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Architecture of the Games Magazine

#1 - January 2018

Not for Sale but for Share

PyeongChang 2018 Read everything about the next Olympic Winter Games

Rio Retrospect Colourful Olympics

Update

The new Candidature Process Tokyo 2020 Paris 2024

Olympic Legacy Barcelona 1992 London 2012

Trip Report

Lausanne: Olympic Capital


SEOUL Photo by Emmanuel Dyan (CC BY 2.0)


ARCHITECTURE OF THE GAMES WRITES ABOUT URBAN PLANNING, ARCHITECTURE, TRANSPORTATION, LANDSCAPE DESIGN AND THE VISUAL IDENTITY OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES. FROM ATHENS 1896 UP TO NOW.

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TWITTER @ARCHOFTHEGAMES

FACEBOOK /ARCHITECTUREOFTHEGAMES


SECTION 1 008 010 012 014 016

RIO RETROSPECT Colourful Olympics with an uncertain legacy Barra Deodoro Maracanã Copacabana

SECTION 2 020 022 024 028

UPDATE Upcoming Olympic Games The new Candidature Process Tokyo 2020 Paris 2024

SECTION 3 034 036 040 046 064 066 070 072

PYEONGCHANG 2018 Introduction Masterplan Transportation Venues Slope Characteristics Olympic Design Competition Schedule Paralympic Games

SECTION 4 076 082

OLYMPIC LEGACY Barcelona 1992: 25 Years later London 2012: On track for a sustainable legacy

SECTION 5 090

TRIP REPORT Lausanne: Olympic Capital

096 097 098 100

Subscribe Colophon About Architecture of the Games For the Dutch readers

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Table of Contents


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Section 1

Rio Retrospect


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008 Colourful Olympics with an uncertain legacy 010 Barra 012 Deodoro 014 MaracanĂŁ 016 Copacabana


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colourful olympics with an uncertain legacy The Olympic Games did not bring Rio de Janeiro and the Cariocas what had been hoped for and promised. During the preparations, Brazil faced a political and economic crisis and as a result the country is now worse off than a number of years ago. The Organising Committee is still dealing with large debts to suppliers, while the arrest of Carlos Nuzman, former head of Rio 2016 and the Brazilian Olympic Committee, in October 2017 on suspicion of bribery to get Rio de Janeiro chosen as the host of the Olympic Games in 2009, may be just the tip of the corruption iceberg.


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In February 2017, photos of the Olympic Aquatics Stadium spread all over the world. The temporary stadium where athletes such as Michael Phelps and Katie Ledecky wrote history only six months earlier looked as if it had been abandoned for years. These images were considered characteristic of the situation Rio de Janeiro was in. The examples were piling up. Due to a lack of money, the park of Deodoro was closed only months after it had been reopened, and the famous Maracanã Stadium appeared to have been left in a poor state after the Olympics. Plus, the Brazilians themselves weren’t in luck either. Last July, a fire broke out in the recently reopened Velodrome after a fire balloon had landed on its roof. In November, just four months later, a second, small fire broke out, which was also caused by a fire balloon.

There is some good news, however. A number of venues have successfully been given a new function in the past year. The Carioca Arena 3 and the Youth Arena, for instance, are now used by the local community and the Olympic Tennis Arena was used as a beach volleyball stadium last summer for the FIVB Volleyball World Tour. Barra Olympic Park was partially reopened to the public in January 2017 and was used for the first time in September as a location for the multi-day Rock in Rio music festival. The biggest changes in the city after the Olympic Games are the redeveloped harbour area and the new metro line from Zona Sul to Barra Tijuca. In addition, the new Bus Rapid Transit lines have considerably shortened the travel times between various districts

in the western part of the city. All these projects would probably not have been completed yet without the pressure of the coming Olympics. IOC president Thomas Bach aptly described the Olympic Games of Rio de Janeiro as ‘the most perfect imperfect Games’. Although the preparations for the Olympics were chaotic and filled with scandals, the Olympic Games themselves were reasonably successful and went by without incidents worth mentioning. For two weeks, sporting achievements were in the foreground and Rio de Janeiro showed its most beautiful, festive and spectacular side. On the following pages you will find a photo report of Rio 2016.


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ZONE 1: BARRA

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BARRA OLYMPIC PARK CARIOCA ARENA 1/2/3 Future Arena Maria lenk aquatics centre olympic aquatics stadium olympic tennis centre rio olympic velodrome


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ZONE 2: DEODORO DEODORO AQUATICS CENTRE DEODORO STADIUM OLYMPIC EQUESTRIAN CENTRE OLYMPIC HOCKEY CENTRE OLYMPIC SHOOTING CENTRE YOUTH ARENA MOUNTAIN BIKE CENTRE OLYMPIC BMX CENTRE WHITEWATER STADIUM


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ZONE 3: Maracanã Olympic stadium maracanã MARACANÃZINHO SAMBÓDROMO


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ZONE 4: COPACABANA beach volleybal arena Fort copacabana lagoa stadium marina da glรณria


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Section 2

Update


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020 Upcoming Olympic Games 022 The new Candidature Process 024 Tokyo 2020 028 Paris 2024


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Upcoming Olympic Games

Games of the XXXIII Olympiad Paris August 2 - August 18, 2024

Summer Youth Olympic Games Buenos Aires October 6 - October 18, 2018

Games of the XXXIV Olympiad Los Angeles July 21 - August 6, 2028

Winter Youth Olympic Games Lausanne January 10 - January 22, 2020


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XXIV Olympic Winter Games Beijing February 4 - February 20, 2022

XXIII Olympic Winter Games PyeongChang February 9 - February 25, 2018

Games of the XXXII Olympiad Tokyo July 24 - August 9, 2020


The new Canidature Process 2017

2018 Q2

Q3

Q4

Preparation

Q1

Q2

PyeongChang 2018 Observer Programme

Interactive working session (on-site)

Dialogue Q&A Hub

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Expert Support Video conferences with interested cities

Video conferences with interested cities

Interactive working session (on-site)

Candidature Procedure & Questionaire

Dialogue Stage Cooperation Agreement

IOC Session Lima

No new Entries

Source: The International Olympic Committee

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has implemented a number of changes in the candidature procedure for the Olympic Winter Games of 2026, aimed at preventing that most of the candidate cities drop out during the process. For both the Olympic Games of 2022 and 2024, only two candidate cities eventually remained.

With Hamburg, Rome and Budapest dropping out, two strong candidates were left in the race for the 2024 Olympic Games: Paris and Los Angeles. Both cities had an innovative offer that was based on existing facilities. The International Olympic Committee decided that it would be possible to grant the Olympic Games of 2024 and 2028 simultaneously if both cities could come to an agreement. This agreement was signed in July 2017, two months before the IOC Session in Lima. Primarily because of the availability of construction land for the Olympic Village, Paris was granted 2024. The double allocation was approved in Lima by the IOC Session on 13 September 2017. A unique event; a double allocation had not occurred since 1921. At the same time, this decision was also

necessary, as the IOC could not afford to lose a strong candidate in times when cities aren’t very eager to organise the Olympic Games. IOC President Thomas Bach rightfully declared the outcome a ‘win, win, win situation’. Following the new model for 2026, the procedure has been divided into two phases. During the first phase there will be a lot of consultation between the IOC and the potential candidate cities. This period will last from September 2017 to October 2018. During the second phase, the cities eventually submit a candidature file. In September 2019 the host city for the 2026 Olympic Winter Games will be chosen during the IOC Session in Milan. Cities that have shown an interest so far are Sion, Calgary, Sapporo, Telemark and Salt Lake City.


2019 Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Expert visits and Evaluation Commission visit

Q&A Session (via video conference)

Candidate City Briefing to IOC / IFs

Official debriefing PyeongChang 2018

Working Group Report

Canidate City invitation

Candidature File incl. Core Guarantees

Complete Guarantee File

IOC Session Buenos Aires

The publication ‘Candidature Process Olympic Winter Games 2026’ by the International Olympic Committee is available to download here: www.olympic.org/candidature-process-2026

Evaluation Commission Report

IOC Session Milan Host City Election

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Candidature


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TOK 20


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KYO 020


The year 2017 was a packed year for the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. New venues were approved, the shortlisted mascot designs were unveiled and the construction works for the first new venue were completed. Last December, two new venues were approved by the IOC Executive Board: Aomi Urban Sports Venue for basketball 3x3 and sport climbing, and Ariake for BMX racing, BMX freestyle and skateboarding. The route for road cycling is expected to be finalized around March this year.

- June 3 Agreement reached on allocation of costs - June 9 New disciplines added on the Olympic programme - July 10 Kashima Stadium approved as football venue - July 24 Three years to go event

MILESTONES IN 2017

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YOYOGI NATIONAL STADIUM Photo by Suguru Yamamoto (CC BY 2.0)

- March 17 Fukushima Azuma Stadium approved as baseball venue

- August 1 Olympic and Paralympic mascot design competition launched - September 4 Paralympic medal event programme announced - September 14 First new venue completed (The Musashino Forest Sport Plaza) - October 5 Odaiba Marine Park water survey results published - October 28 1000 Days to go celebrations (Olympic Games) - November 26 Musashino Forest Sport Plaza officially opened - October 28 1000 Days to go celebrations (Paralympic Games) - December 6 Aomi Urban Sports Venue and Ariake approved by the IOC Executive Board - December 7 Shortlisted Mascot Designs Unveiled - December 20 Olympic & Paralympic Medal Design Competition launched - December 22 Version two of Games Budget unveiled


Zone

Venue

Olympic Games

Paralympic Games

Heritage Zone

Olympic Stadium

Opening and Closing Ceremonies, Athletics, Football

Opening and Closing Ceremonies, Athletics

Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium

Table Tennis

Table Tennis

Yoyogi National Stadium

Handball

Badminton, Wheelchair Rugby

Nippon Budokan

Judo, Karate

Judo

Tokyo International Forum

Weightlifting

Para Powerlifting

Tokyo Bay Zone

Kokugikan Arena

Boxing

-

Equestrian Park

Equestrian (dressage, jumping, eventing)

