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Contents • Context • History • Social, Political, Economic • UNESCO • Landscape • The River Douro • Landmark Buildings

• • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

• Impact • Links • Financial Implications

Concept Precedent Stourhead Fountains Abbey Parc de la Villette Highline Landschaftspark Trollstigen Manifesto Locus Points Sightlines

Implementation Masterplan Interventions New Build Adaptation Poetic Ruin Sections Route


Context


CONTEXT Context To understand the context today it is necessary to describe the condition of Porto which brought about the development of the Fontainhas and the path by which it reached its current position. By its nature this will cover the themes; freedom of Movement, City as Political Manifesto and Alternative Forms of Context. Up to a point in time urban Porto existed within the city walls, only extending to the river where the gradient was at its shallowest. At this point the poorest may well have lived ad-hoc outside of the wall but on relatively hospitable land. In the pattern of historical city growth this group of people get shifted to the cheapest land. At a time when movement was limited to how far you could walk the cheapest area was the escarpment where the condition of the slope made it unattractive for conventional building but people could still walk into the city to work. This touches upon several alternative forms of context. Firstly there is the geological context of the slope; secondly there is the social context of having to make one’s own way. At this time movement is a major factor, The lack of movement freedom spawns the high density , dictating the physical context. Density and movement also dictate the commercial context of the city. The network of small niche businesses are supported by a large populous of limited mobility.


HISTORY


CONTEXT

Compared with other European countries Portugal’s GDP is low. This forms an indicator of living standards , which is manifest in the levels of car ownership. I would contend that it is low carownership which has allowed Porto to remain physically dense through the twentieth century. This has prevented the large scale demolition and large scale highway building of other cities. However today the suburbs of Porto have grown considerably, along with those of Vila Nova de Gaia to the south. The construction of a light rail network , which can have only come about through political will, has allowed that growth and along with changing aspirations is driving the de population of the centre. The depopulation is worst in the historically middle or merchant class areas within the World Heritage Site. This has the impact for the Fontainhas of it no longer being necessary for there to be built fabric on marginal land as opportunities for dwellings exist on the more viable land at the top of either slope. Political will is driving the demolition of structures on the escarpment where the condition of the slope itself forms a public safety hazard in the form oflandslides. As in Paris where the creation of avenues to beautify the city also made it easier to control, demolition of the structures on the escarpment has the side effect of returning the slope to nature and beautifying the image of the city where much ofthe city’s efforts are being focused at increasing tourism.


Social, Political, Economic


CONTEXT World Heritage Site The slopes on either river bank give the context in which the World Heritage Site is understood. The argument for preening or pruning this context is to ensure the survival of the heritage area as a prime asset in ensuring tourism growth and the survival of the city. As acknowledged by the buffer zone. This would suggest someone has made a value judgement on which contextual elements are important for the story that the city needs to tell or that there is only one story. Having toured the area, the story of loss, death and eviction is as strong as the story of the world heritage site but only when shown relative to the rubber stamped version of a world heritage site. To analogise the World Heritage Site is like the discovered artefact being cleansed of its patina to conform to type, when actually for many the delight is to be found in the impurities. The World Heritage Site and the Fontainhas housing are mutual beings, the one gives the other meaning or context. Losing the context homogenises the heritage site into a museum piece rather than emphasising the essential qualities of the city which make it special and unique.


UNESCO

Unesco World Heritage Criterion 4: ‘To be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history’ Porto represents an: ‘outstanding urban lanscape with a 2000 year history.’ ‘The urban fabric bears testimony to the development over the past 1000 years’


CONTEXT


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CONTEXT River Douro The River Douro is the third longest river in the Iberian peninsular at 897km, crossing from Spain into Portugal. It is the life force for most of the northwestern cities having prompted their foundation. The area adjacent to the river has a reputation for producing Olives, Almonds and Grapes. The Vineyards form a protected designation of orign for the Port Wine industry which is centred in Porto and Gaia. Historically the river allowed trade across the area. Today most traffic is either domestic leisure or commercial cruises. The cruises take passengers from Porto in the west inland to Salamanca, linking the two world heritage sites.


