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World Architecture Masters

4/ 2007/ 004 - EURO 5, 00 Bulgaria Only

ISSN 1313-177X

MANFREDI NICOLETTI


World Architecture Masters - Manfredi Nikoletti

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EUROMED CENTER, MARSEILLE


Àêàäåìè÷åí ñúâåò Àêàäåìèöè íà MAA ïðîô. Ïèåð Àíäðå Äþôåòåë - Ôðàíöèÿ ïðîô. ßí Õóãñòàä - Õîëàíäèÿ ïðîô. Êèîíîðè Êèêóòàêå - ßïîíèÿ ïðîô. Ìàíôðåäè Íèêîëåòè - Èòàëèÿ ïðîô. Þðèé Ïëàòîíîâ - Ðóñèÿ ïðîô. Áðàéúí Ñïåíñúð - ÑÀÙ ïðîô. Ãåîðãè Ñòîèëîâ - Áúëãàðèÿ

Experts council IAA Academician prof. Pierre Andre Dufetel - France prof. Jan Hoogstad - The Netherlands prof. Kiyonori Kikutake - Japan prof. Manfredi Nicoletti - Italy prof. Juri Platonov - Russia prof. Brian Spencer - USA prof. Georgi Stoilov - Bulgaria

Ãëàâåí ðåäàêòîð ïðîô. Ãåîðãè Ñòîèëîâ, àêàäåìèê íà ÌÀÀ

Editor-in-chief prof. Georgi Stoilov, IAA Academician

Óïðàâèòåë Íàòàëèÿ Áîíäàðåíêî

General manager Natalia Bondarenko

Îòãîâîðåí ðåäàêòîð NEWS àðõ. Ãåîðãè Ñòàíèøåâ

Editor-in-chief NEWS arch. Georgi Stanishev

Ðåäàêöèîííà êîëåãèÿ Êðàñèìèðà ßâàøåâà Íèêîëèíà Ñòîéêîâà

Editors team Krassimira Yavasheva Nikolina Stoykova

Îòãîâîðåí ðåäàêòîð NEWS - çà Èòàëèÿ àðõ. Àëôðåäî Êàìàðà

Editor-in-chief NEWS - Italy arch. Alfredo Kammara

Ìåíèäæúð ïðåäïå÷àòíà ïîäãîòîâêà Ïåòúð ×óïåòëîâñêè

Pre-print manager Peter Chupetlovsky

Ãðàôè÷åí äèçàéíåð Åëåîíîðà Ãåîðãèåâà

Graphic designer Eleonora Georgieva

Ïðåäïå÷àòíà ïîäãîòîâêà Ìàÿ Ãåðàñèìîâà Ëèëèÿ Êàðàêîëåâà Èíà Êàìáàðåâà

Pre-print preparation Maya Gerasimova Liliya Karakoleva Ina Kambareva

Êîîðäèíàòîð ìàðêåòèíã è ðåêëàìà Ñèÿíà ×àëúêîâà

Marketing and advertisement coordinator Siana Chalakova

Ðåêëàìåí åêèï: Äèàíà Ñòîÿíîâà Âàíÿ Åôðåìîâà Âàëåðèÿ Òîäîðîâà Åìèëèàí Ìèëêîâ Ëóèçà Äàìÿíîâà Íàäåæäà Ãóðåâà

Advertising Team: Diana Stoyanova Vania Efremova Valeria Todorova Emilian Milkov Luiza Damqnova Nadezhda Gureva

Ïðåâîäà÷ Þëèàíà Áîí÷åâà

Translator Juliana Boncheva

îôèñ Ïëîâäèâ Äàíèåëà Àðíàóäîâà Âàëåíòèíà Âàíãåëîâà

offis Plovdiv Daniela Arnaudova Valentina Vangelova

Êîðåêòîð Ìàðèÿ Òîäîðîâà

Proof-reader Maria Todorova

Ðàçïðîñòðàíåíèå Åâãåíèÿ Éîðäàíîâà

Distribution Evguenya Yordanova

Èçäàòåëè: Ìåæäóíàðîäíà Àêàäåìèÿ çà Àðõèòåêòóðà Àðõ ìåäèÿ ÎÎÄ

Publishers: International Academy of Architecture Arhc Media Ltd.

Ðåäàêöèÿ: Ñîôèÿ 1407 óë. “Ãîëî áúðäî” ¹ 22 Óïðàâèòåë: 02/868 81 83 Ðåäàêòîðè: 02/868 83 50 Ðåêëàìåí ìåíèäæúð: 02/868 77 91 Ðåêëàìíè àãåíòè: 02/ 868 75 67, 868 75 53 Ïðåäïå÷àò: 02/868 78 47 Ðåãèîíàëåí îôèñ: Ïëîâäèâ 4000 óë. “Êíÿç Áîãîðèäè” ¹ 8 òåë./ôàêñ: 032/63 32 16 Îôèñ Èòàëèÿ - Òîðèíî 10128 óë. Âèêòîð Åìàíóåë II ¹ 63 òåë.: +39011 54 21 41 òåë./ ôàêñ: +39011 54 62 37 arch.cam@libero.it

Îffice: Sofia 1407 22 “Golo bardo” Str. General manager: +359 2 868 81 83 Editors: +359 2 868 83 50 Advertising manager: Ìàòåðèàëè è èëþñòðàöèè îò WAM ìîãàò äà ñå èçïîëçâàò ñàìî ñ ðàçðåøåíèå íà ðåäàêöèÿòà. +359 2 868 77 91 Materals and illustrations of WAM can be used only with permission of the editor's office. Advertising Team: +359 2 868 75 67, 868 75 53 Pre-print: +359 2 868 78 47 Local office Plovdiv 4000 8 “Kniaz Bogoridi” Str. tel./fax: +359 32 63 32 16 Italy office - Torino 10128 Victtorio Emanuelle II Str. ¹ 63 tel.: +39011 54 21 41 tel./ fax: +39011 54 62 37 arch.cam@libero.it

The editors of the magazine World Architecture Masters would like to thank Arch. Manfredi Nikoletti for his amiability submitting materials from her private archive at ours disposal for the fourth issue of WAM. Ñïèñàíèå World Architecture Masters áëàãîäàðè íà àðõ. Ìàíôðåäè Íèêîëåòè çà ëþáåçíî ïðåäîñòàâåíèòå ìàòåðèàëè îò ëè÷íèÿ ìó àðõèâ çà ÷åòâúðòè áðîé íà WAM.


MANFREDI NICOLETTI

CONTENTS

State Auditorium - Astana The Nigeria National Complex - Abuja The New Art Museum - Warsaw Sport Palace - Palermo The New hall Of justice - Arezzo Carabinieri Headqarters - Rieti New Hall Of justice - Reggio Calabria Scentific Greenhouse For Tropical Butterflies - Catania University Milennium Park - Abudja, Nigeria Traffic Interchanges And Underpass systems The Helicodial Skyscraper The Hall Of justice in Campobasso The piazza Dei Navigatori Civic Centre - Rome Rieti Astronomic Garden And Gnomon Of Time Hall Of 12 Columns Cardiff Bay Opera House University Toun - Udine Extension Of The Prado Museum, Madrid Museum Of Natural History- Rouen The Tower Of Calabria - Catanzaro Italy Convention Centre - EUR, Rome The Romanina Satellite Urban Centre, Rome The New Cemetry at Vazia - Rieti New Hall Of Justice - Siena The Romanina Satellite Urban Centre, Rome

10 16 24 26 30 40 42 52 56 58 62 64 66 68 70 72 76 82 84 88 90 92 94 98 99


World Architecture Masters - Manfredi Nikoletti

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20 ãîäèíè Ìåæäóíàðîäíà àêàäåìèÿ íà àðõèòåêòóðàòà

20 years International academy of Architecture

Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ íà àðõèòåêòóðàòà (ÌÀÀ) íàâúðøè 20 ãîäèíè. Çà òîçè ïåðèîä ñâåòúò, â êîéòî æèâååì, èçâúðøè øåìåòíî ðàçâèòèå âúâ âñè÷êè ñôåðè: íàóêà è òåõíîëîãèè, ïîëèòè÷åñêà ñòðóêòóðà, äåìîãðàôèÿ, èêîíîìèêà è äð.

The International Academy of Architecture has its 20th anniversary. For this period the world in which we live has achieved great developments in any aspect: science, technology, politics, demography, economics etc. IAA was born in a moment when the aureole of the fathers of the modern architecture, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Gropius, Mies Van der Rohe enlightened the whole planet with their great insights. Unfortunately they were not between us anymore and couldn’t create their immortal architecture examples. In that moment the Earth was flooded with non-spiritual imitations of epigone. The bitter reaction came from the inheritors of CIAM in the face of “Team ten” who invested lots of energy to continue the creative flame, but not for so long. New eclectic messiahs appeared on the architecture scene with programmed hostility towards the work of the pioneers. The ideas, the criterions, the values disappeared. There was the necessity of new international structure and it was – IAA International Academy of Architecture. In the new organization took part “Team Ten” and their fellows: Georges Candilis, Sir Denis Lasdan, Aldo Van Ayck, Oscar Niemeyer, Kenzo Tange, Bruno Zevi, Felix Candela, Luis Barragan, Karl Objork, Pedro Ramirez Vazquez, Gunter Behnisch, Aymeric Zublena, Gottfried Bohm, Michael Posohin, Ralph Erskine, Paul Rudolf, Reima Pietila, Harry Seidler, Kiyonori Kikutake and others. Later the most talented from the young generation were chosen to join IAA: Richard Mayer, Norman Foster, Richard Rogers, Ricardo Legorreta, Massimiliano Fuksas, Jorn Utzon, Daniel Libeskind, Teodoro de Leon, Jan Hoogstad, Paul Andreu, Renzo Piano, Santiago Calatrava, Frank Gehri, Jean Nouvel, Manfredi Nicoletti, Toyo Ito, Mario Bota, Zaha Hadid and others. The academy attentively and responsibly observes the pulse of the world architecture. Today under any avant-garde project is written the name of a member of IAA. These are the masters, who bring in their soul the flame of the eternal architecture creativity. The membership in IAA is a sign for the highest architecture level. The academy organizes the world biennale (triennale) Interarch, exhibitions, conferences, contests, researches, workshops for the young, gives annual prizes to laureates and the “Grand pries - Crystal Globe” to the members for complete architecture work. For the active work of the academy in the stimulating the world architecture, the theory and the architecture education received from UN the special status in ECOSCO-UN. The academy feels the deep changes in the social psychology and looks towards the new spiritual values of the architecture, fighting against the dogmas of the organic and pluralistic architecture, the architecture of the holistic way of thinking. To these cause serves also the journal of IAA - WAM.

MÀÀ áåøå ñúçäàäåíà â ìîìåíò, êîãàòî îðåîëúò íà áàùèòå íà ìîäåðíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà - Ôðàíê Ëîéä Ðàéò, Êîðáþçèå, Ãðîïèóñ, Ìèñ âàí äåð Ðîå, îçàðÿâàøå öÿëàòà ïëàíåòà ñ òåõíèòå ãåíèàëíè ïðîçðåíèÿ, íî òå âå÷å íè áÿõà íàïóñíàëè è íå ñúçäàâàõà ïîâå÷å ñâîèòå áåçñìúðòíè àðõèòåêòóðíè îáðàçöè.  òàçè ñèòóàöèÿ ïëàíåòàòà áåøå çàëÿòà îò áåçäóõîâíè ïîäðàæàíèÿ íà åïèãîíñòâîòî. Ïîñëåäâà îñòðàòà ðåàêöèÿ íà íàñëåäíèöèòå íà CIAM â ëèöåòî íà “Team Ten”, êîèòî âëîæèõà ìíîãî åíåðãèÿ çà ïðîäúëæàâàíå íà òâîð÷åñêèÿ ïëàìúê, íî íå çàäúëãî. Íîâè åêëåêòè÷íè ìåñèè ñå ïîÿâèõà íà àðõèòåêòóðíàòà ñöåíà ñ ïðîãðàìíà âðàæäåáíîñò êúì äåëîòî íà ïèîíåðèòå. Èçãóáåíè áÿõà èäåèòå, êðèòåðèèòå è öåííîñòèòå. Íåîáõîäèìà áåøå íîâà ìåæäóíàðîäíà ñòðóêòóðà è òÿ ñå ðîäè Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ íà àðõèòåêòóðàòà.  íîâàòà ñâåòîâíà îðãàíèçàöèÿ âëÿçîõà ÷ëåíîâåòå íà “Team Ten” è òåõíèòå ñúìèøëåíèöè: Æîðæ Êàíäèëèñ, ñúð Äåíèñ Ëàñäúí, Àëäî âàí Àéê, Îñêàð Íèìàåð, Êåíçî Òàíãå, Áðóíî Äçåâè, Ôåëèêñ Êàíäåëà, Ëóèñ Áàðàãàí, Êàðë Îáüîðê, Ïåäðî Ðàìèðåñ Âàñêåñ, Ãóíòåð Áåíèñ, Àéìåðèê Çóáëåíà, Ãîäôðèä Áèîì, Ìèõàèë Ïîñîõèí, Ðàëô Úðñêèí, Ïîë Ðóäîëô, Ðåéìà Ïèåòèëà, Õàðè Çàéäëåð, Êèîíîðè Êèêóòàêå è äð. Ïî-êúñíî çà ÷ëåíîâå íà Àêàäåìèÿòà áÿõà èçáðàíè íàé-òàëàíòëèâèòå îò íîâîòî ïîêîëåíèå: Ðè÷àðä Ìàéåð, Íîðìàí Ôîñòåð, Ðè÷àðä Ðîäæåðñ, Ðèêàðäî Ëåãîðåòà, Ìàêñèìèëèàíî Ôóêñàñ, Éîðí Óòçîí, Äàíèåë Ëèáåñêèíä, Òåîäîðî äå Ëåîí, ßí Õîãñòàò, Ðè÷àðä Èíãëàíä, Åâãåíèé Ðîçàíîâ, Ñåçàð Ïåëëè, Ôðàé Îòòî, Ïîë Àíäðþ, Ðåíöî Ïèàíî, Ñàíòèàãî Êàëàòðàâà, Ôðàíê Ãåðè, Æàí Íóâåë, Ìàíôðåäè Íèêîëåòè, Òîéî Èòî, Ìàðèî Áîòà, Çàõà Õàäèä äð. Àêàäåìèÿòà âíèìàòåëíî è îòãîâîðíî ñëåäè ïóëñà íà ñâåòîâíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà. Äíåñ ïîä âñåêè àâàíãàðäåí ïðîåêò íà ñâåòîâíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà ñòîè èìåòî íà ÷ëåí íà ÌÀÀ. Òîâà ñà òâîðöèòå, êîèòî íîñÿò â äóøàòà ñè îãúíÿ íà âå÷íî æèâîòî àðõèòåêòóðíî òâîð÷åñòâî. ×ëåíñòâîòî â ÌÀÀ å áåëåã íà íàé-âèñîêî àðõèòåêòóðíî íèâî. Àêàäåìèÿòà ïðîâåæäà ñâåòîâíîòî áèåíàëå (òðèåíàëå) ÈÍÒÅÐÀÐÕ, èçëîæáè, êîíôåðåíöèè, êîíêóðñè, ïðîâåæäà åêñïåðòèçè, workshops çà ìëàäèòå, îòëè÷àâà ëàóðåàòè ñ ãîäèøíàòà íàãðàäà íà ÌÀÀ è ñ “Ãðàí ïðè - Êðèñòàëåí ãëîáóñ” ñâîè ÷ëåíîâå çà öÿëîñòíîòî èì àðõèòåêòóðíî òâîð÷åñòâî. Àêàäåìèÿòà çà ñâîÿòà àêòèâíà äåéíîñò ïî ñòèìóëèðàíå íà ðàçâèòèåòî íà ñâåòîâíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà, òåîðèÿòà è àðõèòåêòóðíîòî îáðàçîâàíèå ïîëó÷è âèñîêîòî ïðèçíàíèå íà ÎÎÍ, êàòî é áåøå äàäåí ñïåöèàëåí ñòàòóò êúì ECOSOC -UN. Àêàäåìèÿòà óñåùà äúëáîêèòå ïðîìåíè â ïñèõîëîãèÿòà íà îáùåñòâîòî è ãëåäà êúì íîâèòå äóõîâíè öåííîñòè íà àðõèòåêòóðàòà, êàòî ñå áîðè ñðåùó äîãìàòèçìà çà åäíà îðãàíè÷íà è ïëóðàëèñòè÷íà àðõèòåêòóðà, àðõèòåêòóðà íà õîëèñòè÷íîòî ìèñëåíå. Íà òàçè êàóçà ñëóæè è æóðíàëúò íà ÌÀÀ - WAM.

Georgi Stoilov, President of IAA

Ãåîðãè Ñòîèëîâ, Ïðåçèäåíò íà ÌÀÀ


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Manfredi Nicoletti STUDIO NICOLETTI ASSOCIATI - via di San Simone 75, 00186 Rome, Italy.

Manfredi Nicoletti started his practice in 1957. In 2004 Giulia Falconi and Luca Nicoletti joined his office as partners of Studio Nicolettti Associati. The Studio practice’s expanded through all major aspects of urban and building design in Italy, Europe, Africa, USA, Middle and Far East. Among the many 1st Prize International Competitions awards received, built and on the process of being built: the Astana State Auditorium for 3500 seats (50.000 sqm), Kazakhstan; the Nigeria National Complex in Abuja, including the Museum of Nigeria, the Cultural Center, the Tower of Nigeria, the City Hall (170.000 sqm); the New Acropolis Museum, Athens; the Abuja Nigeria 32 ha Millennium Park, opened by Queen Elizabeth on 4/12/2003; the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt; the New Hall of Justice, Arezzo; the Venice Tronchetto Vehicular Terminal; the Palace of Justice, Reggio Calabria (70.000 sqm); the Palermo Sport Palace; the New Palace of Justice of Rome (65.000 sqm); the New Halls of Justice of Lecce and Campobasso; the University City of Udine (120.000 sqm); the Agrigento Main General Hospital; the Tropical Butterfly Greenhouse for the University of Catania; the Piazza dei Navigatori Civic Center in Rome; the MoWa Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw, Poland; the Museum of Natural History, Rouen. Philosophy Manfredi Nicoletti is a pioneer in Megastructurals and in Bioclimatic Urban and Architectural Design; Expert in Architectural Ecology for the Italian Government and the European Community, member of the Italian Institute of Bioclimatic Architecture (ENEA), of Eurosolar, of PLEA (Passive and Low Energy Association). Nicoletti received the International Award of WREN (World Renewable Energy Network). He is the founder of the course “Ecosystemic Architecture” at Rome University. His most innovative structures derive from the study of nature. Nicoletti published internationally also various essays about architectural criticism and the urban ecosystem. His book “The Architecture of Caves”, searching for the rooths of architectural language, received the First International Prize by the CICA, Comité International des Critique d’Architecture. Leading architect Manfredi Nicoletti graduated at Rome University “La Sapienza”, Master in Architecture at the M.I.T, Massachusetts Institute of Technology – USA, PhD in Urban Design at Rome University “La Sapienza”. After intense collaboration with Walter Gropius, Minorou Yamasaki and P.L. Nervi, Nicoletti opened his office in Rome. Visiting Professor at the Rhode Island School of Design USA; Lecturer at the M.I.T. School of Architecture, Mass, USA. Full Professor with tenure at Rome University “La Sapienza”; Vice President of the International Academy of Architecture; Member of the Russian Academy, of the Moscow International Academy and of the Academie de France d’Architecture. Awards From the French Government Manfredi Nicoletti received the title of “Officier de l’Ordre des Arts et Lettres”. Gold Medal from the Architectural Association of Rome (2001); Great Prize Viterbo San Valentino for architectural quality; Sabino d’Oro Career Prize Rieti Municipality; Vaccarini Career Prize, Pedara Municipality; New Church design, National Award (Cei Vatican city). Provincial Headquarters Savona, first prize award; Rome Cultural Center, Castro Pretorio, first prize award; Rome National Library, second

prize award; Rehabilitation of Tunis historic center, international competition, honor mention; Monument to the italian Unit, Cosenza, national competition, firs t prize; Vehicular and Maritime Terminal Tronchetto island Venice, first prize; Messina Straits bridge, international competition, first prize; Reggio Calabria sea front, national competition, first prize; Areonautical Institute Forlì, national competition, second prize; Villamura Turist center Portugal, international competion, honor mention; Air stations of Catania, Trapani, Lampedusa and Pantelleria, national competition, first prize; New Teaching Hospital, Palermo, national competition, first prize; New Central Station, Bologna, national competition, second prize; Agrigento General Hospital, national competition, first prize; the New Bobliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt, international competition, second prize; the New Acropolis Museum, Athens, international competition, first prize; Rehabilitation of Ile Seguin and Bas Meudon, Paris, international competition, first prize; Spreebogen urban design, international competition, honor mention; Siena new hall of justice, european competition, honor mention; the Tower of Calabria, european competion, second prize; a Children Tale on the City, national competition, first prize; the Urban Ecosystem, Della Rocca Foundation, first prize; Catania Scientific Greenhouse, european competition, first prize, Gold quadrangle Award; New hall of justice, Campobasso, european competition, first prize; Udine University City, european competition, first prize, Inarch annual national award; Astana State auditorium, international competition, first prize; Piazza dei Navigatori civic center, international competition, first prize; New Hall of justice, Arezzo, european competition, first prize, IAA international award; Museum of modern art, Warsaw, international competition, honor mention; New hall of justice, Reggio Calabria, european competition, first prize, Wren annual interational award; Sport Palace, Palermo, Dedalo Minosse international award; Museum of natural History, Rouen, international competition, honor mention; Prado Museum extension, inetrnational competition, honor mention; Cardiff bay opera house, inetrnational competition, first phase winner, Carabinieri headquarters, Rieti, Carrara international award.


World Architecture Masters - Manfredi Nikoletti

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Ñòóäèî Íèêîëåòè Àñî÷èàòè Óë.” Ñàí Ñèìîíå” 75, 00186 Ðèì, Èòàëèÿ

Èñòîðèÿ íà îôèñà Ìàíôðåäè Íèêîëåòè çàïî÷âà ñâîÿòà ïðàêòèêà ïðåç 1957 ã. Ïðåç 2004 ã. Äæóëèÿ Ôàëêîíè è Ëóêà Íèêîëåòè ñå ïðèñúåäèíÿâàò êàòî ïàðòíüîðè íà ”Ñòóäèî Íèêîëåòè Àñî÷èàòè”. Ïðàêòèêàòà íà ñòóäèîòî ñå ðàçøèðÿâà â îáëàñòòà íà ãðàäñêèÿ è ñòðîèòåëåí äèçàéí â Èòàëèÿ, Åâðîïà, Àôðèêà, Ñúåäèíåíèòå ùàòè, Ñðåäåí è Äàëå÷åí èçòîê. Ñðåä ñïå÷åëåíèòå ïúðâè íàãðàäè íà ìåæäóíàðîäíè êîíêóðñè çà ïîñòðîåíè è â ïðîöåñ íà èçãðàæäàíå ñãðàäè ñà: äúðæàâíàòà çàëà â Àñòàíà, Êàçàõñòàí (3500 ìåñòà , ïëîù 50 000 êâ. ì); íàöèîíàëíèÿò êîìïëåêñ â Àáóäæà, âêëþ÷âàù ìóçåÿ íà Íèãåðèÿ, êóëòóðíèÿ öåíòúð, êóëàòà íà Íèãåðèÿ è ãðàäñêàòà çàëà (170 000 êâ. ì); íîâèÿò ìóçåé êúì Àêðîïîëà, Àòèíà; õèëÿäîëåòíèÿò ïàðê â Àáóäæà, Íèãåðèÿ îòêðèò îò êðàëèöà Åëèçàáåò II íà 4.12.2003 ã.; Àëåêñàíäðèéñêàòà áèáëèîòåêà, Àëåêñàíäðèíà, Åãèïåò; íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà â Àðåöî, Âåíåöèàíñêèÿò òðàíñïîðòåí òåðìèíàë; ïàëàòàòà íà ïðàâîñúäèåòî â Ðåäæî Êàëàáðèÿ ( 70 000 êâ.ì); ñïîðòíèÿò äâîðåö â Ïàëåðìî; íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà â Ðèì ( 65 000 êâ.ì); íîâèòå ñúäåáíè ïàëàòè â Ëå÷å è Êàìïîáàñî; óíèâåðñèòåòñêèÿò ãðàä â Óäèíå (120 000 êâ.ì); ãëàâíàòà áîëíèöà â Àãðèäæåíòî; òðîïè÷åñêàòà çèìíà ãðàäèíà çà ïåïåðóäè êúì óíèâåðñèòåòà â Êàòàíèÿ; ”Ïèàöà äåé íàâèãàòîðè”- àäìèíèñòðàòèâíèÿò öåíòúð íà Ðèì; ìóçåÿò çà ñúâðåìåííî èçêóñòâî MoWa, Âàðøàâà, Ïîëøà; ìóçåÿò çà åñòåñòâåíè íàóêè, Ðóàí. Ôèëîñîôèÿ Ìàíôðåäè Íèêîëåòè å ïèîíåð â èçãðàæäàíåòî íà ìåãàñãðàäè è áèîêëèìàòè÷åí ãðàäñêè è àðõèòåêòóðåí äèçàéí, åêñïåðò ïî àðõèòåêòóðíà åêîëîãèÿ êúì èòàëèàíñêîòî ïðàâèòåëñòâî è ÅÎ, ÷ëåí íà Èòàëèàíñêèÿ èíñòèòóò ïî áèîêëèìàòè÷íà àðõèòåêòóðà íà Åâðîñîëàð è íà Àñîöèàöèÿòà çà ïàñèâíà è íèñêà åíåðãèÿ. Íèêîëåòè ïîëó÷àâà ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà íàãðàäà íà WREN (Ìðåæà çà ñâåòîâíî âúçñòàíîâÿâàíå íà åíåðãèÿòà). Òîé å îñíîâàòåëÿò íà êóðñà ”Åêîñèñòåìíà àðõèòåêòóðà” â óíèâåðñèòåòà â Ðèì. Íåãîâèòå íàé-èíîâàöèîííè ñãðàäè ñà ïðîäóêò íà èçó÷àâàíå íà ïðèðîäàòà. Íèêîëåòè å àâòîð íà ìíîæåñòâî ïóáëèêàöèè. Íåãîâàòà êíèãà ”Àðõèòåêòóðà íà ïåùåðèòå”, ðàçãëåæäàùà êîðåíèòå íà àðõèòåêòóðíèÿ åçèê, å ïîëó÷èëà ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà Ìåæäóíàðîäíèÿ êîìèòåò ïî àðõèòåêòóðíà êðèòèêà. Âîäåù àðõèòåêò Ìàíôðåäè Íèêîëåòè å çàâúðøèë óíèâåðñèòåòà â Ðèì ”Ëà Ñàïèåíöà”, ìàãèñòúð ïî àðõèòåêòóðà â èíñòèòóòà ïî òåõíîëîãèè â Ìàñà÷óçåòñ, ÑÀÙ, äîêòîð ïî ãðàäñêè äèçàéí â óíèâåðñèòåòà â Ðèì ”Ëà Ñàïèåíöà”. Ñëåä äúëãî ñúòðóäíè÷åñòâî ñ Óîëòúð Ãðîïèóñ, Ìèíîðó ßìàñàêè è Ï.Ë. Íåðâè, Íèêîëåòè îòêðèâà ñâîÿ îôèñ â Ðèì. Òîé å ëåêòîð â ó÷èëèùåòî ïî äèçàéí â Ðîóä Àéëúíä è â ó÷èëèùåòî ïî àðõèòåêòóðà êúì èíñòèòóòà ïî òåõíîëîãèè â Ìàñà÷óçåòñ, ÑÀÙ, ïðîôåñîð êúì óíèâåðñèòåòà â Ðèì ”Ëà Ñàïèåíöà”; âèöåïðåçèäåíò íà Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà, ÷ëåí íà Ðóñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ, íà Ìîñêîâñêàòà ìåæäóíàðîäíà àêàäåìèÿ è íà Àêàäåìèÿòà ïî àðõèòåêòóðà âúâ Ôðàíöèÿ. Íàãðàäè Ìàíôðåäè Íèêîëåòè ïîëó÷àâà òèòëàòà ”Îôèöåð íà îðäåíà íà èçêóñòâîòî è áóêâèòå“ îò ôðåíñêîòî ïðàâèòåëñòâî, çëàòåí ìåäàë îò

