Aquafeed Vol 12 Issue 1 2020

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Vol 12 Issue 1 January 2020

AQUAFEED Advances in processing & formulation An publication

SPECIALTY AND ALTERNATIVE FEED INGREDIENTS Wet rework handling NIR technology Environmentally friendly feed GMP+ feed certification Published by: LLC. Kailua, Hawaii 96734, USA



VOL 12 ISSUE 1 2020


TWIN SCREW EXTRUSION 15 This technology offers advanced processing that delivers quality aquafeed improving health, growth and nutrition of farmed fish.




Improving performance in SRS challenged salmon through diets containing spray-dried plasma proteins.

How the valorization of agri-industrial biomass through recovery of valuable compounds for aquafeeds can support current bioeconomy and circular economy strategies.

A GMP+ FSA certificate can cover all feed types with one feed safety management system which complies with the world’s highest standards.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020



VOL 12 ISSUE 1 2020

Contents 6 9


Interview News Review

Product Focus 12 The Fragola vacuum coating machine

15  Aquatic feed processing with twin screw extrusion in the new decade

18  Wet rework handling during extrusion 23 Use of a functional feed additive to reduce mortality from franciselosis and streptococcosis




 pray-dried plasma improves performance and reduces S coefficient of variation in SRS challenged salmon

31 35

Towards 100% fishmeal substitution in shrimp aquafeed


Functional fish feed to enhance the feed intake of milkfish in winter

A good start is half the battle: How a solid foundation can support optimal fish growth and performance throughout their life cycle

45 51

Unlocking phytate potential through NIR technology


 rewer’s spent yeast and grain as second-generation B feedstuff for aquaculture feed


Aquafeed participation in GMP+ FSA on the rise

 QUOLIVE: Improving aquaculture production with A bioactives from olive oil biomass

Columns 21 Peter Hutchinson – Ask the expert 

38 Greg Lutz – Trends & developments


47 Albert Tacon – Aquaculture and aquafeed production trends


Industry Events

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Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


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TRENDS All the latest in the feed and animal health industries CONFERENCES Key topics in line with your interests NETWORK The largest network in Asia in feed and animal health MATCHMAKING Opportunities to grow your business EXHIBITION Free access to the most complete event in Asia, with suppliers covering all animal species



This year’s Aquaculture America returns to Hawai’i, home of, for the first time since 2004.’s publisher, Suzi Dominy, talked to Dr. Cheng-Sheng Lee, Executive Director of The Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture (CTSA), about the status of aquaculture in Hawai’i and the Pacific. Dr. Lee has worked throughout the region with industry stakeholders and researchers to identify and provide solution for challenges to sustainable aquaculture for more than two decades.

INTERVIEW with Cheng-Sheng Lee AQUAFEED: Thank you for talking with us. How did you get into aquaculture and what was your journey to becoming the Executive Director of The Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture (CTSA)? CSL: Thank you for the opportunity! I grew up and completed my undergraduate studies in Taiwan. The education system is different from the USA. The majority of students selected school over field for their future career. Before taking the college entrance examination, we had the chance to list schools and departments we wished to attend. Then, depending on the entrance examination scores, we were accepted or rejected by the school on our wish list. My interest in aquaculture developed after further understanding of the subject. The Institute of Oceanography at the

National Taiwan University was established one year before I graduated from the National Taiwan University Zoology Department. The Institute had recruited four professors in the field of fishery biology. Coincidently, four students from my class wanted to continue our graduate studies. We discussed with each other and each one of us selected one professor without any conflicts. I chose Prof. I Chiu Liao as my advisor for Master degree thesis. Then, I started my research in aquaculture. Upon completion of my master's degree, I attended the University of Tokyo, where I received my PhD and aquaculture became my professional career. I should also mention that I took up fishery biology at the Zoology Department simply based on the advice of my high school biology teacher at Taiwan

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Provincial Kaohsiung High School. I would have continued in aquatic research if the CTSA executive director position had not become available after my thirty years in research. AQUAFEED: Would you give us a little background on CTSA and its role? CSL: The Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture (CTSA), established in 1986, is one of five Regional Aquaculture Centers under the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). CTSA’s region encompasses Hawai’i and the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Marshall Islands, Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia. CTSA is jointly administered by the University of Hawai’i (UH) and the Oceanic Institute (OI) of Hawai’i Pacific University (HPU), with our main administrative office at UH’s College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR). All five regional aquaculture centers share the same mission to support research, development, demonstration, and extension education to enhance viable and profitable U.S. aquaculture. Since RACs are industry driven centers, industry stakeholders determine research priorities for each year funding cycle to address the industry needs. AQUAFEED: The islands that make up CTSA’s area of responsibility have unique circumstances, but do they share any challenges in common when it comes to the development of aquaculture? CSL: The CTSA region includes one state, two territories, one commonwealth and three independent countries. There are significant differences in culture, politics and social structure. This region, composed of thousands of tiny islands widely spread between the latitudes of 15° N to 14° S and the longitudes of 134° E to 170° W, extends across an area as large as the continental United States. Its inhabitants all live by the ocean, and the ocean is part of their life. Subsistence fishing provides an important source of protein to its inhabitants. However, the yield from near shore fisheries have declined in recent years. Therefore, the Pacific island countries have expressed a strong interest in using their pristine water for aquaculture development to secure seafood supplies. However, the islands of the Pacific are still the least developed region in

terms of aquaculture worldwide, according to the 2010 FAO Global Conference on Aquaculture in Thailand. On the other hand, this region enjoys superior natural resources for fish farming, such as pristine water, year-round warm weather, and isolated condition for disease prevention. Foreign countries have provided significant funding support for aquaculture development in the region. Several essential elements for aquaculture development were developed but constraints still exist. Common constraints to aquaculture development to the Pacific islands region are small land area, lack of knowledge base, shortage of a skilled workforce and available capital. For some islands, their constraints also include natural hazards, distance from market and poor transportation systems. A good strategic development plan is essential to realizing the potential of aquaculture in the region. According to our survey, availability of affordable feed seems to be their common concern.

Hawai’i is the most ideal location for keeping SPF shrimp broodstock. AQUAFEED: Can we look at aquaculture in each of these locations. Let’s start with Hawai’i: The development of SPF shrimp is what comes to mind for most people. What other aquaculture activities are there? CSL: Cyanotech Corporation’s Spirulina culture and Blue Ocean’s amberjack offshore cage culture are two other aquaculture operations that are well-known worldwide. There is no doubt that Hawai’i is the most ideal location for keeping SPF shrimp broodstock. The establishment of SPF shrimp broodstock is crucial for over 3 million metric tons of white shrimp production in Asia. Taking advantage of pristine environmental conditions, Hawai’i can be an ideal place to keep clean stocks for any important aquatic species. Indeed, you can find a long list of farmed species cultured or once tested in Hawai’i. Exotic species such as salmonid was once cultured at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA). Operations ceased due to profitability. With high operational costs in Hawaii, the targeted species must have high market value and demand,

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


such as amberjack, abalone, hirame, oysters, seahorse, giant clam, micro- and macro-algae. The freshwater aquaculture sector has farmed species such as prawn, catfish, snakehead, Japanese koi, tilapia, Chinese carp, and freshwater ornamental fish etc. Traditional Hawai’ian fishponds hold another wide range of species. AQUAFEED: Fishing and aquaculture is deeply rooted in the Hawaiian culture, with renewed interest in ancient fishponds. Can we learn anything from traditional practices? CSL: Fish farming traces back to 1,000 A.D. Vernon Sato and I wrote a book on Hawaiian fishponds in 2007 to recapture Mr. George Uyemura’s more than 60 years of working knowledge at Moli’i fishpond. We did not want to see the loss of knowledge in managing traditional Hawaiian fishpond. Revitalization of Hawaiian fishponds are important for both Hawaiian culture and seafood production. The principle of Hawaiian fishpond practice is similar to “integrated multi-trophic aquaculture” (IMTA). It meets the criteria for ecosystem-based aquaculture. Integrating traditional farming practices with current farming practices will preserve traditional culture and increase the total yield from Hawaiian fishponds. AQUAFEED: Looking to the future, NELHA’s Hawaii Ocean Science and Technology Park on the Big Island is home to a broad range of aquaculture activities. Recently, HATCH held its accelerator program there. Do you see Hawai’i as having good potential for innovation? CSL: NELHA was actually not originally established as an aquaculture operation site, but it turned out to be a perfect innovative research site for a wide range of marine aquaculture species. NELHA is an ideal location for testing new concepts for aquatic species from a wide range of climate areas. Furthermore, Hawai’i was a leading state in developing new aquaculture technologies during 80s and 90s. I look forward to seeing new technologies developed under HATCH initiative.

AQUAFEED: In 1991 I wrote the first of several subsequent articles about the imminent construction of a feedmill in Hawai’i, the first ever pilot scale feedmill dedicated to aquafeed. That never happened as envisaged. Is there any feed development taking place? CSL: For decades, feed development has been one of the top priority areas selected by our industry stakeholders. CTSA has funded projects to survey the available local ingredients and to convert agriculture waste to useful protein sources to replace fishmeal. A research feed mill completed in 2016 was supported by the USDA, the State of Hawai’i and private foundations such as Ulupono, and implemented by OI in cooperation with University of Hawai’i at Hilo. The new fishmeal replacement ingredients developed from CTSA funded projects were used to formulate new aquatic diets for testing on several species. More research is needed before the benefit can be realized. At the same time, more work is required to modify the operating conditions of the new research feed mill. To accomplish those tasks, we need more funding and researchers with different disciplines to work together. AQUAFEED: What is happening in the other locations that are in CTSA’s region, what is the status of aquaculture there and what are the most promising developments? CSL: Significant progress has been made during the past decades in adopting new farming techniques for bath sponges, giant clams, sea cucumber, black pearl oyster, corals, mangrove crabs, Pacific threadfin and coral grouper. CTSA-funded projects also provided training opportunities for capacity building. I am pleased to see family/village-based farms established in the region. However, outputs from several research investments have yet to be used in commercial operations. To make commercial farming possible, besides technology development, capacity building, practitioners, and investors, we need community and government support. Partnership is the key to success in this endeavor. A successful aquaculture operation requires all building blocks to be in place at the same time to complete our ultimate task to increase seafood production. If we do not take action soon, the building blocks we establish will fade away with time.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


NEWS REVIEW Highlights of recent news from Sign up at for our free weekly newsletter for up-to-the-minute industry news

Veramaris wins F3 Fish Oil Challenge Veramaris won the F3 Fish Oil Challenge for selling the most “fish-free” oil for use in aquaculture feed. Veramaris CEO, Karim Kurmaly, received $200,000 prize during a special award ceremony at the Global Aquaculture Alliance’s GOAL conference in Chennai, India. The company sold nearly 770,000 kilograms – or roughly 90% of the total contest sales – of its algal oil rich in EPA and DHA Omega-3 and ARA (arachidonic acid) produced at its

pilot-scale facilities in Slovakia and the United States. The world’s largest Atlantic salmon producer, Norway-based Mowi,

committed to test the winning formula from the F3 Fish Oil Challenge, along with China-based Yuehai Feed Group and AlphaFeed. The companies will provide the results of their trials through the F3 Feed Innovation Network (FIN). The third contest of the F3 Future of Fish Feed – the F3 Challenge – Carnivore Edition – is now open to companies or teams that produce and sell “fish-free” feed for farm-raised carnivorous species.

