AFRIKArchi M A G A Z I N E
INTERNATIONAL CITY OF DAKAR
1.2ha to boost the tertiary sector 1,2 ha pour booster le secteur tertiaire
Conservation and rehabilitation of the architectural heritage
Conservation et rĂŠhabilitation du patrimoine architectural
ARCHITECTURAL CRITICISM Critique architecturale
ADJAYEtecture | KEREtecture October - December 2013 | #1
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Dear readers, Every birth is an event. Through its magazine, AFRIKArchi jumps into a new adventure by publishing four times a year AFRIKArchi Magazine. We would like to put forward African actors in the fields of architecture, construction, town planning, roads and utility services, landscape design, sustainable development, renewable energies, real estate investment and law in Africa. We seek to internationally promote those who are gifted, but who are often unknown by the Africans themselves. We also seek to raise awareness among African policy makers that the above areas are important catalysts for sustainable development and are therefore necessary in Africa. AFRIKArchi Magazine also focuses on portraits and interviews with practitioners, on visual projects and reports, on architectural criticism, on analysis of projects completed or in progress on the African continent, as well as articles on different issues identified in the mentioned fields. Each issue will be enriched with a particular content and will be dedicated to both, actors in the concerned fields and the general public. AFRIKArchi Magazine is for everyone, professionals, students and amateurs, passionate by fields such as architecture, construction, renewable energies, sustainable development, real estate investment, and design. Published in French and English, the magazine can be viewed and downloaded free of charge on www.magazine.afrikarchi.com. Subscription offers are also available. To ensure the development and launch of this innovative magazine, the first of its kind in Africa, AFRIKArchi has made every effort to satisfy you but also counts on you to join us in this adventure. You can also become an actor in this development by supporting us or joining us. AFRIKArchi aims to make this magazine the African pioneer in the international arena. AN AFRICAN PRIDE! I sincerely hope that you will have as much pleasure to discover this Magazine as we had to make it. Enjoy your reading ! Romarick ATOKE Director of Publication
«We really expect that our readers, professionals as students, make this magazine their own because it is theirs ».
Francis Kéré : Meeting with a well-known actor in architecture in Africa.
From Burkina Faso, the man has won several major awards including the prestigious Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2004 and the Global Holcim Gold Award for sustainable building in 2011 and 2012. AFRIKArchi interviewed the architect who we met at the Global Holcim Awards 2012 which took place earlier this year in Mumbai, India.
ADJAYEtecture | KEREtecture Which Architecture for Africa ?
The debate is launched on the directions to give to architecture in Africa. We present to you two different approaches of the subject from these two internationally well-known experts, and the prospects that may arise.
International City of Dakar A piece of town on 1.2 hectares to boost the tertiary sector. Senegal reveals its ambitions for the development of Dakar. An ambitious project that gives hope to many sectors of the country’s economy.
Conservation and rehabilitation of Morocco architectural heritage. On the occasion of the recent international colloquium on world heritage earthen architecture conservation at UNESCO, AFRIKArchi met Mr Mohamed Boussaleh, Director of CERKAS (Conservation and rehabilitation centre of architectural heritage of Atlas and sub-Atlantic areas) at Ouarzazate.
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TO READ ALSO ... ARCHITECTURE 7
Architecture is about process
Interview with the winners of the 1st Prize ARCHIGINEER AFRICA 2012 Competition
Holcim Forum Student Poster Competition
Africities or chinacities ?
Constructions like cupboard under water
Georges Pericles : A think-thank for Rwanda
URBAN PLANNING & ROADS & UTILITY SERVICES (RUS) 44
Which urban planning for african cities ?
Overall state of urban planning, architecture and related fields in Senegal
What changes for architecture and urban planning in Tunisia?
Housing rhyme with difficulties in African cities
Save the date
Photos credits : In cover, pages 22 à 31 © Groupe 3 Architectes ; page 7 © Karina Walbreck ; pages 8 à 10 © AFRIKArchi pages 11 et 12 © Holcim Forum ; pages 14 à 16 © DR ; pages 18 à 20 © DR ; pages 32 et 33 © DR ; page 35 © DR ; page 36 © George Pericles ; pages 38 à 42 © DR sauf page 41 © Yvon Fruneau ; page 44 © Altahine; Page 46 © DR ; page 48 et 49 © DR ; page 50 et 51 © AFRIKArchi page 52 © DR. Sommaire : © Groupe 3 Architectes et © DR.
www.afrikarchi.com | 5
IDEAS COMPETITION IN ARCHITECTURE - URBAN PLANNING - LANDSCAPE & CIVIL ENGINEERING
ARCHIGINEER AFRICA 2013 DESIGN OR REHABILITATE A
MARKET IN AN URBAN AREA IN AFRICA
FREE REGISTRATION COMPETITION OPEN TO :
- Students enrolled in architecture, urban planning, civil engineering schools or universities, African descent or not *
1st Prize : 1500€ 2nd Prize: 1000€ 3rd Prize : 750€
MEMBERS OF JURY :
Architect MAS Garden Landscape and Territory
Monica CORALLI Architect - Town Planner Ph.D. in geography
Mahmoud KELDI Architect - Town planner
Franck HOUNDEGLA Designer Ph.D. in Architecture
Alpha Mohamed SOW
Architect Program Manager at Cité de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine Architect
Sociologist - Professor at ENSAPLV
Ph.D. in History
ENTRIES DEADLINE : 30th NOVEMBER ON WWW.AFRIKARCHI.COM/AFRIKARCHINETWORK
* The Team Leader must be African or from the African Diaspora Competition launching .............................. 1st October 2013 Entries deadline ....................................... 30 November 2013 Submission deadline ................................. 31 January 2014 Deliberation ............................................. February 2014 Results proclamation ................................ February 2014 International exhibition ............................. From March 2014
in collaboration with : firstname.lastname@example.org
Do not throw on public roard - AFRIKArchi © 2013 - Balogun Market | Lago, Nigeria | ©UNFPA - Akintunde Akinleye
Attribution of distinctions to deserving projects Other prizes
- Africans young professionals graduated between 2013 and 2010.
Architecture is about process
Words from an ugandan architecture student
I sit here and wonder to myself sometimes….What exactly have I achieved in the past five years that architecturally makes me want to be an architect. A few questions cross my mind. Can I actually put up a 80 storey building? Can I actually be great? What would I do if I hadn’t done this course? Traumatized and confused, I simply reflect, go back in time when I had just joined the school. Full of enthusiasm and gusto I could spent a few sleepless nights just to prove a point, that I was an architectural student. Reading a dictionary just to come up with concepts some even inapplicable. I once came up with the concept invigorating experience before the then experienced tutor slammed me hard for not thinking like an architect. What does it take to make you an architecture student? I can’t tell. We are all different. At the beginning, we try to develop a personal style… and later on, we are indulged in our own styles we can’t tell the difference with where we are from and where we are going.
Everything must be thought Architecture is about process. Everyone has coined something, an aphorism but this still stands evident in all of them. I can list all the great or non great sayings by infamous or famous architects, but all I know, architecture is about process. We strive so hard to define ourselves that we sometimes forget who we really are. But in anything you do, there has to be process. Like in school, when you are starting a project, we start with research, site and brief and then concept and scheming and then the final output but all this here involves process. And the only reason why your project will fail or will be lacking in some elements is because you lack process. Then again, question is, how do you develop process. How do you develop an identity? How do you come up with or how do you start to create process? I can’t answer that or am not even close to answer that. I’m still looking for that process. I am not stuck, I am still adding to it. That is why I am doing six years in this jail. Architecture is not about winning. You win some, you lose some. But you gain a lot from tasking yourself to do the best. It’s always interesting to see how many sleepless nights we spend only to be given a few minutes, normally five to say all that you have on the 10 A1 sheets you just did the past week. And when that’s all done, it’s a victory. Like they say, you might
lose a battle, as long as you win the war. It’s fair that way, in that way we are able to keep a balance. I have been put on firing squad a couple of times, mostly for smiling after being done with a presentation. Some take it for being unserious, while I take it as a job, a client meeting and other things running through my head then. If I have managed to survive, why shouldn’t you. If you are doing a project and everything is going smooth, then know there is a big problem somewhere. Five years is a long time trying to maintain your mojo. Architecture school and life itself is not that easy to keep your level headed in such hostile environments wherever you are. So, what do you do? Keep yourself architecturally busy. Our school in particular is too small in what it offers. You might be mistaken if you graduate and find yourself stuck in this “shit hole”. So, expand your process, you design process by trying out competitions posted all over the internet. Your thought process by reading expansively anything architectural or design doesn’t have to be limited to architecture. You could try art, fashion, music and all other fields. Keep your mind busy and you might not kill the process.
