constitute some of the first modern discoveries of ancient Mesopotamian art and architecture: previously Assyria had been remembered only through biblical and classical texts.

Drawing from Layards account of the excavation at Nimrud of 1850


Captain-Norman-Colville (1893–1974)

A fragment of a similarly decorated scabbard given by Layard to the British Ambassador in Constantinople is now in the Kalamazoo Museum, Michigan (acc. no. 60.253). For comparanda, see P. Collins, Assyrian Palace Sculptures, London 2008, pp. 53–54.

The north-west palace at Nimrud was built for the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883–859 bc), who succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 883 bc. During his reign he embarked on a vast programme of expansion, first conquering the peoples to the north in Asia Minor as far as Nairi and exacting tribute from Phrygia, then invading Aram (modern Syria) conquering the Aramaeans and neoHittites between the Khabur and the Euphrates rivers. On his return back home, he moved his capital to the city of Kalhu (present Nimrud).

note on provenance Norman Colville (1893–1974) was educated at Fettes School, Edinburgh, and at Clare College, Cambridge University. He fought in the First World War, during which he was mentioned in despatches twice and awarded the Military Cross (M.C.). He retired from the military in 1919, with the rank of Captain, late of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. In 1920, he purchased the Penheale Manor and Estate at Egloskerry. He occasionally deposited items at the British Museum for opinion (e.g. WAA, deposit-book entries dated 29 March, 5 April 1939, 2 September 1947).

The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth and art. The interior walls were lined with enormous stone reliefs depicting various court scenes, lion hunts and divine protective imagery. The section above most likely comes from a larger relief depicting the king and his warriors. A similar full panel is housed in the Metropolitan Museum, New York, where both figures, the king and his attendant are wearing a sword with the royal scabbard. The lions with their paws wrapped around each other were supposed to infuse the sword with their strength. The image of the lion was used extensively to represent kings in Mesopotamian art, as a symbol of power and strength.


8 THE LAKENHEATH BRONZE AGE SHIELD England, 1300–975 bc Bronze | diam. 60 cm provenance Discovered in Lakenheath, England, by Gintanus Krivickas in October 2015 Portable Antiquities Scheme unique ID: SF-E0D9C8 alr: s00153673, Interpol certificate condition With areas of loss and damage, the central boss has become detached. Otherwise in good and stable preserved condition.



lakenheath county of suffolk cambridge

london lakenheath

Map showing Lakenheath, where the shield was discovered

During the early Bronze Age, some people were buried in rich graves within round barrows, accompanied by exotic imported goods and weapons. These burials have been found throughout West Suffolk, where this shield was discovered. Often these burials were grouped in barrow cemeteries, such as Flowerdown Barrows, Hampshire, and Winterbourne Poor Lot Barrows, Dorset. These rich, individual burials signify a shift from the great Neolithic communal monuments like Stonehenge.

This Yetholm-type bronze shield has a large central raised boss with three bands of alternating close-set domes and ridged bands. The outer edge of the shield has been folded back and hammered down to form a strong rim. It is thought these shields indicated a high social status, and were used to validate the idea of ‘warrior’ men. The surface was covered in a layer of metal with a different alloy, giving it an almost golden appearance, and it would have looked incredibly impressive when newly created and polished to a high shine.

The Yetholm-type shield was made in a style which prevailed in Britain and Ireland between 1300 and 800 bc. The name Yetholm is taken from a peat bog in the south of Scotland where three examples were first discovered, only a total of twenty-nine shields of this type having ever been discovered; of these, seven or eight are only known from written sources and are not in known collections. They generally consist of a central boss with bands of concentric repoussé domes and ridges, but vary significantly in size. This example was discovered by detectorists in Lakenheath, UK, only 45 miles away from the world-renowned Sutton Hoo ship burial.

The Bronze Age is the name given to the period of time between the Stone and Iron Ages. In Britain it spanned from ca. 2500 until c. 800 bc, although the Bronze Age itself had already been in action in mainland Europe, thought to have started on the island of Crete. Bronze Age advances included agriculture, irrigation and the potter’s wheel; however, it is marked above all by the heavy use of bronze to fashion tools, decorative elements and weaponry. Many of the bronze items found within Great Britain were imported by the Belgae, Celts and Gauls. This includes the pieces themselves carried by travellers and also techniques and styles which were introduced to the British metal smiths.


A fine example of a similar shield can be found at the British Museum, round in form with alternating concentric repoussé domes and banded ridges. The decoration is in a much smaller and repetitive pattern, but the materials and manufacturing process would have been very similar to that of the David Aaron example above.

Yetholm Sheild, Late Bronze Age, 12th to 10th century bc, diam. 100 cm. British Museum, London


9 SINO-SIBERIAN DAGGER Most likely Minusink, Russia, 1st millennium bc Bronze | l. 30.3 cm published Antiquities, Sotheby’s, London, 21 April 1975, lot 239 provenance Previously in the Private Collection of Colonel Norman Colville (1893–1974), Cornwall Sold at: Antiquities, Sotheby’s, London, 21 April 1975, lot 239 Private Collection of Giancarlo Ligabue (1931–2015) Private Collection, Switzerland Paris art market (accompanied by French cultural passport 164768) alr: s00106217, Interpol certificate condition Excellent condition with natural patination; inlays have been lost in antiquity




Giancarlo Ligabue

note on provenance

The nomadic nature of the Eurasian steppe tribes allowed for much integration and exchange of styles and customs, as well as physical transportable objects including personal ornamentation and weaponry. Particularly between the Scythian tribes of the Black Sea region in the west, Central Asian tribes such as the Hephthalites, Wushu and Yuezhi and Mongolians to the east and Persians further south. The blade of this piece has strong ties to daggers of the late Chinese Shang Dynasty, with a more stylized animal terminal, similar to the art of the Scythians.

For a note on the life of Norman Colville (1893–1974), who was also the owner of cat. 7, Fragment of a Scabbard Terminal, see page 44 above. Giancarlo Ligabue (1931–2015) graduated in Economics at the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice and in Geology at the Sorbonne, and later received five honorary degrees from the universities of Bologna, Venice, Modena, Lima and Ashgabat. Having participated in and directed over 130 expeditions around the world, he made several paleontological discoveries, such as the ‘Ligabueino’, a noasaurid dinosaur, named after him. He collaborated with Piero Angela to produce several science documentaries and became the president of the Natural History Museum of Venice, and later went on to create the ‘Ligabue Study and Research Centre’ in Venice.

The stout blade is thick and double-sided, suggesting durability for practical utilitarian purposes, though the handle is highly ornate compared to contemporary designs, making it likely that it was owned by an important member of the tribe, or that it was for ceremonial or burial rather than everyday use.

Ligabue was also a businessman in the field of supplies and services for ships. He was the president of the basketball team Reyer Venezia Mestre between the early 1960s and early 1980s, and a member of the European Parliament for Forza Italia within the Forza Europa group between 1994 and 1999. His legacy and work is renowned around the world, and lives on today with the Ligabue Foundation. He was both an astute academic and passionate collector.

The handle terminates in a highly ornate stylized elk or deer’s head, with hollow areas once presumably inlaid with stone. There is a small suspension loop under the chin of the animal, which shows this piece was carried on a belt or strapping. Made from bronze, this piece would have been cast and then surface-worked to create the finer details to the handle.



