Page 1




1.0 Introduction ; Page 3 -Context, -Brief,


2.0 Design Principles; Page 4 -Historical relevance -Reinstate the community, -Create place to live work and play, -Connect with the existing surrounding neighbourhood -Keep quality and character of the site & Audit notable features, -Entrances -Addition

3.0 Site Analysis Page 6 -Demolition/Retention/Change of Use/Addition -Demolition/Refurb/Keep -Water

4.0 Proposed Program of uses and activities Page 9 -Community -Green Space -Housing

5.0 The Master Plan- Page 12 -Visuals -Models

6.0 Precedents and design studies (buildings and urban spaces) -New Housing Development

Page 14

-Community Spaces

7.0 Phasing Plans Page 17 8.0 Schedule of demolition- infrastructure and building area Page 18 9.0

Appendix Page 21

-Policy -Sustainability -Costing - Design strategy


INTRODUCTION Context Master planning only makes sense within a well understood context, “Every historical area and its surrounding should be considered in their totality as a coherent whole whose balance and specific nature depends on the fusion of the parts of which it is composed and which included human activities�1. Master planning should aim to protect, preserve improve and promote the historical importance of the area, and our proposals elaborates on the Porto Vivo, Historic Centre of Porto World Heritage, management Plan. This document present a master planning framework for the

The Site

The Brief

The city of Porto is the second largest city in Portugal, a city full of culture, history and heritage wonders. The City is built along the hillsides overlooking the River Douro, and is stepped in 2-000 years of history. On December 5th 2006 UNESCO approved the classification process for Porto as World heritage Site. As the city has grown from the centre, many previously separate places have been forgotten during this expansion and have lost their connection to the wider city and the city centre. We took this as a starting point, using Porto Vivo’s management pan, we looked to revive and redevelop an area that had been in decline for many years. Our master plan seeks to demonstrate the potential of the Fontainhas area, allowing it to be become a place of high quality.

As well as tackling the poor condition of housing throughout the district of fontainhas our master plan also aims to provide a place for the local community to once again thrive. In turn creating elements that allow the local community to support themselves whilst creating additional elements for tourism throughout the area.

1.UNESCO 1976 Recommendation concerning the Safeguarding and Contemporary Role of Historic Areas


DESIGN PRINCIPLE Our scheme has been based on a large amount of historical development, research has shown us that this now derelict area was once a thriving residential community. Reinstate the community In May 2013 the local city council removed as many as 50 of the existing residents from the Fontainhas slopped site. The residents were forcibly removed, unable to collect their possessions they were escorted off the favelas and rehoused in the nearby district of Siege. Therefore we took that as a starting point and identified the loss of homes to this community as a problem as well as removing the community from a neighbourhood that had been formed a previous 150 years earlier. Our Scheme aimed to reinstate the community, and bring back the residents to their neighbourhood. Live work and play As a response to the economic problems in Porto, we wanted to create a place where the residents could live, work and play. Through creating a new brand of housing, we encourage the dwellers to create their own homes, expressing themselves and therefore make their house a home. The spaces for allotments and herb garden allow the residents to create their own income through selling their produce to the park cafĂŠ, each other or at the market to tourists. The greens spaces within the site encourage interaction between the residents; the community buildings engage the occupants in communal activities and provide adaptable spaces for all different types of activities. The green and other public spaces provide a place for both residents of Fontainhas and occupants of the surrounding district to interact with each and create ties which will benefit both in the social and working aspect. Connect with the existing surrounding neighbourhood The use of the urban farming, allotments have been used with the hope to encourage the residents to sell their produce in the market to the surrounding neighbourhood and passing tourists. By not restricting the access to the allotments it strengthens the connection to the outside neighbourhood, prompting them to use the green spaces and interact within the residents of the site. The residents will be in charge of maintaining the allotments and public areas; thus, allowing them to feel like it is theirs. It also provides the surrounding neighbourhood to venture into and use the site. The new community hub will allow an adaptable space for the community to engage in, set within a three storey building, the spaces will offer both educational learning spaces but also spaces for children to play in, the adults to relax in and a space for tourists to interact with. Workshops have also been implemented which open out on street level, providing jobs for the nearby community, but also creating a niche for the tourists to come visit.

