Hamburg Urban Expansion Scheme Hamburg - Bille Masterplan Scheme Alex Brooke, Lee Newell, Liam Thomas
Contents: Manifesto: Site Analysis:
Relation to Hamburg City History Current Analysis
7 8 14 18
Sustainability: Cost Analysis:
Chosen Site Parti Diagram Precedents Concept Ideas Development Masterplans Final Masterplan Rendered Images Sections Isometric Massing Site Model
22 23 24 28 36 42 44 51 52 53
Health and Wellbeing
As Hamburg has expanded, its ability to cope with a rapidly increasing population has contracted. Housing has therefore become a fault line running through the city, now people spend one third of their income on accommodation, and there is deficit of 65,000 dwellings citywide. As such it seems irresponsible then that the city centre, which is rapidly gentrifying, is the site of large-scale investment such as Hafencity. While the east of the city, and in particular Bille and its community has been left to fragment and degrade. We instead envision, that Bille should become the site of new residential and cultural development instead. Based around the Billhorner Deich road that connects the established community in Rothenburgsort, via Rothenburgsort S-Bahnhof, to the Bille basin. A new community will build around this new hub, in time connect and amalgamate with those in the south, and together expand creating a prosperous â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;City Districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, while rejuvenating its community, culture and identity, that is not stratified for one section of society, but as an area enjoyed by all citizens as part of Hamburg City. 5
Site Analysis: 6
Hamburg City Centre Bille The Chosen site in Bille is located in fairly close proximity to the east of Hamburg City Centre. Its locality provides an advantageous site from which a future urban development and expansion of the city would be situated especially considering the transport links provided, in particular public transport in the form of the S21 S-Bahn line, a number of bus routes throughout the site and the StadtRAD cycle hire system utilised city wide. 7
Billhorner Rohrendamm (n.d.) Prior to the destruction in WW2, the area was substantially built up with own transport network. Analysis of historical documents has shown that this place was the commercial and retail hub of the area. 8
Stresowstrasse looking towards the Water tower, Rothenburgsort (n.d.) Unlike present day, the water tower was a prominent landmark of the area with streets leading directly to it. The horizontality of the architecture in the street focuses the eyes towards the verticality of the tower. 9
Old Rothenburgsort Bahnhof (n.d.) Before World War 2 Rothenburgsort had two rail lines, one at ground level and the other as an overhead line. Due to the destruction WW2 caused to the area the overhead line was lost, but later rebuilt. Historical documents show this area in particular becoming an industrial hub around the basin. 10
Bullenhusser damm aerial view showing the old school and St Josephs church bordering the Bille Basin (n.d.) A concentrated amount of industry around the basin pre 1943. Housing was an important part of the make-up of this area encompassing up to 5 storey housing for workers in the basin and the nearby docks. 11
Bullenhusser damm School Rear View showing the playground (1911) This school was once significant and active as the main primary school servicing a large amount of residents in the area at the time.
View up the Billhorner Deich from the water tower showing the aftermath of the allied bombings (1943) Widespread destruction of the area due to the allied bombings desolated the built fabric of Rothenburgsort. No large scale developments have been attempted since and in its place a piecemeal development that shies away from what the area once was. 13
From the Billwerder Steindamm looking at the western most points of the site (2015) Industry around the basin is made up of mainly light works and logistics and together they occupy the majority of the site, as opposed to previous years no heavy industry is present in the area. 14
Local council offices located adjacent to the S21 S-Bahn line taken from the Billstrasse (2015) One of the most prominent buildings on the site and in particular around the bahnhof. Its mass acts as a focal point and it has the largest commercial footprint on the site at present. 15
Bullenhusser damm School Rear View, some overgrowth of trees are beginning to encroach upon the building (2015) At the moment the building is no longer in use as a major school, instead it acts as a memorial to the atrocities that were committed during WW2.