10 TORSO OF APOLLO Roman, ca. 2nd century ad Marble | h. 87 cm published Documenti inediti per servire alla storia dei musei d’Italia, vol. 3, 1880, p. 148 C. Benocci, Villa Aldobrandini a Roma, 1992, p. 235, no. 104 The Aldobrandini collection of antiquities has only recently begun to be studied: see J. Deterling, Rivista dell’Istituto nazionale d’archeologia e storia dell’arte, vol. 73, 2018, pp. 119ff.; J. Deterling, Rivista dell’Istituto nazionale d’archeologia e storia dell’arte, vol. 75, 2020, pp. 163ff. provenance With Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini (1596–1638), Villa Aldobrandini sul Monte Quirinale: recorded in the inventories of the Villa from 1626 (Benocci 1992, p. 235, no. 104: “Un Appollo nudo in atto di tirar l’arco, con il carcasso dietro, alto palmi otto et mezzo, segnato n. 4”). The number 4 mentioned in the 1626 inventory refers to a number incised on the former restored plinth. Estate passed to Olimpia Aldobrandini-Borghese (1623-1682), Princess of Rossano Thence her son Giovanni Battista Pamphili (1648–1709), Duke of Carpineto, who recorded the piece in his inventory of 1709/10 (Documenti inediti 1880, p. 148: “Una statua di marmo di un Apollo nudo in atto di tirare l’arco, con il carcasso dietro, alta palmi otto incirca”) With Daniel Katz, Connaught Gallery, London, 1971 Private Collection, UK alr: s00201058, Interpol certificate condition In good condition, minor superficial stress cracks on front of thighs. Dowel holes drilled into broken joints in order to secure historical restorations, now missing. Iron pin set in lead visible inside hole on neck break. 17th/18th century additions were added to this statue (see Giovanni Campiglia drawing which have since been removed.) Some areas of cleaning/repolishing.


Photograph ca. 1971




View of Villa Aldobrandini in Monte Magnanapoli (detail) by Matthias Withoos, ca. 1660-65, 99cm x 139cm

The above drawing by Giovanni Campignlia, ca. 1720, shows the torso presented here as it was seen in the gardens of the Villa Aldobrandini. From the Topham Collection at Eton College.

This torso of Apollo would have once stood in a unique but classical pose emphasising a sense of realism and movement, hips slightly tilted with right knee bent forward and supported by a tree stump; the arms would have been raised, the right elbow lowered and hand pointing with the index finger as if it had just released a bow string. The left arm is bent, elbow raised with hand holding possibly a lyre or bow.

A quiver strap is slung across his body and on the back of the torso there is a drill hole next to the knot of the strap, indicating that a quiver of arrows was once attached. The bow and arrow are just one of the many attributes associated with Apollo. This idea is corroborated by the early 18th-century drawing by Giovanni Campiglia, and in turn further supports the idea that he was once holding a bow in his left hand.

We know so much not only from contemporary comparables such as the Belvedere Apollo, but also from a pencil drawing made at some point between 1710 and 1730 by Giovanni Campiglia for the inventory catalogue of the Villa Aldobrandini near Rome, where the piece was first noted to be kept.

note on provenance As a fully restored statue, the present torso was displayed in the sumptuous gardens of the Villa Aldobrandini; although the piece cannot be identified in the image, the 17thcentury painting View of Villa Aldobrandini in Monte Magnanapoli by Matthias Withoos gives a good idea of the way the piece was displayed.

Apollo is one of the most complex and important gods in the canon of Roman deities, and is the god of many things, including music, archery, poetry, art, oracles, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge. He is the ideal of the kouros (nude male noble youth), which means he has a beardless, athletic and youthful appearance. This is represented by the torso’s lithe and soft muscular rendering.





11 PORTRAIT BUST OF A MAN Roman, 1st–2nd century ad Marble | h. 49 cm, w. 33 cm (bust); h. 65.5 cm (with socle) published ‘The Acquisitive Eye’, House & Garden, March 1985, p. 104 John Richardson: at Home, Rizzoli, New York, 2019, p. 106 provenance Previously in a 17th- or 18th-century European Private Collection (based on restoration techniques and handwritten note which may refer to an old inventory number). Private Collection of Sir John Richardson (1924–2019) from at least 1985 (there is a photo of the bust in Richardson’s home taken ca. March 1985). He eclectically collected art from antiquity to contemporary throughout his life. ALR: S00205480, Interpol certificate condition With old restorations most likely done in the 17th or 18th century. Damage to the right ear and minor pitting to the surface as seen on upper left cheek, in otherwise excellent condition. Remains of handwritten note, possibly inventory number, along the reverse supporting marble spine. Mounted on an ancient Roman marble base, not necessarily belonging to the same bust.




This note on the back could refer to an old collection inventory number


Most likely depicting a well-to-do private individual, as someone who could afford such a high-quality portrait, this seems to be a youthful ‘foreign’ man, possibly from the Arabian Peninsula, as suggested by his facial characteristics. Although his hair is coiled with tight curls, this may not be an indicator of race, but more of the styling choices from the period of creation. The locks further back on the right side and at the lower back of the head have been more summarily carved, since these areas of the head were not as visible when this sculpture was set near a wall or in a niche.

This sculpture is very well preserved, with a pink-beige coloured patina and some mottling of the surface. There are only two small naturally occurring interstices under the inner corner of the left eye and to the right under the outside corner of the same eye. These interstices would have been filled in with marble-dust stucco and smoothed over. The entire head would then have been painted, as was the norm for sculpture in antiquity.

His hairline is rather unique, with a large widow’s peak; his imposing face is somewhat serious and severe, with creases above his brow and downturned lips. It was during the Antonine period that this veristic posing became widely used: expressionless, placid and smooth-skinned faces became replaced by physiognomies lined with age, showing emotion and expression. His facial hair is subtly rendered with curled stubble around the jaw line and the suggestion of a moustache, very similar to styling of the 2nd-century depiction of the Roman Emperor Commodus now kept at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

John Patrick Richardson was born in London in 1924 to Sir Wodehouse Richardson and Patty (née Crocker) Richardson. His father was a Quarter-Master General in the Boer War and the founder of the Army & Navy Stores in Britain. Sir Wodehouse Richardson died when John was five years old.

note on provenance

John was sent away to boarding school and then enrolled at the Slade School of Fine Art at age sixteen to pursue his artistic ambitions. At the outbreak of WWII, Richardson was called up for military service in the Irish Guards but very quickly contracted rheumatic fever and was invalided out of the army. He spent the rest of the war in London with his mother and siblings, working as an industrial designer and later writing for The New Observer.

He is draped in a thick fabric exomis or chiton, his chest left bare, another feature of the period. The subtle contouring of his sternum giving a particularly lifelike quality.



This photo, showing the bust on the desk at the back of the room, was taken by Oberto Gili at Richardsons New York home for House & Garden, 1985. John Richardson lived in this apartment (East Seventy-Fifth street, NYC) from 1961 to 1995

In 1949, Richardson met collector and art historian Douglas Cooper. They would become a couple for the next ten years, moving in 1952 to the Château de Castille in the South of France. Cooper introduced Richardson to many artists, including Picasso, Léger and Braque, who would all become close friends.

In 1980, John Richardson decided to dedicate himself to writing, and focused on the biography of Picasso that he had begun thinking about during his years in France. The first of four planned volumes, A Life of Picasso, was published in 1991 and won a Whitbread Award. The second volume was published in 1996, and the third in 2007. Volume four was still in progress upon his death in 2019. Richardson was knighted by Queen Elizabeth in 2012 for his service to the arts. In addition to the Picasso biographies, Richardson wrote a memoir in 1999, The Sorcerer’s Apprentice, and published a collection of essays in 2011 titled Sacred Monsters, Sacred Masters.

In 1960, Richardson left Cooper and moved to New York City, where he would organize several important exhibitions on Picasso and Braque. London-based auction house Christie’s asked Richardson to open their New York office and appointed him to run it for the next nine years. Following his time at Christie’s, Richardson joined M. Knoedler & Co., where he oversaw 19th- and 20th-century paintings.