Àðõèòåêòóðíàòà àñîöèàöèÿ â Ðèì ïðåç 2001 ã.; ãîëÿìàòà íàãðàäà ”Âèòåðáî Ñàí Âàëåíòèíî” çà àðõèòåêòóðíî êà÷åñòâî; íàãðàäàòà íà îáùèíà Ðèåòè çà ðàçâèòèå íà êàðèåðàòà ”Ñàáèíî ä’Îðî”; íàãðàäàòà ”Âàêàðèíè” íà îáùèíà Ïåäàðà, íàöèîíàëíàòà íàãðàäà ”Íîâ öúðêîâåí äèçàéí”. Íîñèòåë å íà ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà ïðîâèíöèÿ Ñàâîíà, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà ðèìñêèÿ êóëòóðåí öåíòúð ”Êàñòðî Ïðåòîðèî”, âòîðà íàãðàäà íà Ðèìñêàòà íàöèîíàëíà áèáëèîòåêà, ïîõâàëà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà ðåñòàâðàöèÿ íà èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ öåíòúð íà Òóíèñ, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà íàöèîíàëåí êîíêóðñ ”Ìîíóìåíò íà èòàëèàíñêèÿ ñúþç” â Êîçåíöà, ïúðâà íàãðàäà çà Âåíåöèàíñêèÿ òðàíñïîðòåí òåðìèíàë, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà ìîñò íàä ïðîëèâà â Ìåñèíà, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà íàöèîíàëåí êîíêóðñ çà ìîðñêèÿ áðÿã â Ðåäæî Êàëàáðèÿ, âòîðà íàãðàäà íà íàöèîíàëåí êîíêóðñ çà èíñòèòóòà ïî àåðîíàâòèêà ”Ôîðëè”, ïîõâàëà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà òóðèñòè÷åñêèÿ öåíòúð ”Âèëàìóðà” â Ïîðòóãàëèÿ, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà íàöèîíàëåí êîíêóðñ çà âúçäóøíè áàçè â Êàòàíèÿ, Òðàïàíè, Ëàìïåäóçà è Ïàíòåëåðèÿ, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà íàöèîíàëåí êîíêóðñ çà íîâàòà îáó÷àâàùà áîëíèöà â Ïàëåðìî, âòîðà íàãðàäà íà íàöèîíàëåí êîíêóðñ çà íîâàòà öåíòðàëíà ãàðà â Áîëîíÿ, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà íàöèîíàëåí êîíêóðñ çà îñíîâíàòà áîëíèöà â Àãðèäæåíòî, âòîðà íàãðàäà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà íîâàòà áèáëèîòåêà â Àëåêñàíäðèíà, Åãèïåò, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà ìóçåÿ êúì Àêðîïîëà, Àòèíà, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà âúçñòàíîâÿâàíåòî íà - ”Èëå Ñåãóèí è Áàñ Ìåóäîí” â Ïàðèæ, ïîõâàëà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà ãðàäñêè äèçàéí íà Ñïðåáîãåí, ïîõâàëà íà åâðîïåéñêè êîíêóðñ çà ñúäåáíàòà ïàëàòà â Ñèåíà, âòîðà íàãðàäà íà åâðîïåéñêè êîíêóðñ çà êóëàòà â Êàëàáðèÿ, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà íàöèîíàëåí êîíêóðñ çà äåòñêè ïðèêàçåí ãðàä, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà ôîíäàöèÿòà “Ðîêà” çà ãðàäñêè åêîñèñòåìè, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà åâðîïåéñêè êîíêóðñ çà íàó÷íàòà çèìíàòà ãðàäèíà â Êàòàíèÿ, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà åâðîïåéñêè êîíêóðñ çà íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà â Êàìïîáàñî, ãîäèøíà íàöèîíàëíà íàãðàäà ”Èíàðõ” è ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà åâðîïåéñêè êîíêóðñ çà óíèâåðñèòåòñêèÿ ãðàä â Óäèíå, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà äúðæàâíàòà çàëà â Àñòàíà, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà ” Ïèàöà äåé íàâèãàòîðè”- àäìèíèñòðàòèâíèÿ öåíòúð íà Ðèì, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà åâðîïåéñêè êîíêóðñ è ìåæäóíàðîäíà íàãðàäà íà ÌÀÀ çà íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà â Àðåöî, ïîõâàëà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà Ìóçåÿ ïî ñúâðåìåííî èçêóñòâî âúâ Âàðøàâà, ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà åâðîïåéñêè êîíêóðñ è ãîäèøíà ìåæäóíàðîäíà íàãðàäà íà WREN çà íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà â Ðåäæî Êàëàáðèÿ, ìåæäóíàðîäíà íàãðàäà ”Äåäàëî Ìèíîñå” çà ñïîðòíèÿ äâîðåö â Ïàëåðìî, ïîõâàëà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà Ìóçåÿ ïî åñòåñòâåíà èñòîðèÿ â Ðóàí, ïîõâàëà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà ðàçøèðåíèåòî íà ìóçåÿ ”Ïðàäî”, ìåæäóíàðîäíà íàãðàäà ”Êàðàðà” çà ñãðàäàòà íà ïîëèöèÿòà â Ðèåòè, ïîáåäèòåë â ïúðâà ôàçà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ çà îïåðàòà â Êàðäèô.


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One of the most rewarding, stimulating and effectual aspect of the IAA is the continuous interchange of ideas between its members. Our meetings are a wide, multifaceted, brilliant and diversified confrontation between our ideas and intellectual attitudes concerning architecture and planning. For this reason I believe that I should state my personal design philosophy. Toward a new organic architecture A STATEMENT We will try to summarize our philosophy to conceive building design as the result of an “organic growth” from a “specific context”. A context which is both the humus (the fertile soil) and the row material of any architectural conception. “Organic growth”: its meaning derives from our observation of natural objects, biological or mineral. Natural objects are never banal, meaningless, without an original character of their own. They have a unique completeness. Our primordial concept of beauty, harmony and necessity derives from their analysis. The structure of a leaf, of a flower, a crystal or a tree does not have any futile complications, redundancies or superfluities. Its form and consistency is the outcoming of an extremely rigorous and creative engineering: the most economic and harmonious effort to ensure growth, life and resistance against external forces. The only model of a truly organic architecture. We are not at all proposing an impossible revival of F. L. Wright architecture. Today the difference with F. L. Wright’s conception of organic architecture mainly attains to our present conception of “context”. For Wright an organic architecture must have “roots” in the very site it springs out from, like a tree or a bush, an alive being. That is evident, for instance, when observing the structure of his masterpiece the “Falling Water” house and its physical environment. The formal osmosis and the blending between the two are astonishing. The tectonic structure of the rocks around Bear Run in Pennsylvania is the model for the volumetric structure and even for the details of this great architectural achievement. But now when we are building no matter where, and particularly in an urban site or in some artificially man-made environment, what is the ground where the newly

born organism, can put down its roots? It does not exist any more a self sufficient niche or a specific natural nest for anybody. We all are exposed to the totality of the happenings and the thoughts of the “global village” we live in. Today is does not exist any more a physical “site” which could be really relevant for providing significant roots to a contemporary building. Today our intellectual multimediatic concrete or virtual environment has a global dimension, overpowering the notion of a specific limited physical site or place. With “specific context” we mean any physical or intellectual component converging upon the functional, social and symbolic values that an architectural building has to satisfy, blend with and express. Shortly: a “specific context” is the physical and immaterial environment, visible or invisible, real or virtual, its background of history and traditions and, of course, the building functional program, its social meaning, the hopes of people for their future and any kind of physical or non-physical constrains or targets we can detect within the complex and magmatic content of the “specific” context we are working in. While our observation and understanding of the natural process concerning “organic growth” and form can guide us in trying to recreate (in a metaphoric way) a similar process for conceiving our architectural buildings, our comprehension of the “specific context” to which we must give an interpretation and a concrete shape is the basic row material of our design process. Our definition of a specific context is the first basic step in architectural design, for the “invention” of an architecture. Though the elements converging in such a context are innumerable. We must make a choice, establish a hierarchy. This is the first creative act in a design process. For us a constant guide to start to develop a creative conception of a “context” and consequently a design process is to detect what is most strongly felt to be missing in the “specific context” we are operating in. Our architecture must eliminate such a failure. The man, said J.P. Sartre, is what he is missing the most. A poet is a poet because he is missing poetry in his life.


World Architecture Masters - Manfredi Nikoletti

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Åäíà îò íàé-ñòèìóëèðàùèòå è åôåêòèâíè ñòðàíè íà ÌÀÀ å ïðîäúëæèòåëíàòà îáìÿíà íà èäåè ìåæäó íåéíèòå ÷ëåíîâå. Íàøèòå ñúáðàíèÿ ïðåäñòàâëÿâàò èäåèòå íè è ðàçóìíîòî íè îòíîøåíèå, ñâúðçàíî ñ àðõèòåêòóðàòà è ïëàíèðàíåòî. Ïîðàäè òàçè ïðè÷èíà àç âÿðâàì, ÷å òðÿáâà äà èçðàçÿ ìîÿòà ëè÷íà ôèëîñîôèÿ çà îðãàíè÷íàòà àðõèòåêòóðà. Ñòàíîâèùå Ùå ñå îïèòàì äà îáîáùÿ òàçè ôèëîñîôèÿ, çà äà ðàçãëåäàìå ïëàíèðàíåòî íà ñãðàäà êàòî ðåçóëòàò îò “îðãàíè÷íîòî èçðàñòâàíå” îò “ñïåöèôè÷åí êîíòåêñò”. Êîíòåêñòúò âêëþ÷âà êàêòî õóìóñà (ïëîäîðîäíàòà ïî÷âà), òàêà è ñóðîâèÿ ìàòåðèàë íà âñÿêà àðõèòåêòóðíà êîíöåïöèÿ. “Îðãàíè÷íî èçðàñòâàíå” - íåãîâîòî çíà÷åíèå ïðîèçòè÷à îò íàøèòå íàáëþäåíèÿ íà íàòóðàëíèòå îáåêòè, áèîëîãè÷íè è ìèíåðàëíè. Íàòóðàëíèòå îáåêòè íèêîãà íå ñà áàíàëíè, áåçñìèñëåíè è áåç ñâîé ñîáñòâåí õàðàêòåð. Òå èìàò óíèêàëíà çàâúðøåíîñò. Íàøàòà ïúðâîíà÷àëíà êîíöåïöèÿ çà êðàñîòà, õàðìîíèÿ è íåîáõîäèìîñò ïðîèçëèçà îò àíàëèçà èì. Ñòðóêòóðàòà íà ëèñòî, öâåòå, êðèñòàë èëè äúðâî íÿìà áåçñìèñëåíè óñëîæíåíèÿ, èçëèøúöè èëè ðàçòî÷èòåëñòâà. Òÿõíàòà ôîðìà è ïëúòíîñò å ðåçóëòàò îò òî÷íà è ñúçèäàòåëíà òåõíèêà: íàé-èêîíîìè÷íîòî è õàðìîíè÷íî óñèëèå, çà äà ñå ïîäñèãóðÿò ðàñòåæúò, æèâîòúò è óñòîé÷èâîñòòà ñðåùó âúíøíèòå ñèëè. Òîâà å åäèíñòâåíèÿò ìîäåë íà èñòèíñêàòà, îðãàíè÷íà àðõèòåêòóðà. Íèå ñúâñåì íå ïðåäëàãàìå íåâúçìîæíîòî ñúæèâÿâàíå íà àðõèòåêòóðàòà íà Ô.Ë. Ðàéò. Äíåñ ðàçëèêàòà â êîíöåïöèÿòà íà Ô.Ë. Ðàéò çà îðãàíè÷íàòà àðõèòåêòóðà ïðåäèìíî âúçäåéñòâà âúðõó íàøàòà êîíöåïöèÿ çà êîíòåêñòà. Ñïîðåä Ðàéò îðãàíè÷íàòà àðõèòåêòóðà òðÿáâà äà èìà êîðåíè, ò.å. ñòðîåæúò äà èçíèêâà êàòî äúðâî èëè õðàñò, êàòî æèâî ñúùåñòâî. Òîâà ñòàâà ÿñíî, êîãàòî íàáëþäàâàìå ñòðîåæà íà êúùàòà “ Ïàäàùà âîäà” è îáêðúæåíèåòî é. Ôîðìàëíàòà îñìîçà è ñú÷åòàâàíåòî ìåæäó òÿõ å èçêëþ÷èòåëíî. Òåêòîíè÷íàòà ñòðóêòóðà íà ñêàëèòå îêîëî “Áåúð Ðúí” â Ïåíñèëâàíèÿ å ìîäåë çà îáåìíà ñãðàäà, êîÿòî å âåëèêî àðõèòåêòóðíî ïîñòèæåíèå. È ñåãà, êîãàòî íèå ñòðîèì íåçàâèñèìî êúäå è îñîáåíî â ãðàäñêèòå ìåñòíîñòè èëè â èçêóñòâåíî ñúçäàäåíèòå îò ÷îâåêà ñðåäè, êàêâà å ïî÷âàòà, êúäåòî íîâîðîäåíèòå îðãàíèçìè ìîãàò äà ïóñíàò êîðåíèòå ñè? Âå÷å íå ñúùåñòâóâà

ñàìîäîñòàòú÷íà íèøà èëè ñïåöèôè÷íà åñòåñòâåíà ñðåäà çà êîãîòî è äà å. Íèå âñè÷êè ñìå ïîäëîæåíè ïîä âúçäåéñòâèåòî íà ñëó÷êèòå è ìèñëèòå ñè çà “ãëîáàëíîòî ñåëî”, â êîåòî æèâååì. Äíåñ ïî÷òè âå÷å íå ñúùåñòâóâà ôèçè÷åñëî ìÿñòî, êîåòî áè ìîãëî äà áúäå îò ïðàêòè÷åñêî çíà÷åíèå ïðè ñúçäàâàíåòî íà çíà÷èìè êîðåíè çà ñúâðåìåííàòà àðõèòåêòóðà. Äíåñ íàøàòà ìèñëîâíà ìóëòèìåäèéíà äåéñòâèòåëíîñò è âèðòóàëíî îáêðúæåíèå èìàò ãëîáàëíî èçìåðåíèå, ïîáåæäàâàéêè ÿâëåíèåòî íà ñïåöèôè÷íîòî îãðàíè÷åíî ôèçè÷åñêî ìÿñòî. Ñúñ “ñïåöèôè÷åí êîíòåêñò” íèå èìàìå ïðåäâèä ôèçè÷åñêè è óìñòâåí êîìïîíåíò, êîéòî ñå ñúñðåäîòî÷àâà âúðõó ôóíêöèîíàëíèòå, ñîöèàëíèòå è ñèìâîëè÷íèòå öåííîñòè, êîèòî àðõèòåêòóðíàòà ñãðàäà òðÿáâà äà çàäîâîëè. Íàêðàòêî, “ñïåöèôè÷íèÿò êîíòåêñò”, òîâà å ôèçè÷åñêîòî è äóõîâíîòî îáêðúæåíèå, âèäèìîòî è íåâèäèìîòî, ðåàëíîòî è âèðòóàëíîòî, íåãîâàòà èñòîðè÷åñêà îñíîâà è òðàäèöèè, è ðàçáèðà ñå, ôóíêöèîíàëíàòà ïðîãðàìà íà ñãðàäàòà, íåéíîòî ñîöèàëíî çíà÷åíèå, íàäåæäèòå íà õîðàòà çà òÿõíîòî áúäåùå è âñÿêàêúâ âèä ôèçè÷åñêè è íåôèçè÷åñêè îãðàíè÷åíèÿ, êîèòî ìîæåì äà îòêðèåì âúòðå â êîìïëåêñà, è ÷óâñòâîòî çà óäîâëåòâîðåíèå îò ñïåöèôè÷íèÿ êîíòåêñò, âúðõó êîéòî ðàáîòèì. Äîêàòî íàáëþäàâàìå è ðàçáèðàìå åñòåñòâåíèÿ ïðîöåñ, ñâúðçàí ñ “îðãàíè÷íèÿ ðàñòåæ” è ôîðìà, êîèòî äà íè ðúêîâîäÿò â îïèòà äà ïðåñúçäàäåì ïî ìåòàôîðè÷åí íà÷èí åäèí ïîäîáåí ïðîöåñ çà ïðåäñòàâàòà íà íàøàòà àðõèòåêòóðíà ñãðàäà, íàøåòî ðàçáèðàíå çà “ñïåöèôè÷íèÿò êîíòåêñ”, íà êîéòî íèå òðÿáâà äà äàäåì èíòåðïðåòàöèÿ è êîíêðåòíà ôîðìà, å îñíîâíèÿò ñóðîâ ìàòåðèàë çà íàøèÿ ïðîåêò. Íàøåòî îïðåäåëåíèå çà ñïåöèôè÷íèÿ êîíòåêñò å ïúðâàòà îñíîâíà ñòúïêà â àðõèòåêòóðíîòî ïðîåêòèðàíå. Ìàêàð ÷å åëåìåíòèòå, êîèòî ñå ñðåùàò â òîçè êîíòåêñò, ñà ìíîãîáðîéíè, íèå òðÿáâà äà íàïðàâèì ïðàâèëíèÿ èçáîð è äà óñòàíîâèì ïîñëåäîâàòåëíîñòòà. Òîâà å ïúðâîòî ñúçèäàòåëíî äåéñòâèå â ïðîöåñà íà ïðîåêòèðàíå. Çà íàñ ïîñòîÿíåí ïúòåâîäèòåë â ðàçâèòèåòî íà ñúçèäàòåëíàòà êîíöåïöèÿ íà “êîíòåêñòà” è ñúîòâåòíî íà ïðîöåñà íà ïðîåêòèðàíå å äà îòêðèåì êàêâî íàé-âå÷å ëèïñâà â “ñïåöèôè÷íèÿ êîíòåêñò”, âúðõó êîéòî ðàáîòèì. Íàøàòà àðõèòåêòóðà òðÿáâà äà åëèìèíèðà òàêèâà ëèïñè. “×îâåêúò å òîâà, êîåòî ìó ëèïñâà. Ïîåòúò å ïîåò, çàùîòî ìó ëèïñâà ïîåçèÿòà â íåãîâèÿ æèâîò.”å êàçàë Æàí-Ïîë Ñàðòúð.


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The 3500 state Auditorium – Astana, Kazakhstan International competition, first prize 2003-2007 (under construction) Total Area 50.000 sqm Architect Manfredi Nicoletti, Luca Nicoletti With Luca Nicoletti Coordination Giulia Falconi Project team B. Abbottoni, D. De Santis, A. Faro, P. Leone, L. Maugeri, A. Scardaoni, N. Siles, Studio Altieri Structures Ingegneri Associati, Rome Services  ENETEC, Rome; Acoustics Y. Xu - Associates, Paris; Scenography Changement à Vue, Paris Q.S. and consultations Astanagorproekt, A. A. Kenzhetayev Renderings Res Fictae Model M. Sabatini


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This auditorium - one of the largest in the world - was awarded to Studio Nicoletti as the result of an International restricted competition. Founded in the heart of the steppes only four years after the Independence of the Country, Astana is now a decade old new capital of Kazakhstan, the centre of a territory as vast as Western Europe, with around 16 million inhabitants. Astana’s administrative nucleus occupies a rectangular area of around 3.5 x 1.5 km whose organizational axis is based upon a system of three piazzas. In the largest of these, dominated by the Presidential Palace, the State Auditorium faces the Senate House. Although surrounded by a park, the river Ishim and some very high buildings, the vastness of the location conjures up an impression of the immensity of the territory. Flying over the arid vastness of the steppes, we felt that what is really missing were flowers. We decided to build the “Flower of the Steppe”. Amidst this monumental void, the structures of the Auditorium rise like the petals of a flower animated through music. They create an “envelope” which encloses an internal piazza housing shops, balconies, restaurants, exhibition halls, two cinemas and the 3500 seats Auditorium entirely clad in wood inside and outside. Its shape is similar to a “Dombra” the typical Kazak instrument. Such internal multi-levelled piazza integrates with Astana’s system of public squares, while providing a space protected from the harsh local climate: a temperature range from -40 to +40 and salty winds. The Auditorium interior space is also reflecting its suspended wood panelled ceiling like following a “whirling” motion, form a cavity above the orchestra to regulate acoustic absorption. To resist against the eroding effect of the salty winds coming from the steppe, the slanted surfaces of the outdoor “sails” are clad with glass panels reflecting the overchanging environment.


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The Nigeria National Complex - Cultural Centre & Millenium Tower - Abuja Area 170.000 sqm Project Manfredi Nicoletti and Luca Nicoletti Architects in charge A. Della Morgia and F. Pagliano Tajani Structures M. Salabè, A. Rossi - Ingegneri Associati, Roma Roof Light Structures H. Bardsley and M. Kutterer - RFR, Paris + Frankfurt Plants Design P. Blaude - S.E.I.T.P. Tractebel, Bruxelles, Ingegneri Associati, Rome Structures and Plants Supervisors Coyne et Bellier, France Fire Safety Studio Sebastiani, Rome Acoustic A.Y. Xu - D. Dupouy - Xu Acoustique, Paris Scenographies A. G. Russel, R. Vincent - TPC, London Wind Tunnel Studies A. Zasso - Milan Polytechnical University Computer Graphics Studio Nicoletti Associati - Res Fictae s.r.l., Rome Q.S. and Construction Salini Nigeria Ltd. Main Client Federal Republic of Nigeria, Ministry of Culture and Tourism 2006-2009 (under construction)

The Nigeria National Complex is made up by the Nigeria Cultural Centre and the National Square where the Millennium Tower and the Municipal Building will be located. The works have already started and their completion will celebrate the 20th birthday of the New Capital.


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The complex extends over two adjoining lots in the cultural, religious and administrative heart of the city, at the intersection of the central civic axis and the cult axis that unites the Catholic Cathedral and the Great Mosque.


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The Cultural Centre will include the Museum of the Millenary Nigerian Art, an Hotel, an Auditorium for 1200 seat. On the adjacent lot the 170 m. tall Millenium Tower dominates the ‘National Square’ rising above an underground parking for 1100 cars.


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20 The three cylindrical r.c. steles of the Tower are surrounded by three transparent stainless steel wings which open towards the sky like the arms of the mysterious stone holy figures hidden in the Forest. The wings bear the luminous symbol of the Nation An underground Commercial Arcade links the Cultural Centre and the Millenium Tower separated by a road carrying heavy city traffic.


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The large roof of the Cultural Centre covering about 16.500 sq.m. eliminating any pillars from the central space of the Building, is made up of a reinforcing strip at the edges and a central part consisting of a light steel and glass structure with high tension cupola curvature geometrically modelled by the meeting of the three Flat Saddle domes. The building material seems almost to fade to give full sight of the sky. Special glass and sun shades elements control the heat gain from solar radiation.

The design was strongly inspired by the Nigerian Tradition. The Cultural Centre is conceived like a small city in the city. A protective envelop holds several different buildings and represents a metaphor of the “Afin Enclave” the political and holy walled centre within the old towns

like Oyo Oyo or the famous Ile-Ife, “inhabited by the Gods”, according to tradition. In the Osgobo Sacred Grove the volumetric organisation of the Monumental Shrines consists of a large horizontal base surmounted by a very tall sculpture, the very symbolic centre. A similar relationship is created between the Millenium Tower, symbol of Nigeria, and the much lower Cultural Centre. Its triangular external walls decorations, naturally ventilated by an independent glazed skin, derive their strong design and chromatic pattern by old ceramics and textiles.


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International competition, honor mention - 2007 Architects Luca Nicoletti, Manfredi Nicoletti, Studio Nicoletti Associati With Fabrizio Tajani, S. Westrich, L. Bertoni Renderings Res Fictae Structural consultant Mario Salabè

The New Art Museum, Warsaw


25 The idea of freedom is the symbolic message of the new Warsaw Museum of Modern Art. The project is made up of two elements. The Crystalline Container is an austere transparent parallelepiped protecting and revealing a strong dynamic space holding the many activities of the museum. The transparency of the “container” absorbs and renews the urban surroundings: The Marszalkowska Street and the Square dominated by a Stalinist-stile skyscraper, the tallest building in Warsaw and symbol of the Soviet oppression. The large transparent cage seems hardly able to hold in two massive thunderbolts of free and overflowing forms, a metaphor for Polish untameable vitality. The two Thunderbolts structures, which contain the specific museum activities shatter the immobility of the container; they break out towards the space outside; they both characterise and dispute the urban skyline. The “Thunderbolts” create a spatial labyrinth of ever changing perspectives and colours.


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Dedalo Minosse international award - 1995-2001 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Structures A. Rizzo Project architect L. Campagna Services M. Bonafede, S. Guercio Q.S. and works supervision E. Gentilucci

Sport Palace - Palermo In the Parco della Favorita, the 5,000 spectator sport hall is roofed by an 85 m-wide tension-structure whose cables are anchored to triangular exposed reinforced concrete pylons. The building is completely cladded with aluminium, except for the two opposite glazed ends. These are shaded from the sun by a series of matt-finished stainless steel pipes 27 m in length and 80 cm. diameter form two complementary surfaces describing warped surfaces.


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One, near the public entrance, act as a gargoyle pouring the rainwater carried off from the 6,000 m² concave roof into a large pond. On the other, the water is channelled directly into the ground. A directional silhouette is thus created, expressing the dynamism of sport and the sinuousness of plants. The stainless steel pipes act also as sunshades.


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European competition, first prize; IAA international award - 2001-2002 Architect M. Nicoletti With F. Pagliano Tajani Structures M. Mele Layout consultant M. Valentini Services E.N.E.T.E.C. Fire protection A. e A. Sorrento Q.S. R. Postorino Work supervision Antonio Sorrento Collaborators L. Campagna, A. Senesi, F. Pedri, D. De Santis Renderings Res Fictae

The New Hall of Justice Arezzo


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Near the MediciÂ’s Fortress, inside an historical park, the new building houses the main courtrooms and the Hall of Justice President headquarter and is linked to a neoclassical building, once a large hospital, to be restored and used for offices and archives.


