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DESIGN ISSUES1 G1

ROHIT

ARIEF

SAINABOU

ROBERT

PENNI 1


GROUP 1

Rohit Sharma, Muhammad Arief Muhamad Jamarin, Sainabou Jack, Robert Tsang, Panagiota Papadopoulou

URBAN DESIGN ISSUES 1 (P32076) OXFORD BROOKES UNIVERSITY 28th February 2013

2


CONTENTS

PREFACE

4

METHODOLOGY

5

1. INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND INTENSIFICATION

7

Intensification Environmental Quality

11

16

Chapter 1 Summary

9

2. CASE STUDIES

17

200PPH - Masdar City, Abu Dhabi

18

200PPH - 8 House, Copenhagen

22

500PPH - Curitiba, Brazil

26

500PPH - North Wharf Gardens, London

30

800+PPH - Mong Kok, China

34

800+PPH - New Domino, New York

38

Case Study Comparison

42

Chapter 2 Summary

44

3. SPATIAL STANDARDS

45

Land Requirements

46

Assumptions for Land Allocation

50

Chapter 3 Summary

52

4. DESIGN MODEL

53

Concept

54

200pph

57

500pph

63

800pph

69

Model Comparison

76

5. CONCLUSION 6. REFERENCES

77 79

3


PREFACE

The objective of this Urban Design Issues I report is to generate a universal framework with an intention to focus upon how best to accommodate an increased level of land intensification without having to compromise on the provision of environmental qualities. In order to achieve the above aim, it would be advisable to research the issue as a whole, prior to embarking upon a detailed analysis of the various themes in relation to intensification. The total urban population has been escalating to a point that it is now proving difficult to contain the necessary quantity of residential units, a suitable public transport provision in addition to other relevant infrastructure within a traditional urban master plan. In order to initiate the report, we as a group, will look to identify the definition of intensification of land use as well as high levels of environmental quality. Only by gaining an understanding of these terms, which provide the basis for this report, would we be in a position to apply them to a series of case studies and then in accordance develop our own high density spatial models at block, intermediate and neighbourhood levels.

4


METHODOLOGY

The initial stage of the process is to focus on undertaking preliminary research in relation to the different levels of intensification in addition to defining the various environmental qualities of a typical urban context. These terms will be defined whilst simultaneously researching into the UK national spatial standards, in order to help establish what provision of services and amenities are likely to be required at different density levels. As and when the research has been conducted into the aforementioned criteria, this will assist in forming a basis on which we can begin to formulate a generic grading system which would be applicable to any form of best practice international precedents. The matrix selected will then help generate both a quantitative and qualitative form of case study analysis which can then be used as a guide to inform the conceptual urban model. Once each of the case studies has been evaluated, a composite model, which consists of the relevant design toolkit aids, can be collated in order to establish a design concept for each of the density levels as required. This will be based upon what important factors have been highlighted in each case study which can also be implemented in accordance together with relevant policy data and theoretical research. The models would then be evaluated using similar criteria as previously outlined. The final stage of the process is to be used in order to establish a conclusive summary on the key findings of the report and what has been learnt from attempting to create a progression of high density sustainable urban districts in addition to what aspects can be improved upon. We would look to reflect as a group what can be taken forward in relation how best to apply the interdisciplinary skills obtained for the duration of this module. 5


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The first part of this chapter focuses upon the key question which underpins this report: How do we safeguard and deliver high levels of environmental quality in the context of increasing intensification of land use? In addition, the first section of the chapter looks into the following issues: - how to achieve desirable forms of intensification - different levels of intensification - analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of increasing levels of intensification. This section will enable us to research the factors that are necessary to help inform a suitable urban design model which is applicable on a global scale. The second part of this chapter focuses on the environmental qualities we have identified as upholding our vision for the proposed urban model. These set of qualities are important to maintain in order to help preserve the overall quality of human life and built urban form whilst simultaneously increasing the density levels. This set of criteria will also help rate the case studies later in the report via a series of relevant sub headings.

1

INTRODUCTION:

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND INTENSIFICATION 7


1. INTRODUCTION:

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND INTENSIFICATION

How do we safeguard and deliver high levels of environmental quality in the context of increasing intensification of land use? The question seeks to find a suitable balance between the quality and intensification of the urban environment. In order to answer this question, it is important to define and distinguish between the two key terms: environmental quality and intensification of land use.

Environmental Quality An environmental quality is a range of criterion which implies a relative set of either local or generalized properties and characteristics that are in direct relation to the environment. This set of conditions, that should be made freely available to society, are measured against the level at which they impinge upon and affect the comfort of our daily lives.

8

Environmental quality is a generalized term that can refer to a varied form of characteristics which can relate to both the natural and built environment, such as air and water purity or pollutant levels, and evaluate how such characteristics may result on the physical and mental health caused by human activities.

BALANCE

Intensification Intensification of land use or urban intensification has been allocated numerous definitions ranging from “the fullest use of land that is already urbanized” to “the increase of population and/or dwellings within a defined urban area.” Our group however, defines urban intensification as the process of utilizing the urban land to its full potential by maximizing population density, dwellings, mixed-use buildings and amenities, but at the same time maintaining a balance between built form and open spaces.


1. INTRODUCTION: INTENSIFICATION LEVELS OF INTENSIFICATION There are varied levels of intensification which take form in a range of urban configurations dependent on the local context. The intensification level can fluctuate between the very low up towards the extremely high, with each level requiring a certain quantity of services and provisions in order to maintain the efficiency of how the relevant urban context operates.

Intensification

When the importance of public transportation is taken into consideration in helping to generate a more accessible community, whilst limiting the emissions and pollutants in comparison to private vehicles, it is essential to create the necessary urban environment which is able to sustain the allocated services. The research which has been collated has enabled to form the following conclusions in relation to transport viability.

MIXED USE

ACHIEVING DESIRABLE FORMS OF INTENSIFICATION

Given the significance of mixed use land, it is essential to deliberate to what would deemed as appropriate provision of open space, employment and retail units, which have a positive correlation with the increasing urbanisation of the site. It is also assumed that urban districts should look to incorporate the following use allocation.

ADVANTAGES OF INTENSIFICATION • It is efficient to implement sustainable modes of transport as the population densities are high enough to support public transport in order to make it feasible to operate. In addition to this the population densities are also sufficient to support other local services and businesses. • A wide range of uses can be accommodated so that people are able to live adjacent to their work place and leisure facilities and as a result can also walk and cycle easily. The wide range of uses can also encourage diversity which can help to develop a sense of community due to the increased amounts of activity taking place. • This is a sustainable form of land use as it reduces the potential for urban sprawling, therefore land in rural areas are preserved and therefore only towns and cities are utilised for high density development. • It presents an economically viable option because infrastructure can be provided more cost-effectively per person in comparison to lower density areas. • It encourages otherwise vacant and/or derelict urban land to be developed and used for efficiently as well as increase the value of the site.

DISADVANTAGES OF INTENSIFICATION • It may lead to overcrowding and congestion occurring if the implementation process is not adequately managed. • It can have an adverse effect on the levels of noise and/or air pollution, which could also lead to health repercussions, due to the high levels of uses and density that are condensed within the city core. • There may prove to be logistical issues in order to provide a sufficient level of public space and vegetation as most of the land is allocated towards built form.

m

0 54

m

0 64

m

0 78

Intensification can achieve sustainable goals while respecting established areas by: • Directing intensification to appropriate areas (such as centres and corridors) • Creating attractive buildings and streetscapes through high quality urban designs • Mixing residential, employment and commercial uses to create places to “live, work and play” • Mixing densities and types of housing, while also respecting architectural heritage and needs for affordable housing • Encouraging healthy lifestyles by creating walkable communities • Making efficient use of existing infrastructure, thus saving the city money from building and maintaining public works • Adaptively reusing vacant or underutilized lands, including brownfield sites • Any intensification/redevelopment project should recognize the importance of adjacent established residential areas, and that these areas should be valued and protected from negative impacts to the greatest degree possible. This can be achieved through transitioning with appropriate urban design principles, buffers and traffic management measures.

The phrase ‘mixed-use’ indicates to the level of which different activities and services are located within a given proximity to each other. A dedicated mixed use district is able to accommodate a range of residential units, place of work in addition to a variety of services all within a walkable distance.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INTENSIFICATION

(Source: http://www.city.sarnia.on.ca/pdf/Display_Board_ Information_May_2011.pdf) Figure1: The relationship between density and transport efficiency (source: “Housing for a Compact City” Urban Task Force, 2004)

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1. INTRODUCTION: INTENSIFICATION The Urban Design Compendium compares the problems with low densities and the benefits of higher densities, these are shown below:

PROBLEMS WITH LOWER DENSITIES SOCIAL • Social isolation discourages interaction and diversity • Community services become stretched and inefficient • Creates zones of social housing that can cause social issues.

Intensity and Density Density is a key determinant of the level of intensity of a place. By assessing the number of people residing in a place, one can determine the required number of amenities and facilities required to sustain the population. With the global urban population growing by 60 million a year, it is essential that cities are wellprepared to cater for the projected increase in density, while maintaining a high quality urban environment.

ECONOMIC • Provides much less economic viability of development TRANSPORT • Relies on car travel and parking supply • Public transport becomes stretched and inefficient to run ENVIRONMENTAL • Decreases energy efficiency • Increases resource consumption • Creates more pollution • Cannot fund maintenance of public open space

BENEFITS OF HIGHER DENSITIES SOCIAL EQUITY AND INTEGRATION • Passive surveillance and opportunities for social use of public spaces are improved. • Social proximity encourages positive interaction and diversity ECONOMIC • Enhances economic viability of development • Provides economies of infrastructure ENVIRONMENTAL • There are opportunities for more efficient form of energy supply, including local generation and distribution networks. • Creates less pollution • Preserves and helps fund maintenance of public open space LANDSCAPE • Countryside is retained and new landscape open space can be provided. TRANSPORTATION • The development provides a customer base for effective public transport, while promoting cycling. AMENITY •Higher densities support mixed uses and can provide a balanced range of facilities within a 5–10 minute walk. HOUSING • The stock can more easily provide a wider range of housing types and tenures.

Urban design plays a major role in the density of a place. In his book Cities for People, Jan Gehl mentions the Scandinavian saying: “people come where people are.” This saying reflects the importance of designing for people in order to attract even more people. Design measures such as the creation of open public spaces and easily accessible mixed use developments can lead to a higher population density, which will in turn improve the efficiency of urban services and amenities. While high densities can have a positive impact on the urban environment, lower densities on the other hand, can cause problems. These benefits and problems of higher and lower densities are discussed in the following sections.

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Figure 1.1: Density and urban form – Wembley tall building study This analysis by REAL shows how the same density can be delivered by varying building height, block size and building depth. In this example, the three-storey perimeter blocks deliver the same density as the 22-storey (check) point block (7,200m2 / ha).


WHOSE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY?

DELIGHT

Environmental Quality

COMFORT

PROTECTION

1. INTRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PROTECTION AGAINST TRAFFIC & ACCIDENTS PROTECTION AGAINST CRIME & VIOLENCE FEELING SAFE FEELING SECURE • Protection for pedestrians • Eliminating fear of traffic OPPORTUNITIES FOR WALKING

• Lively public realm • Overlapping function day and night • Good lighting OPPORTUNITIES TO STAND/ STAY

• Room for walking • Interesting facades • Accessibility for everyone • Good surfaces OPPORTUNITIES TO SEE

• Edge effect / attractive zones for standing / staying • Supports for standing

• Reasonable viewing distances • Unhindered and interesting views • Lighting (when dark) HUMAN SCALE

• Low noise levels • Street furniture that provides “talkscapes”

• Buildings and spaces • Designed to human scale

• Sun / shade • Heat / coolness • Breeze

PROTECTION AGAINST UNPLEASANT SENSORY EXPERIENCES • Wind / rain / snow • Cold / heat • Dust / noise / glare • Pollution OPPORTUNITIES TO SIT • Zones for sitting • Utilizing advantages; view, sun and people • Benches for resting • Good places to sit OPPORTUNITIES FOR PLAY AND EXERCISE

OPPORTUNITIES TO TALK AND LISTEN

• Invitations for creativity, physical activity, exercise and play • By day/night, summer/winter

ENJOY THE POSITIVE ASPECTS OF CLIMATE

POSITIVE SENSORY EXPERIENCE • Good design and detailing • Good materials • Trees / plants / water • Fine Views

Table 1.1: The 12 quality criteria concerning the pedestrian landscape. Gehl, Cities for People, 2010

Environmental qualities differ from one person to another. Depending on an individual’s age, background, ability/disability, the environmental qualities that might be important to that individual might be different from those of another individual. However, there are universal environmental qualities that are common to most people regardless of their age, background, or ability/ disability. According to Gehl, these generic qualities are categorised in his 12 Quality Criteria under the headings: Protection, Comfort and Delight (TABLE 1.1). Gehl believes that all of these qualities must be incorporated into the design of a highly functional city. While Gehl focuses on qualities that enhance the user experience, Ian Bentley et. al. focus on the qualities that affect the user’s choices in their book Responsive Environments. Together, the qualities proposed by Gehl and Bentley et. al. (FIG 1.2) are applicable to a wide range of people. Therefore, these set qualities helped inform our group’s environmental qualities (FIG 1.3) that we believe are required to balance the possible negative impact of intensification. The groups proposed environmental qualities are discussed further in the following pages.

LIFESTYLE & SOCIAL INTERACTION Nodes of activity.

A comfortable and stimulating public realm that encourages social interaction.

QUALITY OF PUBLIC REALM

SAFETY

Sense of wellbeing and amenity. A place with public spaces and routes that are lively and pleasant to use.

Sense of security.

GROUP 1’s

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITIES

MOVEMENT Connectivity and permeability.

A place which is well connected to places and move around.

Figure 1.2: Environmental qualities that affect the users’ choices

Ensuring natural surveilance and human presence

ECONOMIC STABILITY

The economic, environmental and social benefits. Economic viability, of development and by delivering social and environmental benefits.

