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Page 1

Urban Design MArch 7001/3

Liverpool Arts District

John Atkinson Jonathan Farrell Kimberley Jarvis


Contents SITE

1 - 6 7 - 8 9 - 12

CONCEPT - Gentrification of the Catalyst

13 15 17 19

MASTERPLAN - Section 1 - Section 2

21 - 22 23 - 24 25 - 26

VISUALS

27 - 30

DESIGN PHASING

31 - 32

INDIVIDUAL BUILDING STUDIES

33 - 34

APPENDIX

35 - 41

References

42

- Current and Historical Context - Identifying Key Issues

- Initial Ideas - Massing Studies - Precedents

-

i.

Design Stratergy Costing Design Policy Sustainabily

-

14 16 18 20

ii.


The Site

River Mersey Site Boundary

Primary Area of Development

Secondary Area of Development

Surrounding Urban Fabric

Cains Brewery

CUC Building

The Stables

St. James’ Railway Wirral Peninsula

01.

Liverpool

02.


↑ North View

03.

↑ South View

04.


↑ East View

05.

↑ West View

06.


Dingle railway station is a disused underground railway station located on the Liverpool Overhead Railway (LOR), at the south end of Park Road, Dingle, Liverpool. It was the only below ground station on the line.

07. The Stables were built in the late 1890s for the Liverpool Cartage Company who had been on the site from at least as early as 1890, and they were still here in the 1930s. By the 1960s it was occupied by Hollway, timber merchants, who were here until the mid 1970s. It was later used as some sort of training centre, but are now unused.

The Cains brewery was founded by Irish immigrant Robert Cain in 1858 when he was able to buy an established brewery. Cain had begun his brewing career aged 24 when he purchased a pub and brewed his own ales. In April 2013, Cains announced it would be ending contract brewing and supermarket beers in the summer and announced a redevelopment of the site for leisure and housing with a small craft brewery established to continue the Cains ales. In May 2013, Cains announced it had ceased brewing altogether and would seek a contract brewer for its ales until its craft brewery was built in the proposed redevelopment. 38 staff were made redundant. In the same month, Liverpool CAMRA reported that Cains was down to an estate of three pubs - the Brewery Tap, Dr Duncan’s and The Dispensary

The factory of James Troop, a brass foundry, on Pleasant Hill Street (off Sefton Street), had evidently been turned into an aircraft factory.

Current and Historical Context

Noli Plan of the Site and it’s peripheral surroundings 08.


Identifying Initial Key Issues

Production

Delivery

The Cains Brewery produced large amounts of alcohol from the 1800’s. Their products where distributed around the local area via horse and cart. These horses where kept in stables on Grafton Street. This process is something we are keen to re-apply to the scheme and rejuvenate the Stables.

The idea will be to create new, affordable artist studios and workspaces and then inject a new function into the Stables to regenerate the structure. This will be a series of exhibition space where work from the artist can be displayed and sold.

Production

09.

Exhibit

Delivery

10.


Diagram showing the level of current Permeability

Diagram showing the proposed level of Permeability

Currently as the site stands, Parliament Street, shown as the dark blue central artery, carries the main volume of movement.

By extending all the dead ends within the site we hope to improve access and create a more fluid movemnet, both vehicular and pedestrian.

North of this Baltic Triangle, system allows and pedestrians through this Liverpool more

Using Grafton Street in conjuction with Parliament Street we propose to create a series of primary and secondary circuits within the site to achive this higher levle of oremeabilty.

is the A gridded traffic to pass part of fluidly.

South of Parliament Street is our site. Here you can see the gridded infrastructure ceases to exitist and a physical barracade is formed from the rest of the city. Our main aim is to increase this permeabilty.

Density of movement around the site

11.

Initial proposed density of movement around the site

12.


Concept - Gentrification and the Catalyst

1. Rope Walks Running from Lydia Ann Street to Renshaw Street width ways, and from Roscoe Street to Hanover Street lengthwise Rope Walks was once full of affordable artist studios and workplaces. As it became the “place to be” wealthy business took the place of the artists as the rent became too expensive.

1.

2.

3.