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The design of the New Wing, symbolises its environment: the rich vegetation of the park and the cityÂ’s medieval structure, which was protected by a belt of conch walls on one side and, on the other, open to the squares, gardens and the territory.


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Also the New Wing is enclosed on the North side by a coved wall of black granite slabs whose surface is flamed, as to acquire a very elegant matted dark-grey tone. To the South, an undulating transparent sunscreen faรงade of stainless steel is shaped according to a geometrically warped geometry which is characteristics of the skin of many living creatures, including leaves. Those complex curvilinear forms can be built using only rectilinear elements. Thus, a silver bioclimatic foliage protects the interior spaces by a


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luminous shadow and blends with the park without clashing with the neoclassical nearby architectural elements. In the interior spaces, the astonishing reflection of the mirror-like polished black granite floor is contrasting with the greenish glazed envelop and the horizontal acoustic grey panel separated by narrow maple fascias. The three level high entrance hall receives light from the roof and is dominated by the vertical elevator case clad alike the floor by shining black granite panels.


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Similar to the anatomy of a tree, the concentric structural layers of the cylindrical Headquarters building seem to shatter as they meet the slab structure housing the dormitories and services. The dynamic and severe volume harmonizes with the vast background of the surrounding mountains and the nearby imposing medieval walls of the old town. The outer walls of the new building are covered with panels of black granite, flame-treated to obtain a shiny grey effect. Glass-cement blocks emphasize the stepped “cleft” that identifies the entrance.

Carabinieri Headquarters - Rieti Carrara International award - 1989-2001 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Structures and services P.L. Persio Quantity surveyor Servizi Tecnici S.p.A. Works supervision A. Aprile - Provv. OO.PP. Lazio Astronomic consultant G. Buonvino


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European competition, first prize; Wren international award 1996-2007 (under construction) Area 70.000 sqm Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Collaborators L. Campagna, M. Valentini, S. Marra, A. Senesi, F. Pedri, C. Tavani Structures M. Mele Services ENETEC - R. Tito Fire protection A. and A. Sorrento Q.S. R. Postorino Work supervision Antonio Sorrento Computer graphics Res Fictae

New Hall of Justice - Reggio Calabria


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The form of the Hall of Justice arises from a town planning concept and the idea of reviving the function of the Roman Basilica, offering the city a new urban symbol. The two main sectors of justice, criminal and civil, are split into two separate but connected volumes. The curvature of the one adjacent to the urban motorway evokes the latterÂ’s dynamism, while the other pursues the linearity of the urban fabric.


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48 The main climatic problem in Reggio Calabria is cooling in summer. The plaza is protected by a “bioclimatic pergola”, which controls its microclimate and reduces energy consumption. Diffused natural light enters the entire year, while the “pergola” protects the space from the rain and prevents the entrance of direct solar radiation during the summer months. Shade and natural ventilation revive the tradition of the Mediterranean piazza. Cool air is also captured form the underground spaces and, after filtration, is emitted in the plaza increasing the effect of the cooling system. The North winds, originated form the Messina straights, produce a negative pressure above the large pergola, activating a very effective air circulation.


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Set between the two volumes is a public plaza - like the nave of a “Basilica” - which acts as a meeting and distribution place, open on the courtrooms below. The plaza is located along the route that joins the existing business centre to other city administrations, thus creating a unified system of civic spaces. This building represents the largest bioclimatic architectural achievement in Europe.


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Scientific Greenhouse for Tropical Butterflies - Catania University European competition, first prize; The Gold Quadrangle International Award 1999-2002 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Collaborators L. Campagna, A. Senesi, G. Botti Structures A. Rizzo Services G. Condorelli Q.S. and work supervision E. Gentilucci


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Tropical butterflies cannot be housed in air conditioned places. The fairly constant temperatures of their natural habitat can only be achieved by means of the heat gain from solar radiation. This is the function of the irregular multifaceted shape of the greenhouseÂ’s glass structure and the different orientations and slants of each of its elements. In this way, the heat gain obtained inside can be kept at basically the same level at different times of the day and in different seasons.


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The greenhouse glazed walls slope outwards so that the angle of incidence of sun’s rays is always less than 75°, thus preventing overheating. This angle is more acute in summer and less in winter, when the heat gain needs to be greater. In compensation, the opposite happens on the glazed roof, which slopes upward at its northern tip, thus creating an angle of incidence closer to 90°. The trapezoidal section favours the intake of cool air from the bottom and the escape of the hot air from the top, keeping the midsection, where the butterflies are, at a pleasant temperature. At night climatic compensation is provided by thermo convectors and humidifiers, the effects of which combine with those of special nutritive plants.


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Inaugurated by Queen elizabeth of England 2003-2004 Area 32 ha Architects Studio Nicoletti associati, Manfredi Nicoletti, Luca Nicoletti Construction Salini Nigeria Ltd. Assistant A. Della Morgia, F. Pagliano Tajani, A. Senesi, A. Faro, D. De Santis Lighting A. Grassia ; Hydraulics G. Pietrangeli; Botanical consultants Salini spa Computer graphics Res Fictae; Model M. Sabatini

Millennium Park Abuja, Nigeria In the New Capital of Nigeria, Abuja, the Millennium Park is dedicated to art and nature. Close to the nucleus of presidential and administrative buildings, the area of the park, some 32 hectares, is divided into two parts by polygonal pools, inserted into the bends of a river defining a rectilinear axis. One side of the Park is dedicated to the scientific knowledge of the natural environment. Its layout, strictly geometrical, reveals two important symbolic elements of the landscape, is based on a trident of travertine clad promenades surrounded by fountains. The spring from an ancient “holy” cotton tree, while the centrally located promenade points toward the Aso Rock, an imposing grey granite mountain symbolically protecting the New Capital. It includes a botanical and an astronomy garden with gnomons for discovering the tropical sky. The other side of the river is dedicated to uncontaminated nature. On a simple system of terraces we find mountain vegetation, savannah, deciduous forest, rain forest and brushwood as well as greenhouses and aviaries for butterflies and tropical birds. Chosen for the annual Meeting of the Commonwealth Countries, The Millennium Park was inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth of England on the 4th December 2003. For the occasion a garden of “Travellers” Balm trees was planted near the Cotton tree.


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Dubai, Traffic interchanges and Underpass systems.

2007 Architects Manfredi Nicoletti, Luca Nicoletti Design team Luca Maugeri, Daniele Altana Renderings Res Fictae


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Several Urban Highways cross Dubai City. Their traffic interchanges are overpassed by vehicular and pedestrian bridges. Cars run at very high speed between two walls which inside the underpasses are swallowed by the shadow. We were requested to design bidimentional mural decorations to identify the various specific traffic interchanges and to awake the driver’s mind concentration. Our design is interpreting this chellange for gigantic “Kinetik art� murals at urban scale.


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The Helicoidal Skyscraper 1968-1974 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Structural analysis S. Musmeci Aerodynamic L. Napolitano (Politecnico di Napoli) G. Pizzetti (Politecnico di Torino) con A. Cammara Environmental analysis W. Hoydish (New York University) Thermographic analysis U. Sellerio (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome)

To minimize static loads and structural dimensions, the Helicoidal Skyscraper integrates an aerodynamic form with stay bridge technology. The structure is inspired by the limb of a mammal. Its extremely effective endurance depends on the relationship between bone and muscle: a compressed central core and external tensioned fascias. The central core, destined all the vertical systems, consists of three inter-connected hollow cylinders with a group of steel cables anchored to each; these stays-cables support the floor structures, compressing them towards the central core. The floors are therefore not a dead load, but interact with the static system of the structure, thus keeping the quantity of construction materials to a minimum. There is a further reduction thanks to the fact that the materials are selected to suit their actual use: conventional steel for the core and floors, which absorb all the compression forces, and high-yield-limit steel for the stay-cables subject to traction. Wind pressure is minimized by the shape of the skyscraper, formed by three inter-wound “inhabited sails” each resembling the sail of a boat just before it loses the wind’s thrust: a very bad shape for sailing but most effective in a building for escaping wind pressure.


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64 European competition, first prize Architects Studio Nicoletti Associati - Manfredi Nicoletti, Luca Nicoletti With G. Morrone (Q.S.), R. Ruggiero (urbanistic layout), A. L. Tartaglia (interiors) Structures and services Ingegneri Associati (Mario Salabè), Studio Speri (Giuseppe Lupoi) Collaborators F. Pagliano Tajani, L. Campagna, A. Della Morgia, S. Levi, A. Senesi

The Hall of Justice in Campobasso The layout of the new Palace of Justice in Campobasso will allow users to immediately find their way inside the complex through a clearly perceptible location of the major functions. Its spatial organization represents a metaphor for the historical structure of the City. The old settlement spread along the Monforte Hill in semicircular form and was surrounded by the now destroyed defensive cylindrical towers which today appear on the City’s coat of arms. The new Hall of Justice, at the foothill of Monforte Hill, is set out like a citadel around an internal courtyard. This space is closed on the one side by the run of audience halls and on the other by the general service building including an Auditorium. The three level office’s buildings are enveloped by three toroidal shaped volumes, raised about 12 m above ground level. These ring envelops the largest of which has

a diameter of 60 m, have a structure consisting solely of their steel lattice coating which, because of its shape, is very rigid. The rings leans against a shelving protruding from large cylindrical columns in reinforced concrete that contain public entrance stairways, lifts, toilets and service installations. No encumbrance of any sort is left inside the rings. The distribution flexibility is at a maximum. Under the courtyard are archives, installations, detainees areas and the judges parking areas. These directly lead, through different routes, to the courtrooms and the offices. The underground spaces get light and air directly and from sunken gardens. One of them gives entrance to the “bunker” highly protected courtroom. Every large element of the complex if functionally linked to, though physically separate from the others to enable the proposed phased building.


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The Piazza dei Navigatori Civic Centre – Rome

International competition, first prize 2000 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Collaborators L. Campagna, C. Tavani, A. Senesi Traffic consultant A. Ranzo Gardens consultants Fallani Renderings Res Fictae Piazza dei Navigatori is situated at the intersection with Via delle Sette Chiese, an old pilgrims’ route and Via Cristoforo Colombo, the fast artery linking the Historical Centre to EUR, the Satellite City of Rome conceived about in 1940. The semi-hexagon Piazza is dominated by a massive “Fascist style” building and borders on wide patches of waste land, scattered among the urban surrounding which are drastically separated by the very intense traffic of the Via Colombo. The project abolishes this barrier by an underpass and creates a new, totally pedestrian Civic Centre of 10 hectares, with parking facilities for 2300 cars. Within the Centre, a Park of 8 hectares joins up with Archaeological Park of the Via Appia Antica and envelops a sunken Piazza, about 4 metres below the surrounding urban levels. Thus a protected “enclosure” is created with hotels, shops, office and cafes. The slanted volume of the hotel balances the heavy bulk of the “Fascist” building while its terraced roof opens to the views of the Appia Archaelogic Park.


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Rieti Astronomic Garden and Gnomon of Time 2000 - 2004 - Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Collaborators L. Campagna, A. Senesi, G. Botti Services ENETEC Q.S. and works supervision E. Fenici Lighting A. Grassia Renderings Res Fictae Astronomic consultant G. Buonvino


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The garden is dedicated to astronomy. The “Gnomon of Time” reveals the marvels of the sky unnoticed by us in our daily routine: Solstices, Equinoxes, Polar star, the Hearth Axis. The Gnomon consists of three parallel blocks of travertine, oriented towards the Astronomical North. Two blocks, separated by a cleft, are slanted like the Earth’s Axis in Rieti; the other is at a complementary angle. The sun’s rays only penetrate into the cleft at Midday, illuminating a groove of travertine set in a dark stone, while the shadow cast by the block marks the days of the year and, in particular, the solstices and the equinoxes. These

special times are also announced by a single sunbeam that penetrates some wedge-shaped channels. A groove at the top of the other block sights the North Star, the only motionless point in the night sky. By sitting on a lower stone one can discover and admire this enigmatic miracle among myriads of stars. The garden had also an esoteric meaning. Below the firmament and close to the Gnomon, witness of time, there are the masculine/feminine symbols: the ceramic tiles clad benches shaped like the moon and sun and a five pointed star alluding to the Pythagorean secrets.


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Hall of 12 Columns, G8 Conference Centre - Rome 2000-2002 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Interior decoration G. Falconi Collaborators L. Campagna, C. Tavani, A. Senesi, F. Pedri Structures R. Vita Services M. Cortellini, G. Fioravanti Acoustics C. Platone; Lighting A. Grassia


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In a Roman Palazzo, a large rectangular hall with twelve ionic columns in the centre is the venue for high-level international meetings promoted by the Italian Parliament. The design is inspired by transparency and lightness, with a world of crystals and membranes that reflect the passage of light and acoustic waves and the movement of the air. The space between the columns, the focal point of the meeting, determines the location of the six transparent booths for the interpreters, which are connected to a glass landing suspended 2.40 m above the floor by stainless-steel stays anchored to the beams of the roof. The booth irregular shape, meeting the non-reflecting and acoustic needs, gives the impression of a weightless gem. The main acoustic function is performed by triangular box-like panels of cherry wood, differing from one another in shape, thickness and slant, which envelop the whole room and allude to the deformations caused by the impact of sound waves. The cracks separating the panels from one another allows for even passage of the conditioned air. A wide lunge, a coffee shop, a various services surround the Conference Room.


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Cardiff Bay Opera House International competiton, First prize winner - 1994 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Assistants C. Tavani, P. Zucker Consultants D. Sharp, London Acoustics Xu Acoustique, Paris Steel structure-wave roof RFR, Paris Structures Whitby & Bird, London Fire prevention Bickerdike Allen Partners, London Q.S. Davis Langdon Everest, London Renderings A. Mozzetti & I.L. Caggiula

Sea Wave - Sound Wave. The fluttering hands of a violinist. This is the idea for the transparent Wave roof which shelters and protects the City of Music, creating a new covered piazza, a materialization of music and water. Under the glass and steel Wave, a new animated cityscape extends the Cardiff Bay urban fabric: the foyer and terrace restaurants, bar and exhibition areas on the rooftop of the auditorium and the other facilities form a variegated sequence of weather-protected smaller piazzas at different levels. The fascinating social custom of seeing and being seen - a delightful characteristic of European piazzas and opera houses - is thus revived. The protective structure of the Wave has a minimum effect on the budget, resulting from the “peeling off” of the weatherproof skin of the City of Music buildings, replaced by less expensive and more elegant interior materials. The glass stainless steel and anodized aluminium carapace of the Wave, specially designed to resist the aggressive maritime environment, will decrease the wear on the City of Music buildings and any associated maintenance. Furthermore, it allows for an extremely compact scheme, minimizing the length of all internal connections and increasing the interior flexibility of the whole ensemble. The shape of the Wave is based on the combination of warped surfaces thus its fluid-curvilinear forms can be built with rectilinear elements.


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European competition, first prize; Inarch annual award - 1982-1997 120.000 sqm Architect Manfredi Nicoletti With G. Gigli Services G. Moncada - ENETEC Structures G. Suraci Collaborators G. Mocciaro, M.C. Ruggieri, M. Nacci General contractors Rizzani de Eccher

University Town - Udine The University town is a flexible building system suitable for growth and adaptation. It is based on acretionable macro-modules where work and service spaces are carefully balanced. The campus includes laboratories, greenhouses and stables. Its fulcrum is a plaza where a vast portico opens onto a common services building which connects to a sport centre. In the departmental organism, the most important of the complex, the macro-modules, forming a series of square courts, consist of two elements: segments and nodes. The nodes contain the services and vertical routes. The working spaces in the segments are kept as simple as possible to facilitate flexibility. All teaching areas are on the ground floor. The upper floor houses research laboratories used by professors while the intermediate floor is a spontaneous meeting place for teachers and students, being devoted to libraries and administration. The inverted pyramid section determines an exterior sequence of porticos and, internally, creates a volume where the three levels open up, allowing full visual participation in the UniversityÂ’s academic life. The cladding of the external walls consists of precast concrete three-dimensional panels, finished with a combination of white cement, marble aggregates and inorganic pigments.


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Extension of the Prado Museum, Madrid

Presently the Prado Museum is spread across two separate buildings: the original Prado, designed by Juan de Villanueva, and the Casòn del Buen Retiro. Three other elements will be added: the existing Army Building and two new structures will be constructed: one, inside the courtyard of the nearby S. Jerónimos church, where the ancient cloister has to be preserved; the other will extend the Prado building towards the church. In the project, a geometric sky will unify this complex, integrating the Museum and its urban spaces. This will act as the connective tissue of the whole scheme. Resembling a pergola, the “Geometric Sky” bears a transparent glazed sun shaded roof only in the closed areas. In some cases it penetrates the ground to provide natural light and external views of the exhibition spaces below which link the various facilities. As a continuation of the urban public areas between the Villanueva and the Cloister, a covered plaza/foyer is created to house an auditorium and cultural and commercial facilities, and to provide a distribution centre for the entire Museum system. To mark the main access ramp to the plaza/foyer, the geometric sky extends to the Paseo del Prado, next to the north end of the Villanueva building where the present entrance to the Museum is located. The fluid spatial continuity of the complex symbolizes the dynamic interaction between the city and the visual arts.


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International competiton, honor mention - 1995 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti With C. Tavani, F. Giammatteo, L. Centola Structures-services Ove Arup & Partners Cost analysis T. Gatehouse Renderings A. Mozzetti & I.L. Caggiula


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International competiton, honor mention 1992-1993 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Consultants F. Minissi (museography), G. Belloni (structures), SERETE (services)

Museum of Natural history, Rouen

The image of the Norman coast near Rouen is identified with the striated white undulating rock bastion of the Falaise d’Etretat falling sheer to the sea. That image became the museum’s symbolic key, shaping the external envelop together with its organization into “Four Strata”. These strata mirror the classical view of natural history: primordial matter, aquatic life, terrestrial life and the appearance of man. It is impossible, however, to ignore modern science in which the borders between the worlds of the mineral and the living are no longer so sharply drawn, hence a building similar to a rock-animal. Its dynamic volume brings out the superposition of the Four strata closed by curvilinear warped walls of white cement with horizontal furrows. At the centre, a rectilinear glazed cleft is the distribution backbone of the entire museum. The visit to the museum begins by descending into the depth, down to the origins of matter. It terminates, through the kingdoms of water and earth, in the anthropology section, at the top of the building.


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The Tower of Calabria - Catanzaro

European competition, second prize - 1997 architect Manfredi Nicoletti Q.S. R. Postorino Structures M. Mele Services ENETEC, A. Sorrento Renderings Res Fictae Model M. Sabatini

The Tower, the headquarters of the Calabria Region, stands in a rolling landscape, away from the city of Catanzaro. The volume of the Tower is generated by a space system based on a triangle, which creates the undeformable shapes demanded by the area’s high seismic vulnerability. The base and top of the building, both triangular, are rotated by 60° in relation to each other: the former has convex sides, the latter concave ones. The six connecting surfaces define an alternating sequence of triangular curves and counter-curves described by a structural steel grid, also based on the triangle. It is connected to the 35 floors of the tower and to a central nucleus in reinforced concrete. A multi-storey underground garage contributes to the static equilibrium. Bioclimatic control is provided by the inner courtyards through which cool air flows.


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1998 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Structures M.K. Watanabe, Tokio Acoustics Y. Xu, Paris Assistants F. Giammatteo, C. Tavani Renderings I Caggiula, A. Mozzetti, Barcelona

A new project in the only lot still unbuilt in the centre of EUR was a unique occasion to break the monotonous urban gridiron pattern of this satellite settlement of Rome, conceived in the fascist period. The large extension of the required functional spaces, though, compelled the use of the whole available area. Thus all the largest units, like the multifunctional Main Hall which does not need a visual contact with the city, were located inside a semi-hypogean podium, emerging just a few meters above street level. Above the podium, from the hypogean spaces, two curvilinear glazed “splinters” explode contrasting the frigid rigidity of the urban pattern, although visually connecting some of its emerging points. A suspended piazza is thus created above the podium, made lively by shops and theatres and the transparency of the glazed “splinters” which reveal to the city the events being carried on in the Convention Centre. The formal idea was suggested by one of John Johansen utopistic design: the 1991 “Metamorphic Capsule”. We have imagined to put the lower part of it inside the podium, letting only its waving crests to emerge above ground.

Italy Convention Centre - EUR, Rome


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2004 Studio Nicoletti Associati, Manfredi Nicoletti – Luca Nicoletti collaborators: F. Pagliano Tajani, F. Pedri Archaelogical analysis: F. D’Asaro computer graphics: Res Fictae

The Romanina Satellite Urban Centre, Rome


93 The polycentric structure of Rome’s recent master plan is based on the creaton of a number of new “satellite centers” on the metropolitan fringe.The target is to create a belt of “new central ganglia” mixing residential dwellings together with facilities of unusual execellence which could offer a very special or unique attraction for people on a regional scale. These new ganglia will provide an alternative to the use of the Historic Centre; where functional and traffic congestion will be lowered, while raising the standard of living on the city outskirts. In Rome’s South-East sector the Romanina will be located on a 100 hectares site close to arterial roads, a nearby airport and an important university centre. Around this area an immense anonymous residential quarter is almost deprived of public facilities. The project aim is to bring the morphological quality of Rome’s Historic Centre to the outer suburbs. Without imitating the ancient urban pattern the project revives the visual surprise of the sequence of variegated spaces and the mixture of different activities peculiar of the Historic Pattern. The complex is intersected by a rectilinear lake flanked by sports and recreation grounds forming two sectors which though conceptually similar are decidedly different in their urban-architectural approach and in the offer of special public facilities.


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The New Cemetery at Vazia - Rieti 2000 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Lighting A. Grassia Renderings Res Fictae


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97 We bury our dead in the heart and think of them in the heavens. The architecture of the new cemetery is based on the relationship between earth and sky. A circular courtyard is surrounded by an irregular wall: the dynamic imperfection of human life ends with the static perfection of death.

The courtyard is a space for meditation: rare drops of water into a small basin produce metaphysical sounds. Nearby, an olive tree merges with the cluds. The chapel and its patio are also enclosed by a circular wall letting the view of sky and earth to dominate.


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European competition, honor mention - 2000 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Project team L. Campagna, M. Valentini, C. Tavani Services A. Sorrento Q.S. R. Postorino Renderings Res Fictae

New Hall of Justice - Siena

Along the perimeter of the defensive walls of Siena, now destroyed, the new building is an extension to the existing Courthouse and acts as its new podium, with a shape that evokes of the cityÂ’s ancient stone and brick buttresses. Reminiscent of them, and of the typical two colour strata of SienaÂ’s tradition - the superimposed chromatic horizontal bands - the exterior of the new building is sloped like an escarpment. Strips of natural terracotta and bronze-grey crystals alternate in the walls. The new building is laid out in rectilinear blocks, which intersect to form two piazza courtyards on the inside.


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The form of the parking terminal on the Tronchetto Artificial Island, at the entrance to Venice, inspired by rigorously functional concepts, creates a new icon of traffic architecture. The formal result reflects the traffic flow and resembles the natural motion of a fluid. The building is “structured” by the same forces which have modelled the Venice Lagoon. The Parking terminal building is conceived at the continuation of the Venice Lagoon Bridge. The motorway link does not lead to an anonymous vehicle container, but into a spread out combination of superimposed artificial grounds: a series of stepped parking plazas capable of containing 500 coaches and 5000 cars.

The Terminal of the Artificial island of Tronchetto, Venice

International competition, first prize 1963-64 Architect Manfredi Nicoletti Structural consultant Riccardo Morandi


100 World Architecture Masters - Manfredi Nikoletti

Äúðæàâíàòà çàëà â Àñòàíà, Êàçàõñòàí

Êîíêóðñúò çà ïðîåêòèðàíå íà äúðæàâíàòà çàëà â íîâàòà äåñåòãîäèøíà ñòîëèöà íà Êàçàõñòàí Àñòàíà, åäíà îò íàé-ãîëåìèòå â ñâåòà, å ñïå÷åëåí îò “Ñòóäèî Íèêîëåòè” íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ. Àñòàíà å îñíîâàíà â ñúðöåòî íà ñòåïèòå ñàìî ïåò ãîäèíè ñëåä îáÿâÿâàíå íåçàâèñèìîñòòà íà ñòðàíàòà. Öåíòðàëíîòî ÿäðî íà ãðàäà çàåìà ïðàâîúãàëíà ïëîù, ÷èÿòî îðãàíèçà-

öèîííà îñ ñå áàçèðà íà òðè ïëîùàäà. Äúðæàâíàòà çàëà ñå íàìèðà íà íàé-ãîëåìèÿ îò òÿõ, êúäåòî å ïðåçèäåíòñêèÿò äâîðåö, è å îáúðíàòà ñ ëèöå êúì ñåíàòñêèÿ äîì. Ëåòåéêè íàä èçñúõíàëàòà øèð íà ñòåïòà, íèå ïî÷óâñòâàõìå, ÷å òîâà, êîåòî íàèñòèíà ëèïñâà òóê, ñà öâåòÿòà è ðåøèõìå äà ïîñòðîèì “öâåòåòî íà ñòåïòà” êîìåíòèðàò ÷ëåíîâåòå íà ïðîåêòàíñêèÿ åêèï. È íàèñòèíà ñðåä ìîíóìåíòàëíàòà ïðàçíèíà íà ïëîùàäà ñãðàäèòå ñå èçäèãàò êàòî âåí÷åëèñò÷åòà íà öâåòå, îæèâå-

íè îò ìóçèêà. Òå ñúçäàâàò îáâèâêà, êîÿòî îáãðúùà âúòðåøíàòà ÷àñò íà ïëîùàäà ñ ðàçïîëîæåíèòå òàì ìàãàçèíè, ðåñòîðàíòè, èçëîæáåíè çàëè, äâå êèíà è ñàìàòà çàëà , ñúäúðæàùà 3500 ìåñòà. Òÿ èçöÿëî å ïîêðèòà ñ äúðâî îòâúí è îòâúòðå. Ôîðìàòà è ïðèëè÷à íà “äîìáðà”, êàçàõñêè èíñòðóìåíò. Ãîëåìèÿò ïëîùàä, êîéòî å íà íÿêîëêî íèâà, ñå îáåäèíÿâà ñ äðóãèòå äâà ïëîùàäà è ñå ïðåâðúùà â ìÿñòî, ïðåäïàçåíî îò ñóðîâèÿ ìåñòåí êëèìàò: ñîëåíèòå âåòðîâå è òåìïåðàòóðàòà, êîÿ-

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òî âàðèðà îò -40 Ñ äî +40 Ñ. Èíòåðèîðíîòî ïðîñòðàíñòâî å ðåøåíî ïî îðèãèíàëåí íà÷èí. Îêà÷åíèÿò äúðâåí òàâàí â çàëàòà ñÿêàø ñëåäâà âúðòåëèâî äâèæåíèå è îáðàçóâà ïðàçíèíà íàä îðêåñòúðà, çà äà ðåãóëèðà àêóñòè÷íàòà àáñîðáöèÿ. Çà äà óñòîÿò íà ðàçÿæäàíåòî îò ñîëåíèòå âåòðîâå, èäâàùè îò ñòåïòà, íàêëîíåíèòå ïîâúðõíîñòè íà âúíøíèòå ïëàòíà íà âðàòèòå ñà ïîêðèòè ñúñ ñòúêëåíè ïàíåëè, îòðàçÿâàùè ïîñòîÿííî ïðîìåíÿùàòà ñå îáêðúæàâàùà ñðåäà.

