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Hamburg

7004/3 Urban Design Report Social Housing/ Community Masterplan 2015

Domnica Chisca Roshan Hariram Chloe Purcell Tutors: Aliki-Myrto Perysinaki Jamie Scott


Contents 1 Context

1.1 Context 1.2 City 1.3 Altona 1.4 Rothenburgsort

2 Masterplan

2.1 Masterplan - Figure Ground 2.2 Diagrams 2.3 Masterplan 2.4 Sections 2.5 Views 2.6 Possible Extensions

3 Community Centre

3.1 Plan 3.2 Elevation 3.3 Axo

Appendix Bibliography


1.1 Context

1.2 Context

Social and Political

City Hamburg is one of the top 10 wealthiest cities in Europe by GDP and is the second largest port on the continent. (European Commission, 2015) This, along with a large numebr of educational facilities makes it an attractive metropolis for young people from Germany as well as from abroad. The expanding population number has raised the need for housing causing the renting prices grow as well. This is making Hamburg an increasingly unaffordable city for the people with a lower income, such as young professionals and immigrants. In 2015 the war in Syria has displaced over 9 million people, 800.000 of them are expected to arrive in Germany by the end of the year, of which 25.000 will be directed towards Hamburg. (Sempell, 2015)

To house all the migrants arriving in the country, shelters like this are being improvised. (Pfaffenbach, 2015)

In October 2015, Hamburg is the first German city to commandeer empty property to house refugees and asylum seekers. This program will end in March 2017. The property owners will be compensated by the government for allowing their vacant commercial plots to be converted into temporary accommodation for the refugees. (Deutsche Welle, 2015) In addition to this, the German government

is giving $6.6 billion this year for the construction of lodging and education. (Brinley Bruton, 2015) After taking this into consideration, from both social and economic points of view, we propose making use of the empty plots around the city. As an exploration of the idea the chosen Rothenburgsort site is a suitable location as it has direct link to the city center and the Central Train Station, where the refugees arrive. Considering the issues identified, the need for housing, education facilities and workspace we intend to create a social housing hub. The most pressing social and politicoeconomic matter is the refugee crisis, therefore they our priority group. We shall provide educational facilities for the children, as well as courses teaching the adults the necessary language and entrepreneurial abilities, to begin a new life.

1 Altona District (Sick, 2013) 1

2

2 Rothenburgsort District (Author: Chisca D, 2015)


1.3 Context

1.4 Context

Altona

Rothenburgsort Altona DIstrict

Rothenburgsort District

Population: 25.449 Number of Households: 14.046 Community of Apartment Owners: 24% (Statistical Office of Hamburg, 2011)

Population: 8.370 Number of Households: 4.258 Community of Apartment Owners: 12% (Statistical Office of Hamburg, 2011)

• Long block next to the railway protecting the area from the noise. Cheaper apartments in the area.

• Large linear roads that lead the circulation through the area without lingering.

• Waving roads taking the pedestrians through the area from node to node. • Large block with interior courtyard. The internal space can be used for annexed buildings. • Linear roads for main vehicular circulation between important nodes. • Nodes – between multiple creates space for shop owners to spill pedestrians to linger. • Buildings along the roads.

Intersections roads, that the nearby onto and for

are

disposed

• Mostly empty or run down deep plan buildings and warehouses. • Large empty plots dividing the area. •

Dead end roads.

• Tall slab residential blocks randomly disposed fragmenting the urban grain.


2.1 Masterplan

2.2 Masterplan

Figure Ground

Diagrams While the figure ground is focused on increasing the desnsity in the area and creating views and routes through the area Taking in consideration the needs of all the inhabitants. By creating workshops and affordable office spaces for the young professionals to be able to start up their own businesses. Creating work places and space. Creating communal use spaces. No segregation/ alienation. Refugees and even young people coming to Hamburg to study and work have been displaced from their homes. It is extremely important to not alienate them in the new environment and to help them adapt, thus we aim to create spaces in which they can interact with other people in the same situation as well as locals, Mixed use (workshops, commercial spaces, offices, leisure, housing, education). Introducing nature in the city. Hamburg is an European Green CIty, and we want it to continue on this path, therefore throughout the design, green spaces have been proposed.

Access Diagram The formation of the blocks has been determined by the possible access points and routes through the site. One of the goals of the design is to create spaces where people can linger and iteract; one of the devices used to this end is showing the passing public glimpses of the activities going on within the masterplan without exposing the spaces so much that they lose their enclosure or that they are overlooked.