Figure 1.3: Keywords for our group’s environmental qualities

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1. INTRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

BUILT FORM BUILDING ORIENTATION

OPEN SPACES

D EL

green space/ vegetation

FLEXIBILITY space

quality of public realm

FLEXIBILITY

HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

WALKABILITY/ CYCLE ABILITY

This diagram represents the five chosen environmental qualities which we feel will underpin our conceptual urban models. The chosen criteria have been selected as a means to best reflect which qualities we have identified as the most important in order to identify with our sustainable neighbourhood. These five qualities have then been further sub divided into five further sub headings which will be used to help rate our chosen international case studies. The diagram has been intentionally designed to represent a fluid form as we appreciate it is difficult to compartmentalise qualities under fixed categories when they can just as easily be applicable to others. However, for the ease of reference in relation to the case study grading system we have chosen to group certain qualities under the most relevant category in order to help assist in trying to obtain quantitative data from the chosen precedents which can be utilised within during the modelling stage. 12

ď ?

US

SUSTAINABLE PUBLIC TRANSPORT

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

CONNECTIVITY

PUBLIC SPACES/ FACILITIES

LOCAL IDENTITY

LIFESTYLE AND SOCIAL INTERACTION VIBRANT ACTIVITY

LEGIBILITY ACCESIBILITY CONNECTIVITY

HUMAN RESOURCES

WORK OF ART AND CRAFT

$$ ECONOMICAL STABILITY

MIXED USES

LOCAL RESOURCES RECYCLEABLE WASTE

SECURITY

RENEWABLE ENERGY

SAFETY

MINIMISE CONFLICT ON ROUTES

LIVELY STREETS ACTIVE EDGES

PUBLIC & PRIVATE AREA

Figure 1.4: Environmental Qualities Diagram


1. INTRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

CHARACTERISTICS Orientation Open space

QUALITY OF PUBLIC REALM

SAFETY

LIFESTYLE AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

MOVEMENT

ECONOMIC STABILITY

Table 1.2: Environmental Qualities Matrix

HOW ARE THESE MEASURABLE? Identifying the purpose of the orientation of neighbourhood Measure area of open space to built form

CAN WE MEASURE THIS ON A CASE STUDY AND GAIN BENEFICIAL INFORMATION FOR MODELLING RESOURCE? YES Information gathered will help us orientate are mass modelling of blocks to gain maximum sunlight.

YES This allows us to compare the comparison between open space to population density and how the increase in population can affect open space and ways to achieve good urban design. Flexible space Identifying flexible space activities YES This allows us to identify the different activities a single space can occupy and how it is achieved. Built form Identifying built form type YES By analysing how the built form changes (size, height and style) according to the change in population density. Green space/ vegetation Measure area of green space and YES This allows us to compare the comparison between green space to population density and how the identifying vegetation types around site increase in population can affect green space and ways to achieve good urban design. Lively street Identifying active street or not YES This allows us to sculpt/ design the urban environment, so that streets don’t become abandoned and well used by the community. Safe walk/ cycle able routes Analysing street conditions and available YES Allows us to explore the cycling network of low and high density and its affects to other transport cycle assessable routes networks. Public & private area Identifying location YES This allows us to identify how public and private space is operated and how this changes when density increases. Active edges Assessing the ratio of openings to solid wall YES The aspect if this characteristic is harder to measure due to the aspect of how intense will research into the neighbourhood. Minimising conflict How well is the space designed for multiple YES This allows us to identify the changes in safe routes when density changes, and see how it is tackle by users providing safe routes for walking and cycling Healthy Lifestyle Analysing the services and activities that YES This allows us to occupy the right amount of health services (heath centres and hospitals) for its helps a healthy lifestyle correct density of population. Public spaces/ faculties How well is space designed for public YES This allows us to identify the different activities a single space can occupy and how it is achieved. activities Local identity Identifying cultural or local design YES Allows us to identify how increase in population will affect cultural and local traditional identity and inspiration whether it is possible to achieve this. Vibrant activity Evaluating the quantity and diverse range YES This enables us to evaluate the optimum number of uses required to be accommodated within a certain of uses designated area. Work of art and craft Identifying sensory of richness YES This helps us gain knowledge on how and why the place has a place identity and how it is achieved. Walk ability/ cycle ability Identify clear walkable and cycling routes YES Information gained on this topic allows us to create sustainable routes across the density model. Easy accessibility Identify clear moveable routes YES This allows us to identify how moveable routes changes when density changes which will help us develop our density blocks. Sustainable public transport How sustainable is the local transport YES By analysing different case studies it allows us to explore the different distance of services according to its density population and how sustainable transport is used to achieve this. This is useful when massing out the density model. Flexibility Are there flexible routes for moving around YES This information is useful to allow is to see how transport is flexible when density changes. the site Legibility Evaluating the simplicity of site navigation YES This enables us to analyse how best to devise a master plan which is pedestrian focused. Mixed-use Identifying the mixed use services YES The analysis of mixed use services compared to population density is important, to identify the needs to serve the density of the neighbourhood needs. Employment rate How well sustained is the place YES Information gained can be analysed to see how relevant local employment is to the neighbour employment rate is it sustained through residents. local jobs. Waste management Measuring the recycling services YES This allows us to evaluate how best to implement an efficient system for recycling and waste availability to the neighbourhood. management. Local resources Identifying integration of locally sourced YES Information gained can be useful to compare use of locally sourced resources and materials, although materials difficult to accurately obtain data. Human resources Identifying employment rates in varied YES The analysis of this information will be useful to compare how successfully the range of employment industries/sectors has been accommodated. 13


The criterion set for the selection of case studies was linked back to the merits of the individual environmental qualities in addition to the relevant sub headings. This has consequently provided the framework for which we were able to select the most appropriate case studies which best reflected implementation of the aforementioned qualities. Therefore we then just had to ensure that the density levels were met in accordance. The case studies were further analysed in order to reflect specific environmental qualities in order to help to show how these characteristics can be realistically implemented at different density levels. 14


8 HOUSE

NORTH WHARF GARDEN

NEW DOMINO

MONG KOK MASDAR CITY

CURITIBA

15


1. INTRODUCTION: CHAPTER SUMMARY

The process in this chapter began with the group working together to definitely define the term intensification in addition to the ramifications of different levels of intensification and its potential impact. Although intensification is desirable, as a means of sustaining high density levels, it must be noted that if the process is not adequately managed and controlled, it can result in adverse consequences. Therefore, it is important to assess in advance how best to achieve a desirable form of intensification whilst balancing against other factors which may also affect the urban configuration. The individual analysis of each of the key qualities as previously highlighted have provided an in-depth analysis behind the importance of upholding these standards in order to avoid designing models that are not able to be applied in any circumstance. These qualities are to be utilised as a framework that is to form the basis for the remainder of the report.

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This chapter looks into international examples of urban blocks and city districts at the three density levels as specified by the brief (two examples of 200, 500 & 800pph). By researching into a range of varied precedents and grading them in accordance with our established environmental quality criteria, it will enable us to collate both quantitative and qualitative data. Once analysed, this data could then be incorporated into our urban model. By analysing a series of international city districts and large scale urban block developments and then rating them, using the key themes as highlighted in relation to the environmental qualities, we would be able to obtain the relevant data in which to create a composite model. The rating system which has been adopted is essentially a point’s based system which is linked to the environmental qualities which have been identified and then further divided into additional sub-categories. A score out of five is then attributed against each relevant criterion in order to evaluate how each case study has looked to deliver the predetermined environmental qualities and therefore, as a group, we would implement similar approaches during the modelling stage.

District

District

District

MASDAR CITY

CURITIBA

MONG KOK

200pph

500pph

800+pph

Block

Block

Block

8 HOUSE

NORTH WHARF

NEW DOMINO

200pph

500pph

800pph

The rating system also includes the calculation of the following: FLOOR AREA RATIO (F.A.R.) The F.A.R. is the term used to help numerically define the ratio between a building’s total floor areas in relation to the designated plot size on which it has been built upon. This means that a F.A.R. of 1.0 specifies that the total floor area of a building is equal to the land area. HABITATION EFFICIENCY The Habitation Efficiency is a term used to help numerically define the ratio between the total populations divided by the total built development of a designated site. This differs from the general people per hectare data, as it does not take the actual site area into account.

2

CASE STUDIES 17


18


19


20


CASE STUDY EVALUATION Masdar City is proposed to be one of the most sustainable cities in the world. For this reason, the group decided to look at this city as a case study to evaluate the spatial characteristics that enable it to obtain its status as a highly sustainable city. Figure 2.17: Masdar network system

Strengths QUALITATIVE

DATA COLLECTION

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

2. Orientation - the city is orientated to minimise solar gain (due to hot climate of the location). However, the idea of orientating a building can be implemented into any new urban development depending on the climate of that particularplace where the development is located.

40 m

40 m

30 m 25 m

30 m 8.5 m

14 m

8.5 m

25 m

Main street 1m height : 0.28m width Secondary street

1m height : 0.35m width

Diagonal Grid Layout

Site Area

18

21

18

23

152 pph

100/125

Built Area

5. Use of green pockets and green corridors these have been scattered across the city to enhance pedestrian experience and help combat pollution.

Quality of Public Realm Connectivity Lifestyle Safety Economical Stability

Population

67.7dph

Density Population

20

4. Use of sustainable features - from building materials to recycling systems, the design of Masdar City has incorporated many energy efficiency systems in order to promote sustainability in the city.

6. Mixed-use system - mixed use buildings with commercial units on the ground floor and residential units on the upper floors have been incoporated into the design of Masdar City.

90 000

590 Ha

Gross Built Area

3. Courtyard blocks - this not only follows the Middle-East traditional of courtyard housing, but also allows daylight to penetrate inward facing rooms.

QUANTITATIVE

Site Area

1. Use of one main artery - this is sufficient in a city that prohibits the use of cars. By having only one main artery as a route through the city, the secondary routes can be designed to suit pedestrians and cyclists.

50% built

50%

green

Built &Open Space Ratio

Dwellings

90 000 295 Ha

Building height & Street Width Ratio

305pph

=

HABITATION EFFICIENCY

380 Ha X 100 590 Ha

=

64%

FLOOR AREA RATIO

21


22


23


24


CASE STUDY EVALUATION The 8 House is a good example of how a perimeter block can be modiďŹ ed to increase the residential density of that block. For this reason the 8 House was selected as a case study.

Strengths

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

QUANTITATIVE DATA COLLECTION

1200

6.1 Ha

Site Area

17 22

19 22

16

187 pph

Built Area

96/125

Population

Density

Population

8 Shape Perimetre block Layout

39.3% built

Dwellings

=

30 m 54 m

1m height : 1.8m width

Main street

Building height & Street Width Ratio

78 dph

1200 2.4 Ha

30 m

50%

green

Built &Open Space Ratio

500pph HABITATION EFFICIENCY

Quality of Public Realm Connectivity Lifestyle Safety Econmical Stability

Gross Built Area

2. The creation of a courtyard space not only increases solar gain for inward-facing apartments, but also creates a green pocket which enhances the user experience.

QUALITATIVE

Site Area

1. The 8 shape of this primarily residential block helps increase the number of residential units, thus increasing the denstiy

6 Ha X 100 6.1 Ha

=

98%

FLOOR AREA RATIO

25


26


27


28


CASE STUDY EVALUATION Known for its exemplary bus system and walkable streets, Curitiba was selected as a case study in order to determine the planning and design strategies that have been put in place to make the city the role model it is today.

Strengths

2. The bus system runs along the main arterial routes which radiate outwards from the heart of the city to the outskirts. This makes the city higly connective as nearly all parts of the city have direct and efficient access to the centre.

QUALITATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

60 m

1 764 540 28 m

Site Area

20 22

19 21

17

588 pph

Population

Grid Layout

200 dph

1m height : 0.46m width

Main street

Building height & Street Width Ratio

21.3% green 78.7% built

Density

Dwellings

Built &Open Space Ratio

99/125 Population

5. Mixed-use system - mixed-use buildings with commercial units on the ground floor and residential units on the upper floors are very common in Curitiba particularly along the main arterial routes.

DATA COLLECTION

43 090 Ha

3. Pedestrianised streets - many streets in the city-centre are pedestrian pedestrianised. This gives pedestrians a lovely walking (and cycling) environment in which they can safely interact and shop without the fear of passing vehicles. 4. Use of green pockets and green corridors these have been scattered across the city to enhance pedestrian experience and help combat pollution

QUANTITATIVE

Quality of Public Realm Connectivity

Built Area

1. Use of grid system - this allows short direct routes between places thereby making journeys quicker and more efficient

1 764 540 = 33 915 Ha

52pph HABITATION EFFICIENCY

Lifestyle Safety Econmical Stability

29


30


31


32


33


34


35


36


CASE STUDY EVALUATION With a residential density of 800ppha, Mong Kok was of particular interest to the group because of the ways in which the city dealt with such a high density while providing the necessary amenities required for a good standard of living.

Strengths

1. Use of grid system - this allows short direct routes between places thereby making journeys quicker and more efficient

QUALITATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

DATA COLLECTION

2. Main arterial routes are pushed towards the edge of the city thereby minimising the traffic within the heart of the city

130 000

100 Ha

3. Use of high rise buildings - to accommodate the high population as well as the amenities and facilities required by the people.

Site Area

Population

Grid Layout

19 21

17

144 m

56 m

1m height : 0.38m width

10%

20 22

144 m

Main street

Building height & Street Width Ratio

green

1 300 pph 43 333 dph

90% built

Density

Dwellings

Built &Open Space Ratio

85/125 Population

4. Mixed-use system - the heart of Mong Kok consists of numerous mixed-use buildings with commercial units on the ground floor and residential units on the upper floors. Incorporating mixed-use units in buildings not only generates safe and vibrant streets as there are eyes on the street at all times of the day, but there is also an increase in travel efficiency because the distance between home, work, shop and leisure is shortened.

QUANTITATIVE

5. Compactness - numerous activities can be found within short distances of each other. Quality of Public Realm Connectivity

Built Area

In dealing with the high density of the area, Mong Kok was successful in the following ways:

130 000 90 Ha

=

1444pph

HABITATION EFFICIENCY

Lifestyle Safety Econmical Stability

37


38


39


40


This case study was chosen because of its success in creating a high quality public realm. The project was able to accommodate a high density without compromising the viability of the area. The ways in which the project was able to accomplish a high quality urban realm are discussed in the topic below:

STRENGTHS 1. Grid system: this allows permeability through the site and enables access to the waterfront pathway between the development and the river. 2. Varying block heights: this maximises solar gain within the built environment as well as the streets 3. Mixed-use: the incorporation of mixed-use facilities enables vitality as the frontages are location adjacent to the street. 4. Legibility: the project pays homage to the existing site and this maintains legibility in the area 5. Green and blue network: these networks are integrated to enhance the sensory experience of the residents and passersby

41


2. CASE STUDIES COMPARISON

42


2. CASE STUDIES COMPARISON

43


2. CASE STUDIES CHAPTER SUMMARY

The process of researching into a wide range of best practice case studies has provided an insight into complexity of achieving successful high density urban models. In the cases of the ‘very high’ precedents, it clearly highlighted that creating built form to accommodate this level of density is achievable, however, certain lesser qualities may have to be compromised in order to achieve it.