Develop our own process In my case, I tried writing a short story, I participated in a national competition and that was a fruitful venture. I didn’t win, but was a finalist and this in turn opened up my small eyes. I tried composing a song, still trying to anyways. It tried to develop my own process. Process is not complicated. Process is saying a few things and doing a few things to mean a lot. Process is,” Less is more”. Less is a bore. If you are design with brick, ask brick? Brick, what do you want to be? These of course coined by the famous Louis Kahn, Mies van de Rohe, and the infamous Venturi. We should in the process of defining ourselves, start to develop a dialogue in our architecture. Architecture speaks, to the users, what the architect was thinking and what the client is all about. Society definitely being a major influence. Process is eclectic. It should subject itself to change, should follow trend, and should be simple. Simple in itself is architectural complexity, an argument entirely for another time. But I believe, in Uganda and even in the world, Architecture is always about process. Conrad Kuzooka
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ARCHITECTURE | Exclusive Interview
Youssouf Sawadogo & Zied Hattab
Winners of the 1st Prize ARCHIGINEER AFRICA 2012 Competition
After deliberation three winners were appointed:
Hello ! You are the lucky winners of ARCHIGINEER AFRICA #1 Competition.
1st Prize : Urban Baobab | Youssouf Sawadogo & Zied Hattab from the National School of Architecture and Town planning of Tunis ( ENAU ), Tunisia
Could you briefly introduce yourself ?
2nd Prize: UrbanSlumLab| Eric Amoah - Awuah , Joshua Sarbeng Dodoo & Yaw- Kuffour from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology ( KNUST ) , Kumasi , Ghana 3rd Prize: Biryogo Collective Housing | JeanPaul Bigirimana & Flavia Gwiza from Kigali Institute of Science and Technology ( KIST ) , Kigali, Rwanda
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SAWADOGO Youssouf : I am a Burkinabe architecture student at the National School of Architecture and Urban Planning of Tunis (ENAU). I am currently in an internship at a young architect office in town . I am particularly interested in the notion of city and architecture. HATTAB Zied : I am also a student in architecture at ENAU . I manifest my motivation and passion for architecture through my projects, my approach, my thinking to renew architecture while seeking my own resources , relationship to the environment, to the use, the material and the structure . It is the convergence of these elements that will constitute the architecture in its various dimensions.
What motivated you to participate in this competition? SAWADOGO Youssouf : The spirit of challenge and also the theme of the competition , the collective urban housing . It was an opportunity for us to imagine a habitat model that draws its resources from local context.
HATTAB Zied : This is sort of the issue raised in the competition to “rethink “ the housing in Africa and present our vision of the African habitat in its complex and varied context.
Tell us a little about your project. SAWADOGO Youssouf : The project is the result of a reflection on the african habitat especially the Burkinabe habitat. The project attempts to reconcile local and ecological materials with local practices, together with contemporary architecture. HATTAB Zied : Urban baobab is a contextual project that offers a friendly community living , including the concept of thermal comfort. This is the result of a reflection on the African habitat with its uniqueness by a reinterpretation of the Burkinabe habitat, local practices and the use of local materials to present an ecological architecture that reinterprets the old to create the new.
What have you learned during the implementation of this competition? A story or a special memory? SAWADOGO Youssouf : The project is located in Burkina Faso and I am studying in Tunisia. For me, it was an opportunity to apply the knowledge learned in Tunisia on a local context that is mine. In fact, it is a successful feedback. It was also an opportunity for my partner to discover a new socio-cultural context and another way to practice space. HATTAB Zied : For me, this is a new experience where I learned to think for a new urban setting, a new environmental and social context. This is a community that has its own culture, its way of use and ownership of space, its method of building. Therefore, I had to learn to respond to their needs by providing architectural responses.
Wink AFRIKArchi is a non-profit organization founded and based in France since 2011. It is represented in several African countries such as ALGERIA , BENIN , CAMEROON , IVORY COAST , GHANA , GABON , MALI, MOROCCO , NIGER , RWANDA , UGANDA , SENEGAL , TOGO, TUNISIA ... The association’s values are team spirit, ambition and international dynamics, creativity, competence and professionalism, openness , initiative and community life. The aim of the association is to support and expand the teaching of Architecture, Town planning and Civil Engineering in Africa. It is in this perspective that is held every year an international competition named ARCHIGINEER AFRICA . For the first edition launched on 1st October 2012, participants were asked to design a « COLLECTIVE HOUSING IN AN URBAN AREA IN AFRICA ». The competition was attended by more than 1,000 students and graduates from more than 80 schools in over 30 African countries. Bringing together an international and interdisciplinary jury of architects , town planners, engineers, sociologists and historians, the deliberation took place on the 1st February 2013 at the Architecture and Heritage City, Palais de Chaillot in Paris. Additionally, several projects were selected to participate in the international exhibition that began in March 2013 and took place in several cities in Africa and the world .
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ARCHITECTURE | Exclusive Interview
How do you see the future of Architecture in Africa? SAWADOGO Youssouf : The whole continent of Africa is to be rebuilt and it is packed with a lot of young African talents. So the answer, you already know! HATTAB Zied : Africa is full of human potential of young designers who are waiting for a suitable platform for creativity to emerge. For me, the future of architecture and young architects is not clear as there will be no framework that respects and supports its potential.
What advice can you give to architects to-be and future participants in this competition? SAWADOGO Youssouf : Not to forget their cultural roots. It must be felt through their project. This is the only way to be identified on the international scale. HATTAB Zied : To understand and consider the african’s context in its wealth and in its various dimensions, cultural, social, urban and environmental and try to present a reflection where an architectural response takes into account these elements. Interview done during the ARCHIGINEER AFRICA Exhibition in Tunis, at the National School of Architecture and Urban planning ( ENAU ).
Report After the awards ceremony, AFRIKArchi and the winners had the opportunity to be received at the Embassy of Burkina Faso in Tunis where they met Laurence DIAKITE, Adviser and Head of the Department of Consular Affairs. The winning project was much appreciated and the authorities have encouraged the young winners and also AFRIKArchi to continue on this path to promote Africa. In addition, part of the project should be carried out in Burkina Faso and it is for this purpose that AFRIKArchi in collaboration with the winners worked and set up a call for donations. The project needs 214.000 $ US for its construction. AFRIKArchi recently launched a fundraising campaign to find the funding. The association counts not only on the patronage but also will respond to calls for projects to raise the necessary funds for the project . The construction of this project “ Urban Baobab “ in Ouagadougou will be organized in the form of an international worskhop open to professionals and students. This competition is held every year , the next edition will be launched on 1st October 2013 and will have as theme “ Design or rehabilitate a market in an urban area in Africa.” A press conference is took place on Friday, September 13, 2013 at 10am at the Architecture and Heritage City, Palais de Chaillot in Paris . We hope that this issue will also attract even more applicants with equally innovative ideas for our beloved continent. The call for donations of the “Urban Baobab “ project file is available on the website of the Association www.afrikarchi.com and can be sent on request, by mail. Mauried ATAYI
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Lahbib El Moumni & Channane Reda
Winners of the 1st price of the 4th edition of the “ Holcim Forum Student Poster Competition ”
Project: Urban Micro Suture to Generate a New Development of the Old Medina of Tetouan
he field of architecture and urbanism has been emulated in the Cherifien Kingdom thanks to the Foundation of the International Holcim Forum where Lahbib El Moumni and Reda Channane were on top of the podium! Sponsored by the Holcim Foundation for Sustainable Construction based in Zurich, Switzerland, the fourth edition of the Forum was held under the banner of “Economics of Sustainable Construction” and took place between April 11th and April 13th 2013 in Bombay, India.
A competition involving several inernationales schools, assessed by a prestigious jury
Thus, the Forum took place over three days with the participation of teachers, professionals, nature and anthropology experts, architects and town planners. The participation of celebrities such as David Chipperfield, Alejandro Aravena, Lucas Bretschger and Brinda Somaya was noticed. The competition associated with this event allowed students from participating schools to present 24 projects. Participants at the forum, architects, town planners, engineers, economists and other multidisciplinary expert were themselves the jury of the contest by voting on the project which most fulfill the requirements of the competition. After the vote of more than 300 participants, the project of the two students of the School of Architecture of Casablanca, in this case, Lahbib El Moumni fifth year student and representative of AFRIKArchi Morocco and Reda Channane, won the trophy. www.afrikarchi.com | 11
ARCHITECTURE | Reward
The project has grabbed the attention of the assistance and participants for both its originality and its quality: Urban Micro Suture to Generate a New Development of the Old Medina of Tetouan. It is important to remind that three years earlier, in his first participation, the School of Architecture in Casablanca had gleaned the 2nd prize, with the Tomb Houses project.