Equestrian

Musashino Forest Sport Plaza

Badminton, Modern Pentathlon (fencing)

Wheelchair Basketball

Tokyo Stadium

Football, Modern Pentathlon (swimming, riding, running, shooting), Rugby

-

Ariake Arena

Volleyball (indoor)

Wheelchair Basketball

Olympic Gymnastic Centre

Gymnastics

Boccia

Olympic BMX Course

Cycling (BMX freestyle, BMX racing), Skateboarding

-

Ariake Tennis Park

Tennis

Wheelchair Tennis

Odaiba Marine Park

Aquatics (marathon swimming), Triathlon

Triathlon

Shiokaze hi k Park k

Beach h volleyball ll b ll

-

Aomi Urban Sports Venue

Basketball (3x3), Sport Climbing

Football 5-a-side

Seaside Park Hockey Stadium

Hockey

-

Sea Forest Cross-Country Course

Equestrian (eventing, cross-country)

-

Sea Forest Waterway

Canoe-Kayak (sprint), Rowing

Canoe, Rowing

Canoe Slalom Course

Canoe-Kayak (slalom)

-

Dream Island Archery Field

Archery

Archery

Olympic Aquatics Centre

Aquatics (swimming, diving, synchronised swimming)

Para Swimming

Tatsumi International Swimming Center

Aquatics (water polo)

-

Makuhari Messe Hall A

Taekwondo, Wrestling

Sitting Volleyball

Makuhari Messe Hall B

Fencing

Taekwondo, Wheelchair Fencing

Makuhari Messe Hall C

-

Goalball

Olympic / Paralympic Village

-

-

IBC/MPC Tokyo International Exhibition Center (Tokyo Big Sight)

-

-

Saitama Super Arena

Basketball

-

Asaka Shooting Range

Shooting

Shooting

Kasumigaseki Country Club

Golf

-

Tsurigasaki Beach Surfing Venue

Surfing

-

Yokohama Stadium

Baseball/Softball

-

Enoshima Yacht Harbour

Sailing

-

Izu Velodrome

Cycling (track)

Cycling (track)

Izu Mountain Bike Course

Cycling (mountain bike)

-

Sapporo Dome

Football

-

Miyagi Stadium d

Football b ll

-

Ibaraki Kashima Stadium

Football

-

Saitama Stadium

Football

-

International Stadium Yokohama

Football

-

TBA

Cycling (road)

Cycling (road)

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VENUE LIST AS OF DECEMBER 2017


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Last September, The International Olympic Committee awarded the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad in 2024 to Paris. This will be the third time that the French capital has hosted the Summer Olympics, previously hosting the event in 1904 and 1924.

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After 100 years, Paris is once again the host city of the Olympic Games

Games of the XXXIII Olympiad


Grand Paris Zone 1. Olympic Village

Temporary Cycling (Road) 4,000/25,000 seats

2. Stade de France

13. Grand Palais

Existing - no permanent work Gymnastics 17,500 seats

14. Esplanade des Invalides

Existing - permanent work required Field Hockey 15,000 seats

24. Arena 92

Temporary Fencing, Taekwondo 7,000 seats

Existing - permanent work required Athletics, Ceremonies 78,000 seats

3. Aquatics Centre

25. Stade Yves-du-Manoir

Temporary Archery 8,000 seats

Additional Diving, Swimming, Synchronised Swimming 17,000 seats

26. Zenith Paris

Existing - no permanent work Weightlifting 6,000 seats

15. Paris Expo – Hall I

4. Water Polo Arena

Existing - no permanent work Handball 12,000 seats

Existing - permanent work required Water Polo 5,000 seats

27. Water Sports Centre

16. Paris Expo – Hall IV

5.Le Bourget – Pavilion I

Existing - no permanent work Table Tennis 6,000 seats

Temporary Badminton 7,000 seats

Existing - no permanent work Basketball 4,000 seats

Temporary Volleyball 12,000/5,000 seats

Existing - no permanent work Cycling (track), Modern Penthatlon 5,000 seats

Existing - no permanent work Football 45,000 seats

Temporary Shooting 3,000 seats

30. BMX Track

Existing - permanent work required BMX 6,000 seats

19. Stade Jean-Bouin

8. Main Media Centre

Existing - no permanent work Rugby 20,000 seats

9. Media Village

31. Elancourt Hill

20. Roland-Garros

Existing - permanent work required Tennis, Boxing 15,000/10,000/5,000 seats

Paris Centre Zone 10. Champ de Mars

21. Paris Arena I

Temporary Beach Volleyball 12,000 seats

Existing - no permanent work Basketball, Judo 15,000 seats

11. Eiffel Tower

Existing - permanent work required Cycling (Mountain Bike) 2,000/20,000 seats

32. Golf National

Existing - no permanent work Golf 5,000/30,000 seats

33. La Villette Great Hall Existing - no permanent work Paralympic Games only 4,000 seats

22. Paris Arena II

Temporary Swimming (Marathon), Triathlon, Athletics (Marathon) 3,000/10,000 seats

Temporary Equestrian, Modern Penthatlon 20,000 seats

29. Velodrome National

18. Parc des Princes

7. Shooting Range

Existing - permanent work required Canoe/Kayak (Slalom + Sprint), Rowing 14,000/10,000 seats

28. Chateau de Versailles

17. Stade Pierre-de-Coubertin

6. Le Bourget – Pavilion II

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Stand Alone

12. Champs-Elysees

Planned Basketball, Wrestling 8,000 seats

23. IOC Hotels

28

Versailles 29

31 30

Trappes Montigny-le-Bretonneux

Proposed venues outside Paris Sailing: Marina (Marseille) / Football: Stade Velodrome (Marseille) - Stadium de Toulouse Stade de Bordeaux - Stade de La Beaujoire (Nantes) - Stade Pierre-Mauroy (Lille) - Stade de Lyon - Stade Geoffroy-Guichard (Saint-Etienne) - Stade de Nice

32


07

04

06

Saint-Denis 05

25 01

03

02

08

09

Le Bourget

Colombes Saint-Ouen

24

26 33

La Défense

12 13 11

Paris

14 10

20

27

19 18

21 17

22

15 16

Masterplan The 2024 Olympic Games in Paris will be the first to follow a new model. Most venues will be existing ones, spread across the heart of the French capital. They are primarily clustered in two zones: the Grand Paris Zone and the Paris Centre Zone. The Masterplan includes a number of spectacular venues. Think of open-water swimming in the river Seine near the Eiffel Tower, gymnastics in the Grand Palais, equestrian sports in Versailles

and hockey in Stade Yves-du-Manoir; the old Olympic Stadium of 1924. These venues are interconnected by the excellent metro and train network of Paris. This network will be extended by the ‘Grand Paris Express’ in the coming years. This is an extensive project which includes the construction of four new lines. In addition, two existing lines will be extended. As Paris will mainly use existing venues in 2024, supplemented with temporary

ones, not much new construction is required. The necessary new development will take place in the SaintDenis district in the north of the city, where the Stade the France is situated. This stadium will host ceremonies and athletics competitions. Next to the stadium, a new swimming stadium will be built, and at a distance of about one kilometre, the Olympic Village will be constructed, which will also make use of existing buildings.

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23


Section 3

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PyeongChang 2018

Photo: Graig Rohn on Flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0)


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034 Introduction 036 Masterplan 040 Transportation 046 Venues 064 Slope Characteristics 066 Olympic Design 070 Competition Schedule 072 Paralympic Games


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Introduction After failed attempts in 2003 and 2007, PyeongChang finally succeeded in securing the organisation of the Olympic Winter Games in 2011. After the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul this is the second time that the Republic of Korea may host the Olympics. PyeongChang 2018 is also the first in a series of 3 Asian Olympic Games in a row. In 2020 Tokyo will be the host city and 2 years later Beijing will be the first city to have hosted both the Summer (2008) and Winter Olympics. Since the Second World War, the Korean peninsula has been divided into two parts: the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the north and the Republic of Korea in the south. Between 1950 and 1953, the two sides were engaged in a war. This Korean War ended with an armistice, but a peace treaty was never signed. There have been tensions between North and South to this day. South Korea has a population of 51.5 million, including 9.9 million in the capital of Seoul. Other large cities with over 2 million inhabitants are Busan, Incheon and Daegu. The country has a surface area of 100,210 km2 and borders on The Yellow Sea and Japanese Sea as well as on North Korea. After the reconstruction period after the Korean War and the economic crisis of the nineties, South Korea has grown into a democratic and prosperous country at an amazing speed. In 2016 South Korea had the world’s 11th economy. The country depends heavily on international trade. Strong sectors with a lot of exports are shipbuilding, automotive industry, raw materials and consumer electronics. South-Korean

brands such as Samsung, Hyundai and LG are known all over the world. South Korea has much experience with the organisation of large sports events. With the organisation of the Winter Olympics, South Korea even joins a select group of countries that have hosted the Olympic Summer and Winter Games, FIFA World Cup and IAAF World Championships. In addition, the country hosted 4 editions of the Asian Games (Seoul 1986, Gangwon 1999, Busan 2002 and Incheon 2014) and three Universiades (Muju 1997, Daegu 2003 and Gwangju 2015). Traditionally, football and baseball are the most popular sports in South Korea. Skating (especially short track speed skating) is very popular as well. During the last Olympic Games of Sochi, the South-Korean team won a total of 3 gold, 3 silver and 2 bronze medals in speed skating, short track speed skating and figure skating.


SEOUL

37°33′N 126°58′E

INCHEON

GANGNEUNG PYEONGCHANG

REPUBLIC OF KOREA x 51,446,201 100,210 km2

DAEGU

BUSAN

Photo: Kimmo Räisänen on Flickr (CC BY 2.0) Collage: Martijn Giebels


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Masterplan PyeongChang is a district situated in the eastern province of Gangwon-do at 130 kilometres from Seoul. The district has approximately 44,000 inhabitants. The venues are divided over two clusters: a Mountain Cluster in PyeongChang and a coastal Cluster in the coastal city of Gangneung (230,000 inhabitants).