44


This part of the report identifies the relevant spatial standards and general planning policies required in order to help inform a conceptual model that is not only sustainable but also realistic. This would include important numerical data such as dwelling mix/tenure/size as well as accommodating the suitable provision of various building typology and open space that assist in generating a practical urban framework.

3

SPATIAL STANDARDS 45


3. SPATIAL STANDARDS: LAND REQUIREMENTS 1000m X 1000m (100ha)

800PPH

DISTRICT

500PPH

100ha 449.97ha

200PPH

100ha 112.72ha

800PPH 500PPH 200PPH 800PPH 500PPH

20 000 POPULATION

500m X 500m (25ha)

20 000 POPULATION

25ha 110.37ha

12 500 POPULATION

25ha 63.4ha

25ha 26.12ha

5000 POPULATION 100m X 100m (1ha)

BLOCK

200PPH

50 000 POPULATION

100ha 280.73ha

NEIGHBOURHOOD

46

80 000 POPULATION

1ha 3.1ha

1ha 2ha

1ha

800 POPULATION

KEY RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL EDUCATION

500 POPULATION 200 POPULATION

LEISURE FACILITIES TOTAL AVAILABLE LAND AREA TOTAL AREA NEEDED/STACKING AREA

For every level of intensity, a certain area of amenities is required to support the residing population. The diagrams on this page explain graphically, the relationship between the area of the existing land and the area of the required services. The data used to inform the diagrams on this page were derived from the data collected on TABLE 3, 4 and 5. These tables are based on UK as well as international standards and they are shown in the following pages.


3. SPATIAL STANDARDS: LAND REQUIREMENTS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Facilities and Services Required for 200ppha Housing LIVE WORK LEARN

PLAY

SHOP

FACILITIES

No. of Units Required at Different Levels of Intensification District Level Neighbourhood Level Block Level

Area: 1000m x 1000m (100ha) Population: 20,000

Area: 500m x 500m (25ha) Population: 5000

Area: 100m x 100m (1ha) Population: 200

8,333

2,083

83

35% Houses

2,916

729

29

65% Apartments

5,417

1,354

54

Home for the Aged Commercial Nursery Primary/Middle Secondary (11-18yrs) Recreation Centre

0 12,960 10 5 1 20

0 3,240 3 1 0 5

0 129.6 0 0 0 0

Parks or Public Open Space Local Shop Local Market Superstore Health Clinic (small) Religious Centre Police Station Post Office Library (small) Community Centre

20

5

0

13 4 1 2 4 0 4 1 5

3 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Per Unit 0.007 2 0.0015 0.02 1 6 0.6 per 1000 pop. 0.3 per 1000 pop. 0.01 0.08 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.03 0.05 0.5

TOTAL AREA (ha)

Total Area Required at Different Levels of Intensification (ha) District Level Neighbourhood Level Block Level

Area: 1000m x 1000m (100ha) Population: 20,000

Area: 500m x 500m (25ha) Population: 5000

Area: 100m x 100m (1ha) Population: 200

58.3

14.6

0.6

20.4

5.1

0.2

37.9

9.5

0.4

0 19.4 0.2 5 6 12

0 4.9 0.06 1 0 3

0 0.2 0 0 0 0

6

1.5

0

0.13 0.32 0.3 0.4 2 0 0.12 0.05 2.5

0.03 0 0 0 0.5 0 0.03 0 0.5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

112.72

26.12

0.8

Table 3.1: Services provision for 200ppha. Refer to percentage breakdown below.

residential

work

education

open spaces

retails

facilities

40%

13%

33%

12%

0.4%

1.6% DISTRICT

200 PEOPLE PER HECTARE

47


3. SPATIAL STANDARDS: LAND REQUIREMENTS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Facilities and Services Required for 500ppha

Area: 1000m x 1000m (100ha) Population: 50,000

Area: 500m x 500m (25ha) Population: 12,500

Area: 100m x 100m (1ha) Population: 500

20,833

5,208

208

35% Houses

7,291

1,823

73

65% Apartments

13,542

3,385

135

Home for the Aged Commercial Nursery Primary/Middle Secondary (11-18yrs) Recreation Centre

1 32,400 25 12 3 50

0 8100 6 3 0 12

0 324 0 0 0 0

Parks or Public Open Space Local Shop Local Market Superstore Health Clinic (small) Health Clinic (medium) Religious Centre Police Station Post Office Library (medium) Community Centre

50

12

0

33 10 2 2 1 10 1 10 1 12

8 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Housing LIVE WORK LEARN

PLAY

SHOP

FACILITIES

No. of Units Required at Different Levels of Intensification Neighbourhood Level Block Level District Level

Per Unit 0.007 2 0.0015 0.02 1 6 0.6 per 1000 pop. 0.3 per 1000 pop. 0.01 0.08 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.03 0.2 0.5

TOTAL AREA (ha)

Total Area Required at Different Levels of Intensification (ha) District Level Neighbourhood Level Block Level

Area: 1000m x 1000m (100ha) Population: 50,000

Area: 500m x 500m (25ha) Population: 12,500

Area: 100m x 100m (1ha) Population: 500

146

36

1.5

51

13

0.5

95

24

1

2 48.6 0.5 12 18 30

0 12.2 0.1 3 0 7.2

0 0.5 0 0 0 0

15

3.6

0

0.33 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.5 5 0.5 0.3 0.2 6

0.08 0.16 0 0 0 1 0 0.06 0 1.5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

280.73

63.4

2.0

Table 3.2: Services provision for 500ppha Refer to percentage breakdown below.

48

residential

work

education

open spaces

retails

facilities

40%

13%

33%

12%

0.4%

1.6% DISTRICT

500 PEOPLE PER HECTARE


3. SPATIAL STANDARDS: LAND REQUIREMENTS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Facilities and Services Required for 800ppha

Area: 1000m x 1000m (100ha) Population: 80,000

Area: 500m x 500m (25ha) Population: 20,000

Area: 100m x 100m (1ha) Population: 800

33,333

8,333

333

35% Houses

11,667

2,916

116

65% Apartments

21,666

5,417

217

Home for the Aged Commercial Nursery Primary/Middle Secondary (11-18yrs) Recreation Centre

1 51,840 40 20 5 80

0 12,960 10 5 1 20

0 518 0 0 0 0

Parks or Public Open Space Local Shop Local Market Superstore Health Clinic (small) Health Clinic (large) Religious Centre Police Station Post Office Library (large) Community Centre

80

20

0

53 16 3 4 1 16 1 16 1 20

13 4 1 1 0 4 0 4 0 5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Housing LIVE WORK LEARN

PLAY

SHOP

FACILITIES

No. of Units Required at Different Levels of Intensification Neighbourhood Level Block Level District Level

Per Unit 0.007 2 0.0015 0.02 1 6 0.6 per 1000 pop. 0.3 per 1000 pop. 0.01 0.08 0.3 0.2 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.03 0.56 0.5

TOTAL AREA (ha)

Total Area Required at Different Levels of Intensification (ha) District Level Neighbourhood Level Block Level

Area: 1000m x 1000m (100ha) Population: 80,000

Area: 500m x 500m (25ha) Population: 20,000

Area: 100m x 100m (1ha) Population: 800

233.3

58.3

2.3

81.7

20.4

0.8

151.6

37.9

1.5

2 77.8 0.8 20 30 48

0 19.4 0.2 5 6 12

0 0.8 0 0 0 0

24

6

0

0.53 1.3 0.9 0.8 1.0 8.0 0.5 0.48 0.56 10

0.13 0.32 0.3 0.2 0.4 2 0 0.12 0 2.5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

449.97

110.37

3.1

Table 3.3: Services provision for 800ppha. Refer to percentage breakdown below.

residential

work

education

open spaces

retails

facilities

40%

13%

33%

12%

0.4%

1.6% DISTRICT

800 PEOPLE PER HECTARE

49


3. SPATIAL STANDARDS: ASSUMPTIONS FOR LAND ALLOCATION RESIDENTIAL

COMMERCIAL

Various types of residential units are required at 200pph, 500pph and 800pph. Ideally, the housing mix should be divided into 65% apartments and 35% apartments. However, this standard housing mix can be altered depending on the level of intensity. For instance, 4 bedroom townhouses are easily accommodated at 200pph while at 800pph, most of the residential units have to be apartments. For our design models, the housing mix will be further subdivided following the standards shown below:

For the purpose of this report, we have assumed that commercial units include offices, retail units, restaurants and all other relevant employment institutions. In order to determine the amount of space required for commercial units, we first determined the average number of people currently in employment. This was found to be 64.8% (OECD). With this, we assumed that each employee requires a work space of 15m2 (Neufert, 1980 pg 235). This figure was then mulitplied by the working population to determine the total area of land required for commercial purposes.

200pph: 1B2P (20%) 2B3P (20%) 2B4P (20%) 3B5P (20%) 3B6P (10%) 4B6P (10%) 500pph: 1B2P (25%) 2B3P (30%) 2B4P (25%) 3B5P (15%) 3B6P (5%) 800pph: 1B2P (25%) 2B3P (30%) 2B4P (30%) 3B5P (15%) Other assumptions made in relation to housing were: ̵̵ Number of dwellings per hectare = 2.4dph (UK Standard) ̵̵ Average ground floor area = 70m2 = 0.007ha FLATS (PER ONE LVL) 50m2

FLATS (PER ONE LVL)TOWNHOUSE 3 STOREYS 2 STOREYS HOUSE 2 STOREYS HOUSE 50m2

83m2 1B2P

102m2

Employed 64.8% Population =

1B2P 2B4P

61m2

2B4P 61m2

0.3-0.6 Ha

(Average for OECD countries 2011)

3B5P

87m2

According to the National Playing Fields Association, a total of 2.4ha should be allocated to recreation parks, children’s playgrounds, and small open spaces. For our design models, we will designate at least 0.3ha per 1000 population for public open spaces, 0.6ha per 1000 of recreation centres/parks. This decision was made because we wanted to provide adequate private open green spaces for each residential block which can be used for leisure activties and children’s playgrounds. The provision of green private green spaces not only enhances the sensory experience of the residents of the housing blocks, but it also ties in with one of the group’s aims of achieving a balance between built form and nature.

3 STOREYS TOWNHOUSE 102m2

83m2

OPEN PUBLIC SPACE

3B5P 87m2

2B3P

2B3P 3B4P

70m2

106m2

3B4P

70m2

Workspace = 15m2 per employee (0.0015ha)

106m2

PRIMARY500 -1000 SHARED RESIDENT

500 -1000 50-100 RESIDENTS STUDENTS

(Neufert 1980 pg 235)

2B4P

96m

2B4P

2

96m

2

4B5P 74m2

4B5P

2 3B5P 74m

3B5P 113m2 3B4P

3B4P

100m2

4B6P

107m

3B5P

3B6P

1.6 Ha Outdoor Sports Recreation Parks

4B5P

90m2 4B5P

99m2

4B5P

2.4 dwellings 1 Ha

2.4 dwellings 1 Ha

99m2 4B6P

4-8 Ha

3B6P 4B5P

90m2

NEED

mASGU

2

95m2

PRIMARY 4000 CLASS ENTRY RESIDENT

4B6P

4B6P

107m

2

95m2

4B6P

1000 RESIDENTS 4000 300-400 RESIDENTS STUDENTS

NEED

86m2 3B5P

50

1000 RESIDENTS

113m2

100m2 86m2

1-2 Ha

2.4 Dph (UK standards) 4B6P (The London Plan: Spatial Development Strategy for Greater London)

2.4 Dph (UK standards)

8000 500-600 1.6 Ha Outdoor SportsRESIDENTS STUDENTS Recreation Parks

SECONDARY 11-16 8000 CLASS ENTRY RESIDENT

QU

QU

2.5 Ha OPEN SPACE

2.5 Ha OPEN SPACE

0.8 Ha Children playground small open space

0.8 Ha Children playground small open space

16 000 1200-1400 RESIDENTS STUDENTS

6-12 Ha

SECONDARY 11-18 16 000 CLASS ENTRY RESIDENT

(National Playing Fields Association (6 acre standard) (National Playing Fields(Shaping Association (6 acre standard) neighbourhood, for local needs) (Shapin (National Playing Fields Association (6 acreProviding standard)


3. SPATIAL STANDARDS: ASSUMPTIONS FOR LAND ALLOCATION EDUCATION

HEALTHCARE

With regard to education, our group decided to provide nursery schools, 2-class entry primary schools and 11-18 years secondary schools. The standard area allocation for each of these are shown below.

POPULATION CATCHMENT FOR AMENITIES

A decision was made to vary the size of the health clinics depending on the population of the area. This was done to avoid very large health clinics in less dense areas.

The size of the libraries were dependent on the population. This would ensure that the libraries are well suited for the residents’ needs and that they are not unneccesarily oversized.

̵̵ Small health clinic = 0.2ha for up to 20,000 people ̵̵ Medium health clinic = 0.5ha for up to 50,000 people ̵̵ Large health clinic = 1ha for up to 70,000 people

̵̵ A small library = 0.05 ha for 20,000 people ̵̵ A medium library = 0.2 ha for 60,000 people ̵̵ A large library = 0.56ha for 100,000 people

0.3-0.6 Ha

500 -1000 50-100 RESIDENTS STUDENTS

PRIMARY SHARED

20 000 Population

j j j

1-2 Ha

4000 300-400 RESIDENTS STUDENTS

PRIMARY CLASS ENTRY

35% Houses 65% Apartments

20 000 Population

0.05 Ha Small Library

0.5 Ha

50 000 Population 4-8 Ha

8000 500-600 RESIDENTS STUDENTS

Small Health Centre

SECONDARY 11-16 CLASS ENTRY

Medium Health Centre

50 000 Population

0.2 Ha Medium Library

1 Ha

QU

6-12 Ha

70 000 Population

Large Health Centre

70 000 Population

0.56 Ha Large Library

a OPEN SPACE

ociation (6 acre standard)

16 000 1200-1400 RESIDENTS STUDENTS

SECONDARY 11-18 CLASS ENTRY

(Shaping neighbourhood, Providing for local needs) (Barton et. al. Shaping neighbourhoods, 2010)

(Barton et. al. Shaping neighbourhoods, 2010)

In order to provide an amenity, there must be a certain population catchment to support and sustain that amenity. Below is a table indicating the desired population catchment necessary for every amenity that will be provided in our design models.