An urban acupuncture operation for the Medina of Tetouan This year, the project of Lahbib El Moumni and Reda Channane consisted mainly on an urban acupuncture operation. In other words, it was a set of small-scale operations that have consisted in the design of public spaces aiming to provide a better quality of life for residents. The project was developed along one of the major axes of the Medina of Tetouan, characterized by an overlap of several issues. This site is thus marked by a tortuous terrain and by steep slopes, issues related to drainage, waste treatment, and mobility problems of handicapped persons. Also, this is an area where poor people live and where public spaces are of low-quality, often neglected. The objective of this project was to treat this axis with whenever appropriate responses to the issues raised, and through the creation of public spaces that meet the needs of the local population. We can name for example, the creation of spaces for street vendors, lookouts, and the development of playgrounds or spaces dedicated to urban agriculture. It is through an analysis of land and a detailed study of vacant spaces and their ability to change that this project aims to be an example for the preservation of this heritage. Roland KOUASSI
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ARCHITECTURE | Exclusive Interview
The architect of the Sahel Internationally known for his projects such as the School of Gando and the Centre for Earthen Architecture in Mali, this architect is one of the african architects who doesn’t not only feature in major international magazines, but also carries out his projects primarily using local materials and outreach work by the local workforce. His name is Francis D. Kéré . The man born in Burkina Faso has won several major awards including the prestigious Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2004 and the Global Holcim Gold Award for sustainable building in 2011 and 2012. AFRIKArchi interviewed the architect who we met at the Global Holcim Awards 2012 which took place earlier this year in Mumbai, India. 14 | #1
African students do not know Mr. Kere. Who is Francis Kere ? Francis Kere ? It is me , a humble person. I was born in Burkina Faso. I got a scholarship from the German government and that allows me to get my baccalaureate degree by taking evening classes and then study architecture in Berlin. After two years, I was bored at the University , I studied the old construction techniques in Germany and many other things. I went back to Burkina Faso to build a school. I built this building before my degree. I did not want my degree, I wanted to learn how to build and that’s it! I started studying very late. I started at the age of 30, what most people ignore. I must say that I did not have the stress that I have today. I studied with young people aged 20. But with work and travel, things have changed a lot. I built my first building in 2001 and it was awarded with the Aga Khan in 2003. And that was two months after I graduated. Today, I continue to help my village and I have projects all around the world.
We feel that there is a guideline in your projects. Is there really ? There is a continuity in what I do. There are some guidelines that I work with; I try to work with the climate and to protect buildings against water and temperature which is manifested in several ways. I often have two roofs. A massive false ceiling that protects against external heat classes, and another thinner roof. Both roofs have an important function for me. A double roof creates a flow of air between the massive walls , which allows natural air between buildings. It is not rare that I choose to make large roofs for buildings in the projects that I do in Burkina Faso .
The iconic buildings you built are often equipment. Have you tried this type of approach in habitation? Yes, I often built schools but I also build houses. My second project was a house. But there is a very emotional writing in this type of building! That’s why I have not talked too much about it, these buildings are often referred to as wastelands villages. There are ideas on a large scale. However, the financial resources force us to wait and I must say, I am still bound to the academy in education.
Your first project were about education : creating a school for people who do not have access to it. You particularly want to participate in this social project. In several other projects, you really integrated the population of your village in their construction. This comes from another education. What is for you the pillar of education? My definition of education is as follows: maybe if we are poor, it is because our people are cut off from information because we cannot read or write. Education is the basis of all economic and even cultural development. I left my traditional community of Burkina Faso which was a village. I wanted to build a school here, to travel and to discover. I have done this by working with this population. It was a new technique I was trying to achieve, so we had to teach these people to master this technique. Ultimately, it is making and creating an infrastructure for education and give the community the opportunity to build this infrastructure.
What advice can you give to young architect students ? Maybe I’m the wrong advisor of my domain from the continent. But I think we need to have more courage, as Alejandro Aravena said, « there is more need of the mother natural milk ». This link must be better cultivated and we must take time to ponder on it. In Africa, what we lack is the courage, determination and information. I am aware that this is a big problem. We must not also forget that what is important is the human relationship. It worths more than money. As a student, you must have the courage , I don’t follow that trend. We must consider what we have as an important value to us . This is what an architect like me is trying to do. Alejandro Aravena told me about this and that is what he just repeated to me again. He was at home in my village and he told me: «You know, it’s not because you’re an architect over there that the ambassador of the United States rallied ». It is a judge of the Supreme Court of the United States that was in my village to see my project. This small village in the heart of Africa. If I had copied an American architectural style, it would have never moved someone.
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ARCHITECTURE | Exclusive Interview
« The field is new, the error would be to abandon. It is we, the future of Africa » Because there would have been thousands and he would rather go elsewhere. It’s because I had the courage to commit myself to my community using what I have learnt in an architecture school. So you move people, you make people think and that is what we must do. I always rejected and denied the fact of walking like a sheep behind trends. And it makes sense, mass runs behind the mass. The others have discovered everything because they had the courage to do it first.
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A word for AFRIKArchi Association : What can you say to this initiative? I especially wish to AFRIKArchi much more courage. It’s not easy, it’s the beginning. The field is new to you the initiators. The mistake would be to give up, because the great price you got was to have started and having the courage to dare : creating a forum, a way for Africa. We’re also young. Why wait for the institutions, that are supposed to speak for us? We are the future of Africa and we must not give up. This is a good choice and I can only encourage you in this direction, and nobody knows what it will become tomorrow. This may lead, perhaps, on a platform for the entire continent, an opening to the world, within Africa. Lahbib EL MOUMNI
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Made from African Materials or Fabrics
ARCHITECTURE | Architectural criticism
ADJAYEtecture | KEREtecture
hey are both African architects born in sub-Saharan Africa conducting large-scale projects around the world. They teach architecture at prestigious universities. They were awarded prestigious architectural awards and make the news in major international magazines. They both pursued their studies in architecture in Europe. Many points in common, but different approaches to architecture! One was particularly inspired by African culture and objects commonly used in Africa to develop his projects. The other draws deep inspiration from the African soil and involves local actors in his projects, incorporating the use of local materials. You have probably seen their profiles, interviews and projects in many magazines, because they are the ones who hold the reins when it comes to architecture in Africa. 18 | #1
Two men who are popular in Africa and the world Their names , David O. Adjaye & Francis D. KĂŠrĂŠ. One is from Ghana and the other is from Burkina Faso . Will they have the same understanding and the same architecture design? In the present era when the African economy is booming, and where there are growth rates in double figures in some countries, it is more than important to look at the architecture, town planning, sanitation and roads and utility services in African cities. Indeed, one wonders about the role and place of these wellknown architects and urban planners. Do they really work enough on the problems that Africa is suffering from !? Because despite the efforts, we hardly see the result of steps taken.
re for Africa ?
and Culture, the project worths 500 million dollars. Non-existent in Africa since its inception, the agency has started these last few years to pilot projects on the continent, such as Princess Resort Town (Takoradi , Ghana - ongoing) , Sylvia Bongo Ondimba Foundation (Libreville, Gabon - ongoing), Cape Coast Slavery Museum (Cape Coast, Ghana ongoing) . Also, the architect participates in many conferences and workshops taking place on the African continent.
« The Anglo-saxon model »
Yet born of Ghanaian parents David Adjaye considers himself as « British- Ghanaian » and some also refer to him as a British architect.
Among these projects, all the most prestigious, we do not yet see the large-scale project dealing with the real issues such as architecture, urban planning and roads and utility services. Since the architect continues to expand his projects on the continent in recent years, we hope that he could set up an agency in Africa and really work on the problems about is suffering from. But, also use his reputation to help African governments to understand that areas such as architecture and urban planning are catalysts for the development of Africa. Adjaye is not only a model for the entire African youth, but also one of Africa’s architects seen on the international scale.
orn in 1966 in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, from a Ghanaian diplomat father, the architect is the founder of Adjaye Associates, formerly known as Adjaye Architects. Today, the agency is installed in major cities around the world such as London, New York, Berlin, and also in Qatar. Yet born of Ghanaian parents, David Adjaye considers himself as « British- Ghanaian » and some also refer to him as a British architect. His agency has completed many prestigious projects in the world. These include Nobel Peace Center in Oslo ( 2005), Rivington Place, London ( 2007), the Museum of Contemporary Art Denver (2007). In 2009, the agency has won the tender of the prestigious Washington Monument, the National Museum of African - American History www.afrikarchi.com | 19
ARCHITECTURE | Architectural criticim
Today, the architect has to his credit many projects around the world including Mali, Yemen, but also in India or Spain. However, again, beyond the success of these projects that work at the village level, we may regret the absence of solutions to the fundamental problems associated with urbanization in Africa.
What architectural identity reflects the headquarters of the African Union?