The Mountain Cluster is the most extensive and has the pentagonal Olympic Stadium as an eye-catcher. This stadium is the first temporary Olympic Stadium in history. Next to the stadium is Medal Plaza. On this square the medals will be awarded daily. Besides, cultural activities will also be organised here. The competitions take place in Alpensia, Yongpyong, Jongseon and Bokwang. The ski jump (from 2008) is situated in Alpensia, as is the newly-built Sliding Centre.

Photo courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-SA 2.0)

In the Coastal cluster, all ice sports take place in five venues. One of these already exists: the Curling Centre from 1998 in the north of the city. Three new venues were built near the Curling Centre and together, these constitute the Gangneung Olympic Park. Furthermore, a new ice hockey stadium was built near the Kwandong Catholic University in the southeastern part of Gangneung. Two Olympic Villages were built, one in each cluster. In addition, a Media village was constructed in Gangneung. The International Broadcast Centre and the Main Press Centre were built near Alpensia in the Mountain Cluster.

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Six new venues have been built for the Olympic Winter Games: two in the Mountain cluster and four in the Coastal Cluster. Construction of these venues was easily completed on time and they were first used during test events in the winters of 2015-2016 and 2016-2017.


PyeongChang Mountain Cluster

Gangneung Coastal Cluster

Phoenix Snow Park (P,C) Freestyle Skiing, Snowboard Yongpyong Alpine Centre Alpine Skiing (Slalom & Giant Slalom) Jeongseon Alpine Centre Alpine Skiing (Downhill, Super G and Combined)

Alpensia Sports Park: Alpensia Ski Jumping Centre Ski Jumping, Nordic Combined, Snowboard (Big Air) Alpensia Biathlon Centre Biathlon Alpensia Cross-Country Centre Cross-Country Skiing, Nordic Combined

PyeongChang Olympic Plaza: PyeongChang Olympic Stadium Opening and Closing ceremonies

Alpensia Sliding Centre Bobsleigh, Skeleton, Luge

PyeongChang Medal Plaza Medal ceremonies

Kwandong Hockey Centre Ice Hockey Gangneung Olympic Park: Gangneung Hockey Centre Ice Hockey Gangneung Oval Speed Skating Gangneung Ice Arena Short Track Speed Skating, Figure Skating Gangneung Curling Centre Curling

Alpensia Sports Park - Alpenisa Ski Jumping Centre - Alpensia Biathlon Centre - Alpensia Cross Country Skiing - Alpensia Sliding Centre

*

International Broadcast Centre

Phoenix Snow Park

Mountain Cluster

Jeongseon Alpine Centre

*


Coastal Cluster + *

Gangneung Olympic Village Media Village

*

Gangneung Olympic Park - Gangneung Hockey Centre - Gangneung Oval - Gangneung Ice Arena - Gangneung Curling Centre

Kwandong Hockey Centre

* * + +

PyeongChang Olympic Stadium

PyeongChang Olympic Village

*

Yongpyong Alpine Centre

Gangwon-do

N


Spectator Transportation

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The Republic of Korea has a modern and extensive transport network consisting of motorways, (high-speed) train connections and bus routes across the entire country. South Korea’s main airport is Incheon International Airport, 50 kilometres from Seoul. Incheon Airport was built on a partly artificial island in the Yellow Sea and was opened in 2001. The airport is one of the busiest in Asia. In 2016, 57.7 million passengers travelled via this airport to destinations all over the world. On 18 January 2018 the new Terminal 2 will be opened, increasing the airport’s capacity even further. From 2005, Incheon International Airport was voted the best airport worldwide each year, in a competition organised by the Airports Council International.

operational in December 2017 and reduces the travel time from Incheon and Seoul to Gangneung to less than two hours. During the Olympics, there are three important transport hubs, the socalled Transport Malls. These hubs are situated near railway stations and large parking areas. From the Transport Malls shuttle buses run to all venues and smaller hubs. The new high-speed train stops at the Jinbu Transport Mall.

For the Olympic Games in PyeongChang, a new high-speed railway was constructed between Wonju and Gangneung. This line became

Photo courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)


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Terminal 2 Incheon Airport

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All photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service - Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)


New high-speed railway and stations

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All photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service - Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)


Spectator Transportation System Map: Martijn Giebels. Transportation information: The PyeongChang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games (POCOG). No rights can be derived from this map.

PyeongChang 2018 Spectator Transportation © Architecture of the Games. Data via PyeongChang 2018. No rights can be derived from this map.

Jinbu Transport Mall (Jinbu Station)

Phoenix Snow Park

TS30 ◄ TS7

Pyeon Olymp

TS15

PyeongChang Cheongpyeong Station Bus Terminal

TS16

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P&R Bongpyeong

P&R Jeongseon

Jeongseon Bus Terminal

TS6

Jeongseon Arari Park TS14

TS2

Jinbu Bus Terminal

TS13

Alpensia Olympic Park

TS4

Lee Hyo-seok Culture Centre

TS10

TS3

Olympic Sliding Centre TS11

TS1

Jeongseon Alpine Centre

TS5

Yongpyeong Alpine Centre TS17

Mountain Cluster

Yongpyeong Rainbow Parking Lot TS12 ◄TS8


System Coastal Cluster

Daegwallyeong Transport Mall

Gangneung Olympic Park

(P&R Daegwallyeong)

Gangneung Station Kwandong Hockey Centre

TS22

ngChang pic Plaza

TS23

TS20

TS9

Gangneung Bus Terminal

TS24

TS31

TS25

North Gangneung Transport Mall (P&R North Gangneung)

TS21

TS27

P&R West Gangneung

Japanese Sea

Seoul Incheon International Airport

Jinbu

Yellow Sea

Republic of Korea

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TS26


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Venues Coastal Cluster

Photo courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Gangneung Olympic Park

Next to the existing Curling Centre and Gangneung Stadium three new permanent stadiums have been built for ice hockey, speed skating, short track speed skating and figure skating. Together, these venues constitute Gangneung Olympic Park. During the Olympic Games, a number of temporary facilities and pavilions will be placed for the visitors, including a megastore, restaurants and several sponsor pavilions. Images of sports events will be alternated with cultural activities on the live site. 01. Gangneung Olympic Park 02. Gangneung Curling Centre 03. Live Site 04. Restaurant 05. Superstore 06. Sponsor Pavilions 07. NOC Hospitality Houses 08. Gangneung Hockey Centre 09. Gangneung Oval 10. Gangneung Ice Arena

Aerial image : Google Earth – Š 2017 DigitalGlobe. Map: Architecture of the Games


10 09

07

06

05

04

02

03

01

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Gangneung Hockey Centre

Photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Kim Sunjoo (l) - Jeon Han (r) (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Gangneung Oval

Photo courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Kim Sunjoo (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Capacity Post-Games use

Gangneung Coastal Cluster Gangneung Olympic Park Speed Skating – New 2014-2017 8,000 Training facility for national teams (TBC).


Gangneung Coastal Cluster Gangneung Olympic Park Ice Hockey Ice Hockey New 2014-2017 10,000 Training and competition venue. Cultural venue.

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Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Capacity Post-Games use


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Gangneung Ice Arena

Photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Kim Sunjoo (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Gangneung Curling Centre

Photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Renovated Capacity Post-Games use

Gangneung Coastal Cluster Gangneung Olympic Park Curling Wheelchair Curling Existing 1998 2015-2017 3,500 Multi-purpose sports venue and youth club centre.


Paralympic sports Type Built Capacity Post-Games use

Gangneung Coastal Cluster Gangneung Olympic Park Short Track Speed Skating, Figure Skating – New 2014-2016 12,000 Public sports facility: Multipurpose culture / sports centre and swimming pool.

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Cluster Zone Olympic sports


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Kwandong Hockey Centre

Photo courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Gangneung Olympic Village

Photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Kim Sunjoo (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)


Gangneung Coastal Cluster – Ice Hockey – New 2014-2017 6,000 Part of the Kwandong Catholic University: Offices, lecture halls, multi-purpose sports and leisure facility.

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Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Capacity Post-Games use


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Venues Mountain Cluster

Photo courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-SA 2.0)

PyeongChang Olympic Stadium

Photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Kim Sunjoo (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)


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Cluster Zone Olympic Games Paralympic Games Type Built Capacity Post-Games use

PyeongChang Mountain Cluster PyeongChang Olympic Plaza Opening and Closing ceremonies Opening and Closing ceremonies Temporary 2017 35,000 Seats Olympic Memorial Hall


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Alpensia Ski Jumping Centre

Capacity Slopes for Competitions Slopes for Practice Post-Games use

Photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service - Korea.net - Kim Sunjoo (tr - bl) (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) Jeon Han (tl - br) (CC BY-SA 2.0)

11,000 Seats + 2,500 Standing LH (125m), NH (98m) K60, K35, K15 Venue for national and international winter sport events. Training facility for national athletes. Public leisure facility.


Paralympic sports Type Built Renovated

PyeongChang Mountain Cluster Alpensia Sports Park Ski Jumping, Nordic Combined, Snowboard (Big Air) – Existing 2009 2015-2017

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Cluster Zone Olympic sports


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Alpensia Biathlon Centre

Photo courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Alpensia Cross-Country Skiing

Photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-SA 2.0)


PyeongChang Mountain Cluster Alpensia Sports Park Biathlon Biathlon, Cross-Country Skiing Existing 1998 2007, 2015-2017 4,500 Seats + 3,000 Standing

Course length Course Width Alitude Difference Shooting Range Post-Games use

4km / 3.3km / 3km / 2.5km / 2km / 1.5km 8m 47m (749m~796m) 82.5 Ă— 50m Venue for national and international winter sport events. Training facility for national athletes. Public leisure facility.

