the Volk StraĂ&#x;e
Urban Design Analysis 7004/3 MArch Eleri Plews Samantha Boner Ryan Blair
Introduction & Executive Summary
Proposed Programme of Uses and Activities
13 Precedents 15
Schedule of demolitions, infrastructure and building areas
21 Sustainability 23
References & Bibliography
Central Train Station 2km
The area is overwhelmed with infrastructure, the transient roads connect a wider area of industry to the east, through the site area connecting to both the city centre and to the port area. In contrast to diverting the roads, the proposed pedestrian and cycle route cuts through the area, separating the cars from the street as public realm.
Summer allotment gardens 1km
Road access is available to the perimeter of the buildings but the central route makes new connections with a series of events and activities along the way enhancing Jan Gehl’s principles of designing on the “small scale,  in the 5km/h (3mph) urban landscape.”
Proposed Olympic Park
Introduction & Executive Summary
This report is an introduction to the Volk Straße, (the people street) in the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, in northern Germany. The area of study is in the Rothenburgsort district of the central region Hamburg-Mitte.
Rothenburgsort - proposed area of urban design
Railway through Rothenburgsort
Binnenalster & Rathaus
The urban design strategy is a response to the experience gained whilst in Hamburg and visiting the site area. The area of focus is from the Rothenburgsort S-Bahn station heading due north connecting to the Bille Lake and the southern tip of the vast area of summer allotment gardens.
streets should be designed as public spaces not just the spaces either side of the roads
transport routes should promote peoples movement around the city not dominate how people move
the proposal must have a sensitive response to the local context
to develop and promote local identity and character, by reinforcing the existing central developments to the edges of the borough, responding to the distinctive pattern of development landscape and culture
to promote public spaces and routes that are both attractive, varied and functional
to develop a clear uncluttered route, leading to the waters edge and the summer gardens, popular in German culture and way of life
to promote the connection between the city centre and a desirable living district that people living there also socialise, work and play within a small walking distance
to promote walking and cycling through the district, putting people before traffic whilst still allowing the traffic to move through the area
Jan Gehl - Three functions of public space meeting space - market space connection space
to connect a series of green spaces via a pedestrian route in order to promote the green network in our district
06 Site Areas: Existing Building Use Industrial & Commercial Buildings Non-Industrial Buildings Pavements
Bullenhuser Damm School
After assessing the data from our 10 minute observations, we then progressed on to scrutinise the areas land use surrounding our data points to begin to form an understanding for the fluctuant results that we recorded. It soon became clear that data points which recorded larger numbers of human activity where located from Rothenburgsort Station, to the southern end of Rothenburgsort where we discovered a large residential district.
Site Areas: Existing Infrastructure
Rail Water Roads Pavements
Rothenburgsort Station Bridge over canal
Site Areas: Existing Ground Cover Soft Landscaping
Hard Landscaping Pavements
As soon as you head north of the station, human activity becomes considerably less as you move into the industrial zone. WWII Memorial
Data Collection Points Diagram
St Erich’s Church
As our thesis for this project was mainly focussed on people and how we could improve the living conditions for the community, we thought it was most appropriate to determine the boundaries of our development by their walkable distance from Rothenburgsort S-Bahn Station. As part of our initial analysis we carried out a series of 10 minute observation at significant points, all located within a 10 minute walk of the station.
After reviewing the existing land use in the Rothenburgsort region, we then created an analytical sketch to express what existing events where occurring at different locations across our site.
Initially the route we analysed used the station as the centre point and we took an approximate 10 minute walk north and then the same distance south. Looking at the drawings of Kevin Lynch, this diagrammatical analysis emphasised our findings, of
a more developed, populated and active street scene south, yet comparatively different heading north. Using this clarity, the focus of the urban design strategy was to explore the route north and the connection to the Bille Lake and the summer gardens.