«Trained at the German School » orn in 1965 in Gando , Burkina Faso , this man is the founder of Kere Architecture Bagency and the association « stones to build
schools in Gando» (1998) . Graduate of the Technische Universität Berlin (TU), the course of the architect is not at all that of ordinary mortals. Having initially trained as a carpenter in his native village, the man came to Ouagadougou, where he was employed as an instructor by BMZ, a German NGO which funds technical training workshops in the country. After obtaining a scholarship by the NGO, Francis Kere flew to Germany where he then studied architecture. The architect is known for the Gando school he built while he was still a student. This project is no longer to be presented. It has been awarded with the prestigious Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2004. This school, which operation is more readable sectionally is made of adobe bricks, local material. The structure is covered by a roof canopy, favoring moderate temperatures in classrooms. The overflow of the roof serves as a visor and plays a parallel role in protecting walls. Over the years since its construction, classrooms, accommodation for students and faculty center, a sport court and a garden were added to the school. The Gando School and Centre of earthen architecture in Mali are even examples of advanced research into the appropriate architecture in the Sahel countries. For not only local materials are used, but in addition to this, men and women of the village involved in the implementation of the architecture. Thus, training is acquired as the buildings are built.
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What about the architectural identity and an adapted architecture to African countries? Today, the lack of an own architectural identity in Africa is alarming, even when it comes to build the headquarters of the African Union in Addis-Abeba.
This is once again a missed opportunity. Indeed, it is the Chinese who offered to Africa this 20-storeys building, built at a cost of $ 200 million. And also made infrastructures where any african architectural reading can be noticed. Why not calling an African architect to design such a building, which is supposed to reflect an Africa that wants to be independent and free of expression, including architecturally ? Don’t we have architects of African descent or in Africa who care about this matter? Or do they all pretend not to care about the issue? The architects David Adjaye & Francis Kere, known over the world, couldn’t they make African leaders understand that it is time that we stop copying western architecture and that we finally defined our own architectural identity at the image of our African countries. All the architects of African countries need to contribute. Romarick ATOKE
CONSULTANT AFRIQUE MAKE THE ACHIEVEMENT OF YOUR PROJECT EASIER
International Directory of consultants in outsourcing competences (outsourcing) for Africa. Consultants are classified by sector and country.
Annuaire International de consultants en externalisation de compétences (outsourcing) pour l'Afrique. Les consultants sont classées par secteurs d'activités et par pays.
www.consultant-afrique.com www.afrikarchi.com | 21
International City of Dakar 22 | #1
District of Fann Hock, Dakar, Senegal Groupe 3 Architectes
(Omar Tijani, Skander Amine)
Design : 2013
www.afrikarchi.com | 23
ARCHITECTURE | Dossier
Dakar true African megalopolis of more than 4 million people, will soon host the « International City of Dakar ». It will bring together representations of all institutions and international organizations located in West Africa! Built on an area of 1.2 ha, it will be located between the Island of Cape Verde and the Dakar beach in Senegal. Famous due to its coastline, it may put more emphasis on tourism resort. It already boasts on the heights of being the first West African Riviera!
he main idea of the project emerges from the major issue of the urban settlement. Indeed, it takes place into the heart of a prominent site across the agglomeration of Dakar. Located at the top of the peninsula of Cape Verde, the international city of Dakar takes place on the fringe of the western ridge of the city.
In addition, «The International City of Dakar» seeks to combine business with pleasure. It is also an attraction for city dwellers. Convenience facilities inside such as ventilation and lighting in offices, the presence of a garden and the serenity atmosphere save the occupants of pollution of all kinds in the city and call for concentration at work. The project consists in a relatively simplicity, from a low base, to ensure common functions : reception, conference rooms, restaurant, lounge areas. It also hosts offices. This base, which is along the parcel, is around the streets and just mark the separation between inside and outside. Indeed, one of the high stakes of the project is to meet the necessary safety requirements in the international city.
Moreover, Dakar offers significant infrastructure: The Leopold Sedar Senghor International Airport which just get certified, wide avenues and highways tolls allowing to avoid traffic and an inner rail for domestic service. Other means of communication such as broadband Internet, the large use of mobile phone as well as the promotion and booming of ICT, contribute to the development of this new However, the treatment of the facade softens the neighborhood. apparent brutality : facing panels in floral patterns This favorable location gives to this project the are articulated with the vegetated treatment is ambition to serve as a new urban landmark in Dakar, provided along the street facades. ambition that designers also wanted to translate through the quality given to the design and to the A central vacuum treated as an choice of materials.For a project of this magnitude, the respect for architectural, urban and climate indoor garden norms matter. “The International City of Dakar” is not a copy of Western administrative cities. It will The base is well organized around a central vacuum, have its natural shape and its infrastructure assets treated as an interior garden, which became one of to provide the warmth of the welcome and the the major elements of the project. This garden is African feel. “The International City of Dakar” was not very visible from the outside part of the dialectic constructed following tropical standards. of the opening and closing and helps to create an element of surprise to the visitor. The garden is Buildings whose architecture reflects the African seen as a secure base for the surrounding area. cultures and traditions, will work on dialectical opening and closing of near and far, universal and The garden is also disbursed from the ground level, local. All this will be done by taking into account which allows to bring natural light to parking lots some principles of safety and quality of life. located underground. 24 | #1
Five emergences take place above this base. These, consisting of office floors, range from R 1 to R 5. Their structure has been particularly studied in order that all may fit better in the urban landscape of Dakar.
The project of the international city of Dakar is one of a kind due to its ability to meet strong security requirements, performance and scalability. This is done while providing a clear architectural response, assertive, rewarding for the Dakar of tomorrow.
A breathtaking view of the ocean and Dakar
Thus through these elements that the university city of Dakar handles the dialectic of the opening and closing to highlight the entire coastline of Dakar, in particular and of Senegal, in general.
Among these structures, a work was done on the design, the optimization of user comfort and the ability to spare views. Obviously, the facades are studied in order to maximize the integration of climate issues: slab overhang and solar protection south faรงade systems wooden shutters that give identity to the building. The opening reads from the floors where it dominates the city, and where we have a view of Dakar and the ocean. www.afrikarchi.com | 25
ARCHITECTURE | Dossier
es cinq ours du nçu sur aissant percée visuelle
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COEUR D’ILOT VEGETALISE - ACCES DISSOCIES
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LUMIERE NATURELLE - VUES
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ARCHITECTURE | Dossier
A ventilated air space keeps the
Plants have been selected in order
to reduce moisture
From a landscape point of view, the international city of Dakar has a strong party, in both its integration into its environment and its own design.
A particular attention is paid to the choice of plants used in this project, especially since they are selected for their ability to reduce humidity. They enable, also, to fight against the proliferation of Indeed, the project is designed to incorporate a mosquitoes. central garden surrounded by the frame base, which is the real heart of the entire building. It The choice of plants also helps to arrange views and comes again reflect the dialectic of the opening and openings from the upper floors. In addition, the closing as it is hidden from the outside, and offers garden is slightly cash, allowing it to gain volume itself to visitors rushing into the building. He is also and level differences play with height differences of a must before going into offices on the upper floors. the selected plants. In continuation of this work on the plant in under bioclimatic, the project is part of a true sustainable development. 28 | #1
A ÂŤ green Âť project Indeed, the power supply of the building will be provided by solar panels placed on the roof and raised, allowing the creation of a ventilated air space that keeps the building fresh. Also, the mix of natural and mechanical ventilation of the building will allow its occupants to enjoy the best comfort. This is completed by a system of dehumidification in the office, allowing optimum comfort and that at any time of the year.
natural light by limiting climate impact inside. On other fronts, they are slab overhangs which provide sun protection. The use of materials is part of the same logic. Thus, the choice of hydrophilic materials can be explained by their ability to store water vapor (fluid inertia). It is in this sense that the architects chose to use coated with clay, local materials for the building envelope.
Sun protection is an important part of the architectural choices because it is what has guided the facade. Indeed, the height and intensity of the sun in Dakar guided the choice of large strips of wood arranged in south facade. Sparse, they let in enough www.afrikarchi.com | 29
ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE | Dossier
1. Reprographic local 2. Storage / Archives 3. Meeting room 4. Relaxation area 5. Men Toilets Block 6. Women Toilets Block 7. Cleaning storage 8. Floor computer room 9. Technical storage
FACADE PRINCIPALE OUEST
été reprise de l’air vicié en partie haute du volume puis rejet dans la cheminée d’extraction
étagère à lumière air frais déshumidifié
allège à réseau d’eau froide pour déshumidifer l’air
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protection solaire extérieure permettant de réfléchir les apports solaires en partie basse et de faire pénétrer la lumière diffuse en profondeur en partie haute
utilisateurs VIP public
COEUR D’ILOT VEGETALISE - ACCES DISSOCIES
VUES - POROSITES
Technical data sheet
Program : Commercial (offices and conference center) Client : Private Area : 35 000 m² Delivery : 2016
LUMIERE NATURELLE - VUES
Constructive system : Reinforced concrete structural frame Base : Concrete bright printed floral pattern Blocks : Glazing and louvred screen wood in southern facade
Khader BERREKLA and Roland KOUASSI
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CONSTRUCTION | Sight
Africities or chinacities ?