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Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Renovated Capacity

Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Renovated Capacity Course length Course Width Alitude Difference Post-Games use

PyeongChang Mountain Cluster Alpensia Sports Park Cross-Country Skiing, Nordic Combined – Existing 1998 2009, 2015-2017 4,500 Seats + 3,000 Standing 3.75km / 3.3km / 2.5km / 2km 8m 54m (751m~805m) Venue for national and international winter sport events. Training facility for national athletes. Public leisure facility.


Alpensia Sliding Centre

Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Capacity Course Length

Altitude Difference

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Average Slope Photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service Korea.net - Jeon Han (l) (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) - Jeon Han (r) (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Phoenix Snow Park (Bokwang)

Photo: Google Earth - Image Š 2017 CNES / Airbus

Post-Games use

PyeongChang Mountain Cluster Alpensia Sports Park Bobsleigh, Skeleton, Luge – New 2013-2017 1,000 Seats + 6,000 Standing 1,376.38m (Bobsleigh / Skeleton) / 1,344.08m (Luge Men) / 1,201.82m (Luge Women / Double) 116.32m (Bobsleigh / Skeleton) / 117.12m (Luge Men) / 95.62m (Luge Women / Double) 9.48% (Bobsleigh / Skeleton) / 9.69% (Luge Men) / 8.97% (Luge Women / Double) Training facility (national and international athletes). Experience facility for tourist leisure activities.


PyeongChang Mountain Cluster – Freestyle Skiing, Snowboard – Existing 1995 2015-2017 10,200 Seats + 7,800 Standing Ski resort

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Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Renovated Capacity Post-Games use


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Yongpyong Alpine Centre

Photo: Google Earth - Image © 2017 CNES / Airbus

Jeongseon Alpine Centre

Photo: Google Earth - Image © 2017 CNES / Airbus


Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Capacity Post-Games use

PyeongChang Mountain Cluster – Alpine Skiing (Slalom & Giant Slalom) – Existing 1998 2016-2017 2,500 Seats + 3,500 Standing Ski resort

PyeongChang Mountain Cluster – Alpine Skiing (Downhill, Super G & Combined) Alpine Skiing, Snowboard New 2014-2017 3,600 Seats + 2,900 Standing Leisure and tourist facility (TBC).

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Cluster Zone Olympic sports Paralympic sports Type Built Renovated Capacity Post-Games use


Slope Characteristics Data: The PyeongChang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games (POCOG).

Phoenix Snow Park (P, C) Competition

Length

Width

Altitude Difference

Average Slope

Moguls

235m (± 35m)

18m (Min)

110m (± 30m)

28° (± 4°)

Aerials

About 141m

22m (Min)

About 50m

Inrun : 25° / Landing : 38°

1050m (± 150m)

40m (Min) (6 ~ 16m for track)

130 ~ 250m

12° (± 2°)

150m (Min)

19 ~ 22m

-

17° (Min)

-

30m

150m (Min)

12° (Min)

Length

Width

Altitude Difference

Average Slope

400 ~ 700m

40m (Min)

120 ~ 200m

16° (± 2°)

1050m (± 150m)

40m (Min) (6 ~ 16m for track)

130 ~ 250m

12° (± 2°)

150m (Min)

19 ~ 22m

-

17° (Min)

-

30m

150m (Min)

12° (Min)

Ski Cross (SX) Ski-Halfpipe (Ski-HP)

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Ski-Slopestyle(SS)

Competition Parallel Giant Slalom (PGS) Snowboard Cross (SBX) Halfpipe (HP) Slopestyle (SBS)

Phoenix Snow Park (P, C)

Photo by Paul on Flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0) Cropped from original


Competition

Start Altitude

Finish Altitude

Vertical Drop

Course Length

Downhill(M)

1370m

545m

825m

2852m

Super-G(M)

1195m

545m

650m

2217m

Alpine Combined(Super-G, M)

1195m

545m

650m

2217m

765m

545m

220m

608m

Downhill(W)

1275m

545m

730m

2499m

Super-G(W)

1110m

545m

565m

1982m

Alpine Combined(Super-G, W)

1110m

545m

565m

1982m

Alpine Combined(Slalom, W)

745m

545m

200m

528m

Alpine Combined(Slalom, M)

Yongpyong Alpine Center Competition

Start Altitude

Finish Altitude

Vertical Drop

Course Length

Giant Slalom

1380m

960m

420m

1254m

Slalom

1170m

955m

215m

586m

TBC

960m

TBC

TBC

Alpine Team Event

Jeongseon Alpine Centre

Yongpyong Alpine Centre

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Jongseon Alpine Center


Olympic Design For the Olympic Games, more is being designed than just the venues. These designs range from graphic design (emblems, pictograms, 'look of the Games', posters) to uniforms and objects like the medals and the torch. These pages contains a number of examples of Olympic Design for the Olympic Winter Games of PyeongChang 2018.

Pictogram

The pictograms for the Olympic and Paralympic Games are dynamic depictions of

movements of the sports competitions of the Winter Games, based on confide strenuous effort, spirit of challenge, and indefinite potential. Images: The PyeongChang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games (POCOG)

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Olympic Games pictogram

Pictograms

Alpine Skiing (Speed)

Alpine Skiing (Technical)

Ski Jumping

Biathlon

Cross-Country Skiing

Freestyle Skiing (Moguls)

Freestyle Skiing (Aerials)

Freestyle Skiing (Slopestyle)

Freestyle Skiing (Ski Cross)

Freestyle Skiing (Halfpipe)

Nordic Combined

Snowboard (Slopestyle)

Snowboard (Parallel Giant Slalom)

Snowboard (Halfpipe)

Snowboard (Cross)

Snowboard (Big Air)

Speed Skating

Short Track Speed Skating

Curling

Ice Hockey

Figure Skating

Bobsleigh

Luge

Skeleton


Emblems

Games

Games was created to symbolise a fun festival for all

ean alphabet that is a symbolic cultural heritage of Ko Look of the Games

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lues that many people in PyeongChang will share, feel


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Torch & Uniform Torch Relay

Medals


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Mascots

All photos courtesy of Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism - Korean Culture and Information Service - Korea.net - Jeon Han (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)


Competition Schedule

PyeongChang Mountain Cluster

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Gangneung Coastal Cluster

PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Competition Schedule - Version #9

Gangneung Hockey Centre

Ice Hockey

Kwandong Hockey Centre

Ice Hockey

8 September 2017

February 8

February 9

February 10

February 11

February 12

February 13

-1

0

1

2

3

4

Figure Skating

Medal event

Gangneung Ice Arena Short Track Speed Skating

Medal event

Gangneung Oval

Speed Skating

Medal event

Gangneung Curling Centre

Curling

PyeongChang Olympic Stadium

Ceremonies

Jeongseon Alpine Centre

Alpine Skiing Speed Events Downhill Super- G Alpine Combined

Yongpyong Alpine Centre

Alpine Skiing Technical Events Giant Slalom Slalom Team Event

Alpensia Ski Jumping Centre

Ski Jumping Nordic Combined Snowboard Big Air

Medal event

Alpensia Cross- Country Skiing Centre

Cross-Country Skiing Nordic Combined

Medal event

Medal event

Alpensia Biathlon Centre

Biathlon

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Snowboard Parallel Giant Slalom Freestyle Skiing Slopestyle Snowboard Slopestyle

Medal event

Medal event

Freestyle Skiing Moguls Freestyle Skiing Aerials

Medal event

Medal event

Pheonix Snow Park

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Snowboard Halfpipe Snowboard Cross Freestyle Skiing Halfpipe Freestyle Skiing Ski Cross

Medal event

Bobsleigh

Olympic Sliding Centre

Skeleton

Luge

PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Competition Schedule - Version #9

Medal event

8 September 2017

Medal event

-1

0

1

2

3

4

February 8

February 9

February 10

February 11

February 12

February 13


You can find a more detailed competition schedule on this page

February 14

February 15

February 16

February 17

February 18

February 19

February 20

February 21

February 22

February 23

February 24

February 25

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

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Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

February 14

February 15

February 16

February 17

February 18

February 19

February 20

February 21

February 22

February 23

February 24

February 25


Paralympic Games

Pictogram

g, whose image is inspired

The pictograms for the Olympic and Paralympic Game

tes, staff and spectators

movements of the sports competitions of the Winte

he Korean word for tiger

strenuous effort, spirit of challenge, and indefinite poten

resenting the Gangwon

o protects athletes, staff

Olympic Games pictogram

t for the 2018 Paralympic The 2018 Winter Paralympics, officially known as the XII Paralympic Winter

Games, will bear. be held in Pyeongchang from 9 to 18 March 2018. an Asiatic black The

s. Bandabi is determined,

Competition Schedule March 9

March 10

March 11

0

1

2

Alpine Skiing March 13 (Speed) 3 4

March 12

Ski Jumping

Alpine Skiing March 14 March 15 (Technical) 5 6

Biathlon

March 16

March 17

7

8

9

Medal event

Gangneung Hockey Centre

Ice Hockey

Medal event

Gangneung Curling Centre

Wheelchair Curling

Medal event

PyeongChang Olympic Stadium

Ceremonies

March 18

C

Cluster

PyeongChang Mountain Cluster

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Gangneung Coastal

PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Competition Schedule - Version #9 8 Sep

Freestyle Skiing (Aerials)

Alpine Skiing

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Freestyle Skiing (Slopestyle) Medal event

Freestyle Skiing (Ski Cross)

Medal event

Freestyle Skiing (Halfpipe)

Medal event

No

Medal event

Jeongseon Alpine Centre Snowboard

Medal event

Biathlon

Snowboard Medal event (Parallel Giant Slalom)

Medal event

Alpensia Biathlon Centre Cross-Country Skiing PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Competition Schedule - Version #9 8 Sep

Visual Identity

Medal event

Medal event

Medal event

Snowboard (Halfpipe)

Snowboard Medal event (Cross)

Medal event

Snowboard (Big Air) Medal event

Medal event

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

March 9

March 10

March 11

March 12

March 13

March 14

March 15

March 16

March 17

March 18

Curling

Ice Hockey

Figure Skating

Bobsleigh

for all global citizens using

Emblem of Korea. It encompasses

Pictograms Paralympic Games pictogram

e, feel and interact with.

