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G e o r g i n a W i l e m a n | J u s t i n L e a n H u a n g Ta n | J o e K e l l y Liverpool John Moores University MArch Year 5

Re-rooting Birkenhead Urban Design Project

M o d u l e : 7 0 0 4 / 3 U R B A N D E S I G N A N A LY S I S


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CONTENTS EXECTUIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................. 1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 2 I BIRKENHEAD ............................................................................................................. 3 II CONCEPT.................................................................................................................... 5

III

DESIGN STRATEGY.................................................................................................... 7

IV MASTEPLAN............................................................................................................... 9

V

DESIGN ANALYSIS .................................................................................................... 17

APPENDIX 1 : SUSTAINABILITY APPENDIX 2 : PLANNING POLICY APPENDIX 3 : COST PLAN APPENDIX 4 : DESIGN STRATEGY

BIRKENHEAD PROJECT URBAN DESIGN REPORT


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Wirral is a unique place, home to a growing population of 319,800 people, including 190,000 people of working age and over 8,000 businesses providing employment for 105,800 people. The Wirral peninsula is an area of outstanding natural beauty, packed full of spectacular scenery, with a rich mixture of culture and heritage. Strategically located between the economic centres of Liverpool and Chester, Wirral benefits from an infrastructure that presents significant opportunities for development. Most people who live in Wirral enjoy an outstanding quality of life, with excellent housing, schools and a high quality environment. However, there is a strong contrast between the older, highly urbanised area of Birkenhead, which contain some of the poorest communities in England. The area is perhaps best known as a centre for shipbuilding, as a seaport and its related industries, however it has many landmarks of historical interest, which are not taken advantage of.

River Mersey Cammell Laird

Tranmere Beach

Rock Retail Park Oil Terminal Green Lane Railway Station

Aerial view of Cammell Laird towards Liverpool across the River Mersey

The widening gap between poverty and affluence in the Wirral needs to be addressed. Birkenhead being one of the most deprived areas must draw inspiration from its surroundings. This being the foundation for the proposal, the aim is to exploit the full potential of the existing food network in the Wirral in order to draw wealth towards Birkenhead, galvanising and creating a micro economy.

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INTRODUCTION

Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England. Historically in Cheshire, it is on the Wirral Peninsula, along the west bank of the River Mersey, opposite the city of Liverpool. At the 2001 Census, the town had a population of 83,729. By the time of the 2011 census Birkenhead had become an electoral ward of the Local Authority called Birkenhead and Tranmere. The total population of this ward taken at the 2011 Census was 15,879. Birkenhead is perhaps best known as a centre for ship building, as a seaport and its related industries. Birkenhead offers a rich history of memorable places. Two of the key features are the ‘Great Floats’ and the ‘Laird Town Plan’, both constructed during the nineteenth century and major influences in the growth of Inner Wirral. These features provides the opportunity to reveal theinherent and unique qualities of the Great Floats and gridiron ofthe Laird Town Plan. The dramatic scale and composition of theseassets provide an appropriate starting point to inform the creationof a new identity and character that is ‘of this place’ and of asufficient scale to deliver transformational change. Located on the edge of the waterfront, our site is located in the industrial sector of the area. The growth of the industrial sector has overshadowed the conditions of the rest of the site. The area incorportates The Birkenhead Priory and Hamilton Sqaure, and a disparate mix of housing and industry. This classic piece of urban periphery offers opportunity for creating a more engaging waterfront.

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I B I R K E N H E A D

rhythm

THE STREETSCAPE

focus

void

threshold

juxtaposition

3 BIRKENHEAD PROJECT URBAN DESIGN REPORT


I B I R K E N H E A D

THE PLACE

waterfront derelict

disused railway

collecting local opinions

materiality

railway overpass

collecting local opinions

4 BIRKENHEAD PROJECT URBAN DESIGN REPORT

handing questionaires

unused spaces


II

CONCEPT

THE FOOD NETWORK

Food Cycle, a national charity that combines volunteers, surplus food and spare kitchen spaces to create tasty, nutritious meals for people at risk of food poverty and social isolation.