CLEAN FEED. CLEAN WATER. Wenger Extrusion Solutions for RAS Feed Production Wenger innovative extrusion solutions deliver clean, durable, nutritional feeds specifically designed for the most efficient RAS operations. Feeds produced on Wenger systems maintain their integrity better and longer, for clean and clear water. So you feed the fish, not the filter. Learn more about the Wenger RAS advantage. Email us at today. PHONE: 785.284.2133 | EMAIL: AQUAFEED@WENGER.COM | WENGER.COM USA









Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020

NEW ON THE MARKET BioMar focuses on the next generation of RAS feeds

The company presented at the Aquaculture Europe conference new developments for the ORBIT line for salmonids that are focused on the selection and combination of

raw materials for securing a second-to-none physical quality, solid feces structure suited for RAS and with promising results on water parameters. ORBIT

feeds also deliver solid performances on fish growth and feed conversion rate. Moreover, by maximizing the utilization of nutrients into growth, the new ORBIT ensures reduced waste and reduced nitrogen load on the biofilter. By this, ORBIT caters for better water quality to the benefit of both fish and the bacteria living on the biofilter. “RAS for land-based salmon farming is an emerging segment within the aquaculture industry, and there is still a potential to be realized. The highly advanced technologies being used require highly advanced feed solutions and farming practices to enable a strong performance,” said Carlos Diaz, CEO of BioMar Group.

Cargill unveils new plant-based ingredient for shrimp Cargill presented Motiv™, a new bioactive protein feed ingredient that offers shrimp farmers a solution to reduce stress and minimize disease impact while increasing their overall growth, vitality and enhanced color. Motiv™ is a fermented corn protein ingredient solution that creates a healthier gut environment in shrimp. Through the fermentation

process, a solution is obtained with components like peptides and bioavailable minerals and organic acids such as lactic acid. These

components facilitate a larger micropopulation in the gut, having a better pH for enzyme activity and enabling an increase in nutrient utilization. As a result, shrimp are able to better utilize the nutrients of the whole diet, increasing their energy and accelerating their growth, weight gain and resistance to disease, including early mortality syndrome.

Borregaard targets the shrimp market Borregaard LignoTech has developed a new sustainable product for the shrimp industry. SoftAcid Aqua Deca has a bactericidal and bacteriostatic

effect on Vibrio bacteria and can be used both in the water treatment applications (shrimp nursery, algae growth management, cleaning, etc) and for shrimp feed

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020

preservation. When added to the feed, the product reduces microbial contamination and inhibits communication between the surviving bacteria.


Skretting’s new RAS feed concept to optimize RAS operations Skretting will roll out the new RCX concept for Atlantic salmon, a range fully optimized for RAS. This new concept will significantly reduce the risks for the new growout RAS salmon sector coming on stream. “Skretting’s current marketleading range, RC, has been a top performer for years and reduced the impact of indirect waste into RAS by improving fecal stability,”

said Saravanan Subramanian, a global product manager at Skretting. The next generation, RCX, takes this one step further by ensuring consistent structural integrity through certified factory auditing. RCX will be launched first in North America to specific customers for Atlantic salmon, followed by other locations and species around the world.

Pancosma develops a homogeneous combination of organic trace minerals Pancosma developed a new generation of multi-mineral products, B-TRAXIM® All-in- 1 , that provides higher homogeneity in feed. As with all products of the B-TRAXIM® range, the use of glycine as a ligand provides pure metal glycinates with high levels of trace elements which are easy to handle, dust-free

and provide optimal distribution in premixes and feed. The company uses the ISOFUSION® technology (IFT®) that ensures that every particle contains a combination of various minerals in the exact same ratio, enabling perfect distribution and homogeneity in premixes and feed.

Goudsmit Magnetics redesigns its magnetic separator Goudsmit Magnetics of Waalre has redesigned its automatically cleanable Easy Clean flow magnet. This magnetic separator removes metal particles and weakly magnetic stainless-steel particles from powders as fine as 30 µm in the food, chemical, ceramic and plastic industries. The Easy Clean flow magnet is suitable for large product flows and has high magnetic flux density of over 12,000 gauss at the contact surface of the bars. These bars

come into direct contact with the product and have a deeply penetrating magnetic field that

effectively makes powders and granulates metal-free at high flow rates.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020

PRODUCT FOCUS The Fragola Spa vacuum coating machine

How can we coat the fish feed with high percentages of fat? How can the fat penetrate the pellet core in the shortest possible time? Fragola spa faced these challenges about 20 years ago. Fragola spa has designed and manufactured machines for the production of feed since 1961, and immediately got to grips with processes such as mixing, fattening flours and coating pellets for cattle, sheep, swine and poultry; but faced new challenge at the end of the 90s, that of entering in the aquaculture sector. This brief article will not dwell on all the problems that the production of fish feed entails, such as the accurate dosage of the numerous raw materials and supplements, the powerful milling, extrusion, and the handling of the finished product all performed to preserve its integrity, but we will merely concentrate on the coating process of the extruded product. In those years, the goal was to produce a pellet

containing a percentage of fat that was up until then unheard of in relation to the parameters of the classic feed industry: a percentage that could reach 25%! Players in the feed sector found this to be impossible and unrealistic. The first machine created was a single-shaft blade mixer, made from AISI 304 stainless steel for all parts in contact with the product, heated with an electric coil and thermally insulated; this exploited the process of the vacuum in the mixing chamber for absorbing the liquid inside the core of the pellet. But the work didn't end there! This initiative took on greater strength in the following years: the chamber vacuum pump was sized to reach a pressure of 150 mbar, the mixer structure was reinforced to withstand the work stress, the product was discharged more quickly through a full-length door, and the single shaft model was replaced with a double paddle shaft synchronized with single motor. All of this cut mixing time: starting from the introduction of the last quantity of any additive, either solid or liquid, it took only 60 seconds, with the possibility of mixing 20 batches per hour, and a variation coefficient of less than three percent. The net capacity was also increased and double-shaft machines went from 800 to 2,600-litre capacity The Fragola coating vacuum mixer allows to achieve high percentages of fat while maintaining a dry and captivating appearance for a high-end pellet.

For more information visit Contact:

HIGH QUALITY FUNCTIONAL PROTEINS Spray-Dried Plasma Spray-Dried Hemoglobin Hydrolyzed Porcine Protein | Intl Aquafeed Ad2.indd 1

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020

19/12/2019 11:22:16



Cargill has reorganized its animal nutrition business and named Pilar Cruz as president and group leader for the organization’s aqua nutrition business. The company is making a significant investment to build a leading digestive and immune health business for aqua application.

Franz Waxenecker

BIOMIN has appointed Franz Waxenecker as managing director. Waxenecker joined the company in 2001 and most recently served as director of development and innovation.

Rob Sheffer

Bill Scrimgeour, CEO at Zinpro Corporation, has retired. Rob Sheffer has been promoted to president and CEO of the company since January 2019.

Feike Sijbesma

Feike Sijbesma has decided to step down as Royal DSM CEO as he seeks to pursue other business and personal roles. Feike Sijbesma will formally hand over his responsibilities as CEO on February 15 to his successors, Geraldine Matchett and Dimitri de Vreeze.

Anne-Mette Bæk

Following elections for the new IFFO Management Board, IFFO – The Marine Ingredients Organization has announced that the incoming president is Anne-Mette Bæk and vice president is Gonzalo de Romaña.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Aquatic feed processing with twin screw extrusion in the new decade José Coelho, Clextral USA The “UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” provides a framework for sustainable food production that positions aquaculture as a viable complement to capture fishery and a reliable source of food for inland countries (FAO, 2018). In addition, the latest FAO report stated that fisheries and aquaculture are crucial to improving food security and human nutrition, with an increasingly important role in the fight against hunger (FAO, 2018). As an affordable source of highquality protein, global fish consumption has doubled since the 1960’s and aquaculture has continued to grow worldwide. The process of feed manufacturing is a key issue for ensuring the delivery of consistently high quality granulates for the aquaculture breeding process. For example, it is estimated that over 60% of the production expenses for farmed salmon is the feed cost. However, challenges persist in aquaculture production and feeding, including limited global resources of fishmeal and fish oils, uncertain cereal and pulse harvests (used to replace fishmeal in aquafeed), and the risks to offshore breeding facilities, including ocean currents, waves, wind and pollution.

Twin screw extrusion processing to meet the challenges The FAO report further documents the critical role of fish and fish products in nutrition and global food security “representing a valuable source of nutrients and micronutrients of fundamental importance for diversified and healthy diets … with importance as a food group in lower income countries, containing vitamins and minerals that address severe nutritional deficiencies.” The quality of aquatic feed is certainly a factor in the health, growth and nutrition of farmed fish. The twin screw extruder (TSE) offers advanced processing that delivers significant advantages in this area. Fish

pellets produced through twin screw extrusion have a higher degree of gelatinization for maximized protein and amino acid delivery, resulting in an optimized feed conversion ratio. In addition, better pellet cohesion is achieved, leading to higher water stability with reduced environmental impact. Additional advantages of twin screw extrusion for aquatic feed processing include: • Easy adaptation to changes in raw material composition: moisture content, lipid content, particle size distribution, de-mixing of powdered materials. These changes are due to utilizing various sources of raw materials (for example, soy flour can be purchased in many areas of the world), transport and storage conditions, and grinding processes. • Flexibility to adjust the sinking/floating properties of the granulates to accommodate the food habits of each species. By adjusting the feed to the species, it is completely consumed to ensure less waste and pollution from uneaten food. • Processing a wide range of recipes to respond to industry demands for foods with different lipid levels, vegetable proteins, or different protein sources to meet specific nutritional requirements of many aquatic species. Clextral systems produce feed for marine and freshwater aquatic species as well as benthic and pelagic animals such as: salmon, turbot,

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


cod, halibut, yellow tail, sea bass, sea bream, trout, tilapia, ornamental fishes, shrimps, abalone, etc. • Flexibility to adjust the shear, cooking, density, and shaping conditions in the extruder and apply precise drying and coating parameters during the entire production process. • Ensuring a high hygienic standard, to avoid any contamination in the feed manufacturing process. Taking these considerations into account, combined with sustainable breeding practices, science-based education, and adapted legislation, aqua farmers around the world can nurture high quality aquatic animals that provide health benefits to all people using local production that ensures low carbon footprints and affordable market prices.

The advanced technology of the twin screw extruder Single screw extrusion technology has offered a simplified method of continuous cooking of doughs under controlled processing conditions for many decades. Over 60 years ago, some industry pioneers developed an alternative process: co-rotating twin screw technology. This process was introduced to the food industry where it offered greater flexibility than single screw machines due to its intensive mixing ability, and precise control of both temperature and shear. With the evolution of PLC controls, advanced instrumentation, mechanical drive cinematics, speed

and torque controls and advanced metallurgy, more sophisticated systems were developed. This enabled the development of new feed for more species and recipes that allowed increased levels of fat and vegetable proteins. The need for new recipes for sustainable feed was highlighted by S. Kaushick, in “Opportunities and Challenges of Global Aquaculture” (Clextral 60th anniversary, 2016). Clextral, a major player in twin screw technology, has launched several innovations that offer even greater possibilities to the fish farming industry for processing original recipes with raw materials that include new pulses, proteins, insects, krill meal, with the potential for processed animal proteins and seaweeds.

Producing high quality aquatic feed The complete extrusion production line involves many operations, from raw ingredients up to the packaging process. However, preconditioning, extrusion and die shaping/cutting count among the most important unit operations in achieving optimal quality. Preconditioning Preconditioning is a key operation aiming at: • Homogeneously mixing the dry ingredients with liquids (mainly water and fish oil slurries) and steam • Moistening and heating the mix to begin cooking the starch, expanding the flour particles and denaturing the proteins prior to extrusion processing The preconditioning step benefits the overall aquatic

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


feed manufacturing process by increasing the transferred thermal energy in the mass, reducing the mechanical energy into the extruder, increasing the extruder capacity and control of the final feed texture (bio-polymer tridimensional complex) and minimizing the extruder wear. Laboratory tests have shown that the final hardness of fish feed pellets increased between 7% and 29% with the same recipe by modifying the preconditioning and extrusion parameters. Some preconditioners offer high process flexibility due to their patented features. Clextral's AFC technology (Advanced Filling Control) for example, controls the filling ratio and the transfer speed in order to maximize mixing efficiency and regulate the residence time according to each recipe. Additionally, the AFC bottom screw design allows quick and easy access and cleaning, meeting the strictest hygienic requests and increasing flexibility of the line by enabling quick recipe changeover.

