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ARCHITECTURE OF THE GAMES

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SPECIAL ISSUE:

THE ARCHITECTURE OF RIO2016 RIO2016 MASTERPLAN

OLYMPIC VENUES

ARCHITECTURE IN RIO


Curves are the essence of my work because they are the essence of Brazil, pure and simple. Oscar Niemeyer

Photo JosĂŠ Fernandes Jr. (CC BY 2.0)




THE ARCHITECTURE OF RIO2016 SPECIAL ISSUE - JUNE 2016 - WWW.ARCHITECTUREOFTHEGAMES.NET

06 Summary in Portuguese

46 Venues outside Rio de Janeiro

08 First Olympics in South America

50 Non Competition Venues

10 Rio2016 Masterplan

52 Contributing Brazilian Architects Vigliecca & Associados

12 Venue map 14 Barra Olympic Park 18 Contributing Brazilian Architects BCMF Arquitetos 22 Venues

54 Architecture in Rio de Janeiro 58 About Architecture of the Games 60 For the Dutch readers 62 Colophon


SUMMARY IN PORTUGUESE Resumo em Português

De 5 a 21 de agosto de 2016, o Rio de Janeiro vai sediar os primeiros Jogos Olímpicos da América do Sul. A “Cidade Maravilhosa” foi escolhida em 2009 no 121º congresso IOC, com concorrentes como as cidades de Madri, Tóquio e Chicago. Após a Copa do Mundo organizado pela FIFA em 2014, as Olimpíadas serão o 2º evento de grande porte organizado em um curto espaço de tempo no Brasil. O Rio de Janeiro também sediou os Jogos Pan-Americanos em 2007.

Planejamento, regiões e instalações O Rio de Janeiro é uma das cidades mais lindas do mundo. Os cariocas vivem no meio de uma paisagem espetacular, onde o oceano se encontra com montanhas abundantemente verdes. Porém, as diferenças de altitude dificultam o planejamento urbano, com o crescimento incontrolável e a infraestrutura sendo os maiores desafios. Os Jogos no Rio de Janeiro serão relativamente compactos. Com a exceção do jogos de futebol, todos os eventos esportivos situam-se dentro da cidade do Rio de Janeiro (outras cidades que irão hospedar os jogos de futebol são: Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador, São Paulo e Manaus). As instalações situamse em quatro bairros: Barra, Deodoro, Maracanã e Copacabana. A Barra da Tijuca é a região mais importante, contendo o Parque Olímpico, Vila Olímpica, centro de mídia com hotel e a maioria das instalações da competição localizadas lá. Barra A Barra da Tijuca é um bairro localizado ao sudoeste do centro. É a mais importante das 4 regiões. O Parque Olímpico foi construído em um pedaço de terra triangular banhado pela Lagoa da Tijuca nos dois lados. Deodoro Deodoro é o 2º maior conjunto, localizado ao noroeste do centro. Este distrito possui muitas instalações que foram usadas durante os Jogos Pan-Americanos em 2007, como por exemplo, os centros de tiro e hipismo. Maracanã A região do Maracanã sediará os grandiosos eventos, como atletismo e as cerimônias de abertura e encerramento. O conjunto fica próximo ao centro e é de fácil acesso. Todas as instalações desta região já estão prontas. Copacabana As famosas praias e montanhas de Copacabana formam o pano de fundo para os eventos ao ar livre. Por causa de sua localização ao sul do centro, esta região é incrivelmente

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SUMMARY IN PORTUGUESE


acessível. Os jogos em Copacabana serão os mais recomendados para os visitantes, tendo esportes como remo, ciclismo e maratonas aquáticas parcialmente gratuitos para assistir. Arquitetura do Rio 2016 O Brasil possui uma rica tradição arquitetônica com grandes arquitetos, contando com nomes como Lina Bo Bardi, João Filgueiras Lima, e claro, Oscar Niemeyer. O país tem uma sociedade diversificada com uma história complexa. Isto se reflete na arquitetura, com pessoas e a natureza tendo um papel fundamental. Como em todos os Jogos, o Rio de Janeiro sedia algumas instalações especiais. Por exemplo, o Sambódromo, desenvolvido por Oscar Niemeyer. O local onde os grandes desfiles de carnaval ocorrem, agora é onde a maratona terminará e onde as competições de arco e flecha se passam. O lendário Maracanã apresentará jogos de futebol e, um estádio temporário de vôlei de praia será feito na praia de Copacabana. Mas também há algumas instalações novas que merecem atenção, como a Arena da Juventude (Vigliecca & Associados) e a Arena do Futuro (consórcio de Lopes Santos & Ferreira Gomes e AndArchitects). Esta última será removida após os Jogos e reutilizada na construção de quatro escolas.

Sobre o “Architecture of the Games” O “Architecture of the Games” foi iniciado em agosto de 2013 com o objetivo de informar arquitetos e outros interessados sobre design espacial e arquitetônico nos Jogos Olímpicos. Nós escrevemos principalmente sobre o planejamento urbano, arquitetura de paisagismo, arquitetura e infraestrutura. Também damos atenção à identidade visual dos Jogos Olímpicos. Atualmente, o Architecture of the Games é o único site completamente focado neste assunto. Uma vez a cada 4 anos, todos os olhos estão focados em um evento, os Jogos Olímpicos. Neste pódio, todos os atletas e cidades sede querem mostrar o seu melhor para o mundo. A arquitetura das instalações muitas vezes é usada para isto e, portanto, se tornam icônicas para o evento. Pense na construção do telhado em forma de tenda do Estádio Olímpico em Munique (Frei Otto, 1972) ou o impressionante “Ninho de Pássaro” em Pequim (Herzog & De Meuron e Ai Weiwei, 2008). No Architecture of the Games você pode ler as últimas notícias, complementadas com análises e relatos de visitas às cidades sede anteriores. Nós acompanhamos as cidades desde a primeira candidatura, durante o processo de proposta e na preparação para os Jogos. Finalmente, nós relatamos sobre o legado que os Jogos deixam na cidade. Em 2016, estaremos prestando atenção especial aos Jogos Olímpicos do Rio de Janeiro.

Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

RESUMO EM PORTUGUÊS

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FIRST OLYMPICS IN South America From the 5th to 21st of August 2016, Rio de Janeiro will play host to the first Olympic Games in South America. The ‘Cidade Maravilhosa’ (Marvelous City) was chosen in 2009 at the 121st IOC Session above cities Madrid, Tokyo and Chicago. After the FIFA World Cup in 2014, the Olympics will be the 2nd major event organised in short succession within Brazil. Rio de Janeiro was also the host city for the Pan American Games in 2007.