Sarah Bergmann, Pollinators Pathway, Seattle

Out Of My Shed, a community growing project in North London which has greened up the streets and neighbours have got to know one another, really building a great sense of community and belonging.

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II

CONCEPT

THE FOOD NETWORK

new brighton

Liverpool

bidston observatory hoylake

birkenhead

Birkenhead

oxton village

west kirby

The Wirral

caldy

church farm dale farm

clamont farm

Birkenhead in relation to Liverpool and the River Mersey

Bi r k e n h e a d h a s a r i c h h is t o r y o f f e r in g s o me o f Br i t a i n ’ s ol d e st p a r k s a n d b u ildin g s , h o we v e r t h e s e n ow g o un n ot i c e d . T h e g ro wt h o f t h e in du s t r ia l se c t or of t h e c i t y ov e r sh a do ws t h e v a r io u s s pa t ia l op p or t un i t i e s of t h e si t e .

heathlane

T h e e xi st i n g ur b a n c o n t e x t h a s a n imb a la n c e of l i v i n g a n d w or k i n g e n v iro n me n t s , wh ic h h a s c re a t e d a d i sc on n e c t e d c it y . We a i m t o re c on n ec t t h e c it y a n d c o mmu n it y b y p rov i d i n g a c i rc ul a r ro u t e t h a t lin ks v a r io u s p rog r a m s w i t h e xi st i n g si t e in f r a s t r u c t u re .

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T h e map of t he W irrals above shows all food production f ar ms around t h e W irral. Our initial strategy is t o join B irk enhead to t he already e x is t ing f ood product ion network .


I I I D E S I G N S T R AT E G Y

CONCEPT COLLAGE

harvesting

distribute

training

growing

educate

local economy

selling and making

A digital collage as a keystone of the urban strategy proposal

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I I I D E S I G N S T R AT E G Y

training

THE CYCLE

During visits to the site, we carried out interviews, questionnaires asking the question, what ‘What would you like this space to be’. The most popular responses were:

seed distributing

educating

growing

The Community Cycle

We identified these themes as similar to what was already existing the Wirral. We then created a diagram on how we would apply these activities into a fluid journey across the site. We researched existing schools and organisations that could be involved in our masterplan as a way of generating more public interest. Examples are as follows

cooking harvesting

virtual trading ( T. G . L . )

trading

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New activities for children Allotments Market spaces More parks More retail

We would need to firstly educate the community about the programme, through school visits and handing out leaflets to member of the public. Next we would distribute seeds and areas of allotments to members of the public to grow their own food. We would supply training for locals to learn how to grow food, make their own tools, cook their produce and encourage pollination. We looked at already existing activities happening across Liverpool that could be incorporated into our programme of activities.


IV MASTERPLAN

Connecting Disused Spaces and Brownfield Land

P R E L I M I N A R Y S I T E A N A LY S I S

Connecting Notable Features

• Green footprint as part of town planning formal gardens | parks • Green footprint as part of infrastructure negative spaces of transport network • Green footprint from leftover spaces derelicts | brownfield

BIRKENHEAD PROJECT URBAN DESIGN REPORT

The Connectors ‘In-Between‘

Overall Strategy

We looked at the existing conditions of the site and marked out potential spaces to implement our urban strategy of the community cycle by re-connecting the city nodes.

9


IV MASTERPLAN

Design Development

Birkenhead Park

Egerton Dock Wirral Transport Museum Conway Park Station

Central bus station

Local crafts workshops and retail

A new green space as a buffer between existing and proposed retail

A new retail quater for local businesses

Hamilton Square Station

Pyramids Shopping Centre Hamilton Square

Pier

Seed Bank Birkenhead Priory

Waters Edge Priory Wharf

A refurbished pathway to connect the city and the waterfront

Stong links to community corriodr/ trams and docks

Rock Retail Park

River mersey

Cammell Lairds Community centre and marketplace

Implementation of Community Cycle onto Birkenhead

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A new area to promote knowledge and skill exchange Generate micro-economy