Íàöèîíàëåí êîìïëåêñ - Ñèòè õîë, êóëòóðåí öåíòúð è Ìèëåíèóì òàóúð â Íèãåðèÿ. Íàöèîíàëíèÿò êîìïëåêñ â Íèãåðèÿ , âêëþ÷âàù êóëòóðíèÿ öåíòúð è íàöèîíàëíèÿ ïëîùàä, êúäåòî ùå áúäàò ðàçïîëîæåíè êóëàòà “Ìèëåíèóì” è ñãðàäàòà íà îáùèíàòà, å ðàçâèò íà ïëîù îò 170 00 êâ.ì. Ðàáîòàòà ïî èçãðàæäàíåòî âå÷å å çàïî÷íàëà è çàâúðøâà-

íåòî è ùå îòïðàçíóâà 20- ãîäèøíèÿ ðîæäåí äåí íà íîâàòà ñòîëèöà. Êóëòóðíèÿò öåíòúð ùå âêëþ÷âà Ìóçåÿ íà õèëÿäîëåòíîòî íèãåðèéñêî èçêóñòâî, õîòåë è çàëà çà 1200 ìåñòà.  áëèçîñò äî òÿõ ùå ñå èçâèñÿâà êóëàòà “Ìèëåíèóì”, êîÿòî ùå äîìèíèðà íà íàöèî-

íàëíèÿ ïëîùàä.Òðèòå öèëèíäðè÷íè ïëî÷è íà êóëàòà ñà îáãðàäåíè îò òðè êðèëà îò íåðúæäàåìà ñòîìàíà, êîèòî ãëåäàò êúì íåáåòî. Êðèëàòà ñà ñâåòåùèòå ñèìâîëè íà íàöèÿòà. Ïîäçåìåí òúðãîâñêè ïàñàæ ñå ñâúðçâà ñ êóëòóðíèÿ öåíòúð è êóëàòà “Ìèëåíèóì”, êîèòî ñà ðàçäåëåíè îò

ïúò ñ íàòîâàðåíî äâèæåíèå. Êóëòóðíèÿò öåíòúð å ñ ïëîù îò 16 500 êâ.ì. Ïîêðèâúò ìó å áåç ïîäïîðíè êîëîíè, ñ ïîäñèëåíà èâèöà ïî ðúáîâåòå, à öåíòðàëíàòà ìó ÷àñò ñå ñúñòîè îò ëåêè ñòîìàíåíè ñòðóêòóðè ñ ãåîìåòðè÷íî èçêðèâåí êóïîë ïðè ñðåùàòà íà òðèòå ïëîñêè óïëúòíåíè êóáåòà.

MoWa âúâ Âàðøàâà, Ïîëøà

Èäåÿòà çà ñâîáîäàòà å ñèìâîëè÷íîòî ïîñëàíèå íà íîâèÿ Ìóçåé çà ñúâðåìåííè èçêóñòâà âúâ Âàðøàâà. Ïðîåêòúò å îò äâà åëåìåíòà. Êðèñòàëíèÿò êîíòåéíåð å íåóêðàñåí, ïðîçðà÷åí ïàðàëåëåïè-

ïåä, ðàçêðèâàù äèíàìè÷íî ïðîñòðàíñòâî, çàåìàùî ïîâå÷åòî îò äåéíîñòèòå íà ìóçåÿ. Ïðîçðà÷íîñòòà íà êîíòåéíåðà ïîãëúùà è îáíîâÿâà ãðàäñêîòî îáêðúæåíèå: óëèöà Ìàðæàëêîâñêà è ïëîùàäà, íà êîéòî äîìèíèðà íåáîñòúðãà÷ â ñòàëèíèñòêè

ñòèë, íàé-âèñîêàòà ñãðàäà âúâ Âàðøàâà. Ãîëÿìàòà ïðîçðà÷íà êëåòêà ñÿêàø åäâà ïîääúðæà ìàñèâíèòå ñòðóêòóðè îò ñâîáîäíè è ïðåëèâàùè ôîðìè, ìåòàôîðè íà èçäðúæëèâîñòòà è ñèëàòà íà ïîëñêèÿ íàðîä. Äâåòå îãðîìíè ñòðóê-

òóðè, ïðåäíàçíà÷åíè çà ìóçåéíàòà äåéíîñò , ðàç÷óïâàò íåïîäâèæíîñòòà íà êîíòåéíåðà. Òå ñÿêàø ïðîáèâàò íàïðàâî â ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî îòâúí è ñúçäàâàò ïðîñòðàíñòâåí ëàáèðèíò îò âå÷íî ïðîìåíÿùè ñå ïåðñïåêòèâè è öâåòîâå.


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Ñïîðòíèÿò äâîðåö â Ïàëåðìî

Ñïîðòíèÿò äâîðåö â Ïàëåðìî, ñúäúðæàù 5000 ìåñòà, ñå íàìèðà â ïàðêà” Ïàðêî äåëà ôàâîðèòà”. Ïîêðèò e ñ 85 ì øèðîêà îïúíàòà ñòðóêòóðà, ÷èéòî êàáåëè ñà çàêîòâåíè çà òðèúãúëíè îò-

26 30 40 42

êðèòè ïîäñèëåíè ñòîìàíåíè ïèëîíè. Ñãðàäàòà èçöÿëî å ïîêðèòà ñ àëóìèíèé. Äâàòà ïðîòèâîïîëîæíè êðàÿ ñà îñòúêëåíè, êàòî ñà çàñåí÷åíè îò ñëúíöåòî ñ ïîðåäèöà òðúáè, èçðàáîòåíè îò íåðúæäà-

åìà ñòîìàíà ñ äúëæèíà 27 ì è äèàìåòúð 80 ñì, êîèòî îáðàçóâàò äâå äîïúëíèòåëíè ïîâúðõíîñòè. Òàçè, êîÿòî å ðàçïîëîæåíàòà áëèçî äî âõîäà, ïðåäñòàâëÿâà âîäîëèâíèê, ñ âìåñòèìîñò îò

6000 êâ.ì âäàäåí ïîêðèâ îòêúäåòî âîäàòà ñå ñòè÷à â ãîëÿìî åçåðî, îò äðóãàòà ñòðàíà íà ïîêðèâà òÿ ñå èçëèâà íàïðàâî âúðõó çåìÿòà. Ñèëóåòúò, êîéòî ñå ñúçäàâà, èçðàçÿâà äèíàìèêàòà íà ñïîðòà è èçâèâàùèòå ñå ðàñòåíèÿ.

Íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà â Àðåöî

 èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ ïàðê äî êðåïîñòòà Ìåäè÷è, å ðàçïîëîæåíà íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà.Òÿ å ñâúðçàíà ñ íåîêëàñè÷åñêà ñãðàäà, íÿêîãà ãîëÿìà áîëíèöà, êîÿòî ñëåä ðåñòàâðàöèÿ å èçïîëçâàíà çà êàíöåëàðèè è àðõèâ. Äèçàéíúò íà íîâîòî êðèëî å â õàðìîíèÿ ñ íåãîâîòî îáêðúæå-

íèå - áîãàòàòà ðàñòèòåëíîñò íà ïàðêà , ãðàäñêàòà ñðåäíîâåêîâíà ñãðàäà, îòâîðåíà êúì ïëîùàäà è îêîëíèòå ãðàäèíè. Íîâîòî êðèëî å çàãðàäåíî îò ñåâåð ñúñ ñòåíè, îáëèöîâàíè ñ ÷åðåí ãðàíèò, êîéòî ñëåä äîïúëíèòåëíà îáðàáîòêà å ïðèäîáèë òúìíîñèâ öâÿò. Íà þã âúëíîîáðàçíàòà ïðîçðà÷íà ôàñàäà îò

íåðúæäàåìà ñòîìàíà å îôîðìåíà ãåîìåòðè÷íî. Òåçè ñëîæíè íåñòàíäàðòíè ôîðìè ìîãàò äà áúäàò ïîñòðîåíè, êàòî ñå èçïîëçâàò ïðàâè è èç÷èñòåíè åëåìåíòè. Ñðåáúðíèòå áèîêëèìàòè÷íè ðåøåòêè ïðåäïàçâàò âúòðåøíèòå ïðîñòðàíñòâà è ãè îáîãàòÿâàò ÷ðåç èãðàòà íà ñâåòëèíè è ñåíêè, îñâåí òîâà

õàðìîíèðàò ÷óäåñíî ñ ïàðêà, áåç äà ñà â ðàçðåç ñ íåîêëàñè÷åñêèòå àðõèòåêòóðíè åëåìåíòè íàîêîëî.  èíòåðèîðà îòðàæåíèåòî íà äîáðå ïîëèðàíèÿ ÷åðåí ãðàíèò å â êîíòðàñò ñúñ çåëåíèêàâàòà áëåñòÿùà îáâèâêà è õîðèçîíòàëíèÿ àêóñòè÷åí ñèâ ïàíåë, ðàçäåëåí îò òåñíè ÿâîðîâè ïåðâàçè.

Ñãðàäàòà íà ïîëèöèÿòà â Ðèåòè Ïîäîáíî íà àíàòîìèÿòà íà äúðâî, êîíöåíòðè÷íèòå ñëîåâå íà öèëèíäðè÷íàòà ñãðàäà íà ïîëèöèÿòà â Ðèåòè ñÿêàø ñå ðàçòâàðÿò, êîãàòî ñå ñðåùàò ñ ïëî÷àòà íà ñãðàäàòà.

Äèíàìè÷íèÿò è ñòðîã îáåì õàðìîíè÷íî ñå âïèñâà â îáêðúæàâàùàòà ïëàíèíñêà ñðåäà è îñòàíêèòå íà ñðåäíîâåêîâíèÿ ãðàä. Âúíøíèòå ñòåíè íà íîâàòà ñãðàäà ñà ïîêðèòè ñ ïà-

íåëè îò ÷åðåí ãðàíèò, ñïåöèàëíî îáðàáîòåíè, çà äà ïðèäîáèÿò áëÿñêàâ ñèâ åôåêò. Ñòúêëåíîöèìåíòîâèòå áëîê÷åòà ïîä÷åðòàâàò ñëåäèòå îò ñòúïêè, êîèòî âîäÿò êúì âõîäà.

Ñúäåáíàòà ïàëàòà â Ðåäæî Êàëàáðèÿ

Ôîðìàòà íà ñúäåáíàòà ïàëàòà å ñúîáðàçåíà ñ îáùàòà ïðåäñòàâà çà ãðàäîóñòðîéñòâîòî è èäåÿòà çà ñúæèâÿâàíå íà ôóíêöèèòå íà ðèìñêàòà áàçèëèêà, ïðåäëàãàéêè íà ãðàäà åäèí íîâ ñèìâîë. Äâàòà îñíîâíè ñåêòîðà

íà ïðàâîñúäèåòî, êðèìèíàëåí è ãðàæäàíñêè, ñà ðàçäåëåíè â äâå îòäåëíè, íî ñâúðçàíè ïîìåæäó ñè ñãðàäè. Ìåæäó òÿõ ñå íàìèðà ãðàäñêèÿò ïëîùàä, êîéòî å îòïðàâíà òî÷êà êúì ñúäåáíèòå çàëè. Ïëîùàäúò å ðàçïîëîæåí íà ïúò, ñúåäèíÿâàù ñúùåñòâóâàùèÿ áèçíåñ ñ äðóãèòå ãðàäñêè àäìèíèñòðàöèè.Òàêà ñå ñúçäàâà îáåäèíåíà ñèñòåìà íà ãðàäñêèòå ïðîñòðàíñòâà.

Òàçè ñãðàäà å íàé-ãîëÿìîòî áèîêëèìàòè÷íî àðõèòåêòóðíî ïîñòèæåíèå â Åâðîïà. Îñíîâíèÿò ïðîáëåì â Ðåäæî Êàëàáðèÿ å îõëàæäàíåòî ïðåç ëÿòîòî. Ïëîùàäúò å çàùèòåí ñ áèîêëèìàòè÷íà ïåðãîëà, êîÿòî êîíòðîëèðà íåãîâèÿ ìèêðîêëèìàò è íàìàëÿâà êîíñóìàöèÿòà íà åëåêòðè÷åñêà åíåðãèÿ . Ïåðãîëàòà çàùèòàâà ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî îò äúæä è ïðåäïàçâà îò äîñòúï íà äèðåêò-

íà ñëúí÷åâà ðàäèàöèÿ ïî âðåìå íà ëåòíèòå ìåñåöè. Ïðîõëàäíèÿò âúçäóõ ñå ïðèõâàùà îò ïîäçåìíèòå ïðîñòðàíñòâà è ñëåä ôèëòðèðàíå ñå íàñî÷âà êúì ïëîùàäà, óâåëè÷àâàéêè åôåêòà íà îõëàäèòåëíàòà ñèñòåìà. Ñåâåðíèòå âåòðîâå , èäâàùè îò êúì Ìåñèíà, óâåëè÷àâàò íåãàòèâíîòî íàëÿãàíå âúðõó ïåðãîëàòà, êàòî àêòèâèðàò ãîëÿìî êîëè÷åñòâî îò âúçäóøíàòà öèðêóëàöèÿ.


102 World Architecture Masters - Manfredi Nikoletti

Íàó÷íà çèìíà ãðàäèíà çà òðîïè÷åñêè ïåïåðóäè â óíèâåðñèòåòà â Êàòàíèÿ

Òðîïè÷åñêèòå ïåïåðóäè íå ìîãàò äà æèâåÿò â ïðîñòðàíñòâà, çàòîïëÿíè ñ êëèìàòè÷íè èíñòàëàöèè. Ñðàâíèòåëíî ïîñòîÿííèòå òåìïåðàòóðè íà òåõíèÿ åñòåñòâåí õàáèòàò ìîãàò äà áúäàò ïîñòèãíàòè åäèíñòâåíî ïî èçêóñòâåí íà÷èí, ÷ðåç çàòîïëÿíå îò

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åñòåñòâåíà ñëúí÷åâà ñâåòëèíà. Òàêàâà å ôóíêöèÿòà íà íåïðàâèëíèòå ìíîãîñòåííè ôîðìè íà ñòúêëàòà íà çèìíàòà ãðàäèíà è íà íàêëîíà íà âñåêè îò åëåìåíòèòå. Ïî òîçè íà÷èí ïîëó÷åíàòà òîïëèíà îòâúòðå ìîæå äà áúäå ïîääúðæàíà â ðàçëè÷íî âðåìå îò äåíÿ ïðåç ðàçëè÷íèòå ñåçîíè. Âúíøíèÿò îñòúêëåí íàêëîí íà ñòåíèòå íà çèìíàòà ãðàäèíà íà óíèâåðñèòåòà â Êàòàíèÿ å íà-

ïðàâåí òàêà, ÷å úãúëúò, ïîä êîéòî ïàäàò ñëúí÷åâèòå ëú÷è, äà å âèíàãè ïî-ìàëêî îò 75 ãðàäóñà , êîåòî ïðåäîòâðàòÿâà ñâðúõ çàòîïëÿíåòî íà çèìíàòà ãðàäèíà. Òîçè úãúë å ïî-îñòúð ïðåç ëÿòîòî â ñðàâíåíèå ñúñ çèìàòà, êîãàòî òîïëèíàòà òðÿáâà äà å ïî-ãîëÿìà. Çà êîìïåíñàöèÿ , îáðàòíîòî ñå ñëó÷âà íà îñòúêëåíèÿ ïîêðèâ, ÷èéòî íàêëîí å íàâúòðå è òàêà ñúçäàâà úãúë, áëèçúê äî 90 ãðà-

äóñà. Òðàïåöîâèäíèÿò ñåêòîð ñïîñîáñòâà çà âêàðâàíå íà ïðîõëàäåí âúçäóõ îòäîëó è èçòåãëÿíå íà ãîðåùèÿ îò âúðõà, ïîääúðæàéêè óìåðåíà òåìïåðàòóðíà â ñðåäíèÿ ñåêòîð, â êîéòî ñà ïåïåðóäèòå. Ïðåç íîùòà êëèìàòè÷íèòå êîìïåíñàöèè ñå îáåçïå÷àâàò ñ òåðìîêîíâåêòîðè è îâëàæíèòåëè, ÷èèòî åôåêòè ñå êîìáèíèðàò ñ òåçè íà ñïåöèàëíèòå õðàíèòåëíè ðàñòåíèÿ.

Ìèëåíèóì ïàðê â Àáóäæà, Íèãåðèÿ

“Ìèëåíèóì ïàðê”, â íîâàòà ñòîëèöà íà Íèãåðèÿ Àáóäæà, å ïîñâåòåí íà èçêóñòâîòî è ïðèðîäàòà. Ðàçïîëîæåí å áëèçî äî öåíòðàëíèòå ñãðàäè íà ïðåçèäåíòñòâîòî è àäìèíèñòðàòèâíèòå ñãðàäè. Ïëîùòà íà ïàðêà å ðàçäåëåíà íà äâå ÷àñòè îò ìíîãîúãúëíè áàñåéíè, ðàçïîëîæåíè â áëèçîñò äî çàâîèòå íà ðåêà,

î÷åðòàâàùà ïðàâîëèíåéíà îñ. Åäíàòà ÷àñò íà ïàðêà å ïîñâåòåíà íà íàó÷íèòå çíàíèÿ çà îêîëíàòà ñðåäà. Òÿ å ñ ôîðìà íà ñòèëèçèðàí òðèçúáåö, ÷èÿòî îñíîâà å øóïëåñò âàðîâèê, îáðàçóâàù ìàëêè àëåè çà ðàçõîäêà ìåæäó ôîíòàíè. Åäíà îò àëåèòå âîäè äî ”ñâÿòîòî” ïàìóêîâî äúðâî, äîêàòî äðóãàòà ñå îòïðà-

âÿ íàïðàâî êúì Àñî Ðîê, âåëè÷åñòâåíà ñèâî-ãðàíèòíà ïëàíèíà, êîÿòî ñèìâîëè÷íî çàùèòàâà íîâàòà ñòîëèöà. Òàçè ÷àñò îò ïàðêà âêëþ÷âà áîòàíè÷åñêà è àñòðîíîìè÷åñêà ãðàäèíà ñúñ ñòðåëêè êúì òðîïè÷åñêîòî íåáå. Äðóãàòà ÷àñò íà ïàðêà å ïîñâåòåíà íà íåîïèòîìåíàòà ïðèðîäà. Âúðõó ñèñòåìè îò òåðàñè ñà

çàñàäåíè ïëàíèíñêà ðàñòèòåëíîñò, ñàâàíà, ãîðà, ïåðèîäè÷íî ñìåíÿùà ëèñòàòà ñè. Ìîæå äà íàìåðèòå ñúùî çèìíà ãðàäèíà è ðàçâúäíèê çà åêçîòè÷íè ïòèöè è ïåïåðóäè. Ïàðêúò ”Ìèëåíèóì” å îòêðèò îò êðàëèöà Åëèçàáåò íà 4.XII.2003 ã. ïî ñëó÷àé ãîäèøíîòî ñúáðàíèå íà îáåäèíåíèòå ñòðàíè.

Ñèñòåìà îò ïîäëåçè è íàäëåçè â Äóáàé

Íÿêîëêî ãðàäñêè ìàãèñòðàëè ïðåñè÷àò Äóáàé. Ïðîìÿíàòà íà äâèæåíèåòî â ãðàäà ñå îñúùåñòâÿâà ÷ðåç òðàíñïîðòíè è ïåøåõîäíè ïîäëåçè è íàäëåçè. Êîëèòå ñå äâèæàò ñ âèñîêà ñêîðîñò

ìåæäó äâå ñòåíè, êîèòî íàâúòðå â ïîäëåçèòå ñå ïîãëúùàò îò òúìíèíàòà. Íèå áÿõìå ïîìîëåíè äà ïðîåêòèðàìå äâóèçìåðíè ñòåííè äåêîðàöèè, çà äà îïðåäåëèì ðàçíîîáðàçíèòå ïðîìåíè â äâè-

æåíèåòî è äà ïðîáóäèì êîíöåíòðàöèÿòà íà øîôüîðà. Íàøèÿò äèçàéí èíòåðïðåòèðà òîâà ïðåäèçâèêàòåëñòâî íà ãèãàíòñêèòå ñòåíè êàòî ”êèíåòè÷íî èçêóñòâî” â ãðàäñêè ìàùàá.


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Ñïèðàëåí íåáîñòúðãà÷

Ñïèðàëíèÿò íåáîñòúðãà÷ îáåäèíÿâà àåðîäèíàìè÷íà ôîðìà ñ èçäðúæëèâà ìîñòîâà êîíñòðóêöèÿ, çà äà ìèíèìèçèðà ñòàòè÷íèÿ òîâàð è ñòðóêòóðíèòå ðàçìåðè. Ñòðóêòóðàòà å èíñïèðèðàíà îò êðàéíèöèòå íà ìëåêîïèòàåùî. Íåéíàòà èçêëþ÷èòåëíà èçäðúæëèâîñò ñå áàçèðà íà âðúçêàòà êîñò - ìóñêóë: ñãúñòåíà öåíòðàëíà âúòðåøíîñò è âúíøíè îáòåãíàòè ìåæäóåòàæíè ïîÿñè. Öåíòðàëíàòà ÷àñò, ïðåäîïðåäå-

ëÿùà âñè÷êè âåðòèêàëíè ñèñòåìè, ñå ñúñòîè îò òðè âçàèìîñâúðçàíè ïðàçíè öèëèíäúðà ñ ãðóïà ñòîìàíåíè âðúçêè êúì òÿõ, êîèòî ïîääúðæàò åòàæíèòå ñòðóêòóðè è ãè êîìïðåñèðàò êúì öåíòðàëíàòà ÷àñò. Åòàæèòå ñè âçàèìîäåéñòâàò ñúñ ñòàòè÷íàòà ñèñòåìà íà ñãðàäàòà è òàêà ñâåæäàò èçïîëçâàíåòî íà ìàòåðèàëè äî ìèíèìóì. Çà ñúðöåâèíàòà è åòàæèòå å èçïîëçâàíà ñòàíäàðòíà ñòîìàíà, êîÿòî ïî-

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åìà âñè÷êèòå êîìïðåñèîííè ñèëè. Ñòîìàíåíèòå âðúçêè ñà èçãðàäåíè îò âèñîêî îãúâàùà ñå ñòîìàíà. Âëèÿíèåòî íà âÿòúðà å ìèíèìèçèðàíî îò ôîðìàòà íà íåáîñòúðãà÷à, îáðàçóâàíî îò òðè ÷àñòè , âñÿêà îò êîèòî íàïîäîáÿâà ïëàòíî íà ëîäêà òî÷íî ïðåäè äà èçãóáè ïîñîêàòà íà âÿòúðà - ìíîãî íåïðèÿòíà ôîðìà ïðè ïëàâàíå, íî íàé-åôèêàñíàòà çà ïðåäïàçâàíå îò âëèÿíèåòî íà âÿòúðà.

Ñúäåáíàòà ïàëàòà â Êàìïîáàñî Ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà åâðîïåéñêè êîíêóðñ 2005 ã.

Ïëàíúò íà íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà â Êàìïîáàñî ïîçâîëÿâà ïîñåòèòåëèòå äà ñå îðèåíòèðàò ëåñíî çà ôóíêöèîíàëíîòî ðàçïðåäåëåíèå. Ïðîñòðàíñòâåíàòà îðãàíèçàöèÿ íà ñãðàäàòà å êàòî ìåòàôîðà çà èñòîðè÷åñêàòà ñòðóêòóðà íà ãðàäà. Ñòàðîòî ñåëèùå, ðàçïîëîæåíî ïî ”Ìîíôîðòå Õèë” â ïîëóêðúãëà ôîðìà,

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å áèëî îáêðúæåíî îò ðàçðóøåíèòå â íàøè äíè öèëèíäðè÷íè êóëè. Íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà, êîÿòî ñå íàìèðà â ïîäíîæèåòî íà ”Ìîíôîðòå Õèë”, å ðàçïîëîæåíà êàòî öèòàäåëà îêîëî âúòðåøíèÿ äâîð. Îò åäíàòà ñòðàíà ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî å çàòâîðåíî îò çàëè, à îò äðóãàòà îò ãëàâíàòà ñãðàäà

íà ïàëàòàòà. Òðèòå íèâà íà îôèñ ñãðàäèòå ñà ïîêðèòè îò òðè ïðúñòåíîâèäíè îáåìà ñ âèñî÷èíà 12 ì íàä ïðèçåìíî íèâî. Òåçè ïðúñòåíîâèäíè îáâèâêè, îò êîèòî íàé-ãîëÿìàòà å ñ äèàìåòúð 60 ì, èìàò ñòðóêòóðà, ñúñòîÿùà ñå ñàìî îò ñòîìàíåíè ðåøåòêè. Ïðúñòåíèòå ñå îáëÿãàò âúðõó ãîëåìè öèëèíäðè÷íè êîëîíè îò

ñòîìàíîáåòîí, â êîèòî ñà ðàçïîëîæåíè ñòúëáèòå, àñàíñüîðèòå, òîàëåòíèòå è îáñëóæâàùèòå èíñòàëàöèè. Ðàçïðåäåëåíèåòî å ãúâêàâî è äîñòèãà ñâîÿ ìàêñèìóì. Âñåêè ãîëÿì åëåìåíò îò êîìïëåêñà å ôóíêöèîíàëíî ñâúðçàí è ôèçè÷åñêè îòäåëåí îò äðóãèòå, ñ êîåòî å ïîñòèãíàòà ìíîãîåòàïíîñò íà ñãðàäàòà.

Ïèàöà äåé íàâèãàòîðè – àäìèíèñòðàòèâåí öåíòúð íà ãðàä Ðèì “Ïèàöà äåé íàâèãàòîðè” ñå íàìèðà íà ïðåñå÷íàòà òî÷êà íà óëèöà ” Ñåäåìòå ÷åðêâè” (ìàðøðóò íà ñòàðèòå ïèëèãðèìè) è óëèöà” Õðèñòîôîð Êîëóìá”, íàé-íàòîâàðåíàòà ïúòíà àðòåðèÿ, ñâúðçâàùà èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ öåíòúð ñ óíèâåðñàëíàòà åêñïîçèöèÿ â Ðèì, ÷èåòî íà÷àëî å ïîñòàâåíî ïðåç 1940 ã. Íà øåñòîúãàëíèÿ ïëîùàä äîìèíèðà ìàñèâíà ñãðàäà “ôàøèñòêè

ñòèë”, êîÿòî ãðàíè÷è ñ ó÷àñòúöè, äðàìàòè÷íî ðàçäåëåíè îò íàòîâàðåíîòî äâèæåíèå íà óëèöà”Õðèñòîôîð Êîëóìá”. Ïðîåêòúò àíóëèðà òàçè áàðèåðà ñ íàäëåç è ñúçäàâà åäèí íàïúëíî ïåøåõîäåí ãðàäñêè öåíòúð ñ ðàçìåð îò 10 õåêòàðà, â êîéòî èìà ïàðêèíã çà 2300 ïðåâîçíè ñðåäñòâà.  öåíòúðà å ðàçïîëîæåí 8-õåêòàðîâ ïàðê, êîéòî å ñâúðçàí ñ àðõåîëîãè÷åñêèÿ

ïàðê íà óëèöà “Àïèà Àíòèêà” è îáãðúùà ïîòúíàëèÿ ÷åòèðè ìåòðà íàäîëó ïëîùàä, êàòî ãî îòäåëÿ îò ãðàäñêèòå íèâà. Òàêà çàùèòåíîòî “îãðàäåíî ìÿñòî” å çàñòðîåíî ñ õîòåëè, ìàãàçèíè, îôèñè è êàôåíåòà. Íàêëîíåíèÿò îáåì íà õîòåëà áàëàíñèðà òåæêèÿ îáåì íà “ôàøèñòêàòà ñãðàäà”, äîêàòî íåãîâèÿò òåðàñîâèäåí ïîêðèâ ñå îòêðèâà êúì àðõåîëîãè÷åñêèÿ ïàðê”Àïèà”.