A new performance and creative space has been incorporated, this will generate a place where residents and the surrounding community can meet, watch, and create together; thus, strengthening the bound between the two. As the performance space is located just through the arch of truth, a prominent entrance and notable feature of the site, it allows easy access to both residents and the surrounding neighbourhood. Quality, Character & Notable features The site has many features that lend to its unusual character, the abundant amount of water that flows throughout the site, the original wash houses used by the local community, the unusual terrain and different heights of the favelas that allow buildings to perch on the edge, a disused train line, a used metro line, the arch of truth. We hope to build on these characteristic, enhancing them as we develop a site for the community to once again live, work and play. Each of the notable features have been used in a way to emphasis the impact they have on the site. Entrances There are at present two ways to enter the site, through the existing wash house, or through the Arc of truth. Both entrances, provide glorious views of the River Douro, whilst also giving you a flavour of the charm that the site has to offer. Both these entrances have been kept, with a third being reinstalled over the train line, allowing residents to easily cross from the train stop into the site. One of the main problems with the site is its vertical accessibility, a solution to this was to create vertical movement through the site via a funicular, which would be used for both people and produce. Additionally the reopening of the Ponte Maria Bridge as a Pedestrian bridge will connect the site with the Gaia side of the river. We have also created paths for the people of the community to take through the site and where the different communities meet there will be a node of interaction. These include a series of gardens, courtyards, civic spaces and a new central community hub. Addition, no Demolition We believe the success of this scheme would be not to remove the existing buildings and replace them with new building, but to build on what is already in place, adding structures, mending current buildings on the site and adding new residential housing. Through a sensitive approach we will be using adaptive reuse, we look to reuse a large amount of the existing building, by keeping the external shell and inserting a new shell inside. Through this approach we hope we can maintain a connection with the existing site and community encouraging them back into the site. On the right hand side of the site we recognized that the building quality was poor and unusable; therefore we have implemented a half-housing scheme for the community that previously existed here.

We want to improve the perceptions and experiences of the site, establish the area as an attractive and desirable place to live, work, pay, invest and visit. PAGE 4

URBAN ANALYSIS- Demolition/Retention/Change of Use Through auditing the site we found buildings were in a state of disrepair, some buildings had fallen victim to landslides on the site and therefore were no longer safe to use and as a result these building we will be looking to demolish. However there were many buildings that still had the external shell intact, floors had been removed or deteriorated, but the buildings can still be considered usable, and therefore we would look to retain these buildings. Finally buildings considered previously to of been homes, we will look to adapt them for community purposes. The existing disused train line will have a change of use and be changed and used as a community route for the urban farming.



Change of use


URBAN ANALYSIS- Demolition/Refurb/Keep Building that were audited as being unsafe due to poor building condition, were demolished for health and safety reasons. There were building considered usable, with the existing external shell still intact, with minimal poor building quality internally, therefore we looked to refurbishing these Buildings considered occupied by the current community, that do not need repairing were kept and left in tact Through auditing the site we found buildings were in a state of disrepair, some buildings had fallen victim to landslides on the site and therefore were no longer safe to use and as a result these building we will be looking to demolish.





URBAN ANALYSIS- Water An existing feature to the site was the wash house the community use these wash house daily, and therefore will be retained as part of the community development. There were also several natural springs running through the site at different locations, this was something we looked to source and build on in order to create a sustainable community

Wash House

Natural Springs


PROPOSED PROGRAMME- Community Developments At the heart of the redevelopment project, we have designed a scheme that will encourage a community space within the site, and make use of the existing building on the site. The existing shell will be kept, and a new shell will be inserted, as part of the approach, any existing windows or doors will still be accessible when the new internal shell is in place. This allows building to be usable, whilst still retaining its historical nature. The building uses will be multifunctional, adaptable spaces for the community to inhabit, along with a library space, a cookery space for the allotment users to utilise, a play space for the children within the community. There will also be a scheme located in the middle of the site with its entrance situated on the main road in Fontainhas. It is signified by the grand “Arch of truth�, a notable feature in the district of Fontainhas. All of the existing buildings are being kept and refurbished; many being extended. The scheme consists of a cluster of public spaces; with spaces to sit, talk, perform and be used as a view point out on to the River Douro. On the right hand side of the scheme is a series of roof terrace gardens at a number of different levels. While the left consists of less natural structures, composed up of a perform to be used by residents; this can also be used as a viewing platform. This is also a seating area which can either be used by audiences or, when not, a seating area for general use.