Para Alpine Skiing

Para Biathlon

Para CrossCountry Skiing

Para Snowboard

Wheelchair Curling

Para Ice Hockey

S


Masterplan As with the Olympic Games, the venues are divided over two clusters: a Mountain Cluster in PyeongChang and a coastal Cluster in the coastal city of Gangneung.

PyeongChang Mountain Cluster

Gangneung Coastal Cluster

Jeongseon Alpine Centre Alpine Skiing, Snowboard

Gangneung Olympic Park: Gangneung Hockey Centre Ice Hockey

PyeongChang Olympic Plaza: PyeongChang Olympic Stadium Opening and Closing ceremonies

Gangneung Curling Centre Wheelchair Curling

PyeongChang Medal Plaza Medal ceremonies

Gangneung Olympic Park - Gangneung Hockey Centre - Gangneung Curling Centre

Alpensia Sports Park - Alpensia Biathlon Centre

Coastal Cluster * * PyeongChang Olympic Stadium

* Jeongseon Alpine Centre

Mountain Cluster

*

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Alpensia Sports Park: Alpensia Biathlon Centre Biathlon, Cross-Country Skiing


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Section 4

Olympic Legacy


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076 Barcelona 1992: 25 Years later 082 London 2012: On track for a sustainable legacy


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BARCELONA 1992

25 YEARS LATER

The Barcelona 1992 Olympic Games are widely regarded as one of the most successful ever. 25 Years later, we look back at some of the venues that were used during the Games that forever changed the city of Barcelona.


JULY 25 OPENING CEREMONY

Anella Olímpica de Montjuïc

This swimming pool on the slope of the Montjuïc hill is famous for its panoramic view of the city of Barcelona. Opened 1929 Renovated 1990 Capacity 4,100 (6,500 During the Olympics) Olympic Sports Diving, Water Polo Pools Two, 25m and a diving pool 25 Years later Venue for major sport events (FINA World Aquatics Championships in 2003 & 2013). The swimming pools are open to the public during the summer.

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Piscina Municipal de Montjuïc

The Anella Olímpica, located in the hill of Montjuïc, was the main site for the 1992 Summer Olympics. Situated in the park are: - Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc - Palau Sant Jordi - Torre de comunicacions de Montjuïc - Piscines Bernat Picornell - Institut National d’Educació Física de Catalunya

Nowadays, the Joan Antoni Samaranch Olympic and Sports Museum is also located in the Anella Olímpica.

169 NATIONS PARTICIPATING

9,356 ATHLETES PARTICIPATING


43

VENUES Camp Nou

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Camp Nou hosted part of the Barcelona 1992 Olympic football competition. Built 1954–1957 Renovated 1995, 2008 Expanded 1982 Architect MJ Hasani Olympic Sports Football 25 Years later Home of FC Barcelona

EstaciĂł del Nord A former train station that was transformed in the run up to the Olympic Games. Opened 1862 (as a railway station, closed in 1972) Renovated 1910-1915, 1983, 1987 Olympic Sports Table Tennis 25 Years later Bus station, multipurpose sports hall and a police station.


257 EVENTS

Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc The Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc was the main stadium for the 1992 Summer Olympics.

Palau Sant Jordi Palau Sant Jordi is an multi-purpose indoor arena.

25

SPORTS

Opened 1990 Architect Arata Isozaki Capacity 15,000 seats Olympic Sports Artistic gymnastics, handball final, and volleyball (final). 25 Years later Venue for indoor sport and musical events.

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Opened 1927 Renovated (1985-1989) Architect Pere Domènech i Roura, Vittorio Gregotti (renovation) Capacity 55,926 seats Olympic Sports Opening and closing ceremonies, Athletics 25 Years later Sport and concert venue


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The Palau dels Esports de Barcelona is an indoor arena. Opened 1955 Architect Josep Soteras (1955) – Francesc Labastida (1986) Capacity 8,000 seats Olympic Sports Gymnastics (rhythmic), Volleyball 25 Years later Venue for drama, music and comedy.

Vila OlĂ­mpica For the Olympic Village, the wastelands of Pablo Nou were redeveloped. 25 Years later Residential area

AUGUST 9 CLOSING CEREMONY


The Port Olímpic hosted the sailing events for the 1992 Summer Olympic Games. 25 Years later Marina

Barceloneta The number of tourists visiting Barcelona rose spectacularly after the 1992 Olympic Games. Before 1992, Barcelona didn’t even have a beach. The city created 3 kilometres of beachfront by demolishing industrial buildings.

1,874,734 NUMBER OF TOURISTS IN 1992

9,065,650 NUMBER OF TOURISTS IN 2016

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Port Olímpic


LONDON 2012 82 - Architecture of the Games Magazine #1

ON TRACK FOR A SUSTAINABLE LEGACY


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‘The Olympic Games as a catalyst of urban change’ is a promise that is still often used during the candidature phase to obtain the organisation of the Olympic Games. Often, this promise vanished into the background as soon as the Olympics had been secured. Tokyo 1964 and Barcelona 1992 are good examples of cities where the Olympic Games have left more than they utilised and where positive effects are still perceptible today. London is well on its way to qualify for this category as well after the 2012 Olympic Games. In fact, the Olympic Games were only a temporary stop in building activities; from the moment London won the Olympic bid in 2005, the redevelopment of the former industrial area in Stratford has been underway. And the end is not yet in sight, as building activities are not expected to be completed before 2031. The park itself (currently the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park) and the former Olympic venues are the eye-catchers. The Aquatics Centre, Etan Manor and Olympic Stadium were converted for new uses. The architecture of the Copper Box Arena and the Velodrome is as spectacular today as it was in 2012. All venues can be used by both amateur and professional athletes. Over the past years a large number of big

international sports events have been held here. The Invictus Games in 2014. The world championships rugby (2015), track cycling (2016) and athletics (2017). And European hockey and swimming Championships in 2015. The Olympic village was converted into a residential area and the Media Centre is now a hub for creative companies. New residential areas and office buildings are currently built along the edges of the park. Not only the architecture, but also the landscape design is of high quality. The differences in height, vegetation, the canal and the unexpected hidden spots create a diversity of spatial experiences. The northern part of the park is greener and quieter, whereas the southern part is more aimed at activities and children. Living, working, exercising, playing, relaxing, peace and culture. There is something for every intended audience. It is this combination of various functions and spatial conditions that makes the redevelopment of the former Olympic park so successful.

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People who visited the Olympic Park in Stratford in 2012 and are returning for the first time now will be amazed. The area has undergone a huge transformation in recent years.


Of course, things do go wrong during a redevelopment of this scale. For instance, former owners of companies in the area disagree with the way they have been forced to relocate. In addition, the new houses are too expensive according to most Londoners and the area’s popularity has caused house prices to rise in the surrounding areas (incidentally, high house prices are a problem in all of Greater London).

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The ArcelorMittal Orbit was meant to become the eye catcher and top tourist attraction in the park. With a height of 114.4 metres, the tower, designed by artist Anish Kapoor, is the largest artwork in the United Kingdom. However, during the first year after the opening, heavy losses were made. In response to this, the world’s longest slide was added to the attraction to attract more visitors. Finally, the transformation of the Olympic Stadium (now London Stadium) into a combined football and athletics stadium has not yet been a success. The World Athletics Championships of the past summer have shown that this stadium may be the world’s most beautiful and atmospheric athletics stadium. However, as a football stadium it is less convincing, though. It lacks the intimacy that defines English football stadiums. Also, the stadium is facing serious financial problems. The Olympic Stadium was designed with two rings: a permanent tier, sunk into the ground, for 25,000 visitors, with on top of it a temporary tier for 55,000 visitors. Initially, this temporary tier, constructed from steel, would be removed after the Olympics, leaving a small-scale athletics stadium. However, a study in 2010 showed that the stadium would only have a sound future with a strong user, preferably a football team from the Premier League. A tender was launched in 2010, enabling interested parties to make a bid. A joint bid by West Ham United FC and the London Borough of Newham was declared the winner. However, due to legal action by other candidates and an investigation of prohibited State aid, this tender procedure was eventually discontinued. In 2012, a second tender followed under changed conditions. Again, the bid by West Ham United FC and Newham, which was also adjusted, proved to be the best. This time, all parties did reach an agreement. The London Legacy Development Corporation (LLDC), chaired by the then mayor of London Boris Johnson, remained owner of the stadium and would therefore be responsible for its renovation as well. West Ham United FC, UK Athletics and Live Nation concluded long-term rental contracts with the LLDC and

contributed a one-off, fixed amount to the renovation costs. Allocation to West Ham United FC meant the bearing structure and the roof of the stadium had to be reinforced and extended. In addition, retractable seating had to be added as a replacement for the bottom tier, so football supporters could still sit close to the field. These costly interventions were difficult to justify, as they were largely paid for by public funds. A BBC report in 2016 showed that in the end it was West Ham United FC in particular that benefitted from this deal. Eventually, the costs of renovation turned out much higher than anticipated. The bill was presented to the LLDC. On the exploitation, a deficit of £ 20 million is expected for 2017. Over the next 10 years, this deficit is expected to increase to a total of £ 140 million. Every summer, the seats have to be slid back and partly removed to create room for the athletics track and for concerts to be held in the stadium. This operation costs

more time and money than had been budgeted beforehand. Revenues from catering are also disappointing and the LLDC hasn’t managed to find a name sponsor for the stadium yet. In March 2017 the Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, commissioned an independent investigation of the cost overruns in connection with the transformation and exploitation of the London Stadium. The results of this investigation were presented on 1 December 2017. The main conclusion from this investigation is that in the past many wrong decisions were taken under time pressure, with insufficient data and too little know-how. The model in which a government agency is the owner of the stadium, bearing all risks, was also considered unwise by the investigators. As a first reaction, Sadiq Khan took over the management of the stadium from Newham to minimise losses. He wants to achieve this by renegotiating current contracts.