Sir John Richardson at home, by Francis Goodman, 1946

Portrait of Sir John Richardson by Lucian Freud, 1998

Andy Warhold and John Richardson, ca. 1978

Sir John wearing the ancient leopard coat of Prince Albert I, taken when he was staying at the Palace in Regensberg interviewing Princess Mariae Gloria Thurn und Taxis, 2017

A Life of Picasso by John Richardson, 1991




12 THE ‘ELVIS’ ACROTERION Roman, 2nd century ad Marble | h. 33.5 cm exhibited On loan to the Classics Department, University of Melbourne, Australia, March 1979–December 1983 Musée d’Art Classique de Mougins (MACM), France, June 2011–April 2020 published ‘Elvis emerges from antiquity’, Antiques Trade Gazette, 21 July 2008 ‘Are you Roman tonight?’, The Evening Standard, 22 July 2008 ‘1,800 year-old relic of Elvis Presley’, Metro, 22 July 2008 ‘Elvis Lives, in 2,000-year-old carving’, Laura Clout, The Telegraph, London, 23 July 2008 ‘Elvis lived...2,000 years ago’, Express, 23 July 2008 ‘A guy works down the Forum swears he’s Elvis ...’, The Evening Standard, 23 July 2008 The Geddes Collection, Bonhams, London, 15 October 2008, lot 65 J. Pollini, ‘Roman Marble Sculpture’, in M. Merrony (ed.), Mougins Museum of Classical Art, 2011, p. 104, fig. 64 provenance Previously in the Amati Collection, London, acquired in the mid-1970s The Graham Geddes Collection, Melbourne, Australia Sold at: The Geddes Collection, Bonhams, London, 15 October 2008, lot 65 Musée d’Art Classique de Mougins (MACM), France, inventory number mmoca46, acquired from the above sale (accompanied by French cultural passport 219868) alr: 5112.ww, Interpol certificate





Fragmentary sarcophagus lid, ca. 2nd century ad. Museum of Art Rhode Island School of Design

Leucippidae Sarcophagus ca. 160 ad. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore

Acroteria were originally decorative petal-shaped ornaments or statues crowning the pediment in classical Greek architecture. The first acroteria date back to the second half of the 7th century bc. They evolved into more complex shapes and eventually figures such as Niké or groups of statuary in the 6th century bc. More than mere ornament, they were used to balance the vertical and horizontal architectural lines of buildings, enhancing the architectural harmony and rhythm.

or Attis, a Phrygian deity who became a solar god in the 2nd century ad and wore a Phrygian cap, possess attributes or characteristic features which provided the sculptors with perfect shapes to support the function of the acroterion. In this example, the hair is styled in a Phrygian cap-shape, resulting in a towering quiff we now associate with Elvis’s signature look. The quiff complements an exaggerated profile, with eyes wide open and articulated, set beneath a strong, frowning brow line. The plump lips are slightly parted, displaying the upper row of teeth. The jaw is framed by locks of hair swept at the back in a serpentine line. Such strong features would have made the corners of the sarcophagus focal points, highlighting its importance and the individual(s) it honoured.

They also decorated sarcophagus lids, where sculptors favoured expressive faces: the acroterion, placed in a corner, was seen at different angles and therefore had to be very striking from different perspectives. The powerful and often exaggerated facial features were framed by a luscious mane of billowing locks and facial hair to add dimension and volume. Some creatures, mythical characters or deities were particularly suitable for such ornamentations. They were traditionally represented with a certain exuberance in mythological iconography and therefore better suited than gods such as Athena who was portrayed with more austere and severe traits. For instance, creatures and divinities associated with the cult of Dionysus, with their energetic faces,

See E. Angelicoussis, The Woburn Abbey Collection of Classical Antiquities (Mainz 1992), no. 346, for a similar example of a sarcophagus acroterion. Another parallel can be found in the Centrale Montemartini, Musei Capitolini, Rome. The sun god Helios with his radiate crown is often used as an acroterion on sarcophagi, as is the Phrygian-capped Attis.



13 NEOLITHIC SESKLO IDOL Greece, 6th-5th millennium bc Clay | h. 19.2 cm, w. 8.5 cm exhibited Staatliche Museen zu berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, 2006–09 provenance Previously with Kunsthandel Henrich, Frankfurt, 1960s or 1970s In the Leiding Collection, acquired from the above in the 1960s or 1970s With Mr Bernd Gackstätter Antiken Kabinett, Frankfurt, acquired from the above Private Collection of Dr Kuhn-Lucht, Berlin, acquired from the above in the early 1990s Thence by descent alr: s00201059, Interpol certificate condition Excellent condition, natural pitting and minor chips to the surface, some pigment remaining around navel





Map showing region of Thessaly Neolithic female figurine from Nea Nikomidia, ca. 6000 bc, Veroia, Archaeological Museum.

Often given the name ‘Venus idols’, Neolithic statuettes of the exaggerated female form can be found in various guises across the Near East, the greater Mediterranean area, and also in Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Although they vary greatly in style, they are often sitting or standing with steatopygous forms comprising corpulent buttocks and overexaggerated bellies and breasts.

Sculpted from raw clay, the simplistic form of this idol has been naively created by strategically placed cuts and moulding. The rounded legs were probably made from the soft clay being formed into a ball and then cut to divide the two limbs. The flat body protrudes at the stomach, suggesting that it represents a pregnant female. The shoulders are squared off, with the moulded arms pressed against the front of the body, so that it almost appears that she is holding a round item in each hand. This can also be seen in the NeaNikomedeia idol in the Archaeological Museum in Veroia, which seems to hold an item in one hand and another tucked under her arm. We can only guess as to the symbolism of this.

The Sesklo culture was centred in Northern Greece, around the border regions of Macedonia and Thessaly, hence why these figures are sometimes called ‘Thessalian idols’. The settlement site of Nea-Nikomedeia lies within the region of Macedonia and was extensively researched in the early 1960s by archaeologist R.J. Rodden and was the findspot of clay figures with near identical features and dimensions. The area is considered to be one of the earliest known settlements, not only in Greece, but in the whole of Europe having been established before the 6th millennium bc. It is thought the very earliest settlers stayed due to the extremely fertile lands, in the period of transition from an economy of huntergatherers into the first known farmers. Primitive tools have been found alongside idols and evidence of permanent dwellings.

The head of the idol is formed of a simple straight long solid cylinder of clay. Facial details are extremely minimalist, the nose created by the artist pinching the clay, and the eyes and eyebrows single straight cuts on the surface. There is no suggestion of a mouth.


14 TWO ABSTRACT IDOLS Anatolia, 2700-2300 bc Marble | h. (1) 32 cm, (2) 20 cm provenance Previously in the Private Collection of Mr M.F. (1883–1965), France, originally acquired during his travels with his wife at some point in the 1950s. Thence by descent to his wife in 1965. alr: s00201309, s00204235, Interpol certificates For most of the collection, M.F. would write in black ink where the objects were either found or acquired. The first idol has ‘Naxos’ written on it and the second, larger idol has ‘Ankara’ written, which may suggest where they were found. There is a silhouette drawing of each idol that was done by his wife with 1969 and 1967 written as seen on the next page with ‘Istanbul’ on the smaller and ‘Ankara’ on the larger: these may be the locations where the couple purchased the items, and the dates written on the top corner the dates when Mrs F. wrote the itinerary, not when the items were purchased. condition The smaller idol is intact, has minor chips and encrustation to the surface. The larger idol is in excellent condition, restored break across the centre of the ‘neck’, minor chip to top left corner of body

Undated provenance letter written by Mrs F.

Silhouette itinerary drawing of each idol done by Mrs F, most likely in 1969 and 1967 respectively.




These Kusura-type marble idols are carved in an extremely simplified anthropomorphic form. They are often called ‘violin idols’ because the shape is so reminiscent of the instrument. Both are hand-carved and remarkably thin; the larger has a rounded head sitting on top of a long, tapered straight-edged neck, a larger rectangular body and a slightly rounded bottom. The smaller of the two is more angular, with a rectangular head, a curved neck and a rectangular body, which is only slightly larger than the head itself. Since they are completely devoid of any facial features or suggestions on limbs, the effect is extremely modern and abstract.

istanbul ankara

greece naxos

We do not really know what these figurines or “idols” were created for – whether they were votive or functional. A number of hypotheses have been proposed over the years, though many are now disproved. Idols throughout the Anatolian region resemble mother figures, similar to Near Eastern goddesses of fertility. Others have been interpreted as images of the deceased, female protectors of the dead, or possibly servants for the afterlife.