Birkenhead Flyover A new pedestrain and cyclist friendly route through the city

Community Allotments

Residential Development

Using derelicted land to produce food

Sustainable eco homes and allotments


IV MASTERPLAN

Disused Railway Reimagined

Existing Arches of Retaining Wall

Amphitheatre

Green Public Space

Marketplace

Gardens

Performing Arts Centre and Gallery

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IV MASTERPLAN aquaponic farm fish market

waters edge

People from the Community

ventilation tower wirrals metropolitan college seed distribution zone wirrals transport museum existing tramway

educating the community - distributing seed - learn about planting and growing - harvesting - trading - cooking and eating

pier expansion cycle hub hamilton square station

People from Liverpool

community retail hamilton square residential development leisure and entertainment

arriving from Liverpool via the water - cycling - attending market - take ferry home

priory wharf

People from Wirral birkenhead market traffic reroute birkenhead priory parish

arriving from the wirral - learning about planting - visiting the marketplace - spending valuable time with family - eating and drinking - taking a leisure walk - heading home

the city garden cammell lairds birkenhead central station river mersey

Storyboard

rock retail park

the journey

allotments

t.g.l. virtual trading

Masterplan

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existing proposed scheme


IV MASTERPLAN

The City Garden

skill training centre learning exhibition

information centre community centre polytunnel

community corridor crafts woodland visitors car park amphitheatre viewing platfrom marketplace

birkenhead central starion

flower garden

fertiliser production waste collection centre

allotments

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IV MASTERPLAN

existing

extending grids

Massing Studies

enhancing views

Existing toll layout

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creating connections

Soft and hard landscaping

Market Stalls Soft Landscape Seating Hard Landscape Seating

Elevated roof structure


IV MASTERPLAN

Perspectives

river mersey cammell lairds

greenhouse

viewing platform

allotments

allotments

dense greenery learning exhibition

Aerial view of The City Garden Proposal

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IV MASTERPLAN

Perspectives

community corridor

aquaponic farms

hamilton square

tunnel ventilation tower

cycle hub

waters edge promenade

u boat story pier expansion residential development

river mersey

A e r i a l v i e w o f T h e Wa t e r s E d g e

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V

D E S I G N A N A LY S I S

Routes

Proposed layout

Traffic routes

Pedestrian pathways

Cycling route

To change the hierarchy of the transport network. To create a clearer vehicle circulation.

To increase status of pedestrian route around the site, putting the pedestrians before the vehicles.

Our aim is to create a more cohesive cycle route through Birkenhead.

■ Existing primary road ■ Existing secondary road ■ Proposed main road ■ Proposed secondary road

BIRKENHEAD PROJECT URBAN DESIGN REPORT

■ Existing pedestrian route ■ Proposed pedestrian route

■ Existing on road cycle paths ■ Existing off road cycle paths ■ Proposed on road cycle paths ■ Proposed off route cycle path

17


V

D E S I G N A N A LY S I S

Phase 1 Educational activites and food

Phase 2 Re-routing of vehicles and new transport links

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Development Phasing Plan

Phase 3 Retail and marketing spaces

Phase 4 Landscaping of route and construction of harvesting stations. Faciliating increase in population growth.


APPENDIX


Appendix 1: Policy Context National Adequate and suitable sanitary conveniences must be provided in rooms provided to accommodate them or in bedrooms. Adequate hand washing facilities

Fire All buildings must comply with HM Gov. Buildings regulations 2010 Fire Safety B volume 1 for dwellings and volume 2 for any other buildings.

G5. Bathrooms A bathroom must be provided containing a wash basin and either a fixed bath or a shower

Overall aims: • • • • •

B1. To ensure satisfactory provision of means of giving an alarm of fire and means of escape B2. To ensure fire spread over the internal lining of buildings is inhabited B3.To ensure the stability of buildings in the event of fire – sufficient degree of separation within buildings and between adjoining buildings B4.To ensure external walls and roofs have ade quate resistance to the spread of fire over the external envelope B5.To ensure satisfactory access for fire appli ances to buildings and the provision of facilities

Health All buildings must comply with HM Gov. Buildings Regulations 2000, Sanitation, hot water safety and water efficiency.