Since the Olympic Games I have visited the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park several times each year. In 2017 I concluded for the first time that the former Olympic Village had come to life. There are people in the streets, shops and cafes are open and there is always a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere. All this is reinforced by a spaciousness and openness you won’t find in other parts of the London metropolis.

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It has only been five years since London organised the highly successful Olympic Games. Area development is not even halfway yet, but the first signs are positive. In the coming years, more houses will be built on the edges of the park. Besides, construction will start of the Olympicopolis cultural cluster. This cluster, also known by the name of Stratford Waterfront, will house houses and annexes of the Victoria & Albert Museum, the Smithsonian, Sadler’s Wells and a campus for the London College of Fashion.


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Section 5

Trip Report


090 Lausanne: Olympic Capital 89 - Architecture of the Games Magazine #1


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In 1915, Baron Pierre de Coubertin chose Lausanne as the location for the headquarters of the International Olympic Committee. Today, more dan 50 international sports federations and organisations are are based in Lausanne. On the next page an overview all IOC related buildings in the city.


Palais de Rumine

Lausanne hosted the Olympic Congress on ‘Sports psychologie and physiology’ in 1913, two years before the IOC settled in the city.

Temporary Headquarters

Casino de Montbenon

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Miscellaneous

First IOC Headquarters in Lausanne from 1915 to 1922. In 1915, the IOC moved from Paris to Lausanne. Almost all of Europe was in war (First World War) and Switzerland was one of the few countries that was neutral.

Temporay headquarters (from 2016) during the construction of the new Olympic House.

Lausanne Palace & Spa

Stade Pierre de Coubertin

Villa Mon-Repos

IOC Headquarters from 1922 to 1968. Also the location of the first Olympic Museum.

Château de Vidy

IOC Headquarters from 1968. Expanded in 1986 (photo below). The extension is now demolished to make way for the new Olympic House. The IOC has moved to a temporary headquarters in Pully.

Official hotel of the International Olympic Committee. Also venue for some Executive Board meetings.

Countdown clocks

Maison du Sport International (House of International Sport)

Founded in 2001 by the International Olympic Committee, the Canton de Vaud and the City of Lausanne. Tenants include international sports federations and organisations and other companies active in the field of sport.

Bust of Pierre de Coubertin


The Olympic Museum

Located in Ouchy on the shores of Lake Geneva. The museum was founded by former IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch and designed by Pedro Ramírez Vázquez (architect, president of the organizing committee of the 1968 Mexico City Olympics and IOC member). The Olympic Museum was inaugurated in 1993 and renovated between 2012 and 2013. The site is also home to the Olympic Studies Centre and a large park.

In June 2013, 12 candidates were asked to develop an architectural concept for a new Olympic Campus. One year later, 3NX was chosen by the IOC as preferred architectural partner. The new Olympic Unity House is currently under construction and wil open in 2019.

Lausanne facts and figures Situated on the shores of Lake Geneva in the French-speaking part of Switzerland Capital of the Canton of Vaud Population: 140.000 (fourth largest city in Switzerland) Altitude: Between 375 and 900m, city centre: 495m Lausanne was founded by the Romans. (a military camp that came to be known as Lousanna) Lausanne is a student city with two higly regarded universities; the ‘Université de Lausanne’ and the ‘École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne’ Home to the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland Host of the 2020 Winter Youth Olympic Games

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New IOC Headquarters: Olympic House (under construction)


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Architecture and design projects in Lausanne that are worth a visit: 1 Library La Sallaz L-Architectes – 2016 2 Tree Sculpture Samuel Wilkinson & Oloom – 2009 3 Opéra de Lausanne dl-a, designlab-architecture – 2012 4 Rolex Learning Center Sanaa – 2010 5 Under One Roof Kengo Kuma & Associates – 2016

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Colophon This magazine is available to read for free via electronic publishing platform Issuu.

Disclaimer ‘Architecture of the Games’ (AotG) and ‘Architecture of the Games Magazine’ are an educational and non-commercial project by Martijn Giebels. The website and this magazine are free from advertising or sponsorship of any kind. ‘Architecture of the Games’ is not affiliated with or funded by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The Olympic rings are the exclusive property of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) owns all rights on the Olympic properties.

Architecture of the Games www.architectureofthegames.net info@architectureofthegames.net

Editor & Design Martijn Giebels

Cover photography Photo by Paul on Flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0) Cropped from original.

All photos without attribution © Martijn Giebels

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Acknowledgements We would like express our thanks to Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism Korean Culture and Information Service - Korea.net - Kim Sunjoo - Han Jeon All photographers for providing their image via Flickr or Wikimedia Commons under CC licenses. Joel Friedlander - Nicole Giebels

Special thanks to Annemiek Giebels - Christian Koedam Copyright © 2018 by Architecture of the Games All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. For permission requests, write to the author, addressed “Attention: Permissions Coordinator,” at the address below. Architecture of the Games claims no credit for any images posted in this magazine unless otherwise noted. Images are copyright to its respectful owners. If there is an image appearing in this magazine that belongs to you and do not wish for it to appear, please write to us at info@ architectureofthegames.net. Although this publication has been compiled with the utmost care, we cannot accept any liability whatsoever for the information contained therein.

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About Architecture of the Games Legacy?

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Crowd Flow

Landscape Design


Once every 4 years all eyes are focused on one event, The Olympic Games. Upon this podium, every athlete and

Architecture

host city wants to show their best face to the world. The architecture of the venues are often used as a tool and therefore become iconic for the event. Think of the tent-like roof construction of the Olympic Stadium in München (Frei Otto, 1972) or the impressive ‘Bird’s Nest’ in Beijing (Herzog & De Meuron and Ai Weiwei, 2008). At Architecture of the Games you will read the latest news, complemented with analyses and reports of visits to (former) host cities. We follow cities

from the first candidature, during the bid process and the preparation in the run up to the Games. Finally, we report on the legacy that the Games leaves behind on the city. Currently, Architecture of the Games is the only website that is completely dedicated to this subject. In the last few years we have grown rapidly. In 2016, our website has had visitors that hailed from more than 170 countries.

Infrastructure

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Architecture of the Games was begun in August 2013, with the aim of informing architects and others interested about spatial and architectural design within the Olympic Games. We write mainly about urban planning, landscape architecture, architecture and infrastructure. Next to this we also pay attention to the visual identity of the Olympic Games.


For the Dutch readers

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Rio 2016: Kleurrijke Olympische Spelen met een onzekere nalatenschap Pagina 8-9 De Olympische Spelen hebben Rio de Janeiro en de Cariocas niet gebracht wat gehoopt en beloofd was. Tijdens de voorbereidingen kreeg Brazilië te maken met een politieke en economische crisis waardoor het land er momenteel slechter voor staat dan een aantal jaar geleden. Het Organisatiecomité kampt nog met grote schulden aan leveranciers en de arrestatie van Carlos Nuzman, voormalig hoofd van Rio 2016 en het Braziliaanse Olympische comité, in oktober 2017 op verdenking van omkoping bij de toewijzing van de Spelen aan Rio de Janeiro in 2009 is misschien nog maar het topje van de corruptie-ijsberg. In februari 2017 gingen foto’s van het Olympic Aquatics Stadium de hele wereld over. Het tijdelijke stadion waar een halfjaar eerder atleten als Michael Phelps en Katie Ledecky geschiedenis schreven zag eruit alsof het al jaren verlaten was. Deze beelden werden gezien als tekenend voor de situatie waarin Rio de Janeiro verkeerde. De voorbeelden stapelden zich op. Het park van Deodoro werd enkele maanden na de heropening alweer gesloten vanwege geldgebrek en het beroemde Maracanã stadion bleek in slechte staat achtergelaten te zijn na de Spelen. Daarnaast zat het de Brazilianen ook niet mee. In het net heropende Velodrome brak afgelopen juli brand uit nadat een vuurballon op het dak terecht gekomen was. In november, vier maanden later, brak een tweede kleine brand uit. Ook deze werd veroorzaakt door een vuurballon. Toch is er niet alleen slecht nieuws te melden. Een aantal venues hebben in het afgelopen jaar succesvol een nieuwe functie gekregen. De Carioca Arena 3 en de Youth Arena worden momenteel bijvoorbeeld gebruikt door de lokale bevolking en de Olympic Tennis Arena werd afgelopen zomer

gebruikt als beachvolleybal stadion voor de FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour. Barra Olympic Park is in januari 2017 gedeeltelijk heropend voor het publiek en werd afgelopen september voor het eerst gebruikt als locatie voor het meerdaagse muziekfestival Rock in Rio. De grootste veranderingen in de stad na de Olympische Spelen zijn het herontwikkelde havengebied en de nieuwe metrolijn van Zona Sul naar Barra da Tijuca. Daarnaast hebben de nieuwe Bus Rapid Transit-lijnen de reistijden tussen enkele wijken in het westelijke gebied aanzienlijk verkort. Al deze projecten zouden zonder de druk van de naderende Spelen vermoedelijk nu niet voltooid zijn. IOC President Thomas Bach omschreef de Olympische Spelen van Rio de Janeiro heel treffend als “the most perfect imperfect Games”. Hoewel de aanloop naar de Spelen chaotisch en vol schandalen was, waren de Olympische Spelen zelf redelijk succesvol en verliepen ze zonder noemenswaardige incidenten. Twee weken lang stonden de sportieve prestaties op de voorgrond en liet Rio de Janeiro zich van zijn mooiste, feestelijkste en spectaculairste kant zien.