Site Areas: Proposed Route Primary Route - Public Secondary Route - Public Tertiary Route - Private Pavements - Existing Retained
Site Areas: Proposed Building Use & Route St Erichâ€™s Church
Bullenhuser Damm Memorial
Primary Route Mixed Use - Offices, Retail & Leisure Residential Parking Basement & Ground Floor Mixed Use (Leisure & Offices) S-Bahn Station Local Amenities, Works Spaces to let, Library, Leisure & Health Centre
Existing Analytical Diagram of Route
Programmes of Uses and Activities
the Volk StraĂ&#x;e
A new walkable route avoiding collisions with roads, where people can live, work, learn and play
The Masterplan 09
Proposed Analytical Diagram of Route
Proposed section through route
transit • meet • wait
work • eat • socialise
shop • sell
see • learn • remember
live • play • grow
13 Graz Transport Hub (fig.1)
Where the inhabitants of a city largely live in apartments as they do in Hamburg they also often have a summer gardens or allotments. There are 36,000 parcels of allotments in Hamburg, they are managed by the Bundesverband Deutsche Gertenfreunde E.V (BDG) which is also the same organisation for the whole of Germany. Hamburg has the second highest number of gardens in Germany with Berlin the highest. The gardens are not purely for growing produce and flowers but are places to socialise and spend time enjoying the weather, often with a small structure to which people can stay over night in. The garden associations promote a sociable and community network within an urban society. In the developments in Wilhelmsberg, beyond the IBA housing and government buildings there is also a large area of both allotment gardens and landscaped parks.
We are proposing to build 600 new homes as part of our urban development, precedents have been set near to our site, on the opposite side of the Bille Lake. These self contained apartments are approximately 70m2 each and the blocks are 4 storeys high, they use central atria space for circulation along with their ‘winter gardens’. Each apartment block has its own children’s play area separate from the main surrounding green space. We are proposing to use a similar design for our apartments looking onto the Bille Lake as we think this arrangement and style of apartment work successfully. The Switch Station is something that has a growing interest in German planning, a Switch Station is where multiple transport networks connect and are interchangeable, such as trains buses, taxis and also bikes, with the increased popularity of a healthy lifestyle and the introduction of the ‘bike and go’ scheme in Hamburg. A Switch Station also promotes sustainable transport and gives people a choice of how to travel, whilst also providing a safe area for vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists to coexist. Graz local transport hub in Austria is a prime example of this working successfully, they have connected trains, buses, taxis, trams, cyclists and pedestrians at the main station, pedestrians have a safe environment to travel as well as a park to relax in.
As part of our Urban Design proposal we are promoting a pedestrian route and activity/break out spaces for the users to experience and enjoy, we are proposing a large park engaging with the Bille Lake, and this space will have other interventions in place such as static gym equipment which also helps to promote a healthy lifestyle. These gym spaces are free to use and maintained by the local government, they provide a defined space for people to exercise in the park but without the gym membership fees. Street Furniture (fig.2)
Zhangjiagang Town River Reconstruction (fig.3)
Zeise Open-Air Cinema (fig.5)
14 Outdoor Gym Equipment (fig.6)
1 2 3
• Switch Station • Pedestrian route, including bridge over main road and bridge over canal • Pontoon at the end of the route • Government funded
• Infrastructure amendments • Market space, car park at ground level and commercial area • Offices enclosing the market square • Office, healthcare and amenities building
• Residential Area 1 • Commercial area nearest Switch Station • Landscaped area between route and school/memorial
P h a s i n g P l a n
4 5 6
• Residential Area 2 • Private Sectors • Mixed units (affordable)
• Allotment gardens • Park • Winter Garden meeting space
•Potential areas for future phases once the area has increased in value and is seen as a desirable place to develop
Schedule of Demolition / Infrastructure & Buildings In relation to the phasing plan, demolition's are scheduled in the site area, starting with the demolition of the existing building nearest to Rothenburgsort S-Bahn Station (that we area going to replace with our key building for the Switch Station) and clearing the space for our pedestrian route. Secondly demolition of light industrial work buildings will be demolished, the businesses will not be affected by this as they will have already relocated to the IBA proposed site to the south. As the construction work progresses more light industrial buildings will be demolished similar to above, not displacing any business. Our proposal is connecting the area with Bille Lake which it currently has no relationship with because of the industrial nature of the waters edge, which is one of the main reasons for demolition work.