PROPOSED PROGRAMME- Green Space Allotment- A large amount of the current parts of the site remain unused and forgotten about, we are looking to recycle these pieces of land as allotment spaces. This will hopefully create pockets of growing space to encourage the community to grow their own food, both for the community and surrounding neighbourhood to sustain themselves, with the opportunity to sell the grown fruit and vegetables at the market, held every Saturday at the top of the site. This step would look to increase the green infrastructure within the site, whilst in turn acting as a way of making money for the people who live in the community. Secret Gardens- These were developed as spaces for people to enjoy privately, if people preferred to grow flowers in a private space, allow friends to meet up. These gardens would belong to the surrounding houses. Public Green Space- An open public green space with a cafe for the community to enjoy also created a place for the allotments users to sell their produce to. Ran by the community, the park would create a special space with magnificent views across the River Douro.


PROPOSED PROGRAMME- Housing We are looking to implement a scheme that address the lack of community welfare within the neighbourhood. By creating strips of housing at the far end of the site we will offer new residential housing for the evicted community, as well as communal spaces for washing and relaxing in. The area of the proposed development will sit on the existing foot prints of the demolished housing that was considered to be in very poor condition and therefore irreparable. The intention was to provide housing for community that previously existed here, the concept of community is contained in between the houses with communal washing and green spaces. Also workshops have been created in existing buildings on the level above providing work such as fabric making as well as urban farming on the other side of the site. However buildings have been demolished on this upper level to open up a civic space for workers. Like in Siedlung Halen the levels have been generated by the topography with a new connection to Gaia as part of the overall scheme we have reopened the pedestrian bridge.




New Build


Public Gardens

Herb Garden

Private Gardens


Wash Houses

Cliff (Highest Point)





Cliff (Lowest point)


Natural Spring


VISUALS- Renders & Sketches




PRECEDENT & DESIGN STUDIES New Housing Development Siedlung Halen

Siedlung Halen, designed by Atelier 5 is an example of low-rise, high density housing on a steep sloping site. This community of 81 terraced houses built on a south facing hillside on the outskirts of the city Bern incorporates many of the ideas of the modernist program of the 1920’s relating to community, privacy, garden city notions of a healthy life-style in a suburban setting, and attitudes about materials and standardisation. The overall building form was generated by the topography and the desire to create community. The units were able to satisfy the desire for each owner to have access to private outdoor space and natural light. The building form is open in the centre, creating a community area, allowing Halen to be self-contained.

Housing development Half House Concept

This is an example of a housing that has been implemented in Sao Paulo within area that have declined over time. The initial design provides concrete frames for residents to ‘inset’ their own homes. The houses were syncopated with gaps into which families could insert extra rooms as necessary, any way they wanted. Within a year, theses concrete structures had evolved into a neighbourhood of varied hues and window styles, in which the houses would clearly gain value over time rather than deteriorate like so many other public housing projects- its social housing as an investment rather than as an expense.



Haworth Tompkins Architects The Dovecote is part of Haworth Tompkin’s phased extension of the campus for Aldeburgh Music and inhabits the ruins of a dovecote overlooking the marshes. The new form expresses the internal volume of the Victorian structure as a Cor-ten steel ‘lining’, a welded monocoque that was prefabricated and craned into position.

S (ch) austall Based in S(ch)austall, Pfalz, Germany, 2007, A house partially destroyed during World War II reborn without losing the marks of its past. To transform the ruins in one exhibition space, the architects decided to build a home in another house. An independent structure and prefabricated timber has been inserted into the existing structure of stones. Thus, the space was compatible with the contemporary use and heritage remained preserved.

Communal Spaces Plaza Espana

Plaza Espana, a public space above an underground museum in Tenerife by Manis Architects, which won the award for the new and old category at the World Architecture Festival this week. The space created by the demolition of an old building in the town of Adeje allowed the architects to create the new square, which also opens up a view of the surrounding Barranco del infierno, or Hell’s Gorge’ ravine. Sliced indents help rainwater to naturally drain off the surface of the square, while cracked openings around the concrete sidewalls let light penetrate the museum buried below.