Housing

0.2 Ha

1000 RESIDENTS

ED

LIBRARY

(Barton et. al. Shaping neighbourhoods, 2010)

Home for the Aged Commercial Nursery Primary/Middle Secondary (11-16yrs) Secondary (11-18yrs) Recreation Centre Parks or Public Open Space Local Shop Local Market Superstore Health Clinic (small) Health Clinic (medium) Health Clinic (large) Religious Centre Police Station Post Office Library (small) Library (medium) Library (large) Community Centre

Population 2.4dph 50,000 0.0015ha per employee 2,000 4,000 8,000 16,000 24,000 0.3ha per 1000 pop. 1,500 5,000 24,000 20,000 50,000 70,000 5,000 60,000 5,000 20,000 60,000 100,000 4,000

Table 3.4: Population catchment for amenities. (Barton et. al. Shaping neighbourhoods, 2010)

51


3. SPATIAL STANDARDS: CHAPTER SUMMARY

The data that has been accumulated has provided an insight into how the provision of services is distributed and allocated in accordance with UK and international standards. The general criterion for a sustainable neighbourhood is centred on the principle of producing a walkable neighbourhood. This puts an emphasis on ensuring that each of the relevant density level models accommodates a wide range of services and amenities that is within the optimum walking distance of the average person. The data collated confirmed that an increase in density has a direct correlation with an increase in built form and open space and a compromise may have to be reached in order to balance the qualities necessary for a suitable high density urban environment.

52


This part of the report focuses on the design concepts that we are proposing in the form of generic models at various urban scales. The models themselves have been designed in accordance with what we have learnt as a result of our research and so we have looked to put forward an informed urban solution for the compact city whilst attempting not to compromise on the environmental principles.

200PPH

500PPH

800PPH

4

DESIGN MODEL 53


4. DESIGN MODEL: CONCEPT

Figure 4.1: Grid systems of relevant case studies

Figure 4.2: Design process leading to the final grid system of the design models

Figure 4.4: Precedents that have incorporated a hexagonal network system into their masterplan. This hexaginal system will be incorporated into our design models

54 Figure 4.3: Design rationale behind the proposed building heights of the design models


4. DESIGN MODEL: CONCEPT

Figure 4.5: Proposed street networks, green space allocation, building heights, transport networks, and building use

55


4. DESIGN MODEL: CONCEPT

56

Figure 4.6: Building components showing the key ideas to be implemented into our design models


4. DESIGN MODEL: 200PPH MODEL

D

DISTRICT LEVEL

Main Boulavard

D

The design of the 200ppha district model was inspired, by our case studies. The built form was designed according to Curitiba, where the city is denser and higher in the centre of the CBD.

Green Corridor

M

Recreation Centre

10

m 00

M

10

00

m

Central Public Space

The green corridor which runs through the city was developed from Masdar City, developed due to it having the opportunity in which to create easy accessibility routes across the district and promotes open space. These are key elements of our environmental quality which we are trying to achieve. Housing types varies across the whole district with perimeter blocks locating in the centre to townhouses towards the outskirt. The orientation and height of the blocks was also designed according to the sun’s orientation, building towards the south-east will be lower to stop it from overshadowing the city.

N

Figure 4.7: 200pph design model

4B 6P Residential

Commercial

3B 6P Residential

Supermarket

3B 5P Residential

Primary School

2B 4P Residential

Secondary School

2B 3P Residential

Community Center

1B 2P Residential

Recreation Centre

Religious Building

57 Public Open Space


4. DESIGN MODEL: 200PPH MODEL

DISTRICT LEVEL

Figure 4.8: 200pph model at district level

58

Commercial

3B 5P Residential

Supermarket

2B 4P Residential

Primary School

2B 3P Residential

Secondary School

1B 2P Residential

Community Center

Religious Building

Recreation Centre

Healthcare

Public Open Space

Density 200PPH

Unit Type 1Bed 2Person 2Bed 3Person 2Bed 4Person 3Bed 5Person 3Bed 6Person 4Bed 6Person TOTAL

Quantity 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 500 5000

Table 4.1: Breakdown of housing mix for 200pph

meter

4B 5P Residential

District Master Plan 0

50

100

N

150

200


4. DESIGN MODEL: 200PPH MODEL

Built and Open space The 200ppha district model incorporates a good balance of green space to build form. Green corridors are run along the artery routes into the city centre, where public activities are encouraged to take place, creating social and legible experience. Private green courtyards is designed, from the inspiration of the case studies (8 House and Masdar City). Green Roof is also encouraged in our design to provide roof gardens for residents without private garden space and to also promote building energy efficiency.

Mix uses Mixed use buildings and recreation services are spread across the neighbourhood to activate the whole site. By doing this it allows easy accessibility levels to the residents who don’t need to travel far for goods or services. The design tactic of the masterplan was to spread services in its neighbourhood so that businesses can sustain itself with shops, education and r ecreation centres.

Connectivity

Built Form

The grid layout masterplan consists of 4 main private vehicle routes and 4 main PRT (private rapid transit route) which runs from the centre of the city to the outskirts.

The design of the 200ppha model is designed through the use of relevant case studies we looked into; the built form is designed to create a diverse range of street types and building elevations.

The PRT network will allow a sustainable nonstop, point-to-point travel across the city, which will speed up traffic flow and reduces the amount of private cars needed.

Blocks orientation are designed according to the sun path, lower level blocks located towards the south-east will reduce the risk of building over shadowing the rest of the city.

Cycling routes are also designed across the district to promote a healthy lifestyle and sustainable way of transporting.

4B 6P Residential

Commercial

Private Open Space

3B 6P Residential

Supermarket

3B 5P Residential

Primary School

2B 4P Residential

Secondary School

2B 3P Residential

Community Center

1B 2P Residential

Recreation Centre

Religious Building

Public Open Space

Vibrant Lifestyle The design of the master plan has allowed us to achieve a high level of vibrant characteristics. Different plot sizes have allowed ever changing building types to make the experience through the city more interesting. Sensory of richness is encouraged throughout the site, the play on hard and soft texture landscaping gives users an interesting experience of the city. Boulevards are another urban component which has been incorporated into our main infrastructure, as it enables us to integrate green landscape provision into the street network.

Education is also spread evenly to allow children to travel less. It is also located mainly on the outskirt of the CBD to reduce high level of traffic around children.

Public Open Space

Built Massing

Figure 4.9: Diagrams showing how the scheme proposes to deliver our environmental qualities

The district network is designed to be pedestrian and cyclist friendly, by having wider pavements and cycling routes, results in a well connected neighbourhood which allows users to be well connected throughout the city without the necessity of vehicles.

Public Transport Route Private Rapid Transit Route

1-2 storeys

Pedestrian and Cyclist friendly Route

3-4 storeys 4-5 storeys

59


M

Recreation Centre

4. DESIGN MODEL: 200PPH MODEL

D

N

NEIGH BOURHOOD LEVEL

The 200ppha neighbourhood model was modified by dispersing the different services and amenities across the site, this is so that it is well occupied and so that residents are not required to travel great distances. The roads leading up to educational buildings are narrower in comparison in order to ensure vehicle speed reduction when travelling nearby to children. The legibility of the site is defined by a hierarchy of different types of street and widths which creates varying landmarks.

Main Boulavard

D Green Corridor

2

0m

50

1

3

3

50

0m

M

Central Public Space

N Neighbourhood Siteplan 0

60

4B 6P Residential

Commercial

3B 6P Residential

Supermarket

3B 5P Residential

Primary School

2B 4P Residential

Secondary School

2B 3P Residential

Community Center

1B 2P Residential

Recreation Centre

Religious Building

Public Open Space

50

100

150

meter

Figure 4.10: 200pph masterplan at neighbourhood level

1

2

3

200

N Figure 4.10 Curitiba Green corridor

Figure 4.11: Kossuth Square by SAGRA Architects

Figure: 4.12: Levinson Plaza, Mission Park


4. DESIGN MODEL: 200PPH MODEL 

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Figure 4.14: Iroko Housing, Coin Street, Howorth Figure Tompkins 4.14: Iroko Housing, Coin Street, Howorth Tompkins

Town houses

  

                     

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Primary School

Supermarket Primary School

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Recreation Centre Public Open Space

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                                           

               



Figure 4.15 French-Mexican School by Figure Alberto4.15 Kalach French-Mexican School by Alberto Kalach

Primary School

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Community Center

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 

Secondary School

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Commercial

     

                    

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Religious Building

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 

Perimeter blocks help to make a clear Perimeter help to make a clear distinction between public blocks fronts and distinction private back. Square blocks between offer the public fronts and private back. Square blocks offer the most flexible layout for both commercial mostwhile flexible layout for both commercial and residential units rectangular and residential units while rectangular blocks improve connectivity. It is imporblocks improve connectivity. It is important for the blocks not to be too big to tant for the blocks not to be too big to allow for permeability. allow for permeability.

  

1B 2P Residential

Figure 4.13: Razgledi Perovo Housing Figure 4.13: Razgledi Perovo Housing

The composition of the complex sepaThe composition of the complex separates two typologies: the classrooms rates two typologies: the classrooms and the communal spaces. and the communal spaces.

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2B 3P Residential

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Town houses

2B 4P Residential

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3B 5P Residential

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3B 6P Residential

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Terrace Houses

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Commercial 4B 6P Residential Supermarket 3B 6P Residential Primary School 3B 5P Residential Secondary School 2B 4P Residential Community Center 2B 3P Residential Recreation Centre 1B 2P Residential Public Open Space Religious Building

    

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4B 6P Residential

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The block models are designed accordingly to the spatial standard land requirement table, which we have then developed with our case study models. Modelling the built form to occupy the different services needs, these will help design our built form block models. But most importantly the final decisions to our blocks were modelled around the environmental qualities, as these will have huge implications to our overall district level model.

    

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      

Terrace Houses

                           

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       ���                    

          

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                         

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BLOCK LEVEL

 

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Ground connected family houses with flats stacked in theGround centre. connected family houses with flats stacked in the centre. The provision of perimeter blocks with The provision blocks with active frontages ensure activity of on perimeter the active frontages ensure activity on the streets and overlooking of public spaces streets and overlooking of public spaces

                                   

     

The advantage to lower population densiadvantage to lower ties is the resultingThe open space that can population densities isofthepublic resulting open space that can be provided. A range green provided. A range spaces have beenbeincluded, within the of public green spaces have been included, within the blocks.All have multifunctionality and blocks.All have multifunctionality and available to everyone within the commuavailable to everyone within the community nity

Community Centre Community Centre Figure 4.13: 200pph model showing various blocks and their uses

Figure 4.16 Sõmeru Community Centre by Salto ABCommunity Centre by 61 Figure 4.16 Sõmeru Salto AB


4. DESIGN MODEL: 200PPH MODEL EVALUATION

SUMMARY Our approach to this density level was to establish our radial octagonal grid which incorporates a wide street network, which is important for accessibility and connectivity, together with low rise perimeter blocks that is balanced out with the recommended provision of green open space for this density level. The main advantage of this density model is that we are able to accommodate a suitable range/mix of residential units which helps serve a wide range of community, as we are looking to propose not only one/two bed apartments but also four/five bed townhouses. Another important aspect in relation to the residential units is that the townhouses have been afforded defensible space and private amenity space which could enhance the character of the site. 62


4. DESIGN MODEL: 500PPH MODEL

D

DISTRICT LEVEL

Main Boulavard

D

Due to the increase in intensification, we knew that to maintain high levels of environmental quality, residential and commercial units will need to be dispersed across the master plan tactfully. Education must be within the catchment areas so that, it’s safe and accessible for children.

Green Corridor

M

Recreation Centre

10

m 00

M

10

00

m

Central Public Space

At the density of 500ppha there was a clear change in the built form, in comparison to the 200ppha model. The increase in density meant that some housing types such as the townhouses had to be removed and changed into perimeters blocks, towards the outskirts of the city. Existing perimeter blocks will then increase from 6 floors to 12 to deal with the intensification. The built form was inspired by the case studies ‘The North Wharf Garden’ as the buildings are staggered in different height according to its orientation. This allows sufficient light to the streets to create a healthy environment, which was one of our aims for environmental quality. We have also incorporated the block structure model from ‘8 House’ case studies ,to allow us to gain high density blocks but still allowing us to have a private green courtyard.

N

Figure 4.17: 500pph design model

4B 5P Residential

Commercial

3B 5P Residential

Supermarket

2B 4P Residential

Primary School

2B 3P Residential

Secondary School

1B 2P Residential

Community Center

Religious Building

Recreation Centre 63

Healthcare

Public Open Space


4. DESIGN MODEL: 500PPH MODEL

64

4B 5P Residential

Commercial

3B 5P Residential

Supermarket

2B 4P Residential

Primary School

2B 3P Residential

Secondary School

1B 2P Residential

Community Center

Religious Building

Recreation Centre

Healthcare

Public Open Space

Density 500PPH

Unit Type 1Bed 2Person 2Bed 3Person 2Bed 4Person 3Bed 5Person 3Bed 6Person TOTAL

Table 4.2: Breakdown of housing mix for 500pph

Quantity 3500 4250 3500 2000 750 14000

meter

Figure 4.18: 500pph masterplan at district level

0

50

100

N

150

200


4. DESIGN MODEL: 500PPH MODEL

Built and Open space The 500ppha neighbourhood model incorporates a balance of green space to build form. With a mixture of private and public green space, around the neighbourhood allows a comfortable environment to be in.

Mixed use buildings and recreation services are spread across the neighbourhood to activate the whole site. By doing this it allows easy accessibility levels to the residents who don’t need to travel far for goods.

Private green courtyards is also designed, from the inspiration of case studies (8 House and Masdar City)

Education is also spread evenly to allow children to travel less. It is also located mainly on the outskirt of the CBD to reduce high level of traffic around children.

Green roof is also encouraged in our design to provide roof gardens for residents without and to promote building energy efficiency.

Figure 4.19: Diagrams showing how the scheme proposes to deliver our environmental qualities

Mix uses

Connectivity

Built Form

The grid layout masterplan consists of 4 main private vehicle routes and 4 main PRT (private rapid transit route) which runs from the centre of the city to the outskirts.