Photo Jon Kristian Bernhardsen (CC BY 2.0)

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The election to play host city came in a time period where Brazil was politically strong and belonged to the BRIC countries with rapid economic growth. The result was growing prosperity within all aspects of society. The situation could not be more different to now, on the eve of the Olympic Games. That growth is now at a standstill. In 2015 the economy dropped 3.8%, the worst result in the last 25 years. Last year’s inflation rose an astounding 10.7%. On the political front there was also cause for unrest. There was an impeachment against President Dilma Rousseff due to allegations of fraudulent actions surrounding the state budget in 2014. As of the 12th of May, Rousseff has temporarily been replaced by Vice President Michel Temer. And to top all that off, the country has had to deal with a major outbreak of the Zika virus. 2016 was supposed to be the year where Rio de Janeiro could present its new face to the world. After losing its status as capital of Brazil in 1960, the city has wrestled with its own identity. What was the position of Rio de Janeiro in comparison to the new capital city and economically strong metropole São Paulo? City authorities lost control of the favelas and crime rates soared. With the economic growth of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro again found its way up. The allocation of the Games was a confirmation of this and was the last push to develop to a modern and inhabitable city.

RIO DE JANEIRO

The Olympic Games often act as catalysts for urban renewal. They accelerate processes that normally require more time (for example Barcelona 1992). For Rio de Janeiro, this mostly meant improving the infrastructure and the pacification of the favelas. An integral part of the 2009 bid was to improve the water quality of the bays surrounding the city, which has not been achieved. The organisation committee has also had to deal with budget cuts and accusations of corruption, to which an investigation is still pending. The overall construction of venues has however gone remarkably smoothly. With only a few exceptions, everything was ready on time. Every city that has been awarded the Games knows that they will have the whole world watching and have every action scrutinised under a magnifying glass. The circumstances and setbacks that Rio de Janeiro has had to with deal have been extreme. The eventual success of the Games is ultimately dependant on many factors. But if the residents of Rio de Janeiro embrace the event in August with the same vigour and atmosphere as carnival, the unfortunate circumstances leading to a trying preparation will soon be forgotten.

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RIO2016 MASTERPLAN Rio de Janeiro is one of the most beautifully situated cities in the world. The Cariocas (nickname for citizens of the city) live in the middle of a spectacular landscape where the ocean meets lavishly green mountains. The difference in altitude, however, make city planning difficult with uncontrollable growth and infrastructure as the largest challenges.

The Games of Rio de Janeiro are relatively compact. Apart from football, all the sport events are situated within the city (Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador, São Paulo and Manaus are the other football locations). The venues are situated in four zones: Barra, Deodoro, Maracanã and Copacabana. Barra is the most important zone, with the Olympic Park, Olympic Village, media centre with hotel and most of the competition venues being located here.

Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

The four zones and the international airport are connected to each other in various ways. Firstly are the Olympic Lanes. These are specially dedicated lanes only for athletes, officials and the media. Visitors to the Games will mostly have to use the metro and bus as means of transportation. The BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) system has been expanded and now connects the entire city. An essential (and ambitious) part of the transport plan is the construction of metro line 4 between Ipanema and Barra. According to the last prognosis (end of May 2016), the line will be opened just four days prior to the beginning of the Games. Like every Games, Rio de Janeiro hosts a few special venues. For example the Sambódromo, designed by Oscar Niemeyer. At the location where the large carnival parades normally pass is now where the marathon finishes and where the archery competitions are held. The legendary Maracanã will host football games and a temporary beach volleyball stadium will be located on Copacabana beach. But there are also a few new venues worthy of noting, such as the Youth Arena (Vigliecca & Associados) and the Future Arena (consortium of Lopes Santos & Ferreira Gomes and AndArchitects). This lastly mentioned venue will be removed after the Games and reused in the construction of four schools.

Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

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RIO2016 MASTERPLAN


RIOgaleão - Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro

Baía de Guanabara

DEODORO MARACANÃ

Centro

BARRA Leblon

Ipanema

Aeroporto do Rio de Janeiro Santos Dumont

COPACABANA

Atlantic Ocean

N

RIO DE JANEIRO

MAP

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VENUE MAP Whitewater Stadium Youth Arena Olympic Shooting Centre

Olympic BMX Centre Mountain Bike Centre Olympic Hockey Centre

DEODORO Deodoro Stadium

Deodoro Aquatics Centre Olympic Equestrian Centre

Olympic Stadium

Riocentro Pavilion 2/3/4/6

Olympic Golf Course

Barra Olympic Park Maria Lenk Aquatics Centre Olympic Arena Velodrome Carioca Arena 1/2/3 Olympic Tennis Centre Future Arena Olympic Aquatics Stadium (see map on pages 16-17)

BARRA Pontal

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Baía de Guanabara

MARACANÃ Maracanã

Maracanãzinho

Sambódromo Marina da Glória

Beach Volleyball Arena

COPACABANA

Lagoa Stadium

Fort Copacabana

Atlantic Ocean

RIO DE JANEIRO

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BARRA OLYMPIC PARK

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BARRA OLYMPIC PARK


AERIAL PHOTO: ANDRÉ MOTTA / BRASIL2016.GOV.BR (JUNE 2016)

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Hotel

IBC/MPC Olympic Tennis Centre

Design AECOM (Winner of international competition in 2011) Year completed 2016 Size 120 hectares / 9 Venues / 3 Non Competition Venues Olympic Sports 16; Basketball, Wrestling (Freestyle / Greco-Roman), Judo, Fencing, Teakwondo, Handball, Diving, Synchronized Swimming, Swimming, Tennis, Gymnastics (gala / artistic / rhythmic / trampoline) and Track Cycling

Olympic Aquatics Stadium

Paralympic Sports 9; Wheelchair Basketball, Wheelchair Rugby, Boccia, Judo, Goalball, Swimming, Wheelchair Tennis, Football 5-a-side and Para-cycling Track Legacy Legacy use include; Recreation and leisure hub / Housing / Public park / Rainforest education centre / Sport / Educational Campus

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BARRA OLYMPIC PARK


Maria Lenk Aquatics Centre

Velodrome Olympic Arena

Carioca Arena 3

Carioca Arena 2

Carioca Arena 1

Future Arena

Lagoa de Jacarepaguá

GOOGLE EARTH, IMAGE © 2016 DIGITALGLOBE (JUNE 2016)

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CONTRIBUTING BRAZILIAN ARCHITECTS BCMF Arquitetos Founded In 2001 by Bruno Campos, Marcelo Fontes and Silvio Todeschi Active in Architecture, urban planning and interior design. Projects include sports arenas, mixed-use, housing, corporate, healthcare, industries and urban masterplans. Selected projects Complexo Esportivo de Deodoro, Rio de Janeiro Estádio Mineirão, Belo Horizonte (renovation) Parque Tecnológico de Itajubá Escritório do Google, Belo Horizonte Competitions and Awards Deodoro Sports Complex; Nominated for “Best work of young author” at the VI Ibero American Biennial of Architecture and Urbanism (Lisbon) in 2008, “Golden Medal” at the 1st IAKS LAC Award (International Association for Sports and Leisure Facilities / Section Latin America and Caribbean) in 2010, and the “Special Prize” in the IOC / IAKS Award (Cologne, Germany) in 2011. Mineirão Stadium renovation; First Prize on the 15th Institute of Brazilian Architects Award (category “Built Work”) and Honorable Mention on the 8th ASBEA Award (Brazilian Association of Architectural Practices). Science and Technology Park of Itajubá, First Prize on the 15th Institute of Brazilian Architects Award, (category “Masterplans and Projects”). Based in Belo Horizonte Website www.bcmfarquitetos.com

Residência Esteves. Photo courtesy of BCMF Arquitetos

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Bar Galeria Casacor. Photo courtesy of BCMF Arquitetos