PHASING PLAN & SCHEDULE Outline Our master plan can be broken down into four overlapping phases. During this phasing process it will help minimise disruption to local residents. Phase One - Accessibility One of the main problems with the site whilst walking around it was accessibility. Phase one will include reopening Maria Pia pedestrian bridge to connect to Gaia. This will also help transport raw materials from the other side of the river to help aid the rebuilding of the community. Introduction of vertical movement into site will also help transport materials and provide access for workers in the refurbishment of homes. As well as being a key part of the urban farming scheme in which produce can be transported to market on street level. The construction of the metro will also start. Also the demolition of derelict, unusable buildings will occur in this first phase.

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase Two - Mend Existing and Employment Opportunity The concept we took was to be sensitive with the site, mending the existing with the intention of stitching together the urban fabric with the intention of bringing the communities back together. During phase two we will mend existing homes (that are occupied and reusable) across the site from left to right. The insertion of allotments oversees the reclamation of abandoned land whilst providing a sustainable living for the community to grow. Workshops on street level to the right hand side of the site will create employment opportunity for the community to sustain a living.

Phase 4


PHASING PLAN & SCHEDULE Phase Three - New Community During phase three the old derelict building which is a key feature will be converted into the central community hub which will contain a library, classrooms and community centre. Also the demolition of poor, derelict buildings to the right hand side of the site will make way for a new half-housing scheme for the community that previously existed here. It will contain a wash house and green spaces for the community. Phase Four - Public Spaces Throughout phase four new public spaces across the site will have been created due to the demolition of derelict buildings. These include a series of gardens and courtyards as well as new civic square for workers. Finally a landscaping scheme will be implemented across the site.

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4


REFERENCES AID. (2013, 11 22). Ramsen, Germany. Retrieved from AID: Aravena, A. (2013, 12 11). Vivienda-housing-element. Retrieved from Alejandroaravena: Atelier5. (2013, 11 22). Retrieved from Halen: Culture, E. C. (2010). Eurpoean Capital of Culture; The road to success 1985-2010. Porto: Eurpoean Capital of Culture. Dezeen. (2013, 11 24). Plaza De Espana. Retrieved from Dezeen: Goverment, A. (2004). Adaptive Reuse. Commonwealth Of Australia. Halen - An urban settlement in the forest. (2013, 11 20). Retrieved from Halen: Halen. (2013, 20 11). Retrieved from Housing Prototypes: naumann, a. (2013, 11 22). S (ch) austall. Retrieved from naumann architekten: NBS. (13, 12 10). Sustainability. Retrieved from NBS. Plaza De Espana. (2013, 11 25). Retrieved from Wikipedia: Publicio. (2013, 12 01). Menezes prefers rehabilitating houses the escarpment Fontainhas. Retrieved from Publicio: 3DX%26rls%3Den%26biw%3D1432%26bi Unesco. (2010). Histoic Center of Porto- Managment Plan 2010. Porto: Unesco. UNESCO. (2013, 12 10). Recommendation concerning the Safeguarding and Contemporary Role of Historic Areas. Retrieved from UNESCO: Vivo, P. (2008). Historic Center of Oporto World Heritage. Porto.


APPENDIX A- Policy Context Despite numerous programs and projects with the aim to improve the poor housing and social conditions implemented the social and physical degradation could not be solved. Despite these efforts, social and physical degradation in the historic center of Porto could not be solved The main aim of the regeneration program listed in Porto Vivo is for Porto and surrounding area of our site is the rehabilitation of the built environment as well as the socio-economic revitalization of the neighbourhood (Porto Vivo SRU, 2010). Our scheme will be implemented in conjunction with the Porto Vivo Regeneration Framework already in place to develop Porto as well as the surrounding areas of our site over the next 50 years. Whilst also most importantly taken into to account the eviction of the community of Fontainhas of this year. It will attempt to reinstate and regenerate and sustain the communities that were evicted. Reconnecting to the river The district Fontainhas looks over the historic River Douro, used since 136BC by the romans as a port. Creating a barrier between Gaia and Fontainhas, we have looked to reopen the Ponte Maria. Improving connections The district Fontainhas looks over the historic River Douro, used since 136BC by the romans as a port which creates a barrier between Gaia and Fontainhas. Our proposal looks to reopen the Ponte Maria, and create a pedestrian gateway into our site, through creating this new pedestrian route, we hope to encourage tourists to the area, but also help link the current community back into the local neighbourhood. Improving transport links At present the only route to the site, is either from the water front or from the higher street level, both create barriers to reaching the intermediate spaces within the site. To combat that we have introduced a new train station, which provides a stop for the current train line running through the middle of the site. This in turn will promote tourists to the site, whilst enabling residents to become more mobile through the use of public transport. Green space In order to achieve an all-round sustainable design we have looked to include a large amount of green spaces within the site, through the introduction of urban farming allotments, public and private gardens we hope to encourage a variety of wildlife to the site.