Extrusion Due to the intermeshing screws with modular screw patterns, a TSE can process high moisture/high fat products; the mixing ability enables a homogeneous heat transfer along the barrel assembly: temperatures, mixing and shear levels are accurately controlled, giving to this continuous reactor the highest flexibility possible. The feed, cooking and the texture are controlled by the extrusion parameters such as barrel temperatures, screw-type assembly, screw speed, addition of water and/or steam, and barrel length. Clextral's Advanced Thermal Control (ATC) provides true intelligence to the extrusion equipment and accurately controls the temperatures in each barrel module with self-learning software. This enables the twin screw extruder to maintain absolute precision in temperature control in the extruder barrel, enhancing process stability up to 70% and providing energy savings up to 20%, providing maximum product consistency while reducing production costs and energy consumption. Density controls may be added in some cases to fine-tune the expansion degree and the texture of the final extruded product. Die shaping/cutting This step represents the final transformation of the cooked dough to the proper size and shape for each

aquatic species. The shape is determined at the end of the extruder barrel by a central feed die-plate and a die that gives the product its final shape and size. Clextral die designs can form pellets from 0.5 to 30 mm. The design of the die will take into account the desired level of expansion of the dough. This last property depends on dry mix recipe, treatment in the preconditioner, the shear-temperature history in the extruder and the design of the die itself. Great expertise is hidden in the design of the die, its metallurgy, mounting ability for quick changeover and cleaning. Cutting is considered as part of final shaping and its technology must comply with fine adjustment and accurate parallelism towards the die, no generation of fines, sharp cutting and proper evacuation of the feed preserving the shapes and texture. Reaching aquaculture goals for the new decade As countries around the world have joined together to find sustainable solutions to feed the global population, aquaculture has emerged as a reliable and sustainable part of the solution. By 2030, aquaculture will surpass capture fisheries in the production of fish for human consumption, projected to reach 109 million tons, a growth of 37% from 2016. World fish consumption per capita will reach 21.5 kg, with farmed species reaching about 60% of the total consumed (FAO, 2018). With this demand will come the need for more fish farms, producing more species, in a wide range of off-shore and in-land locations. Fish feed production is an essential component to the aquaculture industry, and extruded feed will continue to evolve and advance to meet these new requirements. With new technology and ingredients and advanced expertise, extrusion experts around the globe will continue their work to help the aquaculture industry feed the world’s population. References available on request.

More information: JosĂŠ Coelho President Clextral USA E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Wet rework handling during extrusion Geirmund Vik, Skala Off-spec materials are always generated in the startup and shutdown of the extrusion process and they can be used as a raw material source. For example, when the mash conditioner is turned on and filled with the meal, some off-spec materials are generated while it reaches the right cooking temperature and pressure. When the extrusion process is finished and the meal is changed, the conditioner and the extruder are cleaned with water, generating more off-spec materials.

Types of rework materials The extrusion process generates mainly three off-spec materials that can be reused: • Meal from the mash conditioner at 60-90°C with 15-30% moisture. • Pellet from the extruder at 80-98°C with 15-25% moisture. • Extruder cleanout water and wet product at 40-80°C with 15-100% moisture. The temperature and the moisture content of these products make them hard to handle and a hygiene risk to the feed mill. Storing them in bins and silos can cause unwanted situations due to the high growth rates of mold and bacteria in these favorable conditions. Off-spec materials from the mash conditioner and extruder used to be blended with other off-spec products from coating and cooling processes and added as raw materials. They were often named as dry rework. Off-specs are also mixed with protein raw materials such as corn gluten meal and poultry meal. Drying these materials was tested but it was not a successful solution due to the high cost of drying, the risk of over-drying producing burnt material or an incomplete dry that causes microbial proliferation. Wet rework, mainly washing water, is normally discharged as waste. Some innovations were introduced in recent years based on a simple principle, dissolve all off-specs making a sludge that can be

put back in the extrusion process, pumping it into the mash conditioner.

Rework materials features The three types of rework materials have different features. The meal from the mash conditioner is wet and easily dissolves in water. The extrudate is often a mix of high and low-density pellets. The highdensity pellets sink in the water but the low-density ones easily float requiring strong mixing for them to be more quickly and easily disolved. The washing sludge is composed of water and solids. Hardness and solubility of these solids are key to their handling requirements. New plant-based protein sources create products that are hard to dissolve in water and hard cakes from the die area can be very large. The larger the extruder, the larger the build up of material behind the die. Adding oil in the extruder at the last minute before shut down can make a big difference to the hardness of the extrudate and how it dissolves in a wet rework system. All of these parameters create demands on the equipment.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Hygiene The storage, transfer and rework systems must assure a hygienic process. The transfer of the rework can be done either by emptying bins directly into the dissolving tank, free fall directly from the process or transport by a screw conveyor. If a bin is used, it needs to be regularly cleaned as well as the inlet where the material is dumped. If free fall is used, the inlet pipe must be able to be washed. This means that the dissolving tanks should be set in a wet zone. If the tank is fed by a conveyor screw, whether horizontal or with an angle, the screw should be able to clean. Wet rework should not be stored without adding preservatives, such as acids to reduce pH, and it should be used as quickly as possible during normal runs. With longer production stops, the system should be emptied and cleaned and the pH of the material adjusted. A rework system in which the tanks are flushed and the water inlet is under the top of the tank does not allow condensation to accumulate. The top of the tank and the walls are kept constantly clean. Skala AS has developed some solutions for Clean In Place (CIP) for conveyor screws and a hygienic system for the tank and the water intake. The company has designed a system where the tanks are flushed and the water intake is under the top of the tank, preventing condensation build up. The tank top and walls are constantly kept clean. Mix between batches Mixing different feed batches can be challenging, since formulas differ. If wet rework is constantly kept at low dry matter levels and used more like water and kept at low tank level all times or during the last production hour, it is possible to get around this issue with some planning. It is possible to have a separate third tank for rework storage, but it adds costs and is more sophisticated. Good production management includes good planning of wet and dry rework and good planning of rework use makes for good profit. Undissolved particles The slurry should not contain large particles of more than 1 mm. In fish feeds, undissolved particles can lead to broken pellets. Skala AS rework system uses a filtering device that allows the customer to set their own particle size parameters in the rework

suspension. The system uses a sieving and recycling unit that ensures that no large particles enter the extrusion process.

Tank design, heating, mixing and pumping A system has been developed to keep the three rework streams from settling and to be well mixed, ground and conditioned. The tank design should allow a good and constant mix of the wet rework with minimum power consumption from the mixing motor. Particles are broken down by a high shear mixer. The circulation pump can be set to prevent the pipes from clogging and then divert through a filter before pumping over to a dosing and stirring tank. Two tanks are used, one to dissolve, reduce and homogenize and the other to homogenize and dose the conditioner. The wet rework can be from a thick paste to almost clean water, so an appropriate pump and a flowmeter are needed. In case the rework needs to be heated, it can be done with direct steam or with a heat exchanger in the mixing tank or in the pipes when dosing to the conditioner. Automation and control Process monitoring is very important for the optimal use of wet rework. Both tanks are on a load cell ensuring the control of dry and wet amounts in the tank at all times when dosing. Flowmeter is used to control the flow to the conditioner, but it also measures the temperature, density and viscosity of the product. The control of these parameters optimizes rework usage. The parameter that controls the wet rework system should be added to the plant control system (PLC). Payback The payback of a wet rework system is quite short. The more short runs with starts and stops, the shorter the payback time. Taking into account the cost of disposal of waste material, the payback is even shorter. More information: Geirmund Vik Sales and technology manager protein and feed Skala, Norway E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020














Ask the Expert Your aquafeed processing questions answered

Q: We are getting more floating pellets in the days post production. What is the cause and how do we prevent it? This phenomenon is common, especially in feeds which require some degree of expansion for optimal fat inclusion, such as salmonid diets. Primary causes are described here, and all are exacerbated when there is considerable variation in piece density. • Residual pellet heat immediately post processing will always make pellets sink faster, as they tend to wick moisture in much more rapidly, so 100% sink post production does not provide a guarantee of 100% sink in the days to come. Where pellets have started to float in the days following processing, if you reheat pellets a little, you will find increased sink rate again – albeit temporary while they are warm! In this case you need to bump your density up to account for the change, either during the extrusion process or by adding more fat. Once fully cooled, the retrogradation (recrystalizing) of starch in the days immediately post extrusion likely also plays a part here, with its impact on water absorption potential and thus ability for water to wick into pellet core. • Moisture changes. More common in older dryer types or where

the spreader is poorly adjusted, moisture levels can vary by three percent or more across a bed. In this situation and particularly in combination with varied piece density, some of the higher moisture pellets may begin to float as moisture equalizes in the days post extrusion. • Oil leaking. When the extrusion process is too dry and SME too low, pellets tend to be “rod like” with poor internal cell structure. This leads to lack of bonding surface area for the oil to adhere to within the pellet, meaning that coated oil will leak over time, even if the pellets appear dry immediately post coating. High SME pellets have a finer cell structure, increasing the surface area for bonding and are less prone to splitting on hydration. If pellets leak oil during storage, they lose weight and will therefore be at an increased risk of floating. If this is the cause of your density changes, it is usually easy to recognize through the oil leaking from bags. • Density changes caused by vacuum coating. Why? When vacuum coating, the air is first sucked out of the pellet. During the coating process, if for example the pellets have potential to hold 25% fat, but are only coated with 20% fat, then after the release of the vacuum, the fat forms a partial seal preventing

Peter Hutchinson is a Technical Editor at, the owner – director of ENH Ltd., New Zealand, and an aquaculture feed consultant. Send your questions to:

complete ingress of air to refill the five percent void remaining. Over time air migrates past the oil barrier, re-expanding voids which collapsed during release of the vacuum and increases the potential to float. Imagine your pellet is a sponge within a plastic bag, compressed with all the air evacuated – now make a small hole in the bag and watch the sponge re-expand. The key to reducing latent float is obviously maximizing density to that which will still enable required oil absorption, while also maintaining suitable SME. Having said this, if you have wide variation in piece density, it can be nearly impossible

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


to knock out a stubborn few percent of float. In this situation die design, uniformity of flow to each die hole and extruder stability are critical. Excess steam injection can also cause a problem here due to reduced viscosity and disruption to flow, likewise running the extruder too hot and dry.

Q: Any idea why the shrimp pellets are splitting longitudinally? The most common cause of a longitudinal split in extruded shrimp feed is low SME. Increasing SME (alongside adequate moisture levels) increases water stability and reduces the propensity to split at the same time by creating a fine cell structure within the pellet, which is less prone to crack propagation. Increasing SME in these highdensity low-fat diets is a doubleedged sword however, due to increasing SME reducing pellet

density. In order to overcome this, feed rates may need to be reduced and increased cooling utilized towards the end of the extruder. Reducing die pressure and heat of the extrudate are required at the same time as increasing SME, which is a challenging scenario. Fine and uniform grinding will also assist in ensuring uniform melt and lower the potential for coarse particles within the pellet structure being a source of crack propagation as the pellets expand during hydration in water. Remember extruded shrimp diets will expand during hydration more than pelleted shrimp feeds, however should remain intact with a somewhat rubbery texture compared to the hard brittle texture of pelleted diets. Excessive fibrous material in formulation will also negatively impact water stability and increase splitting.