The old rail yard (2015) As the old rail yard is out of use and has been cleared, it is soon to be the new site of the Opera Fundus scheme acting along with the Elbphilharmonie that will also act as a connector between the two areas of the basin and the community to the south. 17
At present the built fabric of the area (Bille/Rothenburgsort) is fairly fragmented and made up of mainly light industrial units in the north by the basin, and an existing residential community located in the south. A vast area of land exists between the two areas and is where the old railway yard previously resided that serviced the area in the 20th century 18
Due to the amount of industry that is present in the area, a good amount of major road networks traversing east to west across the site to and from the city. In addition to these networks one route primarily runs laterally from the community in Rothenburgsort to the Bille basin and provides one of very few links between the two areas. 19
Boat Yard Rothenburgsort Bullenhusser Bahnhof School
The site presented many opportunities from which a selection of key routes and spaces could be developed in the scheme. Firstly the Billhorner Deich became the spine of the whole development with its connections to the community in the south. From this 2 key spaces were marked along it; one at the intersection of the Billhorner Deich and Billstrasse, and the other at the end of the Billhorner Deich where it reaches the basin. Further secondary spaces were then established in such places as the Bahnhof to stitch the entire scheme together. 23
Figure A : Veringstrasse housing Wilhelmsburg, Hamburg.
Figure B : Steinbeker strasse housing - Bille, Hamburg.
Precedents: Hamburg. Two differing typologies of housing were used as precedents for the scheme at Bille; Steinbeker strasse apartments (Fig B) on the Bille river, and Verringstrasse terraced and apartment housing (Fig A) in Wilhelmsburg. Steinbeker was chosen due to the density that apartment housing can offer to an urban environment whereas the terraced housing at Verringstrasse is less so. Though this typology offers a lower density it allows more open space from which families and children especially can enjoy the outside environment that a city often doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t offer all of the time. 24
Figure C : Alsterufer boating club Aussenalster, Hamburg.
Figure D: Burchardplatz (Chillehaus) - City Centre, Hamburg.
In terms of interaction with the Bille basin an architectural response whereby it reaches out into the water was something to aspire to, as such the boating club at Alsterufer (Fig C) provided a precedent from which this could begin. An inner city district and urban environment needs a particular amount of density for it to function architecturally, the Burchardplatz (Fig D) in central Hamburg has quite a sizeable density to it and therefore presented itself as the perfect example for certain areas in the scheme. 25
Figure E : Leadenhall Market (Arcade) - City Centre, London.
Figure F : Kings Cross Station Plaza - Kings Cross, London.
Precedents: UK. In order to bring diversity into the urban fabric it didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t seem fitting to simply choose precedents from just Germany and Hamburg. With Rothenburgsort Bahnhof being one of the key areas in the scheme, Kings Cross stationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plaza (Fig F) seemed to be a good example of how the area around the station interacts with pedestrians, also Leadenhall Market (Fig E) provided an influence for further developments that could exist in or around the station. 26
Figure G : The Circus - Bath.