2. The Baltic Triangle is an historic city central area, which is enjoying a steady renaissance making it one of ‘the’ places to set up shop and hang out. As this happens we forecast that the same scenario that happened to the Rope Walks area will also happen to the inhabitants of the Baltic Triangle.

3. The Next Step With investment from an Arts Organisation, who want to explore the cultural and creative potential of the existing urban fabric, we aim to create a master plan that will accommodate for the needs of the art community that are continuously being pushed out of the city centre. We will be designing on the basis that the current proposed developments in the area are going ahead and our scheme will knit into this, creating a positive ripple effect on the surrounding area. 13.

14.


Initial Ideas Current Development Primary Development Initial Masssing Secondary Development Buildings of Retention Proposed Routes

Initial ideas include the integration of current schemes and addressing the central parcel of land on the site. Re-opening of St. James’ station requires new routes to be carved out of the fabric to allow a greater level of permeability.

15.

16.


Massing Studies

Piercing through the boundary of the square in order to promote permeability and accessibility. Also to make the square easily accessible from the proposed train station promoting the use of the space both as a place to saunter and a place to dwell.

Illustrated here are the ‘disengaged’ land parcels that surround the site and how they sit in relation to the stables. These spaces pose opportunity for development.

17.

Seen here is the formulation of a new urban square stripping back the existing fabric, replacing it with mixed use facilities to help rejuvenate the area and create a new public realm.

The above image shows the extrusion of the masses in order to further define the square and increase the potential functional space within.

18.


Precedents Plaça dels Angels in Barcelona

Temple Bar in Dublin Contains Museu d’Art Contemporani de Barcelona, cafés, restaurants and historical buildings. Popular with skateboarders. Direct access to underground car park onto pedestrianised square. Plenty of bicycle storage and rental.

Known as ‘Dublin’s cultural quarter’Contains Dublin Institute of Photography, National Photographic Archives, Gallery of Photography, Ark Children’s Cultural Centre and the Irish Film Institute, The square becomes an area for night life, particularly for tourists.

Scale 1:500

Key Height of Buildings around Square.

Old Market Square in Nottingham One of the oldest public squares in the UK, with an 800 year history as a marketplace. At 11,500m2 is the second largest after London’s Trafalgar Square. Trams and buses pass through. Pedestrianised streets surround the square, with many small streets leading in.

Plaça dels Angels in Barcelona and Old Market Square in Nottingham Not to Scale Higher

Lower

19.

20.


Masterplan

Incorporation of Ongoing Developments

KEY Buildings around Urban Square (23) 1. The Stables Images from: http://www. breweryvillage.com/ gallery. html

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Exhibition Space Artist Studios Retail/Offices/Studio Spaces Retail/Studio Spaces Retail/Offices

Railway Development 7. Train Station/Retail

19.

Southern Site Development

8. Residential/Offices 9. Office/Studio Spaces 10. Office/Studio Spaces 11. Residential

7.

19.

21. 14.

2.

13.

Low Cost New Builds Cains’ plans will further enliven the area and, with other projects being developed, help realise its potential to become a compelling distinctive neighbourhood with a real mix of activity for businesses, visitors and residents. The Vermont Development includes the 225m “The Quarter” residential, hotel and leisure scheme at the junction of Parliament Street and Sefton Street in Liverpool. Image from: http://img86.imageshack.us/ img86/2449/seftonstqimage4dt8fz2.jpg

21.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Warehouse/Workshop Warehouse/Workshop Warehouse/Workshop Warehouse/Offices Warehouse/Offices

18. Housing 19. Housing 20. Parkland

20.

1. 15.

3.

23.

12. 6.

5.

16. 4.

11.

17.

Other Developments 17. Residential

19.

22.

22.

10. 8.

9.

18.

Current Ongoing Developments

21. Vermont Development 22. Cains Brewery

22.


Section 1.

B.

A.

23.

B.

A.

24.


Section 2.

C.

C.

D.

D.

25.

26.


Visualisations Aerial view into Urban Square facing the proposed Stables design

View into park looking towards proposed housing and Cathedral View into park looking towards Cains Brewery

27.

28.


Perspective view in Square

29.

Perspective view in Square

30.