Enterprise existing area of business We wanted to create a community that could sustain itself financially, although it won’t be solely sustained through this method, it does provide an income for the users. The use of the allotments, allows residents to grow their own produce to then use themselves or sell in the market at street level. The production of workshops, allows the community to create their own arts and craft which can then be solely on to the local neighbourhood or passing tourists. Improving Health and Well-being By providing the community with a sustainable living e.g. creating jobs in the workshops on street level were people can learn and work as well as urban farming will help improving the health and well being of the community. Furthermore by creating green spaces and park areas will help boost community spirit with increased interaction between locals thus encouraging a healthier lifestyle. The use of a performance space and community centre will also help boost well-being throughout the community; by providing spacing of interaction and creative activity. Regeneration The refurbishment of existing structures of housing will take place across the site. This will give the community that previously existed here a new and exciting space to live in whilst not taking away the houses that they built themselves. Some buildings will be converted in workshop spaces to provide a living for the community however most will retain the character that previously existed. A new half housing scheme will be implemented were building quality to the right hand side of the site is poor and derelict. Regeneration of this part of the site will bring back the existing community that was previously lived there. Concrete frames will be provided for residents to insert their own homes, providing extra rooms when necessary. Over time it will evolve into a neighbourhood with different window hues and styles. This is social housing as an investment rather than an expense as house prices will increase over time thus regenerating the area. Education A new central community hub has been created as the vocal point of the site. It will include a library and classrooms for young people from the communities to learn and develop their skills. Green roofs will also provide substantial biological and sustainable education for the community. It will also allow the residents to interact with the wildlife through the site; thus, providing first-hand experience with both animals and plants.


APPENDIX B- Sustainability Porto, particularly the district of Fontainhas have suffered due uncertainty as well as narrow vision and investment. Given the richness and character of Fontainhas; our whole site has been adaptively reused as previously mentioned, when adaptive reuse involves historic buildings, there are many environmental benefits, as these buildings offer so much to the landscape, identity and amenity of the communities they belong to, rather than taking away. Adaptive reuse of buildings plays a major role sustainability, with one of the main environmental benefits of reusing buildings being the retention of the original building’s “embodied energy”, and therefore recycling has become second nature to modern communities as we strive for environmental sustainability. Embodied energy is defined by the CSIRO “as the energy consumed by all of the processes associated with the production of a building, from the acquisition of natural resources to product delivery, including mining, manufacturing of materials and equipment, transport and administrative functions. By reusing buildings, their embodied energy is retained, making the project much more environmentally sustainable 1. than entirely new construction” In the context of sustainability, it could be assumed that older buildings are inefficient energy monopolises, which should be demolished and replaced. However, both the financial and energy costs of producing and purchasing new building materials is often more detrimental to the environment than incorporating adaptive reuse strategies of existing buildings. According to research carried out by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, it takes around 65 years for an energy-efficient new building to save the amount of energy lost in demolishing an existing building. The expression of suitable living has not been limited to the buildings we are refurbishing but also to significant initiatives such as water harvesting, energy capture and storage, community gardening and recycling of materials, urban farming. The abundant amount of springs across the site mean that we can direct water to the allotments, as a water source for the urban farming, this water can also be used within the wash house (as it currently is). On average, 23% of indoor water use is due to clothes washing; therefore, by providing wash houses which use water from natural springs, we can significantly reduce the unnecessary water use throughout the site. The use of grey water will also be used; thus eliminating the need for wasting water through toilet flushes etc. Through the use of greens roofs, we look to offer a way of growing a medium of plants, creating a potential garden space for the individual houses, on what would have been a wasted flat plane. As green roofs are a tangible element of a suitability strategy they offer; 2 • Improved conservation and biodiversity