Programme Offices Residential Residential (Commercial ground floor) Community The programme of the project, as its title states is mainly of housing. However, in addition, the design intention is to generate a series of spaces for social interaction as to not alienate the residents as well as places where they can find work or even set up their own businesses and become able to sustain themselves.

Ground level public areas Green space Hardscape Community square One of the most important aims of the project is to create a safe and enjoyable environment for the locals as well as the larger public. For this we are creating a green buffer zone alongside the train lines N and S of the site; towards the W, where the large intersection is we are using the built fabric as an edge. The hardscaped areas are all pedestrian or with restricted car access allowing the businesses at the lower levels to spill onto the street and use it as terrace space. The community centre square could be used as an enclosed extension of the street or it can be used as an events space.


2.2 Masterplan

Diagrams - Internal Courtyards

2.3 Masterplan Rendered Plan Internal Courtyards The internal courtyards to the larger housing blocks can be used by the residents as space for workshops, playgrounds, sports facilities or simply as gardens. This way, depending on the needs of the people inhabitig the building the function as well as the distribution of the items within the yard can change. Equally, the functions can be mixed to create different combinations.

A B

B A


2.4 Masterplan Sections

2.5 Masterplan View 1

Section A-A

View 1 - Viewing Platform Like Altona, the buildings will be mixed use  with cafes and shops on ground level, because of this people will be able to spill out onto the streets and interact with each other. Trees will line the street, guiding people from the viewing platform to the centre of the masterplan. Section B-B


2.5 Masterplan

2.5 Masterplan

View 2

View 3

View 2 - Internal Courtyard

View 3 - Main Square

This shows one of the central spaces within the apartment blocks. The community are able to make this space their own. By using resources, such as containers and sheds, they are able to create places that cater for their needs; stalls to sell food and workshops to develop their skills.

The streets join together and widen to form spaces where people can socialise with each other, there will be cafes and restaurants with outdoor seating to help encourage this. The floor surface will be different from the regular paving to highlight the space’s importance.


2.6 Masterplan

3.1 Community Centre

Possible Extensions

Plan One of the most important issues of the Rothensburgort area is the low density. With the implementation of the masterplan we intend to attract more people in the area and to promote its development. As possible future evolution of the area, there is the possibility of extending the masterplan to the canal edge, completing the street edge to blocks in the surroundings, extending the green area to the east of the masterplan and even moving the street at the north of the site, next to the railway, to minimise the infrastructure division on the district.

The community centre is one of the features we hope to help reduce the segregation of the area. Here all the locals can come together for work and events. Part of the programme of the building is an educational facility where immigrants and refugees can be taught the language and the German legislation for their professions. A more managerial feature of this facility can involve the young professionals in the vicinity as teachers for the foreigners; this way the whole community can interact and reduce alienation. The ground floor commercial level and the offices would be reserved for the locals small businesses. The adjacent public realm becomes terrace space for the small businesses around, allowing the public to linger in the area. All but one of the streets will have restricted car access making the environment safer for the pedestrians.


3.2 Community Centre

3.3 Community Centre

Elevation

Exploded Axonometry One of the most notable features of the Altona District is the fact that a block is not a single building but a row of different, juxtaposed, buildings. This is most evident through the differences of the facade, different number of levels, materials and different proportions of the windows. For the community centre, even though it might be a single building due to its program, the facde was generated through a study of the facades of Altona. Analysing some of the facades one can notice that the proportions and their arrangement are different. By using this as a design feature for the community centre, the facade becomes livelier. Moreover, by allowing the windows to be different, the internal spaces become more varied as well allowing for different uses.

Sketches of Altona facades

Altona window proportions

Community centre possible facade


Appendix Appendix Policy Sustainability Cost Plan Design Strategy


Policy

Economy and Planning Sempell (2015) tells us that Hamburg is a rapidly growing city despite the aging population. The current growth rate is of about 1000 people per month, leading to an estimated 1.9 million inhabitants in 2025-2030, a large part of who are immigrants; 28% of the population has immigration background. In addition to this, with the distress in countries like Syria, Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro, the city of Hamburg is expecting to take in 25.000 refugees and asylum seekers. He continues to say that even though Germany’s population is slowly getting older, Hamburg manages to remain relatively young as it has a wide range of educational facilities. The most important points behind Hamburg’s urban development policy as Sempell (2015) highlights in his presentation, are to reduce and avoid social segregation, fostering the integrated approach, focus on the developing quarters and districts, to become more sustainable, to organize transport so that the population has more mobility by integrating more bikes, switch points and limit the amount of cars by promoting methods such as car sharing and renting. Hamburg, Author: Chisca D, 2015