Chinese construction is about to become a reference through the competition that opposes China to local companies.
frican cities are getting built to a very high speed in the image of the African economy. All international financial institutions agree to say, in these times of financial crisis, that Africa, the continent of all evils, has a good economic health with an economic growth of 6% (agenceecofin.com).
For the average citizen, far from all analyzes, this progress is visible thanks to the multiple projects conducted throughout the continent: roads, hospitals, schools, harbours, and airports construction ... Over the past decade, investments in transportation infrastructure (bridges, roads, airports) or energy (dams, refineries, pipelines), in social housing and maintenance have increased on the continent: Mali has invested nearly $ 700 billion XOF in road infrastructure in the same time frame, Congo has injected 380 billion XOF in 2012 compared to only 70 in 2005, next to the «emerging Gabon» which plans to invest 18 billion euros in five years. No doubt that the will of these States is contributing to this explosive economic growth 32 | #1
known by African cities, promoting the opening up of regions, bringing electricity to villages, and attracting foreign investment. In West Africa a major railroad project linking four countries (Côte d’Ivoire, Benin, Niger, Burkina Faso) is under construction and will cost 5 billion XOF. The five members of the Economic Community of East Africa endorsed an intra-regional railroad project that will cost $ 4.6 billion US.
China is taking over on an immense market The current pace of urbanization in Africa (3.4%, according to UN-Habitat), is the highest in the world. Between 2010 and 2050 the urban population will triple. With such forecasts, African States must improve infrastructure (roads, energy, health ...) and should provide adequate social housing. However, according to the African Development Bank, Africa only needs $ 40 billion US per year for its urbanization and many
are more reluctant to face business loans, given the slow payment of African States - Proven lack of necessary skills that local businesses do not have in major projects Expertise
countries do not have sufficient resources. The traditional donors (IMF, World Bank), are reluctant to make new loans due to the multiple debts previously incurred by African states. Meanwhile, China is an effective partner. From 2001 to 2010 China’s aid to Africa for road construction, railways and electricity networks has increased from 1 to 7 billion US dollar per year. China has helped African countries building more than 2.000 km of roads, more than 3.000 km of railways, a hundred schools, sixty hospitals and canceled for more than 3 billion US $ of debt. Indeed, China’s interest for African has increased this recent years, with loans and debt cancellation, trade agreements, donations and «win-win» partnerships that come with it, arrives at a good moment. «When I want to build a highway, it takes me five years to close the deal with the World Bank. With China, it is set in few days: I say yes or no, and I sign.» The former Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade, summed up in these words, at the EU-China summit in 2007, the new alliance with the Middle Kingdom. Chinese donations (stadiums, hospitals, clinics, orphanages...) are often financed and built entirely by Chinese enterprises and their workers.
Reasons explaining China success : - The support of the State Bank, the China Export-Import Bank (CEB), which has huge resources (over 1.900 billion), while local banks
- High response capacity (simple and robust technologies, mobilization of thousands of workers if needed) while local companies use outsourcing; sometimes foreign outsourcing; which increases their costs - Rates are 30 to 40% lower than the competition. Unbeatable prices allowing them to have a low cost workforce, imported from China, as well as the public works equipment, transported by boat from the Middle Kingdom
Given the number of interlocutors, Africans sometimes require Chinese companies to have Western consultants, which makes them benefiting from both, low cost Chinese, quality requirements and efficiency of Western groups. The construction of the Imboulou dam in Congo by the company CMEC under the control of the German company Fichtner, is a good example. Besides financial problems to compete with western companies, mainly in projects to international bidding (partly funded by the state or not) or national (funded entirely by the state), local businesses are facing a lack of material and human resources leading them to subcontracting and thus depriving them of the chance to be competitive.
- China does not have a privileged area; it’s everywhere, even in areas at risk or abandoned by the Western
- China is back up by a strong
diplomatic activity resulting in donations made entirely by Chinese companies or contracts to the «Angola way» which means they use infrastructures as raw materials - Courage and determination to go to the adventure despite the language difficulties - Timeliness and work discipline.
The French companies Bouygues and Bolloré are less present. Now, several emerging countries like India and Brazil also with a huge potential are following China example in Africa. Yet another serious competitor to China in the construction industry on the continent is Turkey. Turkey, already present in the Maghreb, is beginning to invest in sub-Saharan Africa.
Few private contracts that remain despite the risk of corruption and its illegal character in some countries, do not always benefit to the local companies. Inter-state and/or Chinese gifts agreements are not helping since many of them denounce unfair competition and calls for protectionist policy. But this has allowed many to revise their standards and questioning. Rachidatou TCHAGBELE
Turkish construction companies (Dogus Holding, Mak Yol, the firm Galkon ...), which hold more than 3% of the global construction market, do not receive direct subsidies from their State, but are as cheaper as Chinese. www.afrikarchi.com | 33
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Already available in the kiosque
Constructions like cupboard under water
Buildings in many cities do not withstand during rainy seasons
he rainy season has become a nightmare for people living in the sub-region of Abidjan, via Niamey and Dakar. The rains and winds are causing disasters in their path, plunging people into confusion and turmoil.
In recent decades, urbanization, often did not follow the rapid changes in the demographic of the West African cities. The houses often have not been built according to the standards of urban planning and modern architecture. Used materials are not suitable for tropical weather. Pipes no longer support the population density as households have doubled. Even if they exist, they are blocked by businesses or slum swarming cities. Furthermore, sustainable development is not promoted by the state authorities. The Ministries of Environment and Sustainable Development undertake actions that are ineffective and inefficient.
A lack of public information and an operating opacity of companies Upstream, people are not aware of such assets based actions. Moreover, given the decline of the authority of the State, companies in charge of the city’s maintenance in terms of garbage collection and sweeping sabotage the health programs of the city. Therefore, the non-biodegradable waste are present in drains are numerous and their presence continues. In addition, companies trample upon the basic rules. Rivers are polluted and become beds for companies waste. Then, in view of their expansion, they destroy vegetation in search of resources necessary for their different operations. This has effects that have an influence on climate change.
This situation presented in this way is very conducive to the damage and loss of human life, the first rains. Raindrops gather through small channels, which themselves are growing and becoming more powerful. They destroy everything in their path, houses collapse, bridges break, roads are cut and people are dying.
Low-serviced areas and inadequate networks In August 2012, following heavy rains in Dakar, there were dozens of deaths. Nothing is done to solve the problems of hazardous sites. The ORSEC plan, a device for crisis management, does not solve these problems ahead of the arrival of the first rains. Similarly, in Côte d’Ivoire in 2009, neighborhoods that have not been serviced were under water during the rainy season. Residential neighborhoods suffer from the consequences of precipitation. In this country, slums such as Bromakoté, Gobele Abobo and behind-rails have known significant human and material damage. It is time that awareness is done to all concerned actors. Roland KOUASSI
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CONSTRUCTION | Sight
A think-tank for Rwanda
wo architects and designers trained in Nantes, Anaïs Le Grand and William Sardin, founded the studio George Pericles, based in Paris and Rwanda. This studio aims to contribute to the development of Rwanda, a country that has many advantages, such as its vast land or its natural resources specific to Africa. «Design for All» is one of the key words of these two architects who are trying to pass on their knowledge while keeping the traditional spirit of Rwanda.
projects across Africa. Kigali, Rwanda’s capital and its largest city, therefore offers a rich field for the collective teachings of twenty Rwandan and French architects. This mixture allows the transfer of knowledge and ideas that Kigali will benefit from. The project takes place both on the ground, with a dip to the inhabitants of the districts of Kigali, including Kagugu to better understand their lifestyle and raise awareness of their needs, but also by organizing a conference and exposure to disseminate the results of research that aims to help the urbanization of large cities in the whole of Africa.
The « LEARNING FROM KIGALI » project Avec un PIB de +7% en 2012 et de +5,9% au premier trimestre 2013, le Rwanda est un pays propice à l’urbanisation. En effet, avec une population qui migre de plus en plus vers les villes, la demande dans les grandes agglomérations devient forte.
Design from RWANDA to BURUNDI The designers are also behind a luxury supplies line inspired by Rwandan traditions. Supplies are made from local materials, and in partnership with artisans in Rwanda. The Kubaka collection binds modernity and traditions. There is also the construction of private homes in the project of George Pericles. The Rugo house is one of the examples of their work. This low-cost house is in line with the spirit of the traditions associated with modernity. It is inspired by the traditional houses of Rwanda and Burundi, neighboring countries. The architects therefore wanted to provide solutions to the needs of local people by allowing them access to lowcost houses.