The River Douro


CONTEXT Landmarks Along this stretch of the river there are several landmarks which sit at the top of the slopes and orientate the individual in the river landscape.


Landmark Buildings


CONCEPT


CONCEPT Precedent Stourhead and Studley Royal are historical examples of picturesque landscape parks. Of particular interest is the way in which a route is manipulated to emphasise the follies and the interventions required to make this possible. It is also important to note that Studley Royal is also a World Heritage Site under the same criterion as Oporto. It is possible to imagine a project which becomes an extension of the current Unesco site where it represents the best of the current age. More contemporary case studies include Duisburg Landschaftspark, Trollstigen Tourist Route, Parc de la Villette and the Highline.


Precedent

Stourhead

Studley Royal Fountains Abbey by Night Photograph courtesy of Jenny Karling


CONCEPT STOURHEAD The route around Stourhead takes in several architectural follies which take up Burke’s idea of the sublime in that each acts on an individual’s senses to bring them to the edge of their cognitive understanding. The route is dervied in such a way that the follies are not always visible, there is a sequence of denial and reward. This is achieved through changes in level, artifical earthworks and new planting.


Precedent

2

3

4

1

1000m

5


CONCEPT STUDLEY ROYAL Studley Royal also has a sequence of crafted views. However unlike Stourhead some of the views are orientated to follies outside of the park such as Ripon Cathedral. Here the sublime is invoked by the presence of Fountains Abbey which serves to question the established order of the church at a time of industrialisation and the rise of science. Having visited the park at night it is apparent that today darkness is one of the most immidiate ways to achieve the Burkian sublime.


Precedent

3

1

4 2

Sight line Visual block Enginered water course

1000m

5


CONCEPT Landschaftspark, Duisburg-Nord, Germany Designed by Peter Latz in 1991, the park was conceived on the back of an international competition to convert the old industrial site into a public park. Many of the other designs were based on completely de-industrialising the park to create a new ‘manufactured landscape’. Latz on the other hand recognised the value of the site’s current condition, that of a time-forgotten reminder of Germany’s industrial past, and his plans had the intention that the park work to help people understand it’s history and in doing so heal the surrounding context. Much like the industrial history of the Douro Valley, the Landschaftspark had been left abandoned for many years and had fallen into disrepair. Industrial ruins, like the smoking kilns in Porto and the steel production plant in Duisburg, can in some people’s opinion scar the landscape in which they sit, but they will always bear testimony to the history of the place, and inform the previous nature of the site. Keeping them as ‘landmarks’ or ‘follies’ and celebrating their historical significance re-identifies their meaning, and this is something we have tried to follow within the manifesto for our masterplan. Reinstatement of the ruins as areas of genius loci celebrates and understates their former use. These then inform a route around the landscape that allows them to be put back into their current context, as well as that of their former glory. A concept that became prevalent during the


Precedent

movement of Postmodernism was the importance of memory, and the way this informs the visitor to the site. The Landschaftspark was designed on the basis that a grandfather who had worked at the plant could walk with his grandchildren and explain what he used to do and the various machinery he used to use. This method of community participation is something we have tried to incorporate into our masterplan, as well as overlaying the effect of tourism through the site, and how people who have no idea of the history of the place can connect to it. These ideas of memory encompass Landschaftspark. It also bears similarities in its design to the way that we have gone about the design of our landscape - a series of walkways at multiple levels that connect sites scattered throughout the project, allowing visitors to construct their own experiences. Having conducted research into the idea of the sublime and picturesque landscape, Smithson’s essay “A Tour of the Monuments of Passaic� helped to place the elements of the past embedded in the ruins into aiding the giving of meaning to things in the present, and further emphasise the idea of traces of time, or palimpsest, within the scheme. This idea is also prominent in the design of the Landschaftspark.