104 World Architecture Masters - Manfredi Nikoletti

Àñòðîíîìè÷åñêà ãðàäèíà è ÷àñîâíèê íà âðåìåòî â Ðèåòè

Ãðàäèíàòà å ïîñâåòåíà íà àñòðîíîìèÿòà. ×àñîâíèêúò íà âðåìåòî ðàçáóëâà ÷óäåñàòà íà íåáåòî, êîèòî îñòàâàò íåçàáåëÿçàíè îò íàñ â åæåäíåâíèÿ æèâîò: ñëúíöåñòîåíåòî, ðàâíîäåíñòâèåòî, ïîëÿðíàòà çâåçäà, çåìíàòà îñ. ×àñîâíèêúò ñå ñúñòîè îò òðè ïàðàëåëíè áëîêà îò øóïëåñò âàðîâèê, îðèåíòèðàí íà

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ñåâåð. Äâà áëîêà, îòäåëåíè îò öåïíàòèíà, ñà íàêëîíåíè êàêòî çåìíàòà îñ â Ðèåòè, à äðóãèÿò å ïîä úãúë. Ñëúí÷åâèòå ëú÷è ïðîíèêâàò â öåïíàòèíàòà ïðåç äåíÿ, îñâåòÿâàéêè âäëúáíàòèíàòà âúðõó òúìíèÿ êàìúê, äîêàòî ñÿíêàòà îò áëîêà îòáåëÿçâà äíèòå îò ãîäèíàòà, ñëúíöåñòîåíåòî è ðàâíî-

äåíñòâèåòî. Òåçè ñïåöèàëíè âðåìåíà ñå îòáåëÿçâàò îò åäèíñòâåí ñëúí÷åâ ëú÷, êîéòî ïðîíèêâà â êàíàëè ïîä ôîðìàòà íà êëèí. Âäëúáíàòèíàòà íà âúðõà íà äðóãèÿ áëîê ãëåäà êúì Ñåâåðíàòà çâåçäà, åäèíñòâåíàòà íåïîäâèæíà òî÷êà íà íîùíîòî íåáå. Àêî ñåäèì íà ïî-íèñúê êàìúê, áèõìå ìîãëè äà îòêðèåì è äà ñå âúçõè-

ùàâàìå íà çàãàäú÷íèòå ÷óäåñà ñðåä äåñåòêè õèëÿäè çâåçäè. Ãðàäèíàòà èìà è åçîòåðè÷íî çíà÷åíèå. Áëèçî äî ÷àñîâíèêà èìà æåíñêè è ìúæêè ñèìâîëè: êåðàìè÷íè ìåñòà çà ñÿäàíå, èçðàáîòåíè îò ïëî÷è âúâ ôîðìàòà íà ëóíàòà è ñëúíöåòî è ïåòîëú÷êà, çàãàòâàùà òàéíèòå íà Ïèòàãîð.

Êîíôåðåíòíà çàëà íà Ãðóïàòà íà îñåìòå (Ã-8), êðèëî êúì Çàëàòà íà ïðåäñòàâèòåëèòå â äâîðåöà „Ìàðèíè”, Ðèì

Ãîëÿìàòà ïðàâîúãúëíà çàëà ñ 12 éîíèéñêè êîëîíè â ñðåäàòà íà äâîðåöà ”Ìàðèíè” â Ðèì å ìÿñòîòî çà ñðåùè íà âèñîêî ìåæäóíàðîäíî ðàâíèùå, èçáðàíî îò èòàëèàíñêèÿ ïàðëàìåíò çà òàçè öåë. Ïðîåêòúò å âäúõíîâåí îò ïðîçðà÷íîñòòà è ñâåòëèíàòà, îò åäèí ñâÿò íà êðèñòàëè è ìåìáðàíè, êîèòî ðåôëåêòèðàò âúðõó ïðåìè-

íàâàíåòî íà ñâåòëèíèòå è àêóñòè÷íèòå âúëíè è äâèæåíèåòî íà âúçäóõà. Ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî ìåæäó êîëîíèòå, êîèòî îôîðìÿò öåíòúðà çà ñðåùè, îïðåäåëÿ ìåñòîðàçïîëîæåíèåòî íà øåñòòå êàáèíè çà ïðåâîäà÷èòå, êîèòî ñà ñâúðçàíè êúì ñòúêëåíà ïëîùàäêà, ðàçïîëîæåíè íà 2,40 ì íàä ïîäà ñ îïîðè îò íåðúæäàåìà ñòî-

ìàíà, çàêðåïåíà êúì ãðåäèòå íà òàâàíà. Íåïðàâèëíàòà ôîðìà íà âñÿêà îò êàáèíèòå ñúçäàâà âïå÷àòëåíèå çà áåçòåãëîâåí ñêúïîöåíåí êàìúê. Îñíîâíàòà àêóñòè÷íà ôóíêöèÿ ñå ïîñòèãà îò òðèúãúëíè ïàíåëè, èçðàáîòåíè îò ÷åðåøîâî äúðâî. Òå ñå îòëè÷àâàò åäèí îò äðóã ïî ôîðìà, ïëúòíîñò è íàêëîí, îáãðúùàéêè öÿëîòî ïðî-

ñòðàíñòâî è íàìåêâàéêè çà äåôîðìàöèèòå, ïðè÷èíåíè îò âëèÿíèåòî íà çâóêîâàòà âúëíà. Ïðîöåïèòå, îòäåëÿùè ïàíåëèòå åäèí îò äðóã, ïîçâîëÿâàò ïðåìèíàâàíåòî íà âúçäóõ ñ îïðåäåëåíà òåìïåðàòóðà. Îêîëî êîíôåðåíòíàòà çàëà ñà ðàçïîëîæåíè êàôå-ñëàäêàðíèöà è ïîìåùåíèÿ çà óñëóãè.

Îïåðàòà â Êàðäèô

Ïå÷åëè ïúðâàòà ôàçà íà ìåæäóíàðîäåí êîíêóðñ ïðåç 1994 ã. Ìîðñêà âúëíà - çâóêîâà âúëíà. Ñåíçàöèîííè ðúöå íà öèãóëàð. Òîâà å èäåÿòà çà ïðîçðà÷íèÿ âúëíîîáðàçåí ïîêðèâ, êîéòî ïðåäïàçâà ãðàäà íà ìóçèêàòà, ñúçäàâàéêè åäèí íîâ çàêðèò ïëîùàä, ìàòåðèàëèçèðàíå íà ìóçèêà è âîäà. Ïîä ñòúêëåíî-ñòîìàíåíàòà âúëíà ñå îòêðèâà åäèí íîâ îæèâåí èçãëåä íà ãðàäà. Íà ïîêðèâà íà çàëàòà ñà ðàçïîëîæåíè ôîàéåòà è òåðàñîâèäíè ðåñòî-

ðàíòè, áàð è èçëîæáåíè ïðîñòðàíñòâà. Íà ïî-äîëíèòå íèâà ñëåäâà åäíà ïúñòðà ïîñëåäîâàòåëíîñò îò ïî-ìàëêè ïëîùàäè. Ñúæèâÿâà ñå åäèí î÷àðîâàòåëåí îáè÷àé, õàðàêòåðåí çà åâðîïåéñêèòå ïëîùàäè è îïåðèîñúùåñòâÿâàíå íà ñîöèàëåí êîíòàêò. Çàùèòíàòà ñòðóêòóðà íà ”âúëíàòà” èìà óñòîé÷èâîñò êúì àò��îñôåðíèòå âëèÿíèÿ. Èçïîëçâàíè ñà åëåãàíòíè è åâòèíè ìàòåðèàëè, êîåòî íå ñå å îòðàçè-

ëî ìíîãî íà áþäæåòà çà ñòðîèòåëñòâîòî. Íåðúæäàåìàòà ñòîìàíà è àëóìèíèåâèòå ðàêîâèíè íà ”âúëíàòà” ñà ïðîåêòèðàíè äà óñòîÿò íà àãðåñèâíîòî êðàéìîðñêî îáêðúæåíèå è äà íàìàëÿò èçíîñâàíåòî íà ñãðàäèòå â ãðàäà íà ìóçèêàòà - Êàðäèô. Ôîðìàòà íà ”âúëíàòà” å êîìáèíàöèÿ îò èçêðèâåíè ïîâúðõíîñòè, òàêà ÷å íåéíèòå êðèâîëèíåéíè ôîðìè äà ìîãàò äà áúäàò ïîñòðîåíè ñ åëåìåíòè, êîèòî îáðàçóâàò ïðàâà ëèíèÿ.


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Óíèâåðñèòåòúò â Óäèíå Ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà åâðîïåéñêè êîíêóðñ

Óíèâåðñèòåòñêèÿò ãðàä å ðàçäâèæåíà ñèñòåìà îò ñãðàäè, ïîäõîäÿùà çà ïî-íàòàòúøíî ðàçðàñòâàíå è ïðèñïîñîáÿâàíå. Áàçèðà ñå íà ìàêðî ìîäóëè, ðàáîòíèòå è ñåðâèçíèòå ïðîñòðàíñòâà ñà âíèìàòåëíî áàëàíñèðàíè. Óíèâåðñèòåòúò

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âêëþ÷âà ëàáîðàòîðèè, çèìíà ãðàäèíà è êîíþøíè. Îïîðíàòà òî÷êà å ïëîùàäúò ïðåä îñíîâíàòà ñãðàäà, ñâúðçàí ñúñ ñïîðòíàòà çàëà. Íàé-âàæíàòà â êîìïëåêñà å âåäîìñòâåíàòà ñãðàäà, ñúñòîÿùà ñå îò ìàêðî ìîäóëè. Ðàáîòíèòå ïîìåùåíèÿ ñà îïðî-

ñòåíè è äîñòúïúò äî òÿõ å óëåñíåí. Çîíèòå çà ïðåïîäàâàíå ñà ðàçïîëîæåíè íà ïðèçåìíèÿ åòàæ. Íà ãîðíèÿ ñå íàìèðàò ëàáîðàòîðèèòå çà èçñëåäîâàòåëñêà äåéíîñò, à íà ìåæäèííèÿ åòàæ ñà áèáëèîòåêèòå è àäìèíèñòðàöèÿòà.

Îáúðíàòàòà ïèðàìèäàëíà ñåêöèÿ îòâúòðå ñúçäàâà îáåì, êúì êîéòî òðèòå íèâà ñå îòâàðÿò. Ïîêðèòèåòî íà âúíøíèòå ñòåíè å îò áåòîííè òðèèçìåðíè ïàíåëè â êîìáèíàöèÿ îò áÿë öèìåíò, ìðàìîð è íåîðãàíè÷íè áàãðè.

Ðàçøèðåíèå íà Ìóçåÿ Ïðàäî

Ìóçåÿò Ïðàäî îáõâàùà äâå îòäåëíè ñãðàäè: îñíîâíàòà å îðèãèíàëíèÿò Ïðàäî, ïðîåêòèðàí îò Õóàí äå Âèëàíóåâà è Êàçîí äåë Áóåí Ðåòèðî. Òðè ñà ïðèñúåäèíåíè: ñúùåñòâóâàùàòà ñãðàäà íà àðìèÿòà è äâå íîâè, åäíàòà â äâîðà íà íàáëèçî íàìèðàùàòà ñå ÷åðêâà ”Ñâ. Äæåðîíèìîñ”,

êúäåòî ùå áúäå ñúõðàíåí äðåâåí ìàíàñòèð, Äðóãàòà ùå ðàçøèðÿâà ñãðàäàòà íà Ïðàäî ïî ïîñîêà íà ÷åðêâàòà.  ïðîåêòà, “ãåîìåòðè÷íîòî íåáå” óíèôèöèðà òîçè êîìïëåêñ, êàòî èíòåãðèðà ìóçåÿ è íåãîâèòå ãðàäñêè ïðîñòðàíñâà. Òîâà ñå ÿâÿâà êàòî ñâúðçâàùà òúêàí íà öåëèÿò ïðîåêò. “Ãåîìåòðè÷íîòî íåáå”, íàïîäîáÿâàùî ïåðãîëà, ïîääúðæà òåæåñòà íà ïðîçðà÷íèÿ ñòúêëåí

ïîêðèâ â çàòâîðåíèòå çîíè, îñâåòåíè îò ñëúí÷åâàòà ñâåòëèíà.  íÿêîè ñëó÷àè òÿ ïðîíèêâà è ñíàáäÿâà ñ åñòåñòâåíà ñâåòëèíà åêñïîçèöèîííèòå ïðîñòðàíñòâà.  ïðîäúëæåíèå íà ãðàäñêèòå îáùåñòâåíè çîíè ìåæäó Âèëàíóåâà è ìàíàñòèðà å ñúçäàäåí çàêðèò ïëîùàä êúì ñãðàäàòà ñúñ çàëèòå, èçëîæáåíèòå ïðîñòðàíñòâà, êóëòóðíèòå è òúðãîâñêè óñëóãè è ðàçïðåäåëè-

òåëíèÿ öåíòúð íà ìóçåéíàòà ñèñòåìà. Çà äà îòáåëåæè îñíîâíèÿ äîñòúï êúì ïëîùàäà, “ãåîìåòðè÷íîòî íåáå” ñå ïðîñòèðà äî Ïàñåî äåë Ïðàäî , áëèçî äî ñåâåðíèÿ êðàé íà ñãðàäàòà íà Âèëàíóåâà, êúäåòî ñå íàìèðà íàñòîÿùèÿò âõîä íà ìóçåÿ. Ïðîñòðàíñâåíèòå çîíè íà êîìïëåêñà ñèìâîëèçèðàò äèíàìè÷íàòà âçàèìîâðúçêà ìåæäó ãðàäà è âèçóàëíèòå èçêóñòâà.

Ìóçåÿò ïî åñòåñòâåíà èñòîðèÿ â Ðóàí Ïðåäñòàâàòà çà íîðìàíäñêîòî êðàéáðåæèå áëèçî äî Ðóàí ñå èäåíòèôèöèðà ñ íàáðàçäåíèòå áåëè âúëíîîáðàçíè ñêàëèñòè óêðåïëåíèÿ íà ”Ôàëåç ä’Åòðåòà”, ïàäàùè îòâåñíî êúì ìîðåòî. Òàçè ïðåäñòàâà ñòàâà ñèìâîëè÷åí êëþ÷ çà ìóçåÿ, ÷èÿòî âúíøíà îáâèâêà îáðàçóâà ”Ôî ñòðàòà” (÷åòâúðòè ñëîé),êîÿòî îòðàçÿâà êëàñè÷åñêèòå åòàïè íà èñòîðèÿ íà Çåìÿòà: ïúðâîíà÷àëåí ñòà-

äèé, âîäåí æèâîò, íàäçåìåí æèâîò è ïîÿâàòà íà ÷îâåêà. Âñå ïàê å íåâúçìîæíî äà ñå èãíîðèðà ñúâðåìåííàòà íàóêà, â êîÿòî ãðàíèöèòå ìåæäó ñâåòà íà ìèíåðàëèòå è æèâèòå ñúùåñòâà ñà åäâà î÷åðòàíè. Îòòóê å ïî÷åðïåíà èäåÿòà ìóçåÿò äà íàïîäîáÿâà ñêàëà-æèâîòíî. Íåéíèÿò äèíàìè÷åí îáåì äîïðèíàñÿ çà äîáðîòî ðàçïîëàãàíå íà ”÷åòèðèòå ñëîÿ”, çàòâîðåíè îò êðèâî-

ëèíåéíè èçêîðóáåíè ñòåíè îò áÿë öèìåíò ñ õîðèçîíòàëíè áðàçäè. Ïðàâîëèíåéíà ñòúêëåíà öåïíàòèíà â öåíòúðà å ðàçïðåäåëèòåëíèÿ ãðúáíàê íà öåëèÿ ìóçåé. Ïîñåùåíèåòî â ìóçåÿ çàïî÷âà ñúñ ñïóñêàíå íà äúëáî÷èíà, íàäîëó êúì èçâîðà íà ñúùíîñòòà, ïðåìèíàâà ïðåç öàðñòâîòî íà âîäàòà è çåìÿòà è çàâúðøâà â ñåêöèÿ ”Àíòðîïîëîãèÿ” íà âúðõà íà ñãðàäàòà.


106 World Architecture Masters - Manfredi Nikoletti

Êóëàòà Êàëàáðèÿ, Êàòàíäàçàðî

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Êóëàòà, êúäåòî ñå íàìèðà óïðàâëåíèåòî íà ðàéîíà Êàëàáðèÿ, ñå èçâèñÿâà ñðåä õúëìèñò ëàíäøàôò, äàëå÷ îò ãðàä Êàòàíäçàðî. Ðàçìåðúò è å ãåíåðèðàí îò òåðåíà, âúðõó êîéòî å ðàçïîëîæåíà ïîä ôîðìàòà íà òðèúãúëíèê. Ôîðìèòå è ñà ñúîáðàçåíè ñ âèñî÷èíàòà è ñåèçìè÷íàòà óÿçâèìîñò íà ìåñòíîñòòà. Îñíîâà-

òà è âúðõúò íà êóëàòà, êîèòî ñà òðèúãúëíè, ñà çàâúðòåíè íà 60 ãðàäóñà åäíà êúì äðóãà, êàòî ïúðâàòà èìà èçïúêíàëà, à âòîðàòà âäëúáíàòà ñòðàíà. Øåñòòå ñâúðçâàùè ïîâúðõíîñòè îïðåäåëÿò ðåäóâàùàòà ñå ïîñëåäîâàòåëíîñò íà òðèúãúëíèòå êðèâè, îïèñàíè îò ñòðóêòóðíè ñòîìàíåíè ðåøåòêè, ñúùî ñ òðèúãúëíà

ôîðìà. Òðèúãúëíèêúò å ñâúðçàí ñ òðèäåñåò è ïåòòå åòàæà è öåíòðàëíîòî ÿäðî íà êóëàòà. Ìíîãîåòàæåí ïîäçåìåí ãàðàæ äîïðèíàñÿ çà ïîñòîÿííîòî ðàâíîâåñèå. Áèî-êëèìàòè÷íèÿò êîíòðîë ñå îñúùåñòâÿâà ÷ðåç âúòðåøíèòå äâîðîâå, îòêúäåòî ïðîíèêâà ñâåæà ñòðóÿ âúçäóõ.

Èòàëèàíñêèÿò êîíãðåñåí öåíòúð â Ðèì

Åäèí íîâ ïðîåêò â åäèíñòâåíîòî íåçàñòðîåíî ìÿñòî â óíèâåðñàëíèÿ åêñïîçèöèîíåí öåíòúð íà Ðèì äàâà óíèêàëíà âúçìîæíîñò äà ñå ðàç÷óïè ãðàäñêàòà ìîíîòîííà ìðåæà íà ñàòåëèòíîòî ñåëèùå â Ðèì, çàïî÷íàòî ïðåç ôàøèñòêèÿ ïåðèîä.

Ãîëÿìîòî ðàçøèðåíèå íà ôóíêöèîíàëíèòå ïðîñòðàíñòâà çàâëàäÿâà ñâîáîäíèòå çîíè. Âñè÷êè ãîëåìè ñåêöèè ñà ðàçïîëîæåíè âúðõó ïîäèóì è èçëèçàò íÿêîëêî ìåòðà íàä ïîâúðõíîñòòà íà óëè÷íîòî íèâî. Íàä ïîäèóìà äâà êðèâîëèíåéíè îñòúêëåíè åëå-

ìåíòà ñå èçâèñÿâàò, êàòî êîíòðàñòèðàò ñúñ ñòóäåíàòà ñêîâàíîñò íà ãðàäñêèÿ ñòðîåæ. Ïëîùàäúò, ïîñòðîåí íàä ïîäèóìà, å îæèâåí îò ìàãàçèíè è òåàòðè. Ïðîçðà÷íîñòòà íà îñòúêëåíèòå åëåìåíòè ðàçêðèâà íà ãðàäà ñúáèòèÿòà, êîèòî ñå ïðîâåæäàò â êîí-

ãðåñíèÿ öåíòúð. Ôîðìàëíàòà èäåÿ å çàèìñòâàíà îò ïðîåêòà íà Äæîí Éîõàíñåí “Ìåòàìîðôíà êàïñóëà” ïðåç 1991 ã. Íèå ðåøèõìå äà ïîñòàâèì ïî-íèñêàòà ÷àñò âúòðå â ïîäèóìà, ïîçâîëÿâàùà ñàìî íà ãðåáåíà íà âúëíàòà äà èçïëóâà íàä ïîâúðõíîñòòà.

Ñàòåëèòíèÿò ãðàäñêè öåíòúð Ðîìàíèíà â Ðèì

Öåíòðàëíàòà ñòðóêòóðà íà ãðàäîóñòðîéñòâåíèÿ ïëàí íà Ðèì ñå áàçèðà íà ñúçäàâàíåòî íà ìíîæåñòâî íîâè ñàòåëèòíè öåíòðîâå â ñòîëè÷íèòå ïîêðàéíèíè.Öåëòà å äà ñå ñúçäàäå ðàé-

îí îò íîâè öåíòðîâå çà ðàçëè÷íè âèäîâå äåéíîñòè, êîèòî äà îáåäèíÿò æèëèùíèòå êîìïëåêñè ñ óäîáñòâàòà è äà ïðåäëîæàò óíèêàëíè è ñïåöèàëíè àòðàêöèè çà õîðàòà, æèâååùè â ðàéîíà. Òåçè öåíòðîâå ùå îáåçïå÷àò àëòåðíàòèâè çà èçïîëçâàíåòî íà èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ öåíòúð, êúäåòî ôóíêöèîíàëíîòî è òðàôèê-çàäðúñòâàíå ùå áúäàò íàìàëåíè è ùå ñå ïîâèøè ñòàíäàðòúò íà æèâîò â ïîêðàéíèíèòå.

Þãîèçòî÷íèÿò ñåêòîð íà Ðèì, Ðîìàíèíà, ùå áúäå ðàçïîëîæåí íà 100 õåêòàðà çåìÿ áëèçî äî òðàíñïîðòíè àðòåðèè, ëåòèùåòî è âàæåí óíèâåðñèòåòñêè öåíòúð. Ãúñòî íàñåëåíèòå è àíîíèìíè æèëèùíè êâàðòàëè ñà ïî÷òè ëèøåíè îò îáùåñòâåíè óäîáñòâà. Öåëòà íà ïðîåêòà å ìîðôîëîãè÷íîòî êà÷åñòâîòî íà èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ öåíòúð íà Ðèì äà äîñòèãíå äî ïîêðàéíèíèòå. Áåç äà èìèòèðà äðåâíèÿ ãðàäñêè ñòðîåæ,

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ïðîåêòúò ñúæèâÿâà âèäèìàòà ïîñëåäîâàòåëíîñò îò ðàçíîîáðàçíè ïðîñòðàíñòâà è ñìåñèöà îò ðàçëè÷íè äåéíîñòè, õàðàêòåðíè çà èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ ñòðîåæ. Êîìïëåêñúò ñå ïðåñè÷à îò åçåðî, êàòî îò äâåòå ìó ñòðàíè ñà ðàçïîëîæåíè ïëîùàäêè çà ñïîðò è ðàçâëå÷åíèÿ, êîèòî îáðàçóâàò äâà ñåêòîðà. Ìàêàð è ïîäîáíè, òå ñå ðàçëè÷àâàò ïî àðõèòåêòóðåí ïîäõîä è îáùåñòâåíè óäîáñòâà.


107

Íîâîòî ãðîáèùå âúâ Âàçèÿ – Ðèåòè

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Íèå ïîãðåáâàìå íàøèòå ìúðòâè â ñúðöàòà ñè è ìèñëèì çà òÿõ, ÷å ñà íà íåáåòî. Àðõèòåêòóðàòà íà íîâîòî ãðîáèùå ñå áàçèðà íà âðúçêàòà ìåæäó çåìÿòà è íåáåòî. Êðúãëèÿò ó÷àñòúê çåìÿ å îáãðàäåí ñ íå-

ðàâíîìåðíà ñòåíà: äèíàìè÷íîòî íåñúâúðøåíñòâî íà ÷îâåøêèÿ æèâîò ïðèêëþ÷âà ñ ïîñòîÿííîòî ñúâúðøåíñòâî íà ñìúðòòà. Òîâà å ìÿñòî çà ìåäèòàöèÿ, êàï÷èöè âîäà, ïàäàùè â ìàëúê áàñåéí, âúçïðîèçâåæäàò ìåòà-

ôèçè÷íè çâóöè. Ìàñëèíåíî äúðâî íàáëèçî ñå ñëèâà ñ îáëàöèòå. Ïàðàêëèñúò è íåãîâèÿò âúòðåøåí äâîð ñà çàãðàäåíè îò ñòåíà, ïîçâîëÿâàùà íà ñëúíöåòî è çåìÿòà äà äîìèíèðàò.

Íîâàòà ñúäåáíà ïàëàòà â Ñèåíà

Ïî ïåðèìåòúðà íà çàùèòíàòà ñòåíà íà ãðàä Ñèåíà, êîÿòî âå÷å å ðàçðóøåíà, åäíà íîâà ñãðàäà å ïîñòðîåíà êàòî ðàçøèðåíèå íà ñúùåñòâóâàùàòà ñúäåá-

íà ïàëàòà. Íîâàòà ñãðàäà ñå ÿâÿâà êàòî ïîäèóì, ÷èÿòî ôîðìà ïðåñúçäàâà äðåâíèòå êàìúíè è òóõëåíèòå îïîðíè ñòåíè íà ãðàäà.Âúíøíà-

òà ÷àñò íà ñãðàäàòà å ñ íàêëîí ïðèëè÷àù íà ñòðúìåí ñêëîí. Èâèöè îò åñòåñòâåíà òåðàêîòà è áðîíçîâî-ñèâè êðèñòàëè ñå ðåäóâàò ïî ñòåíàòà.

Ñåêòîðèòå íà íîâàòà ñãðàäà ñà ðàçïîëîæåíè òàêà, ÷å ïðè ïðåñè÷àíåòî ñè îáðàçóâàò äâà ïëîùàäà îò âúòðåøíàòà ñòðàíà.