CONTRIBUTING BRAZILIAN ARCHITECTS


INTERVIEW WITH BRUNO CAMPOS

National Shooting Centre. Sketch courtesy of BCMF Arquitetos

How is BCMF Arquitetos involved in the Olympics? BCMF Arquitetos has become the first Brazilian architectural practice to participate actively in the planning of the three major mega-events that have been promising to transform the country: Pan American Games (Rio 2007), FIFA World Cup (2014) and Olympics (Rio 2016). Our role has been different on each case. Deodoro Sports Complex Rio de Janeiro (RJ), was designed by BCMF for the Rio 2007 Pan American Games with awareness that a similar competition venue and program would be applied to a future Olympic Games in 2016. For the Olympics, the cluster has been complemented by the practice Vigliecca & Associates, with new facilities and interventions. Maybe because of this successful achievement of the Deodoro Complex, in 2008 BCMF Arquitetos was commissioned by the Brazilian Organizing Committee (COB) to develop the architecture and landscape concept studies of most of the venues and facilities for the “Rio 2016 Bid”, when Rio was still competing with Tokyo, Chicago and Madrid. This “Candidature Masterplan” played a key role in the process that got Rio to be the host, and was also the basis for the various public tender processes and competitions that took place subsequently. However, public procurement Brazilian law prevented us from bidding on many of the proceedings, since it considered that we had developed part of the overall terms of references elaborated by the government. The Olympic Park, for example, has been redesigned by AECOM. In 2010 the studio was commissioned by the Minas Arena Consortium to carry out the renovation of the legendary Mineirão Stadium, in Belo Horizonte, one of the selected venues for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the first stadium in Brazil (and the second in the world) to receive LEED Platinum certification. The renovated stadium will also be used in the Olympics.

BCMF ARQUITETOS

Can you tell us something about your design vision? Brazil is full of shocking dualities, absurd contrasts, surprising paradoxes and incomprehensible ambiguities. This is definitely part of its charm, but eventually the urban landscape can become a wild mixture and a hopeless mess. We try to acknowledge and deal with this condition of extreme diversity without being too literal or rigid about it, without necessarily celebrating it (exaggerating it) or going against it (fixing it). We are very interested in the merging of transitional spaces, between inside and outside, private and public, and also in the leftover spaces, or unplanned areas, with unpredicted functions.

“We shouldn’t strive here to be more ‘impressive’, ‘greener’ or ‘efficient’ than previous hosts. It is not that kind of competition” What’s your view on Brazilian architecture? In general, recognizing the virtues and constraints of nature – accommodating the demands of constructive conditions to the uniqueness of the site – has always been an important feature of the best samples of Brazilian architecture. It was no different in the historic Colonial Baroque cities, in the Empire’s adaptation of the neo-classical style or in the “tropical” modern architecture of Lúcio Costa and his contemporaries. This sensibility to place reinforces architecture as an infrastructure that complements and participates in the landscape, trying to order and redefine it. In general, however, the quantity is way superior to quality. But very often, luckily, architecture ends up being swallowed or rescued by the country’s overwhelming nature.

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What are your our sources of inspiration? For our projects in Rio, in general, we have tried to emphasize the exuberant landscape of the city, which can be breathtaking even in suburban areas such as Deodoro. Rio has been developing and growing irregularly around a mixture of mountains, forests, beaches, lakes and swamps, and we could say that nature still predominates over architecture in the overall configuration of the city. But besides its notorious and celebrated natural beauty – and the unique and sometimes radical interaction between construction and the natural environment – the city (which was the capital of the country from 1763 to 1960) also has a long tradition of public open spaces and outdoor activities. Therefore, instead of an excessively iconic approach towards the architecture (in Rio the cityscape itself is the dominant icon), we have given priority to the integration of the new facilities and landscape within the extremely complex and diverse urban and natural conditions of the city, somehow inspired by the mythical examples of the modernist architecture of Rio de Janeiro (especially from the heroic period of the 1950s and 60s), which have always been a reference for us. The various buildings that we have designed in Rio for different purposes are all characterized by strong geometric rigor and the use of few construction elements and stark materials to create a formal bond between the blocks and a unity of idiom for the entire cluster, contrasting with the luxurious landscape as a backdrop.

than overcoming your own limits, someone has already pointed out. And our limit seems to be, clearly, an extremely poor urban infrastructure and a lack of effective coordination of long term planning and action in general. There are great similarities regarding the program and operation of the Pan-American Games, Olympics and World Cup events, and BCMF has had the privilege and opportunity to participate actively on their planning. Our projects try to point out ways in which sports mega events can leave a lasting legacy to the host cities. On all of our designs for the Pan American Games, FIFA World Cup and Olympics, even though the interventions have been made under very different and specific circumstances on each case, and mosttly on a building scale, they respond to the demands of larger scales, such as the neighborhood, the landscape and the city itself.

What challenges faces Brazil nowadays? In a period of less than ten years, Brazil will have hosted three mega sports events with the promise to “transform” the country: Pan 2007, 2014 World Cup and Rio 2016. It is a privilege for few countries to host these events, not to mention in a sequence. The possibilities have been immense, and so were the responsibilities. It seems that without the world eyes staring at those cities, some quality leaps would rarely get the opportunity to materialize. The question that everybody asks is how these international mega-events can be used to truly transform the city and the country after they are gone. It has been a once in a lifetime chance to use the games as a catalyst to pursue some specific ambitions, gain international status or accelerate urban regeneration processes. This is always a crucial issue for us architects, as it has also to do with government planning and policies in all levels. Our impression, from the experience of participating actively on the planning of the mega-events over this past years, is that we shouldn’t strive here to be more ‘impressive’, ‘greener’ or ‘efficient’ than previous hosts. It is not that kind of competition. Every city, and country, has its own specific characteristics and conditions. The sport spirit is less about competing with others

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CONTRIBUTING BRAZILIAN ARCHITECTS


National Shooting Centre. Photos Leonardo Finotti/Bruno Carvalho/BCMF Arquitetos

BCMF ARQUITETOS

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VENUES barrA

The district Barra de Tijuca is located southwest of the centre. It is the most important of the 4 zones. Half of the athletes that take part in the Games can be seen here in action. The Olympic Park is built on a triangular piece of land bounded on two sides by Lagoa de Tijuca. Until 4 years ago, this area played home to a race circuit. Approximately 3 kilometres to the south of the park is the location of the Olympic Golf Course. This is the first time this sport is on the programme since 1904.

Photo Barrazine Da Barra (CC BY 2.0)

CARIOCA ARENA 1/2/3 Architect Arqhos Consultoria e Projetos (Celso Girafa) Year completed 2016 Capacity Arena 1: 16.000 seats (7.500 permanent) Arena 2: 10.000 seats Arena 3: 10.000 seats Olympic Sports Arena 1: Basketball Arena 2: Wrestling (Freestyle and Greco-Roman) + Judo Arena 3: Fencing + Taekwondo Paralympic Sports Arena 1: Wheelchair Basketball + Wheelchair Rugby Arena 2: Boccia Arena 3: Judo Legacy Part of the Olympic Training Centre Photo courtesy of Miriam Jeske/brasil2016.gov.br

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Future Arena Architect Lopes Santos & Ferreira Gomes + AndArchitects Year completed 2016 Type New and temporary Capacity 12.000 seats Olympic Sports Handball Paralympic Sports Goalball Legacy The Future Arena will be removed after the Games and re-used in the construction of four schools.

Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

Maria lenk aquatics centre Architect Lopes Santos & Ferreira Gomes Year completed 2007 Capacity 5.000 seats Pool dimensions 25x50x3m + 25x30x5/3,8m + 20x50x1,5m Olympic Sports Diving + Synchronised Swimming + Water Polo Paralympic Sports Previous major events 2007 Pan American Games Legacy Regional en international competitions. Part of the Olympic Training Centre. Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

BARRA

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olympic aquatics stadium Year completed 2016 Type New and temporary Capacity 18.000 seats Olympic Sports Swimming + Water Polo Paralympic Sports Swimming Legacy Dismantled and used for the construction of two aquatics centres. One with a covered 50m pool and capacity for 6.000 people, the other with a 50m pool with capacity for 3.000 people.

Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

olympic tennis centre Architect Blac Arquitetura Year completed 2015/2016 Capacity Centre Court: 10.000 seats Court 1: 5.000 temporary seats Court 2: 3.000 temporary seats Court 3-9: 7x250 temporary seats Olympic Sports Tennis Paralympic Sports Wheelchair Tennis (Centre Court, Court 2-9) Football 5-a-side (Court 1) Legacy Part of the Olympic Training Centre

Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

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rio olympic arena Architect Lopes Santos & Ferreira Gomes Year completed 2007 Type Existing Capacity 12.000 seats Olympic Sports Gymnastics (gala, artistic, rhythmic and trampoline) Paralympic Sports Wheelchair Basketball Previous major events 2007 Pan American Games Legacy Sport and cultural events Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

rio olympic velodrome Architect Blac Arquitetura Year completed 2016 Type New and permanent. The 2007 Pan American Velodrome was not approved by the ICU. Capacity 5.000 seats Olympic Sports Track Cycling Paralympic Sports Para-cycling Track Legacy Part of the Olympic Training Centre

Photo courtesy of Roberto Castro/brasil2016.gov.br

BARRA

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riocentro pavilion 2/3/4/6 Year completed 1977 Type Existing Capacity Pavilion 2: Pavilion 3: Pavilion 4: Pavilion 6:

6.500 6.500 6.500 9.000

temporary temporary temporary temporary

seats seats seats seats

Olympic Sports Pavilion 2: Weightlifting Pavilion 3: Table Tennis Pavilion 4: Badminton Pavilion 6: Boxing Paralympic Sports Pavilion 2: Powerlifting Pavilion 3: Table Tennis Pavilion 4: Pavilion 6: Sitting Volleyball Photo Agencia CNT de Noticias (CC BY 2.0)

Previous major events 2007 Pan American Games + International Broadcast Centre during FIFA World Cup 2014 Legacy Exhibition and conventions centre

Photo courtesy of Heusi Action/brasil2016.gov.br

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pontal Type Temporary Olympic Sports Athletics (Race Walk) + Road Cycling (Time Trial) Paralympic Sports Para-cycling Road

Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

olympic golf course Architect Rua Arquitetos Consultants Hanse Golf Course Design Year completed 2016 Type New and permanent Capacity 15.000 seats Olympic Sports Golf Paralympic Sports Legacy Public venue with the goal of promoting golf in Brazil and South America Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

BARRA

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Work by renowned Brazilian artist Adriana Varejão (1964) adorns the facade of the Olympic Aquatics Stadium.

Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

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OLYMPIC AQUATICS STADIUM

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DEODORO

Deodoro is the 2nd largest cluster and is located to the northwest of the centre. This district has many existing venues that were used during the Pan American Games in 2007, for example the Shooting and Equestrian Centres. These venues are accompanied by the Youth Arena and the Olympic Hockey Centre. A temporary stadium hosts the rugby events, the first time that the sevens event will be played at the Games.

Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

deodoro aquatics centre Architect BCMF Arquitetos Renovated by Vigliecca & Associados Year completed 2007 Renovated for the Olympics Type Existing and permanent Capacity 2.000 temporary seats Olympic Sports Modern Pentathlon (Swimming) Paralympic Sports Previous major events 2007 Pan American Games

Photo courtesy of Miriam Jeske/brasil2016.gov.br

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deodoro stadium Architect Vigliecca & Associados Year completed 2016 Type Temporary Capacity 15.000 temporary seats Olympic Sports Rugby + Modern Pentathlon (Riding & Combined Event) Paralympic Sports Football 7-a-side

Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

Olympic equestrian centre Architect BCMF Arquitetos Renovated by Vigliecca & Associados Consultants Piere Michelet Year completed 2007 Expanded for the Olympics Type Existing and permanent Capacity 35.200 (partial temporary) seats Olympic Sports Equestrian (dressage, eventing and jumping) Paralympic Sports Equestrian

Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

DEODORO

Previous major events 2007 Pan American Games

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olympic hockey centre Architect Vigliecca & Associados Year completed 2016 Type + Facilities New, permanent Two arenas, warm-up field, changing rooms, medical center and administrative offices Capacity Pitch 1: 7.800 seats (2.500 permanent) Pitch 2: 4.100 temporary seats Olympic Sports Hockey Paralympic Sports Legacy New hockey centre for the Brazilian Hockey Confederation. Part of the Olympic Training Centre. Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

Photo courtesy of Miriam Jeske/brasil2016.gov.br

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olympic shooting centre Architect BCMF Arquitetos Renovated by Vigliecca & Associados Year completed 2007 Renovated for the Olympics Capacity 7.350 seats (3.950 permanent) Olympic Sports Shooting Paralympic Sports Shooting Previous major events 2007 Pan American Games Legacy Part of the Olympic Training Centre

Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

youth arena Architect Vigliecca & Associados Year completed 2016 Type New and permanent Capacity 5.800 seats (2.000 permanent) Olympic Sports Basketball + Modern Pentathlon (Fencing) Paralympic Sports Wheelchair Fencing Legacy Part of the Olympic Training Centre. The building was designed to operate with only natural ventilation and illumination once in legacy mode.

Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

DEODORO

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X-Park Part of the Deodoro zone is the X-Park. The more extreme sports are located in this area, such as BMX, canoe slalom and mountain biking. After the Games the park will become a recreation area for the surrounding suburbs.

Photo courtesy of Miriam Jeske/brasil2016.gov.br

mountain bike centre Architect Vigliecca & Associados Consultants Nick Floros and RogĂŠrio Bernardes Year completed 2016 Type New, permanent and temporary expanded Capacity 25.000 standing places Olympic Sports Mountain Bike Paralympic Sports Legacy Reconfiguration to a smaller mountain bike circuit Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

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olympic bmx centre Architect Vigliecca & Associados Consultants Elite Trax Year completed 2016 Track length 350m (women) and 400m (men) Capacity 7.500 seats Olympic Sports BMX Cycling Paralympic Sports Legacy The BMX track will remain operational after the Games Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

whitewater stadium Architect Vigliecca & Associados Consultants Whitewater Parks International Year completed 2016 Volume lake/reservoir 25.000 m3 Capacity 8.424 temporary seats Olympic Sports Canoe Slalom Paralympic Sports Legacy Swimming pool / recreational pool (after removal of the obstacles) Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

DEODORO

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The Rio 2016 mountain bike track is 4,9km long and designed by Nick Floros and Rogério Bernardes.

Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

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VENUES


MOUNTAIN BIKE CENTRE

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MARACANĂƒ

The MaracanĂŁ zone will host the large events such as athletics and the opening and closing ceremonies. The cluster is located close to the centre and is easily accessible. All of the venues in this zone are existing structures. It was initially intended that the Julio de Lamare Aquatics Centre would host the preliminary rounds of the water polo tournament. However in January 2016, it was decided that this event would be moved to the Maria Lenk Aquatics Centre in Barra.

Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

olympic stadium Architect Lopes Santos & Ferreira Gomes Year completed 2007 Renovated in 2016 Type Existing, temporary expanded Capacity 44.661 permanent + 15.000 temporary seats Olympic Sports Athletics + Football Paralympic Sports Athletics Previous major events 2007 Pan American Games Legacy Home of Botafogo Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

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maracanã Architect Waldir Ramos, Raphael Galvão, Miguel Feldman, Oscar Valdetaro, Pedro Paulo B. Bastos, Orlando Azevedo, Antônio Dias Carneiro (1950) Schlaich bergermann und partner, Daniel Fernandes Arquitectos (renovation 2013) Opened 1950 Capacity 78.838 seats Olympic Sports Ceremonies + Football Paralympic Sports Ceremonies Previous major events 1950 FIFA World Cup + 2007 Pan American Games + 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup + 2014 FIFA World Cup

Photo Érica Ramalho/Governo do Rio de Janeiro (CC BY 3.0 BR)

Legacy Home of Brazil national football team, Flamengo and Fluminense

Maracanãzinho Architect Galvão, Bastos, Azevedo and Carneiro Year completed 1954 Renovated in 2004 and 2007 Type Existing Capacity 11.800 seats Olympic Sports Volleyball Paralympic Sports Previous major events 2007 Pan American Games Legacy Venue for sport events (mainly volleyball matches) Photo Leandro Neumann Ciuffo (CC BY 2.0)

MARACANÃ

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Sambódromo Architect Oscar Niemeyer Year completed 1984 Type Existing, upgraded in 2012 Capacity Marathon: 18.000 seats Archery: 1.800 seats Olympic Sports Athletics (marathon) + Archery Paralympic Sports Archery Legacy Permanent parade ground

Photo courtesy of André Motta/Heusi Action/brasil2016.gov.br

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Photo Christian Cรณrdova (CC BY 2.0)

SAMBร DROMO

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COPACABANA

The famous beaches and mountains of Copacabana form the backdrop to the outdoor events. Due to the location, just south of the centre, this zone is incredibly accessible. The Games here are the most visitor friendly, with sports such as sailing, cycling and marathon swimming partially free to visit. The only permanent venue in this zone is the modernised Marina da GloriĂĄ. This will be used for both the Olympic and Paralympic sail competitions.

Photo Mteixeira62 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

beach volleyball arena Type Temporary Capacity 12.000 seats Olympic Sports Beach Volleyball Paralympic Sports -

Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

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VENUES


fort copacabana Type Temporary Capacity 5.000 seats Olympic Sports Road Cycling + Marathon Swimming + Triathlon Paralympic Sports Athletics (Marathon) + Paratriathlon

Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

lagao stadium Year completed 2016 Type Temporary Capacity 14.000 seats Olympic Sports Canoe Sprint + Rowing Paralympic Sports Paracanoe + Para-rowing

Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

COPACABANA

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Marina da Glรณria Architect Eduardo Mandolfo Year completed Expanded and modernised in 2016 Type Existing and permanent Capacity 10.000 temporary seats Number of berths 415 Olympic Sports Sailing Paralympic Sports Sailing Legacy Leisure area for the general public. The venue will be used for sports, cultural events and entertainment. Photo Rodrigo Soldon (CC BY 2.0)

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VENUES


Photos courtesy of Miriam Jeske/brasil2016.gov.br

MARINA DA GLÓRIA

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VENUES OUTSIDE RIO DE JANEIRO BRAZIL

The football tournament is held is various stadiums spread throughout Brazil. All these cities played host to games during the FIFA World Cup in 2014. Next to Rio de Janeiro (Maracanã and the Olympic Stadium), football is played in Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador, São Paulo and Manaus. The latter is 2850km from Rio de Janeiro, making it the furthest located venue from the city. Due to the large amount of games that need to be played, the first matches will be held two days before the opening ceremony.

Manaus

Amazônia Arena

Salvador

Fonte Nova Arena

Brasília

Mané Garrincha Stadium

Belo Horizonte

Mineirão

São Paulo

Rio de Janeiro

Corinthians Arena

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OUTSIDE RIO DE JANEIRO


Mineirão Location Belo Horizonte Architect Eduardo Mendes Guimarães Júnior + Gaspar Garreto (1965) BCMF Arquitetos (renovation 2012) Year 1965 Type Existing Capacity 61.486 seats Olympic Sports Football (Group Matches: 6, Quarter-Finals: 2, Semi-Finals: 1, 3rd/4th Place: 1) Previous major events 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup + 2014 FIFA World Cup

Photo Henrique Costa (CC BY 2.0)

Legacy Home of Cruzeiro EC and Clube Atlético Mineiro

Mané Garrincha Stadium Location Brasília Architect Ícaro de Castro Mello (1974) Castro Mello Arquitetos, gmp architekten, schlaich bergermann und partner (renovation 2013) Year 1974 Type Existing Capacity 72.778 seats Olympic Sports Football (Group Matches: 8, Quarter-Finals: 2) Previous major events 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup + 2014 FIFA World Cup Legacy Home of Brasília FC and Legião FC Photo Ana Volpe/Agência Senado (CC BY 2.0)

FOOTBALL VENUES

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Amazônia Arena Location Manaus Architect gmp architekten Year 2014 Type Existing Capacity 44.351 seats Olympic Sports Football (Group Matches: 6) Previous major events 2014 FIFA World Cup Legacy Football and concerts Photo Portal da Copa/Governo do Brasil/Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 3.0 BR)

Fonte Nova Arena Location Salvador Architect Marc Duwe and Claas Schulitz Year 2014 Type Existing Capacity 50.025 seats Olympic Sports Football (Group Matches: 8, Quarter-Finals: 2) Previous major events 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup + 2014 FIFA World Cup Legacy Home of EC Bahia and EC Vitória Photo Andréia Brandão (CC BY 2.0)

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OUTSIDE RIO DE JANEIRO


Corinthians Arena Location São Paulo Architect Aníbal Coutinho Year 2014 Type Existing Capacity 47.605 seats Olympic Sports Football (Group Matches: 6, Quarter-Finals: 2, Semi-Finals: 1, 3rd/4th Place: 1) Previous major events 2014 FIFA World Cup Legacy Home of Corinthians Photo Alexandre Breveglieri (CC BY 2.0)

FOOTBALL VENUES

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NON COMPETITION VENUES barrA

Besides all the competition venues, there are also many facilities needed for the supporting functions. The most important is of course the Olympic and Paralympic Village, where athletes and coaches can stay during the Games. This is a city in itself, with a food court, training and medical facilities and shops. The media operates from the IBC/MPC, which hosts television studios, offices for the press and rooms where press conferences can be held. All these facilities are located in Barra, within or close to the Olympic Park.

Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

olympic/paralympic village Year completed 2016 Area 200.000m2 Type New and permanent. Capacity 31 Buildings with 18.000 beds. Facilities Recreation area, park, gym, doctor’s office, restaurant, religious centre, banks, hairdressers and coffee shops Legacy Luxurious condominium complex

Photo courtesy of Gabriel Heusi/brasil2016.gov.br

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NON COMPETITION VENUES


ibc/mpc International Broadcast Centre (IBC) Main Press Centre (MPC) Architect Aflalo & Gasperini Year completed 2016 MPC Built area: 77.000m2 Floors: 24 (17 office floors) Opened 24 hours a day during the Olympics IBC Capacity: 10.000 journalists Studios: 12, 5.000m2/each

Photo courtesy of Miriam Jeske/brasil2016.gov.br

hotel Year completed 2016 Capacity 404 Rooms Facilities Swimming pool, convention centre, fitness centre and a bar

Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

BARRA

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CONTRIBUTING BRAZILIAN ARCHITECTS Vigliecca & Associados Founded In 1996 by Héctor Vigliecca and Luciene Quel. Associates Paulo Serra, Ronald Werner, Neli Shimizu and Caroline Bertoldi. Active in Architecture and (large-scale) urban projects including social housing, sports arenas, institutional buildings, cultural centers, re-urbanization projects and improving public spaces. Selected projects Parque Novo Santo Amaro V (social housing) Arena Castelão (football stadium) Anexo Biblioteca Nacional (Brasil National Library annex) Mooca-Vila Carioca (urban restructuring project)

How is Vigliecca & Associados involved in the Olympics? Vigliecca & Associados is the author of the Deodoro Olympic Park Project. Deodoro has an area of 2,5 ​​ million square meters, being the largest of the Olympic areas with the second largest capacity, as it hosts 11 Olympic and four Paralympic sports modalities in the RIO 2016 Olympics. After the Olympics, Deodoro will offer the greatest legacy of RIO 2016. Instead of just simply aiming at creating a center of excellence competitions, the project developed by Vigliecca & Associados architectural firm had as a main objective the Olympic legacy. Differently than what we have seen so far in terms of postolympic legacies, Deodoro’s legacy goes beyond the sporting sphere. It is focused mainly on generating recreational areas for the population.

Publications Hypothesis for Reality (2012) Castelão Arena - Governador Plácido Aderaldo Castelo (2014) The Third Territory - Collective Housing and City (2014) Competitions and Awards Finalist in the Grand Egyptian Museum Competition (2003, Cairo, Honorable Mention), Mexican National Library Competition (2002, Mexico City), Plan Nueva Alameda Providencia (2015, Santiago Chile, Honorable Mention). Héctor Vigliecca was nominated for the Mies Van der Rohe Award (1998) Based in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Website www.vigliecca.com.br Youth Arena. Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

Parque Novo Santo Amaro V. Photo courtesy of Vigliecca & Associados

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Youth Arena. Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

CONTRIBUTING BRAZILIAN ARCHITECTS


Youth Arena. Photo courtesy of André Motta/brasil2016.gov.br

VIGLIECCA & ASSOCIADOS

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architecture in rio de janerio

Photo Arielaot (CC BY 2.0)

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ARCHITECTURE IN RIO DE JANEIRO


Brazil has a rich architectural tradition with great architects, boasting names such as Lina Bo Bardi, João Filgueiras Lima and of course Oscar Niemeyer. The country has a diverse society with a complex history. This is reflected within the architecture, with people and nature playing a pivotal role. The absolute architectural highlight of Brazil is Brasília. The capital seemingly rose out of the ground in no time in the 1950’s and is a city where Niemeyer has evidently left his mark on.

Also in Rio de Janeiro there are many examples following this tradition. On these pages are a small selection of exemplary buildings within Rio de Janeiro, spanning the last eight decades. Alongside the works of Brazilian architects are also a few projects from large international bureaus, such as Diller Scofidio + Renfro.

CITY GUIDE

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01

16

17

18

01 Conjunto Residencial Prefeito Mendes de Moraes Pedregulho (1947) Affonso Eduardo Reidy / Social Housing / Rua Mal. Jardim 02 Museu do Amanhã (2015) Santiago Calatrava / Museum / Praça Mauá, 1 03 Museu de Arte do Rio (2013) Bernardes + Jacobsen Arquitetura / Museum / Praça Mauá, 5 04 Banco Boavista (1948) Oscar Niemeyer / Office / Praça Pio X, 118 05 Sede da Petrobras (1968) Forte Gandolfi Arquitetos Associados / Office / Avenida Republica do Chile, 65 06 Ministerio de Educación y Salud (1947) Lucio Costa, Affonso Eduardo Reidy, Carlos Leão, Jorge Moreira, Oscar Niemeyer, Ernani Vasconcellos, Roberto Burle Marx / Office / Rua da Imprensa, 16 (Edifício Gustavo Capanema)

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10

1

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07

05 08

02 04 11

06 09

Baía de Guanabara 12

13

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Atlantic Ocean

07 Sambódromo (1984) Oscar Niemeyer / Stadium for parades / Rua Marquês de Sapucaí 08 Catedral Metropolitana de São Sebastião (1979) Edgar de Oliveira da Fonseca / Cathedral / Avenida Republica de Chile, 245 09 Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro (1967) Affonso Eduardo Reidy / Museum / Avenida Infante Dom Henrique, 85 10 Teatro Popular Oscar Niemeyer (2007) Oscar Niemeyer / Theatre / Rua Jornalista Rogério Coelho Neto (Niterói) 11 Museu de Arte Contemporânea (1996) Oscar Niemeyer / Museum / Mirante da Boa Viagem (Niterói) 12 Estação Hidroviária de Charitas (2007) Oscar Niemeyer / Ferry terminal / Avenida Quintino Bocaiúva

CITY GUIDE

13 Hospital Federal da Lagoa (1958) Oscar Niemeyer / Medical Facilities / Rua Jardim Botânico, 501 14 Instituição Obra do Berço (1937) Oscar Niemeyer / Office / Rua Cícero Góis Monteiro, 19 15 Museu da Imagem e do Som (2016) Diller Scofidio + Renfro / Museum / Avenida Atlântica, 3432 16 Centro Internacional SARAH de Neuroreabilitação e Neurociências (2008) João Filgueiras Lima / Medical Facilities / Avenida Canal Arroio Pavuna 17 Hospital SARAH de Reabilitação Infantil (2001) João Filgueiras Lima / Medical Facilities / Avenida Salvador Allende (Ilha Pombeba) 18 Cidade das Artes (2013) Christian de Portzamparc / Cultural / Avenida das Américas, 5300

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about architecture of the games Architecture of the Games was begun in August 2013, with the aim of informing architects and others interested about spatial and architectural design within the Olympic Games. We write mainly about urban planning, landscape architecture, architecture and infrastructure. Next to this we also pay attention to the visual identity of the Olympic Games.