Design Phasing Phase 1 - The construction of the new urban square at the heart of the Arts District will incorporate the renovation of the Stables as a hub and the integration of new exhibition facilities. In addition to this there will be commercial oppurtunities in the form of coffee shops, arts supply shops and rentable ‘pop-up’ stalls for local artists to acquire and sell their work.

Phase 2 - The completion of both the Cains Development and the ‘Vermont Development’ will also see the reopening of St.James Station which will help bring a higher and more varied footfall to the area increasing its sphere of influence.

Phase 3 - The area surrounding the square will be built up providing new facilities such as accomodation and retail and work on the first segment of the park will begin.

Phase 4 - This phase includes the extension of the facilities built in the previous phase out to the dock road. As popularity for the area increases too so will the demand for further accomodation and public infrastructure. Housing currently located on the site of the proposed park will be relocated opposite to make way for the new public green space.

Phase 5 - The final phase of the development will see the completion of the public park and a rejuvenated area of the city.

31.

32.


Urban Design 7002/1

Individual Building Studies

Liverpool Arts District

Individual Building Study

Liverpool Arts District Individual Building

Jonathan Farrell

7002/1 - Urban Design

Kimberley Jarvis 18000mm

The site is located next to the square with access from either side. The narrow street on the right creates an enclosed feeling which can be accessed by pedestrians.

11500mm

Front Elevation Scale 1:400

Above - Initial massing studies showing the impact verticality will have upon key space in terms of the amount of sunlight it will let penetrate the square dependant upon its height. The vertical mass has been reduced to allow more daylight and sunlght into the square. This poses opportunity too for south facing roof portals to allow light in.

Below - A plan view of the smaller context analysing the building footprint and how each faรงade relates to the street it impacts. The building offers two edges to two planes of public interaction and density. Firstly the square where markets can be held and works of art displayed and exhibitions held. Secondly Grafton Street, a key route in the scheme to promote permeability through the site. These faรงades are where the public will interact most. The secondary frontages may provide access to the above studios and workspaces.

Below - a sketch of the building illustrating ideas about the fabric of the faรงade, its relationship to the square and also to the sun. The ground floor will house rentable stalls for artists to make use of, selling their work or goods in the newly found square. The idea of the facade is to be flexible, creating a canopy or enclosure to interact with the street and for those occupying the space to interact with passers by and potential customers.

TON GRAF

ET STRE TON GRAF

The site creates new routes which allow access to the docks. The jutting of balconies and segments creates a feeling of permeability of into the square itself.

Above - Site location. The individual building of interest here can be seen marked in red with its immediate surrounding context marked in blue. Also can be seen the CUC building and the Cains factory.

Saw-tooth roof allows daylight into studios on the upper level. Below Industrial Vernacular.

les

Vertical timber inkeeping artistic style and financial

0mm

3500

ET

STRE

Stab

reclaimed clad; with bohemian a modest budget.

0mm

3150

Front facade viewed from the main square.

re

ua to Sq Out

Exposed steel frame structure; emulating the industrial vernacular, combined with timber as in the stables adjacent to the square where metal elements support large timber sliding doors that allow for generous openings into the faรงade.

Out ton

af to Gr St.

y

ndar

Seco

tage

fron

ary

Prim

tage

fron

Massing Study Location of Building Perspective images of the Front Facade located next to the main square

Simple block mass.

The horizontal division of the mass into floors providing suitable floor to ceiling heights for the commercial ground floor function and studios on the upper levels.

Intrusion of the ground floor announcing the threshold to the square, facilitating shelter and accepting the square.

The vertical division of the mass. Introducing the structure and the faรงade quality. Steel elements reference industrial techtonic.

Saw-tooth roof allows light into the artist studios and interior with southern orientation.

Section scale 1:400 showing location of square next to building

33.

Perspective image of the Front Facade located next to the main square

34.


Appendix

Design Stratergy Urban Design in relation to both history and current emerging ideas of urban design

Costing A financial plan of the whole development

Design Policy

The realtionship of the proposal to current and emerging urban design and planning policies

Sustainabily

The sustainabily approach to the development

35.

36.