Un collectif d’architectes rwandais et français pour étudier la vie à Kigali With a GDP of +7% in 2012 and +5.9% in the first quarter of 2013, Rwanda is an excellent hub for urbanization. Indeed, with a population that migrates increasingly to cities, the demand in large cities is high. This is why these two young architects have created the project to study the city as a pilot site before developing similar 36 | #1
www.afrikarchi.com | 37
HERITAGE | Focus
CONSERVATION ET REHABILITATION
African architectural heritage
Development of constructions made with clay or adobe Theinternational international The colloquium colloquium on earthen world on world heritage heritage earthen architecture conservation architecture was held at theconservation headquarters held in atParis the ofwas UNESCO on headquarters UNESCO December 17thof and 18th, in Paris on December 2012. AFRIKArchi had 17thprivilege and to 18th, 2012. the attend this AFRIKArchi had the event. This participation privilege tomeet attend this allowed us to important event. This participation people having an active allowed to meetof role in the us conservation important people heritage. having African countries an active in the Among them, role Mr Mohamed conservation Director of Africanof Boussaleh, countries heritage. Among CERKAS (Conservation them,rehabilitation Mr Mohamed and centre Director of ofBoussaleh, architectural heritage (Conservation ofCERKAS Atlas and sub-Atlantic and rehabilitation centre areas) based in Ouarzazate of architectural heritage (Morocco) who we could of Atlas and sub-Atlantic interview. areas) based in Ouarzazate (Morocco) who we could interview.
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AFRIKArchi : Good morning Mr Boussaleh, it is an honor to meet you. Allow us to thank you for giving us this interview. Can you please introduce yourself to those of our readers who do not know you? I was born in the south of Morocco and I grew up in the south of Agadir, in a city called Azrou. I did my study in this area, from primary to High School. Then, I joined the National Center for Archaeological Sciences and Heritage in Rabat. I’m among the first students enrolled in this school in 1986; the institute itself was created in 1989. We did Archaeology, and adter 4 years, I specialized in social and cultural anthropology. I did a Superior Studies Certificate in 2 years. After all this, I joined the CERKAS, a center created by the Ministry of Culture in 1989, in collaboration with UNESCO and the CNUT. The center was opened in order to come up with solutions to the busting structure issue in the Atlas region in Morocco. The center was created 2 years after the Ksar Ait Ben Haddou was register in the World Heritage List of UNESCO in 1987. I started taking care of ethno-historical investigation of the earthen architectural heritage. In 1997, I left Morocco to do a graduate degree in in Egypt, at the University Leopold Sedar Senghor. I stayed there two years, then I went back to Ouarzazate and worked for the CERKAS where I became responsible for «surveys and studies» unit in 2000. The same year I started a big project with the company Helvetic located in
Haddou. Today, I am an expert at UNESCO earthen architecture, and expert member of the ICOMOS earthen architecture. In addition, I am a temporary teacher at the polydisciplinary Faculty of Ouarzazate (tourism) and at the University of Agadir (Heritage) where I supervise master students. I trained mountain guides, at Azilal in the training center of mountain profession. I conducted many restoration in the region: ksours, villages, Kasbah, attics, clay stone.I also published many articles and conservation manuals. I also participated to conferences, in USA, Peru, and all over Africa ... I’ve been part of expertise conducted in Mali, Niger, Mauritania, and in Senegal. I am actually preparing a complete conception of the development of management plans for sites in Maghreb with the UNESCO Office in Rabat, to train all managers.
AFRIKArchi : It is after this strong expertise and experience that you elaborated a management plan for other sites?
Switzerland. The project consisted of an inventory of the architectural heritage of the valley Dra’a through aerial photographs. His exact title was «Inventory by aerial photograph of the architectural heritage of the valley Dra’a.» It is a valley of about 250km long. We therefore developed a geographic information system (GIS), which has allowed us after about 8 years to record nearly 300 communal villages. For 8 years, we had to study all these villages, their architecture, their architectural elements (doors, windows ...), galleries, technical and social organization. In 2004, I was appointed delegate of the Ministry of Culture in Ouarzazate. In 2007, I left the delegation to continue to manage the CERKAS. I did a lot of technical studies at the Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne (EPFL), and did classes in computer science, GIS, image processing, mapping etc.. This allows me to train CERKAS staff. I was also co-director of a project with Wallen Brussels for an «archaeological study of the granaries of the Atlas.» This project lasted for five years, and has allowed us to restore an attic floor in a village not far from Ait Ben
M. Boussaleh : Yes. Today I’m working with the Getty Foundation Institute and Claudia Cancino who is an old friend. One day, she proposed me to work with her on a project in Morocco. In 2010, they came here and we visited the country, especially the south-east and the presaharic valleys. Them, we choose a Kasbah in Ouarzazate – the biggest onw built in clay – the Taourirte one. We started a huge project of rehabilitation by taking into consideration welcome centers and artisans’ working areas. We will soon create a city for artists in the Kasbah.
AFRIKArchi : You are an expert of this site! Can you please tell us more on your current projects ? M. Boussaleh : I am currently working with large provinces in the south of Agadir in order to protect granaries stone. For this study study, the rehabilitation and the construction of a center of interpretation of granaries stone in Morocco. All this with models highlighting architectural eleents, etc… There is also a work on panels label.
AFRIKArchi : What partnerships are set up to conduct these projects? M. Boussaleh : Mostly we use money from our ministry but also the money from the communities which ask me to intervene for a restauration. All in all, funding comes from the State. Sometimes, it comes from the private sector, but it is unusual. www.afrikarchi.com | 39
HERITAGE | Focus
AFRIKArchi : Don’t you look for patrons? M. Boussaleh : Patrons are unusual. And the UNESCO is not always there and even if they fund, it is not enough. For studies, they sometimes give between 15,000$ and 20,000$, which is not enough. For Wallen Bruxelles, at some point, they fund the re-establishment of the attic.
AFRIKArchi : The process is then simple: Partners are investors and you are the manager? M. Boussaleh : Yes. This is the scheme. We manage everything and we train a lot of students in architecture in Valence and Barcelona who are usually here for one month. With their teachers, we go in a village, in a Ksar, and we train them for surveys, studies, in order for them to understand the soul and the spirit of this architecture. The Universities of Liege and Valence also participate to this project.
AFRIKArchi : Are french schools involve in this process? M. Boussaleh : No. You have schools from Switzerland, Belgium, Spain and Austria. Nowadays, the CERKAS is one of the best equipped center, mostly with reestablishment and computer equipment. We have many offices so we don’t have issues to receive researcher or students. We have enough space to organize workshops, we even have an outdoor amphitheater, in the middle of the Kasbah.
AFRIKArchi : Today, what is the big project that is close to your heart, that you really want to achieve? M. Boussaleh : First of all, there are personal projects ad projects that come from the euphoria of the work. Today, the project that is particularly close to my heart is the development, rehabilitation and restoration of the Kasbah and the Ksar Taouirt. The reason is that today, we
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want to demonstrate to the national and international community that with the earth or with a monument that had a role, we have a political, economic and social system. From the twentieth century, after independences, another system was installed, a system which provided another way of living. So the Ksar – fortified village – was fortified because the political system of the time required this fortification because there was no centralized state, there were tribes and therefore wars. So people were forced to protect themselves. The Ksar was located in the path of caravan, which no longer exist. It was there to meet a social structure based on mutual aid and on a compact design. After independence we fell into individualism, we can’t no longer live with others and we were enclosed in the walls. We switched to another system, until today. After we left the Ksar, which was very tight, we shared the land and each family now has huge land and has built a house to the horizontal. We went from the vertical to the horizontal building. There was the display of an architecture of space that no longer meets cities plans. When people are out of [Ksar], there was no development Plan in this period, there was nothing at all! So, you cannot force people who already had this in mind state, this mentality! Imagine, you come and you say to people: «Listen, we’ll build social housing for you!”50m ²! But it was insane! You cannot come and force people to live in cages. There is no one in this area that has already lived in 50m²! Then after they left the village without destroying the Ksar. They let nature do its work! The earth return to earth! It crumbles like chocolate! After a while, it’s over! But you know, this has been done for centuries. Since the fifteenth and the sixteenth century, people abandoned a village and built a new one! And in the twentieth century, they found new ways of building new materials. So they do not want to go back.
« For this project, we wanted to create a large historic center » The great mistake made by states, was that when they found themselves with cities of more than 500,000 inhabitants, such as Ouarzazate, Zagora, etc., they have not built and ensured continuity of the technical materials, to provide another method of construction that would not be totally different from the old one. So they destructed everything, they shaved it all! So if the state does not even recognize the earth as a building material, how do you expect people to follow! For this great project, we wanted to create a large historic center for the city, because it is inconceivable today that a city does not have his history, his root. Ouarzazate, the new town was established in 1928. It was a military post. The French arrived in the valleys to conquer the preSaharan valleys of Morocco. They set up a military post on the trail of a fortification of the fifteenth, sixteenth century. After that, the town developed itself through the years, but the old town was abandoned. So today, all the ills of society are there; drugs, prostitution. Thus, with Claudia (from the Getty institute), we wanted to restore the Kasbah and the Ksar. In the Kasbah, there is a CERKAS office, and we also installed a large library, with the help of the French Embassy, it is the only library installed in a heritage
site. In addition, we wanted to create an ethnographic museum of pre-saharic valleys and earthen architecture through it. And the Ksar propose another approach, which is friendly, social, and adapted to the lifestyle, with activities to generate income for the people. The second project, which is more personal is about attics. You know, we have the largest granaries built in stone of the world. Even Moroccans do not know about them. So we are working to have it ranked in the list of World Heritage of Moroccan granaries. They are the icon of the Berber architecture at all levels. There are cases suspended on the top of a cliff between the sky and the ground. And today, even with all our knowledge, we will not be able to replicate such architecture. And you will not even DARE to go in the boxes! Between the door of the box and the cliff there is 50cm, and between the box and the river 100m!