Figure H : Concert Square/Bold Street - City Centre, Liverpool
Bath Circus (Fig G) presents a very strong geometry and built fabric that binds and contains that space together, as such this intention can be utilised in some way at the intersection of the Billhorner Deich and Billstrasse in order to create a public realm from which it will act as a gateway to the rest of the scheme. With the Billhorner Deich as the spine of the scheme a certain presence is needed along that street, on of which can be felt wholly on Bold Street (Fig H) as a hub of pedestrian interaction. 27
Rothenburgsort Bahnhof - The Gateway: This area is primarily the first point from which someone enters the scheme whether that be via the Billhorner Deich from the south or by train via Rothenburgsort bahnhof, as such the scale of the buildings needed to be significant to make the area as easily accessible as possible for an influx of more pedestrians. The development of a core/nodal point was the beginning of a journey or an area of convergence for the population. Our initial ideas on this area focus on the road network and creating a circular plaza linking all the building in the area. The station also linked directly into these new structures would create more movement and cohesion in the immediate area. 28
Arbeitsplatz - The Commercial Area: Connection between the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;entranceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of the site and the Bille basin was important about movement of people both on the road and moving on foot. We envisioned a connection using a footbridge to link to one of our secondary nodes in the heart of our commercial region. The inclusion of a mixed use facilities in the area meant that there would be a use for the buildings both day and night not creating a dead zone in the evenings. Our buildings layout was focused on movement in a lateral direction over to western areas of the site and along the canal side. 30
Canal Retail and Light Industry - Boat Building: The proposal for this area focuses on trying to retain some of the original features that the space possessed like the boat/barge building and repairs, which had existed for decades. The space needed another open plaza area as a hub for the buildings. Movement of pedestrians would come through from the east to a termination point in the corner. This plaza does however provide options for movement to the north along a newly created promenade and cutting through some new residential blocks. 32
Basin Park and Residential Sector: The top area of the site is directly linked to the basin so we believed it was important to establish buildings with connections to the water. We envisaged a new marina structure that made the waterways more active with boating and other water sports. This area serves as a final point along one of the key routes through are site and as such a larger cultural building and green area for residents located in the eastern part of the top of the masterplan. Each of members of the group designed what they thought would be the best use of the area and after deliberating amongst ourselves we come up with our initial masterplan design. 34
Initial Proposed Masterplan: 36
Using the Verringstrasse housing as a precedent for building form and dimensions, the beginnings of the new terraced housing community is taking shape. To avoid simplistic straight blocks arranged in a grid pattern each block is set to a different number of dwellings and are angled alternatively to create variations in the spaces between them. In order to gain a sense of scale for the park at the culmination of the Billhorner Deich the housing on the Steinbeker strasse has been replicated and utilised as a boundary to the basin edge and the promenade. The park itself is in its infancy and at this stage is very loose especially towards the bottom of this area with no bounding edge. The intersection of the Billhorner Deich, the Grossmannstrasse and the Bullenhusser Damm has at this point been retained as a major vehicular junction but presents an issue with pedestrians being able to progress across it. Certain areas of the scheme have yet to come to some form of resolution and therefore remain undeveloped as of yet, even when spaces such as this have begun to take shape in one form or another and in particular areas. The inclusion of a new pedestrian bridge across the canal presents a new route into this area and therefore creates a particular set of parameters from which the spaces would adhere to in order to make it feasible. Part of the Ausschlager Billdeich road that once formed a triangular island in the centre of this plaza, and was used for only 2 bus routes, has been removed to create a new public realm by the Bahnhof. With reference to the Burchardplatz and Kings Cross station the area surrounding Rothenburgsort Bahnhof have been redeveloped and a much larger density of buildings have been placed there to bound the plaza.
Intermediate Proposed Masterplan: 38
Multiple pontoons and boat mooring points in the basin are now starting to move towards the residential area, while the newly aligned focal building draws the route of the Billhorner Deich out into the basin. The movement of the pontoons are to further engage the housing with the basin also residents are invited to use boats rather than the typical motorcar to travel to and from their homes. It was found through research in to the area that this area and Hamburg city centre itself had a distinct lack of secondary schools available meaning children would often have to travel a fair distance to go to school. To remedy this a new secondary school has been proposed that will feed from surrounding schools in Rothenburgsort and areas in the north eastern area of Hamburg. Boat building seemed to have a presence in this area of the site with a particular interest in barge refurbishment, as such that craft has been retained and included as an aspect of the scheme that both acts as a further incentive for the use of boats in the development but also the promenade along the canal can effectively be extended through the introduction of usable barge spaces. The gateway plaza at the intersection of the Billhorner Deich and Billstrasse took the geometry of a circle, that had already begun in the facade of the existing council offices building, and completed it creating a circus like plaza, the 4th quarter has been left open in order to bleed into the Bahnhof plaza but the notion of the circus has been presented through the use of a tree line.