Warehouse

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1518

2661

4510

3214

2048

0

0

0

0

13951

Train

0

0

0

0

0

0

2784

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2784

Parkland

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2764

2764

Value of the Proposal

Design Strategy There have been three core strategies developed within this master plan. Firstly, to harness the movement of artists within the city and use this as a catalyst to generate growth in the Dingle area. Along side this, to break down the barriers, both physical and metaphysical that detach and barricade the L8 area from the city and its surrounding context - to improve permeability and connectivity. Further to this, to re-open the closed railway station to the east of the site, St. James Station, to help generate a higher footfall in the region and improve connectivity with nearby areas.

Income Exhibition Building ID

Type Exhibition Residential Housing Shops OfÞce Warehouse Train Parkland

Residential

1

2

3

4

Housing

1963

7969

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4532

1557

OfÞce

0

0

4532

1557

0

0

13596

3114

Studio

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Shops

Warehouse

37.

300

5 26247.6

6

7

6534.9 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8271

0

0

1107

1494

500

25660.8 3321

0

2988

0

0

0

0 25647.3

0

0

0 12555.9

0

2784

0

0

0

Type

Running Totals

120

8

9

0

0 0

0

0

0

0

4678

1796

0

3592

100

0

0

120

0

0

0

0

200 200

2505.6

300

Parkland

2487.6

20

10 £3149712

11

12

£653490 0

0

0

6318

0

0

0

0

0

£5132160 4874

0

0

0

0

0 £2564730

0

1518

0 £1506708

0

0

0

0

0

£1654200 0 2437

0

Yield @ say 7% Giving a multiplier of 14.2857

£751680

Income

13

Housing 0

15

16

17

18

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7551

10617

0

0

0

0

0

0

OfÞce 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6428

4096

0

0

0 Studio

0

0

0

0

0

2661

4510

3214

2048

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Warehouse Parkland

Total area -10% (m2)

£49752

14

Shops 0

0

Rate (£/m2)

Exhibition

8938.8

Residential

26247.6 6534.9

Shops

8271

OfÞce

25660.8

Studio

25647.3

Warehouse

12555.9

£259200769 Train

CAPITAL VALUE

2505.6

Parkland

2487.6

TOTAL

Yield @ say 7% Giving a multiplier of 14.2857

Running Totals

TOTAL 120

300

£2681640

100

£653490

£3149712

Preliminaries 200

£1654200

200

£5132160

(Site clearing, groundworks, 100 £2564730 etc) @ say 5% £1506708 120 300

£751680

20

£49752

Ancillary

£18144072

TOTAL

(infrastructure, £259200769 services, etc) @ say 6%

CAPITAL VALUE

TOTAL

2%2% 11%

2%2%

8%

11%

8%

22%

22%

5% 7% 22%

on the total building costs, preliminaries, fees, ancillaries and contingencies for say half the building period TOTAL on total costs incurred from completion to full letting (30 months, over 5 phases) TOTAL Letting and sales fees letting fees at say 12% of income Advertising and marketing at say Sale to investor fee at say 2% of the sale price TOTAL DEVELOPMENT COST Average cost per phase

Return for Risk and ProÞt

0

0 0

0

0

425

0

0

375

0

0

0

0

0

2764

29164

Type Exhibition Residential

Cost (£/m ) 60

900 550

£16040200 9932

9190

29164

28512

9190

6534

13951

2784

£12111225

13951

2764

Total Cost / Type (£)

9932

£8938800

29164

£16040200

475

6534

£3103650

400

9190

£3676000

OfÞce

475

28512

£13543200

Studio

425

28497

£12111225

Warehouse

375

13951

£5231625

Train

700

2784

60

2764

TOTAL

£5231625 £1948800 £165840

£64759340

Housing Shops

Parkland

£3676000

28512 28497

2764

£3103650

£13543200

28497

Total area (m2)

2

£8938800 Total area (m2)

7.1

6534

700 Total Development Cost 2784

£3237967

£1948800

£67997307

£165840

£64759340

Preliminaries (Site clearing, groundworks, etc) @ say 5% TOTAL Ancillary

Contingencies

5%

0 0

TOTAL

Short Term Finance @ say 10% per annum.