• Provisions of a medium & habitat for wildlife and plants. By acting as a stepping stone for migrating species, it has been shown that they can link species together that would otherwise be fragmented. 3 • Thermal insulation to the building • Help improve the quality of water and run-off (nitrogen and phosphorus in run-off can be reduced) • Reduce the need for air conditioning (Porto climate) through they substantial thermal mass; it also reduces the amount of energy needed to moderate the temperature of a building, as roofs are the greatest heat loss/gain. The National Research Council of Canada found that an extensive roof reduced the daily energy demand for air conditioning during the summer by over 75% (Liu 2003). • Reduction of water and increased water quality that green roofs can provide can decrease the demands for health care • Educational benefits - provide easily accessible sight to teach about biology and green roof technology; thus benefitting the education of the community • Noise and sound insulation The incorporation of a funicular in the site will reduce the need for residents and the surrounding neighbour to use fuel powered transport to get from the market square to the main river road. The use of the old railway has been designed to be sustainable; by using a push/pull system there is no need for fuel powered transport throughout the site. This will keep air quality through the site high while also allowing the residents to move around the site efficiently. The introduction of a new metro station will allow residents to use public transport over private car use; thus reducing pollution throughout the site. The incorporation of a new metro station was need due to the fact that the closest metro stations to the site were at least 12/13 minute walk. The new metro station will also be used by market goers and the surrounding neighbourhood; therefore, reducing traffic and pollution throughout the whole district of Fontainhas.

1.Adaptive-reuse.pdf 2. 3.



Housing (Refurbishment) New Housing Development Community Hub (Refurbishment) Public Performance Building Public Performance Space Wash House Café Workshops (Refurbishment) New Metro Stop Allotments Park/Green Space Herb Garden Private Garden

Area m²

Min Cost £

Min Total Cost p/m²

Max Cost p/ m²

Max Total Cost p/ m²

Max Total Cost p/ m²

Max Total Cost p/ m²

































£3, 657, 236.20

£3, 657, 236.20

£3, 657, 236.20


























































APPENDIX C- Cost Plan Rent


Yield Capital Value


8939m² less 10% (893.9) 8,045 x £0.4/m²




Performance space

204m² less 10% (20.4) 183.6 £7,344 x £40/m²



Community Centre Space

360.81m² less 10% (36.081) 324.729 x £60/m²



New Housing Development

1260m² less 10% (126) 1134 £22,680 x £20/m²




Construction Cost Housing (Refurbishment) New Housing Development Community Hub (Refurbishment) Public Performance Building Public Performance Space Wash House Cafe Workshops (Refurbishment) New Metro Stop

£7,841,454 £254,520 £515,273 £595,809 £2,003,632 £31,365 £33,250 £195,920 £841,750 £12,312,973 *Note demolition cost has been taken into account with cost of housing development


632m² less 10% (63.2) 568.8 £17,064 x £30/m²



Public Realm Cost Park/Green Space Allotments Herb Gardens


19m² less 10% (1.9) 17.1 x £200/m²



Ancillary Cost Infrastructure etc (0.5% of construction cost)

Total Capital Value £1,383,786.23

Professional Fees Architect etc... (14% of cost) Contingencies (0.10% of cost)


Total Income £73,209.74

£31,698 £169,841 £22,911 £224,390 £61,564.87 £1,755,230.82 £12,537.363

Short Term Finance Government Funded?? No need for short term finance? Allotments spaces will be rented out to community over time at a small price. The local arts foundation college will be given a low rated rental price for the use of our performance space. This in turn will be giving back to the community as well as a potential for renting a space in the community center and the café to people from the surrounding area. Furthermore this scheme will be funded mostly by the government and local council as part of the Porto Vivo scheme. The refurbishment of the houses will be given back to the existing community free of charge, however with newly built housing development occupiers will have to pay rent according to how much they earn. This will rise over time as community starts to develop and grow. The workshop spaces will be given to a company for free but as part of an incentive to employ only people from the community of Fontaínhas, whilst over time they will be charged small rent.