The design of the 500ppha model is designed through the use of relevant case studies we looked into; the built form is designed to create a diverse range of street types and building elevations.

The PRT network will allow a sustainable nonstop, point-to-point travel across the city, which will speed up traffic flow and reduces the amount of private cars needed. Cycling routes are also designed across the neighbourhood to promote a healthy lifestyle and sustainable way of transporting.

Public Transport Route

Blocks orientation are designed according to the sun path, lower level blocks located towards the south-east will reduce the risk of building over shadowing the city. The recreation buildings are encouraged to be stacked due to decreasing availability of developable land. As a result the recreation centres will need to incorporate diverse additional sporting facilities on different levels, with an open track and sport field located at roof level..

1-2 storeys

Public Open Space

4B 5P Residential

Commercial

Private Open Space

3B 5P Residential

Supermarket

2B 4P Residential

Primary School

4-5 storeys

2B 3P Residential

Secondary School

6-8 storeys

1B 2P Residential

Community Center

8-12 storeys

Religious Building

Recreation Centre

Healthcare

Public Open Space

Built Massing

Private Rapid Transit Route

Vibrant Lifestyle

The design of the master plan has allowed us to achieve a high level of vibrant characteristics. Different plot sizes have allowed ever changing building types to make the experience through the city more interesting. Sensory of richness is encouraged throughout the site, the play on hard and soft texture landscaping gives users an interesting experience of the city. Boulevards is also been incorporated in our main artery roads, as it creates a green landscaped passage way into the city from the outskirts. The district network is designed to be pedestrian and cyclist friendly, by having wider pavements and cycling routes, results in a well connected neighbourhood which allows users to be well connected throughout the city without the necessity of vehicles.

Pedestrian and Cyclist friendly Route

3-4 storeys

65


M

4. DESIGN MODEL: 500PPH MODEL

Recreation Centre

D

N

NEIGH BOURHOOD LEVEL

Main Boulavard

The 500ppha neighbourhood model has changed in comparison to the previous lower density model due to the increase in services provision. This has affected the increase on floor space requirements which has a direct result on stacking, as land is a finite commodity.

1 3

Open green space has had to be compromised as the provision required would not be practical at this density level.

0m

50

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50

0m

2

M

Central Public Space

N Neighbourhood Siteplan 0

66

4B 5P Residential

Commercial

3B 5P Residential

Supermarket

2B 4P Residential

Primary School

2B 3P Residential

Secondary School

1B 2P Residential

Community Center

Religious Building

Recreation Centre

Healthcare

Public Open Space

50

100

150

meter

Figure 4.20: 500pph masterplan at neighbourhood level

1

2

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200

N Rooftop Recreation Centre Sport and community centre in Norbredd by BIG architect

Lower level at certain angle to invite sunlight 8 house by BIG architect

Triangular form Religious Building Triangular Form Albania Mosque by BIG architect


4. DESIGN MODEL: 500PPH MODEL 

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BLOCK LEVEL

  

                  

      

 

 

  

 

Perimeter Mix Used BlockPerimeter Mix Used Block

The block models are designed accordingly to the spatial standard land requirement table, which we have then developed with our case study models. Modelling the built form to occupy the different services needs, these will help design our built form block models. But most importantly the final decisions to our blocks were modelled around the environmental qualities, as these will have huge implications to our overall district level model.

      

  

                

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Perimeter Residential Block Perimeter Residential Block

4B 5P Residential

4B 5P Residential Commercial

Commercial

3B 5P Residential

Supermarket 3B 5P Residential

Supermarket

2B 4P Residential

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2B 4P Residential Primary School

Primary School

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2B 3P Residential

3P Residential Secondary2BSchool

1B 2P Residential

2P Residential Community1BCenter

Community Center

Religious Building

RecreationReligious Centre Building

Recreation Centre

Healthcare

Healthcare Public Open Space

Secondary School

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Primary School

The block has a sloping green roof profile capping the residential element which is similar to the 8 House case study which we had researched into. The main advantage of the sloping roof is to provide private green space, as in this respect, apartment blocks tend to be overlooked. On the other hand the north side massing could be deemed somewhat over developed and as a result the building may lose its human scale element.

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Figure 4.22: North Wharf London Figure 4.22: North Wharf London

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Perimeter Mix Used BlockPerimeter Mix Used Block

This block has a staggered residential element which is similar to the North Wharf Gardens case study which we had researched into. The reason for the staggered height was so as to not impose itself onto the adjacent school building as well as provide a distinctive built form which promotes legibility. Another distinct advantage of the built form in the south facing roof space which would accommodate photovoltaic cells to provide a sustainable form of energy use for the residential units.

Primary School

Figure 4.21: 500pph model showing various blocks and their uses

Figure 4.23: 8 House

This series of uniform residential blocks are similar in profile to the Curitiba case study which we had researched into. These blocks are positioned on the periphery and so has a reduced massing in accordance. The block is predominately residential as it is not located on what has been identified as one of the primary routes and so it would prove difficult to support multiple uses. The profile of the building takes on the form of a perimeter block which provides active edges in the form of commercial units, which also clearly defines the distinction between public and private space. Figure 4.24: Villa Chartas This block is the designated site for one of the neighbourhood primary schools. This was designed intentionally with a sensitive massing block as a safety measure for the young children in relation to means of escape. The site is ideally located on the periphery of the site, away from the busy commercial networks, and adjacent to the community centre and outdoor recreation spaces. The only disadvantage of this site is that it is single use but in accordance with our research, a school was identified as one of the uses which are unstackable.

Figure 4.23: 8 House

Figure 4.24: Villa Chartas

Figure 4.25: Birmingham School Framework 67 Figure 4.25: Birmingham School Framework


4. DESIGN MODEL: 500PPH MODEL EVALUATION

SUMMARY Our approach to this density level was to maintain the inclusion of the perimeter block as a means of preserving an active street level in addition to distinguishing between private and public land. The urban massing model reflects on the influences of 8 House (Copenhagen) and North Wharf Gardens (London) in particular, as sensitive massing was required in the blocks adjacent to the schools and therefore was incorporated on this basis. However, as the increase in population has a correlative effect upon the level of public space, we currently lack a shortfall in the total provision of green open space. This has been compensated for by incorporating wide boulevard streets which provide a good standard of pedestrian orientated space which people are able to freely use. 68


4. DESIGN MODEL: 800PPH MODEL

D

DISTRICT LEVEL

Main Boulavard

M

Recreation Centre

m

1

0 00

M

10

D

Due to the high density of population, land use planning becomes even more important to factor in; therefore we implemented a stacking approach of residential units above commercial blocks. This will enable us to achieve a high level of footfall across the urban district.

00

Green Corridor

m

Central Public Space

The built form of the city is designed via the idea of perimeter blocks acting as podiums where tower sits on the top; this will allow us to achieve high density and a mixed use ground level across the city and also open green courtyards. Also by changing the building type to towers, when the perimeter block reaches level 8, it stops the streets from getting over shadowed from the dense blocks. The built form and overall organization of the masterplan was also designed from a series of rules we gathered from case studies to ensure it be a legible city.

N

Figure 4.26: 800pph design model

3B 5P Residential

Commercial

2B 4P Residential

Supermarket

2B 3P Residential

Primary School

1B 2P Residential

Secondary School

Religious Building

Community Center

Healthcare

Recreation Centre 69 Public Open Space

Police Station


4. DESIGN MODEL: 800PPH MODEL

DISTRICT LEVEL

Figure 4.27: 800pph model at district level

70

Commercial

2B 4P Residential

Supermarket

2B 3P Residential

Primary School

1B 2P Residential

Secondary School

Religious Building

Community Center

Healthcare

Recreation Centre

Police Station

Public Open Space

Density 800PPH

Unit Type 1Bed 2Person 2Bed 3Person 2Bed 4Person 3Bed 5Person TOTAL

Table 4.3: Breakdown of housing mix for 800pph

Quantity 10000 8000 6000 2000 26000

meter

3B 5P Residential

District Master Plan 0

50

100

N

150

200


4. DESIGN MODEL: 800PPH MODEL

Built and Open space

Figure 4.28: Diagrams showing how the scheme proposes to deliver our environmental qualities

Mix uses

The 800ppha district model incorporates 10 open public spaces. The largest space (1ha) being in the centre of the neighbourhood will become flexible open space where events and market stalls will take place.

Mixed use buildings and recreation services are spread across the neighbourhood to activate the whole district. By doing this it allows easy accessibility levels to the residents who don’t need to travel far for goods.

Private green courtyards is also designed, from the inspiration of case studies (8 House and Masdar City) this has allowed us to achieve private green courtyards for residents, living in perimeter blocks.

Education is also spread evenly to allow children to travel less. It is also located mainly on the outskirt of the CBD to reduce high level of traffic around children.

The grid layout masterplan consists of 4 main private vehicle routes and 4 main PRT (private rapid transit route) which runs from the centre of the city to the outskirts. The PRT network will allow a sustainable nonstop, point-to-point travel across the city, which will speed up traffic flow and reduces the amount of private cars needed. Cycling routes are also designed across the district to promote a healthy lifestyle and sustainable way of transporting.

The use of green roofs is also encouraged as part of our design rationale to provide roof gardens for residents which help promote building energy efficiency.

Public Open Space Private Open Space Built Massing

Built Form

Connectivity

The design of the 800ppha model is designed through the use of relevant case studies we looked into; the built form is designed to create a diverse range of street types and building elevations. Tower blocks orientation are designed according to the sun path, lower blocks located towards the south-east will reduce the risk of building over shadowing the city. Interesting tower blocks with prominent corner locations have also been included in order to help enhance legibility. Recreation building are encouraged to the stacked due to the scarce availability of land, therefore recreation centre will incorporate diverse sport facilities on different levels, with open track and sport field located on the roof top.

3B 5P Residential

Commercial

2B 4P Residential

Supermarket

2B 3P Residential

Primary School

1B 2P Residential

Secondary School

Public Transport Route Private Rapid Transit Route

1-2 storeys

The design of the master plan has allowed us to achieve a high level of vibrant characteristics. Different plot sizes have allowed ever changing building types to make the experience through the city more interesting. Sensory of richness is encouraged throughout the site, the play on hard and soft texture landscaping gives users an interesting experience of the city. Boulevards is also been incorporated in our main artery roads, as it creates a green landscaped passage way into the city from the outskirts. The district network is designed to be pedestrian and cyclist friendly, by having wider pavements and cycling routes, results in a well connected neighbourhood which allows users to be well connected throughout the city without the necessity of vehicles.

Pedestrian and Cyclist friendly Route

3-4 storeys 4-5 storeys

Private Vehicle Route

6-8 storeys

Religious Building

Community Center

8-10 storeys

Healthcare

Recreation Centre

High rise

Police Station

Vibrant Lifestyle

71


4. DESIGN MODEL: 800PPH MODEL

M

Recreation Centre

The compromise of having green open space has resulted in this area being relocated onto the roof space of public buildings, in the hope to provide a sufficient provision as recommended by the National Trust. .

D

D

Green Corridor

N

NEIGH BOURHOOD LEVEL

The increase in intensification has made the 800ppha neighbourhood model very dense, this has resulted in the tower block implementation, so that streets aren’t over shadowed, if the perimeter blocks were to continue to increase, according to the rise in intensification.

Main Boulavard

0m

50

Open Public Space

50

0m

N

Public Transport Route Private Rapid Transit Route Pedestrian and Cyclist friendly Route

Neighbourhood Siteplan 0

72

3B 5P Residential

Commercial

2B 4P Residential

Supermarket

2B 3P Residential

Primary School

1B 2P Residential

Secondary School

Religious Building

Community Center

Healthcare

Recreation Centre

Police Station

Public Open Space

50

100

150

meter

Figure 4.29: 800pph masterplan at neighbourhood level

200

N Public transport

Private rapid transit

Pedestrian and cyclist friendly street

Figure 4.30: Curitiba Public Transport system

Figure 4.31: Movement in European city proposed by BIG architects

Figure 4.32: Movement in European city proposed by BIG architects


The built form of the development was to achieve maximum amount of daylight by the correct orientation due to the placement of openings.

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4. DESIGN MODEL: 800PPH MODEL 

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Perimeter blocks with a mixture of terraced townhouses and apartments. The built form of the development was to achieve The maximum density distribution anddaylight mix of uses in the amount of by the correct floor of the buildings helps create a legible ground orientation due to the placement of openings. network at ground level. Perimeter blocks with a mixture of terraced townhouses and apartments.

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The block models are designed accordingly to the spatial standard land requirement table, which we have then developed with our case study models. Modelling the built form to occupy the different services needs, these will help design our built form block models. But most importantly the final decisions to our blocks were modelled around the environmental qualities, as these will have huge implications to our overall district level model.

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                                            

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Commercial Supermarket

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Primary School

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                                       

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Secondary School

Religious 3B 5PBuilding Residential Healthcare 2B 4P Residential

Community Center Commercial

Police 2BStation 3P Residential

PublicPrimary Open Space School

Figure 4.35: Villa Marina Building

Figure 4.35: Villa Marina Building

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1B 2P Residential

Figure 4.34: New Domino

Figure 4.36: KL Pavillion

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The form of the model building is designed to maximise The perimeter block also has benefits in terms the of natural in the building to and courtyard of itsuse flexibility to besunlight shaped and orientated optimise while creating minimal overshadowing of the sun penetration and to accommodate a mix of usesstreets and public areas. and dwelling types. They benefit from direct access from the street, creating an active edge and overlooking of public space, and also allow the enclosure of privateblock space within thehas block. The perimeter model also benefits in terms of its flexibility to be shaped and orientated to optimise sun penetration and to accommodate a mix of uses and dwelling types. They benefit from direct access from the street, creating an active edge and overlooking of public space, and also allow the enclosure of private space within the block.

Figure 4.34: New Domino

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2B 3P Residential

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Perimeter Mix Used Block & High Rise  

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The density distribution and mix of uses in the ground floor of the buildings helps create a legible network at ground level. The design of this block aims to maximise commercial and residential space. Commercial units are primarily office based with some retail at ground floor. The block is designed to be located in a more residential character area away from the main public high street. The design of this block aims to maximise commerThe images how anspace. active commercial cial andshow residential Commercial plinth units are with primarily a private upper canwith be combined. office deck based some retail at ground floor. The block is designed to be located in a more The form of the character building isarea designed maximise residential awaytofrom the mainthe public use of natural sunlight in the building and courtyard high street. while creating minimal overshadowing of the streets and The public areas.show how an active commercial plinth images with a private upper deck can be combined.