De nieuwe Kandidatuur Procedure Pagina 22-23 Het Internationaal Olympisch Comité heeft een aantal wijzigingen doorgevoerd in de Kandidatuur Procedure voor de Olympische Winterspelen van 2026. Het doel is te voorkomen dat het merendeel van de kandidaat steden gedurende het proces afvalt. Voor zowel de Olympische Spelen van 2022 als 2024 bleven uiteindelijk maar twee kandidaat steden over. Door het afvallen van Hamburg, Rome en Boedapest bleven met Parijs en Los Angeles twee sterke kandidaten over in de race voor de Olympische Spelen van 2024. Het bid van beide steden was vernieuwend en ging uit van bestaande faciliteiten. Het

Internationaal Olympisch Comité besloot dat een gelijktijdige toewijzing voor 2024 en 2028 mogelijk was als beide steden onderling hierover een akkoord konden bereiken. Dit akkoord werd gesloten in juli 2017, twee maanden voor de IOC Sessie in Lima. Parijs kreeg 2024, voornamelijk vanwege de beschikbaarheid van bouwgrond voor het Olympisch dorp. De dubbele toewijzing werd op 13 september 2017 in Lima goedgekeurd door de IOC Sessie. Een unieke gebeurtenis want een dubbele toewijzing was sinds 1921 niet meer voorgekomen. Tegelijkertijd was deze oplossing ook een noodzakelijke omdat het IOC het zich niet kon permitteren om een sterke kandidaat te verliezen in een tijd waarin er bij steden nog maar weinig animo is om de organisatie van de Olympische Spelen op zich te nemen. IOC President Thomas Bach noemde het resultaat niet voor niks een “win-win-win situation”. De procedure is volgens het nieuwe model voor 2026 opgedeeld in twee fases. In de eerste fase zal er vooral veel overleg zijn tussen het IOC en de potentiële kandidaat steden. Deze periode duurt van september 2017 tot oktober 2018. In de tweede fase dienen de steden uiteindelijk een candidature file in. In september 2019 zal de gaststad voor de Olympische Winterspelen van 2026 tijdens de IOC Sessie in Milaan gekozen worden. Steden die tot dusver interesse getoond hebben zijn Sion, Calgary, Sapporo, Telemark en Salt Lake City.   Masterplan Parijs 2024 Pagina 30-31 De Olympische Spelen van Parijs 2024 zullen de eerste worden volgens een nieuw model. De meeste venues zijn bestaand en liggen verspreid in het hart van de Franse hoofdstad. Het merendeel van de venues is geclusterd in twee zones: de Grand Paris Zone en de Paris Centre Zone. In het masterplan zijn een aantal


Doordat Parijs 2024 grotendeels gebruik gaat maken van bestaande venues, aangevuld met tijdelijke venues, hoeft er weinig nieuw gebouwd te worden. De benodigde nieuwbouw zal plaats gaan vinden in het stadsdeel Saint-Denis in het noorden van de stad. Hier bevindt zich momenteel al het Stade de France. In dit stadion zullen de ceremonies en atletiekcompetities gehouden worden. Naast het stadion wordt een nieuw zwemstadion gebouwd en op ongeveer een kilometer afstand komt het Olympisch dorp dat deels gebruikt maakt van bestaande bouwwerken.   PyeongChang 2018: Introductie Pagina 34-35 Na mislukte pogingen in 2003 en 2007, lukte het PyeongChang in 2011 eindelijk om de organisatie van de Olympische Winterspelen binnen te halen. Na de Olympische Spelen van Seoul in 1988 is het de tweede keer dat de Republiek Korea de Spelen mag organiseren. PyeongChang 2018 is tevens de eerste in een reeks van 3 Aziatische Olympische Spelen op rij. In 2020 is Tokyo de gaststad en 2 jaar later wordt Beijing de eerste stad die zowel Zomer- (2008) als Winter-spelen heeft georganiseerd. Sinds de Tweede Wereldoorlog is het Koreaanse schiereiland verdeeld in twee delen; de Democratische Volksrepubliek Korea in het noorden en de Republiek Korea in het zuiden. Van 1950 tot 1953

vochten beide delen een oorlog uit. Deze Koreaanse Oorlog eindigde met een wapenstilstand, een vredesverdrag is echter nooit gesloten. Tot op de dag van vandaag zijn er spanningen tussen het noorden en het zuiden. In Zuid-Korea wonen 51,5 miljoen mensen, waarvan 9,9 miljoen in de hoofdstad Seoul. Andere grote steden met meer dan twee miljoen inwoners zijn Busan, Incheon en Daegu. Het land heeft een oppervlak van 100,210 km2 en grenst behalve aan Noord-Korea ook aan de Gele Zee en de Japanse Zee. Zuid-Korea is na de wederopbouw van de Koreaanse Oorlog en economische crisis van de jaren ‘90 razendsnel uitgegroeid tot een democratisch en welvarend land. In 2016 had Zuid-Korea de 11de economie van de wereld. Het land is zwaar afhankelijk van de internationale handel. Sterke sectoren met veel export zijn de scheepsbouw, automobielindustrie, grondstoffen en consumentenelektronica. ZuidKoreaanse merken als Samsung, Hyundai en LG zijn bekend over de hele wereld. Zuid-Korea heeft veel ervaring met het organiseren van grote sportevenementen. Met de organisatie van de Winterspelen komt Zuid-Korea zelfs in een selecte groep van landen die de Olympische Zomer- en Winterspelen, FIFA World Cup en IAAF World Championships georganiseerd hebben. Daarnaast was het land de gastheer van 4 edities van de Asian Games (Seoul 1986, Gangwon 1999, Busan 2002 en Incheon 2014) en 3 Universiades (Muju 1997, Daegu 2003 en Gwangju 2015). Voetbal en honkbal zijn (traditioneel) de populaire sporten in Zuid-Korea. Daarnaast is schaatsen (vooral short track) erg populair. Tijdens de vorige Olympische Winterspelen in Sochi werden door het Zuid-Koreaanse team in totaal 3 gouden, 3 zilveren en 2 bronzen medailles behaald bij langebaanschaatsen, shorttrack en kunstrijden.

PyeongChang 2018: Masterplan Pagina 36-37 PyeongChang is een district gelegen in de oostelijke provincie Gangwon-do op 130 kilometer van Seoul. Het district telt ongeveer 44.000 inwoners. De venues zijn verdeeld over twee clusters; een Mountain Cluster in PyeongChang en een Coastal Cluster in de kustplaats Gangneung (230.000 inwoners). Voor de Olympische Winterspelen zijn zes nieuwe venues gebouwd; twee in de Mountain Cluster en vier in de Coastal Cluster. De bouw van deze venues was ruim op tijd voltooid en ze zijn voor het eerst in gebruik genomen tijdens test events in de winters van 2015-2016 en 2016-2017. De Mountain Cluster is het meest uitgestrekt en heeft als eyecatcher het vijfhoekige Olympisch Stadion. Dit stadion is het eerste tijdelijke Olympisch Stadion in de geschiedenis van de Spelen. Naast het stadion ligt Medal Plaza. Op dit plein worden dagelijks de medailles uitgereikt. Tevens worden er culturele activiteiten gehouden. De competities vinden plaats in Alpensia, Yongpyong, Jongseon en Bokwang. In Alpensia staat de skischans (uit 2008) en is het nieuwe Sliding Centre gebouwd. In de Coastal Cluster vinden in vijf venues alle ijssporten plaats. Van deze vijf venues was er één bestaand: het Curling Centre uit 1998 in het noorden van de stad. Drie nieuwe venues zijn gebouwd bij het Curling Centre en deze vormen samen Gangneung Olympic Park. Tevens is er bij de Kwandong Catholic University in het zuidoosten van Gangneung een nieuw ijshockey stadion gerealiseerd. Er zijn twee Olympische dorpen gebouwd, één in elk cluster. Tevens is er in Gangneung een media village gerealiseerd. Het International Broadcast Centre en het Main Press Centre zijn gebouwd nabij Alpensia in de Mountain Cluster.  

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spectaculaire venues opgenomen. Denk aan open water zwemmen in de Seine bij de Eiffeltoren, turnen in het Grand Palais, paardrijden in Versailles en hockey in Stade Yves-du-Manoir; het oude Olympische stadion van 1924. Deze venues zijn met elkaar verbonden door het uitstekende metro- en treinnetwerk van Parijs. Dit netwerk wordt in de komende jaren ook nog eens uitgebreid met de ‘Grand Paris Express’. Dit is een omvangrijk project waarin vier nieuwe lijnen aangelegd worden. Tevens worden twee bestaande lijnen verlengt.


PyeongChang 2018: Transport Pagina 40-41

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De Republiek Korea beschikt over een modern en uitgebreid transportnetwerk bestaande uit snelwegen, (hogesnelheids)treinverbindingen en bus routes door het hele land. De belangrijkste luchthaven van Zuid-Korea is Incheon International Airport, gelegen op 50 kilometer van Seoul. Incheon Airport is gebouwd op een gedeeltelijk kunstmatig eiland in de Gele Zee en in 2001 geopend. De luchthaven is één van de drukste in Azië. In 2016 reisden 57,7 miljoen passagiers via dit vliegveld naar bestemmingen wereldwijd. Op 18 januari 2018 wordt de nieuwe Terminal 2 geopend waarmee de capaciteit van de luchthaven nog verder vergroot wordt. Incheon International Airport is vanaf 2005 ieder jaar verkozen tot beste luchthaven wereldwijd in een verkiezing georganiseerd door de Airports Council International. Ten behoeve van de Olympische Spelen in PyeongChang is een nieuwe hogesnelheidslijn gebouwd tussen Wonju en Gangneung. Deze lijn is in december 2017 in gebruik genomen en brengt de reistijd van Incheon en Seoul naar Gangneung terug tot minder dan twee uur. Tijdens de Spelen zijn er drie belangrijke transport hubs, de zogenaamde Transport Malls. Deze hubs zijn gelegen bij treinstations en grote parkeerplaatsen. Vanaf de Transport Malls rijden pendelbussen naar alle venues en kleinere hubs. De nieuwe hogesnelheidstrein stop bij de Jinbu Transport Mall.   PyeongChang 2018: Gangneung Olympic Park Pagina 46-47 Bij het bestaande Curling Centre en Gangneung Stadium zijn drie nieuwe permanente stadions gebouwd voor