CONCEPT Trollstigen Tourist Route, Norway This project is one of five architectural projects along the Geiranger-Trollstigen tourist route, a 66-mile scenic road across the Trollstigen Mountain Plateau in western Norway. Designed by Reiulf Ramstad Architects, the project is made up of a series of walkways and viewing platforms perched high within a dramatic pass between the deep fjords that characterize the region. In terms of urban design it has little relevance to our project, or any urban design project for that matter. It does, however, contain elements of the sublime and a clear route that defines views and vistas. This is one of the key connecting factors within our masterplan, that you can always relate to where you are by various landmarks or sight lines. Much in the same light as a picturesque landscape such as Stourhead or Fountains Abbey deliberately direcst views towards certain follies, or disguise views so that the experience is given greater emphasis, the route along the Trollstigen gives panoramic views across the valley. This is also something that we have incorporated into the design of the masterplan, the sight lines to landmarks both within the project and in the surrounding context have been given priority so that a visitor can always track where they have been or where they would like to be. Many of the reappointed ruins on the masterplan site of Porto act as both follies in the landscape and places to view the valley, taking great care not to disturb the sublime experiences in which they sit. This delicate touch to the landscape, leaving the views and experience as


Precedent

the main factor, is what we wish to achieve within the river valley. Both this and our own project look at the difficulties of having such a dynamic topographical site, and the way in which people must traverse it easily in order to utilise as much of the site as possible. Whereas the Trollstigen path is very much dedicated and set in one clear path so that people do not plummet to their death, our route is much more about exploration and adventure. There are routes around the site that can be made in certain time frames depending on the time available to travel the site, but this is a very general route that can easily be strayed from should one wish to explore a little further into the landscape. Both the Trollstigen Tourist Route and the Landschaftspark can be experienced completely differently depending on the time of the year. The panoramic site in Norway can only be viewed during the summer because of the severe winter weather, and the industrial park uses the old canal to indicate to visitors the time of year by the height of the water, and what you can and can’t see during the changes. This notion of water as a dynamic element, from snow, to running and then falling water - and rock as a static element, the projects create a series of prepositional relations that describe and magnify the unique spatiality of the site.


CONCEPT Parc de la Villette, Paris Bernard Tschumi sets out his aspirations as: ‘an abstract system to mediate between the site (as well as all given constraints) and some other concept beyond city or program (mediation)’ ‘to find an organising structure that could exist independent of use, a structure without centre or hierarchy, a structure that would negate the simplistic assumption of a relationship between a program and the resulting architecture.’ The project consists of points, surfaces and lines overlaid as an organising structure for cultural buildings and park functions. The grid points, articulated as follies, ‘act as a common denominator to articulate space and activate it.’ Our follies or locus points are derived from the site rather than an underlying spacial logic but still provide the organisation for the park, with the locus points dictating views. Using Tschumi’s words, ‘the park could be conceived as one of the largest buildings ever constructed – a discontinuous building, but nevertheless a single structure overlapping in certain areas with the city and existing suburbs.’ This is particularly relevant to our strategy where we make connections to points outside of the valley but are as important as anything within the route in giving the sense ofplace. A major difference between our strategy and the Parc


Precedent

de la Villette is the organisation of large interventions. Our largest interventions are follies in themselves and sit amongst the network of sightlines and views. In the Parc de la Villette the largest buildings are the ‘surfaces’ in the organisation of the park and sit as another element. Of greatest relevance in the Parc de la Villette, to our strategy is the desire to create a scheme which will respond to changes in context. The follies are functionless to allow for changes in use, originally there was no function for the large buildings either. The main scope of the project was to challenge the conventional notion of a park and create a park of interaction rather than contemplation.

Lines

Points

Surfaces


CONCEPT Highline, New York The Highline is a successful public space on a derelict elevated railway. This dictates its linear form for most of its length. Where the line crosses nodal points and the structure expands the public space becomes wider and more about lingering than passing through. This is aided by the position of the points relative to the urban fabric where the buildings form viewing corridors and orientation on an otherwise repetitive journey. Being a fully integrated piece of urban fabric the highline benefits from unifying design motifs such as the rails and peel up furniture giving a character of its own in a dense urban context where there are lots of competing identities. Homogenisation of the scheme helps to orientate people along the route but it seems irrelevant when they are elevated and cannot wander off the path. It is possible to imagine our scheme with a continuous path and set of street furniture to help dictate a route. However there is as much to be said for having tailored designs depending on the location and the nature of the genius loci at that point.


Precedent


CONCEPT


Manifesto

A Manifesto for the River Douro - We belive the identity of the area is at risk -Where does the identitiy come from?