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Perimeter Mix Used Block & High Rise

Figure 4.36: KL Pavillion

Recreation Centre Supermarket

1B 2P Residential

Secondary School

Religious Building

Community Center

Figure 4.33: 800pph model showing various blocks and their uses

73


The built form of the development was to achieve maximum amount of daylight by the correct orientation due The to the placement of openings. built form of the development was to achieve maximum amount of daylight by the Perimeter blocks withorientation a mixtureof oftheterraced correct placement of townhouses andwindows apartments. and doors.

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4. DESIGN MODEL: 800PPH MODEL BLOCK LEVEL

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Figure 4.34: New Domino

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Perimeter Mix Used Block       

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              

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The design of this block aims to maximise commercial and residential Commercial units out areof green To usespace. the idea of towers rising primarily office space based with some retail at ground floor. The block is designed to be located in a more residential character area away fromuses the main Photovoltaic panels solar public radiation from the sun and converts it into direct current high street. electricity which can be used in the home or soldhow to the electricity grid. The images show annational active commercial plinth with a private upper deck can be combined.

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Tower Block & Recreational building Perimeter Mix Used Block & High Rise 

The form of the building is designed to maximise the use of natural sunlight in the building and courtyard while creating minimal overshadowing of the streets and public areas.

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3B 5P Residential 2B 4P Residential

3B 5P Residential 2B 4P Residential 2B 3P Residential 1B 2P Residential

Commercial 2B 3P Residential Supermarket 1B 2P Residential Primary School Religious Building

Commercial Supermarket

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                                        

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Community Center

Healthcare Secondary School Recreation Centre

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Healthcare 74

Police Station

Police Station Center Community

Public Open Space

Public Open Space

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The perimeter block model also has benefits in terms of its flexibility to be shaped and orientated optimise sun penetration and to accommodate a mix of uses and mix of dwelling types and sizes. They benefit from direct access from the street, creating an active edge and overlooking of public space, and also allow the enclosure of private space within the block.

Perimeter Mix Used Block & High Rise       

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Figure 4.40: Bioclamatic European School

Primary School    

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Recreation Centre

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Religious Building

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The block responds to the directive that all educational units “constitute an entity while at The perimeter block in terms the model same also timehasbebenefits capable of operating of its flexibility toindependently”. be shaped and orientated to optimise

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Primary School Secondary School

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Figure 4.36: KL Pavillion

            

     

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Kok Highrise FigureFigure 4.35: 4.39: VillaMong Marina Building

sun penetration and to accommodate a mix of uses and dwelling types. from direct The They block benefit is embedded into theaccess natural topografrom the street, creating an active edge and phy of the site overlooking of public space, and also allow the enclosure of private space within the block.

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Figure 4.38: Town Houses by Darling Associates

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The density distribution and mix Perimeter blocks withofa uses mixtureinofthe terraced/buildings helps create a legible ground floor of the town houses and apartments network at ground level. The density distribution and mix of uses in the ground floor of the building creates a legible ground connected blocks

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Perimeter Mix Used Block 

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BLOCK LEVEL

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Secondary School Figure 4.37: 800pph model showing various blocks and their uses

Fig4.41: Bioclamatic European School


4. DESIGN MODEL: 800PPH MODEL EVALUATION

SUMMARY Our approach to this density level was to begin to incorporate high rise tower blocks as a means to ensure that the very high density requirement could be met. The urban massing model reflects on the direct influences of urban blocks found in Mong Kok (Hong Kong) and New Domino (U.S.A.) in particular, as the use of perimeter blocks has been reduced in favour of tower blocks. The main disadvantage of this form of modelling is in relation to the height of the blocks which have an impact on two levels. The first aspect is the potential shading caused by these blocks, although this could be perceived as an advantage dependent on local site parameters. The second and possibly more relevant aspect is the fact that the buildings no longer connect on a human scale and as a result could reduce the comfort level of the residents. 75


DESIGN MODEL COMPARISON

500

200

800

PEOPLE PER HECTARE

PEOPLE PER HECTARE

PEOPLE PER HECTARE

CITY SCAPE

ELEVATION

OPEN SPACE

BUILT FORM

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BLOCK

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Figure 4.42: Comparing the various environmental qualities of the design models


REFLECTIVE SUMMARY The Issues I urban design module had provided us a brief in which to accommodate a very high level of density whilst safeguarding the pre-determined environmental qualities. In order to successfully achieve this issue, we believe it would require a more detailed architectural solution that would need additional time than permitted to fully explore an informed proposal. This could involve the inclusion of innovative technology which could have been implemented to ensure any concept put forward was a sustainable one. Although a wide range of uses had been accounted for, as our services data had indicated, any true success could only be measured when the generic models are applied to a designated site and if designed sympathetically, should be able to adapt to any given local context with the minimum of alterations. We have collectively learnt the level of complexity that is involved in designing for high densities whilst also looking to maintain the relevant spatial and amenities standards. As proved when comparing the three models put forward, a compromise had to be reached on the provision of open space, be it public or private, as the built form began to dominate even more as the land became more intensified. Another concern which had been raised at the highest density level is the range of housing available as two/three bedroom houses had to make way for three/four bedroom apartment tower blocks. This then results in a lack of buildings which are still at a human scale and may compromise on the level of comfort when occupying the spaces adjacent to these developments. However, given the overall timeframe we feel that we have provided a good urban design basis on which to build upon and develop, together with sound considered research, on which to build upon, given the opportunity. But it also must be noted that there are also many other factors (non-design related) which determine the success of an urban model, such as economic or management issues, which have to be taken into consideration. But given the very few planned precedents available to research highlights how difficult it is to design for this level of density. We can certainly take a lot from this module going forward in our other architectural modules whereby to ensure that any concept we design, particularly at a large scale, should also look to respond at an urban scale as well. FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS The models put forward are by no means complete and there are certain areas we would look to address further to ensure we have created a successful generic model. The main area which requires refinement was to do with transport. If we had the benefit of additional time we would have look to propose a solid public transport scheme, together with some form of car parking strategy. Although as the requirement to travel greater distances have been reduced, this would not seem to be such a decisive factor. Another item we would look at in greater detail would have been the inclusion of live/work units in order to help accommodate a more dense population. This would provide an interesting study into whether a live/work arrangement would assist in generating a more human scale built form, as the office space would be inclusive with the residential area. In addition to this, we would simultaneously look to improve upon the profile of the individual plots. This is a direct resultant of the hexagonal grid which creates angular edges that are not conducive to standard building shapes and consequently, if we were to go into further detail we would certainly look to rationalise the built form. The final aspect of the design we would have liked to explore further was the level of public open space. It became virtually impossible to incorporate the provision of green space required at the highest density level, with the remainder of land occupied by high-rise developments. However, this had been partly mitigated by containing a wide boulevard street network which as a result made these spaces particularly pedestrian orientated.

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CONCLUSION 77


78


This chapter contains: Bibliography List of Illustrations Tables

6

REFERENCES 79


6. REFERENCES TABLES

6. REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY Alan Baxter and Associates.(2010).Urban Design Compendium. London : English Partnerships 2000

Chapter 1: Environmental Quality and Intensification

Neuman, M. (2005). The Compact City Fallacy. Journal of Planning Education and Research.

Table 1.1: The 12 quality criteria concerning the pedestrian landscape ,Cities for People, Gehl, 2010

Archdaily. (2010). 8 House/ Big. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.archdaily.com/83307/8-house-big> (Accessed: 17 February 2013)

Table 1.2: Environmental Qualities Matrix 2, Authors own. (2013) [Diagram]

Archspace. (2005). 8 House Big. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.arcspace.com/features/big/8-house/> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Archdaily. (2010). 8 House/ Big. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.archdaily.com/83307/8-house-big> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Archspace. (2005). 8 House Big. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.arcspace.com/features/big/8-house/> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Asseal. (2013). North Wharf garden, Paddington. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.assael.co.uk/content/north-wharf-gardenspaddington> (Accessed: 21 February 2013)

Chapter 3: Spatial Standards Table 3.1: Services provision for 200ppha, Authors own. (2013) Table 3.2: Services provision for 500ppha, Authors own. (2013) Table 3.3: Services provision for 800ppha, Authors own. (2013)

Barton, H., Grant, M. and Guise, R. (2010). Shaping Neighbourhoods: for Local Health and Global Sustainability. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

Table 3.4: Population catchment for amenities. (Barton et. al. Shaping neighbourhoods, 2010)

BRT- Case study, (n.d) BRT, Curitiba (Brazil) – The First BRT System in the world and Still One of the World’s Best-Regulated Bus Systems. [Online] Available at: <http://sti-india-uttoolkit.adb.org/mod2/se3/005_1.html> (Accessed: 24 February 2013)

Chapter 4: Design Model

Curitiba, Brazil BRT. (n.d) Curitiba, Brazil BRT case study. [Online]. Available at: <http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp90v1_cs/ Curitiba.pdf> (Accessed: 24 February 2013)

Table 4.2: Breakdown of housing mix for 500pph, Authors own. (2013)

Discover Hong Kong. (n.d.). Mong kok. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.discoverhongkong.com/in/shop/where-to-shop/shopping-areas/ mong-kok.jsp> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Designboom. (2010) 8 house Big- under construction. Available at: <http://www.designboom.com/architecture/big-architects-8-houseunder-construction> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Designboom. (2010) 8 house Big- under construction. Available at: <http://www.designboom.com/architecture/big-architects-8-houseunder-construction> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) E-Architects. (2010). New Domino Brooklyn : Former Domino Sugar Refinery. [image online] Available at: <http://www.e-architect.co.uk/ new_york/new_domino_brooklyn.htm> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Gehl, J. (2010). Cities for People. Washington. Island Press. Gehl, J. (2011). Life Between Buildings. 6th ed. London: Island Press. Goodman et al. (n.d) Curitiba’s Bus system is model for rapid transit. [Online]. Available at: <http://urbanhabitat.org/node/344> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Kazis. N. (2010). New Domino Drops 266 Parking Spaces. How Low Can It Go? [image online]. Available at: <http://www.streetsblog. org/2010/06/14/new-domino-drops-266-parking-spaces-how-low-can-it-go/> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Klettner. A. (2011). Farrells submit final designs for Paddington basin. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.terryfarrell.co.uk/data/ projects/0114/project_0114.pdf> (Accessed: 21 February 2013) Kubis. M. (2011). Masdar city- A fes of the future?. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.michalkubis.com/downloads/masdar_city.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Masdar (n.d.). Whole City Awards: Masdar City– A Sustainable Community. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.livcomawards.com/2012awards/documents/MasdarLivComWholeCityAwards.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Masdar City. (2010). Exploring Masdar City. Version 1 . Abu Dhabi: UAE. [Online]. Available at: <http://masdarconnect.com/userfiles/files/ Exploring-Masdar-City-Site-Tour-Booklet.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [Online]. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-thenew-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Systematica. (2009). Madar Masterplan. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.systematica.net/upload/projects/pdf/07C0009g_Masdar_ Masterplan.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Tripwolf. (n.d.). Mong Kok travel guide. [Online] Available at: <http://www.tripwolf.com/en/guide/show/300492/China/Hong-Kong-/MongKok> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) WWTF002. (2007). Experimental site wind availability study for Mong Kon, Hong Kong. [Online]. Available at: <http://www.pland.gov.hk/ pland_en/info_serv/site_wind/wwtf007_2007_final.pdf> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Yee. M. (n.d.). Our street is not like what you imagine!- Problems of street culture in Mong Kok. [Online]. Available at: <http://www. openzine.com/aspx/Zine.aspx?IssueID=13806 >(Accessed: 24 February 2013) 80

Table 4.1: Breakdown of housing mix for 200pph, Authors own. (2013)

Table 4.3: Breakdown of housing mix for 800pph, Authors own. (2013)


6. REFERENCES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Chapter 1: Environmental Quality and Intensification Figure 1: “Housing for a Compact City” Urban Task Force, 2004 [Diagram] Figure 1.1: Alan Baxter and Associates.(2000).Urban Design Compendium. London : English Partnerships [Image]

Figure 2.16 : 100% Powered by Renewable Energy170MW from Photovoltaic<30 KWh per capita per day energy usage Masdar (n.d.). Whole City Awards: Masdar City– A Sustainable Community. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.livcomawards.com/2012awards/ documents/MasdarLivComWholeCityAwards.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013)

Figure 1.2: “Responsive Environments”, Bentley et al, 1985 [Photograph]

8 Houses

Figure 1.3: Keywords for Environmental Quality in terms of urban design, Authors own. (2013) [Diagram]

Figure 2.17 : 8 House’s location, Authors own. (2013). [map]

Figure 1.4: Environmental Qualities Matrix, Authors own. (2013) [Diagram]

Figure 2.18 : 8 House’s Masterplan Archdaily. (2010). 8 House/ Big. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.archdaily.com/83307/8house-big> (Accessed: 17 February 2013)

Chapter 2: Case Studies

Figure 2.19 : Aerial View 8 house Designboom. (2010) 8 house Big- under construction. [image online] Available at: <http://www. designboom.com/architecture/big-architects-8-house-under-construction> (Accessed: 17 February 2013)