Map showing where idols were likely acquired and discovered


15 STEATOPYGOUS FIGURE Amlash, 1st millennium bc Clay | h. 42 cm publications Phillips, London, 7 July 1989, 27768, lot 56 provenance Most probably with Charles Gillet (1879–1972), Lausanne, Switzerland. In the Private Collection of Marion Schuster (1902–1982) (also known as Marion de Goldschmidt-Rothschild), Lausanne, Switzerland Sold at: Phillips, London, 7 July 1989, 27768, lot 56 With Aaron Gallery, acquired from the above sale With David Aaron Ancient Art since 1998 Private Collection, acquired from the above 18 April 2006 alr: 6121.ww, Interpol certificate condition In excellent condition, surface historically cleaned, with restoration to left hand





Charles Gillet and Marion Schuster in The Tatler, 11 April 1956

note on provenance

This magnificent idol is monumental in size and is an exceptional example of an Amlash clay sculpture. The Amlash culture of Ancient Iran takes its name from a small town in the north of that country, near which a wealth of extraordinary objects was unearthed – the legacy of a fascinating Iron Age civilization. During the first millennium bc, the area corresponding to the modern-day Iranian provinces of Gilan and Mazadaran constituted the lands of the Amlash people. Their culture remains mysterious: vessels and idols such as this piece remain among the most important sources for our knowledge of the rituals and aesthetics of this region and era. Spiritual artefacts are among the most common to survive, and the large number of votive idols and libation vessels which have been recovered would suggest that religion played a very important role in daily rituals. This graceful, sculpturally beautiful idol is one such spiritual artefact.

This Amlash idol was most probably previously in the collection of Charles Gillet (1879–1972), who was a noted industrialist and was a member of the renowned Gillet family, developers of dyeing techniques, exceptional fabrics and silks in Lyon, France. Gillet inherited the family firm Rhône Poulenc, running it successfully and amassing a fortune that allowed him to become a great collector and patron of ancient art. He was a noted connoisseur of antiquities and had a collection in Switzerland that included bronzes from Luristan, Egyptian limestone figures, Athenian red-figure ceramics, and important Hellenistic gold and silver coins. He was known not only for operating discreetly through a network of trusted dealers and advisors but also for his discerning eye for quality, rarity and beauty. He began dispersing his collection in the 1950s, and after his death the majority went to auction. Some of his works of art are now housed in the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles and the Morgan Library in New York.

Amlash artists are best known for their terracotta figurines. These pieces are remarkable for their abstract style, dominated by a sensitivity to form rather than an obsessive realism. There is a tendency towards exaggeration, as may be seen in the case of this figurine. The curves of the form are steatopygous with hips heavily emphasized. The figure is naked, the limbs stylized and rounded. The torso is flat and tubular with a long cylindrical neck, on top of which rests a stylized disc-shaped head with a high polos headdress on top. The epic proportions, artistic form and remarkable state of preservation make this an outstanding example of its type.

Marion Schuster (1902–1982), the second wife of Albert Maximilian, 2nd Baron Goldschmidt Rothschild, apparently inherited all or most of Charles Gillet’s collection upon his death.



16 HEAD FROM A STATUE WITH MAGICAL TEXTS Egypt, Late Period, 664–332 bc Basalt | h. 13 cm provenance Previously in the Private Collection of Dr Charles A. Musès (1919-2000), acquired during his travels to Egypt before 1957 and in Canada from at least this date Thence by descent to the former wives of Dr Charles A. Musès (1919-2000), Christine de Montet and Jacqueline Musès Muller in 2000 Private Collection of John L. Boehme, Victoria, Canada, acquired from the above in 2006 (accompanied by proof of payment from 2006 and a handwritten letter probably from the same date confirming the provenance history) Thence by descent to John H. Boehme, Victoria, Canada (accompanied by Canadian export permit) alr: s00149146, Interpol certificate condition Very good state of preservation with same natural weathering to the hieroglyphics covering the head, and damage to the nose. Originally mounted on an old collection perspex base. Some areas of reworking to the face and ears.

2006 proof of purchase

Provenance statement from Jacqueline Muses confirming the piece was sold to him from the former wives of Dr Charles Muses


Provenance statement from Jacqueline Muses


Finely sculpted in an idealizing style, with a high domed forehead and shaven skull, often described as ‘egg’ shaped. His face has narrow almond-shaped eyes, the upper lids rimmed, extending beyond the outer corners, the inner canthi pointed and angled, the modelled brows gently arching above, dipping slightly above the bridge of the nose, with prominent cheek bones and slightly compressed temples. His nose is now lost. The thick but well-shaped lips are pursed into a slight smile, the corners of the mouth indented. The entire surface of the back skull from forebrow up is inscribed with hieroglyphics. Some legibility has been lost in areas, though it is still clear that it is comprised of known texts.

The texts are related to those on magical cippi (stelae), such as the reknowned ‘Horus Stela’ of the 30th Dynasty in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. They consist chiefly of hymns and incantations intended to “ward off noxious animals and evil spirits”. Texts on these stelae usually consist of healing spells that include references to the mythological story in which the god Horus was injured and was then healed. By referencing this popular story, an individual bitten by a snake or stung by a scorpion could likewise hope to be healed. Originally, at the time of sculpting, magical texts, like those on the Horus Stela, probably covered all but the face, feet and hands of the statue to which this head belonged. The statue would have stood in a temple where it could be visited by persons wishing to be healed. Inscribed statues of this type can almost all be dated to the fourth century bc.




Head from a Statue with Magical Texts, probably Egypt, 360 to 343 bc. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1989.281.102

note on provenance Charles Muses was the founder of The Jacob Boehme Society of America, in the 1950s, editing and publishing The Jacob Boehme Society Quarterly. He wrote articles and books under various pseudonyms including Muses, Musaios, Kyril Demys, Arthur Fontaine, Kenneth Demarest and Carl von Balmadis. He was the founder of ‘the Lion’s Path’, a shamanistic movement, holding controversial views relating to mathematics, physics, philosophy and pseudo-science. In 1952 his fiancé, Charlotte Barth Howell, purchased 640 acres in Indian Hills, Colorado, where she built Falcon Wing Ranch, an Egyptian Mystery learning school. It was completed in 1954, to the carefully planned specifications of Charles himself. This is where he taught astrology, numerology and Egyptology. Charlotte Barth Howell founded the publishing house The Falcon’s Wing Press. She was the publisher, and Charles was the senior editor. His sister, Mary Lucille Woodlee, wrote some articles and poetry in conjunction with her brother’s pursuits. His true passion was for archaeological discoveries and Egyptology, which took the couple on expeditions around the world. In 1957 he discovered the Pyramid of Ameny Qemau, in southern Dahshur, Cairo, Egypt. Magical Stela. Cippus of Horus. ca. 360 to 343 bc. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 50.85


17 FUNERARY MODEL OF A BOAT Egypt, Middle Kingdom, Dynasty XI-XII, 2087–1759 bc Wood | l. 79.5 cm exhibited Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, 1984–87 published The Herald, Australia, Tuesday 26 July 1949, p. 7 Leonard Joel Pty Ltd., Melbourne, 29 July 1949, lot 26 ‘Life and Death in Ancient Egypt - Tjeby an Egyptian Mummy in the Museum of Victoria’, 1984, pp. 10–11 Antiquities, Christie’s, London, 13 October 2008, lot 69 provenance In the “Dannett” Collection, Melbourne, Australia, prior to 1949 Sold at: Leonard Joel Pty Ltd., Melbourne, 29 July 1949, lot 26 Private Collection, acquired from the above sale Thence by descent to Simon Walters and Pamela Turnbull Sold at: Antiquities, Christie’s, London, 13 October 2008, lot 69 Private Collection of Sheikh Saud al Thani (1966-2014), acquired from the above sale. Thence by descent. alr: s00139170, Interpol certificate condition Overall in very good condition with natural weathering, flaking and chips present. Some areas of repair including top of mast, and to parts of some of the figures. A more complete and detailed description report available upon request.