Site Areas: Demolition Areas Retain Existing Buildings Demolish Existing Buildings Remove Existing Roads Retain Existing Pavements
Current planning policies are invested in improving the local area by following the appropriate guidelines set by the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) that suit the area of development. Looking at the NPPF we have selected what we hope to achieve with this urban design proposal; build a strong and competitive economy, promote sustainable transport, deliver a wide choice of high quality homes, promote health communities, require good design, conserve and enhance the natural and historic environment. As well as requiring good design the buildings should all meet standard building regulations, making them safe to access and use. Build a Strong Competitive Economy ‘The Government is committed to securing economic growth in order to create jobs and prosperity, building on the country’s inherent strengths, whilst ensuring that the planning system does everything it can to support sustainable economic growth.’ In our proposal we are addressing this by creating jobs during the construction period for at least 4 years, we are also proposing offices and more shops, cafes and restaurants in the area which will also help to increase the working population in the area. In areas of our proposal we will be building on vacant land because the light industry has relocated to the new IBA industrial area, meaning this is a sensible proposal for the local area to create homes, jobs
and commercial development and start making the area profitable. ‘To help achieve economic growth, local planning authorities should plan proactively to meet the development needs of business and support an econo my fit for the 21st century.’ By the local government installing the route through the site this will encourage developers and investors to build here. Promote Sustainable Transport We are addressing this policy by developing a switch station in the location of the existing train station, upgrading the current infrastructure and enhancing it so that various modes of transport can be taken from here ‘The transport system needs to be balanced in favour of sustainable transport modes, giving people a real choice about how  they travel’ . ‘There are now virtually no urban streets that are completely  safe’ by creating a pedestrian route through our site we are providing a safe environment for pedestrians and cyclists away from vehicular traffic, bridging over one of the main roads at one point along the route, this is inline with policy ‘developments should be located and designed where practical to give priority to pedestrian and cycle movements, and have access to high  quality public transport facilities’ and also ‘create safe and secure layouts which minimise conflicts between  traffic and cyclists or pedestrians’ . We are also proposing areas for residential, commercial, education and
lesiure all with in a walkable distance helping people to minimise their journey lengths ‘Where practical, particularly within large-scale developments, key facilities such as primary schools and local shops should be located within walking distance of most prop erties.’ In our residential area we are proposing a one-way road for access to the dwellings, this road will take into account highways regulations as per road widths, speeds, visibilty splays and on street parking and speed restrains such as chicanes ‘their effect on drivers is similar to that of having  to manoeuvre around parked cars’. Deliver Quality Homes The NPPF state that ‘To deliver a wide choice of high quality homes, widen opportunities for home ownership and create sustainable, inclusive and mixed communities, local planning authorities should plan for a mix of housing based on current and future demographic trends, market trends and the needs of different groups in the community (such as, but not limited to, families with children, older people, people with disabilities, service families and people wishing to build their own homes) and identify the size, type, tenure and range of housing that is required in particular locations, reflecting local demand.’ In response to this we are proposing large areas of residential development at the end of our route nearest to Bille Lake, the homes will be distributed evenly across three tiers