Q: We are having problems with the mill blocking – any suggestions? From a formulation point of view, mill blockage is most commonly associated with high fat content meals and hydroscopic raw materials such as hydrolysate powders. The fiber or fur content in mammalian meals can also have a negative impact as well as any liquids added prior to grinding, or raw materials containing excessive moisture. My suggestion would be to reduce the fat content of the mash, try to isolate particular raw materials causing difficulty and reduce or replace them. From a process perspective, restricted air flow from blocked filters or build up in ducts can increase blockages, as can worn hammer tips due to decreased milling efficiency and increased heat generation.

Their health is your wealth. POWER UP YOUR AQUACULTURE HEALTH Adisseo’s aqua team works together with researchers and producers around the globe to develop an innovative range of health promotors and to optimize their application under today’s challenging production conditions. Based on natural ingredients, these specialty additives reduce the impact of diseases and parasites on the productivity of fish and shrimp. A AQ011-08

Feed is much more than just nutrition.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Use of a functional feed additive to reduce mortality from franciselosis and streptococcosis Leonardo Mantovani Favero, Waldo G. Nuez-Ortín, Maria-Mercè Isern-Subich, Ulisses de Padua Pereira, Adisseo and Londrina State University

Figure 1. Scanning electron photomicroscopy of Streptococcus agalactiae and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis cells treated with different concentrations of Sanacore® GM. 10,000x magnification. A: control cells of untreated S. agalactiae. B: S. agalactiae cells approx. treated at 0.2% for 30 minutes. Reduction of the number of cells and alteration in coccus morphology (arrows). C: absence of S. agalactiae cells after treatment at 1% for 30 minutes. D: control cells of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis without treatment. E: F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis cells treated at 0.1% for 30 minutes. Significant reduction in the number of cells and changes in bacterial morphology. F: F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis cells treated at 1%. Reduction in the number of cells and accumulation of the product on the bacterial surface (arrow).

Tilapia production is globally spread. In 2018, production was estimated at nearly 6.3 million metric tons (MT). Although tilapia tolerate adverse conditions and stressors better than most commercial aquaculture species, current rearing conditions (i.e. high densities, water temperature and quality, etc.) induce a stress level that is detrimental to the animal´s immune system and that, in combination with the presence of pathogens, results in disease outbreak.

Disease treatment may be ineffective since drugs are supplied through the feed and during periods of low intake as a consequence of disease. The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials is one of the main causes of bacterial resistance, and thus disease prevention must be prioritized. Prevention involves qualifying the farm operators for correct husbandry practices, acquiring fry and juveniles of good genetic quality and origin that certify the absence of pathogens

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Group name



Replicates (nº)




Sanacore GM



F1 (10 CFU/mL of water)




F1 (10 CFU/mL of water)

Sanacore GM



S13 (105 CFU/fish)




S13 (10 CFU/fish)

Sanacore GM



9 9


Table 1. Description of the experimental groups for the in vivo evaluation of the Sanacore ® GM.

in these lineages, and stimulating animal health. Prevention will ameliorate pathogen pressure to establish itself and trigger mortality. Fish farmers and feed manufacturers are aware of the importance of functional feed additives to promote health and strengthen the disease prevention strategy. The use of health promoting additives is recommended during the whole production cycle and in higher doses during stressful conditions such as manipulation of the fish or temperature fluctuations. Thus, it is important to adjust dosage based on the challenges of the production system. Sanacore® GM is a health promoting additive specifically designed to enhance the resistance against possible diseases and performance. This functional additive is a synergistic mixture of botanical extracts with broad-spectrum bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity as well as ability to interrupt the communication system among pathogenic bacteria (i.e. quorum sensing). Sanacore® GM has been shown to induce a more stable and robust gut microbial flora, resulting in a better animal response to health challenges. The Fish Bacteriology Laboratory at the Londrina State University (LABBEP, Brazil) tested the in vitro ability of Sanacore® GM to destroy bacterial cells and its in vivo ability to minimize the negative effects of infection in tilapia by Streptococcus agalactiae and Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis. These bacteria are the cause of streptococcosis and franciselosis, respectively, two diseases that cause high mortality in tilapia culture %

worldwide. Outbreaks of S. agalactiae usually occur in fish farms among adult fish during the summer season when the water temperature is higher than 27°C, whereas outbreaks of F. noatunensis commonly affect fry and fingerlings during the winter season when the water temperature is lower than 24°C. However, under stressful or poor environmental conditions, outbreaks can occur in atypical temperatures and affect fish in other life stages.

Material and methods Minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) of the product and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to evaluate the in vitro destructive capacity of the bacteria. For the determination of MBC, suspensions of both bacteria were incubated by triplicate for 24 hours with different additive concentrations and then each suspension cultured in solid media to determine MBC. For electron microscopy, the suspensions of the two strains were exposed for 30 minutes to two different concentrations of the functional additive to evaluate their effects on cellular morphology. In vivo testing was performed to assess the response of tilapia treated with the functional additive against Streptococcus agalactiae and Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis infection. Tilapia juveniles (30g) were distributed in groups according to Table 1 and acclimatized for eight days. After acclimation, CNP, GFP and GSP groups received feed containing Sanacore® GM at 0.3% for 20 days. At the end of the


2 1

0.5 0.25 0.125 0.06 0.03 0.015 0.0075 0.0038 0.0019

µg/ml; g/kg; kg/mT




S. agalactiae F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis












Table 2. Minimum bactericidal concentration of Sanacore® GM at different concentrations against Streptococcus agalactiae and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis. BC: bactericidal concentration; R: non-bactericidal concentration.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Final weight (g)

Daily weight gain (g)






1.35b 1.37b




1.04a 1.67a

Table 3. Growth performance during pre-infection (20 days) supplemented (Sanacore® GM) and non-supplemented (none) fish. Data submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's test, performed to evaluate the difference in treatment averages (p<0.001).

pre-infection period, and in order to assess the immunestimulant effects of Sanacore® GM, blood samples from nine fish per treatment were collected to determine serum lysozyme concentration (i.e. activity to break down the peptidoglycan layer in the wall of the pathogenic bacteria) and alternative component activity (ACH50) (i.e. amount of fish serum required to induce 50% hemolysis in red blood cells of rabbit). Additionally, and in order to evaluate changes in the gut microbiota, stool samples from nine fish per treatment were collected for 16s rDNA analysis. Finally, the GF and GFP groups were challenged with the F1 strain of F. noatunensis supbsp. orientalis via water immersion, and the GS and GSP groups with S. agalactiae via intraperitoneal route. The same feed fed during the pre-infection period was fed during the 20-day post-infection period. The water temperature was mantained between 27ºCand 29ºC in the tanks infected with S. agalactiae. In the case of infection by F. noatunensis, temperature was mantained below 20ºC for the first three days to induce infection and below 22ºC during the rest of the infection period.

Figure 2. Cumulative mortality observed in groups after the experimental challenge with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (GF and GFP groups). n=2 and n=4 for non-infected and infected groups, respectively. Difference of 32% between GF and GFP with statistical significance. * p<0.01 significance in Fisher's test.

Results and discussion MBC for Streptococcus agalactiae and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Figure 3. Cumulative mortality observed in groups after the experimental were between 0.25 and 0.5% and between challenge with S. agalactiae (GS and GSP groups). n=2 and n=4 for non-infected and infected groups, respectively. Difference of 17% between GS and GSP groups 0.06 and 0.125%, respectively (Table 2). without statistical significance. As shown in Figure 1, the additive reduced the number of bacterial cells and altered their supplemented with Sanacore®GM, with statistically morphology. The antimicrobial effects achieved by significant improvements of approximately 30% in these concentrations are representative of cost-efficient daily weight gain, feed conversion and specific dietary inclusions ranging from one to five kg per ton. growth (Table 3). The gut microbiome analysis At the end of the pre-infection period (20 days), revealed changes in the dominant populations, a growth-promoting effect was detected in fish specifically for the genus Cetobacterium and

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


and significantly lower complement activity (i.e. less amount of fish serum required to induce 50% hemolysis in red blood cells of rabbit) induced by Sanacore® GM supplementation (Fig. 4). This immunestimulant effect may be also associated to a more stable and robust gut microbiota. This has been reported for Sanacore® GM in other species and reflected by the increased diversity of the gut microbiota within each fish, and also by the increased homogeneity across fish receiving the additive (Robles et al., 2017). The dietary inclusion of Sanacore® GM showed advantages in tilapia production. In vitro, data here clearly shows its deleterious effects on S. agalactiae and F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. In vivo, it promoted growth and disease resistance. The positive effects of Sanacore® GM are attributed to antimicrobial activity, positive modulation of the gut microbiota and immune modulation.

Figure 4. Innate immune assessment of control group (None) and treated groups (Sanacore® GM) after 20 days of supplementation with Sanacore® GM (end of pre-infection period). n= 9. A: Lysozyme breaks down the peptidoglycan layer in the wall of the pathogenic bacteria. B: ACH50 is the amount of serum required to induce 50% hemolysis in rabbit red blood cells.

Romboutsia. Cetobacterium is a producer of vitamin B12 and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) as major end products of carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, the growth promoting effects can be partly attributed to a positive modulation of the gut microbiota that increases the contribution of SCFA as energy supply to the enterocytes. Following the infection challenge, the groups treated with the functional additive presented a significantly lower mortality compared to the untreated groups, of 32% and 17% for franciselosis (Fig. 2) and streptococcosis (Fig. 3), respectively. The lower reduction in mortality under infection by S. agalactiae can be attributed to infection route. The intraperitoneal infection is more aggressive and certainly not reflecting natural conditions, however, it constitutes the most viable route to experimentally induce disease in the case of this pathogen. The groups supplemented with Sanacore® GM showed a milder evolution of the disease and did not cease appetite completely. Improved disease resistance to both infection challenges can be partly explained by significantly higher lysozyme activity

More information: Leonardo Mantovani Favero Postgraduate student Fish Bacteriology Laboratory of Londrina State University, Brazil

Maria-Mercè Isern-Subich Product Manager Aquaculture Health Adisseo, Belgium

Ulisses de Padua Pereira Adjunt Professor Fish Bacteriology Laboratory of Londrina State University, Brazil

Waldo G. Nuez-Ortín Lead Scientist Aquaculture Adisseo, Belgium E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020

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Spray-dried plasma improves performance and reduces coefficient of variation in SRS challenged salmon Javier Polo, Pablo Ibieta, Joy Campbell, Gloria Valderrama, Humberto Mena Spray-dried red cells and spray-dried plasma (SDP) proteins, are a safe source of animal protein available for the aquafeed industry, supplying high-quality feed ingredients for farmed animals.

Blood products are recognized as a source of highly efficient functional proteins with a low carbon footprint that help the sustainability of the European food production ( Plasma proteins are used extensively in animal feed to increase consumption, growth and nutritional efficiency especially during periods of stress. The beneficial effects of SDP are more noticeable under production conditions, when animals are exposed

to greater stressors such as pathogens and other environmental variables typically existing under intensive farming conditions, than under conditions of low incidence of pathogens. Studies of the mode of action of SDP suggest that the consumption of plasma proteins improves immune system efficiency; therefore, more energy and nutrients from the diet can be used for other productive functions, such as growth, by the animal.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Control diet

SDP diet

Energy (MJ/kg)

24.1 ± 0.1

24.1 ± 0.0

Energy (kcal/100g)

483.6 ± 2.0

483.1 ± 0.9

Moisture (%)

7.8 ± 0.1

7.9 ± 0.0

Protein (%)

46.9 ± 0.2

47.5 ± 0.1

Crude Fat (%)

27.2 ± 0.4

27.2 ± 0.2

Ash (%)

4.8 ±0.0

4.9 ± 0.0

*NFE (%)

12.8 ± 0.3

12.1 ± 0.3

Crude fiber (%)

0.4 ± 0.0

0.4 ± 0.0

*NFE, nitrogen free extract Table 1. Nutritional composition of study feeds (means ± SEM).