The sailing boat manned by six crew seated in the prow, four sailors standing by the mast raising or lowering the linen sail, a seated bald-headed figure behind, and three standing sailors including the helmsman in the curved stern with rudder; four of the standing sailors wearing white painted chest bands, the deck painted with a red and white chequerboard design.


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Tuesday. — A double-decker bus skidded on a wet road and on today toppled ifc 3IUC, ei<1n lid

THIS MODEL of an Egyptian long boat, which dates from 2500 B.C.; is inejudod in the exhibition of Roman/ Greek and Egyptian j antiquities at Leonard Joel's. L

Only the driver and the con ductor were In It. The driver. Robert Augustine CorcorAn. was detained In hospital for X-ray for probable, bone frac tures. The conductor, ' Alan Cecil Endes, who was allowed to leave hospital after examina tion, said he did not even lose mnkthe change from his bag when B89 J7.W llmr of the the bus toppled. General R'rf. "-Metropolitan R become." Police were told that after B i". nd .«to!cto rrl' Hr .rhiehthe eatdrate skidding across the road at Ie1.". i«eredpropertywithin Bp !«!Hnr theMelbourne Crcmornc .function, the bus KiHfltni '"ri r( worUsArt. hit the opposite kerb, swung rniind and fell on Its side with ' hsJl te£r'!h-o -SHARE SECRETS' fiiun a loud crash. Ki c!theyf.\ It tore down Krt'. Hcruld Special Service rl ever propnrt of a picket WASHINGTON, Monday. — fence and dislodged brick foun outside a house. |Mr DRVid Lillcnthal, chairman dations The bus was being driven ;of the Atomlp Energy Commis back to its depot, at the time, 1 B'l i; uJ,iueM Michproperty.sion, told members of the Senate nnd no other traffic was In the and House of Representative; : street. HS Bf (he Bnsrrf. " briocis. BJB TJ j- W. , srrrelnry. BKHAB. Atomic Energy Commission that Coind. Peck To unless the United States shared HEinEAT B| |..Mi, FflV RoomMeellttU.atomic secrets with Britain and BSJrtni Direct Plans B j.m oI"tie Mtlbourn.Clt. Canada she might be forced tc| Commander R. I. Peek has reduce her bomb production. BS« bft'ld ' ,ht his appointment as United Press understands thai taken up AE5: of plans and operations To:uend. IB-1 Sir -L nook the com director and Mr LIHenthal told mittee that the continued with at Navy Office, Melbourne. In ' A B' holding of data might cost the, succession to Captain A. W. R. who recently wns apHmSBOMI. United States about half its> McNicol, yearly supply of uranium ore pointed Captain of the First ; Frigate Squadron. which comes mainly from1 Commander Peek wns for Canada and the Belgian Congo. of merly staH officer operations R\V.fanlDr'1trlcnd.; ' and im theirexpression intelligence to Rear AdBUILD HEALTH hnuttfnlfloral tribute' Kama Vlti Itver products fortlfj , mtral Fnrncomb, Flag Officer the Australian iratiind. — 21 thr blorxl stream with f rich, rec1 commanding BE. jT.eere Fleet. corpiyclna. ChoinUt.— Artvt-l. MKat mnbyrnopi-

Iridescent from ancient aloof Rome, glass from Greek vases symbolic figures Egypt, from 2000-3000 Cypriote ware, some dating the nucleus of a collection years B.C., form of on view in Leonard Joel's antiquities Rooms, 362 Little Collins St.

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Last night a womaTTTinv a torch being flashed through the window of a house in Scotsburn Grove, Toorak, which she Is car ing for In the absence of the owner In England. A call to D24, Russell' Street, led to the arrest a few minutes later of two men and recovery of £140 worth of allegedly stolen goods. The men were caught by two patrol police with cases packed with goods worth £40, and at the de People's Palace. Citv. tectives found goods worth £100 allegedly stolen. At the City Watchhouse two laborers aged 20 and 23, both of Sydney, were charged on two counts of housebreaking nnd steal ing.

Gods and Pharaohs In Works Rare Antique


Boats were an essential part of life in ancient Egypt, whether for carrying supplies, or transporting troops, pilgrims or mourners up and down the Nile. They varied in design according to function, reed boats being used for light use such as hunting in the marshes and lakes, papyrus boats being connected with the gods and royalty and used for entertainment or religious events (such as carrying statues of gods in religious ceremonies and pilgrimages), and sturdier wooden boats for heavier use such as trading voyages across the Mediterranean, Red Sea and beyond. Essential and exotic commodities and livestock were all imported by river and sea traffic.




1 The explosion, It says, took fe bt Jib- 18,' B 115®duly pfP'irw place somewhere near Long, 4613. Lat. 53N. This was the reason for Presi dent Truman calling his recent «u»® secret conference In Washing Hp11 ill theseveral ton, it is alleged. The point mentioned by the magazine would place the ex plosion just cast of Penza, about inn milpK south-past, of Mosrnw to an tin [?]




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A. E. Hackwill said in the Ballarat Police Court today that a . man charged with unlawful possession of a pair of stock ings 'already had 107 convic tions.1 ; William Perry, 37, laborer, of no fixed address, was sentenced to seven days' Imprisonment on that charge and was fined £5 In default seven days' gaol for drunkenness. Constable Robinson said that on Friday evening Perry had a new pair of women's stockings and could not account for them. In the court today he still could not account for them. "The police toll more lies than I do. I speak the truth," said Perry, in affirming his ignor ance of how he came by the stockings. Perry said he started drink He ing at 9.30 a.m. on Friday. had been released from gaol that morning, and had no re that collection of anything hanncned. Yet



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P.S. Claims hardware A date has not been fixed yet , for the hearing, of the Com Metropolitan ; ..t-. . Newspaper House, 247 ColliAx St., Melbourne; monwealth Public Service High no..!., 2/2 Councll'6 application for- a 25 ! i& Central 46211-1629. . 8or. bolHa. 1/3 per cent, marginal saiary in | Tun fn.-wiuowliricuji (Inf. in U.S.LI (HtbiHt Umttd) crease. Stczzaninc Floor, Hotel Australia/ BW 4701.



In Outstanding bargain "Career-Girl" Frocks! Fine Black Woollens. S.S.W., S.W. and W.! Mote charming oval-shaped bib front, so smartly pintucked. also the smart alternoon or evening Paynes 49/11.







:a are a fascinating blend of old and new. M jl| :m hotels, shops, restaurants, Old—many JsS M >re the . native customs and way of life. V&4 ff r comfortable m Flying Clippers leave Sydney W end Sunday also alternate Fridays, Fnr jpJlf ' tee your local travel agent or Pan AmerMi




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NEW OUTBOARD ENGINES be sold Singly, or one lot, to suit Purchasers, assortment of Motor Accessories, Cases of New Tools, etc.