as per Hamburg policy, with one-third of all units to be subsidised housing. ‘The government should normally approve planning applications for change to residential use and any associated development from commercial buildings where there is an identified need for additional housing in that area, provided that there are not strong economic reasons why such development would be inap propriate.’ With this information we believe that building houses in previous light industrial areas is viable. Promoting Healthy Communities Our proposal is partially focused on a health community, encouraging people to walk our route and experience the spaces along the way, we are also providing recreational spaces for sporting opportunities in the park and on the water at Bille Lake and community gardens/allotments ‘Allotment initiatives are especially useful in increasing public participation: and helping to combat social exclusion. Allotments are accessible to all social groups, and are widely used to grow food by the elderly and other people  on low incomes’ . The NPPF states ‘Access to high quality open spaces
and opportunities for sport and recreation can make an important contribution to the health and well-being  of communities’ . We are proposing that people will be walking and cycling along our route rather than driving in the area which also helps to promote a healthy community. Require Good Design ‘The Government attaches great importance to the design of the built environment. Good design is a key aspect of sustainable development, is indivisible from good planning, and should contribute positively to making places  better for people.’ We believe that our proposal is having a positive effect on the area and is designed with the pedestrian as the primary user. The NPPF states the importance of the area development being long term ‘decisions should aim to ensure that developments: will function well and  add to the overall quality of the area’ other key points are ‘optimise the potential of the site to accommodate development, create and sustain an  appropriate mix of uses’ and ‘support local facilities and transport networks; respond to local character and history, and reflect the identity of local
surroundings’ we are achieving this throughout are design by inclusion of various building types and uses, in particular with the switch station we are supporting the local facilities providing easier access for more people to visit the site. A final point in the policy states that design must be ‘visually attractive as a result of good architecture and appropriate landscaping.’ which we have met from in urban design point of view, consideration to this needs to be taken when designing the individual buildings, ‘Ultimately, we need good quality buildings as well as good quality spaces between buildings. Quality then encourages people  to care about their surroundings’. In relation to building regulations and user safety when engaging with our design, buildings will follow the set guidelines and meet the correct criteria, looking particularly at fire safety, access will be available for firefighting throughout our design, in buildings of substantial height firefighting shafts and stairs will be incorporated and fire engines will be able to easily arrive at a fire in any building or around the site, the route is wide enough for a fire engine to drive down safely.
In order to make urban living desirable, the local hub providing everyday amenities should be within a 2 minute walk of a neighbourhood, following this a neighbourhood should be within a 10 minute walk of the district centre. This is what our scheme aims to achieve, with the extent of our urban district stretching no further than 20 minutes away from Rothenburgsort S-Bahn Station. We have set out to create a combination of uses, these include; retail, leisure, commercial and residential, as it has been said that ‘one of the main attractions of city living is proximity to work, shops and basic social, educational and leisure  uses.’ By creating these areas of varied use throughout the development, no specific public space or building should become empty and unused because, when one area of a building may be inactive, another area should be occupied.
With transportation being the fastest growing source of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, and three quarters of this coming directly from road vehicles, we will aim to reduce the need to use a car within the Rothenburgsort district. We will do this by providing a wide variety of mix use all within a close proximity of each other, as this links people to their
dwellings, work places, schools and social forums without having to rely on a car. Although one would assume that this scale of new development would increase road traffic and consequently increasing air pollution, our strategy aims to avoid this by providing a Switch Station which will cater for people who may require transport to and from this area, for example; people commuting to work.