Photo Martijn Giebels

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ABOUT ARCHITECTURE OF THE GAMES


Once every 4 years all eyes are focused on one event, The Olympic Games. Upon this podium, every athlete and host city wants to show their best face to the world. The architecture of the venues are often used as a tool and therefore become iconic for the event. Think of the tent-like roof construction of the Olympic Stadium in München (Frei Otto, 1972) or the impressive ‘Bird’s Nest’ in Beijing (Herzog & De Meuron and Ai Weiwei, 2008). At Architecture of the Games you will read the latest news, complemented with analyses and reports of visits to (former) host cities. We follow cities from the first candidature, during

ALL ABOUT OLYMPIC ARCHITECTURE

the bid process and the preparation in the run up to the Games. Finally, we report on the legacy that the Games leaves behind on the city. Currently, Architecture of the Games is the only website that is completely dedicated to this subject. In the last few years we have grown rapidly. In 2015, our website has had visitors that hailed from more than 140 countries. In 2016 we will be paying special attention to the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, resulting in (among other things) the publication of this magazine.

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FOR THE DUTCH READERS EERSTE OLYMPISCHE SPELEN IN ZUID AMERIKA Blz.8

Van 5 tot en met 21 augustus 2016 vinden in Rio de Janeiro de eerste Olympische Spelen in Zuid Amerika plaats. De ‘Cidade Maravilhosa’ werd in 2009 tijdens de 121ste IOC Sessie verkozen boven Madrid, Tokyo en Chicago. Na het WK voetbal in 2014 is dit het tweede grote evenement dat in korte tijd in Brazilië georganiseerd wordt. Tevens was Rio de Janeiro al de gaststad van de Pan American Games in 2007. De verkiezing tot gaststad kwam in een periode waarin Brazilië de wind in de rug had. Politiek stabiel en behorend tot de BRIC-landen met een snel groeiende economie. Het gevolg was toenemende welvaart in alle lagen van de bevolking. Hoe anders is de situatie nu, aan de vooravond van de Olympische Spelen. De groei is tot stilstand gekomen. In 2015 kromp de economie zelfs met 3,8%, het slechtste resultaat in 25 jaar. De inflatie bedroeg vorig jaar maar liefst 10,7%. Ook op politiek vlak heerst er onrust. Tegen president Dilma Rousseff loopt een afzettingsprocedure omdat ze gefraudeerd zou hebben met de overheidsbegroting in 2014. Per 12 mei is Rousseff geschorst en tijdelijk vervangen door vicepresident Michel Temer. En alsof dat nog niet genoeg is kreeg het land te maken met de uitbraak van het Zika virus. 2016 had juist het jaar moeten zijn waarin het vernieuwde Rio de Janeiro zich aan de wereld zou presenteren. Na het verliezen van de status als hoofdstad aan Brasília in 1960 heeft de stad decennia lang geworsteld met zijn identiteit. Wat was de positie van Rio de Janeiro naast de nieuwe hoofdstad en de economisch sterke metropool São Paulo? Het stadsbestuur verloor controle over de favelas en criminaliteit rukte op. Met de economische groei van Brazilië vond Rio de Janeiro weer de weg naar boven. De toewijzing van de Spelen was hier een bevestiging van en zou Rio het laatste zetje geven om zich te ontwikkelen tot een moderne en leefbare stad. De Olympische Spelen zijn vaak een katalysator voor stedelijke vernieuwing. Ze versnellen ontwikkelingen die normaal gesproken meer tijd vergen. Voor Rio de Janeiro heeft de komst van de Spelen vooral geresulteerd in versnelde verbeteringen in de infrastructuur en de pacificatie van favelas. De doelstelling om de waterkwaliteit in de baaien rondom de stad, waar onder andere de zeil wedstrijden plaatsvinden, te verbeteren is echter niet gehaald. Dit was een belangrijk onderdeel van het bid uit 2009. Het organisatiecomité kreeg verder te maken met bezuinigingen en beschuldigingen van corruptie. Een onderzoek hiernaar loopt nog. De bouw van de venues verliep daarentegen opvallend soepel. Op enkele uitzonderingen na was alles ruim op tijd klaar.

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Elke stad die de Spelen toegewezen krijgt weet dat jarenlang de hele wereld meekijkt en elke gebeurtenis onder een vergrootglas komt te liggen. De omstandigheden en tegenslagen waar Rio de Janeiro mee te maken kreeg waren echter wel heel extreem. Of de Spelen een succes gaan worden is uiteindelijk afhankelijk van veel meer factoren. Als de inwoners van Rio de Janeiro het evenement in augustus omarmen, en er een sfeer ontstaat die gelijk is aan het beroemde carnaval, zal de moeizame voorbereiding snel vergeten zijn.

RIO2016 MASTERPLAN Blz.10

Rio de Janeiro is één van de mooist gelegen steden ter wereld. De Cariocas (inwoners van de stad) wonen te midden van een spectaculair landschap waarin de oceaan en overdadig begroeide bergen samenkomen. De hoogteverschillen maken het echter geen gemakkelijke stad op planologisch gebied met ongecontroleerde groei en infrastructuur als grootste uitdagingen. De Spelen van Rio de Janeiro zijn relatief compact. Op voetbal na vinden alle sportevenementen in de stad plaats. (Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador, São Paulo en Manaus zijn de overige speelsteden) De venues zijn geclusterd in vier zones; Barra, Deodoro, Maracanã en Copacabana. Barra is de belangrijkste zone, hier bevinden zich het Olympische park en de meeste venues. Evenals het Olympisch dorp en het perscentrum met een hotel voor de media. De vier zones en de internationale luchthaven zijn op verschillende manieren met elkaar verbonden. Ten eerste zijn er de Olympic Lanes. Dit zijn vrijgemaakte rijstroken voor onder andere atleten, officials en de media. Bezoekers van de Spelen zullen voornamelijk gebruik maken van het metro-, en busstelsel. Het BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) systeem is uitgebreid en verbindt nu de hele stad. Een essentieel (en ambitieus) onderdeel van het vervoersplan is de aanleg van metrolijn 4 tussen Ipanema en Barra. Volgens de laatste prognoses (eind mei 2016) is de lijn pas vier dagen voor de start van de Spelen klaar voor gebruik. Zoals elke Spelen kent Rio de Janeiro een aantal bijzondere venues. Bijvoorbeeld het Sambódromo, ontworpen door Oscar Niemeyer. Op de plek waar normaal de grote carnavals parades voorbij trekken eindigt nu de marathon en worden de boogschietwedstrijden gehouden. In het legendarische Maracanã stadion wordt gevoetbald en op het strand van Copacabana is een tijdelijk stadion voor beachvolleybal gebouwd. Maar ook het ontwerp van een aantal nieuwe venues als de Youth Arena en de Future Arena spreekt tot de verbeelding. De laatste zal na de Spelen gedemonteerd en hergebruikt worden voor de bouw van vier scholen.