It Is rare to see work of this kind outside museums in Aus What tralia. Is more sur prising, however, Is that most of the exhibits, are In a fine HIGH COSTS state of preservation. When asking for costs A painted nnd gilded mask from an Egyptian mummy of In a traffic case at Prahran about 600 BC is in an almost Court today, a young man and there said perfect condition, he usually earned ' are, from earlier periods, bowls, £2/10/- an hour as a sub bottles and lamps , showing as contractor. 1 the only sign of their great age \ \ i ?an encrustation In comparison, the con which has stable asked for 4/6 for fares. i mottled their surface sheen. Specials \1 A lekythos and a kylix from '4$jf The constable got his 4/6 Greece, typically marked with —and the young man 10/6. SCULPTURED granite head black figures, have cracks, but are otherwise almost fresh in iiiii;ilBiniiitiili!il'iililBiiii6iiiiiiiug.ii;iBUiiii):!iti:fl!i:iiii;niiiitU!)aii!-r of 3 Pharaoh, 600 B.C. appearance. And there Is an exceptionally well-kept Egyp tian tomb model of a sailing Australia vessel with a crew of fourteen, Hits jl practically intact, and dated 2500 BC. Yet it is not their state' of Valuable — repair which strikes one. The TOKYO, Monday, opposite in fact. They have has been Shanghai Im the unmistakable air of an mobilised Plant by a typhoon, tiquity — something from an U.S. Navy reports say other world. Herald Snecial Service. reieasen Dy uenerat This can be imparted by f , MacArthur's LONDON, Monday. — A i headquarters single figurine, if It is a gooc one. I am thinking in par. today. machine which i £10,000 Most of the streets are 2ft. ticular of a wooden sepulchra 1 helped to produce guns for i - the of the to 4ft. under water, blown In figure god PtahGerman war effort is I from the Whangpoo River, and Socharis-Osirls (600 BC), ami to go to Canberra to help backed up In the sewers. The a bronze Osiris of 1600 BC. Bu 1 in fundamental i atomic U.S. Consul's office was flooded. there arc others. The It will be used The collection will be auc-. research. typhoon,, code-named Shorties for work of a non-secret "Typhoon Gloria," Is still rag linnrrl oh mlrlrfnu An PHrtnv f.V —L.t. ing. ' ,f , ' character. lUlBh. JSP # Ilhlstrnted ! All SStSilisP ,1 ' $ V-w wool Twerd Shortlu ftofliy xajy The Inter-Allied Reparations & /'yb .-sSia Coats In popular Agency has just approved the styles wuu iwo pocf WbJs&&> allocation of the machine to F#,, /dpte-ro-Pdpe ft'scts nnd welted scams nr. back! »i ' \ i-iS.S.W.,S.W. and W. In plnln qrev, tfU ».r It is a double col I I' Australia. "Abelpp. preen, . blue and natural. umn turning and boring mill, $&£ " /?iRlaoIn flecked effects! At Payne's weWtP ' weighing 123 tons, and is now tomorrow 30/-! (No Mall Orders). f at the Krupps works at Essen. f j The mill will be assembled in the physical science research school at the new National Herald Service It Is Special University at Canberra. expected to speed up greatly : ; Single Professor M. L. E. ollphant's LONDON, Monday. — The basic motive under nuclear physical research pro of forced Russia's elaborate labor lying system He plans the con gramme. Offce struction of a machine devel is economic, a Foreign spokesman said - / Extra heavy quality that will L oping up to 2000 million volts. 1 S Vb ' ife tj H today. , n "fro whlte;";and then _ The German mill is believed |3 B M quicklywosh to oc viih i equipment tur me Inches by 99 Inches! Neatly ® ® 89 B Si ><£'> Nvf on 'I He was commenting production of this machine. ' ' hemmed! been the Soviet "corrective labor '\ taffy, now al 7V Australia has ' ' codex," which the British located just on £1 million " D.B. WHITE TWILL Smith, SHEETS .worth of German reparations delegate, Mr Corley '«&/& : .\j:. m V goods. submitted to the United I YesiBrltlsh Sheetsof superior quality1 (lh / Large Size. 80 inches by 99 inches! Nations Economic and / 1 \\ € Social Council at Geneva last Friday. LONG BEACH (Cali Called i PILLOW / ENVELOPE CASES — An The spokesman said forced fornia), | Monday. M . fi De-luxe quality, made of heavyweight f /flH who embezzled !$&£ Dictator linen-finish Pillow Cotton with deep »b / 9 H" labor had been used In the past, accountant Js&k £380 of his employer's fiapoverl 8ize 29 ' a-o. Mi 19 by inches! Nazi Victorian Board's de % notably by the dictator The Egg money and lost it all at mand that producer agents ship, for other objectives, stfch the Caliente (Mexico) Seersucker TABLE CLOTHS send 75 per cent of their pro I "re , races has been re-engaged as punitive treatment or In duction to the board was dic- y my sunshine - bright multi - striped A //I aimed at socialising I' education." Punishment and In- at an increased salary. tatorsmp 51 inchesI Re- f) f qy the industry and would mean pffecjs. Hlzesl lnch«?Rby 'doctrlnation were.oy no means Joseph R. Blnns. 44, had staler eggs for the public, speak labor served two years with a motor ers told a protest meeting in absent from the forced colonies In Russia. | company before he took the the Town Hall this afternoon. About 200 people attended the But (lie main purpose was money. | in ensure that the Govern which was sponsored Fl'"1 Binns was placed on proba meeting, by the Poultry Farmers Protec ment could undertake at "cut for three years and sen tion League with Mr Everaii... rates" great engineering tion the chair. tenced to 30 days' gaol (which MLA, In i NURSERY WINCEYETTES works, including building railways and caitafs and min Mr V. Clarke, of Pakenham, | lie hnd already served) after ing precious ores, often in the the judge had received a letter said the board was "bowing thei knee to Federal control" in an most desolate regions of the from his employer offering to effort to secure eggs below the . ' country. cost The production. W inch "Thus the Soviet Government re-employ Binns at a higher schemesof illlS Furnishing FABRICS to p being hatched contrives by force to use cheap salary. HravywclRht British Draplngs. In twill- n / n n would Is S,' !|||ll|j The employer. Mr Douglas socialise the industry or unpaid labor in competition weave effect! Two lovely I abides, rust 1 PBb the black andRieen! For curtains, bedspreads,etc. »-£/'' J«-Jt with the labor of those coun Dennnrd, said: "He was a good force producers on to would 'M& ili» market. Housewives get tries which pay reasonable man for us for two years, and eggs even more rotten than . wages, and which employ free just because a man falls off a . men living in 'normal condi log once it doesn't mean that he those they had been getting ! from the board in the past. c Lds. tions," the spokesman added. is a confirmed thief. Besides, I The meeting passed, only one know something . about those i dissenting, a resolution con Caliente races. He is lucky he HELD P.O.W. STILL the board's action, demning lose his shirt, too."—-AAP. a The exact numbers and na didn't j The meeting also carried tionalities of these unfortun resolution urging that because ates are unknown, hut it can lot the low price the board was I offering the industry, it was im safely be assumed that they Tribunal ' perative that it review its decomprise a wide cross-section icision and allow of the Russian, Cen.ral Euro LINEN producerSPORTS BLOUSES . S.S.W, to W. In white, sky, nqun. snxe, , agents to carry on as In the I / pean and 'Asla'tlc peoples who sreen. past. have fallen foul of their over With two-way f WELLINGTON INZ), Tues llmeand gold! 1 lords. It can also be assumed —The Labor Minister (Mr that these camps have swallow day. McLagan) today suspended the ed up -many of the' thousands of Waterfront CommisLAMES' RAYON . . HOSF Industry MANUFACTURERS Italian' and German war prison Service weights In shades of glow. " / At Ill BarJr y dmm/tr ers whom the Russians have sion at all ports except Tlmaru i V \ Do you drulre nn outlet in New seconds hut where watersiders have repu failed to repatriate. SouthWalesfor yourproduct? ctWaluer1 diated their national execu 1 An Executiveof 30years'experience At least 200,000 Germans are tive's ban on overtime. In Sale Mftiiufncturlnir In I end Syd still held, despite ihe under ney of Electrical. Mechanicaland The watersiders' national sec \ CHILD'S Flannel Radio Productsis shortly onenlns OVERALLS taking by the occupying Powers (Mr T. Hill) says the de no anManufacturers' Representative CJualnt Bib/Brace Overalls with con- T n> / to release all German prisoners retary of Judge Dalgllsh, ,, . _, chair and offersen Aesresstve Sale Cam/ -1 cision ExclusiveLineson by the end of last year. Coats man of the commission, grant r aoatenonSuitable Swing Comm.sslon Bosls. a'mdr!nsScnE?os.ahZrnd24rSe!2 ing watersiders an Increase ol> Enqulrleato: Clearance! Lovely box Coats In 4d. an hour, wns based on th( Men's ? increase recently granted I R. EVANS, 6 Flood Street, Now ELASTIC-SIDE SHOES Cle/erly fashioned wlthy the new 109 wage by the Arbitration Court tc' Clovolly, SYDNEY «r RawSv«c«r,,.nrvi:' other workers and the Arbitra | >--I PhonePX3119 <.sj flttlnRs! At Payne's tomorrow soles for extra hard wear! / tion Court will not be accepted I "« X5/5/-I ac MDlflOS. or after woiTA-fivlncr aiihhnrihv fnr or nhoneMelbourne WX3835(or further Informs- - Herald Spccia BALLARAT, Tuesday. — Sgt. watersiders. Inours. Inn