The Switch Station is an important factor in our sustainability strategy as this also aims to reduce the need of using a car. The Switch Station’s most important transport link is that of the S-Bahn, which sits just a 5 minute journey away from Hamburg’s central station. Also provided at the Switch Station there will be buses, taxi’s and rentable bikes. Probably the biggest contributor in reducing the use of cars
Diagram showing district distances
would be to improve the city walkability and bikeabilty, which we aim to do by providing a large pedestrianised route through the district. This route is formed by connecting the built environment with a series of green spaces - which will aid to soaking up both Carbon Dioxide emissions and water, acting as a flood defence when the inevitable floods strike. The first type of residential units prise of two blocks of apartments, joined by a central atrium. This atrium is used for circulation space and it also houses a series of ‘winter gardens’ for occupants on first, second and third floor. The atrium allows daylight into the building and makes use of the natural wind to drive a stack effect, which will extract warm stale air out of the building. The second type of residential units we have proposed will be a lot more flexible in terms of affordability and the changing user demands and lifestyles. All housing will be constructed using appropriate environmentally friendly techniques, and completed with energy efficient fittings and fixtures. The proposed housing will provide 699 new dwellings which is an average of 150 dwellings per hectare, this is a relatively sustainable density which will increase the intensity of activities and people within the
neighbourhood. With an average of 1.97 persons per dwelling, a bus service is fully viable in this area. There are already a number of bus stops in close proximity throughout the development area, however the services and frequency of these buses will be improved in order to sustain the new development. The Rothenburgsort district has some existing provisions in place within a 10 minute walk of the local S-Bahn station, these include; three schools, a supermarket, two churches, a sports club and two government institutions. However, besides a small shopping centre located in the south of Rothenburgsort, facilities for shopping, cafes, bars and restaurants are scarce and this is why we have included these in our proposals. Our scheme plans to demolish 35,600m2 industrial buildings, however the new development will provide 66,150m2 of new office space across 7 different buildings, providing a variety of office spaces varying from 900m2 to 3700m2. This flexible variety of office space will give both small and large companies room to expand and create more jobs in the area. To contribute towards the water saving policy, water meters will be installed in
Map showing Switch Station and bus stops located around area
all proposed apartments in our development. Water metres have proven to be fundamentally important in changing peoples consumption behaviour, or at least making them aware of it. Instead of paying a standard monthly fee and having an unlimited supply, occupants will be charged directly for the amount of water they use.
With 55% of rain water infiltrating into the ground, this may cause complications in the larger hard standing areas in our proposal where there isn’t areas of soft landscaping that can absorb it, for example; the market square. In effort to try and combat this we have incorporated a large water fountain into the central space
water fountain into the central space of the market square. The fountain will be powered by recycled rainwater from run off across the hard landscaped spaces, it will also aid in recirculating air around the market space in order to keep it cool and pleasant in the warmer summer months.
23 Cost Plan
From an early stage in the development of the project, the emphasis was on the human scale, applying the ideas and theories of Jan Gehl. In a lecture about ‘CIties for People’ he discusses the idea that designing from ‘aeroplane height’ looses the connection to people, the street environment and the delicate interactions that can occur. This concept is also discussed in detail in his book ‘life between buildings’ focussing on the vast activities that take place in public space, the reasons they occur and his clarity in discussing the type of public space that exists. “There are three functions of public space” describing them as meeting places, connection places and market spaces. Smaller scale interventions allow ‘space’ to be defined, without it merely being the left over space between buildings. Another trio of connections that Gehl makes is used to describe the activities of people when they leave their homes and enter ‘public space’, “necessary activities, optional