Final Scheme: 40
Final Proposed Masterplan: 42
Like in the initial masterplan, apartment blocks have been placed along this edge of the basin to border the park though the typology of these blocks have changed significantly to further enhance the route of the Billhorner Deich to the basin. A less radical approach has now been adopted with the terraced block housing in order to promote longitudinal movement and a clearer route from one end of the housing to the park. Each of the housing blocks in turn have been capped at the end where they meet the Bullenhusser Damm not only to create a definition between front and back of house but also to enclose those spaces so as to protect the residents, in particular children when playing outside. To build a better public realm and promote pedestrian movement within this area the Bullenhusser Damm has be rerouted to join the Grossmannstrasse further along. This move allowed the new school to have greater access for travelling students via car, and also for a larger building to be placed below the park to aid in binding the park edges and create a more defined park area. The junction of the Grossmannstrasse and the Billhorner Deich has been largely reduced in complexity to allow for greater pedestrian movement up through the scheme. The new pedestrian bridge crossing the canal aided in defining what the subsequent space should be built like, in this case a smaller plaza was created at the lateral culmination of this route with a number of longitudinal routes stemming from either side into the commercial offices and residential blocks in this area, also along towards the boat building area on the western edge of the site. The use of trees in the scheme bring a richness to the built fabric that sometimes inner city areas can miss, not only that but they have been utilised in some instances to define areas and routes that a building wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t necessarily be suitable.
This view shows the new public square adjacent to the Rothenburgsort bahnhof, this area would house new residential and commercial businesses drawing people into this space while both entering or leaving the bahnhof. As shown in the image the area would be hard landscaped and incorporate a new public water feature, and a farmers market to promote fresh food in the area, while a new set of steps would lead up to the bahnhof and create a spectacle of the plaza.
As seen in the masterplan this is a new circular public plaza bounded by buildings that now give a particular definition to it, these buildings would house new cultural activities that brings a sense of character back to the area. The area would continue the hard landscape as you enter it from the bahnhofplatz whereas to complete the circle green landscaping is used to bring a variety of colours and surfaces to this key space.
A view into the new public square, the Arbeitsplatz, at the heart of the commercial area within the scheme but also a hive of activity later on in the day when the area is transformed into a social hub. Materials chosen for the buildings are a limited palette of brick and stone, replicating the current palette in Hamburg city centre, while access into this space is via a new public bridge across the canal leading from the public plaza at the intersection of the Billhorner Deich and Billstrasse.
This view across the Billhorner Deich bridge shows how it has been transformed with new structures placed on it, built solely as a new retail units, and a covered colonnade running through it to provide a clear route for pedestrians. The material choice of metal cladding echoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the industrial past and present of the area while also providing an alternative material to the standard of brick and stone.
A new promenade along the canal will be lined with shops and restaurants continuing the new social hub starting in the Arbeitsplatz, this route will traverse around the basin leading to the new housing on the north of the site. The material choices for buildings along the route will be primarily brick, a reference to the brick warehouses that line the waterways of Hamburg city centre and once occupied this area by the Bille basin.
An aerial view showing the culmination point of the Billhorner Deich in the park and with the seminal cultural building at its end, overlooking and reaching into the basin. The new residential developments on either side of this park allow the new community to engage with the park. Brick would again be used as the main building material for the residential area, with this seminal building standing out in a totally different material altogether.
Public routes run between each of the fronts of the terraced blocks providing routes to the basin promenade and across linking all of the housing blocks together. Within these public spaces we have landscaped and grass areas or the use of water to also provide places for the public to interact. While the material choice of these residential buildings, will be brick to contrast against the green spaces.
Park and housing.
Arbeitsplatz and canal
Billhorner Deich and Bahnhof entrance
Each section shows a differing circumstance relating to the building heights at key spaces in the scheme. The first showing lower rise buildings and housing in the northern most area of the site, the second showing medium rise but with quite a high density of space between the buildings, and lastly the highest rise buildings around the Bahnhof and at the intersection of Billhorner Deich and Billstrasse creating the gateway.