NewftCabins and New Tyres and Tubes; These Prime Movers are almost BRAND NEW. o be sold as a Fleet or individually to suit Buyers.




i ! 11111111500 only, cash over counter! Ladles' Flan'lette Nights, W� I garO.S. and 'X.O.S., In white, peach and blue. Full-fitting 1 mcnts with buttoned-frorit, long Inset sleeves, neat collar." Payne's tomorrow, 10/- ea. (Strict 2 limit. No mall-Orders.)


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Model (top centre) reproduced in The Herald, Australia,http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page26432100 26 July 1949

National Library of Australia




Nile Boat Exhibition Activity Sheet, Museum of Victoria, 1984

Middle Kingdom around 2000 bc, it is the original castaway story, telling of a fantastic journey into the Indian Ocean to the mythical land of Punt, of a shipwreck on an island of enchantment, and of encounters with a giant serpent, rounded off by rescue and salvation. Egyptian tombs often contained representations of activities and daily life, the images and models fulfilling a magic and religious function and assuring the continuation of such activities for the benefit of the deceased in the afterlife. The Pilgrimage to Abydos, the resting place and cult centre of Osiris, which every Egyptian hoped to perform during his life or in the afterlife, was made by boat; to arrive in Abydos was to share in the death and resurrection of the god, a belief particularly important in the Middle Kingdom. Just as the life of an ancient Egyptian was spent mainly on the Nile (‘a man without a boat’ being listed as one of the ills of life), so in death his spirit might travel in a boat upon the waters of the ‘Godly West’ or make the voyage to Abydos. To this end, model boats were placed in tombs during the Middle Kingdom (ca. 2041–1750 bc), usually in pairs – one rigged with a sail as well as oars for sailing upriver (southward) with the prevailing wind from the Mediterranean, the other with oars alone for the journey downstream against the prevailing north wind.

Model Paddling Boat, ca. 1981–1975 bc, Middle Kingdom. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The ancient Egyptians saw the blue sky as a celestial river and believed the gods, particulary the Sun god Re, travelled by special barques across the river of the sky by day (me’andjet barque), and the waterways of the Underworld by night (mesektet barque). The model boats placed in tombs provided the souls of the deceased with a magical means of accompanying the Sun on its cyclical journey around the world.


Other examples of funerary wooden boats from Middle Kingdom tombs are to be found in the British Museum, in Berlin, and in Cairo, one of the finest being in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: cf. W.C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt, I, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1990, pp. 267–75, figs 175–79.

18 IBEX HEADED BRACELET Achaemenid, 6th–4th century bc Gold | diam. 8.9 cm, weight 98.5 grams

exhibited Trésors de l’ancien Iran, Musée Rath, Geneva, 8 June–25 September 1966 published Trésors de l’ancien Iran, Musée Rath, Geneva, 8 June–25 September 1966, p.117, no. 640, pls. 51–52 Ancient Jewellry Antiquities, Gold Medallions and Coins, Christies, London, 19 October 1970, lot 71 provenance In the Private Collection of Mr Sami Choucair (1923–1976), prior to 1966 With Jean-Philippe Mariaud de Serres (1944–2007), Paris New York art market, 2006, acquired from the above 21 July 2006 With David Aaron, 2006 Private Collection, France, acquired from the above 21 July 2006 (accompanied by French cultural passport 218819) ALR: S00202560, Interpol certificate condition Complete and in excellent condition





This highly decorative gold bracelet is made of a moulded ribbed design, the ends terminating in what can be presumed to be ibex heads, with their long horns clearly defined and lying flat. The main body of the bracelet is created from alternating ribbed and beaded sections.

It was under the prestigious reign of Darius (522–486 bc) that it acquired its ‘Court Style’ and formalized shapes and stylistic attributes. In this period, the decoration of jewellery was inspired by the world of animals and was an imitation of Mesopotamian art. It is evident from that most of the Achaemenid jewellery bears animal motifs indicating the position and importance of each; this is manifested through a symbolic concept which can be observed in other artworks of the era as well. Animals with prowess or of high importance in the natural world, including the lion, ibex, boar, calf and falcon, appear repeatedly. Also, mythological creatures with such as the griffon can often be found.

Also known as the First Persian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire ruled through vast swathes of western Asia between 550 and 330 bc. Founded by Cyrus the Great, the empire spanned from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River, encompassing all the civilized states of the ancient Near East. The later king Darius I expanded the empire further into Northern Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Asia. This new massive empire established a civic service, official language, road system and postal service, and one of its local governors constructed the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, one of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World. Their material culture ranged from monumental structures to fine metal goods and was a hybrid of Median, Asiatic, Greek and Assyrian influences, yet maintained a distinctly Persian identity.

For these ancient people, the ibex had a particular mythological importance and a symbolic and sacred role. An ibex with long horns was considered to be a symbol of water, rain, abundance and blessings, as well as to be the guardian of the moon. In many cultures the ibex is considered to be a symbol of fertility and blessing. Similar examples of this bracelet can be found in the Oxus treasure kept at the British Museum.



19 GOLD WREATH Etruscan, late 4th century bc Gold | l. 28 cm exhibited Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1966, loan L66.36.1 published Jan Mitchell, ‘The Varied Tastes of a New York Connoisseur’, Architectural Digest, November 1987, p. 298 (illustrated) provenance Previously in the Private Collection of Jan Mitchell (1913–2009), NY, acquired in Geneva in 1966 Private Collection, NY, 2009 US art market Private Collection, UK, acquired from the above alr: s00156763, Interpol certificate condition In excellent condition, some minor bends and reshaping to elements. Mounted on a modern clear acrylic former.


From Jan Mitchell to John Buchannan of Metropolitan Musuem, 29 February 1988



Drawing of scene on wreath end

Jan Mitchell

experts in the art of goldwork, using decorative granulation, repoussé, filigree and engraving. Pieces have also been found with inlays of glass originating from Phoenicia.