ijshockey, langebaanschaatsen, short track schaatsen en kunstschaatsen. Deze venues vormen samen Gangneung Olympic Park. Tijdens de Spelen worden in het park een aantal tijdelijke voorzieningen en paviljoens geplaatst voor de bezoekers. Zo komen er een megastore, restaurants en diverse sponsor paviljoens. Op de live site worden beelden van sportwedstrijden afgewisseld met culturele activiteiten.   London 2012: Op weg naar een duurzame Olympische erfenis Pagina 84-87 Wie in 2012 het Olympisch Park in Stratford bezocht en nu voor het eerst terugkomt zal versteld staan. De transformatie die het gebied in de afgelopen jaren doorgemaakt heeft is enorm. ‘De Olympische Spelen als katalysator van stedelijke verandering’, is een belofte die nog steeds vaak gebruikt wordt in de kandidatuur fase om de organisatie van de Olympische Spelen binnen te halen. Vaak verdween deze belofte vervolgens naar de achtergrond als de Spelen eenmaal binnengehaald waren. Tokyo 1964 en Barcelona 1992 zijn goede voorbeelden van steden waar de Olympische Spelen meer hebben achtergelaten dan ze hebben verbruikt en waar de positieve effecten tegenwoordig nog steeds waarneembaar zijn. Londen is na de Olympische Spelen van 2012 goed op weg om ook in deze categorie te vallen. Eigenlijk zijn de Olympische Spelen alleen maar een tijdelijke stop in bouwactiviteiten geweest want vanaf het moment dat Londen het Olympische bid won in 2005 is aan de herontwikkeling van het voormalige industriegebied in Stratford gewerkt. En het einde is nog niet in zicht want de verwachting is dat de werkzaamheden pas in 2031 afgerond zullen zijn.

Het park zelf (nu het Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park) en de voormalige Olympische venues zijn de blikvangers. Het Aquatics Centre, Etan Manor en het Olympic Stadium werden omgebouwd voor nieuw gebruik. De architectuur van de Copper Box Arena en het Velodrome is onveranderd spectaculair als in 2012. Alle venues zijn te gebruiken door zowel amateur- als professionele sporters. In de afgelopen jaren zijn er tevens een groot aantal grote internationale sportwedstrijden gehouden; De Invictus Games in 2014. De wereldkampioenschappen rugby (2015), baanwielrennen (2016) en atletiek (2017). En Europese kampioenschappen zwemmen en hockey in 2015. Het Olympisch dorp is omgebouwd tot een woonwijk en het Media Centre is een hub voor creatieve bedrijven geworden. Aan de randen van het park worden momenteel nieuwe woonwijken en kantoorgebouwen gebouwd. Niet alleen de architectuur maar ook het landschapsontwerp is van hoge kwaliteit. De hoogteverschillen, beplanting, routing, het kanaaltje en onverwachte verscholen plekken zorgen voor een diversiteit aan ruimtelijke ervaringen. Het noordelijke deel van het park is groener en rustiger terwijl het zuidelijke deel juist meer op activiteiten en kinderen gericht is. Wonen, werken, sporten, spelen, ontspannen, rust en cultuur. Voor elke doelgroep is er iets te vinden. Juist deze combinatie van verschillende functies en ruimtelijke condities maakt de herontwikkeling van het voormalige Olympisch park zo succesvol. Bij een herontwikkeling op deze schaal gaan er natuurlijk ook dingen mis. Zo zijn voormalige eigenaren van bedrijven in het gebied het niet eens met de manier waarop ze gedwongen verplaatst zijn. Daarnaast zijn de nieuwe woningen te duur volgens een groot deel van de Londenaren en zorgt de populariteit van het gebied voor stijgende woningprijzen in de omringende wijken (de hoge prijs van


In het park moest de ArcelorMittal Orbit de eyecatcher en top toeristische attractie worden. De door Anish Kapoor ontworpen toren is met 114,4 meter het grootste kunstwerk in het Verenigd Koninkrijk. In het eerste jaar na de opening worden er echter grote verliezen geleden. Als reactie daarop is de attractie in 2016 uitgebreid met de langste glijbaan ter wereld om meer bezoekers te trekken. Ten slotte is de transformatie van het Olympic Stadium (tegenwoordig London Stadium) naar een gecombineerd voetbal en atletiek stadion nog geen succes. De wereldkampioenschappen atletiek van afgelopen zomer hebben laten zien dat dit stadion misschien wel het mooiste en sfeervolste atletiekstadion ter wereld is. Als voetbalstadion is deze echter minder overtuigend. Het mist hiervoor de intimiteit die Engelse voetbalstadions kenmerkt. Daarnaast kampt het stadion met ernstige financiële problemen. Het Olympic Stadium was ontworpen met twee ringen; een permanente in de grond verzonken ring voor 25.000 bezoekers met daarbovenop een tijdelijke ring voor 55.000 bezoekers. In eerste instantie zou deze tijdelijke, uit staal opgebouwde, ring na de Spelen verwijderd worden waardoor een kleinschalig atletiekstadion overbleef. Uit een onderzoek in 2010 bleek echter dat het stadion alleen een gezonde toekomst zou hebben met een sterke gebruiker, bij voorkeur een voetbalclub uit de Premier League. In 2010 is een aanbesteding uitgeschreven waardoor geïnteresseerde partijen een bod konden doen. Een gezamenlijk bod van West Ham United FC en de London Borough of Newham werd als winnaar aangewezen. Vanwege juridische stappen van andere kandidaten en een onderzoek naar verboden staatssteun is deze aanbestedingsprocedure uiteindelijk gestaakt. In 2012 volgde een tweede aanbesteding onder aangepaste voorwaarden. Opnieuw

bleek het eveneens aangepaste bod van West Ham United FC en Newham het beste. Deze keer kwamen alle partijen wel tot een akkoord. De London Legacy Development Corporation (LLDC), voorgezeten door de toenmalige burgemeester van Londen Boris Johnson, bleef de eigenaar van het stadion en zou daardoor tevens verantwoordelijk zijn voor de verbouwing. West Ham United FC, UK Athletics en Live Nation sloten langdurige huurcontracten af met de LLDC en droegen eenmalig een vastgesteld bedrag bij aan de verbouwingskosten. De toewijzing aan West Ham United FC had tot gevolg dat de draagconstructie en het dak van het stadion versterkt en vergroot moesten worden. Tevens dienden er verschuifbare tribunes toegevoegd te worden als vervanging van de onderste ring zodat voetbalsupporters toch dicht op het veld konden zitten. De kostbare ingrepen waren moeilijk te verantwoorden omdat ze grotendeels uit publiek geld werden betaald. Uit een reportage van de BBC in 2016 bleek dan ook dat deze deal uiteindelijk vooral voor West Ham United FC financieel heel interessant was. De kosten voor de de verbouwing vielen uiteindelijk veel hoger uit dan begroot. Deze rekening kwam bij de LLDC terecht. Op de exploitatie wordt in 2017 een tekort van £20 miljoen verwacht. Dit tekort loopt in de komende 10 jaar naar verwachting op tot in totaal £140 miljoen. Elke zomer moeten de tribunes teruggeschoven en deels verwijderd worden zodat er ruimte ontstaat voor de atletiekbaan en er concerten gehouden kunnen worden in het stadion. Deze operatie kost veel meer geld en tijd dan vooraf begroot was. Tevens vallen de catering inkomsten tegen en lukt het de LLDC niet om een naamsponsor voor het stadion te vinden. In maart 2017 gaf de burgemeester van Londen, Sadiq Khan, opdracht

voor een onafhankelijk onderzoek naar de kostenoverschrijdingen bij de transformatie en exploitatie van het London Stadium. De resultaten van dit onderzoek werden op 1 december 2017 gepresenteerd. De voornaamste conclusie uit het onderzoek is dat er in het verleden veel verkeerde beslissingen genomen zijn onder tijdsdruk, met onvoldoende gegevens en te weinig kennis van zaken. Ook het model waarin een overheidsorganisatie eigenaar is van het stadion is, en daarmee alleen alle risico’s draagt, wordt door de onderzoekers als onverstandig gezien. Sadiq Khan heeft als eerste reactie het beheer over het stadion overgenomen van Newham om de verliezen te minimaliseren. Dit wil hij onder andere doen door opnieuw te gaan onderhandelen over lopende contracten. Het is nog maar vijf jaar geleden dat Londen de uiterst succesvolle Olympische Spelen organiseerde. De gebiedsontwikkeling is nog niet halverwege, maar de eerste tekenen zijn heel positief. In de komende jaren zullen er nog meer woningen gebouwd worden aan de randen van het park. Daarnaast zal begonnen worden met de bouw van de culturele cluster Olympicopolis. Dit cluster, ook bekend onder de naam Stratford Waterfront, zal woningen en dependances van het Victoria & Albert Museum, The Smithsonian, Sadler’s Wells en een campus voor het London College of Fashion gaan huisvesten. Sinds de Olympische Spelen bezocht ik het Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park meerdere keren per jaar. In 2017 constateerde ik voor het eerst dat het voormalige Olympisch dorp tot leven is gekomen. Er zijn mensen op straat, winkeltjes en cafés geopend en er hangt een fijne ongedwongen sfeer. Dit alles wordt versterkt door een ruimte en openheid die je in andere delen van de metropool Londen niet snel tegenkomt.

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woningen is overigens een probleem in heel Groot-Londen).


“It is now for the architects to fulfil the great dream, to let soar from their brains a resplendent Olympia, at once original in its modernism and imposing in its traditionalism, but above all perfectly suited to its function. And who knows? Perhaps the hour will strike when the dream already committed to paper will be built in reality.� Pierre de Coubertin (1910) Source: The Olympic Museum

Architecture of the Games Magazine #1 2018  

This is the first edition of ‘Architecture of the Games Magazine’. This bilingual magazine is available to read for free via electronic publ...

Architecture of the Games Magazine #1 2018  

This is the first edition of ‘Architecture of the Games Magazine’. This bilingual magazine is available to read for free via electronic publ...

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