G6. Food preparation areas A suitable sink must be provided in any area where food is prepared Planning policy context There is a requirement for cities to develop in a unified direction, guided by the various Strategic Frameworks for the area. The following information had been taken from current planning policy that relates to Birkenhead. DCLG (2012) National Planning Policy Framework DCLG Sections [http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/ planningandbuilding/nppf] The National Planning Policy Framework set out

G3. Hot water supply and systems Hot water supply and systems there must be a suitable installation for the provision of heated wholesome water or heated softened wholesome water

• Building a strong, competitive economy • Ensuring the vitality of town centres • Supporting a prosperous rural economy • Promoting sustainable transport • Supporting high quality communications infra structure • Delivering a wide choice of high quality homes • Requiring good design • Promoting healthy communities • Protecting Green Belt land • Meeting the challenge of climate change, flooding and coastal change • Conserving and enhancing the natural environ ment • Conserving and enhancing the historic environ ment • Facilitating the sustainable use of minerals

G4. Sanitary Conveniences and washing facilities

The Birkenhead City Garden project runs in line with the

G1. Cold water supply (1)‘wholesome water’ (2) There must be a suitable installation for the provision of water of suitable quality to any sanitary convenience fitted with a flushing device G2. Water efficiency Reasonable provision must be made by the installation of fittings and fixed appliance that use water efficiently for the prevention of undue consumption of water

National Planning Policy Framework. It aims to enhance Wirral as a whole and build a strong micro economy for Birkenhead, promoting healthy communities, sustainability and enhancing the natural environment. Transport The urban design strategy for Birkenhead must comply with the Communities and Local Government National Planning Policy Framework 2012 – chapter 4 Promoting sustainable transport; • Smarter use of technologies to reduce the need to travel • The transport system needs to be balanced in favour of sustainable transport modes, giving peo ple a real choice about how they travel. • Encouragement should be given to solutions which support reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and reduce congestion. • All developments that generate significant amounts of movement should be supported by a Transport Statement or Transport Assessment. • safe and suitable access to the site can be achieved for all people • give priority to pedestrian and cycle move ments, and have access to high quality public transport facilities; • create safe and secure layouts which minimise conflicts between traffic and cyclists or pedes trians, avoiding street clutter and where appro priate establishing home zones; • consider the needs of people with disabilities by all modes of transport.


Appendix 1: Policy Context Regional and Local

Heritage

Housing and Regeneration Act 2008 – Part 1 – chapter 2 – section 6

The Government has set out its planning policies for the historic environment and heritage assets in the NPPF(1) published in March 2012 and replaced PPS5.

Powers for regeneration, development or effective use of land (1)The HCA may regenerate or develop land. (2)The HCA may bring about the more effective use of land. (3)The HCA may facilitate— (a)the regeneration or development of land, or (b)the more effective use of land.

Local Neighbourhood Planning:

12. Conserving and enhancing the historic environment 126 - The urban design proposal should take into account: • the desirability of sustaining and enhancing the significance of heritage assets and putting them to viable uses consistent with their conservation; • the wider social, cultural, economic and en vironmental benefits that conservation of the historic environment can bring; • the desirability of new development making a positive contribution to local character and distinctiveness; • opportunities to draw on the contribution made by the historic environment to the character of a place. 127 - ensure that an area justifies such status because of its special architectural or historic interest 128 - describe the significance of any heritage assets affected, including any contribution made by their setting. 129 - identify and assess the particular significance of any heritage asset that may be affected by a proposal Regeneration Communities and Local Government National Planning Policy Framework 2012

Regional Regional Goals: Wirral Unitary Development Plan Wirral Council 2015 The UDP is produced in the light of national and regional planning policies. It shall be replaced by the new Core Strategy Local Plan in 2016.