Masdar City Figure 2.1: Masdar City’s location,Authors own. (2013) [map] Figure 2.2: Masdar City’s Masterplan Systematica. (2009). Madar Masterplan. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.systematica.net/upload/projects/pdf/07C0009g_Masdar_Masterplan.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.3: Aerial View Masdar City. (2010). Exploring Masdar City. Version 1 . Abu Dhabi: UAE. [image online]. Available at: <http://masdarconnect.com/userfiles/files/Exploring-Masdar-City-Site-Tour-Booklet.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.4: Masdar City’s built form Systematica. (2009). Madar Masterplan. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.systematica.net/ upload/projects/pdf/07C0009g_Masdar_Masterplan.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.5: Low-rise high-density accommodation ,compact urban form, narrow streets, shaded pathways,Abu Dhabi future energy company (2010). Building the world’s most sustainable city. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.rpd-mohesr.com/uploads/custompages/15_MASDARCITY.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.6: Masdar City’s diagonal layout orientation to provide optimal shading Masdar (n.d.). Whole City Awards: Masdar City– A Sustainable Community. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.livcomawards. com/2012-awards/documents/MasdarLivComWholeCityAwards.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.7: Masdar City transport system diagram Masdar (n.d.). Whole City Awards: Masdar City– A Sustainable Community. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.livcomawards.com/2012-awards/documents/MasdarLivComWholeCityAwards.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.8 : Personal Rapit Transit Masdar City. (2010). Exploring Masdar City. Version 1 . Abu Dhabi: UAE. [image online]. Available at: <http://masdarconnect.com/userfiles/files/Exploring-Masdar-City-Site-Tour-Booklet.pdf >(Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.9: Traditional art and architecture, which explore light, shade, shadow, texture and layering, provide a rich palette of architectural ideological possibilities Masdar (n.d.). Whole City Awards: Masdar City– A Sustainable Community. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.livcomawards.com/2012-awards/documents/MasdarLivComWholeCityAwards.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.10: The large urban square at the base of the wind tower in the Masdar Institute neighbourhood Masdar (n.d.). Whole City Awards: Masdar City– A Sustainable Community. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.livcomawards.com/2012-awards/documents/ MasdarLivComWholeCityAwards.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.11: A civic landmark as well as a cooling device Masdar (n.d.). Whole City Awards: Masdar City– A Sustainable Community. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.livcomawards.com/2012awards/documents/MasdarLivComWholeCityAwards.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.12: The building’s design, which has won several international awards, is inspired by traditional architectural features of the region Masdar City. (2010). Exploring Masdar City. Version 1 . Abu Dhabi: UAE. [image online]. Available at: <http://masdarconnect.com/ userfiles/files/Exploring-Masdar-City-Site-Tour-Booklet.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.13: Climate controlled streets designed to encourage walking and cycling Masdar City. (2010). Exploring Masdar City. Version 1 . Abu Dhabi: UAE. [image online]. Available at: <http://masdarconnect.com/userfiles/files/Exploring-Masdar-City-Site-Tour-Booklet.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.14: The square offers a place of recreation and social interaction Masdar (n.d.). Whole City Awards: Masdar City– A Sustainable Community. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.livcomawards.com/2012-awards/documents/MasdarLivComWholeCityAwards.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013) Figure 2.15: Design guidance for healthy buildings to incorporate standards for interior design Masdar (n.d.). Whole City Awards: Masdar City– A Sustainable Community. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.livcomawards.com/2012awards/documents/MasdarLivComWholeCityAwards.pdf> (Accessed: 18 February 2013)

Figure 2.20: Development design diagram Mood. (2010) BIG completes its trilogy of housing with the 8 House in Copenhagen. [image online] Available at: <http://plusmood.com/2010/10/big-completes-its-trilogy-of-housing-with-the-8-house-in-copenhagen/> Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.21: 8 House Courtyard Mood. (2010) BIG completes its trilogy of housing with the 8 House in Copenhagen. [image online] Available at: <http://plusmood.com/2010/10/big-completes-its-trilogy-of-housing-with-the-8-house-in-copenhagen/> Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.22: 8 House Courtyard green space landscape Mood. (2010) BIG completes its trilogy of housing with the 8 House in Copenhagen. [image online] Available at: <http://plusmood.com/2010/10/big-completes-its-trilogy-of-housing-with-the-8-house-incopenhagen/> Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.23: Treescape design Designboom. (2010) 8 house Big- under construction. [image online] Available at: <http://www. designboom.com/architecture/big-architects-8-house-under-construction> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.24: 8 House Section, 8 House. [image online] Available at: <http://www.checkonsite.com/browse/location/denmark> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.25 : 8 House Commerical units Wilkinson. P (n.d.) 8 House. [image online] Available at: <http://www.checkonsite.com/browse/ location/denmark> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.26 : Looking down into the courtyard Designboom. (2010) 8 house Big- under construction. [image online] Available at: <http:// www.designboom.com/architecture/big-architects-8-house-under-construction> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.27 : Public footpath archway connecting two courtyards together Mood. (2010) BIG completes its trilogy of housing with the 8 House in Copenhagen. [image online] Available at: <http://plusmood.com/2010/10/big-completes-its-trilogy-of-housing-with-the-8house-in-copenhagen/> Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.28 : Typical office suits that available in 8 houses, 8 House. [image online] Available at: <http://www.checkonsite.com/browse/ location/denmark> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.29 : Sloping green roof Wilkinson. P (n.d.) 8 House. [image online] Available at: <http://www.checkonsite.com/browse/ location/denmark> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.30 : 8 House view from across the river Archdaily. (2010). 8 House/ Big. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.archdaily. com/83307/8-house-big> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.31 : Clear definition of private and public area within the 8 house, (2010) 8 house Big- under construction. [image online] Available at: <http://www.designboom.com/architecture/big-architects-8-house-under-construction> (Accessed: 16 February 2013) Figure 2.32 : 8 House steps to roof garden Wilkinson. P (n.d.) 8 House. [image online] Available at: <http://www.checkonsite.com/ browse/location/denmark> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.33: Introduction of boundary of private and public area,8 House/ Big. [image online]. Available at: <http://www.archdaily. com/83307/8-house-big> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.34 : Large indoor open space for multipurpose event, Wilkinson. P (n.d.) 8 House. [image online] Available at: <http://www. checkonsite.com/browse/location/denmark> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) Figure 2.35 : 8 House south-west corner waterfront landscape Designboom. (2010) 8 house Big- under construction. [image online] Available at: <http://www.designboom.com/architecture/big-architects-8-house-under-construction> (Accessed: 17 February 2013) 81


6. REFERENCES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont.) Figure 2.36 : 8 House façade, . (2010) BIG completes its trilogy of housing with the 8 House in Copenhagen. [image online] Available at: <http:// plusmood.com/2010/10/big-completes-its-trilogy-of-housing-with-the-8-house-in-copenhagen/> Accessed: 17 February 2013)

Figure 2.59 : Congested street of Mong Kok Tsui. E. (2005) Mong Kok. Available at. <http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/164552 (Accessed 24 February 2013).

Curitiba

Figure 2.60: High rise residential block with close proximity of building to building distance Kenji. K. (n.d.) Mong Kok. [image online] Available at. <http://kudopix.com/#Mong-Kok> (Accessed 24 February 2013)

Figure 2.37 : Curitiba’s location Authors own. (2013). [map]

Figure 2.61 : Busy vibrant commercial activity at ground level Amante. (2012). Hong Kong shopping paradise, [image online] Available at. <http://trifter.com/asia-pacific/hong-kong/hong-kong-shopping-paradise-in-asia> (Accessed 24 February 2013)

Figure 2.38 : Curitiba’s Masterplan Alvess. A (2008). Jaime Lerner- guest of honour. [image online] Available at: <http://rawbrazil.wordpress. com/2008/06/16/jaime-lerner-–-guest-of-honour/> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.39 : Aerial view of Curitiba, Curitiba revisited. [image online] Available at: <http://gehlcitiesforpeople.dk/2010/11/30/curitiba-revisited/> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.40 : Curitiba aerial city view xrtn3. (2011). Skyscrapercit. [image online] Available at: <http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread. php?t=1317561> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.41 : Curitiba Botanical garden Destination360. (n.d). Curitiba Brazil. [image online] Available at: <http://www.destination360.com/southamerica/brazil/curitiba> (Accessed: 24 February 2013)

Figure 2.62 : Busy main roads mainly dominant by public transport Wàngjiǎo. (n.d.). Mong Kok. [image online] Available at. <http:// en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/164552> (Accessed 24 February 2013) Figure 2.63: Highly congested crossing Reuters. (2012). Tackling growing population and consumption must be part of protecting environment. [image online] Available at. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/9226730/Tackling-growing-populationand-consumption-must-be-part-of-protecting-environment-says-Royal-Society.html> (Accessed 24 February 2013) Figure 2.64 : The availability of stadium facilties at the heart of Mong kok district Chong. F. (n.d.). HK MongkokStadium. [image online] Available at: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HK_MongkokStadium_Scoreboard.JPG> (Accessed 24 February 2013)

Figure 2.42 : Curitiba high street Radames. (2011). Eight places you must visit in Curitiba. [image online] Available at: <http://happensinbrazil. com/2011/eight-places-you-must-visit-in-curitiba/> (Accessed: 24 February 2013)

Figure 2.65: Separation of activity based on level. Create a clear sense of public commercial area on ground level and private residential area on the upper floor. Bobu. (n.d.) Sky scraper city. [image online] Available at. <http://www.skyscrapercity.com/ showthread.php?p=95052002> (Accessed 24 February 2013)

Figure 2.43 : Curitiba’s BRT system, Rapid transit Benjamin. (2010). Bus rapid transit in Taichung. [image online] Available at: <http:// taiwansustainablecities.blogspot.co.uk/2010/10/bus-rapid-transit-in-taichung.html> (Accessed: 24 February 2013)

Figure 2.66 : Shared space on commercial street Sangeetha. (2012). Hong Kong and Macau: twin thrills in one holiday. [image online] Available at. <http://blog.coxandkings.com/index.php/destinations/asia/hong-kong-and-macau-twin-thrills-in-oneholiday/> (Accessed 24 February 2013)

Figure 2.44 : Curitiba’s schematic arrangement of structural axes Curitiaba, Brazil BRT. (n.d) Curitiaba, Brazil BRT case study. [image online] Available at: <http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp90v1_cs/Curitiba.pdf> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.45: BRT rapid transit station Gehlarchitects. (2010). Curitiba revisited. [image online] Available at: <http://gehlcitiesforpeople. dk/2010/11/30/curitiba-revisited/> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.46 : System of bus services Curitiaba, Brazil BRT. (n.d) Curitiaba, Brazil BRT case study. [image online] Available at: <http://onlinepubs.trb. org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp90v1_cs/Curitiba.pdf> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.47 : Curitiba aerial city view xrtn3. (2011). Skyscrapercit. [image online] Available at: <http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread. php?t=1317561> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.48 : Curitiba BRT bus stop Scoty. (2011). Bus stops 3 Curitiba brazil. [image online]Available at: <http://tractors.wikia.com/wiki/File:Bus_ Stops_3_curitiba_brasil> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.49 : Pedestrian friendly street Ayers. D. (n.d.). Urban planning in Curitiba, Brazil. [image online] Available at: <http://davidayers. wordpress.com/urban-planning-in-curitiba-brazil> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.50 : Vento Sui Biennial, by Bekokolare Ozartsetc. (2010). Bekokolare by Rimon Guimarães. [image online] Available at: <http://www. en.ozartsetc.com/2011/10/10/bekokolare-by-rimon-guimaraes/> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.51 : Zero emission zegway transport system Trek. (2012). Experiencing Brazil from a local’s perspective. [image online] Available at: <http://www.trekchannel.com/travel-experiencing-brazil-local’s-perspective> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.52 : Curitiba’s busy high street Pompe. I (n.d.). Rethinking cities. [image online] Available at: <http://thegeographyoflearning.wordpress. com/tag/national-geographic/> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.53 : Curitiba’s open square Unimportant-man. (n.d.) Open space- Curitiba, Brazil travel photo. [image online] Available at: <http://www. unimportant-man.co.uk/brazil/curitiba-3.php< (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Figure 2.54 : Curitiba’s street landscaping Designit. (2012) Designit Brazil- São Paulo and Curitiba. [image online] Available at: <http://designit.com/ news/designit-brazil-sao-paulo-and-curitiba> (Accessed: 24 February 2013) Mong kok Figure 2.55 : Mong Kok’s location Authors own. (2013). [map] Figure 2.56 : Mong Kok’s Masterplan Google Earth. (2013). Mong Kok. [image online]Available at: :http://maps.google.co.uk/ maps?hl=en&qscrl=1&rlz=1T4GGIE_enGB500GB505&q=mong+kok&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.42768644,d.d2k&ion=1&biw=1574&bih=7 62&wrapid=tlif136170970019810&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wl> [Accessed 24 February 2013]. Figure 2.57 : Aerial view of Mong Kok Lim. H (2009). Hong Kong in brief. [image online] Available at. <http://www.hugolim.com/tag/hong-kong> (Accessed 24 February 2013) Figure 2.58 : Typical dense high rise block in Mong Kok Yumi. (2003). Mong Kok Kowloon. [image online] Available at. <http://small-dose.com/ mong-kok-kowloon/> (Accessed 24 February 2013) 82

Figure 2.67 : The availability of Mong Kok station create a highly accessible district Hokachung. (2009) MTR Mong Kok. [image online] Available at. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MTR_MKK_(5).JPG> (Accessed 24 February 2013) Figure 2.68 : Busy night activity on ground level So. M (n.d.) China Mike. [image online] Available at. <http://www.china-mike. com/china-tourist-attractions/hong-kong/shopping-markets-stores/> (Accessed 24 February 2013) Figure 2.69 : Sign and light pollution spreads across Mong Kok Touristlink. (n.d.) Mong Kok photos. [image online] Available at <http://www.touristlink.com/hong-kong-china/mong-kok/photos.html> (Accessed 24 February 2013]. Figure 2.70 : Congested streets Ross. M. (2011). Life in the most populated town on earth. . [image online] Available at <http:// area148.com/cms/index.php/media_check/u_serious/life-in-the-most-populated-town-on-earth-for-these-people-7-billionbarely-comes-as-a-shock> (Accessed 24 February 2013) Figure 2.71 : New energy efficient langham place shopping mall Saikit. (2011). MongKok(Hong Kong) heart of the city. [image online] Available at <http://www.saikit.com/mong-kok-hong-kong-heart-city/> (Accessed 24 February 2013) Figure 2.72: Light polluted city Just_do_it_lah. (2011). Hong Kong. [image online] Available at <http://sgforums.com/forums/2867/ topics/406667?page=5> (Accessed 24 February 2013) The New Domino Figure 2.73 : Domino effect built form Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.74 : Large setbacks from builtform to riverside Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino. > (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure2.75 : Variety of the height of tower block and the play of material transparency from lower to upper level. Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-newdomino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.76 : Variety of open spaces to suits all groups of ages in that particular development. Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-thenew-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.77 : Designed to improved walkability throughout the development. Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.78 : Clear definition of pedestrian, cyclist and vehicle routes. Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.79 : Vibrant nightlife of New Domino Development’s Ground floor up to upper level Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-thenew-domino. > (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.80 : Breath taking view towards East River from the promenade Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New


6. REFERENCES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont.) York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.81 : Active edges all around Ground floor level Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013)

Figure 2.103: North Wharf Gardenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Masterplan Richard Rogers Partnership (2012). Paddington basin masterplan. [image online] Available at: <http://www.richardrogers.co.uk/work/ all_projects/paddington_basin_masterplan> (Accessed: 22 February 2013)

Figure 2.82 : Enormous open spaces fronting the river sides that provide the residents to enjoy the environment. Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013)

Figure 2.104 : Google image of North Wharf site, still in construction.Google Earth. (2013). North Wharf garden. [image online] Available at: <https://maps.google.co.uk/maps?ie=UTF-8&hl=en. [Accessed 24 February 2013].