20

0

0

(architects, quantity surveyors, etc) @ say 10%

TOTAL

19

475

(infrastructure, services, etc) @ say 6%

Exhibition Residential Housing Shops OfÞce Studio Warehouse Train Parkland

Total Cost / Type (£)

9932

4006534

(architects, quantity surveyors, etc) @ say 10%

@ say 3%

22%

475

Professional fees

Contingencies

7%

550

TOTAL

22%

Exhibition Residential 22% Housing Shops OfÞce Studio Warehouse Train Parkland

Total area (m2) 900

Residential

Train Value of the Proposal

£18144072 Housing

TOTAL

Costing

Cost (£/m2)

Exhibition

£2681640

1004678

Train

Also from the initial research was the discovery of a formerly active train station named St.James Station. Although the tracks and route is still used the station is not. The proposal seeks to revive this vital resource which will transport people to and from the area bringing with it a new revenue stream and offering to people the opportunity to gain access to the site via train. ! Approximately 30 years ago the ‘Ropewalks’ area of Liverpool was the home to the artists of the city due to its cheap rents and potentially lofty studio spaces in the form of old warehouses and empty offices. As the area became more popular during the artists stay the price of rent also increased. With this the artists were pushed out to an area more affordable to them. They slowly began to occupy the area around the Baltic Triangle, where they currently exist today. Recently however, the popularity of this area has become increased and the area becoming what is being perceived as ‘the fashionable place to be’. This will surely have similar implications of cost for the artists and as previously seen in the Ropewalks the artists will be looking for somewhere to go. The location of the L8 site is ideally situated in order to cater for this and accommodate the artist movement, using the arts as a catalyst for regeneration. More specifically, activity in the area will revolve around one central node - a new urban square that faces an old stable at the centre of the site. As part of a five phase strategy the stables will become the heart of the development and the new through roads the veins and the arteries, pumping life back into a currently neglected cavity within the city. The construction of the new urban square at the heart of the Arts District will incorporate the renovation of the Stables as a hub and the integration of new exhibition facilities. In addition to this there will be commercial opportunities in the form of coffee shops, arts supply shops and rentable ‘pop-up’ stalls for local artists to acquire and sell their work. The stables was originally a place where a product or goods would be delivered to, sold and then dispatched upon horse and cart. This process of product, storage, delivery is something we will emulate, with the product being the artists work, the storage being exhibition and the delivery being the sale and dispatch of the articles. The completion of both the Cains Development and the ‘Vermont Development’ will also see the reopening of St.James Station which will help bring a higher and more varied footfall to the area increasing its sphere of influence as part of the second phase. Thirdly, The area surrounding the square will be built up providing new facilities such as accommodation and retail and work on the first segment of the public park will begin. Phase four includes the extension of the facilities built in phase three to the dock road. As popularity for the area increases too so will the demand for further accommodation and public infrastructure. Housing currently located on the site of the proposed park will be relocated opposite to make way for the new public green space. Finally, phase five of the development will see the completion of the public park and a rejuvenated place, and exciting place to be in the city.

Rate (£/m2)

8938.8

BUILDING AREAS AND TYPES

Studio

Initial research suggested that the L8 area, decorated with acts of social discontent such as graffiti and littering, is detached from the city. Surrounding the site are barricades of industrious building types with few through roads, of which mostly running in to dead ends. In addition to this there are a series of roads and routes providing access to and from the city that bound the site and completely bypass it. The result of this is a disengaged pocket on the boundary of the inner city within which combines rundown warehouses, pockets of disused space and derelict land, and a community of residents in low-cost housing. A key aim of the strategy is pierce through and break down these barriers breaking up disused plots by driving routes through the area and reconnecting Grafton street and its vicinity to its city and its peripherals. Also to redevelop the built fabric of the area in order to improve visual connections with the city and open up the site to a new current of people.