Chapter 9. Protecting Green Belt land; 80 - to assist in urban regeneration, by encouraging the recycling of derelict and other urban land.

Established in 2012 the Birkenhead and Tranmere Community First Panel consists of a local ward councillor, local residents who represent groups and organisations in the area including Church Road Neighbourhood Resource Centre and Rodney St Resident’s Association and representatives from the voluntary and community sector. The panel is supported by Lairdside Communities Together (LCT) operating as a social enterprise in the area. Birkenhead and Tranmere Community First Plan

• The Protection Of Agriculture – Policy AGR1 • Provision Of Employment Land – Policy EMP1 • The Protection Of Urban Greenspace – Policy GRE1 • New Dwelling Requirement - Policy HSG1 • Affordable Housing - Policy HSG2 • Principles For Landscape - Policy LAN1 • Principles For Nature Conservation - Policy NC01 • Principles For Renewable Energy - Policy REN1 • Principles For New Retail Development - Polciy SH01 • Principles For Tourism Development - Policy TLR1 • Recycling And Re-Use Of Waste Materials - Poli cy WMT2 • Hamilton Square Conservation Area – Policy CH5

Chapter 1. Building a strong, competitive economy 21 - identify priority areas for economic regeneration, infrastructure provision and environmental enhancement;

http://www.vcawirral.org.uk/index.php/communities-first-birkenhead-ward-panel.html Birkenhead and Tranmere Community First Plan 2009-13 Voluntary and Community Action Wirral Registered Charity

The sensitive nature of the scheme complements the strategic policies of the UDP. Re using brownfield sites and creating a project centred around educating the community means that all conservation policies

Birkenhead & Tranmere Panel Priorities

• Children & Young People - To increase oppor tunities and activity provision for children and young people • Building community capacity - To increase resi dent involvement in informal and formal training opportunities and develop local people’s skills • Increasing community health activities - To deliver community activities which improve the health of local people • Improving the living environment - To deliver projects which involve local people in improving their environment and increase life quality


Appendix 2: Sustainability Wa s t e M a n a g e m e n t

Waste management

Food Recycling

food waste cycle

soil enrichment

fish

biodigestion

food production

fertiliser

aquaponics cycle

renewable energy

worms

Renewed Investment- Birkenhead as a net provider An urban agricultural incentive will be most profitable when paired with a related district energy strategy. Producing sustainable energy and heat from recycled abundance of green waste will be an investment in energy infrastructure . One tank can be used to the bio digestion process whilst the other can convert waste into fertiliser for the growth of plants, completing the process. By doing this we will be setting up a local heat network to provide cheaper, greener, locally-produced heat. This energy will be used the heat created from producing electricity to help heat buildings and provide hot water.   

Reduced energy costs Greater energy reliability and security Reduced carbon footprint

plants filter water that returns to the fish

fish produce waste

food and yard waste

microbes and worms convert waste to fertiser for plants

plants


Appendix 2: Sustainability National International and national bodies have set out broad principles of sustainable development. Resolution 42/187 of the United Nations General Assembly defined sustainable development as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The UK Sustainable Development Strategy Securing the Futureset out five ‘guiding principles’ of sustainable development: living within the planet’s environmental limits; ensuring a strong, healthy and just society; achieving a sustainable economy; promoting good governance; and using sound science responsibly. There are three dimensions to sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. These dimensions give rise to the need for the planning system to perform a number of roles: ● an economic role – contributing to building a strong, responsive and competitive economy, by ensuring that sufficient land of the right type is available in the right places and at the right time to support growth and innovation; and by identifying and coordinating development requirements, including the provision of infrastructure; ● a social role – supporting strong, vibrant and healthy communities, by providing the supply of housing required to meet the needs of present and future generations; and by creating a high quality built environment, with accessible local services that reflect the community’s needs and support its health, social and cultural well-being; and ● an environmental role– contributing to protecting and enhancing our natural, built and historic environment; and, as part of this, helping to improve biodiversity, use natural resources prudently, minimise waste and pollution, and mitigate and adapt to climate change including moving to a low carbon economy. The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) outlines the policies for the UK with the presumption in favour of sustainable development. A key theme at the heart of the NPPF is a presumption in favour of sustainable economic growth. The NPPF requires local authorities to plan positivlet and ‘not to act an inpediment’ to sustainable economic growth or development. Securing economic growth throuth the planning system should be given significnet weight. The NPPF includes 12 core planning prinicples at paragraph 17, the following of wich are most pertinent in the consideration of this planning application. Proactive drive and support sustainable economic development to deliver thriving local places that the country needs. Every effort should be made objectively to identify and then meet developmental needs and respond positively to wider opportunities for growth. Always seeks to secure high quality design and a good standard of omenity for all existing nd future occupants of land and buildings Promoting the vitality of our main urban areas Promote mixed used development and encourage multiple benefits for the use of land in urban and rural areas.