Letting Fees (15% of income) Marketing and Advertising

£10,981.461 £2,000

Total Costs Total Development Cost £14,379,677.51 Return for risk and profit (15% of capital value) £207,567.93 Site Value Total Construction Cost - Capital Value =£10,929,186.80 x 0.78888 = £8,621816.25 2.5% of £8,621816.25 = £215,545.41 £8,621,816.25 - £215,545.41 = £8,406,270.79

APPENDIX D- Design Strategy In order for a scheme to be successful it needs to be set within it context, understand its client, create a solution for a problem. We believe that our scheme does just that, based upon historical research we have endeavored to create a project that delivers something special to the site and offers more than just a regeneration program. We want to give something back to the people of the district Fontaínhas… their community. The emergence of the slums began in the later 19th to early 20th century; after the district became a place for asylum beggars. It has continued to be one of the poorest and overcrowded areas in Porto, throughout the last and present century. However, during the last ten years at least one third of the residents have left voluntarily and others have been forcibly removed due to both landslide and the squalid living conditions. This has only left a couple of the residential areas open to the public; most of which are still occupied. The conditions of the slums have rapidly worsened due to the dilapidation of roads, accesses and other basic infrastructure. These are due to both landslides and the difficult social economic conditions facing the residents. In May 2013 50 families were forcible evicted from the site and rehoused in the district of Siege. This sparked major political and social ramifications within the district itself and the whole of Porto. The district of Nicholas on the slopped cliff of Fontaínhas will not be Fontaínhas without the community. Only a few dozen meters, the neighboring district of Nicholas has had a demolition order on it by the House of Porto. It was in recent news that Luiz Filipe Menezes said that if he won the local election, then the houses on the cliffs would not be demolished but would be refurbished; the rehabilitation of housing units on the escarpments maintain wherever possible, one of the promises Luiz Filipe Menezes made to the residents. He also wants to argue for a broader policy on the entire slope between the bridges Luiz I and Ash. He made comments about that local authority saying, “Of the worst thing you did in the city in the last 20-30 years has been taking people from sites where they lived, sending them to social housing, where they are uprooted and unhappy”. The rehabilitation of the slope according to architect Joaquim Massena will provide the installation of a residence hall which will act as an anchor project to draw more people in and animate the area.

Our proposal is to reinstate the community of Fontaínhas to its once thriving community by implementing hubs, spaces and dwellings for residents, while also providing interaction with the surrounding neighbourhood. After looking at various Portuguese news reports, we realised that the Fontaínhas ‘slope’ was a very close-knit community; this prompted our scheme to incorporate both a communal hub and a collective environment for the surrounding neighbourhood. The interaction between both societies was of great significance to the proposal of the new ‘Fontaínhas design.’ Both refurbishment of original housing and new housing have been incorporating into our scheme; due to the renovation and demolition of old buildings. These have been carefully surveyed and evaluated to determine what the needs of the residents are. Water supply in Fontaínhas is a major factor in why it is such good site for a community; a community as such as we are trying to reinstate. Porto are looking to turn back to underground sources for water use, due to the available surface water being polluted. It is seen as a reliable and an easily accessible substitute. A number of natural springs are located throughout the site; some of which are already in use. Throughout Porto, several underground galleries and tunnels naturally occur; which over the years have been connected and excavated through the granitic rock to gather for public use. All the natural water flows from the Arca D’Agua and is captured by an intricate network of catch work galleries. These have been used to supply a domestic water supply since 1607. However, much of Porto can not use this water system anymore, due to the fragile water conduit; leakages and obstructions. Throughout the district of Fontaínhas, there is a record number of public fountains, compared to the rest of Porto; all of which are supplied by underground networks. However, groundwater is no longer in use for public purposes in Porto; due to quality degradation, except for our site; which groundwater is utilised. Thus, showing the importance of groundwater reuses and reinstallation. The water use throughout the site could be used as a catalyst to regenerate Porto’s underground water system. Educational services have been incorporated into the scheme through the renovation of a significant building on the site; providing a community hub. As previously mentioned this site was once a thriving community, and it is important that we reinstall them value back into this site. This is why we have looked to engage with the external elements around the site, this is mainly with the local schools and colleges, offering to provide rentable spaces for theatrical performance. This performance space then provides an interaction point between residents and the surrounding neighbourhood; thus, emphasising the synergy between the districts. This also stresses the importance of art and culture. With Porto receiving Capital of culture 2001, it is only important that we draw on this, and encourage an engagement with the city’s culture.


Porto a2 ad,ah, jp