-Identity is defined by the phenominological response to the place; to the touch, the taste, the smell, sounds and sights.

-In the case of the River Douro these phenomena are embodied within specific sites where exploitation of the senses is at its greatest. Thiis is where a Genius Loci can be said to exist.

- In order to protect these Genius Loci the exploitation of the senses should be extended to reinforce the phenomenological experience of visiting Oporto and Gaia. -We propose creating a pictureseque lanscape park along the River Douro Valley. This will engage with the sublime nature of the valley as it exists and create a dynamic upon which future intervention can be created.


CONCEPT Internal Locus Points These are points which we believe have a particular genius loci or special essence which we believe deserves protection and enhancement.


Locus Points


CONCEPT Sightlines All of the points on the river are linked by visual connections


Sightlines


IMPLEMENTATION

Context


IMPLEMENTATION Masterplan This drawing demonstrates our interventions which can be catagorised as New Build, Adaptation and Romantic Ruin.


Masterplan


IMPLEMENTATION New Build These are interventions which are entirely new. They vary in scale but their placement is dictated by sightlines and where the need to reinforce the Genius Loci is at its greatest.


Interventions New Build


IMPLEMENTATION Escarpment Das Fontainhas Large scale intervention dictated by the route and the views along the river valley. A transverse route through the building relating to the program and the landscape route.


Interventions New Build


IMPLEMENTATION Praia do Areinha Large scale intervention which provides an anchor in the form of leisure facilities linked to the beach and the river. Water taxi landing stage. A water taxi landing stage links across the river to the industrial ruins and may also link back to the Ribiera and Port lodges.


Interventions New Build


IMPLEMENTATION Market Mid scale intervention creating a market and community node which serves to draw people along the route and act as a staging point for the onward journey.


Interventions New Build View Point Small scale intervention pushing a view point out into the river allowing views of the valley looking East and West. Allowing the individual to appreciate the entirety of the park.

New Bridge A new bridge creating a second low level river crossing. This will connect the residents in the north with the spiritual cultural programs in the south. It will also create a business opportunity for the residents in the north to catch the new passing trade.


IMPLEMENTATION Adaptation These interventions make use of an existing piece of structure or physical context.


INTERVENTIONS ADAPTATION


IMPLEMENTATION Capela Senhora do Alem Locus folly which forms part of the overall experience but the program of which is primarily for the residents, remaining as a place of spirituality.


INTERVENTIONS ADAPTATION Bairro da Capela Ruin Colonisation of the ruins to allow entry to the tunnel below.

Derelict Warehouse Appropriation of the derelict buildings by ‘occupy’ businesses.


IMPLEMENTATION Pont a Maria Pia Reopening of the old bridge, linking the two high level communities. Light interventions which link the high and low levels allowing for the experienceing and appreciation of the bridge itself. Opening of the derelict trackbed as a midlevel footpath with a new link to the high level derelict line which exits onto the Eiffel Bridge.


INTERVENTIONS ADAPTATION


IMPLEMENTATION Port Lodge Roof Top A light intervention taking the footpath over the roof top. A concealed entrance way transforms the whole river level cliffside path into a route of exploration and discovery.


INTERVENTIONS ADAPTATION


IMPLEMENTATION River Escarpment Walkway New river level walkway evoking a memory of what has existed previously. A ‘moses’ section could enhance the connection with the water and introduce an element of sublime fear.


INTERVENTIONS ADAPTATION Market Garden Walkway New riverside path where one did not exist previosly.


IMPLEMENTATION Poetic Ruin These interventions are less physical and more statements of intent, that these structures will be allowed to exist as ruins .

Bairro Capela Ruins Footpath which traverses the ruins. The ruins are allowed to remain as a romantic folly in a Ruskinesque manner.


INTERVENTIONS POETIC RUIN


IMPLEMENTATION Industrial Ruins Mid to low level route which exploits the discovery of the industrial ruins in a wild overgrown context. A water taxi would close the loop of the route by linking to the beach.