Òåðìèíàë íà îñòðîâ Òðîí÷åòî êðàé Âåíåöèÿ

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Ôîðìàòà íà ïàðêèíã-òåðìèíàëà íà èçêóñòâåíèÿ îñòðîâ Òðîí÷åòî íàìèðàù ñå íà âõîäà íà Âåíåöèÿ, å âäúõíîâåíà îò ôóíêöèîíàëíè êîíöåïöèè è ñúçäàâà åäèí íîâ îáðàç â àðõèòåêòóðà-

òà. Ôîðìàëíèÿò ðåçóëòàò îêàçâà âëèÿíèå âúðõó ïîòîêà íà äâèæåíèå è íàïîäîáÿâà åñòåñòâåíîòî äâèæåíèå íà ôëóèä. Ñãðàäàòà å ïîñòðîåíà ïî ñúùèÿ ïðèíöèï, ïî êîéòî å ìîäåëèðàíà Âåíåöèàí-

ñêàòà ëàãóíà. Òÿ å ïðîäúëæåíèå íà ìîñòà íà Âåíåöèàíñêàòà ëàãóíà. Ìàãèñòðàëíàòà âðúçêà âîäè êúì ñåðèÿ ñòåïåíóâàíè ïàðêèíãè, êîèòî ñà ñ êàïàöèòåò îò 500 äî 5000 ïðåâîçíè ñðåäñòâà.


3


NEWS

2 In Memoriam All the members of the International Academy of Architecture would like to express their deep sorrow that one of the masters of the world contemporary architecture, author of so many architectural chef d’oeuvres, the IAA Academician Kish Kukorawa has passed away. This is a loss not only for his family, colleagues and friends, but also for the world architecture. May his memory live forever! ×ëåíîâåòå íà Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà áèõà èñêàëè äà èçðàçÿò äúëáîêàòà ñè ïå÷àë è ïîêëîí ïðåä ìàéñòîðà íà ñúâðåìåííàòà àðõèòåêòóðà, àâòîð íà ìíîãî øåäüîâðè, àðõèòåêò àêàäåìèê Êèøî Êóðîêàâà. Òàçè çàãóáà å íå ñàìî çà íåãîâîòî ñåìåéñòâî, êîëåãè è ïðèÿòåëè, íî ñúùî òàêà è çà ñâåòîâíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà. Ïîêëîí ïðåä ñâåòëàòà ìó ïàìåò.

th

20

anniversary of MAA

International Academy of Architecture, NGO in Special Consultative Status with ECOSOC-United Nations is a non-profit, self-financing organization with H.Q. in Sofia, Bulgaria. It was founded in 1987. The main objectives of IAA are: to stimulate the development of architecture and architectural theory; to organize post-graduate training of young and talented architects from all over the world; to train specialists from developing countries; to support United Nations’ programs, declarations and events. The governing bodies of the IAA are the General Assembly and the Academic Council. The Assembly consists of all the Academy’s members and is held every three years. It approves and amends the Statutes, elects new academicians, the Academic Council and its President. The IX IAA Assembly was held on 14 May 2006 in Sofia. The Academic Council and its President administrate the IAA. The members of the Academic (Academicians) and its President are elected for a six-year mandate. The Academic Council meets once a year to coordinate the activities of the IAA and to approve the IAA programs, staff and budget. The Academic Council elects new professors. The main activities of the IAA are centered on the implementation of the following programs: sustainable development of architecture and town planning; architectural theory and its application; architectural education and professional qualification, professional information, social housing, architecture and ecology, support of United Nation’s programs, declarations and activities. The IAA major activities of an international scope are the international architectural conferences, competitions and exhibitions; world Triennial of architecture (INTERARCH-Sofia), permanently held every three years. In the last years effort has been made to post-graduate training of talented young architects from all over the world. IAA has branches in Russia, Japan, France, Turkey, the United States, Italy and the Netherlands. IAA center in Paris- IAA European academy of architecture has a great activity in cooperation with the French Academy of Architecture. IAA has a unique collection-exhibition of colored photos of architectural works:” Leading Masters of World Architecture”. This exhibition has been presented till now in Istanbul, Barcelona, Moscow, Tbilisi, Sofia, Mahatchkala, Astana, etc.

Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà å íå ïðàâèòåëñòâåíà, ñàìîôèíàíñèðàùà ñå îðãàíèçàöèÿ, ÷èÿòî ùàáêâàðòèðà ñå íàìèðà â Ñîôèÿ, Áúëãàðèÿ. Îñíîâàíà å ïðåç 1987 ã. Îñíîâíèòå öåëè íà ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà ñà: äà ñòèìóëèðà ðàçâèòèåòî íà àðõèòåêòóðàòà è àðõèòåêòóðíèòå òåîðèè; äà îðãàíèçèðà ñëåä äèïëîìíî îáó÷åíèå íà ìëàäè è òàëàíòëèâè àðõèòåêòè îò öåëèÿ ñâÿò; äà îáó÷àâà ñïåöèàëèñòè îò ðàçâèâàùèòå ñå ñòðàíè; äà ïîääúðæà ïðîãðàìèòå, äåêëàðàöèèòå è ñúáèòèÿòà, îðãàíèçèðàíè îò ÎÍ. Óïðàâëÿâàù îðãàí íà ÌÀÀ ñà Ãåíåðàëíàòà àñàìáëåÿ è Àêàäåìè÷íèÿò ñúâåò. Àñàìáëåÿòà âêëþ÷âà âñè÷êè ÷ëåíîâå íà àêàäåìèÿòà è ñå ïðîâåæäà íà âñåêè òðè ãîäèíè. Òÿ îäîáðÿâà è âíàñÿ ïîïðàâêè â óñòàâà, èçáèðà íîâè àêàäåìèöè, àêàäåìè÷íèÿ ñúâåò è íåãîâèÿ ïðåçèäåíò. Äåâåòàòà àñàìáëåÿ íà ÌÀÀ áåøå ïðîâåäåíà íà 14.05.2006 ã. â Ñîôèÿ. Àêàäåìè÷íèÿò ñúâåò è íåãîâèÿò ïðåçèäåíò àäìèíèñòðèðàò ÌÀÀ. ×ëåíîâåòå íà àêàäåìè÷íèÿ ñúâåò è íåãîâèÿò ïðåçèäåíò ñå èçáèðàò çà òðèãîäèøåí ìàíäàò. Àêàäåìè÷íèÿò ñúâåò ñå ñâèêâà âåäíúæ ãîäèøíî, çà äà êîîðäèíèðà äåéíîñòòà íà ÌÀÀ è äà îäîáðÿâà ïðîãðàìèòå, ñúñòàâà è áþäæåòà íà ÌÀÀ è ãîäèøíèòå íàãðàäè íà ÌÀÀ. Àêàäåìèÿòà èìà ðåãèîíàëíè öåíòðîâå â Ïàðèæ, Ìîñêâà, Òîêèî, Ìåäèñúí, Èñòàíáóë, Ðèì è Àìñòåðäàì. Äåéíîñòèòå íà ÌÀÀ ñà íàñî÷åíè êúì îñúùåñòâÿâàíå íà ñëåäíèòå ïðîãðàìè: íåïðåêúñíàòî ðàçâèòèå íà àðõèòåêòóðíîòî è ãðàäîóñòðîéñòâåíî ïëàíèðàíå; àðõèòåêòóðíà òåîðèÿ è íåéíèòå ïðèëîæåíèÿ; àðõèòåêòóðíî îáðàçîâàíèå è ïðîôåñèîíàëíà êâàëèôèêàöèÿ; ïðîôåñèîíàëíà èíôîðìàöèÿ; àðõèòåêòóðà è åêîëîãèÿ; ïîäêðåïà íà ïðîãðàìèòå, äåêëàðàöèè è äåéíîñòè, îðãàíèçèðàíè îò ÎÍ.  ìåæäóíàðîäåí ìàùàá äåéíîñòèòå íà ÌÀÀ âêëþ÷âàò ìåæäóíàðîäíè àðõèòåêòóðíè êîíôåðåíöèè, êîíêóðñè è èçëîæáè, ñâåòîâíèÿ òðèåíèàë ïî àðõèòåêòóðà (INTERARCH - Ñîôèÿ), ïðîâåæäàí íà âñåêè òðè ãîäèíè, ðåãèîíàëíè ñåìèíàðè è ñèìïîçèóìè. Çà ïîñëåäíèòå ãîäèíè ñïåöèàëíî âíèìàíèå ñå îáðúùà íà ñëåääèïëîìíîòî îáó÷åíèå íà ìëàäè òàëàíòëèâè àðõèòåêòè îò öåëèÿ ñâÿò. ÌÀÀ èìà êëîíîâå â Ðóñèÿ, ßïîíèÿ, Ôðàíöèÿ, Òóðöèÿ, ÑÀÙ, Èòàëèÿ è Õîëàíäèÿ. Öåíòúðúò íà ÌÀÀ â Ïàðèæ – åâðîïåéñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà å â äîáðî ñúòðóäíè÷åñòâî ñ ôðåíñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà. ÌÀÀ èìà óíèêàëíà êîëåêöèÿ-èçëîæáà, ïðåäñòàâÿùà àðõèòåêòóðíè òâîðáè íà èçâåñòíè àðõèòåêòè. Êîëåêöèÿòà íîñè íàèìåíîâàíèåòî: ” Âîäåùè ìàéñòîðè íà ñâåòîâíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà”. Òàçè èçëîæáà å ïðåäñòàâåíà â Èñòàíáóë, Áàðñåëîíà, Ìîñêâà, Òáèëèñè, Ñîôèÿ, Ìàõà÷êàëà, Àñòàíà è äð.


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International Academy of Architecture (IAA), 35, Oborichte Street, 1504 Sofia, Bulgaria, Fax: 359 2 943 49 59, Phone: 359 2 943 49 50, 944 62 97, Email: 0882@mail.bol.bg, www.iaa-ngo.org Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà, Óë.”Îáîðèùå” 35, 1504 Ñîôèÿ, Áúëãàðèÿ, ôàêñ: 359 2 943 49 59 , òåë.: 943 49 50 , 944 62 97 , Email: 0882@mail.bol.bg, www.iaa-ngo.org

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anniversary of MAA

For IAA 20th anniversary I believe the activity of the IAA and its new magazine “WAM” is of great importance because it creates a comparison that, encouraging a cultural debate open to the whole Europe, witnesses in positive terms of our time. Mario Botta November 2007 Çà äâàäåñåòàòà ãîäèøíèíà íà ÌÀÀ Âÿðâàì, ÷å äåéíîñòòà íà ÌÀÀ è íîâîòî ñïèñàíèå WAM å îò èçêëþ÷èòåëíà âàæíîñò, çàùîòî óñïÿâà äà ñúçäàäå ïîëå çà ñðàâíåíèå, êîåòî íàñúð÷àâà êóëòóðíèÿ äåáàò, îòâîðåí êúì öÿëà Åâðîïà, åäèí ñâèäåòåë íà íàøåòî âðåìå.

Congratulations on the 20th anniversary of the International Academy of Architecture. As one of the academicians, I am delighted at the news of this occasion. I hold Georgi Stoilov and the commissioners in great veneration for their efforts on the academy’s active services that have continued throughout these past two decades. One of the most important characteristics of the IAA is the fact that its headquarters are located in Sofia. Upon visiting the city before, I was deeply moved by its exotic beauty. The city is at a cultural intersection of east and west, where Western culture began blending into Eastern culture. Today, as we begin to see a decline of Modernism, we are impelled to find ways of merging Western rationalist thought and ideas of Eastern naturalism. In this regard, I think that the IAA is certainly positioned at the ideal location. I would like the young architects, who will play significant roles in our future, to know more about the importance of the IAA. Toyo Ito Ïîçäðàâè ïî ñëó÷àé äâàäåñåòàòà ãîäèøíèíà íà ÌÀÀ. Êàòî åäèí îò àêàäåìèöèòå, çà ìåí å ìíîãî ïðèÿòåí ïîâîä. Àç èçïèòâàì èçêëþ÷èòåëíà ïî÷èò êúì Ãåîðãè Ñòîèëîâ è êîìèñèîíåðèòå çà òåõíèòå óñèëèÿ çà äåéíîñòòà íà ÌÀÀ, ïðîäúëæèëè ïðåç ïîñëåäíèòå äâå äåêàäè. Åäíà îò íàé-âàæíàòà õàðàêòåðèñòèêà íà ÌÀÀ å, ÷å ñåäàëèùåòî å â Ñîôèÿ. Êîãàòî çà ïúðâè ïúò ïîñåòèõ ãðàäà, îñòàíàõ èçêëþ÷èòåëíî âïå÷àòëåí îò åêçîòè÷íàòà ìó êðàñîòà.


NEWS

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anniversary of MAA Twenty years ago, under the impassioned leadership of Georgi Stoilov, the International Academy of Architecture was founded. Stoilov enjoyed the support of the ‘Last of the Mohicans’ in the field of modern architecture, such as Pierre Vago, Felix Candela, Georges Candilis, Aldo van Eijk, Kiyonori Kikutake and Jan Hoogstad, idealists who still believed in a ‘manufacturable’ society and in particular in the social significance architecture might have in this context. Looking back at what has happened in the course of those 20 years, one is forced to conclude that little of the substance of that idealism remains today. Faith in a manufacturable society, in any case, was only ever shared by a small Gideon’s Band of inspired idealists. These days, noteworthy architecture is increasingly produced in the service of - and increasingly directed by - political leaderships keen on prestige. Just look at Dubai and Abu Dhabi, where architecture has been taken to circus-like extremes. It remains to be seen, however, whether idealism has entirely lost its place. I don’t believe it has; in fact I think that it has always been the driving force of the IAA, and should remain so. For this reason I would like to initiate a discussion in WAM magazine, centring on the search for the basis of architecture. The initial points for debate can be found here. These could be further explored, along with the responses they elicit, at the next Triennial. Jan Hoogstad Rotterdam, 5 November 2007

Ïðåäè äâàäåñåò ãîäèíè ïîä âäúõíîâåíîòî ðúêîâîäñòâî íà Ãåîðãè Ñòîèëîâ Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àðõèòåêòóðíà àêàäåìèÿ áå îñíîâàíà. Ñòîèëîâ ñå ðàäâàøå íà ïîäêðåïàòà íà ”ïîñëåäíèòå ìîõèêàíè” â ñôåðàòà íà ìîäåðíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà êàòî Ïèåð Âàãî, Ôåëèêñ Êàíäåëà, Äæîðäæ Êàíäèëèñ, Àëäî âàí Åéê, Êèéîíîðè Êèêóòàêå è ßí Õîãñòàä - èäåàëèñòè, êîèòî âñå îùå âÿðâàõà â ”èíäóñòðèàëèçèðàíîòî îáùåñòâî” è, ïî-òî÷íî, â ñîöèàëíîòî çíà÷åíèå, êîåòî àðõèòåêòóðàòà ìîæå äà èìà â òîçè êîíòåêñò. Ïîãëåæäàéêè íàçàä êúì òîâà, êîåòî ñå å ñëó÷èëî çà òåçè äâàäåñåò ãîäèíè, ÷îâåê å ïðèíóäåí äà ïðèçíàå, ÷å ìàëêî å îñòàíàëî îò ñúùèíàòà íà òîçè èäåàëèçúì.  òåçè âðåìåíà íèñêîêà÷åñòâåíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà ñòàâà âñå ïî-ðàçïðîñòðàíåíà è äî ãîëÿìà ñòåïåí å óïðàâëÿâàíà îò ïîëèòè÷åñêè ðúêîâîäñòâà, ñòðåìÿùè ñå êúì ïðåñòèæ. Ñàìî ïîãëåäíåòå Äóáàé è Àáó Äàáè, êúäåòî àðõèòåêòóðàòà å äîâåäåíà äî öèðêîâè åêñòðåìè. Íî âúïðåêè òîâà âñå îùå îñòàâà äà âèäèì äàëè èäåàëèçìúò å íàïúëíî èç÷åçíàë. Àç íå âÿðâàì, ÷å å - âñúùíîñò ìèñëÿ, ÷å å äâèæåùàòà ñèëà íà ÌÀÀ è áè òðÿáâàëî òàêà äà îñòàíå. Çàòîâà áèõ èñêàë äà çàïî÷íà äèñêóñèÿ âúâ ñïèñàíèåòî WAM, öåíòðèðàíà âúðõó òúðñåíåòî íà îñíîâèòå íà àðõèòåêòóðàòà. Îòïðàâíèòå òî÷êè çà òîçè äåáàò ìîãàò äà áúäàò íàìåðåíè òóê. Ïî-íàòàòúê áèõà ìîãëè äà áúäàò çàäúëáî÷åíè, çàåäíî ñ îòãîâîðèòå, êîèòî äîíåñàò - íà ñëåäâàùîòî òðèåíàëå. It hardly seems possible that the International Academy of Architecture was formed twenty years ago. As an early member and Academician of IAA, and a former member of the Academic Council, I have been pleased to see how it has flourished over the past 20 years. When Professor Georgi Stoilov conceived the idea of an International Academy, he did so with the recognition of the tremendous social, technological and design advances of the 20th Century, but also with the knowledge that there needed to be continued and increased work in research, theory and design in architecture and planning as we prepared for the 21st Century. In addition, IAA realized the vital role that architectural practitioners must play in mentoring students and young architects, as well as in working with educators to assure students are adequately prepared for the profession. These original goals and objectives for IAA have been vigorously pursued and implemented touching the lives of an untold number of students, young architects, and seasoned practitioners around the world. Of particular importance to me is the direction and leadership given by IAA in “sustainable architecture.” In 1994, the IV Assembly of the International Academy of Architecture approved a “Charter ‘Horizon 2000’ - Sustainable Architecture for a Sustainable World.” I was proud to be a signatory of this comprehensive document which was an early forerunner in urging architects and society to adopt more sustainable practices. It is as valid today as it was in 1994. Architects throughout the world must take up and increase the crusade to provide a much more sustainable built environment for the survival of our world and mankind. I am confident that the International Academy of Architecture will continue this most important work of urging all architects, educators, and clients to address sustainability in all of their architectural design and planning. Prof. R. Randall Vosbeck, FAIA IAA Academician Òðóäíî å çà âÿðâàíå, ÷å Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà áåøå îñíîâàíà ïðåäè öåëè 20 ãîäèíè. Êàòî ðàíåí ÷ëåí â ÌÀÀ è áèâø-÷��åí íà Àêàäåìè÷íîòî êîíñóëñòâî ñå ðàäâàì äà âèäÿ êàê ïðîöúôòÿâàøå ïðåç ïîñëåäíèòå 20 ãîäèíè. Êîãàòî ïðîô. Ãåîðãè Ñòîèëîâ ôîðìóëèðà èäåÿòà çà Ìåæäóíàðîäíà àêàäåìèÿ, òîé íàïðàâè òîâà ñ ïðèçíàíèåòî çà íåâåðîÿòíèòå ñîöèàëíè, òåõíîëîãè÷íè è ïðîåêòàíòñêè ïîñòèæåíèÿ íà 20 âåê, íî ñúùî òàêà ñúñ çíàíèåòî, ÷å òðÿáâà äà èìà ïðîäúëæèòåëíà è çàäúëáî÷åíà ðàáîòà â èçñëåäîâàòåëñêàòà äåéíîñò, òåîðèÿòà è äèçàéíà â àðõèòåêòóðàòà è ïëàíèðàíåòî, ïîäãîòâÿéêè ñå çà 21 âåê. Îò îñîáåíî çíà÷åíèå çà ìåí å è ïîñîêàòà è âîäà÷åñòâîòî íà ÌÀÀ êúì ”åêîëîãè÷íàòà àðõèòåêòóðà” Ïðåç 1994, IV àñàìáëåÿ íà Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà óñòàíîâè - Óñòàâ Õîðèçîíò 2000 ”Ïðèðîäîñúîáðàçíà àðõèòåêòóðà çà ïðèðîäî-ñúîáðàçåí ñâÿò”. Àç ñúì ãîðä äà áúäà åäèí îò ïîäïèñàëèòå òîçè ìúäúð äîêóìåíò, êîéòî áåøå ïðåäâåñòíèê çà ñòðåìåæà íà àðõèòåêòèòå è îáùåñòâîòî äà âúçïðèåìàò ïîâå÷å åêîëîãè÷íè ïðàêòèêè.


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To: Academic Council of the IAA President, academician Georgy Stoilov Allow me to greet you and in your person - all members of the International Academy of architecture in the occasion of the twentieth anniversary. A beautiful world has been gifted to the humanity - skies, solid earth, waters. A beautiful space. An architect, basically, completes what was given, trying not to spoil or harm it, brings improvements that help him to create conditions for human stay, growth and realization of public needs. This universal selfless mission has been entrusted to architects. Unfortunately, still there is misunderstanding of all depth and meaning of architect‘s work. The essence of architecture proves that it must be in line with material, socio-economic and financial abilities, in line with “place and time” conditions. The mighty forces are involved in the process of creation: on the one hand -there is a customer (lord, president, emperor !), on the other one is public opinion, cultural context, mass common sense, finally ! An architect is the one who`s called up to counterbalance a range of multiple, often opposite, interests. He should make them all his allies - that`s his most important uniting mission. The profession in general and the International Academy of architecture as its supreme link faces a challenge of virtuous management of the progress‘ machine in order to restrain globalization and its destroying intentions. This means that an architect-director must have his sense of Time and sense of History bound by his responsibility towards originality of cultures. The International Academy of architecture is the assembly of masters, each one of them possesses his personal work, his own achievements, his personal experience in professional and human preferences and commitments. The most valuable thing for the IAA community - is world dialogue, professional communication that brings priceless personal to the level of the common heritage. In 1987, I was honored in the name of my country to greet the first founding session of the IAA. At that same time, the IAA Academic Council approved accreditation of its first “embassy-mission” in Moscow that now has become a biggest IAA Branch in the Euro-Asian region of the world. Academician Yuri Platonov, President of the International Academy of architecture, Moscow Branch

Ïîçâîëåòå ìè äà âè ïîçäðàâÿ è âúâ âàøå èìå - âñè÷êè ÷ëåíîâå íà Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà ïî ñëó÷àé 20òàòà é ãîäèøíèíà. Ïðåêðàñåí ñâÿò å ïîäàðåí íà ÷îâåøêèÿ ðîä - íåáåñà, ïëîäîðîäíè çåìè, âîäè. Ïðåêðàñíî ïðîñòðàíñòâî. Àðõèòåêòúò îñíîâíî çàâúðøâà òîâà, êîåòî ìó å âúçëîæåíî, îïèòâàéêè ñå äà íå ðàçâàëÿ èëè íàðàíÿâà, äà äîïðèíàñÿ ñ ïîäîáðåíèÿ, êîèòî ìó ïîìàãàò äà ñå ñúçäàäàò óñëîâèÿ çà ðàñòåæ è çàäîâîëÿâàíå íà ÷îâåøêèòå íóæäè. Òàçè óíèâåðñàëíà áåçëè÷íà ìèñèÿ å äîâåðåíà íà àðõèòåêòèòå. Çà ñúæàëåíèå îáà÷å âñå îùå èìà íåðàçáèðàíå â äúëáîêîòî çíà÷åíèå íà ðàáîòàòà íà àðõèòåêòà. Ñúùíîñòòà íà àðõèòåêòóðàòà ïîêàçâà, ÷å òÿ òðÿáâà äà áúäå â òàêò ñ ìàòåðèàëèòå, ñîöèàëíî-èêîíîìè÷åñêèòå è ôèíàíñîâèòå ñïîñîáíîñòè, â òàêò ñ óñëîâèÿòà íà ”âðåìåòî è ìÿñòîòî”. Ìîãúùè ñèëè ñà âêëþ÷åíè â êðåàòèâíèÿ ïðîöåñ îò åäíà ñòðàíà å êëèåíòúò (ëîðä, ïðåçèäåíò, èìïåðàòîð!) îò äðóãàòà ñòðàíà å îáùåñòâåíîòî ìíåíèå, êóëòóðíèÿò êîíòåêñò, îáùîòî ÷óâñòâî íà ìàñàòà è íàé-íàêðàÿ å àðõèòåêòúò, êîéòî òðÿáâà äà íàïðàâè áàëàíñà ìåæäó ìíîãîòî, ÷åñòî ïðîòèâîïîëîæíè èíòåðåñè. Òîé òðÿáâà äà íàïðàâè âñè÷êè òÿõ ñâîè ñúþçíèöè - òîâà å íåãîâàòà íàé-âàæíà îáåäèíèòåëíà ìèñèÿ. Ïðîôåñèÿòà êàòî öÿëî è Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà êàòî íåéíà íàé-âèñøà âðúçêà ñðåùà ïðåäèçâèêàòåëñòâî â ëèöåòî íà ñèëíèÿ ìåíèäæìúíò íà ìàøèíàòà íà ïðîãðåñà, çà äà îãðàíè÷è ãëîáàëèçàöèÿòà è íåéíèòå óíèùîæèòåëíè íàìåðåíèÿ. Òîâà çíà÷è, ÷å àðõèòåêòúò ðåæèñüîð òðÿáâà äà èìà óñåùàíå çà âðåìåòî è èñòîðèÿòà, ñâúðçàíè ñ íåãîâàòà îòãîâîðíîñò êúì êîðåíèòå íà êóëòóðèòå. Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà å àñàìáëåÿ íà ìàéñòîðèòå, ïðèòåæàâàùè ñâîèòå èíäèâèäóàëíè ðàáîòè, ïîñòèæåíèÿ, îïèò, ïðîôåñèîíàëíè è ëè÷íè ïðåäïî÷èòàíèÿ è çàíÿòèÿ. Íàé-öåííîòî íåùî â ÌÀÀ å ñâåòîâíèÿò äèàëîã, ïðîôåñèîíàëíàòà êîìóíèêàöèÿ, êîÿòî âîäè íà åäíî ìÿñòî óíèêàëíè ëè÷íîñòè è ïðîôåñèîíàëèñòè, ó÷àñòâàùè â èçãðàæäàíåòî íà îáùîòî íàñëåäñòâî. Ïðåç 1987 ã. èìàõ ÷åñòòà îò èìåòî íà ìîÿòà ñòðàíà äà îòïðàçíóâàì ïúðâîòî ñúáðàíèå íà ÌÀÀ.  ñúùèÿ ìîìåíò ÌÀÀ Àêàäåìè÷íî êîíñóëñòâî ïîëó÷è ðàçðåøåíèå çà ïúðâàòà ñè ”ïîñëàíè÷åñêà-ìèñèÿ” â Ìîñêâà, êúäåòî äíåñ å åäèí îò íàéãîëåìèòå îòäåëè íà ÌÀÀ â Åâðî-Àçèàòñêàòà ÷àñò íà ñâåòà.