The gold wreath consists of a large hammered gold strap ornamented with a central rosette, confronting leaves and repoussé scenes. The two semi-circular end sections of the gold wreath contain matching scenes showing Philoctetes’s wounded foot being treated. The story, taken from Homer’s Iliad, is best known from Sophocles’s play Philoctetes, performed at the City Dionysia in 409 bc during the Peloponnesian War. Philoctetes was a member of the Greek army that set out to beseige Troy but was bitten by a snake in the foot and the wound went putrid and stank, so the army abandoned him on the island of Lemnos. Philoktetes, however, possessed Herakles’s bow, and his aid was needed. Neoptolemus and Odysseus returned to bring the disabled Philoktetes back to Troy. The scene on each end sections depicts the hero’s wounded foot being tended to by his penitent colleagues.

note on provenance Jan Mitchell (1913–2009) was a New York based restaurateur and collector of Pre-Columbian, Meso-American, Egyptian and Classical art. Born in Sweden, he lived in Finland, Latvia and Switzerland before moving to Washington in 1950. From 1950 to 1972 he owned Luchow’s, a renowned German restaurant and beerhall in Manhattan. He had already been a collector of ancient art before moving to the USA, buying from the dealers André Emmerich, John Weiss and Earl Stendhal. He also bought an entire collection of Pre-Colombian objects from Mrs Lisa Hoffman of Geneva. In 1976 he loaned gold items from his Meso-American collection to the exhibition Gold of Pre-Columbian America, held in the Soviet Union, alongside items from the Rockefeller and Bache collections, and in 1985 he loaned 80 pieces to the Metropolitan Museum, New York, for the exhibition The Art of Pre-Columbian Gold: The Jan Mitchell Collection. Later, in 1991, he donated 70 objects to the Met, and in 1993 the ‘Jan Mitchell Treasury’ was opened in the museum.

Gold jewellery was made with great skill and artistry in Etruria (now western Tuscany). The Etruscans were a nonItalic people whose Greek-based culture influenced the Romans from the 7th to the 5th century bc, when they were invaded by the Gauls and later overcome by the Romans. Etruscans excelled in their own styles and methods of workmanship, producing pieces of technical perfection and great variety. During the early Etruscan period they became



20 KYLIX DEPICTING EROTIC SCENE Attributed to the Wedding Painter in 1963 by J.D. Beazley Greek, 5th century bc Pottery | diam. 29.5 cm published G. Vorberg, Über das Geschlechtsleben im Altertum, Stuttgart 1925, pl. 6 H. Licht (real name: Paul Brandt), Sittengeschichte Griechenlands, Vol. III, Dresden and Zurich 1928, p. 193 G. Vorberg, Die Erotik der Antike in Kleinkunst und Keramik, Munich 1931, p. 80 Reproduced in Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum: CVA of the Beazley archive, as no. 211241 J.D. Beazley, Attic Red-Figure Vase Painters, 2nd edn, Oxford 1963 E. Keuls, The Reign of the Phallus, New York 1985, fig. 162 I. Peschel, Die Hetare bei Symposium und Komos in der attisch rotfigurigen Malerei des 6.-4. Jhs. v.Chr. Frankfurt 1987, pl. 186 Quaderni di Archeologia della Libia, no. 58, 1988, fig. 93 T.H. Carpenter, T. Mannack, M. Mendonca, Beazley Addenda, 2nd edn, Oxford 1989, p. 305 M.F. Kilmer, Greek Erotica on Attic Red-Figure Vases, London 1993, pl. at p. 147, R864 S. von Reden, Exchange in Ancient Greece, London 1995, pl. 6C S. Culpepper Stroup, ‘Designing Women’, Arethusa, vol. 37, no. 55, 2004, fig. 5 A. Dierichs, Erotik in der Kunst Griechenlands, Mainz 2008, p. 76, fig. 55A provenance Previously in the Private Collection of Mr Julius Paul Arndt (1865–1937), Munich Private Collection of a German family living in Switzerland, acquired prior to 1937 from the above. The collection was moved to Germany by 1946 Thence by descent German art market, 2017 (accompanied by German Cultural export licence) Spanish art market, acquired from the above (accompanied by Spanish export licence) alr: s00122168, Interpol certificate condition The central scene is perfectly preserved. In general, it is in an optimal state of preservation, with only two lines of breakage in the black glaze on the left, which have been professionally restored. The handles and foot remain intact.







This red-figure kylix, a popular wine cup in Ancient Greece, is decorated with an erotic scene. Such drinking vessels were mostly used to sip watered-down wine at social gatherings called symposia, where young men from aristocratic society would enjoy music, dancing, games, food and drinks. Sex also played a central part. Therefore, cups were often decorated with festive and sexual scenes.

usually depicted with short hair or, as shown here, with sakkoi (closed up caps or hoods) covering their hair. The bag of money hanging above the couple confirms the nature of this relationship. Hetairai were often present during symposia to entertain men with dances, music, sex and witty conversation. They might be highly educated women and, as such, an important part of society.

Kylikes have an elegant shape, with a broad and shallow body, framed by two horizontal handles placed symmetrically and raised on a vertical stem. The wide body of the kylix is ideally shaped for decorations, especially the tondo, the flat interior circle at the base of the cup where the main design was painted.

The tondo is circled by a thin band of discontinuous meander and the rest of the cup is painted black, focusing the attention solely on the erotic scene that would only become visible when the cup was drained. The shape of the kylix also enabled the drinker to play kottabos, a game often enjoyed during a symposium in which, by swirling the cup’s contents, men would splash one another.

In red-figure pottery, developed ca. 530 bc, the figures and decorations were first outlined, then the background was painted black, leaving the figures red after a complex three-phase firing process. This technique allowed for more expressive paintings than the preceding black-figure style.

This particular kylix was attributed by J.D. Beazley to the ‘Wedding Painter’. After studying a red-figure pyxis painted with the wedding of Thetis and Peleus (470–460 bc, Athens, now in the Louvre Museum, no. L 55-N3348), Beazley identified more than 40 other vessels with similar characteristics, therefore attributing them to the so-called Wedding painter, active in Athens ca. 480–460 bc. Here, the delicate linework is particularly characteristic to this artist.

This kylix is decorated in the centre by a scene of sexual nature, between an ephebos, a beardless young man, and a hetaira, a female prostitute. The young man bends over his female companion, resting his hands on her breasts as she braces herself with her hands on the floor. Hetairai were


note on provenance Julius Paul Arndt (1865–1937) was a German archaeologist who specialized in classical antiquity and was the editor of the Denkmäler griechischer und römischer Skulptur. Descending from a merchant family, he enjoyed the means to work as a learned scholar as well as to be a dealer in Greek works of art. He collected antique sculptures, many of which are conserved in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen. He also built up a magnificent collection of antique gems which has been part of the Staatliche Münzsammlung in Munich since 1958.

Drinking cup (kylix) with erotic scene, attributed to the Douris Painter, Late Archaic or Early Classical Period, ca. 480 bc, h. 7.8 cm, diam. 21.2 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1970.233)


21 LARGE IRIDESCENT AMMONITE From the Upper Cretaceous, Bearpaw formation, ca. 75–72 million years ago Fossilized Ammonite | h. 43 cm, w. 51 cm provenance Discovered in Bearpaw Outcrop, Alberta Accompanied by Canadian export license and copy of original land permit agreement where this fossil was discovered condition Large complete Amonnite shell, the surface of which has been consolidated with a clear epoxy to maintain structural integrity





bearpaw outcrop


calgary carolside dam section

montana bow river section littlebow river section cypress hills st mary river section

maryberries section

Map showing discovery site, Bearpaw Outcrop

Ammonites are extinct molluscs of the class Cephalopoda, order Ammonoidea. Ammonite is a palaeontological term applied to a group of extinct marine cephalopods – squidlike organisms with disk-shaped coiled shells that are divided internally into chambers that were particularly abundant during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods (about 200 to 65 million years ago).

These complete ammonites are amongst some of the most sought-after fossils in the world. Known for their rarity and vibrant colours, specimens of this scale are few and far between. The opal-like iridescence on the outer shell is a unique and beguiling effect caused by light interference and diffraction through lots of fossilised shell layers. Prismatic colours of red, green, blue, orange and purple reflect light from every angle, and this chromatic shift transforms the fossils’ appearance from one position to another. This remarkable gemstone takes millions of years of compression and mineralization to form.

This brightly coloured ammonite, considered an organic gemstone fossil, was obtained from the Bearpaw Formation, which is a geologic formation of the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) age. It outcrops in the US state of Montana, as well as the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and was named for the Bear Paw Mountains in Montana.



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