AFRIKArchi : When were these granaries built? M. Boussaleh : Fifteenth, sixteenth century ... We have a lot of work for the development of these granaries in the Souss-Massa-Dra’a area where I am responsible for the management of the restoration work, as well as the Ksar Ait Ben Haddou. I cannot escape from these sites, it runs through my veins now! So in 2013, I will undertake a major project to restore all the houses of the Ksar Ait Ben Haddou. www.afrikarchi.com | 41
HERITAGE | Focus
AFRIKArchi : Is the entrance to the site of Ksar Ait Ben Haddou still free? M. Boussaleh : Yes. The CERKAS is currently trying to get an independent account with a budget that will be divided into 3 parts. The first will pay a part of the site staff salary which is composed of two cashiers, 4 guides and of cleaning agents. The second will be devoted to the work of preventive restoration. And the last will help community projects of inhabitants. Today we receive between 150,000 and 200,000 visitors a year, and a lot of money is running out. The film industry can also contribute in this direction. Myriam LAMOUNI
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RENEWABLE ENERGIES OUR CENTURY ENERGIES
www.afrikarchi.com | 43
URBAN PLANNING & RUS | Focus
Which urban planning for afr
Urban design for a modern Africa yes , but Africa as an example of urb quality can not be done without an urban planning that cares for all.
n recent years, urban planning is one of the most important issues in growth that we can notice on the continent. According to statistics provided by various economic institutions like the International Monetary Fund or the World Bank, Africa is now experiencing an important economic growth , despite the current crisis in the world. But we can not speak of urban planification without resorting to the policy which is an important factor in territorial planning . For this we need to make a detour through time . Not to go too far, we start our reasoning from the colonial period. During this period of 44 | #1
urbanization, as we know it today, started in Africa where political and economic interests were tied to the needs of the colon. Trade was the primary purpose of the foreign presence and the choice of the strategic location of the first occupations was directly related . Another important factor of this geographical choice was the defense . Given that the political situation in Europe during that period was not very secure. Europe had to protect its interests against possible invaders. In general, the major African capitals were built up with these principles, each retaining, however, its specificities. The installation of all this latter
rican cities ?
ban planning for the future is even better . An urban design generally including administrative buildings, military bases and residential cores, were involved into the construction of infrastructure to meet the challenges of health policy, transport, organization, a summary of social welfare. It may be noted that during this period, cities were less extensive and their occupation was more regulated. After the independence, these cities urban centers previously dedicated to European occupants, passed under the administration of the new powers. Therefore, socio-political and economic ideologies became
completely different. In an overview, the new African governments were then confronted communism, socialism and capitalism. Capitalism has the emerged, it has a significant influence on urban planning development . The urban core of the colonial era becomes a source of speculation, offering a good quality of life. Today, these areas present in our city centers, are particularly popular and valued. Thus, much of the infrastructures in african city centers date from colonial era. More than 50 years after the first independences, we see today that there is a lot to review our urban planning strategies. www.afrikarchi.com | 45
URBAN PLANNING & RUS | Focus
LES DÉFIS D’AUJOURD’HUI The majority of African countries are striving to build a democracy, which is still very fragile for most of them. To this, is added a rapid growth of urban population, not to mention that we are facing the giant China and global multinationals which see their future in Africa from an economic point of view. And the current socio-political and economic situation creates many problems of planification. The most obvious example is the urban sprawl, but also the presence of many small spaces within the tissue that were already formed. These are mainly due to lack of planning and real estate speculation, but also to the lack of infrastructure.
A big challenge on the issue of urban sprawl Urban sprawl is a problem that is currently in focus in the so-called Third World countries. Given the growth of the urban population is very rapid, and the lack of planning, it is very difficult to solve this problem . The «density - quality of Life» ratio is not balanced. It then passes through urban strategies on a large scale for the development of new neighborhoods and especially the urban renewal of existing neighborhoods. This latter must be developped with respect and relevance to the realities and specificities of each urban area. In the case of roads and utility services, the collection of garbage 46 | #1
and their treatment are inadequate or non-existent in some areas. We then notice several problems of sanitation in many areas. The worst situation is in the slums where we come to see people living on the garbage heaps. We need more investment in this issue, and environmental strategies such as selective waste, which allows the recycling of some materials, reducing the damage caused to the environment. In many cases, the domestic wastewater collection networks are poorly maintained or not enough to effectively respond to the needs. The open canalisations are frequent, and infrastructures are quickly overwhelmed. For beyond their intended use, sewage, they must also drain rainwater causing floods which are becoming more frequent. The waste generated by the dynamics of urban life, sewage, household and industrial waste should be treated. Unfortunately, the reality is quite different. Wastewater is usually untreated and discharged into natural waterways like the sea, lakes , rivers. Abiola YAYI
CALL FOR COLLABORATION VOLUNTEERING
COTONOU Architectural, urban planning and landscape draft charter
Project issues > Propose sustainable landscaped green spaces in > Improve in the neighborhoods of city, accessibility, sanitation, roads ans utility services. the city. > Focus on secured roads and pedestrian traffics > To ease congestion in the city and propose solutions through the city and amplify lighting and breakthroughs. > Propose architectural and urban identities
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www.afrikarchi.com | 47
URBAN PLANNING & RUS | Sight
An overall state of urban planning, architecture and related fields.
n the website of the Agency for State information Technology in Senegal, one learns that the country’s urbanization has increased these past years, creating a population boom never seen before. The imbalance of population redistribution of the urban population is critical. In 2009, the urban population was estimated at 5.08 million people. In other words, 42% of the Senegalese population live in urban area and nearly half of this population lives in Dakar. This is what the report published by the National Agency Statistics and Demography says about the economic situation of Senegal. This improper population distribution is probably because all administrative centers of Senegal are based in Dakar. It can cause huge problem as we will see in the following lines.
Dakar, plural capital Dakar is a very developed city when comparing its population to other cities. The urbanization of this African metropolis has foster spatial disparities. Glaring inequalities between one neighborhood to another result most of the time from the lack of space, the high price of real estate, land or building materials. Despite the efforts of policy makers, the gap between residential neighborhoods and 48 | #1
suburbs is more and more important. In addition, buffer areas occupied by a middle-income population also show government actions’ limits: unpaved roads, sandy trails, informal settlements, insecurity, irrigation problem, flood, etc… The typology of neighborhoods can be explained in few words: • Downtown: Mix of colonial and modern home where wealthy people live and work • Mixed neighborhoods where homes, universities, colleges, and touristic infrastructures meet, and where real estate prices are climbing. Examples of Neighborhoods: The Almadies (housing prices start from 750,000 XOF for an unfurnished apartment with one bedroom). The “Mamelles” (same prices), Fann Residence (Prices started from 1 million XOF). Only wealthy people, international employees, NGO staff and expatriates can live there. • Habitat crown planned by the state composed of subdivisions and housing estates occupied by people belonging to the middle class dating from the 2nd half of the twentieth century. Examples of buffer areas: Ouakam, Liberte VI Extension, or Castor, where housing started from 100,000 XOF and are occupied by middle-income people and state officials.
• The Medina is a precarious area for
disadvantaged people and where there is no comfort or facilities
Diversified neighborhoods but accessible In fact, roads are well designed and the work undertaken by the former government still have good days ahead: Turnpike, the Corniche Road, and the VDN (A road created as an alternative to other roads in Dakar). All these terrific works have reduced congestion, have open up the suburbs and have revitalized the economy. Unfortunately, the sand encrusted remains a real problem. However, it should be noted that the road that the company taking care of the dredging of the city is efficient, yet inefficient in the garbage pickup. Dakar a city that wants to be modern and contemporary, struggles to change the architecture inherited from the colonial period for that past is scattered in the city. Even if there is no preservation policy of the colonizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architectural heritage, some homes built in the same model are well preserved. Luckily, modernity is gaining more and more ground, and some twenty civil engineering companies (such as ATEPA, ETECS, or GETRANâ&#x20AC;Ś) compete in this industry well monitored by the state. As modern architectural examples, you have Sea Mall Plaza, Radisson Blue Hotel and the Terrou Bi hotel, well located on the cornice. Nearly two dozen offices and agencies of architecture argue these prestigious projects. The remarkable work done by these accredited companies does not preclude the construction of archaic building built with no compliance or ethics,
which is a risk for the population. Although, it should be noted that modernity has affected the urban architectural achievements. It is unfortunate that equipment and operating issues does not come along with the population increase. First needs services such as sanitation, water and lighting are hardly taking care of. If drinking water is one of the few services that has not yet crossed the threshold, electricity suffers from dilapidated equipment which leads to frequent electrics cut. The lack of irrigation canals combined with poor maintenance of old buildings gave rise to devastating floods every year. Ndlr : 1â&#x201A;Ź = 665 XOF | 1$ US = 495 XOF
www.afrikarchi.com | 49
URBAN PLANNING | Retrospective
What changes for architecture and urban planning in Tunisia?