One of the most sensitive issues with the public is the increasing

density of populace, however due to the increase in population there is an urgent need to build more intensely. This is the reason, he says, they need the region’s help. As there is resistance from the residents to build more densely, Hamburg is running out of space to build and they don’t want to go outside of the city limits either. By looking at the population distribution in and around Hamburg, there can be noticed a large density difference. Areas such as Altona, Eimsbuttel and St. Pauli have a larger number of inhabitants than other areas within the same distance from the city centre, such as Rothenburgsort, Veddel and Kleiner Grasbrook/ Steinwerder (The Statistical Office of Hamburg and Scheleswig-Holstein, 2011). Shipping companies uses some of these areas, in particular Kleiner Grasbrook/ Steinwerder, however Veddel and Rothenburgsort’s difference in density comes from the fragmented urban grain and the extensive brown field areas. To cover the needs of the 800.000 refugees and migrants it’s expected to receive by the end of 2015, Germany is willing to spend $ 6.6 billion. (Brinley Bruton, 7th Sept 2015)

On October 2nd 2015, Hamburg became the first German city to commandeer empty commercial property to temporarily house refugees. This is only to occur when space at the main refugee reception centre is running out, and the owners of the property are to be adequately compensated. This piece of legislation is only in place until March 2017. (Deutsche Welle, 2nd Oct 2015) In case of an emergency this is a possible resolve, however this is not a long-term solution. Besides the fact that these spaces are not adequate for living in, the legislation deadline is in 18 months, after which the refugees and migrants will not have a place to stay. In addition to this, most of the people coming to Germany at this time have been displaced by war, but they have professions and skills. This means that, for the German government to limit their expenses, they should provide the newcomers to work, slowly be able to sustain themselves, pay for their accommodation and become integrated part of the community.


Sustainability Masterplan

Paving edge in IBA, Author: Chisca D, 2015

The sustainability approach towards the project was determined by a number of factors that were put into consideration. The main factor being to create Green and Sustainable architecture, to provide the site with a long term usage with minimal impact to the surrounding areas.

routes along the site have been limited to pedestrian walkways throughout. With this method implemented, vehicular pollution is controlled around the area. With a minimum number of vehicles accessing the area, a healthier and more sustainable lifestyle can be achieved.

Developing further into this idea, the first approach was to create green spaces within and surrounding the site. As the proposed masterplan is located between two railway lines, there is a high volume of sound pollution being transmitted into the site, thus by creating a perimeter of greenery and planting trees, it creates a natural area of separation which diffuses the sounds of the passing trains. Green spaces are not only created for a buffer zone, it is also a way to create spaces needed for activities. For an example, residential blocks on the master plan have been design to have internal courtyards within each block. It not only acts as a green space to but would also function as an activity space within the area promoting a fresher environment to carry out activities.

The walkways along and in the site are to be landscaped with soft scape and hardscape surfaces. All paths are integrated with trees to provide natural shading for the pedestrians and there will be no need for the paths to have manmade structures. Providing this method of shading would allow the area to be more eco-friendly, compared with erecting structures that would have a significant ecological impact towards the master plan setup.

Vehicular access into the site has been limited into one route, meaning that the impact within the site is a minimum. Most

Green roofs are being proposed for the buildings in the master plan. All buildings would require the roof tops to be designed with a green roof designs, which provide a fresh approach with visually appealing organic architecture experience to it. Green roofs in this project can be used to heal the development rather than harm the environment of the site and can be utilized as producers of energy, create clean water and air as well as being

able develop healthy human and biological communities in the area. As this development is mainly designed as a community social housing area, this is a good way of creating a better environment for the community. Green roof helps the area for sustainable techniques to support the human and natural communities and development while it is an economically viable for the owners and users on the site. Buildings in the area of the master plan would be regulated to adhere by the regulations set for a sustainable design building. Regulated building guidelines would allow the buildings within the site to have a sustainable approach to design and the daily operations of each building.