Total area -10% (m2)

Total Development Cost

£3237967

£4079838

£67997307

£72077145

£4079838

£72077145

Professional fees

TOTAL

@ say 3% TOTAL Short Term Finance @ say 10% per annum. on the total building costs, preliminaries, fees, ancillaries and contingencies for say half the building period TOTAL on total costs incurred from completion to full letting (30 months, over 5 phases) TOTAL Letting and sales fees letting fees at say 12% of income Advertising and marketing at say Sale to investor fee at say 2% of the sale price TOTAL DEVELOPMENT COST Average cost per phase

£7207715

£7207715

£79284860

£79284860

£2378546

£81663406

£2378546

£6806645

£81663406

£88470051

£4423503

£92893553

£6806645

£2177289 £30000

£88470051

£5184015

£100284857

£4423503

£20056971

Return for Risk and ProÞt @say 12% of Capital Value

TOTAL expected costs upon completion

£31104092

£92893553

£131388950

Site Value in 2.5 years time Present value of £1 in 2.5 years @10% TOTAL Less acquisition costs @2.5% SITE VALUE TODAY

£127811820

£2177289

0.7888

£100817963 £2520449 £98297514

£30000

£5184015

38. £100284857 £20056971


Design Policy The regeneration of the city will adhere to local relevant legislations and governmental frameworks including current and emerging urban design and planning policy. In particular, the scheme will adhere to the Sustainable Communities: Building for the Future in 2003 and South Liverpool: International Gateway: STRATEGIC REGENERATION FRAMEWORK for redevelopment. The scheme will reduce energy use and emissions, promote the development of renewable energy resources and take climate change impacts into consideration. Each building will also be built to BREEAM guildlines. Housing - PPG3 The aim is to construct new houses to conform to the Decent Home Standard 2010, Liverpool’s Housing Strategy 2013-2016 and the Code for Sustainable Homes. The aim is to gradually move residents out of the area and relocate them into the new houses with the compulsory purchase orders. Higher density residential spaces above the artists’ studios and commercial units will also confirm to the Decent Home Standards. The aim is to create energy efficient affordable homes and maximise employment and skills opportunities through housing services The majority of the housing that will be demolished will be single storey low density housing. This new housing will aim to introduce a mixture of cultures, backgrounds and socio-economic ranges. The housing will also help the residents manage the impact of welfare reform, address the needs of an ageing population. It will also be linked into public transport and make efficient use of the land. Cycling - PPG13 The introduction of cycle lanes and facilities will lie within Liverpool’s Cycling Strategy 2013-26. The aim is to allow cycling to become a more used mode of transport. The new cycle areas will provide a safer cycling environment through the provision of a cycle network with clearly defined routes and good quality facilities. This in turn will provide improved health and wellbeing, a better environment, less congestion, better air quality, and economic benefits. The aim is also to improve cyclist’s safety through training and to increase awareness of, encourage and sustain cycling. The increased accessibility through the site will increases numbers of cyclists and provide economic benefits. Improved Local Transport - Promoting sustainable transport - PPG13 The reopening of St James Station will encourage solutions which support reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and reduce congestion such as additional or diverted bus routes. Working with neighbouring authorities and transport providers to develop strategies. Mixed Use and Mixed Tenure - PPS1 The site will be of mixed use and tenure. There will be a range of commercial, residential and public green space. Mixed-use developments will be promoted to increase the vibrancy of the town centres and ensure the virility. This will also create an area resilient to future economic changes. Biodiversity and Geological Conservation - PPS9 The site will have increased biodiversity and conservation, particularly in areas such as the park.

39.

Sustainability Our proposal aims to include as many sustainable ideas as possible, subject to both relevant legislations and governmental frameworks. The ideas will be of an urban scale and relate the new builds and the renovation of existing buildings. There are three main ideas for the development of cities in a sustainable way. These include Economic, Social and Environmental. • The economic role aims to build a strong, responsive and competitive economy, ensuring that sufficient land of the right type is available in the right places and the right time to support growth and innovation. It also includes the need for the provision of additional infrastructure for additional development requirements. • The social role aims to support strong, vibrant and healthy communities by providing a supply of housing to meet the needs of present and future generations. The local services will be of high build quality which will reflect the community’s needs and support its health, social and cultural well-being. • The environmental role will contribute to protecting and enhancing natural, built and historic environments. This will improve biodiversity, use natural resources prudently, minimise waste and pollution and mitigate and adapt to climate change by creating a low carbon economy. Economic Role Cain’s Brewery The development will include the integration of Cain’s Brewery. This will bring economic value to the site and allow the local business to grow. It will also provide jobs for local residents. Independent Retailers and Markets The integration of independent retailers will allow the economy of the area to grow. Markets will allow the artists and other local businesses to sell their art and products with different sales on different days. The retail spaces will provide jobs for local residents. Trains Increased public transport, including the reinstatement of St James’s Station will increase the footfall through the area, increasing the economic value to the site. Social Role Improved Housing The new houses will be constructed as low energy passive houses, with their heating needs less than 15 KWh/m2 to reduce energy costs for the residents. These houses will also encompass grey water recycling and the collection of rainwater. Residential Residential spaces will be created above the commercial units to allow affordable housing. different people.