Actively manage patterns of growth to make the fullest possible use of public transport, walking and cycling, and focus significant development in locations which are or can be made sustainable Take account of and support local strategies to improve health, social and cultural wellbeing for all and deleiver sufficient community and cultural facilities and services to meet local needs. Climate change Paragraph 96 sets out the planning applicatons should comply with adopted local plan policies which should take into account of landform, layout, building orientation, massing and landscaping to minimise energy consumption. And to seeks to maximise carbon energy developemtn. Conserving and Enhancing the Natural Environment Paragraph 109 emphaises that the planning system should contribute and enhance the natural and local environment preventing development contributing to unacceptable levels of water or noise pollution or land instability. Despoiled, degrad, derelict , contaminated and unstable land should be remediated and mitigated where appropriate.

Regional Wirral Unitary Development Plan The Wirral UDP was adopted in March 2000 and is made of a number of policies. Policy URN1 states that in considering development proposals, the local authority will be concerned to ensure that full and effective use is made of land within the urban areas and neglected, unused and derelict land or building are brought into use. 1.72 Throughout the UDP, both the overall strategy and the individual policies and proposals are formulated to be compatible with the principles of sustainable development. In particular, the urban regeneration strategy emphasises sustainable development by: •providing new homes and other buildings within the built-up area and thus respecting the needs of food production and environmental objectives; •using already-developed areas in the most efficient way, whilst making them more attractive places to live and work; •conserving the natural resources of wildlife and landscape, with particular emphasis on safeguarding those identified as being of special interest or national and international importance; and •concentrating new development and thereby minimising the use of energy consumption by reducing travel distances. A number of other development control policies are relevant, and relate to matters such as parking and access, design , landscaping, nature conservation and environment protection. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

They include Policy TRT1 –Provision for Public Transport Policy TRT3 – Transport and the Environment Policy TR9 –Requirments for off-street parking Policy TR12- Requirments for cycle parking Policy LAN1 –Principles for Lanscape Policy NC01 – Principles for nature conservation Policy NC7- Species Protection Policy PO3- Noise Polocy WA1- Development and Flood Risk Policy WA2 Development and Land drainage Parking Standards SPD REN1 Principles For Renewable Energy Strategic Policy AG1 Development and Agriculture Policy GBT1 Green Belt Boundaries Strategic Policy GRE1 The Protection Of Urban Greenspace (Strategic policy) Policy GR1 The Protection of Urban Greenspace Policy GR2 Land Designated as Urban Greenspace Proposal GR3 The Protection of Allotments Policy GR4 Allotments to be Protected From Development Proposal GR5 Landscaping and New Development Policy GR6 Greenspace Within New Family Housing Development Policy GR7 Trees and New Development


Development Type

Income

Less acquisition costs @ 2.5% SITE VALUE TODAY

SITE VALUE in 4 years Present vale of £1 in 4 years @ 10%

Letting and Sales Fess Letting fees @ 15% of income Advertisement and Marketing Sale to investor fee @ 2% of sale price Total Development Cost Return for risk and profit @ 15% of capital value Total Expected Costs on Completion