Figure 1. Tank average weight at the end of the study and weight increase during the whole period (90 fish per tank, three tanks per group). Dots represent tank average; lines represent mean and s.e.m.

SDP in aquaculture The nutrition provided by the inclusion of SDP in the diet of farmed fish improves both growth performance, digestibility, feed efficiency and size homogeneity in different fish species like trout, sea bream, Nile tilapia and in shrimp (Polo et al., 2018; De Muylder et al., 2019). In gilthead sea bream, studies indicated that the inclusion of SDP enhanced the intestinal and serum innate immune function, the activity of the intestinal antioxidative stress

enzymes and promoted somatic growth (Gisbert et al., 2015). Furthermore, due to the health effects associated with the use of SDP, it has been extensively used as a key tool to reduce the use of ATB growth promoters in different farm animals, including pigs, calves and poultry (Torrallardona, 2010; Campbell et al., 2019). This functional protein can be a strategic ingredient that can be used in programs aimed to reduce the use of ATB growth promoters in high quality fish and shrimp production. Numerous challenge studies with pathogenic bacteria, viruses or protozoa have shown a reduction in mortality and morbidity when feeding animal plasma (bovine or porcine origin) to different animal species (pigs, calves, poultry, trout and shrimp). Knowing that SDP can modulate the immune function in fish, Araújo et al. (2017) demonstrated that feeding SDP to Nile tilapia submitted to cold stress improved immune function and cold resistance.

SDP in challenged salmon A recent study focused on evaluating the supplementation of SDP on growth parameters in post-smolts Atlantic salmon submitted to SRS challenge. The trial was conducted at indoor facilities of the research institute of VESO-Chile (Port Montt, Chile). Five hundred forty post-smolts Atlantic Salmon (91.5 g, BW) were distributed in six tanks maintaining equal biomass and fish density randomized in two treatment groups with three replications per treatment. Dietary treatments were 0% (control) or 3% of SDP (AP920; APC Inc). Diets were formulated to contain similar nutrients and energy (Table 1). On week 10 of the study, the fish were challenged with Piscirickettsia salmonis to cause Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome (SRS; EM-90 like strain) by cohabitation method. Study length for performance parameters was for 11 weeks. To study if SDP could influence survival to SRS, the study continued for additional weeks but no performance parameters were obtained at that time.

Groups BW increase (g) Control 135.4

Biomass increase (g) 9,996

SGR TGC 1.06 5.63


1.11 5.91

SDP 143.3

Table 2. Growth performance and biomass increase during the trial. Mean specific growth rate (SGR, %BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (TGC), weight increase (based on average weight, g), biomass increase (based on average tank biomass, g).

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Groups BW increase (%) Control 3.65

Biomass increase (%) 3.96

SGR 2.76


0.28 0.19

SDP 0.15

TGC 3.27

Table 3. Coefficient of variation (CV, %) for growth performance, weight and biomass increase.

Control and SDP experimental group were fed to satiation for the whole study keeping a range of specific feeding rate of 1.6-1.8.

and just one week after the initial challenge suggest that SDP-supplemented diet improved growth parameters in Atlantic salmon and homogenizes the size of the fish without affecting health parameters.

Results No fish died during the performance period of 11 weeks. However, all fish died at the end of the study (15 weeks) due to the severe SRS challenge. No differences on survival or delay in mortality was observed between treatments. During the initial 11 weeks, fish welfare indexes were adequate to optimal (Folkedal et al., 2016). By the end of the performance study (11 weeks), biomass showed differences between treatments. The group with SDP had increased weight and increased biomass compared to the control group. In addition, the SDP group showed a trend in higher specific growth rate (SGR), thermal growth coefficient (TGC) values compared to the control group (Table 2). Furthermore, the coefficient of variation (CV) was significantly improved in fish supplemented with SDP for all parameters measured (Table 3).

References available on request

More information: Javier Polo Vice president R&D, APC Inc, Europe E: Pablo Ibieta Project manager, VESO-Chile, Chile E: Joy Campbell Senior director R&D, APC Inc, USA E: Gloria Valderrama Operations manager, KABSA, Chile E:

Conclusions In summary, it is interesting to point out that even though the use of SDP was not able to improve the survival at SRS challenge due to the severity and concentration of pathogens in the tank, the results obtained for the initial 75 days


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Towards 100% fishmeal substitution in shrimp aquafeed Paula SolĂŠ JimĂŠnez, LSAqua

Aquaculture is expected to develop fast in order to meet the foodstuff demand, which will give rise to economic and environmental concerns. One of the main issues that is pointed out is the use of fishmeal in aquafeed. Throughout the years, the assessment of partial or complete fishmeal substitution has been conducted by both the public and private sectors, bringing to light plenty of new ingredients and additives. In addition, these studies have come out with a new tendency among nutritionists which consist of addressing the formulation under a holistic approach rather than a mere substitution of one ingredient by another. Turchini et al. (2019) suggested that it is essential

to consider the fish requirements and fulfill these necessities with nutrients. Following the aforementioned trends, LSAqua has entered the aquaculture sector with the aim of formulating sustainable feeds. The company has developed LSAqua Fishmeal (FM) replacer, a blend of vegetable, by-product and alternative protein such as Single Cell Protein - to reduce or eliminate fishmeal from aquafeeds. In this article, we present the product development of LSAqua FM replacer throughout the trials performed on shrimp (P. vannamei) at the University of Gent (Belgium), Imaqua (Belgium) and the RIA2 Institute (Vietnam).

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020



SR (%)

FBW (mg)


SGR (%/day)


80 ± 6.70

235 ±43

1.69 ± 0.35

8.6 ± 0.70


86 ± 1.30

223 ± 21

1.87 ± 0.21

8.4 ± 0.40


84 ± 4.50

200 ± 25

2.08 ± 0.29

8.0 ± 0.50


90 ± 1.00

222 ± 16

1.97 ± 0.16

8.4 ± 0.30


90 ± 2.90

211 ± 10

2.08 ± 0.13

8.2 ± 0.20

Table 1. Survival and growth performance during the first feed trial. Survival rate (SR, %), FBW (Final Body Weight, mg), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Standard Growth Rate (SGR, %/day). Values are mean ± SD.

First feed trial on shrimp The first trail was performed on shrimp (23 mg) for 28 days (22 PL) fed with five isolipidic, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets: Control, 0% LSAqua FM replacer; D1, 25% LSAqua FM replacer; D2, 50% LSAqua FM replacer; D3, 75% LSAqua FM replacer and D4, 100% LSAqua FM replacer. Four replicates per treatment were tested. The test was performed at the University of Gent. No significant differences were observed between control and LSAqua FM replacer groups among the different parameters, though LSAqua diets showed some lower values in final body weight, feed conversion ratio and standard growth rate (Table 1). The feed conversion rate was expected to be around 1.4 but the high values obtained are likely due to overcrowding in the last week of the trial. It can be concluded that the total substitution with LSAqua FM replacer doesn’t affect growth and survival on shrimp. Immune challenge Some shrimp from the feed trial were randomly selected to evaluate immune parameters (haemolymph) and perform a challenge challenge against AHPND Diet

SR (%)

Figure 1. Mortality rate (%) in AHPND challenge with diets of different levels of LSAqua fishmeal replacer inclusion in P. vannamei feeds. abSignificant differences (p<0.05).

at Imaqua. The D2 group, which exhibited the worst performance in the feed trial, was not used due to logistical constraints. A dose of 1x 105 CFU/ml was used in an immersion challenge that lasted seven days with the same feed regime as the first trial. Haemolymph parameters did not show any evidence of an impact on shrimp immunity. D3 and D4 showed a lower mortality rate compared with the control group (Fig. 1), but there were no significant differences between the experimental diets (D1, D3, D4). These results suggest a potential advantage against AHPND on shrimp fed on LSAqua FM replacer and neutral impact on growth and immunity.

FBW (mg)


SGR (%/day)

Control 38a ± 13.88

5.71a ± 0.46

1.77a ± 0.27

2.36a ± 0.27

D1 42ab ± 13.80

7.72b ± 0.77

1.56a ± 0.14

2.84b ± 0.24

D2 60ab ± 23.09

9.17c ± 0.72

1.49a ± 0.10

3.00b ± 0.05

D3 62ab ± 10.18

8.04bc ± 0.60

1.52a ± 0.09

2.85b ± 0.15

D4 71b ± 13.88

7.64b ± 0.75

1.58a ± 0.19

2.84b ± 0.33

Table 2. Survival and growth performance during the first feed trial. Survival rate (SR, %), FBW (Final Body Weight, mg), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Standard Growth Rate (SGR, %/day). Values are mean ± SD. Values in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (P<0.05).

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020



ADCs of tested diets Dry matter (%) Crude protein (%)

Crude lipid (%) Phosphorus (%) Gross energy (%)


73.32 ± 0.51

87.78 ± 0.31

89.33 ± 0.96

77.82 ± 1.04

85.74 ± 0.29

LSAqua diets

75.61 ± 0.47

88.56 ± 0.25

89.89 ± 0.42

77.37 ± 0.29

86.51 ± 0.47


ADCs of LSAqua fishmeal replacer Dry matter (%) Crude protein (%)

LSAqua 80.96 ± 1.58 fishmeal replacer

90.38 ± 0.82

Crude lipid (%) Phosphorus (%) Gross energy (%) 91.21 ± 1.40

76.34 ± 0.96

88.31 ± 1.57

Table 3. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of tested diets and LSAqua fishmeal replacer.

Optimizing the formula After these trials, the product formula was optimized and tested at the Institute of RIA2, Vietnam, following the same procedures as in the first trial with the exception of the shrimp weight (1.5 g), the trial duration (60 days) and an additional assessment of apparent digestibility coefficient (ADCs). Experimental diets showed higher survival rate than the control group, with D4 (100% LSAqua FM replacer) showing the highest survival rate (Table 2). The control group showed the lowest final body weight (FBW) and growth rate (SGR) and the D2 group had better performance. However, no statistical differences were found in feed conversion (FCR) between the diets. Apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of LSAqua diets were similar to the standard reference and ADC of LSAqua FM replacer also showed high values of digestibility (Table 3). Therefore, LSAqua FM replacer showed positive effects in growth performance together with a high digestibility coefficient. LSAqua FM Replacer© After these successful results, LSAqua launched the product to the market (nutritional values shown on Table 4). LSAqua FM replacer does not contain TVN and has a competitive price and stability throughout the year, which make it an ideal substitute of fishmeal. The product proved a better performance on growth, health and appearance on shrimp under laboratory and farm conditions. Moreover, we also offer the possibility of tailor-made formulas that meet the needs of each customer.

LSAqua FM Replacer nutritional values Crude protein (%)


Crude fat (%)


Ash (%)


Nitrogen-free extract (%)


Moisture (%)


Crude fiber (%)


Gross energy (MJ)


Amino acids Lysin (%)


Methionin (%)


Meth + cysteine 0.33 Minerals Calcium (%)


Phosphorus (%)


Table 4. LSAqua FM Replacer nutritional values. Nutritional values on the delivered product may vary from the stated values in this datasheet depending on natural variations and availability of raw materials.