This will attract a variety of

Markets and Square The local markets will provide fresh fruit and vegetables to the local residents as well as other amnesties. It will provide a social hub for gatherings in the square, with local activities taking place here. The pedestrianized access to the square will provide a safer environment and will enhance community spirit. The retail spaces will provide jobs for local residents.

40.


References

Environmental Role The main environmental ideas for the city as a whole include: • waste reduction and recycling • energy conservation and the use of renewable energy • water conservation • introduction of Green Transport • increased awareness Materials The new buildings will be constructed using recycled and renewable materials, using prefabrication off site and the materials as thermal mass. Materials at the end of the building’s lifespan can be salvaged for art projects. Each building will be designed with passive design measures to minimise heat loss. The windows, walls and floors will collect, store and distribute the solar energy in the winter and reject solar energy in the winter with minimum mechanical or electrical devices. The direction of each building will optimise the sunlight to gain heat and use thermal mass to store that energy. LED lighting will be used where possible, or energy saving lightbulbs. Trains The opening of the train station will encourage more public transport and reduce carbon emmisions. Trains use 50 grams of CO2 per passenger compared to 100 grams of CO2 per kilometre for a small car, or about 70 grams per passenger on average per person. Trains also last longer than cars and trains built now will last 20, rather than 5 years, the CO2 emissions from infrastructure, fuel production and the supply chain, on average rail will still have a lower carbon footprint than road travel, when comparing life-cycle to life-cycle. Road users account for about 71% of transport CO2 emissions, with railway companies making up less than 1.8%. The station will also be lit with LED lighting. Cycle The introduction of cycle paths and facilities will decrease carbon emissions and provide better air quality. The aim is to make Liverpool a cycle city and to connect to the existing cycle networks across the city. Cycling will also improve the health and wellbeing of the residents. Park The inclusion of a park and green public space allows for greater sustainable ideals. The plant life and vegetation reduces CO2 emissions, improving air quality and the wellbeing of the residents. The landscape will increase biodiversity and ecology.

http://liverpool.gov.uk/media/104629/sustainabledevelopmentplan.pdf http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/greener-travel-car-or-rails https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/7812/138355.pdf - Decent Home Standard 2010 http://www.liverpoolvision.co.uk/Docs/DownloadDocs/218exec_summary.a.na.pdf - South Liverpool: International Gateway: STRATEGIC REGENERATION FRAMEWORK http://www.liverpoollep.org/PDF/LiverpoolCityRegionSEAP1stEdition190712WEB.pdf - Liverpool City Region Sustainable Energy Action Plan http://liverpool.gov.uk/media/103944/housingstrategy20132016.pdf - Liverpool’s Housing Strategy 2013-2016 http://liverpool.gov.uk/media/673723/liverpoolcyclestrategy2013draft.pdf - Liverpool’s Cycling Strategy 2013-26. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/6077/2116950.pdf - National Planning Policy Framework

Energy Consumption and Water Usage The scheme will be passively designed, minimising demand from the outset for lighting, heating and cooling. The artist studio will take advantage of north facing light to maximise thermal and solar opportunities. The inclusion of renewable energy sources will reduce carbon emissions. The buildings will have passive solar heating and the additional needs will be met by geothermals and biomass. The water consumption will be reduced by collecting rainwater from the park and roofs and using this as grey water. Each building will be designed for the usage throught the day. Not all of the areas will be permanently occupied. The number of users using the building will decrease dramatically at night, and the scheme will allow the heating and lighting to reflect this. 41.

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