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anniversary of MAA

WAM - INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE - 20 YEARS The occasion of the 20th Anniversary of the foundation of the International Academy of Architecture definitely calls for a festive and cheerful CELEBRATION. Over the two decades, the Academy has been a leading instrumental body in the furthering of innovative architectural design, critical theories and the development and advancement of education of the profession. As a professor of the IAA and later as an Academician, I have had the privilege and pleasure of participating in numerous workshops and most of the Biennales. These events have always proved to be of a great stimulus, not only for young emerging architects but also for those of more advanced years. I personally have particularly fond memories of workshop sessions in Bulgaria, Dagestan and Russia with such distinguished colleagues as the late Felix Candela, Dennis Sharp, Jan Hoogstad, Manfredi Nicoletti, Kiyonori Kikutate, Georgi Stoilov and others. The intellectual discourse and exchange at all IAA activities have always left me feeling elated, full of enthusiasm and also with a sense of having been enriched and fulfilled artistically. As an institution, the IAA has also been instrumental in conveying to developing countries advice and guidelines on urban city planning and the direction architecture should take for valid innovative expressions which reflect both the Zeitgeist of our times while at the same time respecting the genius loci of the place. Without doubt, over its 20 years of existence, the IAA has proved itself to be both a beacon and guiding light for not only young architects but also to members of the profession of the older generation and to architecture itself. I feel it is apt here to pay tribute to the enthusiasm, outstanding organizational qualities and convivial character of he who has been the guiding light of the Academy, its President, Georgi Stoilov. In all of these twenty years it has been his ardent energy and fervid devotion which have steered and sustained the lifeline of the Academy. Thank you Georgi! In closing I would like to extend congratulations to the Academy and to its Academic Council for past achievements and also to convey my best wishes for further future successes. Ad multos annos! Prof. Richard England Hon. F.AIA. Acad. IAA WAM - Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà - 20 ãîäèíè Ïîâîäúò 20-òàòà ãîäèøíèíà îò îñíîâàâàíåòî íà Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà îïðåäåëåíî èçèñêâà âåñåëî è òîïëî ïðàçíåíñòâî. Ïðåç äâåòå äåêàäè àêàäåìèÿòà áåøå âîäåùî èíñòðóìåíòàëíî òÿëî â ïðîäúëæàâàíåòî íà íîâàòîðñêî àðõèòåêòóðíî ïðîåêòèðàíå, êðèòè÷åñêè òåîðåòè÷íè òðóäîâå è ðàçâèòèåòî è íàïðåäúêà â ïðåïîäàâàíåòî íà ïðîôåñèÿòà. Êàòî ïðîôåñîð íà ÌÀÀ è ïî-êúñíî êàòî àêàäåìèê èìàõ ÷åñòòà è óäîâîëñòâèåòî äà ó÷àñòâàì â ðåäèöà ñåìèíàðè è â ïîâå÷åòî îò áèåíàëåòàòà. Òåçè ñúáèòèÿ âèíàãè ñà áèëè èçêëþ÷èòåëíî ñòèìóëèðàùè, íå ñàìî çà ìëàäèòå òåïúðâà íàâëèçàùè àðõèòåêòè, íî è çà òåçè ñ ïî-ãîëÿì îïèò. Àç ëè÷íî èìàì ïðåêðàñíè ñïîìåíè îò ñåìèíàðíè ñðåùè â Áúëãàðèÿ, Äàãåñòàí è Ðóñèÿ ñ òîëêîâà áåëåæèòè êîëåãè êàòî Ôåëèêñ Êàíäåëà, ßí Õîãñòàä, Ìàíôðåäè Íèêîëåòè, Êèüîíîðè Êèêóòàêå, Ãåîðãè Ñòîèëîâ è äðóãè. Èíòåëåêòóàëíèÿò äèñêóðñ è îáìåí âúâ âñè÷êè îò äåéíîñòèòå íà ÌÀÀ âèíàãè ñà ìå êàðàëè äà ñå âúîäóøåâÿâàì, åíòóñèàçèðàì è äà ñå ÷óâñòâàì àðòèñòè÷íî óäîâëåòâîðåí. ×óâñòâàì, ÷å òóê å ïîäõîäÿùîòî ìÿñòî äà ñå îò÷åòå ïî÷èò êúì åíòóñèàçìà, çàáåëåæèòåëíèòå îðãàíèçàöèîííè êà÷åñòâà è æèçíåðàäîñòåí õàðàêòåð íà òîçè, êîéòî áåøå âîäåùàòà ñâåòëèíà íà àêàäåìèÿòà, íåéíèÿò ïðåçèäåíò, Ãåîðãè Ñòîèëîâ. Ïðåç âñè÷êèòå òåçè 20 ãîäèíè, òîé áåøå æàðêàòà åíåðãèÿ è ãîðåùîòî ïîñâåùàâàíå, êîåòî íà÷åðòà è ïîääúðæàøå ëèíèÿòà íà æèâîò íà Àêàäåìèÿòà. Áëàãîäàðÿ, Ãåîðãè! Çà êðàé áèõ èñêàë äà ðàçøèðÿ ïîçäðàâèòå êúì Àêàäåìèÿòà è íà Àêàäåìè÷íîòî êîíñóëñòâî çà ìèíàëè ïîñòèæåíèÿ è ñúùî äà ïðåäàì ìîèòå íàé-äîáðè ïîæåëàíèÿ çà ïî-íàòàòúøåí áúäåù óñïåõ.

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In its 20 years of existence, the International Academy of Architecture has become a serious and solid institution for the celebration, study and knowledge of good Architecture. Through these years it has helped the profession in different ways, making us feel proud of our profession as well as understand the different cultural approaches to Architecture coming from different cultures. I feel honored to be part of the Academy in this first of many, 20 years period. I wish you the continuation of your success and offer all my personal support. Ricardo Legorreta Ïðåç ñâîèòå 20 ãîäèíè íà ñúùåñòâóâàíå ÌÀÀ ñå ïðåâúðíà â ñåðèîçíà è ñòàáèëíà èíñòèòóöèÿ çà ÷åñòâàíåòî, èçñëåäâàíåòî è ó÷åíåòî íà äîáðàòà àðõèòåêòóðà. Ïðåç ãîäèíèòå å ïîìàãàëà íà ïðîôåñèÿòà ïî ðàçëè÷íè íà÷èíè, êàðàéêè íè äà ñå ÷óâñòâàìå ãîðäè îò íàøàòà ïðîôåñèÿ, êàêòî è äà ðàçáåðåì ðàçëè÷íèòå êóëòóðíè ïîäõîäè êúì àðõèòåêòóðàòà, èäâàùè îò ðàçëè÷íèòå êóëòóðè. Çà ìåí å ÷åñò äà áúäà ÷àñò îò Àêàäåìèÿòà â òîçè ïúðâè îò ìíîãîòî - 20 -ãîäèøåí ïåðèîä. Ïîæåëàâàì óñïåõ ïî-íàòàòúê è ïðåäëàãàì ìîÿòà ïúëíà ëè÷íà ïîäêðåïà.


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On this auspicious occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding of International Academy of Architecture, I wish to congratulate President Georgi Stoilov and everyone who has been involved to make IAA what it is today. Over the decades, IAA has led the organizing of numerous important international symposiums, competitions, work shops, and petitions in various cities. IAA’s publishing and prize giving activities have given renown architectural designers and their works the opportunity for further introduction and recognition. Equally important has been the effort to support the young architects through the IAA organized Young Architect’s Forum. It is indeed admirable that so many positive events in the realm of architecture have been carried out on a regular basis by IAA for the last 20 years. I hereby wish to sincerely express my appreciation and respect to President Stoilov for his utterly superb vision and leadership, and remain in anticipation of IAA’s continued dynamic growth. Kiyonori Kikutake Architect, Tokyo Ùå èçïîëçâàì òîçè ïðèÿòåí ïîâîä - äâàäåñåòàòà ãîäèøíèíà îò îñíîâàâàíåòî íà ÌÀÀ - äà ïîçäðàâÿ ïðåçèäåíòà Ãåîðãè Ñòîèëîâ è âñè÷êè õîðà, ó÷àñòâàëè â ðàçâèòèåòî íà ÌÀÀ, çà äà áúäå äíåñ òîâà, êîåòî å. Ïðåç ãîäèíèòå ÌÀÀ ñå çàíèìàâà ñ îðãàíèçèðàíåòî íà ðåä âàæíè ìåæäóíàðîäíè ñèìïîçèóìè, ñúñòåçàíèÿ, ñåìèíàðè, ïåòèöèè â ðàçëè÷íè ãðàäîâå. Ïóáëèêàöèèòå íå ÌÀÀ è íàãðàäèòå ñà äàëè âúçìîæíîñòòà íà èçÿâåíè äèçàéíåðè - àðõèòåêòè çà ïî-íàòàòúøíè èçÿâè è ïðèçíàíèå. Ñúùî òîëêîâà âàæíè ñà è óñèëèÿòà çà ïîîùðåíèå íà ìëàäèòå àðõèòåêòèòå ÷ðåç ôîðóìà íà ÌÀÀ çà ìëàäè àðõèòåêòè. Äîñòîåí çà óâàæåíèå å ôàêòúò, ÷å òîëêîâà ìíîãî ñúáèòèÿ ñà ñå ñëó÷èëè áëàãîäàðåíèå íà ÌÀÀ ïðåç ïîñëåäíèòå 20 ãîäèíè. Èìåííî ñåãà áèõ èñêàë äà èçðàçÿ ìîåòî ëè÷íî îòíîøåíèå è óâàæåíèå êúì ïðåçèäåíòà Ñòîèëîâ çà íåãîâàòà èçêëþ÷èòåëíà äàëíîâèäíîñò è ðúêîâîäíè êà÷åñòâà è îñòàâàì â î÷àêâàíå íà áúäåùèÿ äèíàìè÷åí ðàñòåæ íà ÌÀÀ.

International Academy of Architecture celebrates its 20th anniversary The international academy of architecture learned to prove itself as leading institution for communications and turns out to be an important link, which convey for the different opinions of the masters in architecture. The International Academy of Architecture successfully organizes events, which help the understanding of the architecture from the common people. The space becomes more and more necessary in the urban life. The international academy of Architecture supports our tentative to influence on the behavior with the mean of the space, qualifying the architecture today. The goal must be: The functionality follows the form. The emotional qualities of the space generate the real value, which can be used. Our architecture should be based on this precondition. The use of the space shall be motivated by its location and outlook - in this manner the advantage of the space is optimized. We shall follow this principle. The International Academy of Architecture can help. The bad space does not give the right environmental conditions for living. The urban space should not be a spring for psychological tension. We all greet the International Academy of Architecture with its persistent activities that are in contrast with the banality and show works on high level in the sphere of the world architecture. Prof. Doctor Justus Dahinden, MAA

Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà ñå íàó÷è äà äîêàçâà ñåáå ñè êàòî îñíîâíà èíñòèòóöèÿ íà êîìóíèêàöèÿòà è ñå ÿâÿâà êàòî âàæíî çâåíî, êîåòî äîïðèíàñÿ çà ðàçëè÷íèòå ìíåíèÿ íà ìàéñòîðèòå â àðõèòåêòóðàòà. Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà óñïåøíî îðãàíèçèðà ñúáèòèÿ, êîèòî äîïðèíàñÿò çà ðàçáèðàíåòî íà àðõèòåêòóðíèòå òâîðáè îò õîðàòà. Ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî ñòàâà âñå ïî-íåîáõîäèìî â ãðàäñêèÿ æèâîò. Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà ïîäêðåïÿ íàøèòå îïèòè äà âëèÿåì âúðõó ïîâåäåíèåòî ÷ðåç ñðåäñòâàòà íà ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî, êàòî îêà÷åñòâÿâà àðõèòåêòóðàòà äíåñ. Öåëòà òðÿáâà äà áúäå: Ôóíêöèîíàëíîñòòà ñëåäâà ôîðìàòà. Åìîöèîíàëíèòå êà÷åñòâà íà ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî ãåíåðèðàò èñòèíñêà öåííîñò, êîÿòî ìîæå äà áúäå èçïîëçâàíà. Íàøàòà àðõèòåêòóðà îñíîâíî òðÿáâà äà ñå áàçèðà íà òàçè ïðåäïîñòàâêà. Èçïîëçâàíåòî íà ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî òðÿáâà äà áúäå ìîòèâèðàíî ÷ðåç íåãîâîòî ðàçïîëîæåíèå è âúíøåí âèä - ïî òîçè íà÷èí ñå îïòèìèçèðà èçãîäàòà îò ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî. Òðÿáâà äà ñëåäâàìå òîçè ïðèíöèï. Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà ùå ïîìîãíå. Íèå âñè÷êè ïîçäðàâÿâàìå Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïî àðõèòåêòóðà ñ íåéíèòå ïîñòîÿííè äåéñòâèÿ, êîèòî ñå êîíôðîíòèðàò ñ áàíàëíîñòòà è ïîêàçâàò òâîðáè îò âèñîêà êëàñà â ñôåðàòà íà ñâåòîâíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà.


NEWS

8 Seuthopolis, the city of the Thracian king Seuthes the IIIrd, and the capital of the ancient state of Odrissia, (end of IV c. BC.) was discovered and explored in 1948 - 1954 during the construction of the Koprinca dam. Unfortunately, after the dam was filled with water the first and the best preserved Thracian city in modern Bulgaria remained on the bottom of the artificial lake. This mistake, from the times of historical and national nihilism, can be corrected today and Seuthopolis can be returned into the treasure house of world cultural heritage. The project for exhibiting Seuthopolis suggests the possibility to uncover, preserve and partially reconstruct the city while making it publicly accessible. Through the project the exceptional historical, educational, cultural and tourist value of Seuthopolis is realized in a unique architectural structure in the natural environment. The ancient city is taken back from the water through a circular dam wall, resembling a well on the bottom of which, as on a stage, is presented the historical epic of Seuthopolis. Approaching the surrounding ring by boat from the shore Seuthopolis is completely hidden for the eye. But the view from the wall is breathtaking - with its scale, comprehensiveness and unique point of view; from the boundary between past and present. The possibility to see the city from the height of 20 meters allows the perception of its entirety - an exceptional possibility for excavations of such a scale. The movement with the panoramic elevators providing access to the ground level further enriches this impression. The ring of the surrounding wall has a neutral (absolute in relation to time and space) circular form with an outside diameter of 420 meters, circumscribed around the pentagon shape of the ancient city. The ring as contemporary architectural intervention has the meaning of a boundary - between past and present, history and contemporaneity, land and water, up and down. It both separates and integrates the city of Seuthopolis with the surrounding environment in a new architectural synthesis. It exhibits, assesses and rethinks history through its contemporary form and function. The architectural frame of the green wall is transformed in an inverted Thracian tumulus, containing and preserving in itself the city of Seuthopolis. The surrounding wall integrates the ancient city of Seuthopolis in a unique modern tourist complex. The ring is a pier for boats and small ships, an animated street, a park, a panoramic walkway. It will be filled with many programmatic elements restaurants, cafes, shops, rent a bike points, various recreational, sports and fishing facilities. In the ring-wall are housed museum, conference halls, restaurants with view to the city and the dam, hotel complex, service offices, medical offices, elements of the technical infrastructure, etc. The landscaped terraces convert the wall into a park with hanging gardens, places for recreation, flower parterres, open-air exhibitions. The city of Seuthopolis receives the status and qualities of a national and world historical and cultural center with the possibilities for hosting various national and international cultural activities - symposia, exhibitions, concerts, festivals, etc. Museums structure like that can naturally exist in a region so rich with archeological and natural treasures. The unique way of exhibiting the only well preserved Thracian city will turn it into the culmination of the cultural and historical routes in the valley of Kazanlak. Connected with the valley of the Thracian rulers, with its tumuluses, temples and treasures, the historical and cultural complex of Seuthopolis will enrich the cultural, tourist and economic potential of the region and the country and will become an emblem of the rich past, creative potential and realized future.

Seuthopolis project of associate professor Zheko Tilev, Bulgaria, elected as a professor at the annual seminar of IAA held on August 8, 2007 in Moscow


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Ñåâòîïîëèñ ïðîåêò íà äîö. Æåêî Òèëåâ, Áúëãàðèÿ, èçáðàí çà ïðîôåñîð íà ãîäèøíèÿ ñåìèíàð íà Àêàäåìè÷íèÿ ñúâåò íà ÌÀÀ, ñúñòîÿë ñå íà 8. 08. 2007 ã. â Ìîñêâà

Ñåâòîïîëèñ, ãðàäúò íà Ñåâò III ñòîëèöà íà Îäðèñêàòà äúðæàâà îò êðàÿ íà IV - íà÷àëîòî íà III â. ïð.í.å. å ðàçêðèò è ïðîó÷åí ïðåç 1948 - 54 ã. ïðè èçãðàæäàíåòî íà ÿçîâèð Êîïðèíêà äî ãðàä Êàçàíëúê. Òîâà å ïúðâèÿò è íàé-äîáðå çàïàçåí òðàêèéñêè ãðàä â äíåøíà Áúëãàðèÿ, çà ñúæàëåíèå îñòàíàë íà äúíîòî íà ÿçîâèðà ñëåä íàïúëâàíåòî ìó. Äîïóñíàòàòà ãðåøêà ïî âðåìåòî íà èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ è íàöèîíàëåí íèõèëèçúì äíåñ ìîæå äà áúäå ïîïðàâåíà è Ñåâòîïîëèñ äà áúäå âúðíàò â ñúêðîâèùíèöàòà íà ñâåòîâíîòî êóëòóðíî íàñëåäñòâî. Ïðîåêòúò çà åêñïîíèðàíå íà Ñåâòîïîëèñ ïðåäëàãà âúçìîæíîñòòà ãðàäúò äà áúäå íàïúëíî ðàçêðèò, êîíñåðâèðàí, ÷àñòè÷íî ðåñòàâðèðàí è ïîñòîÿííî äîñòúïåí. ×ðåç ïðîåêòà ñå ðåàëèçèðà èçêëþ÷èòåëíàòà èñòîðè÷åñêà, îáðàçîâàòåëíà, êóëòóðíà è òóðèñòè÷åñêà ñòîéíîñò íà Ñåâòîïîëèñ â óíèêàëíà àðõèòåêòóðíà ñòðóêòóðà è ïðèðîäíà ñðåäà. Àíòè÷íèÿò ãðàä ñå îòâîþâà îò ÿçîâèðà ÷ðåç âúòðåøíà êðúãëà ÿçîâèðíà ñòåíà, òàêà ÷å ñå ïîëó÷àâà ñâîåîáðàçåí êëàäåíåö, íà äúíîòî íà êîéòî êàòî íà ñöåíà å ïðåäñòàâåíà èñòîðè÷åñêàòà ïèåñà “Ñåâòîïîëèñ”. Ïðèáëèæàâàéêè ñå ñ ëîäêà îòêúì áðåãà, Ñåâòîïîëèñ îñòàâà àáñîëþòíî ñêðèò çà ïîãëåäà, êàòî ñå âèæäà åäèíñòâåíî îãðàæäàùèÿò ïðúñòåí. Íî ãëåäêàòà îò ñòåíàòà êúì ãðàäà ïðåäèçâèêâà íåâåðîÿòíè âïå÷àòëåíèÿ è óñåùàíèÿ ñúñ ñâîÿòà âñåîáõâàòíîñò, ðàêóðñ è îòïðàâíà òî÷êà îò ãðàíèöàòà ìåæäó ìèíàëî è íàñòîÿùå. Âúçìîæíîñòòà äà ðàçãëåæäàø ãðàäà îò âèñî÷èíà 20 ìåòðà ïîçâîëÿâà âúçïðèåìàíåòî ìó öÿëîñòíî, à íå ôðàãìåíòàðíî - åäíà èçêëþ÷èòåëíà âúçìîæíîñò çà ðàçêîïêè îò òàêúâ ìàùàá. Âïå÷àòëåíèåòî ñå îáîãàòÿâà ïðè äâèæåíèåòî ñ ïàíîðàìíèòå àñàíñüîðè, êîèòî îòâåæäàò äî ñàìèòå ðàçêîïêè çà èíäèâèäóàëíî èëè ãðóïîâî ðàçãëåæäàíå. Ðèíãúò íà îãðàæäàùàòà ñòåíà èìà íåóòðàëíà (àáñîëþòíà ïî îòíîøåíèå íà âðåìåòî è ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî) êðúãëà ôîðìà ñ âúíøåí äèàìåòúð 420 ìåòðà, êîÿòî å îïèñàíà îêîëî ïåòîúãúëíèÿ â ïëàí ãðàä. Ðèíãúò êàòî ñúâðåìåííà àðõèòåêòóðíà íàìåñà èìà ñìèñúë íà ãðàíèöà - ìåæäó ìèíàëî è íàñòîÿùå, èñòîðèÿ è äåéñòâèòåëíîñò, ñóøà è âîäà, ãîðå è äîëó. Òîé ðàçäåëÿ ãðàäà Ñåâòîïîëèñ îò âñè÷êî íàîêîëî, êàòî åäíîâðåìåííî ãî ñâúðçâà ñ âîäàòà è îêîëíèÿ ïåéçàæ â êà÷åñòâåíî íîâà àðõèòåêòóðà. Òÿ åêñïîíèðà, îöåíÿâà è ïðåîñìèñëÿ èñòîðèÿòà ÷ðåç ñúâðåìåííè ôîðìè è ôóíêöèè. Òàêà àðõèòåêòóðíàòà ðàìêà íà îçåëåíåíàòà ñòåíà ñå ïðåâðúùà â îáúðíàòà íàîïàêè òðàêèéñêà ìîãèëà, ñúõðàíèëà â ñåáå ñè ãðàäà Ñåâòîïîëèñ. Îãðàæäàùàòà ñòåíà îñúùåñòâÿâà ôóíêöèîíàëíàòà èíòåãðàöèÿ íà àíòè÷íèÿ Ñåâòîïîëèñ â óíèêàëåí òóðèñòè÷åñêè êîìïëåêñ. Ïðúñòåíúò å êåé çà ïðèñòèãàùèòå ëîäêè è êîðàá÷åòà. Òîâà å åäíà îæèâåíà óëèöà, ïàðê, ïðèñòàíèùå, ïàíîðàìíà àëåÿ. Òîé ùå áúäå íàñèòåí ñ ìíîæåñòâî îáñëóæâàùè åëåìåíòè - ðåñòîðàíòè, êàôåíåòà, ìàãàçèíè, àòåëèåòà, ïóíêòîâå çà íàåìàíå íà âåëîñèïåäè è ëîäêè è ò.í. è ñëóæè çà ðàçíîîáðàçíè ôîðìè íà ðåêðåàöèÿ, ñïîðò,

At night the shining aureole visible from the shores, on the background of the water, the surrounding mountains and the sky will show that the city of Seuthopolis is reborn, present

ðèáîëîâ.  ïðúñòåíà-ñòåíà ñà ðàçïîëîæåíè êîíôåðåíòíè çàëè, ðåñòîðàíòè ñ ãëåäêà êúì ãðàäà è ÿçîâèðà, õîòåëñêè êîìïëåêñ, îáñëóæâàùè îôèñè, ìåäèöèíñêî îáñëóæâàíå, ïîìåùåíèÿ è åëåìåíòè íà òåõíè÷åñêàòà èíôðàñòðóêòóðà. Áîãàòî îçåëåíåíèòå òåðàñè ïðåâðúùàò àíñàìáúëà â ïàðê “âèñÿùè ãðàäèíè” ñ ìåñòà çà îòäèõ, öâåòíè ïëîùè, îòêðèòè èçëîæáè. Òàêà îôîðìåí, Ñåâòîïîëèñ ïîëó÷àâà ñòàòóò è êà÷åñòâà íà íàöèîíàëåí è ñâåòîâåí êóëòóðíî-èñòîðè÷åñêè öåíòúð ñ âúçìîæíîñòè çà ðàçíîîáðàçíè ìåæäóíàðîäíè ïðîÿâè - ñèìïîçèóìè, èçëîæáè, êîíöåðòè, ôåñòèâàëè è äð. Ïîäîáíà ìóçåéíà ñòðóêòóðà èìà åñòåñòâåíî ïðàâî íà ñúùåñòâóâàíå â åäèí ðàéîí, íåâåðîÿòíî áîãàò íà àðõåîëîãè÷íè è ïðèðîäíè äàäåíîñòè. Óíèêàëíèÿò íà÷èí çà åêñïîíèðàíå íà åäèíñòâåíèÿ äîáðå çàïàçåí òðàêèéñêè ãðàä ãî ïðåâðúùà â êóëìèíàöèÿ íà êóëòóðíèòå ìàðøðóòè â Êàçàíëúøêàòà äîëèíà. Ñìèñëîâî è âðåìåâî ñâúðçàí ñ Äîëèíàòà íà òðàêèéñêèòå öàðå, îñåÿíà ñ áåçáðîéíè ïîãðåáàëíè ìîãèëè, õðàìîâå è áëÿñêàâè ñúêðîâèùà, êóëòóðíî-èñòîðè÷åñêèÿò êîìïëåêñ “Ñåâòîïîëèñ” ùå óâåëè÷è êóëòóðíèÿ, òóðèñòè÷åñêè è ñòîïàíñêè ïîòåíöèàë íà ðàéîíà è ñòðàíàòà è ùå ñå ïðåâúðíå â åìáëåìà íà áîãàòî ìèíàëî, òâîð÷åñêè ïîòåíöèàë è ðåàëèçèðàíî áúäåùå.


NEWS

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CASA DA MUSICA Client: Porto 2001 Location: Porto, Portugal Site: Rotunda da Boavista, a round square not far from the centre. Program: Concert hall with 1,200 seats, auditorium with 350 seats, a restaurant, a music shop, a café, a roof terrace, car park for 600 cars and educational and cybermusic facilities.

How to make a serious building in an age of icons? How to make a Public Building - or a Building Public - in the age of the market? A building without nostalgia, not even for Modern Architecture? A European building for a Portugese site? Paradoxically, the fact that Porto is still a city “intact” has maintained the unique status of the solitary building ... Instead of articulating the new concert hall as a segment of the circular wall around Boavista plaza, we have chosen to create a new, more intimate square, surrounded on three sides, on which the Concert Hall stands like an autonomous object. This carefull discontinuity enables us to create a specific context for the new building and to organize issues of symbolism, visibility and access all in one gesture ... Through both continuity and contrast, Boavista plaza, after our intervention, is no longer a mere hinge between the old and the new Porto, but it becomes a positive encounter between two different models of the city. In any conflict science versus art, science always wins. Acoustics versus Architecture is such a fight. Where to innovate in a case of a traditional typology like the concert hall? This century has seen an architecturally frantic attempt to escape from the tyranny of the notorious “shoe-box” that remains, for the specialists (including our own) the best guarantee for perfect acoustics. Where Sharoun was still able to avoid the rectangular form in Berlin, Gehry in Disney Hall yields again to the inevitability of the old prototype. Through its very stability, it is hard to make it part of the contemporary world. Instead of a struggle with form, we have adressed the relationship between the Concert Hall and the Public. Most cultural institutions serve only part of a population. A majority knows only their exterior, only a minority knows what the feel like inside. By considering the building as a solid mass from which we eliminate the two concert halls and all other public facilities, we create a hollowed-out block as exciting fo those outside the block the building as it is for those inside. It reveals its contents without being didactic; at the same time it exposes the city in a way that has never happend before. By dividing the programme in collective spaces that are excarvated and secondary serving spaces - vertical transport, facilities, offices, storage, etc. - the building is both clear and mysterious - the diagram becomes architectural adventure. Competition: Rem Koolhaas and Fernando Romero Havaux with Isabel da Silva, Barbara Wolff, Uwe Herlyn, Matthias Hollwich, Adam Kurdahl, Moritz von Voss, Shohei Shigematsu, Jens Hommert, Erik Schotte, Donald van Dansik, Anna Little, Alexandre Moreno, Frans Blok, Govert Gerritsen, Stephen Griek, Ana Jacinto, Thomas Duda Design Development and Tender: Rem Koolhaas, Ellen van Loon, Fernando Romero Havaux, Adrianne Fisher, Isabel da Silva, Robert Choeff, Barbara Wolff, Saskia Simon, Christian Kronaus, Paulo Costa, Thomas Duda, Ana Jacinto, Constantin von der Muelbe, Rita Armado, Philip Koenen, Peter Müller, Krystian Keck, Eduarda Lima, Christoff Scholl, Alex de Jong.