The overall massing of the scheme is sympathetic to its surroundings and its former industrial scale while also reforming its historical heritage before World War 2 as a prosperous residential area and as a new city district. This is achieved through the density of the buildings and their grouping in certain areas whereas some areas of the development have been allowed to be less enclosed so as not to feel completely disconnected to its surroundings such as the canal.
Figure I : Graph showing the growth of Germanyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s use on renewable energy sources
Germanyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s push for more sustainable solutions to their energy needs have resulted in almost a third of their energy supplies being renewable sources. The Renewable Energy Act of 2000 prompted Europe into the promotion of new green technologies. Recently in 2014, the German government have made amendments to the laws updating them as the needs change and progress with regards to costing and tariffs. They are phasing out the production of nuclear power and reducing the number of running plants, turning away from fossil fuels, reducing their emissions over time. The sustainability of materials and energy within the masterplan will be of the highest quality and responsibly sourced. Hamburg, as a city state has decided to go ahead with plans to buy its own energy grid, which had previously been held by Vattenfall. The plan was to buy the majority of the shares in the company, obtaining the electricity grid initially and then Hamburg city will remain partners in the heating network until 2019 when they will have the option to take major stake. The design approach and strategy to all the buildings in the new area will be to meet a passivhaus standard. The practice was originally from Germany and has become a world regarded stance in building design. The masterplan has provisions for various different types of buildings from commercial/residential blocks and houses to larger civic buildings. Many of these building could employ the ventilation systems and thermal specifications required to meet the standards of the initiative. Whilst the techniques for achieving passivhaus on residential buildings is well documented the implementation for larger retail structures has only just become more defined.
Figure J : These figure ground plans show the site before and with the masterplan simplifying the road network
The change of usage in the area from logistics and industry based practices to a more commercial and residential based scheme, means a reduction in larger vehicles on the road to smaller ones focused around the residential area. A policy encouraging the use of more public transport is also key to creating a more pedestrian friendly zone. An example being the StadtRAD docking stations in the area for use by the community, the improvement of the current S-bahn station will also encourage people from the city centre to travel to the area using the train system reducing the number of cars on the road. The Infrastructural impact of the masterplan adds a more structured approach to the buildings in the area, rather than the haphazard approach currently on the site.
The waste collection system of Hamburg is run through a public company called Stadtreinigung Hamburg. This company already works within the area and its policies reflect that which the masterplan would work under. These being separate collection/ recycling and the use of an incineration facility is well established and the public has aided in the success of these schemes with greater public opinion and understanding in the need to recycle and correctly dispose of their waste. Both residents and commercial owners in the area will be encouraged to continue pushing this greener attitude to the treatment of their waste.
Figure K : Logo of Hamburgâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s waste collection service
Hamburg waterways are prone to flooding, therefore the city began to include flood defence systems in urban design proposals. In order to combat this within the masterplan the areas around the canal system are tall enough to deal with a sharp rise in water level. Also towards the basin area of the scheme, where the residential blocks are located, a raised plinth system allows for any sudden rise in water to be dissipated and not interfere with the area above. The raised areas double as car parking for the housing, improving the environmental impact cars would have on the development while keeping them off the road. This way the area is more pedestrian driven and would lead to more people taking public transport or travelling around the district.
Figure L : Sectional view from basin showing raised plinth building defences
In creating the masterplan most of the existing fabric of the area will be demolished for the new structures. Currently there is a mixture of industrial units and office buildings scattered throughout the area within the proposed masterplan. The majority of these buildings are metal warehouses, as such much of this could be recycled for use in the new buildings. There are a few brick structures which would have their materials reused in any brick buildings, like the residential blocks to the north of the site. Wienerberger is one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biggest brick manufacturers and originates from Germany therefore the construction will source all brick materials as locally as possible in order to reduce the carbon footprint of the items.