Figure 2.83 : Retails on Ground Level to support the needs of local Residents Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino. > (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.84 : Pedestrian walkway is highly considered.Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.85 : More Commercial activity on the promenade. Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino. > (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.86 : The New Dominos master plan layout Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http://www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013)

Figure 2.105 : North Wharf Gardens - Corner of Hermitage St and North Wharf Road Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). North Wharf gardens. [image online] Available at: <http://www.terryfarrell.co.uk/#/project/0114/ >(Accessed: 22 February 2013) CHAPTER 3: SPATIAL STANDARDS Figure 3.1: Residential unit recommended area, Authors own. (2013) [Diagram] Figure 3.2: Numerical Employment Data, Authors own. (2013) [Diagram] Figure 3.3: Recreation space requirements, Authors own. (2013) [Diagram] Figure 3.4: Student population, Authors own. (2013) [Diagram]

Figure 2.87 : Large open green space Rafael Vinoly Architects. (2012). The New Domino, New York. [image online] Available at: <http:// www.rvapc.com/works/785-the-new-domino.> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) North Wharf

Figure 3.4: Health centre provision, Authors own. (2013) [Diagram]

Figure 2.88 : North Wharf Gardenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Masterplan Richard Rogers Partnership (2012). Paddington basin masterplan. [image online] Available at: <http://www.richardrogers.co.uk/work/all_projects/paddington_basin_masterplan> (Accessed: 22 February 2013)

Chapter 4: Design Model

Figure 2.89 : Aerial View North Wharf Garden Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). Farrells create five new buildings at North Wharf gardens for the final phase their Paddington basin master plan. [image online] Available at: <http://www.terryfarrell.co.uk/data/projects/0114/ project_0114.pdf> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.90 : Large openings and Balconies to allow sunlight through Residential units Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). Farrells create five new buildings at North Wharf gardens for the final phase their Paddington basin master plan. [image online] Available at: <http:// www.terryfarrell.co.uk/data/projects/0114/project_0114.pdf> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.91 : Vast green space at every central courtyard Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). North Wharf garden east building. [image online] Available at: <http://www.skyscrapernews.com/picturedisplay.php?ref=6687&idi=North+Wharf+Gardens+East+Building&self=nse &selfidi=6687NorthWharfGardensEastBuilding_pic1.jpg&no=1> (Accessed: 22 February 2013)

Figure 3.5: Library provision, , Authors own. (2013) [Diagram]

Figure 4.1: Aerial View Masdar city, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.2: Aerial View Curitiba, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.3: Aerial View Mongkok, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.3: Typical Grid Layout, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.4: Twist to diagonal layout according sunpath, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.5: Simplify the layout into one certain rotating octagon layout with still applying the hierarchy of street width and more intense area at the centre, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 2.92 : Variety of Building height and volume Asseal. (2013). North Wharf garden, Paddington. [image online] Available at: <http:// www.assael.co.uk/content/north-wharf-gardens-paddington> (Accessed: 21 February 2013)

Figure 4.6: Hierarchy of street width and intensify area at the center of the layout, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 2.93 : Pedestrian and Cyclist are the top Priority for this development Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). Farrells create five new buildings at North Wharf gardens for the final phase their Paddington basin master plan. [image online] Available at: <http://www. terryfarrell.co.uk/data/projects/0114/project_0114.pdf> (Accessed: 22 February 2013)

Figure 4.8: Low rise building with narrow street to create shades across the street, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 2.94 : Active Edges around the Ground floor level Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). Farrells create five new buildings at North Wharf gardens for the final phase their Paddington basin master plan. [image online] Available at: <http://www.terryfarrell.co.uk/data/ projects/0114/project_0114.pdf> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.95 : Double volume of Retails and purposely designed open spaces. Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). North Wharf gardens. [image online] Available at: <http://www.terryfarrell.co.uk/#/project/0114/> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.97 : Balance of built and open spaces on ground level and rooftop garden Asseal. (2013). North Wharf garden, Paddington. [image online] Available at: <http://www.assael.co.uk/content/north-wharf-gardens-paddington> (Accessed: 21 February 2013) Figure 2.98 : Carefully designed Private and Public area Asseal. (2013). North Wharf garden, Paddington. [image online] Available at: <http://www.assael.co.uk/content/north-wharf-gardens-paddington> (Accessed: 21 February 2013) Figure 2.99 : Pedestrian walkway crisscross the internal courtyard Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). Farrells create five new buildings at North Wharf gardens for the final phase their Paddington basin master plan. [image online] Available at: <http://www.terryfarrell.co.uk/ data/projects/0114/project_0114.pdf> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.100 : Double volume Retail Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). North Wharf gardens. [image online] Available at: <http://www. terryfarrell.co.uk/#/project/0114/> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.101 : Vibrant activity on ground floor with fully equipped amenities Terry Farrell and Partners. (2013). North Wharf gardens. [image online] Available at: <http://www.terryfarrell.co.uk/#/project/0114/> (Accessed: 22 February 2013) Figure 2.102 : Building orientation purposely designed to provide as much sunlight into the building Richard Rogers Partnership (2012). Paddington basin masterplan. [image online] Available at: <http://www.richardrogers.co.uk/work/all_projects/paddington_basin_ masterplan> (Accessed: 22 February 2013)

Figure 4.7: Combination of both to create more connectivity while relating to the sunpath, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.9: High rise with abundant open space, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.9: High rise with low distance between building to building, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.10: As the building go higher at the centre the street becomes wider, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.11: Palmanova, Italy (1593), [image online] Available at: <http://www.aasarchitecture.com/2012/11/Free-City-Fernando-Romero. html>(Accessed: 26 February 2013) Figure 4.12: Hamia, Finland (1723), [image online] Available at: <http://www.aasarchitecture.com/2012/11/Free-City-Fernando-Romero. html>(Accessed: 26 February 2013) Figure 4.13: Al-Kufrah, Libya (1980s),[image online] Available at: <http://www.aasarchitecture.com/2012/11/Free-City-Fernando-Romero. html>(Accessed: 26 February 2013) Figure 4.14: Main Street, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.15: Secondary Street, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.16: Green Corridor, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.17: High Intensification towards centre, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.18: Public transport friendly route-Introduce private rapid transport, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.19: Mix used around city, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

83


6. REFERENCES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont.) Figure 4.20: Plan view of 200ppha, Authors own. (2013) (Image) Figure 4.21: District Master Plan, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.52: Perimeter Mix Used Block, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.22: Built and Open space, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.53: 8 House, [Image online] Available at: < http://condobox.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/innovative-design-in-architecture-8.html > (Accessed: 11 February 2013)

Figure 4.23: Mix uses, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.54: Perimeter Residential Block, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.24: Connectivity, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.55: Villa Chartas, [Image online] Available at: <http://www.maparchitecture.com/2009flash/index.html > (Accessed: 12 February 2013)

Figure 4.25: Built Form, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.26: Vibrant Lifestyle, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.54: Primary School, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.27: Neighbourhood Siteplan, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.55: Birmingham School Framework, [Image online] Available at: < http://www.styleofdesign.com/architecture/birminghamschools-framework-haworth-tompkins/ > (Accessed: 12 February 2013)

Figure 4.28: Curitaba Green corridor, [Image online] Available at: < http://thecityfix.com/blog/keepin-up-with-curitiba/ >(Accessed: 25 February 2013)

Figure 4.56: Plan view of 800ppha, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.29: Kossuth Square by SAGRA Architects, [Image online] Available at: < http://www10.aeccafe.com/blogs/arch-showcase/2011/11/05/ kossuth-square-in-budapest-hungary-by-sagra-architects/02_kossuth_sagra/>(Accessed: 25 February 2013)

Figure 4.58: Built and Open space, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.30: Levinson Plaza, Mission Park by Mikyoung Kim Design, [Image online] Available at: < http://www.archdaily.com/174300/levinsonplaza-mission-park-mikyoung-kim-design/mykd-mission-park-2//>(Accessed: 25 February 2013) Figure 4.31: Terrace Houses, Authors own. (2013) (Image) Figure 4.32: Razgledi Perovo Housing, [Image online] Available at: < http://xaxor.com/design/33732-dekleva-gregori-arhitekti-razgledi-perovohousing-.html>(Accessed: 25 February 2013)

Figure 4.57: District Master Plan, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.59: Mix uses, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.60: Connectivity, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.61: Built Form, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.62: Vibrant Lifestyle, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.33: Town houses, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.63: Neighbourhood Siteplan, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.34: Iroko Housing, Coin Street, Howorth Tompkins, [Image online] Available at: < http://www.haworthtompkins.com/built/proj22/index. html>(Accessed: 25 February 2013)

Figure 4.64: Public transport- Curitaba Public Transport system, [Image online] Available at: < http://taiwansustainablecities.blogspot. co.uk/2010/10/bus-rapid-transit-in-taichung.html > (Accessed: 24 February 2013)

Figure 4.35: Primary School, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.65: Private rapid transit- Movement in European city proposed by BIG architect, [Image online] Available at: < http://www.big. dk/#projects-bla > (Accessed: 24 February 2013)

Figure 4.36: French-Mexican School by Alberto Kalach, [Image online] Available at: <http://www.archdaily.com/271955/french-mexican-schoolalberto-kalach/504ac57628ba0d536d000008_liceo-franco-mexicano-alberto-kalach_primaria3-jpg/ >(Accessed: 25 February 2013) Figure 4.37: Community Centre, Authors own. (2013) (Image) Figure 4.38: S천meru Community Centre by Salto AB, [Image online] Available at: <http://www.archdaily.com/81021/someru-community-centresalto-ab/img_5237-2/ >(Accessed: 25 February 2013) Figure 4.39: Plan view of 500ppha, Authors own. (2013) (Image) Figure 4.40: District Master Plan, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.66: Pedestrian and cyclist friendly street- Movement in European city proposed by BIG architect, [Image online] Available at: < http://www.big.dk/#projects-bla > (Accessed: 25 February 2013) Figure 4.67: Perimeter Mix Used Block, Authors own. (2013) (Image) Figure 4.68: New Domino, [Image online] Available at: <http://urbantoronto.ca/forum/showthread.php/11065-The-New-DominoBrooklyn-New-York-United-States-(Rafael-Vinoly-Architects-PC) > (Accessed: 25 February 2013) Figure 4.69: Perimeter Mix Used Block & High Rise, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.41: Built and Open space, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.70: Villa Marina, [Image online] Available at: <http://www.dienerproperties.com/7000-building-williams-island.htm > (Accessed: 25 February 2013)

Figure 4.42: Mix uses, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.71: Perimeter Mix Used Block & High Rise , Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.43: Connectivity, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.72 KL Pavillion, [Image online] Available at: <http://www.asia-incoming.com/main.htm > (Accessed: 25 February 2013) Figure 4.73: Perimeter Mix Used Block, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.44: Built Form, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram) Figure 4.45: Vibrant Lifestyle, Authors own. (2013) (Diagram)

Figure 4.74: Darling Associates., 2010 Shepherds Place [Image online] Available at: < http://www.darlingassociates.net/projects/ residential/shepherds-place-w1> (Accessed: 25 February 2013)

Figure 4.46: Neighbourhood Siteplan, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.75: Tower Block & Recreational building, Authors own. (2013) (Image)

Figure 4.47: Rooftop Recreation Centre- Sport and community centre in Norbredd by BIG architect, [Image online] Available at: < http://www. big.dk/#projects-bla >(Accessed: 25 February 2013)

Figure 4.76 Mong Kok Highrise, [Image online] Available at: http://www.woophy.com/photo/8827 > (Accessed: 25 February 2013)

Figure 4.48: Lower level at certain angle to invite sunlight-8 house by BIG architect, [Image online] Available at: < http://www.big.dk/#projectsbla >(Accessed: 25 February 2013) Figure 4.49: Triangular form Religious Building- Triangular Form Albania Mosque by BIG architect, [Image online] Available at: < http://www. big.dk/#projects-bla >(Accessed: 25 February 2013) Figure 4.50: Perimeter Mix Used Block, Authors own. (2013) (Image) Figure 4.51: North Wharf London, [Image online] Available at: <http://greaterlondonpublishing.co.uk/2011/08/nppf-increases-flexible-options/ north-wharf-gardens-2-2/ > (Accessed: 12 February 2013) 84

Figure 4.77: Primary School, Authors own. (2013) (Image) Figure 4.78 Bioclamatic European School, [Image online] Available at: <http://www.archdaily.com/317064/innovative-bioclimaticeuropean-school-third-prize-winning-proposal-atelier3am/ > (Accessed: 26 February 2013) Figure 4.79: Secondary School, Authors own. (2013) (Image) Figure 4.79 Bioclamatic European School, [Image online] Available at: <http://www.archdaily.com/317064/innovative-bioclimaticeuropean-school-third-prize-winning-proposal-atelier3am/ > (Accessed: 26 February 2013)


REFLECTIVE SUMMARY INTENSIFICATION vs ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITIES In order to successfully achieve this issue, we believe it would require a more detailed architectural solution to fully explore an informed proposal. This could involve the inclusion of innovative technology, which could have been implemented to ensure any concept put forward was a sustainable one. Although a wide range of uses had been accounted for, any true success could only be measured when generic models are applied to a designated site and if designed sympathetically, should be able to adapt to any given local context with the minimum of alterations. We have collectively learnt the level of complexity that is involved in designing for high densities whilst also looking to maintain the relevant spatial and amenities standards. As proved when comparing the three models put forward, a compromise had to be reached on the provision of open space, be it public or private, as the built form began to dominate even more as the land became more intensified. However, given the overall timeframe we feel that we have provided a good urban design basis on which to develop, together with considered research, on which to build upon, given the opportunity. But it also must be noted that there are also many other factors (non-design related) which determine the success of an urban model, such as economic or management issues, which have to be taken into consideration. But given the very few planned precedents available to research highlights how difficult it is to design for this level of density. We can certainly take a lot from this module going forward in our other architectural modules whereby to ensure that any concept we design, particularly at a large scale, should also look to respond at an urban scale as well.

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Urban Design Issues