Cost Plan Calculations 1

1 Residential = 26,244 m2 Commercial = 2,747 m2 2 Residential = 20,787 m2 Commercial = 6,929 m2 2

3 4

3 Residential = 20,367 m2 Commercial = 5,091 m2 4 Commercial = 5,283 m2 Office/ Educational = 9,724 m2 Office = 6,672 m2 5 Residential = 13,641 m2 Commercial = 3,390 m2

5

6 Residential = 10,989 m2 Commercial = 2,747 m2

6

7 Residential = 22,598 m2 8 9 10

7

8 Residential = 14,179 m2 Commercial = 3,544 m2 9 Commercial = 1,807 m2 Office = 10,091 m2 10 Commercial = 2,997 m2 Office = 14,986 m2


Design Strategy Masterplan

The project is part of Hamburg’s action plan to create more housing outside of the city centre. We intend to create a social housing hub. Currently the most pressing social and politico-economic matter is the refugee crisis, therefore they are the priority group. After taking the policies into consideration, from both social and economic points of view, the proposal is to make use of the empty plots around the city. As an exploration of the idea the chosen Rothenburgsort site is a suitable location as it has direct link to the city centre and the Central Train Station, where the refugees arrive. Educational facilities for the children, as well as a place that facilitates teaching the adults the necessary language and entrepreneurial abilities, will be provided in order for the people to begin a new and better life. The urban grain currently surrounding the site isn’t particularly effective, and therefore the building formation of Altona, an area who’s set up is successful, was used as a precedent when developing the master plan.

Rothenburgsort view, Author: Chisca D, 2015

The buildings are arranged into a series of large blocks, with internal courtyards often occupied

by smaller buildings. The waving roads guide pedestrians from node to node; where these roads widen and intersect, spaces are created for shops to spill out and people to linger. The majority of the building are mixed use, with shops and cafes at ground level, with residential and office space above. The masterplan created has adapted similar principles. As a large proportion of it is set out to be used as residential, and the buildings are arranged in a relatively dense manor, a large number of homes have been created, and thus fulfilling the criteria set by the city planners. It is important for the community to have a connection to the masterplan. The proposed buildings have been positioned so that areas of land are created within the centre of the blocks. It will be left up to the community as to how these areas are developed. For example they could be potentially used to grow their own produce, to facilitate sports, as a playground for the children of the community, or by using resources such as containers and sheds, they could create stalls to sell food or perhaps workshops to develop their skills. This would be a way of introducing

a touch of their culture to the masterplan. Dotted throughout the masterplan they’re various points of interested, such as monuments, squares, the community centre, along with others, the aim being that these attraction points will guide people along the site. At certain points it is possible to see various landmarks, such as St. Michael’s Church, the Elbphilharmonie, Hamburg Townhall and Berliner Bogen. It is important to create connections with the city centre through use of viewing points and by creating site lines. Towards the East of the site a viewing tower will be constructed giving the community the opportunity to look out over Hamburg and see its iconic buildings. The heights of the buildings within the master plan will be arranged in such a way that these views will not be obstructed.


Bibliography Online Resources Average Salary Survey (2015) Hamburg [online] Available at: http://www.averagesalarysurvey.com/hamburg-germany [Accessed 19th October 2015] Brinley Bruton, F. (7th September 2015) Germany to spend $6.6 billion on 800,000 refugees and immigrants [online] Available at: http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/europes-border-crisis/billions-migrants-germany-spend-66b-800-000-newcomers-n422811 [Accessed 21st October 2015] Deutsche Welle (2nd October 2015) Hamburg passes law to “borrow” buildings to shelter refugees [online] Available at: http://www.dw.com/en/hamburg-passes-law-to-borrow-buildings-to-shelterrefugees/a-18757217 [Accessed 21st October 2015] European Commission (2015) Hamburg [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/regional-innovation-monitor/base-profile/ hamburg-0 [Accessed 29th September 2015] Sempell, G. (2015) Urban development of Hamburg, Office for regional and landscape planning, Hamburg, 16th October 2015 The Statistical Office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein (2011) Interactive map of Hamburg from 2011 Census [online] Available at: http://statistik-nord.de/fileadmin/maps/zensus2011_hh/ [Accessed 8th October 2015] Images Pfaffenbach, K. (2015) Refugees shelter in Hanau [online image] Available at: http://de.reuters.com/news/pictures/ articleslideshow?articleId=DEKCN0RW0KX20151002&channelName=topNews#a=1 [Accessed 21st October 2015] Sick, L. (2013) Einkaufsstraße Ottenser Hauptstraße (Shopping on Ottenser mainstreet) [online image] Available at: http://www.lupesi.de/start-deutsch/stadtbesichtigungen/hamburg-altona/ [Accessed 26th October 2015]