INTERVENTIONS POETIC RUIN


IMPLEMENTATION


sections


IMPLEMENTATION


SECTIONS


IMPLEMENTATION


SECTIONS


IMPLEMENTATION


High level paths


IMPLEMENTATION


Mid-level paths


IMPLEMENTATION


low level paths


IMPLEMENTATION


local paths


IMPLEMENTATION


All paths


IMPLEMENTATION


Water Taxi


IMPLEMENTATION


Short length route


IMPLEMENTATION


mediium length route


IMPLEMENTATION


Long length route


IMPACT

Context

Concept


IMPACT


LINKS


IMPACT Financial Implictions The following tables represent an example of the financial implications of our urban strategy based on those already under way in Vila Nova de Gaia.


Financial Implications

OPERATIONS TO APPLY - INDICATORS OF ACHIEVEMENT OPERATIONS

INDICATORS OF ACHIEVEMENT

TYPES OF OPERATIONS/ ACTIONS INDICATORS

Supported entities

Car parks Renewal of streets, including biking, tours, remodeled / expanded roadway and parking, signage and furniture Streets refurbished /expanded

NOTES OF EXPLANATION Oliveira do Douro now has public space regenerated for organizing various outdoor activities and Associations Canoeing / Paddling (Kayak Club, CDUP) are more able to use the area to practice sports (canoeing and rowing) along the river

Rehabilitation of existing street network, and the creation of a 'contemplation' space with parking, green area / wooded path and cycle pathway, using materials appropriate to the sensitivity of this area's natural landscape

Municipal road network benefit Bicycle parking built / refurbished / Along the route a cycle path will be integrated into the future 'Ecological Corridor' which will create various new structures of this type expanded Redevelopment of the river front of River Douro in Areinho

Valuation and de-urbanisation of green areas

Qualification of actions /environmental rehabilitation and landscaping

Redevelopment of land to correct the existing situation due to landfill performed at the time of construction of the Ash Bridge, and their reinstatement area with significant interest ornithological

Construction of water supply network

Water supply network intervened Water supply network built

Creating water supply network to serve the resident population (existing buildings and any interventions / future actions)

Existing drainage water network Construction of sewerage and storm water intervened network Drainage water network constructed for storm water

Creating a network of sewerage and drainage to serve the resident population (existing buildings and any repairs / future actions)

Existing drainage water network intervened Construction of a domestic sewerage network

Water drainage network constructed Construction of sanitation infrastructure

Existing drainage water network Construction of pedestrian and cycle intervened walkway, including electrical infrastructure (lighting / telephone), collection and outfall of domestic wastewater

Creation of drainage network of domestic wastewater to serve the resident population (existing buildings and any repairs / future actions) and remove any discharges to the river

Installation of a domestic manifold sewage system to enable connection to existing networks, and WWTP Oliveira do Douro, helping to eliminate any direct discharge to the River Douro and that which may still exist


built

IMPACT

Existing drainage water network Construction of sewerage and storm water intervened network Drainage water network constructed for storm water

Creating a network of sewerage and drainage to serve the resident population (existing buildings and any repairs / future actions)

Existing drainage water network intervened Construction of a domestic sewerage network

Water drainage network constructed Construction of sanitation infrastructure

Existing drainage water network Construction of pedestrian and cycle intervened walkway, including electrical infrastructure (lighting / telephone), collection and outfall of domestic wastewater Construction of cycle and walkway between Quebrant천es and the Areinho

Creation of drainage network of domestic wastewater to serve the resident population (existing buildings and any repairs / future actions) and remove any discharges to the river

Installation of a domestic manifold sewage system to enable connection to existing networks, and WWTP Oliveira do Douro, helping to eliminate any direct discharge to the River Douro and that which may still exist

Water drainage network constructed Construction of sanitation infrastructure

Requalification of landscape that spans the Water ways intervened end of 2 water courses, Quebrant천es that drain into the River Douro

Help restore the natural environment of these two river systems, in particular in the final leg

Cleaning and desalination in waterlines International tender to award the contract Competition held of the two parts of the project Common actions between the two operations

Construction of electrical / lighting infrastructure for the public domain Construction of telecommunications infrastructure

There will be an international public tender for award of the contract relating to the two operations provided by this application