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Structure: Ove Arup + Partners, Cecil Balmond, Rory McGowan, Patrick Teuffel; AFA Lda. Mechanical: Ove Arup + Partners, Cecil Balmond, Rory McGowan, Patrick Teuffel Acoustics: TNO - TUE Centre for Building Research, J. van Luxemburg, M.Hak, M.Prinsen Scenography: Ducks ScĂŠno, Michel Cova. Facade: van Santen Interiors: Inside Outside


NEWS

12 Êàê äà íàïðàâèì ñåðèîçíà ñãðàäà â åðàòà íà èêîíèòå? Êàê äà íàïðàâèì îáùåñòâåíà ñãðàäà èëè ñãðàäà çà îáùåñòâîòî â åðàòà íà ïàçàðíàòà èêîíîìèêà? Êàê äà íàïðàâèì ñãðàäà áåç íîñòàëãèÿ, äîðè íå çà ñúâðåìåííàòà àðõèòåêòóðà? Êàê äà íàïðàâèì åâðîïåéñêà ñãðàäà çà ïîðòóãàëñêî ìåñòîïîëîæåíèå? Ïàðàäîêñàëåí å ôàêòúò, ÷å Ïîðòî âñå îùå å åäèí íåïîêúòíàò ãðàä, êîéòî ïîääúðæà óíèêàëíèÿ ñòàòóò íà óåäèíåíèòå ñãðàäè. Âìåñòî äà íàáëåãíåì íà íîâàòà êîíöåðòíà çàëà êàòî ñåãìåíò îò êðúãëà ñòåíà îêîëî” Áîàâèñòà” ïëàöà, íèå èçáðàõìå äà ñúçäàäåì íîâ, ïî-óñàìîòåí ïëîùàä, îáãðàäåí îò òðè ñòðàíè, íà êîèòî êîíöåðòíàòà çàëà ñòîè êàòî àâòîíîìåí îáåêò. Òîâà âíèìàòåëíî ïðåêúñâàíå íè äàäå âúçìîæíîñò äà ñúçäàäåì ñïåöèôè÷íà âðúçêà íà íîâàòà ñãðàäà ñ îêðúæàâàùàòà ñðåäà. Ñëåä íàøåòî âìåøàòåëñòâî ïëîùàä „Áîàâèñòà” âå÷å íå å îïîðíà òî÷êà ìåæäó ñòàðèÿ è íîâèÿ Ïîðòî, à å ïîëîæèòåëíà ñðåùà ìåæäó äâà ðàçëè÷íè ìîäåëà íà ãðàäà.

Êúùà íà ìóçèêàòà

 êîéòî è äà å êîíôëèêò íà íàóêàòà è èçêóñòâîòî íàóêàòà âèíàãè ïå÷åëè. Àêóñòèêàòà ñðåùó àðõèòåêòóðàòà - òîâà å ñúùîòî ïðîòèâîáîðñòâî. Êúäå äà ïðàâèì íîâîâúâåäåíèÿ â ñëó÷àé íà òðàäèöèîííà òèïîëîãèÿ, àêî íå â êîíöåðòíàòà çàëà. Îñâåí áîðáàòà ñ ôîðìàòà, íèå ðàçãëåäàõìå âðúçêàòà ìåæäó êîíöåðòíàòà çàëà è îáùåñòâåíèòå çîíè. Ïîâå÷åòî êóëòóðíè èíñòèòóöèè îáñëóæâàò ñàìî ÷àñò îò íàñåëåíèåòî. Áîëøèíñòâîòî ïîçíàâà ñàìî åêñòåðèîðà è ñàìî åäíà ìàëêà ÷àñò îò íàñåëåíèåòî çíàå êàê ñãðàäàòà èçãëåæäà îòâúòðå. Ðàçãëåæäàéêè ÿ êàòî åäèííî öÿëî, îò êîåòî íèå åëèìèíèðàìå äâåòå êîíöåðòíè çàëè è îñòàíàëèòå ñåêòîðè çà ðàçâëå÷åíèÿ, íèå ñúçäàäîõìå âúíøåí ïðàçåí áëîê, òîëêîâà âúëíóâàù çà òåçè , êîèòî ñà îòâúí, è ñúâñåì îáèêíîâåí çà òåçè, êîèòî ñà îòâúòðå. Òîâà ðàçáóëâà íåãîâîòî ñúäúðæàíèå, áåç äà å íðàâîó÷èòåëíî, â ñúùîòî âðåìå òîé ïðåäñòàâÿ ãðàäà ïî íà÷èí, êîéòî íå ñå å ñëó÷âàë äîñåãà. Êàòî ðàçäåëèì âúòðåøíèòå ïðîñòðàíñòâà íà ãëàâíè è âòîðîñòåïåííè - âåðòèêàëåí òðàíñïîðò, óäîáñòâà, îôèñè è ïîìåùåíèÿ, ñãðàäàòà, îò åäíà ñòðàíà, å ÿñíà è îò äðóãà, çàãàäú÷íà,à ïðîåêòúò ñå ïðåâðúùà â àðõèòåêòóðíî ïðèêëþ÷åíèå.


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REM KOOLHAAS ROTTERDAM, 1944 Educated at the Architectural Association School in London from 1968 until 1972, he produced the Berlin Wall as Architecture (1970) and Exodus, or the Voluntary Prisoners of Architecture (1972). In 1972 he received a Harkness Fellowship for research in the United States, studied at Cornell University and then became visiting Fellow at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York. While in New York, he wrote Delirious New York, a retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan, which was published in 1978. Rem Koolhaas founded the Office for Metropolitan Architecture 1975 with Elia and Zoe Zenghelis and Madelon Vriesendorp in London and has been involved in building and urban planning projects ever since. In 1995, he published together with graphic designer Bruce Mau SMLXL, a book that documents the work of OMA and Koolhaas’ interest in contemporary society, building and urban development. Since 1995 he is professor of architecture and urban design at Harvard University. He conducts design research into a focused investigation of current urban-architectural conditions in various parts of the world. Currently he is involved in thesis advising through the ongoing Project on the City. The projects include a study of five cities in the Pearl River Delta; Shopping, an analysis of the role of retail consumption in the contemporary city and recently a study on Lagos, Nigeria. The work of the office has won several international awards, including the Pritzker Architecture Prize 2000, and was the subject of a retrospective exhibition held at the Museum of Modern Art, New York in 1995: Rem Koolhaas and the Place of Public Architecture.

Ðåì Êóëõààñ Ðåì Êóóëõààñ å ïîëó÷èë îáðàçîâàíèåòî ñè â ó÷èëèùå ïî àðõèòåêòóðà â Ëîíäîí îò 1968 äî 1972 ã., èçðàáîòâà ”Áåðëèíñêàòà ñòåíà” êàòî àðõèòåêòóðà (1970) è Exodus, èëè „Äîáðîâîëíè çàòâîðíèöè íà àðõèòåêòóðàòà”(1972). Ïðåç 1972 ã. òîé ïîëó÷àâà ÷ëåíñòâî â Õàðêíåñ çà íàó÷íîèçñëåäîâàòåëñêà ðàáîòà â Íþ Éîðê, ó÷è ñå â óíèâåðñèòåòà â Êîðíåë è ñëåä òîâà ñòàâà àñïèðàíò â èíñòèòóòà ïî àðõèòåêòóðà è ãðàäñêè ïðîó÷âàíèÿ â Íþ Éîðê. Äîêàòî å â Íþ Éîðê, òîé íàïèñâà „Íþ Éîðê íå å íà ñåáå ñè – ðåòðîàêòèâåí ìàíèôåñò çà Ìàíõàòúí”, èçäàäåí ïðåç 1978 ã. Ðåì Êóëõààñ ñúçäàâà îôèñ çà ñòîëè÷íà àðõèòåêòóðà ïðåç 1975 ã. çàåäíî ñ Åëèà è Çîóè Çåíãåëèñ è Ìàäåëîí Âðèñåíäîðï â Ëîíäîí è îò òîãàâà ó÷àñòâà â ïðîåêòè çà ãðàäñêî ïëàíèðàíå è ñòðîåæ. Ïðåç 1995 ã. çàåäíî ñ ãðàôè÷íèÿ äèçàéíåð Áðóñ Ìàó òîé ïóáëèêóâà êíèãà, êîÿòî äîêóìåíòèðà ðàáîòàòà íà îôèñà çà ñòîëè÷íà àðõèòåêòóðà è èíòåðåñà íà Êóëõààñ êúì ñúâðåìåííîòî îáùåñòâî, ñòðîèòåëñòâîòî è ãðàäñêîòî ðàçâèòèå. Îò 1995 ã. òîé å ïðîôåñîð ïî àðõèòåêòóðà è ãðàäñêè äèçàéí â óíèâåðñèòåòà â Õàðâàðä. Ðúêîâîäè íàó÷íîèçñëåäîâàòåëñêè ïðîåêòè çà ãðàäîóñòðàéñòâîòî â ðàçëè÷íè ÷àñòè íà ñâåòà. Ïîíàñòîÿùåì ðàáîòè âúðõó òåçèñ, íàðå÷åí ”Ïðîåêò íà ãðàäà”. Ïðîåêòúò âêëþ÷âà èçó÷àâàíå íà ïåò ãðàäà â Ïúðë ðèâà äåëòà, ïàçàðóâàíåòî - àíàëèç íà ðîëÿòà íà òúðãîâèÿòà íà äðåáíî â ñúâðåìåííèÿ ãðàä. Íàñêîðî å âêëþ÷åí â ïðîó÷âàíèÿ è çà Ëàãîñ, Íèãåðèÿ. Ðàáîòàòà íà íåãîâèÿ åêèï å ñïå÷åëèëà íÿêîëêî ìåæäóíàðîäíè íàãðàäè, âêëþ÷èòåëíî è íàãðàäàòà”Ïðèöêåð” çà àðõèòåêòóðà çà 2000 ã., à ñúùî òàêà å áèëà ïðåäñòàâåíà íà ðåòðîñïåêòèâíà èçëîæáà â Ìóçåÿ çà ñúâðåìåííî èçêóñòâî â Íþ Éîðê ïðåç 1995 ã. ïîä íàñëîâ ”Ðåì Êóëõààñ è ìÿñòîòî íà îáùåñòâåíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà”.


NEWS

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Grand Theatre de Provence Aix-en-Provence, 2003-2007 The history of our relationship with Aix-en-Provence is one of a long love affair, one with its fair share of disappointments. The first time I visited Aix-en-Provence was on the occasion of the congress of the Comités Internationaux de l’Architecture Moderne in 1953, an exciting visit due to the combination of the presence of the great architects of Modernity and that of the ancient city itself, with its beautiful 17thcentury addition as well as the very famous Cours Mirabeau. Then in 1989 we participated in (and lost) the competition for the area of expansion of the historic centre (called Sextius-Mirabeau), won by Oriol Bohigas’ group. Our project was based upon the doubling of the famous “cours” beyond the roundabout named after General De Gaulle as the axis of the new development. Some years later, in 1997, as part of the Bohigas project, we were invited to design and build a block for popular housing, which was completed in 2000. In the same year, we also proposed a layout design for the “Cours Mirabeau”. In 2003 we were chosen as winners among the five participants in the competition for the city’s new opera house and concert hall, which has become famous for its festival of music and theatre. Here our attention was concentrated on the conditions offered by the new layout design of this part of the city. It is a vast space, characterised by a significant difference in levels, the consequence of the roof covering of the railway that passes beside it, by the large sloping green space on the opposite side, by the traffic roundabout (a major entrance point to the city) and by the presence of new buildings spread far and wide. It is a large void, therefore, with the character of a vast and artificialised landscape, in our view not resolvable through the presence of a further isolated architectural element. Our architectural response therefore stands at the crossroads between a strategy for the design of the large open public space and the external and internal opportunities that it can offer one of the most important musical and theatrical activities in Europe, with more than half a century of tradition. The project proposal consists precisely in transforming the complex of the theatre and its facilities into an arrangement of the terrain with the possibility of walking on all the roof coverings of the various volumes

to allow the formation of a series of urban public sites at various levels, theatrically inhabitable and diversified. The series of volumes uses the difference in levels between that of the roundabout (173), that of the railway covering (186) and that of the point of convergence of the pedestrian walkway that leads to Place De Gaulle and Cours Mirabeau and further in the distance looks to the figure of Mont St. Victoire, the famous subject of a work by Cézanne, for which the masses of the new theatre become a kind of urban metaphor. This principle is underlined by the unity of the stone covering material, by its surface treatment with a noticeable cleft finish with various orientations of the coverings, a clear allegory for the geological layers of a large mass, crowned by the trees on the highest terrace that underline its inhabitability. The torsion of the curved volumes seeks linkage with the complexity of the road system and at the same time underlines the exceptionality of the public facilities and their connection with the city. The volume of the theatre is oriented around the perceptive and ideal axis that connects the location with the historic city; this is an axis dialectically underlined by the system directed towards the historic centre of the two rectilinear ramps that allow movement between the planes of the volumetric whole, in turn connected to the atrium of the theatre by the circular plaza of entrance from the city. This 700m2 space, sheltered from the wind and protected from noise with the possibility of closing the access rooms with large metal doors, has a room fully equippable as a stage and connectable with the interior of the theatre atrium, and is proposed as a second, open-air theatre, which it is also possible to cover temporarily with a system of Teflon curtains. But we think that the whole series of roof-terraces forms a possible system of theatrical and musical locations usable for special events in the direction of a possible interpretation of contemporary performance. The theatre atrium consists of spatial episodes differently characterised and located at an intermediate level between the stalls and balconies of the auditorium. As almost always happens nowadays, an auditorium must be capable of offering a suitable environment not only on the acoustic


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level but also on that of the image for a vast and diversified range of theatrical and musical events, from contemporary to early music, from opera and symphony performances for full orchestra to 18th-century music. This also presents a particular difficulty with respect to various traditions: from the space of the box theatre of the Italian tradition to the German one or to the French mixed solutions of the early 20th century, to the problems posed by the total space of electronic music and contemporary performance. The sense of belonging and the capacity to welcome the community of spectators must be mixed together. We therefore believe the unity of the wooden interior material that we have proposed, the Project by the group composed of: Gregotti Associati International s.r.l. (group eader, architectural project) OTH Mediterranee (engineering) Scene (stage equipment) Commins Acoustics Workshop (acoustics) TRIBU (green spaces and environmental parameters) Davis Langdon France (cost control).

inhabitability of the walls as though with a series of narrow galleries and the continuous curvature of the interior space are all important; all respecting the principles of good viewing and concentration when listening. Particular attention has been devoted to the complex system of the theatre’s stage and operational facilities, which in their distribution have formed the framework of the highly unitary mass of the whole. The basis of our proposal remains the tension towards the idea of an inhabitable open space rather than a building, capable of giving a new meaning to the whole of this artificial landscape, the true centre of the new expansion of Aix-en-Provence.


NEWS

16 Ãîëåìèÿò Òåòúð de Provence Aix-en-Provence, 2003-2007ã. Èñòîðèÿòà íà íàøèòå îòíîøåíèÿ ñ Aix-en-Provence å êàòî äúëãà ëþáîâíà èñòîðèÿ. Ïúðâèÿò ïúò, êîãàòî ïîñåòèõ Aix-en-Provence áåøå ïî ñëó÷àé êîíãðåñà íà Èíòåðíàöèîíàëíèÿ êîìèòåò çà ìîäåðíà àðõèòåêòóðà ïðåç 1953 ã. , âúëíóâàùî ïîñåùåíèå, êîåòî ñå äúëæè íà êîìáèíàöèÿòà ìåæäó ïðèñúñòâèåòî íà ãîëåìèòå àðõèòåêòè íà ìîäåðíîñòòà è òîâà íà ñàìèÿ äðåâåí ãðàä ñúñ ñâîèòå êðàñèâè èíòåðâåíöèè îò 17 âåê êàòî èçâåñòíèÿ Cours Mirabeau. Ïîñëå ïðåç 1989 ã. ó÷àñòâàõìå (è èçãóáèõìå) êîíêóðñà çà ðàçøèðÿâàíåòî íà èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ öåíòúð (íàðå÷åí SextiusMirabeau), ñïå÷åëåí îò åêèïà íà Îðèîë Áîõèãàñ. Íàøèÿò ïðîåêò áåøå áàçèðàí âúðõó äóáëèðàíåòî íà èçâåñòíèÿ “cours” ïî çàîáèêîëíèÿ ïúò íî èìåòî íà General De Gaulle êàòî öåíòúð íà íîâèòå ïîñòðîéêè. Íÿêîëêî ãîäèíè ïî-êúñíî, ïðåç 1997 ã. êàòî ÷àñò îò ïðîåêòà íà Áîõèãàñ – áÿõìå ïîêàíåíè äà ïðîåêòèðàìå è ïîñòðîèì æèëèùåí áëîê, êîèòî áåøå çàâúðøåí ïðåç 2000 ã.  ñúùàòà ãîäèíà ïðåäëîæèõìå íîâ äèçàéí íà Cours Mirabeau. Ïðåç 2003 áÿõìå èçáðàíè çà ïîáåäèòåëè ìåæäó ïåòòå ó÷àñòíèöè â êîíêóðñà çà íîâà îïåðà è êîíöåðòíà çàëà, êîèòî ñòàíàõà èçâåñòíè çàðàäè ôåñòèâàëà çà ìóçèêà è òåàòúð. Òóê íàøåòî âíèìàíèå áåøå ñúñðåäîòî÷åíî âúðõó óñëîâèÿòà, ïðåäëàãàíè îò íîâèÿ ïðîåêòåí ïëàí â òàçè ÷àñò íà ãðàäà. Òîâà å øèðîêî ïðîñòðàíñòâî, õàðàêòåðèçèðàíî îò ñèëíàòà ðàçëèêà â íèâàòà, ïîñëåäîâàòåëíîñòòà íà ïîêðèâíîòî ïîêðèòèå, êîåòî ìèíàâà íàä æ.ï. ëèíèÿòà, îãðîìíàòà ñïóñêàùà ñå çåëåíà ïëîù íà îòñðåùíàòà ñòðàíà, îêîëîâðúñòíîòî - ãëàâåí âõîä â ãðàäà è ïðèñúñòâèåòî íà íîâè ñãðàäè, ðàçïðúñíàòè íàäëúæ è íàøèð. Òîâà å ãîëÿìî ïðîñòðàíñòâî ñ õàðàêòåð íà îáøèðåí è èçêóñòâåíî íàïðàâåí ïåéçàæ, îò íàøà ãëåäíà òî÷êà íåðåøèì ñ ïðèñúñòâèåòî íà èçîëèðàí àðõèòåêòóðåí åëåìåíò. Âúïðåêè òîâà íàøèÿò àðõèòåêòóðåí îòãîâîð ñå íàìèðà íà êðúñòîïúòÿ ìåæäó ñòðàòåãèÿòà è äèçàéíà íà îãðîìíî - îòâîðåíî ïóáëè÷íî ïðîñòðàíñòâî è âúíøíèòå è âúòðåøíèòå âúçìîæíîñòè, êîåòî òî ìîæå äà ïðåäëîæè íà íàé-âàæíèòå ìóçèêàëíè è òåàòðàëíè äåéíîñòè â Åâðîïà ñ ïîâå÷å îò âåêîâíà òðàäèöèÿ. Ïðåäëîæåíèåòî çà ïðîåêòà ñå ñúñòîè â òðàíñôîðìèðàíåòî íà êîìïëåêñà îò òåàòúðà è íåãîâèòå ñúîðúæåíèÿ â àðàíæèðàíå íà òåðåíà ñ âúçìîæíîñò çà õîäåíå âúðõó âñè÷êè ïîêðèâè ñ ðàçëè÷åí ðàçìåð, çà äà ïîçâîëÿò ôîðìèðàíåòî íà ñåðèÿ ãðàäñêè ïóáëè÷íè ïðîñòðàíñòâà íà ðàçëè÷íèòå íèâà, òåàòðàëíî íàñåëåíè è ðàçíîîáðàçåíè. Çà öåëòà ñå èçïîëçâà ðàçëèêàòà â íèâàòà íà îáèêîëíèÿ ïúò, ïîêðèâà íà æåëåçíèöàòà, è òàçè â òî÷êàòà íà ñúáèðàíå íà ïåøåõîäíàòà ïúòåêà, êîÿòî âîäè äî Place De Gaulle è Cours Mirabeau è ïî-íàòàòúê ãëåäà êúì ôèãóðàòà íà Mont St. Victoire, èçâåñòíà îò ðàáîòèòå íà Ñåçàí, êúäåòî íîâèÿò òåàòúð ñòàâà íåùî êàòî óðáàíèñòè÷íà ìåòàôîðà. Òîçè ïðèíöèï å ïîä÷åðòàí îò îáåäèíÿâàíåòî íà êàìåíåí ïîêðèâåí ìàòåðèàë, îò îáðàáîòêàòà íà ïîâúðõíîñòòà ñúñ çíà÷èòåëíè öåïíàòèíè ñ ðàçëè÷íî ðàçïîëîæåíèå, ÷èñòà àëåãîðèÿ çà ãåîëîæêèòå ïëàñòîâå íà ãîëÿì ìàñèâ, êîðîíîâàí ñ äúðâåòà íà íàé-âèñîêàòà òåðàñà, êîÿòî ïîä÷åðòàâà ñâîÿòà íàñåëåíîñò. Ñïèðàëîâèäíàòà ôîðìà íà çàîáëåíèòå ïðîñòðàíñòâà òúðñè âðúçêàòà ìåæäó ñëîæíîñòòà íà óëè÷íàòà ñèñòåìà è â ñúùîòî âðåìå ïîä÷åðòàâà èçêëþ÷èòåëíîñòòà íà ïóáëè÷íèòå ñúîðúæåíèÿ è òÿõíàòà âðúçêà ñ ãðàäà. Òåàòúðúò ãëåäà êúì ïåðöåïòèâíèÿ è èäåàëåí öåíòúð, êîéòî ñâúðçâà ìÿñòîòî ñ èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ ãðàä; òîâà å öåíòúð - äèàëåêòè÷åñêè ïîä÷åðòàí îò ïîñîêàòà ñè êúì èñòîðè÷åñêèÿ

öåíòúð, îò äâåòå êâàäðàòíè ðàìïè, êîèòî ïîçâîëÿâàò äâèæåíèå ìåæäó íèâàòà íà ïðîñòðàíñòâåíîòî öÿëî, îò äðóãàòà ñòðàíà - ñâúðçàíè ñ àòðèóìà íà òåàòúðà ÷ðåç êðúãúë ïëîùàä çà âõîä îò ãðàäà. Òåçè 700 êâ. ì., ñêðèòè îò âÿòúðà è øóìà ñ âúçìîæíîñò çà çàòâàðÿíå íà äîñòúïà äî ñòàèòå ñ ãîëåìè ìåòàëíè âðàòè, èìàò íàïúëíî îáîðóäâàíà çà ñöåíà è ñòàÿ ñâúðçàíà ñ èíòåðèîðà íà àòðèóìà íà òåàòúðà. Òÿ è å íà ðàçïîëîæåíèå êàòî âòîðè òåàòúð íà îòêðèòî, êîéòî èìà âúçìîæíîñò äà áúäå âðåìåííî ïîêðèò ñúñ ñèñòåìàòà Teflon. Íî íèå ìèñëèì, ÷å öÿëàòà ñåðèÿ ïîêðèâíè òåðàñè ñà ïðîñòðàíñòâà çà òåàòðàëíè è ìóçèêàëíè èçïúëíåíèÿ, êîèòî ìîãàò äà áúäàò èçïîëçâàíè çà ñïåöèàëíè ñúáèòèÿ ñ ïî-ñúâðåìåííî çâó÷åíå. Òåàòðàëíèÿò àòðèóì ñå ñúñòîè îò ïðîñòðàíñòâåíè åïèçîäè ñ ðàçëè÷åí õàðàêòåð è ðàçïîëîæåíèå íà ñðåäíîòî íèâî ìåæäó ðàçäåëåíèÿòà è áàëêîíèòå íà àóäèòîðèóìà. Êàêòî ïî÷òè âèíàãè ñå ñëó÷âà â äíåøíî âðåìå àóäèòîðèóìúò áè òðÿáâàëî äà áúäå â ñúñòîÿíèå äà ïðåäëîæè äîáðè óñëîâèÿ íå ñàìî îò àêóñòè÷íà ãëåäíà òî÷êà, íî ñúùî òàêà è çà øèðîê è ðàçíîîáðàçåí ñïåêòúð îò òåàòðàëíè è ìóçèêàëíè ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ, îò ñúâðåìåííà äî ïî-ðàííà ìóçèêà, îò îïåðíè è ñèìôîíè÷íè èçïúëíåíèÿ äî îðêåñòúðíè îò 18-òè âåê. Òîâà ñúùî ïðåäñòàâÿ èçâåñòíà òðóäíîñò çàùîòî òðÿáâà äà ñå ñïàçâàò ðàçëè÷íè òðàäèöèè: îò èòàëèàíñêàòà òðàäèöèÿ íà òåàòúð ñ ôîðìà íà êóòèéêà, ïðåç íåìñêèÿ èëè ôðåíñêèÿ, ñìåñåíè ñ ðàçëè÷íè ðåøåíèÿ îò íà÷àëîòî íà 20 âåê äî äíåøíèòå, ñâúðçàíè ñúñ ñúâðåìåííè ïîñòàíîâêè è åëåêòðîííàòà ìóçèêà. ×óâñòâîòî çà ïðèíàäëåæíîñò è âúçìîæíîñòòà çà ïîñðåùàíå íà îáùíîñòòà îò çðèòåëè áè òðÿáâàëî äà ñà ñìåñè. Íèå âÿðâàìå, ÷å äúðâåíèÿò ìàòåðèàë, êîéòî ñìå èçïîëçâàëè â èíòåðèîðà, ïðèñúñòâèåòî íà ðåäèöà òåñíè ãàëåðèè íà ñòåíèòå è ïðîäúëæèòåëíàòà èçâèâêà íà âúòðåøíîòî ïðîñòðàíñòâî ñà èçêëþ÷èòåëíî âàæíè; âñè÷êî ñïàçâà ïðèíöèïèòå íà äîáðèÿ âúíøåí âèä è äîáðàòà àêóñòèêà. Ñïåöèàëíî âíèìàíèå å ïîñâåòåíî íà êîìïëåêñíàòà ñèñòåìà îò òåàòðàëíè ñöåíè è îáîðóäâàíå, êîèòî ñà îáðàçóâàëè ðàìêàòà íà îáåäèíåíîòî öÿëî íà ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî. Îñíîâàòà íà íàøåòî ïðåäëîæåíèå îñòàâà ñòðåìåæúò êúì èäåÿòà çà îáèòàåìî îòâîðåíî ïðîñòðàíñòâî, âìåñòî åäíà ñãðàäà, íîñåùà íîâî çíà÷åíèå íà öåëèÿ èçêóñòâåíî ñúçäàäåí êîìïëåêñ, èñòèíñêèÿò öåíòúð íà íîâîòî ðàçøèðåíèå íà Aix-en-Provence.


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EUROMED CENTER, MARSEILLE


World Architectural Masters

International Academy Of Architecture


WAM 04 Issue