An overview of Tunisia urban developments related with political and social changes
rban planning and Architecture in Tunisia are areas where politics and economics are involved in. Tunisian cities are generally built to fulfill the image the government wants to give to the population and to industrialized countries. Thus, at the time of President Bourguiba, Tunisia has offered itself the services of well-known architects and town planners like Olivier ClĂŠment Cacoub. The countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architecture changed from the Arab50 | #1
muslim architecture to Arabian architecture. The medinas have become centers of tourist attraction emptying from the local population. Under the Bourguibaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s era, major roads, such as avenues and boulevards emerged. Around the Medina, there are buildings whose style is similar to the one described by Haussmann, with ropy balconies and ground floor for commercial use. The architecture grows in height, Tunisia then becoming aware of the narrowness of its territory.
With Ben Ali, the country were more open and the real estate market very famous. Many lands were then sold to investors, mostly Saudi, Qatari, Turkish. Tunisian cities are composed of more and more sumptuous villas. The increase of the population leads to the creation of dormitory towns such as Aouina or Soukra. However, the so-called uptown appears especially in the capital, Tunis. This is the case of neighborhoods like Ennars, or Le lac. But all cities are not well designed. Indeed, touristic towns like Hammamet developed mainly one industry : the hotel industry. Buildings are relatively high, and the layout of the city tends to be closer to the cities of the U.S west coast : great tracks and palm trees adorn the medians strips.
A recent slowdown of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban dynamism Very recently, Tunisia had known a major issue on the field of architecture and urban planning. Unfortunately, there are delays of more than a year on major projects such as the City of Culture. Also, foreign investors inject less capital in the construction sector. Moreover, even luxury neighborhood such as Ennars face major difficulties, particularly in the construction of major infrastructure projects. Does this mean that Tunisia is doing all this construction to give a positive image, but this dynamic is not the reality? Tunisia has many Architecture schools which actually host the hope in the field. These students will face many challenges, including succeeding in creating an architecture which will be aesthetic, functional and operational; because architecture is not limited to the use of curtain wall and sandwich panels. It should be noted that despite everything, Tunisia remains a reference in Africa, in the field of architecture and urban planning, and it is in his interest to continue to maintain this level. Louise-Pacale NGO BARRA KONA
www.afrikarchi.com | 51
URBAN PLANNING & VRD | Housing
Housing rhyme with difficulties in African cities
n African metropolis, finding housing is not often easy. Rents are higher and higher, even far from the city’s center. In a neighborhood like Abobo in Abidjan for example, a two-room apartment without toilets leases 40.000 XOF per month, when the average monthly salary is 80.000 XOF . Also, it is not easy to acquire a piece of land, so prices are soaring because of land speculation which rejects the poor periphery.
In Dakar, the situation is not rosy either. A studio without toilets in an area such as the Medina costs about 50.000 XOF. To resolve these problems, the government provides social housing estates, with the granting of building plots, or the development of social housing parks with real estate companies. Unfortunately, this momentum was halted by the SAP (Structural Adjustment Programs). The so-called affordable housing programs popping up everywhere since 2000: Project 10.000 social housing units in Burkina Faso, 60.000 social housing units in Côte d’Ivoire and HLM (Habitat Rent Moderate) in Senegal, with 13.432 housing units in Dakar and its suburbs. However, it is mainly housing with materials that are not adapted to the local climate. In addition, given the population growth, this solution seems to be a drop in the sea! Moreover, it is well to add that in most developing countries, the state is obliged to be present in this area, given the political consequences that may result because of the lack of habitat. Unfortunately, the presence of the state is not profitable business because it does not allow them to manage the sector rationally. Each change of men at the head of the state department in charge of construction and urban planning, as it is called here, creates a change in urban policy. 52 | #1
This keeps the urban policy in a constant loop. Thus, some public real estate companies are supported by private capital. This usually consists of international donors and housing banks for example.
A monotonous architecture, without high quality As for the architecture itself, there is still the same monotony in the construction of houses and few innovations. Current achievements go against African cultures which want to ensure that concessions occupy a large area and that there is more warmth and friendliness amongst neighbors. Also, it must be said that the acquisition of social housing is an obstacle course. This is due to red tape in the issuance of title deeds, corruption to own houses, and timelines that are high and difficult to meet. In Côte d’Ivoire, for example, some houses tenants of the SICOGI houses (Society of Construction and Real Estate Management) delivered since 1975, have not honored their commitments. These houses leased between 11.000 and 16.000 XOF, according to whether they have two, three, or four rooms, should be theirs over a period of 25 years. Today, there are many who have not yet paid their due. The desire to promote social housing in Africa exists, of course , but there is still much to be done, alas! Ndlr : 1€ = 665 XOF | 1$ US = 495 XOF
Available on www.inspireafrika.com
Save the date ! COMPETITIONS
HOUSES FOR CHANGE Submission deadline : 16 December, 2013
BATIMAT 2013 For more sustainable and efficient building | 4th to 8th November, 2013 - Paris Nord Villepinte, France.
IE University announces its first competition initiative “HOUSES FOR CHANGE”, hosted by IE School of Architecture and Design. The purpose of the competition is to consider housing as an urgent and basic component of improving urban environments for the poor and at risk and to propose viable housing alternatives for those often neglected or left out. + Info : http://www.housesforchange.net/competition/houses-change
URBAN REVITALIZATION OF MASS HOUSING Submission deadline : 31 January, 2014 UN-Habitat is promoting a new urban planning paradigm that calls for planning in advance at the scale of expected development of cities with a better integration of urban uses - housing, business, retail, recreation, education, agricultural, amongst others. The aim of this paradigm shift is to achieve adequate urban densities to minimise the impact of urban sprawl, improve mobility and reduce greenhouse emissions. The ultimate goal is to attain the social, economic, environmental and cultural sustainability of cities. + Info : http://www.urbangateway.org/content/internationalcompetition-urban-revitalization-mass-housing
WARWICK JUNCTION - International Competition for Architecture Students Date limite de rendu des projets : 31 Mars 2014 Based on the theme of the congress « Architecture Otherwhere », the competition aims to highlight the ecological complex of ‘Warwick Junction’ and its economic, social and cultural dynamics. It also aims to propose solutions for the benefit and the community well-being of the half a million people who frequently go on the site, located in Durban in South Africa. The project should simultaneously propose three visions: a long-term and large-scale planning; in a medium term and average scale ; an immediate and timely intervention on a small scale. + Info : http://www.uia-architectes.org/fr/s-informer/ concours/7546#.Uh0ZOz8lHch
BATIMAT 2013 will again be at the heart of buildings challenges, especially regarding energy efficiency and low power consumption. Other themes complete the 2013 edition : the accessibility and ease of use of buildings as well as strong technological aspect of construction. In 2011, 351.758 visitors, 19 % of foreign visitors from 177 countries. + Info : http://www.batimat.com ARCHIBAT The major rendez-vous of construction professionals and the general public | 7th to 12th October 2013 Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. Organized every two years, this edition is put together as a B2B Exposition-Salon. Also open to the general public, the salon allows to discuss about all the problems in the industry of construction and housing, and propose sustainable solutions. + Info : http://www.archibat2013.com AFRICAN PERSPECTIVES CONFERENCE : The Lagos Dialogues All roads lead to Lagos | December 12 – 15, 2013 – Lagos, Nigeria Organized by Archi Afrika, the event is unique in gathering together both scholars and creative people from Africa to provide a forum to share and debate their ideas on the key themes which are shaping Africa’s buildings and urban environment, through a number of cultural and social lenses, including literature, art, and the traditional built environment disciplines. + Info : http://africanperspectivesconference.wordpress.com
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« Les populations immigrées, ou plus précisément les fractions des diasporas mobilisées sur le territoire hexagonal ou ailleurs, entretiennent les mêmes croyances aux appartenances - fictives ou réelles - à base ethnique. Celles-ci constituent un des ressorts essentiels des mobilisations et revendications collectives ou individuelles caractéristiques de ces populations. Ce sont les mécanismes et les pratiques liées à ces imaginaires, presque massivement partagés, que tente d'explorer cet ouvrage. »
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