FOR THE DUTCH READERS


Venues Blz.22

BARRA: Stadsdeel Barra da Tijuca ligt ten zuidwesten van het centrum. De helft van alle atleten die deelnemen aan de Spelen komt hier in actie. Het Olympische Park is gebouwd op een driehoekig stuk land en wordt aan twee zijden begrenst door de Lagoa da Tijuca. Vier jaar geleden was dit gebied nog een racecircuit. Ongeveer 3 kilometer ten zuiden van het park ligt de Olympic Golf Course. Voor het eerst sinds 1904 staat deze sport weer op het programma. DEODORO: Deodoro is de op één na grootste cluster en is gelegen ten noordwesten van het centrum. Het National Shooting Centre en het National Equestrian Centre zijn in 2007 gebouwd voor de Pan American Games. Deze zijn aangevuld met onder andere de Youth Arena en het Olympic Hockey Centre. Voor rugby, voor het eerst in de ‘sevens’ variant op de Spelen, is een tijdelijk stadion gebouwd. X-PARK: Onderdeel van de Deodoro zone is het X-Park. In dit deel vinden de meer extremere sporten zoals BMX, Kanoslalom en mountainbiken plaats. Na de Spelen wordt het park een recreatiegebied voor de omringende woonwijken. MARACANÃ: In de Maracanã zone vinden grote evenementen als atletiek en de openings-, en sluitingsceremonie plaats. De cluster is dicht aan het centrum gelegen en goed ontsloten. Alle venues in deze zone zijn bestaand. Het was in eerste instantie de bedoeling dat in het Julio de Lamare Aquatics Centre de poulefase van het waterpolo toernooi gehouden zouden worden. Januari 2016 is besloten deze wedstrijden te verplaatsen naar het Maria Lenk Aquatics Centre in Barra. COPACABANA: De beroemde stranden en bergen van Copacabana vormen het decor voor de outdoor events. Door de locatie, net ten zuiden van het centrum, is deze zone zeer goed bereikbaar. De Spelen zijn hier ook het meest toegankelijk. Sporten als zeilen, wielrennen en marathon zwemmen zijn deels gratis te bezoeken. De enige permanente venue in deze zone in de gemoderniseerde Marina da Gloriá. Deze wordt gebruikt voor de Olympische en Paralympische zeil competities. VENUES BUITEN RIO DE JANEIRO: Het voetbaltoernooi wordt gehouden in stadions verspreidt over heel Brazilië. Al deze steden waren ook speelstad tijdens het WK voetbal in 2014. Naast Rio de Janeiro (Maracanã en het Olympic Stadium) wordt er gevoetbald in Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador, São Paulo en Manaus. De laatste is met 2850km het verst verwijdert van de gaststad. Vanwege het grote aantal wedstrijden wordt twee dagen voor de openingsceremonie al gestart met deze competitie. NON COMPETITION VENUES: Naast alle sport venues zijn er diverse ondersteunende faciliteiten op of dichtbij het Olympische Park in Barra gebouwd. De belangrijkste is

NEDERLANDSE VERTALING

natuurlijk het Olympisch dorp waarin atleten en begeleiders verblijven. Dit is een stad op zich met een foodcourt, trainingsen medische faciliteiten en winkels. De media werken vanuit het IBC/MPC waarin televisie studio’s, werkplekken voor de schrijvende pers en ruimtes waarin persconferenties gehouden kunnen worden te vinden zijn.

ARCHITECTUUR IN RIO DE JANEIRO Blz.54

Brazilië kent een rijke architectuur traditie met grote architecten als Lina Bo Bardi, João Filgueiras Lima en natuurlijk Oscar Niemeyer. Het land heeft een diverse samenleving met een complexe geschiedenis. Dit is terug te zien in de architectuur waarin mens en natuur centraal staan. Het absolute hoogtepunt op architectonisch gebied is Brasília. De hoofdstad die in de jaren ’50 in vier jaar uit het niets gebouwd werd en waar Niemeyer een grote stempel op gedrukt heeft. Ook in Rio de Janeiro zijn voorbeelden binnen deze traditie te vinden. Op deze pagina’s een kleine selectie van bijzondere gebouwen in Rio de Janeiro uit de afgelopen 80 jaar. Naast werk van Braziliaanse architecten staan er ook een aantal projecten van grote internationale bureaus als Diller Scofidio + Renfro in de lijst.

OVER ARCHITECTURE OF THE GAMES Blz.58

Architecture of the Games is in augustus 2013 gestart met als doel architecten en andere geïnteresseerden te informeren over ruimtelijk ontwerp binnen de Olympische Spelen. We schrijven voornamelijk over stedenbouw, landschapsontwerp, architectuur en infrastructuur. Daarnaast besteden we aandacht aan de visuele identiteit van de Olympische Spelen. Momenteel is Architecture of the Games de enige website die volledig aan dit onderwerp gewijd is. Eens in de 4 jaar zijn alle ogen gericht op één evenement; de Olympische Spelen. Op dit podium wil elke atleet schitteren en wil elke gaststad zich van zijn beste kant laten zien. De architectuur van de venues wordt hiervoor vaak als middel gebruikt en is daardoor mede beeldbepalend voor het evenement. Denk aan de tent-achtige dakconstructie van het Olympisch Stadion in München. (Frei Otto, 1972) Of het indrukwekkende ‘Bird’s Nest’ in Beijing. (Herzog & De Meuron en Ai Weiwei, 2008) Op Architecture of the Games leest u het laatste nieuws aangevuld met analyses en verslagen van bezoeken aan (voormalige) gaststeden. We volgen steden vanaf de eerste kandidaatstelling, tijdens het bid-proces en vervolgens tijdens de voorbereidingen in aanloop naar de Spelen. Tenslotte beschrijven we na afloop over het erfenis die de Spelen in de stad achterlaat.

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coloPHon THE ARCHITECTURE OF RIO2016

Acknowledgements

This magazine is published on the occasion of the Games of the XXXI Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro and is available for free as limited printed edition and online via Issuu.

We would like express our thanks to:

Architecture of the Games www.architectureofthegames.net info@architectureofthegames.net

The team at Brasil.gov.br, André Motta, Gabriel Heusi, Miriam Jeske and Roberto Castro for allowing us to use their photos. All other photographers for providing their image via Flickr or Wikimedia Commons under CC licenses.

Editor & Design Martijn Giebels martijn@architectureofthegames.net

BCMF Arquitetos (Bruno Campos)

Translations Delle Benton (English) Simply Translate (Portuguese)

Delle Benton, Rachel Santegoets, Nicole Giebels, Thiemi Higashi, Joel Friedlander

Cover photography André Motta / brasil2016.gov.br Cited Sources Page 2; Oscar Niemeyer. The Washinton Post, October 5, 2002. www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/2002/10/05/at-94brazils-famed-architect-is-still-ahead-of-the-curve/60723feb521c-4e66-ba74-819834464f28. Accessed June 7, 2016. Creative Commons Modifications: All photo’s are cropped from original. Sources: Flickr and Wikimedia Commons Licenses: (CC BY 2.0) (CC BY 3.0 BR) (CC BY-SA 3.0) (CC BY-SA 4.0)

Vigliecca & Associados (Deborah Giannini)

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THE ARCHITECTURE OF RIO2016

COLOPHON


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Photo courtesy of AndrĂŠ Motta/brasil2016.gov.br


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