LSAqua is proud to develop alternative solutions for sustainable people. We look forward to moving with you towards a greener future. References available on request

More information: Paula Solé Jiménez Business development manager LSAqua, Belgium E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020



SPACE has been hosting conferences on aquaculture for several years. On the strength of this initial success and the increasing number of visitors attracted in this fast-growing sector, the expo now plans to be an Aquaculture global Show reference. Thanks to its strategic and unique position in the 3rd aquaculture producer country in the EU and the wide variety of animal production sectors represented at the Show developing specific solutions for aquaculture in areas such as nutrition, genetics and equipment, SPACE will gather many operators of the sector. A free all-day tour, exhibitors and conferences focusing on aquaculture will be at the agenda this year in Rennes.


Functional fish feed to enhance the feed intake of milkfish in winter Lu Bingyan, Zhang Jin, Wu Lei, Dong Qiufen, Guangdong Nutriera Group

Background Milkfish is the top aquaculture finfish in the Philippines, which contributes around 400,000 MT per year (Bureau of fisheries and aquaculture resources of the Philippines, 2018). Milkfish is a warm-water species and its feed intake behavior decreases significantly when the temperature is below 27°C. Every year when the temperature falls to 26°C in Taal Lake during the winter time, the DOC (days of culture) increase. Furthermore, sinking pellet feed has been banned in Taal Lake since 2016 and only floating fish feed is allowed in this area. Fish become lazy as they need to swim up to intake the feed, and this leads to longer culture-cycles (8-10 months), higher FCR (average over 2.7), and higher production cost. Design of feed product After the floating feed policy implemented in Taal Lake in 2016, most commercial feeds for milkfish are standard floating feed with crude protein ranging from 30% in the start diet and 26% in the final diet. Soybean meal, porcine meal and copra are the major protein sources, meanwhile, used oil, palm oil and crude fish oil are the major lipid sources.

Standard diet

Winter diet

Crude protein (%) Starter

30 36


28 34


26 32

Crude fat (%)

7 12

Formulation cost (peso/kg) Starter

20 24


18 23


17 21

Table 1. Standard feed and overwintering milkfish feed composition and cost.

To solve the above-mentioned lazy feed intake behavior of milkfish in winter, a functional fish feed (winter feed) was designed according to the local conditions and fish requirements. The formulation was optimized with a special ingredient selection and the premix FishVigor from Nutriera and contains attractants and growth promoters which are extracted from natural plants, as well as optimal minerals and vitamins. The main nutrient differences are shown in Table 1.

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Feed Type2

Bags Kilos Amount Bags Kilos Amount Standard diet

815 795 910 760 705 800 695 765 685 735

FM1 FM2 B2 B3 F3 N-F3 F4 N-F4 F5 N-F5 Total

Feed price (PHP/kg) Fingerling size (g) Stock date Harvest date Days of culture Total harvest (kg) Average body weight FCR Feed cost per kg fish

14 40 135 129 421 0 824 0 1,654 0 3,217

350 11,410 1,000 31,800 2,700 122,850 2,580 98,040 10,525 296,805 0 0 20,600 572,680 0 0 41,350 1,132,990 0 0 79,105 2,266,575

Standard diet Winter diet 28.65 30.95 12 11.5 August 22 October 10 October 10 June 10 292 245 32,685.7 33,434.2 621 618 2.42 2.42 69.34 69.34

Feed trial Sixteen commercial farming cages were fed with winter feed and another ten cages were fed with standard feeds. The results obtained in two cages at the end of the production cycle are shown on Table 2. Results Fish feed intake was significantly higher on fish fed on winter feeds than with standards feeds. Formulation adjustment combined with functional premix FishVigor application allowed a 45-day shortening in the production cycle and a decrease of 0.2 of FCR (Table 3). Discussion The functional winter feed can indeed increase the feed intake and enhance the growth of milkfish.

Standard diet

Winter diet

2.4 - 2.5

2.1 - 2.2

FCR Days of culture

290 245

Feed cost (PHP/kg)

28 - 29

31 - 32

Cost (PHP/kg fish)

67 - 70

67 - 70

Table 3. Performance of standard diet and winter diet.

Winter diet 16 38 138 135 0 365 523 786 413 1,432 3,003

400 13,040 950 30,210 2,760 125,580 2,700 102,600 0 0 9,125 292,000 1,300 36,140 19,650 601,290 1,025 28,085 35,800 1,052,520 73,710 2,281,465

Table 2. Results obtained at the end of the production cycle in one standard cage feed and the other fed with winter feed. 1Feed price as PHP/bag. FM1, FM2, B2 and B3 are 20 kg/bag, and the others are 25kg/bag. 2N-feed are winter feed. 3Ordinary feeds were used when there was no stock of winter fish.

If a 1.2 farming cycle can be cultured in one year, shortening 45 days means it can achieve a 1.4 farming cycle. In other words, additional 2 MT of milkfish can be gained if 10 MT milkfish are produced in the same cage. If fish are sold at 120 PHP/kg, 2 MT additional fish can bring additional 240,000 PHP net profit. Normally, one farmer owns the farming licenses of 30 cages, which means he can get 7.2 million peso (≈US$140,000) extra profit in one year. If more fish are supplied, more fish are available in the market with relatively stable prices for the consumer. What’s more, higher feed intake in the lake will increase feed producing volume of the feed plants during the winter season. This can increase business opportunities to the feed mills as well.

Acknowledgements The China-ASEAN Fisheries Resources Conservation and Exploitation Fund supported this research project on aquatic functional feeds.

More information: Lu Bingyan Researcher Guangdong Nutriera Group, China Contact: Dong Qiufen E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Trends and developments C. Greg Lutz, Ph.D. Missing ingredients

When one considers the fact that most of the future growth in aquaculture will take place in developing, under-developed and low-income food deficient countries, the necessary ingredients for building successful industries cannot be taken for granted. Over the past four decades, many governments and organizations have made tremendous efforts to analyze the potential and constraints for development of aquaculture in various parts of the world. Some of these exercises are incorporated into strategic planning activities, with the goal of jump-starting industry development and growth. In other cases, these initiatives can take the

form of an in-depth examination of local or regional factors that seem to prevent the adoption of aquaculture production. Most countries have tried to adopt policies that encourage the establishment or expansion of aquaculture enterprises. Some have embraced the idea wholeheartedly, while others have merely gone through the motions due to indifference, unfamiliarity or widespread corruption. In many countries with limited public resources, the potential for aquaculture development has been pursued through distinctly different approaches. The first involves a focus on large numbers of small- to medium-sized farms, with direct

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020

Dr. Greg Lutz is a Professor with Louisiana State University Agricultural Center. He is also an author and consultant, and serves as the Editor in Chief of Aquaculture Magazine. E:

societal benefits that impact a large portion of the population. The other approach involves attracting foreign investors to develop industrial operations, usually targeting export markets. Although these businesses also produce positive economic impacts for neighboring communities, apart from direct employment, most of these benefits are diluted as wages trickle through local economies. In either case, a number of “ingredients� are required to come up with a recipe for success. Industrial operations usually are planned and developed to incorporate all of these components in an integrated manner, but when the goal is to develop an extensive industry with large numbers of producers these factors become critical considerations. They have been cited again and again in analyses of constraints to industry development in places as widely


primary constraints to establishing aquaculture industries throughout the world.

dispersed as South Asia, Central America, Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe. The same missing ingredients are holding wide-scale aquaculture back in many parts of the world. Let’s examine some.

Feed This “ingredient,” perhaps more than any other, embodies the “Catch 22” of regional aquaculture development in many parts of the world. Farmers cannot operate efficiently without suitable and reliable sources of feed, so few if any operations can be established in the absence of feed mills and distribution infrastructure. On the other hand, feed manufacturers have little incentive to establish facilities that, initially at least, will have no local market for the product. In some cases, the perceived future market demand (based on analysis of other factors that could support industry development) is sufficient to convince feed companies, often with incentives from regional or national governments, to establish manufacturing facilities. In many cases, once feed becomes available, farms begin to be established and distribution channels are developed. But a lack of local sources of good quality feed is one of the

Seed Aquaculture producers throughout the world are concerned with the quality and reliability of the fingerlings, post-larvae or spat they have to work with, but this factor is of critical concern for producers in less-developed nations. Seed is often only available from suppliers that are some distance away and it’s not uncommon in some parts of the world for growers to have to stock fingerlings that have travelled some 10 to 12 hours prior to arriving at their destination. In addition, growers in many underdeveloped regions often have to deal with inconsistent availability and missed deliveries due to poor roads and difficulty communicating with suppliers. As is also the case in many developed countries, producers in developing regions subscribe to a perception that the genetic background of what seed is available is generally poor. Not unlike the situation with chickens, the industrial vs rustic aspect of fish genetics becomes apparent for many rural fish farmers. Available lines of fish may reflect many generations of inbreeding, with poor reproductive or growth performance. But on the other hand, just as one would not necessarily expect a modern commercial laying hen to thrive in the back yard of a subsistence farmer, the availability of illadapted ‘improved’ lines of fish from government hatcheries or commercial distributors has not

always resulted in improved yields.

Infrastructure Inadequate road systems cause problems not only for deliveries of fingerlings, PL’s or spat, but also feed, chemicals, equipment and other supplies. The movement of finished product from farms to market also depends on adequate roads. This “ingredient” is somewhat problematic. Many governments may find it difficult to calculate the cost/benefit ratio for such investments, making them reluctant to use scarce funds for projects that may not have demonstrable returns to society. Furthermore, a fragmented network of small-scale producers (and potential producers) may lack the political clout to even communicate the need for industry-supporting infrastructure projects. In contrast, development of roadways and reliable electricity supplies are often a negotiating point when governments try to entice investors to establish industrial operations. Land tenure/site availability Farming aquatic organisms implies ownership. But how can a small producer own his or her inventory if he or she doesn’t own the land it is growing on? Questions regarding land tenure are very real constraints for aquaculture development in many parts of the world. In many areas, aquaculture producers must operate on publicly-owned lands that are also used by fishermen, foresters or cattle grazers. But while these other activities are based on a framework of legal definitions and permits – no such standing is available for aquaculturists.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Capital Even in situations where forward thinking governments may wish to encourage the development of aquaculture … it takes money. Access to capital has been a major impediment to aquaculture development throughout the world, and this constraint continues to keep aquaculture beyond the reach of many small producers in lowincome nations. While some microcredit schemes have been shown to produce results under certain circumstances, there are numerous examples of well-meaning organizations dumping large sums of money to promote aquaculture in various regions only to walk away, leaving would-be producers with no way to obtain operating capital. Without this key ingredient, others will soon be lacking, as fingerling suppliers and feed distributors disappear due to lack of cash flow. Reliable electricity and communications Electricity and communications grids are also lacking in many areas where aquaculture could develop rapidly if they were present. These resources are crucial for both production and marketing operations. A lack of reliable electricity means generators (and regular deliveries of fuel – there’s that road access thing again…) will be required for aeration and pumping if anything more than low-input subsistence level production is to take place. Cold chain/markets A significant population shift from rural regions to urban centers is underway in many countries.

While rural areas might be well-suited for production, consumers of aquaculture products are increasingly removed from producing communities. The implications are numerous – producers will require middle-men to transport their product to end consumers, middle-men can pit producers against each other and force them to reduce profit margins in exchange for market access, quality may be reduced (and therefore consumer acceptance and demand) if middle-men do not concern themselves with how the product is handled, and adequacy of road systems again comes into question.