Short-term Finance @ 10% p.a. On total building costs, fees and contingencies for half the building period (24 months) On total costs incurred on completion to full letting (letting delay of 6 months)

Contingencies @ 10%

Professional Fees Quantity Surveyors' @ 2.5% Architects' @ 5.8% Structural Engineering @ 2.1% Services Engineering @ 2.2%

Retail Local Trading Centre Fish Market Agricultural Allotments Aquaponic Farm Transport Infrastructure Ferry Pier Expansion Cycle Hub Residential (2-storey) Children Playground Landscape The City Garden Agricultural Greenhouse Offices Information Centre, Skill Training Centre and Seed Distribution Centre Retail Marketplace Public Infrastructure Amphitheatre Car Park Cafe and Restaurant Landscape Flyover Footpath Community Corridor Park Land Pollinators and Flower Garden Industrial Waste Collection Centre Fertiliser Production Centre Total Building Costs

Proposal Cost

Retail Commerce/Offices Industry Housing Agricultural Total Income Yield @ 7% Capital Value

Proposal Value

100 1,050 1,169 1,375 1,157 n/a 17000 (£/ha)

340

1,709 831 990 81 2,431 17,000 (£/ha)

1,041 1,041

93,450 1,200 1,970 450 17,000 960 1.3 ha

1,500

1,250 450 2,515 1,545 705 5.78 ha 11,360 22,230 13,300 10,920 2,000 2,000

Page 1

1,340 831

Estimated Construction Cost (£/m2)

Estimated NFA (m2) Less 10% off GFA 2,610 1,760 3,600 15,300 86,535

2,050 400

Area (m2)

2,900 1,955 4,000 17,000 96,150

GFA (m2)

Sheet1

1,815,885 50,000 3,458,825

2,967,052

11,868,207

1,197,744 2,778,766 1,006,105 1,054,015

2,082,000 2,082,000 47,909,765

2,489,850 125,145 1,713,855 98,260

373,950

2,136,250

510,000

2,302,930 618,750 19,669,000 1,275 22,100

9,345,000 1,260,000

2,747,000 332,400

Construction Cost (£)

150 200 200 130 100

Rent Value (£)

25,941,188 105,442,192

5,324,710 79,501,004

14,835,259 74,176,294

6,036,630 53,946,395 5,394,640 59,341,035

47,909,765

Cost (£)

391,500 351,900 720,000 1,989,000 8,653,500 12,105,900 14.2857 172,941,256

Value (£)

67,499,064 0.6830 46,101,860 1,152,547 44,949,314

105,442,192

172,941,256

Appendix 3: Cost Plan


Appendix 4: Design Strategy Urban Design Theoretical History ‘The grid makes the history of architecture and all previous lessons of urbanism irrelevant.’ Koolhass argues that the grid ‘develops a maximum unit of urbanistic ego’ – pg20 Birkenhead’s grid created a strong starting point for urban design. Extending the grid into the proposal for the City Garden has reinforced the grid, creating clear and legible routes.

‘the need to recognise and pattern our surroundings is so crucial, and has such long roots in the past, that this image has wide practical and emotional importance to the individual’ pg4

‘it must be granted that there is some value in mystification, labyrinth, or surprise in the environment. Many of us enjoy the House of Mirors, and there is a certain charm in the crooked streets of Boston. This is so, however only under two conditions…no danger of losing basic form or orientation, of never coming out’ pg5

‘At every instant, there is more than the eye can see, more than the ear can hear, a setting or a view waiting to be explored. Nothing is experienced by itself, but always in relation to its surroundings, the sequences of events leading up to it, the memory of past experiences.’ - pg1

‘the key lines should have some singular quality which marks them off from the surrounding channels: a concentration of some special quality, a special texture of floor façade, a particular lighting pattern, a unique set of smells or sounds, a typical detail or mode of planting’ pg96 These principles have been applied to distinguish the main route around Birkenhead – linking the dismantled railway and the waters edge.

pg9 ….discusses the idea of ‘imageability; that quality in a physical object which gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in an given observer…It might also be called legibility, or perhaps visibility in a heightened sense, where objects are not only able to be seen, but are presented sharply and intensely to the senses’ – this idea has been used throughout the urban design proposal to create a strong sense of place. Highlighting Birkenhead’s heritage through the use of vistas and views.