The use of photovoltaic (pv) panels is on the rise across Europe, costs of production of the technology have reduced, while the efficiency of the systems in creation and storage of power has increased dramatically. The scheme has plenty of roofscape area that is unused by the public so a series of panels can be used to supplement the buildings power supply along with its passivhaus standards. With the heating grid for the city being handed over into city based control, the scheme Figure M : This diagram shows the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) which would use the plans to use excess heat produced from the industrial heat to generate electricity industrial zone nearby. The Billbrook area to the east of Hamburg is one of the largest industrial zones in Germany and its proximity to the masterplan site makes it ideal to draw from its excess power. The system takes the heat and steam produced in the industrial process and reuses it to power generators and conversion resources. There are several methods to reuse this heat ranging from thermoelectric generator and an organic rankine cycle, which would use the heat to convert water in a closed loop from liquid to gas to power a generator.
Figure N : Aerial view showing the masterplan (red) and the largest Industrial zone in northern Germany Billbrook (blue)
Cost Analysis: 60
Our urban design proposal revolves around the reintegration of residential community around the Bille basin site, and is a continuation of Hamburg planning policy of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;more city within the city.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; The development would be in an area currently of light industrial and logistics warehouses, with a small number of commercial properties. There is a predominance of non-built land, currently occupied as vehicle parks for the large number of logistics companies on the site. Though this site does offer quick transport links to Hamburg city centre in the form of rail or road travel. Further to this land values would be significantly lower compared to Hamburg city centre, being advantageous for any development. This development would have tangible benefits not only on land values, but also for the wider community of Rothenburgsort. Firstly this is seen in the new infrastructure projects proposed on the site, including an enlarged and modernised train station to service the new residential community. This would also have the benefit for businesses of quick and convenient transport from the Bille basin into Hamburg city centre. Further to this are new flood defences on the northern part of the site; these are modelled on those of Hafen city. Providing security for any new residents while mitigating the risk for businesses and retail on the site. Finally are improvements to the existing road infrastructure, these will take the form of new pedestrian crossings and the establishing of shared services spaces. While the Grobmannstrade road, that crosses the top part of the site east to west, will be downgraded to a two-lane road; this has the advantage for pedestrians of allowing them to easily access the Bille basin. Secondly is the establishment of a new residential community on the site, this will take the form of new terrace housing for families, and the building of apartments within the mixed use development around the canal and those buildings around the train station. Further to this half of these new residential properties will be sold, and the rest kept as rentable income for the development. The establishment of a new residential community will also give those retail premises on the site, a dedicated footfall. Finally is the anchoring of the project with new cultural institutions around the train station, this will provide a draw to the site for both businesses and retail. While for the community is the inclusion of a community centre with outdoor facilities, and the building of a new municipal swimming pool by the Bille basin. Further to this the building of a new secondary school will further enhance this area, as it will keep the facilities mentioned previously in continuous use.
Construction Cost: Construction Cost: Total Area m2 Industrial
Min Cost Max Per m2 Cost Per m2 800 1000
Av cost Per m2 905
Av Cost (£) Overall 58,807,385
Public Realm Train Station Residential Houses Apartments
Build Cost: £ 251, 945,369 Build Cost: £ 251, 945,369 Ancillary Costs:
Infrastructure @ 5% of build cost: £ 12,597,268
Infrastructure @ 5% of build cost: £ 12,597,268
Contingency Fund @10% of build cost: £ 25,194,577
Contingency Fund @10% of build cost: £ 25,194,577
Professional Fees @ 15% of build cost: £ 37,791,805
Professional Fees @ 15% of build cost: £ 37,791,805 Total construction costs: £ 327,528,979
Total construction costs: £ 327,528,979 Income (£)
62 Capital Value
Total construction costs: £ 327,528,979 Income (£)
Capital Value (£)
Total Capital Value: £ 76, 080, 257
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