Policy issues Any number of policy issues can impact aquaculture development, including: • Recognition of aquaculture production as a legitimate land use. • Import/export policies relating to feed ingredients, equipment or competitive fishery products. • T ax incentives and access to micro-credit programs. • Gender issues.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020

Technical support Information is more widely available through the internet today – but so is misinformation. The typical fragmentation of the industry over wide rural areas, coupled with poor roads and a general lack of resources makes it difficult for many governments in the developing world to provide growers with one-on-one technical support on a regular basis. The lack of reliable communication networks in some regions has hampered efforts to use cell phones as a delivery method for technical support, but this method is being used successfully in many locations. The technical divide Globally, aquaculture is still a handson practical form of scraping out a living through farming, especially for the vast majority of the 19 million – plus producers around the world. As developed nations focus on more RAS and automated monitoring, aeration and feeding, the technology gap is widening. If one reflects on the list of “ingredients” discussed here, it becomes apparent that none can be missing if developing countries around the world are going to promote aquaculture as a livelihood.


A good start is half the battle: How a solid foundation can support optimal fish growth and performance throughout their life cycle Bram Meersman, Alltech Coppens

All life on our planet is subject to some fundamental challenges that determine their chances of survival and success. Wild fish have to scour around for food, while at the same time avoid getting eaten themselves. In aquaculture, on the other hand, fish are housed in more controlled and balanced environments, eliminating some of the challenges wild fish face. This significantly increases the fishes’ chances of survival and success, but only when they are taken care of correctly.

Managing the health and welfare of aquatic species can be demanding, but by understanding some of the underlying problems, it becomes easier to find well thought out solutions. Not meeting the nutritional needs of farmed species can lead to deficiencies, such as deformities, eye issues, increased mortality and poor growth, to name a few. A nutritionally balanced feed for the correct species and environmental conditions is vital for success. If the needs of the fish are not accurately

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Figure 1. Example of the complexity of organogenesis, related to growth, in teleost fish. Here we see the development of bay snook (Petenia splendida) from hatching until 45 days post-hatch (TreviĂąo et al., 2010).

met, it will put the health and performance of your farm at risk. But the problems seen on fish farms these days are not only fish-health related. We find that fish farmers increasingly struggle with the legislation on pollution. National laws limit the levels of feces emissions that can be expelled in nature, with phosphorus emissions being the most critical parameter. All the problems fish farmers face these days make it more difficult to be sustainable while also achieving a suitable harvest size. But even with these challenges, it is possible to grow high-quality, healthy fish by laying the proper groundwork and through collaboration with reliable partners in the aquaculture industry.

Get the foundation right In modern aquaculture, new technologies and operating systems allow farms to take greater control over the environment in which farmed species live. The most technically advanced form of fish farming is a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), which enables the control of water quality, temperature and filtering systems. Although the entire aquaculture industry is

moving more and more into digital and technological control systems, it is paramount not to forget about the fundamentals of fish farming. Independent of how technologically advanced a farm might be, it is essential that the feed coincides with your system and is of the highest quality available in the market. How far farmers decide to control their farm comes down to individual business choices. Still, it is important to realize that it is these choices that, even in the early stage of production, will have a significant impact on overall farm performance and the quality of the final product. Fish, like all other animals, including humans, go through different developmental stages in their lives. This means that, depending on the life stage of the fish, different body parts (anatomy) and life functions (physiology, immunology) will develop. For each of these developmental stages, the fish have different nutritional requirements. If these nutritional requirements are not met during the early stages of their development, the fish will quickly develop nutritional deficiencies that can have instant adverse effects on fish health and

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Figure 2. Results of a starter feed benchmark trial performed in the Alltech Coppens Aqua Centre.

performance. Getting it right from the beginning is therefore essential to achieving good results and makes feeding high-quality hatchery feeds a cornerstone in your whole production.

After the foundation comes the build When you get the foundation right, the build-up towards your high-quality end product is within reach. After raising your fish qualitatively through the hatchery phase, it is time to take advantage of that strong baseline that has been laid out and support optimal growth on-farm. Following on from the success in the hatchery phase, continued climbing of the smooth exponential growth curve is crucial. The only way to achieve this is through providing a quality, nutritionally balanced feed throughout the production cycle. This philosophy is supported across the agricultural industry. If you provide your animals with high-quality feeds, you will support their growth and performance, help build their immune defense system and significantly improve the final product. While a strong foundation is vital, care and quality are also essential throughout the hatch, nurse and grow stages. Choosing the best quality ingredients and raw materials is critical to optimal performance.

Recent research completed at the Alltech Coppens Aqua Centre displayed the improvements in growth and performance when feeding two of Alltech Coppens starter feeds to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the hatchery phase. The results of this benchmark trial are shown in Figure 2. Alltech Coppens, a specialist in RAS feeds, has over 25 years of experience in the aquaculture industry and invests heavily in research and development of the specific nutritional requirements of fish in each stage in their life cycle. Choosing only to work with the best quality raw materials, the Alltech Coppens Aqua Centre tests each of these during the different production phases. In all farmed species, supplementation is required in order to provide a nutritionally balanced diet. Included in all Alltech Coppens feed is a premix known as AquateÂŽ, developed by Alltech, a leader in innovative nutritional technologies. The main barriers for the fish defense system are through the skin, gills and the gastrointestinal tract. In order for these external physical barriers to function correctly, they must be supported internally. Striking a balance between the intestinal microflora, gut morphology, immune system and nutrient uptake will ultimately influence performance and welfare. Optimal inclusion levels will result in a healthy digestive

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


system that aids digestion and nutrient absorption and utilization. This results in healthier fish, but also lower feces production and less pollution in the systems and the environment. Aquate has been specially formulated to meet the specific requirements of each aquatic species. It enhances biomass production, boosting natural defense systems and encouraging healthier and more robust populations with a combination of products – ranging from organic trace minerals to yeast-based additives – to support gut function. The best farm results are seen when feeds containing the Aquate package (like all Alltech Coppens feeds) are fed throughout the entire life of the fish, as this feeding strategy creates continuity in the supply of the fishes’ nutritional requirements.

We have a responsibility for life below water and our future In a rapidly changing environment where pressure on nature is not to be underestimated, we have an obligation to responsibly produce sustainable, wellbalanced animal protein. This is a commitment that we take very seriously in Alltech and Alltech Coppens. Through our adherence to continuous research, we strive to source solutions to the challenges faced by our customers of today and for future generations. Innovation research in the Alltech Coppens Aqua Centre has resulted in lowering our carbon footprints, lowering phosphorus and nitrogen emissions and leading to 0% inclusion of fishmeal and fish oil in feed formulations with no impact on the growth and performance onfarm where possible. In order to understand how these technologies can be implemented on your farm, contact us or drop by our stand at Aquaculture America in Hawaii and speak to someone on our team. References available on request Photo by courtesy of INVE Aquaculture

Expert international coverage of all the topics important to hatchery managers: systems, feeders, genetics, eggs, feed and nutrition, health and hygiene ... and more. Three quarterly magazines, a resource filled website plus a Buyers' Guide & Directory.

More information: Bram Meersman Aquatic Veterinarian Alltech Coppens, The Netherlands E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Unlocking phytate potential through NIR technology Sophie Lee, William Greenwood, AB Vista

The phytate challenge Significant progress has been made to reduce or replace fishmeal in the diets of many aquatic species through the use of plant-derived proteins. Although plant sources such as soy have a high protein content, they also contain anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have a negative effect on feed efficiency and growth performance. One of the most prevalent ANFs is phytate, as it is present in all plant-based feedstuffs. It is not only a source of unavailable phosphorus (P) and inositol, but it also binds to other minerals and proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract rendering these nutrients unavailable for digestion, and consequently leading to their excretion into waters. Protein and P excretion in aqua production is one of the most important pollutant factors and may limit the survival and number of fish allowed to be harvested in one area. Phytases are enzymes that breakdown phytate, thereby making phytate-P and bound nutrients more

available to the animal. By alleviating the anti-nutritional effect of phytate, phytase encourages growth and reduces nutrient losses. Understanding the phytate level is vital because this determines how much phytase can be added to feed.

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), a tool to unlock phytate potential? NIR technology uses near infra-red light to analyze raw materials and complete feed to predict its nutritional value. Traditionally it has been used to measure primarily fiber, protein and moisture levels, but advances in NIR technology have enabled the analysis of other parameters such as phytate. The phytate level varies between different feedstuffs and within a single raw material. Figure 1 demonstrates the variation in phytate content among different plantproteins. If not accounted for in the feed formulation, variations in dietary phytate can result in reduced animal performance, impacting producer profits.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


80% release is determined (what can be achieved with the right concentration of Quantum Blue), phytase has the potential to make 0.28% P available to the animal. This reduces the need for additional P sources, while simultaneously increasing protein availability and absorption, thereby decreasing the environmental excretion of both P and protein. Knowing dietary phytate levels ensures that inadequate or excess phytase is not added to the feed formulation, incurring a cost either way. Phytase dose can therefore be determined based on substrate level and species-specific P requirement. Figure 1. NIR determined phytate-P levels in various plant protein ingredients.

Figure 2. Regional phytate-P levels in aquafeeds, as determined by NIR.

AB Vista has created a phytate reference guide based on NIR research that began in 2010 and includes sample averages for phytic-P or phytate levels found in common feed ingredients for multiple years across multiple countries, including the US, Brazil, Canada and Mexico, and various feed ingredients, including corn, wheat and soybean meal. More than 1,000 aquafeed samples have been included in the calibration for phytate-P. Regional levels of phytate-P in complete aquafeeds, determined by NIR, are shown in Figure 2. Phytate-P levels in these diets ranged from 0.10 to 0.43%, averaging at 0.35%. A phytase such as Quantum Blue can release a high proportion of the phytate-P in feed. For example, in a diet containing an average 0.35% phytate-P, if an

NIR for the future Understanding the variability of phytate levels both in raw materials and finished feeds will allow nutritionists to take advantage of phytases without risking performance losses or welfare problems due to P deficiency. Regular NIR analysis of feed reduces the risk of economic losses and allows for optimal animal performance due to accurate feed formulation. The measurement of phytate in raw materials and complete aquafeeds is available through AB Vista’s Feed Quality Service.

More information: Sophie Lee R&D Manager AB Vista, UK E:

William Greenwood Sales and Technical Services Manager EMEA AB Vista, UK E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Aquaculture and aquafeed production trends: 2000-2017 Albert G. Tacon, Ph.D. Global aquaculture production and dominance of Asian countries Aquaculture reached a new high of 111.95 million tons in 2017 according to the latest statistical information from FAO, including 53.4 million tons of finfish, 31.8 million tons of seaweed and algae, 17.4 million tons of mollusks, 8.4 million tons of crustaceans, 471,784 tons of amphibians and reptiles, and 422,124 tons of miscellaneous invertebrate animals; with a total farm production currently valued at over $250 billion (Fig. 1, 2; FAO, 2019).

Moreover, Asian countries continue to dominate aquaculture production with over 91.9% of the total reported global production in 2017, including China 57.7% global total by weight, followed by Indonesia 14.2%, India 5.5%, Vietnam 3.4%, Bangladesh 2.1%, South Korea 2.1% and the Philippines 2.0% (Fig. 3, 4).

Dr. Albert Tacon is a Technical Editor at and an independent aquaculture feed consultant. E:

Fed aquaculture species production Table 1 shows the top compound feed fed fish and crustacean species groups produced in 2017

Figure 1. Total global aquaculture and capture fisheries production 1950-2017. Aquaculture production has increased at an average APR of 6.24% per year since 1994 (values in million tons; FAO, 2019).

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Top major fed species groups

Live weight (tons)

APR (%/yr) 2000-2017

Total value (US$ billion)

Estimated % on feeds

Economic FCR 1/

Feed use (‘000 tons)

Chinese fed carp




57 %







92 %







86 %







81 %



Marine fish




82 %







100 %



FW crustaceans




57 %



ODF fish




43 %







52 %







100 %







98 %






Table 1. Top fed fish and crustaceans in 2017 and estimated compound feed usage (FAO, 2019). Economic FCR 1/, estimated net fish production (live weight basis) per unit of feed intake (dry weight basis).