Electrical power distribution network installed

Creating a grid to serve the local population and for future supply

Public lighting installed Lampposts

Creating lighting along the entire route in order to build / rehabilitate

Telecommunication network built

Creation of the telecommunications network to serve the current residents and future supply

Bike paths created / rehabilitated Scheme of activities organized Thematic routes created Tourist trails created Users of the infrastructure support the natural landscape Posts information to the public in the field of the urban

Cycle-pedestrian route will complement another recent intervention - 'Route between the Bridges' to the west and the future 'Journey from the Farms' in the east (subject to similar application by the ARH-N), integrating the future 'Ecological Corridor Douro Estuary'. It will then be possible to connect this area with the historic centre and shoreline of Oporto and Vila Nova de Gaia. This connection has long been requested by the population of Oliveira do Douro, with the idea that it would allow the creation of activities organized for the tourists and visitors to the historic centre


waterlines International tender to award the contract Competition held of the two parts of the project Common actions between the two operations

Construction of electrical / lighting infrastructure for the public domain Construction of telecommunications infrastructure

There will be an international public tender for award of the contract relating to the two operations provided by this application

Financial Implications

Electrical power distribution network installed

Creating a grid to serve the local population and for future supply

Public lighting installed Lampposts

Creating lighting along the entire route in order to build / rehabilitate

Telecommunication network built

Creation of the telecommunications network to serve the current residents and future supply

Bike paths created / rehabilitated Scheme of activities organized Thematic routes created

Indicators of achievement common to both operations

Tourist trails created Users of the infrastructure support the natural landscape Posts information to the public in the field of the urban environment Tourist signs placed Furniture or other equipment Infrastructure to support natural landscape Riverfronts and seafront revitalized / recovered

Cycle-pedestrian route will complement another recent intervention - 'Route between the Bridges' to the west and the future 'Journey from the Farms' in the east (subject to similar application by the ARH-N), integrating the future 'Ecological Corridor Douro Estuary'. It will then be possible to connect this area with the historic centre and shoreline of Oporto and Vila Nova de Gaia. This connection has long been requested by the population of Oliveira do Douro, with the idea that it would allow the creation of activities organized for the tourists and visitors to the historic centre

Along the cycle and pedestrian route in the future will feature the planned 'Green Corridor' that will create several structures of similar program type

Areas of public domain to do with maritime converted /arranged Integrated interventions aiding urban renewal Qualification of actions /environmental rehabilitation and landscaping Interventions appreciation heritage and landscape Interventions in natural spaces

Redevelopment and environmental enhancement scheduled for total extension of the area, subject to the acceptance of this application

Justification of integrated interventions on urban peripheries and other relevant spaces Recreational areas benefitted /recovered Partnership protocols for urban regeneration supported Population covered by the regeneration of the area

Despite having been established / signed some partnership agreements for the implementation of this application, recognising the cooperation agreement with the ARH-N, which in similar application is expected to reclassify the 'Path of the Farms' continuing to the site, arising to the subject of this application The population of the Metropolitan Area of Porto (AMP) - about 1,700,000, of which integrates the population of the county Vila Nova de Gaia w / 300,000 and even tourists who climb the Rio Douro per year - about 200,000


IMPACT


Financial Implications

Operations

Type of Operation/Action

Tender Procedure

Redevelopment of roads, including bike path, sidewalks, roadway and parking, signage and street furniture

Redevelopment of the River Douro waterfront in Areinho

Construction of the pedestrian footbridge /cycle between Quebrantões and Areinho

Valuation and reinstatement of green areas Construction of water distribution network Construction of the residual rainwater drainage system Construction of the domestic waste water drainage system Construction of electrical infrastructure / lighting Construction of telecommunications infrastructure Construction of Pedestrian Walkway-cycle, including electrical infrastructure (lighting / telephone) collector and domestic outfall wastewater treatment

International tender award of the construction contract of footbridge cycle-pedestrian between Quebrantões and Areinho and upgrading of the natural front of the River Douro in Areinho Oliveira do Douro

Construction of electrical infrastructure / lighting Construction of telecommunications infrastructure Requalification of landscape that spans the end of 2 water courses, Quebrantões that drain into the River Douro Total

€ 1,940,000.00

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