‘while it maybe stable in general outlines for some time, it is ever changing in detail. Only partial control can be exercised over its growth and form.’ Pg2

‘it must be granted that there is some value in mystification, labyrinth, or surprise in the environment. Many of us enjoy the House of Mirors, and there is a certain charm in the crooked streets of Boston. This is so, however only under two conditions…no danger of losing basic form or orientation, of never coming out’ pg5

pg8 three components to an environmental image: identity – meaning of individuality or oneness structure – spatial or pattern relation of the object to the observer and other objects meaning – for the observer weather practical or emotional

‘any existing, functioning urban area has structure and identity even if only in weak measure’ pg115 – our goal is to enhance and enrich the existing…


Appendix 4: Design Strategy Current Emerging Ideas of Urban Design

training

seed distributing

educating

growing The Community Cycle

cooking harvesting

virtual trading ( T. G . L . )

trading

Design Concept

Prinzessinnengarten

Our Design Strategy

Seeing a business opportunity in the extensive wasteland of Berlin city centre combined with a booming demand for organic produce to entruperural Berliners set up an urban farm in central berlin. Planting the seeds for a better quality of life and under utilisation of urban

Considering historical and current approaches to urban design allowed for the following design strategy to be proposed: •

To connect Birkenhead back to the Wirral through its food network

Create an environment where knowledge can be informally exchanged

To give Birkenhead a new city identity as a producer

An allotment garden is a place to retreat and get away from the city, they wanted to create a constant communication between the garden and the city – always interaction

To reinforce the water front and create sustainable homes

To create better access to historic sites

Nobodies an expert therefore you learn so much in a more intimate way. Make so many mistakes but you don’t forget them

To adapt the existing road infrastructure – creating more pedestrian and cyclist friendly routes

Using gardening as an instrument to bring people together

To adapt brownfield land - providing allotment space for all residents

• To create a platform for sharing knowledge and skills in relation to food pro duction •

To create a micro- food economy


BIBLIOGRAPHY

AECOM (2015). Spon’s Architects and Builders price Book. 14th ed. Oxon: CRC Press. Department for Communities and Local Government (2012). National Planning Policy Framework. HM Gov (2010). Buildings Regulations, Fire Safety B, volume 1. HM Gov (2000). Buildings Regulations, Sanitation. Homes and Communities Agency (2008). Housing and Regeneration Act 2008. Part 1. Chapter 2. Section 6 Jacobs, J (1993). The death and life of great American cities . New York: Random House Inc. p25. Koolhass, R (1978). Delirious New York. The Monacelli Press. Lynch, K (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge: The Technology Press and Harvard University Press. Shaw, R. (2015). About Prinzessinnengarten. Available: http://prinzessinnengarten.net/about/. Last accessed 16th Nov 2015. Voluntary and Community Action Wirral (2009-2013). Birkenhead and Tranmere Community First Plan. Wirral Council (2015). Wirral Unitary Development Plan. Wirral Waters: Strategic Regeneration Framework Baseline Study: July 2008 (2009) Basics Landscape Architecture 01: Urban Design Paperback https://www.wirral.gov.uk Date of access 14/11/2015 http://www.programmeofficers.co.uk/Liverpool/CD5/CD5.10.pdf http://prinzessinnengarten.net/about/

Date of access 09/11/2015

http://www.wirralfoodnetwork.co.uk/ - Date of access 14/10/2015 http://tgl.tv/hubs/hub_home/369 foodcycle.org.uk Date of access 10/10/2015

Date of access 14/11/2015

Profile for Architecture@LJMU

Birk re rooting birkenhead jk jlht gw  

Birk re rooting birkenhead jk jlht gw  

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