activities and social activities” . Simplifying the types of actives as ‘necessary’, for example going to work or waiting for a bus, activities that have to take place, comparatively ‘optional activities' are usually recreational and can be as simple as “sitting down to  enjoy the view”, and social activities fit somewhere in the middle, as a flexible activity. His analogy makes a correlation between the quality of the physical spaces provided with the amount of activities that occur, essentially the higher the quality of the space then the higher the amount of optional and social activities that will take place. As with any outdoor public space the weather is a factor in the amount a space is used, with warm spring and summers in Hamburg this is less of a problem. However, they may also be used throughout the cooler months also In cooler climate european cities, such as Copenhagen, the outdoor ‘cafe culture’ continues year round with blankets provided by the bars
and restaurants to enable the outdoor activities to persist. Gehl's theories promote the use of the street and public space and if this environment is of high quality, it will naturally attract people to use it. High quality can be determined in a number of ways, for example providing seating in the street, enables people to sit, providing wide steps with views also provides a space for people to stop, possibly sit, and look at the view. When redeveloping Liverpool City centre, the Liverpool ONE project had many historical buildings to take in to consideration, not predominantly within the site area but there were visual connections to the buildings around the site that were considered protected, such as the Anglican Cathedral and Bluecoats Arts Centre. The cathedral, sits quite prominently in the skyline of the city centre, this was considered an important visual connection, which had a direct impact on the design of the route connecting two spaces, with the axis
Bibliography Appleyard, D., Lynch, K. and Myer, J.R. (1971) The View From the Road. USA: MIT Press
aligned to allow direct views across the city to the cathedral and the buildings that encroached upon this where designed to avoid blocking this view. There are three axis developed through our scheme, creating protected visual corridors to the Bille lake and the summer gardens. The reconnection with the waterfront was also one of the ideas behind the Liverpool one scheme, at the time the docks area was a popular and well developed yet was disconnected from the city centre. Comparatively the Bille canal bank in Rothenburgsort is under developed, with no connection to the canal edge. The proposed scheme, provides a physical connection between the canal and the lake with a series of places to eat, drink and shop along the way, with the similar principal of the Liverpool ONE project. Taking a comparative view on ‘The View from the Road’ the 1960’s Kevin Lynch book, the theory behind the designing of a new highway in America,
we have designed a route entirely for pedestrians and cyclists. Despite our completely opposite approach, the process of evaluating and analysing the route was applied. The theory analyses the sequence of events and activities that occur on the route of the highway, whilst they’re not physical activities that a person would experience, they are are visual connections that can be made along the route. These ‘nodes’ add visual interest and a location marker for the person travelling the route, which in this example is a long route, so assists in passing ‘milestone’s’ which gives the impression of a shorter journey. In analysing the route that the highway will take, in the physical form of the land and the key events along the course, it can identify key features such as locations where vistas drop out of sight due to a change of level, followed by “the surprise  with which new vistas open up” . These theories have been applied to someone walking at 3km per hour in
contrast to driving at 60km, the vistas can be observed for longer periods or time and equally a person walking is able to stop and sit and stare. The European Green Capital 2011 document discusses the green network through the city of Hamburg, making a series of connections throughout the city that allows people to walk and cycle in ’green space’. The city has a large number of existing open public green spaces, parks, allotments and tree lined avenues, which is said to be thanks to the foresight of the “planning schemes of Fritz Schu In macher and Gustav Oelsner.” 1919 they developed a conceptual diagram of hamburg with the city centre boroughs its core with green fingers reaching out the the ouster boroughs of the city. This theory has been reinforced in the Green Network masterplan drawn up in 2010, the area of our site has been outlined to be included in to the proposed extent of the green network.
Barton, H., Grant, M. and Guise, R. (2003) Shaping Neighbourhoods (A guide for health, sustainability and vitality). London: Spon Press
References & Bibliography
Bullivant, L. (2012) Masterplanning Futures. London: Routledge Final Report of the Urban Task Force. (2002) Towards an Urban Renaissance. London: HMSO Gehl, J. (2010) Cities for People. Washington, DC: Island Press Gehl, J. (2011) Life Between Buildings (Using public space). Washington, DC: Island Press Littlefield, D (2009) Liverpool One (Remaking a City). West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Noble, J. and Smith, A. (1992) Residential Roads and Footpaths (Layout Considerations). Design Bulletin 32, 2nd ed. London: HMSO Partners, B.A. (1990) Design Principles of Fire Safety. London: HMSO Reports of the Steering Group and Working Group appointed by the Minister of Transport. (1963) Traffic in Towns (A study of the long term problems of traffic in urban areas). London: Waterlow & Sons Ltd. Ritchie, A. and Thomas, R. (2009) Sustainable Urban Design (An Environmental Approach). 2nd ed. London: Taylor & Francis
PDF Documents National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 Shaping The Liverpool Local Plan. (2013) http://liverpool.gov.uk/media/1385631/reg-18-shaping-theliverpool-local-plan-final-nov-2013.pdf Liverpool Local Plan (Sustainability appraisal scoping report). (2014) http://liverpool.gov.uk/media/1385644/local-plan-sa-scopingfeb-2014.pdf Liverpool Local Plan (Sustainability appraisal scoping report, Appendix). (2014) http://liverpool.gov.uk/media/1385657/local-plan-sa-scopingreport-appendix-feb-2014.pdf Videos Cities for people: A lecture by Jan Gehl. https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=KL_RYm8zs28 The Human Scale: Jan Gehl. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=BxywJRJVzJs
Image Sources Figure 1 - http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/50c9/211b/b3fc/4b70/6200/006d/large_jpg/NVK-02. jpg?1361400639 Figure 2 - https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x /79/17/58/79175885abcdd462b6c817bb6e527d3c.jpg Figure 3 - https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/ c9/0a/e5/c90ae583e945b25919a902425bcc9de2.jpg Figure 4 - http://studioconcept.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/citypark2.jpg Figure 5 - http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/4061230/ data/kopie-von-zeise-open-air.jpg Figure 6 - http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/64740406.jpg
Websites http://www.hafencity.com/en/news/first-subsidized-housing-built-in-hafencity-350-apartments-at-lohsepark.html http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/18/business/global/a-bold-plan-long-thought-outto-remake-hamburg.html http://www.archdaily.com/306717/graz-main-station-local-transport-hub-zechner-zechner http://blueandgreentomorrow.com/features/sustainability-in-the-city-hamburg-germany/ http://earthzine.org/2014/04/11/greening-hamburg-a-model-for-sustainability/ http://www.earthday.org/greencities/about/ http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/hamburg-answer-to-climate-change http://www.iba-hamburg.de/en/nc/projects/tagcloud/schlagwort/housing.html http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/24/23346.htm Building Cost Sources: http://www.building.co.uk/Journals/Builder_Group/Building/2006_issue_17/attachments/Indicative%20rates%20for%20civils%20and%20services%20infrastructure.pdf http://www.hamburg.de/mietenspiegel/ http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/3134246/data/d-die-mietenspiegel-tabelle-2013. pdf http://www.hamburg.de/immobilien/ http://immobilien.hamburg.de/widgets/api/sel/m/857318e9cd61fa19a70b380b9/ihpmpage/1/ihpmcpp/25/ihpmss/df0ce2bfe4/ihpmSortBy/2/ihpmSortDistrict/9555 http://www.networkrail.co.uk/browse%20documents/strategicbusinessplan/cp5/supporting%20documents/financing%20and%20funding/stations%20and%20depots%20 income.pdf http://www.publicarchitecture.co.uk/knowledge-base/files/indicative_building_costs.pdf http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/3908156/data/erlaeuterungen-freiraumver-engl. pdf
References 1. Gehl, J. (2010) Cities for People. Washington, DC: Island Press, p.118 2. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.8 3. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.8 4. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.9 5. Reports of the Steering Group and Working Group appointed by the Minister of Transport. (1963) Traffic in Towns (A study of the long term problems of traffic in urban areas). London: Waterlow & Sons Ltd. p.19 6. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.9 7. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.10 8. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.10 9. Noble, J. and Smith, A. (1992) Residential Roads and Footpaths (Layout Considerations). Design Bulletin 32, 2nd ed. London: HMSO p.25 10. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.13 11. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.13 12. Barton, H., Grant, M. and Guise, R. (2003) Shaping Neighbourhoods (A guide for health, sustainability and vitality). London: Spon Press 13. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.18 14. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.14 15. National Planning Policy Framework. (2012) https://www.gov.uk/ government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2 p.15 16. Ritchie, A. and Thomas, R. (2009) Sustainable Urban Design (An Environmental Approach). 2nd ed. London: Taylor & Francis p.42 17. Final Report of the Urban Task Force. (2002) Towards an Urban Renaissance. London: HMSO p.64 18. Gehl, J. (2010) Cities for People. Washington, DC: Island Press p.21 19. Gehl, J. (2010) Cities for People. Washington, DC: Island Press p.20 20. Appleyard, D., Lynch, K. and Myer, J.R. (1971) The View From the Road. USA: MIT Press p.42 21. http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/3908156/data/erlaeuterun gen-freiraumver-engl.pdf