Figure 2. Total global aquaculture production by major species group in 2017. Values given in million metric tons and US billion (FAO, 2019).

Figure 3. Total global aquaculture production by region in 2017. All APRs calculated from 2000 to 2017 and values given in metric tons (FAO, 2019).

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and estimated feed usage according to the author, with total estimated fed fish and crustacean production in 2017 being 44.42 million tons, with Chinese fed carp species dominating production (31.5% of total fed species production in 2017), followed by tilapia (13.2%), catfish (12.4%), shrimp (12.4%), marine fish species (7.0%), other miscellaneous freshwater and diadromous fish species (5.6%), salmon (5.8%), freshwater crustaceans (5.7%), milkfish (3.9%), trout (1.9%), and eels (0.58%), respectively Figures 5 and 6 shows the total global production of the major fed species from 2000 to 2017 based on reported FAO species production data and estimated compound feed usage, together with an estimate for species production and feed usage for 2020 and 2025. On the basis of the


Figure 5. Total estimated global compound feed usage by major fed species groups was 51.2 million tons in 2017.

Figure 4. Top aquaculture producers by country in 2017. Values given in million metric tons (FAO, 2019).

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Figure 6. Total estimated commercial aquaculture feed usage by major fed species group: 2000-2017 and estimates for 2020 and 2025.

data presented it is estimated that total compound aquafeed usage was 51.23 million tons in 2017, and is expected to rise to 58.85 million tons by 2020 and 73.15 million tons by 2025, respectively. Concluding remarks Although aquaculture continues to be the world’s fastest growing and most diverse food production sector, the sector within most developing countries is still highly dependent upon the use of aquaculture

feeds composed largely of imported feed ingredient sources. It follows therefore that future research effort within these countries should be focused on the development of technologies which facilitate the increased use of locally available feed resources, thus ensuring the long term economic and ecological sustainability of the aquaculture sector. A full version of this paper was published in Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture –

Trends in Global Aquaculture and Aquafeed Production: 2000-2017. References FAO (2019). FAO Fisheries Department, Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit. FishStatJ, a tool for fishery statistics analysis. Release: 3.5.0, Universal Software for Fishery Statistical Time Series. Global aquaculture production: Quantity 1950– 2017; Value 1950 - 2017; Global capture production: 1950–2017.

Dr. Tacon is the keynote speaker at the 13th Aquafeed Horizons conference taking place in Bangkok, March 24, 2020.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


AQUOLIVE: Improving aquaculture production with bioactives from olive oil biomass José Carlos Quintela, José María Pinilla, Natac Group

Sustainability of aquaculture: a global, increasing challenge According to the United Nations, the world population is projected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050 (United Nations, 2017). In parallel, fish consumption increased from 121 million tons in 2008 to 140 million tons in 2013 (FAO, 2017), with aquaculture contributing to 90% of this growth. If we look into the future, growing, wealthier populations will continue to demand more fish, and aquaculture growth is expected to be the major force to satisfy this growth in demand (FAO, 2017). Considering these trends, demand for fish is estimated to increase by 30% by 2030 (Strategy and Markets, 2017). In order to meet such an increased demand for fish, aquaculture production will need to increase

by 50% from the present level (World Resources Institute, 2014). Intensification of aquaculture has become the only meaningful solution to meet that demand. However, intensification of aquaculture is challenged by the availability of fish feed sources, especially fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO), primarily obtained from wild captured fish at the bottom of the food chain and essential for the formulation of fish feed. As production from wild fisheries is stagnating and competition for FM and FO from other sectors (mainly the food and health sectors) is increasing, marinederived fish feed ingredients are only available in limited quantities, representing a long-term concern for the sustainability of aquaculture.

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020



Premium pieces (%)

ω6:ω3 ratio

Lipid Content


1.32 73%



1.23 79%



Improvement (%)




0.04 0.03





Table 1: AQUOLIVE Results in fish farming setting in Chile.

It is estimated that the amount of fish used in fish feed will need to contract by at least 50% from current levels for aquaculture to be sustainable in 2050 (European Commission, 2015). Partial substitution of FM and FO by plant-based alternatives has been employed by the industry as a solution to sustain growth in aquaculture. The industry is also constantly seeking new and innovative solutions to enhance fish health and welfare, while improving fish meat quality to meet the high standards demanded by final consumers. In this scenario, plant bioactive compounds, known as phytogenics, represent a great opportunity for use as natural feed additives in aquaculture practices (Rui Gonçalves & Gonçalo Santos, 2015).

The olive industry as a source of bioactive compounds The olive (Olea europaea) probably originated in the Eastern Mediterranean region of the Middle East. Apart from its oil content, which is rich in oleic acid, a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid (C18:1) with healthy properties, olive fruits and leaves are rich in various bioactive phytochemicals: polyphenols (hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, flavonoids, etc.), terpenoids, phytosterols, vitamins and squalene, among others. Present olive production is about 16 million tons of green and black table olives and 2.7 million tons of olive oil. Of total production, 95% is produced in the Mediterranean region, with Spain being the main producing country (FAOSTAT, 2001). The olive oil industry generates a high quantity of by-products, which in Spain alone accounts for more than 6 million tons, as leaves, pits, and wet pomace (Junta de Andalucía, 2015). Management of this biomass in Spain is currently yielding pomace olive oil, a secondquality oil obtained by hexane extraction, and energy production through the combustion of remaining

biomass (defatted pomace, leaves, etc.). However, some valuable olive bioactive compounds are contained in olive oil by-products, meaning that tons of polyphenols, terpenoids, phytosterols, and other valuable compounds are currently being burnt to produce energy. Current progress and advances in food waste treatment technology are supporting the establishment of alternative, innovative, sustainable management strategies aimed not only at reducing the amounts of olive oil by-products disposed of, but also at recycling and exploiting them. One such practice with considerable potential for further development, and that has already seen practical applications, is the recovery of functional components with health-promoting properties (Gullón et al., 2018; Nunes et al., 2018). The recovery of these compounds not only enables more sustainable olive biomass management, but also provides for additional income from the commercialization of the extracts produced, thus contributing to increasing profitability in the olive oil agri-industry supply chain, while increasing global health. Since its foundation, Natac has focused on the valorization of agro-industrial biomasses through recovery of valuable compounds, in the framework of current bioeconomy and circular economy strategies. Olive biomass has appeared as a prime candidate for product development, given the great amount of olive bioactive compounds present in olive-derived by-products with promising functional applications, which, as mentioned, are currently underexploited.

Olive bioactive compounds as a solution In recent years, Natac has developed several olive-derived feed additives with application in different animal species. Natac has even patented the combination of certain bioactive compounds

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


as having a synergistic effect against oxidative and inflammatory episodes when combined in specific proportions (Quintela et al., 2013). This research was conducted to define a series of new innovative products with proven activity in various markets (nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals). One of these products has been aimed at salmon aquaculture, as a productivity-boosting input called AQUOLIVE. This product presents the capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation, thus protecting the fish from subclinical chronic inflammation episodes resulting from multiple challenges encountered during the growth cycle (e.g., potential diseases, high water temperature, elevated pathogen load, etc.). Additionally, AQUOLIVE also works as a functional antioxidant, thereby contributing to preventing or attenuating oxidative stress in salmon. By counteracting inflammation and oxidation in key organs (or tissues) at critical times, AQUOLIVE contributes to preserving gut integrity and improving lipid (energy) metabolism (lipid accumulation) in farmed salmon. The benefits of this product have already been tested in a commercial fish farming setting in Chile. The results (Table 1) showed an improvement in both production parameters (9% increase in FCR) and meat quality parameters (8% increase in percentage of premium pieces). Additional improvements associated with the fillet quality-higher fat content and better ω6:ω3 ratio, in line with EU salmon quality needs, were also observed. These benefits result from the double bioactive effect observed in olive phytochemicals (antiinflammatory and antioxidant).

Demonstration scale validation With the objective of fully validating the health benefits of olive bioactive compounds in salmon aquaculture, Natac is conducting a series of salmon trials covering the entire fish production cycle, including the smoltification phase. It started a demonstration sea-cage trial in Norway last September that will study the effect of the AQUOLIVE product in salmon from 600 g to 5 kg. In parallel, a smoltification tank trial will be performed to evaluate the benefits of olive bioactives in this specific challenging phase of salmon aquaculture. During both trials, a complete set of variables will be analyzed: zootechnical performance parameters, salmon meat quality, histology, biochemical, and transcriptomic analyses.

These trials are being conducted in collaboration with some of the most prestigious partners in the salmon aquaculture sector, such as LetSea – a reference Norwegian trial station located in Sandnessjøen –, Nofima Feed Technology Centre, the Spanish Research Centre IRTA (Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology) and the University of Barcelona.

Conclusions The valorization of agri-industrial biomass offers great opportunities for development of new solutions to tackle current and future aquaculture challenges, providing the industry with new phytogenics capable of improving fish health and welfare. The AQUOLIVE project will link olive farmers from southern Europe with Norwegian salmon producers through the valorization of olive biomass and the improvement of salmon quality and productivity, on a circular economy basis. Acknowledgements

AQUOLIVE is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement no. 830202.

References available on request

More information: José Ma Pinilla Project Manager Natac Group, Spain E:

José Carlos Quintela Chief Scientific Officer Natac Group, Spain E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Brewer’s spent yeast and grain as second-generation feedstuff for aquaculture feed David San Martin, Mikel Orive, Bruno Iñarra, Ricard Fenollosa, Alicia Estevez, Joan Nazzaro, Jose Miguel Martínez, Anna-Maria De Smet & Jaime Zufía, Life BREWERY

Aquafeeds are formulated to contain all the essential nutrients that farmed fish need to stay healthy and maintain the benefits of their consumption in humans. Currently, such feedstuffs are highly dependent on fishmeal and fish oils. It is estimated that the aquaculture sector consumed 73% and 71% of the total global fishmeal and fish oil production (IFFO, 2013). However, the usage of these marine products in aquaculture has been steady or declining slightly in recent years as they are being used more strategically (at critical stages of the life cycle), more efficiently (the same amount of wild fish yields more farmed fish, via fishmeal and fish oil in feed), and are being

increasingly substituted with vegetable protein and oil ingredients. In this regard, a study by Samuel-Fitwi et al. (2013) showed that replacing fishmeal with alternative ingredients, such as soybeans or rapeseed, implies a lower environmental impact: a standard trout feed based on fishmeal has an impact of 1,797 kg of CO2 equivalent per ton, while feed based on soybean and rapeseed have 1,019.65 and 1,037.13 kg of CO2, respectively.

Brewing industry The brewing sector holds a strategic economic position with an annual beer production in EU-28 of about 396

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


million Hl. In this context, the brewing industry employs different batch type operations in processing raw materials to the final beer product that produce large quantities of wastes: above 7 million tons of spent grain (SG) and spent yeast (SY) per year (Beer statistics, 2018). This waste has a great potential for use as an ingredient for feed. Hence, the continuous increasing demand of aquaculture derived products (25 % for 2020) (FAO, 2013) is making the aquafeed valorization route one of the most promising alternatives for the massive recovery of brewers’ by-products.

Life BREWERY project The first challenge of the project was to develop new ingredients from brewer's spent yeast and grain by applying an innovative process. This process first consisted of mechanical dehydration to reduce the humidity as much as possible (to about 55%), which involved a low energy demand and, therefore, a reduction of the energy necessary for thermal drying in a second step. The second phase applied a flash drying to reduce the moisture content to below 10%. This flash drying involved an instantaneous drying and, therefore, a highly efficient use of thermal energy. In addition, in order to increase the digestibility of these new ingredients, a hydrolysis process was studied as a pre-treatment before dehydration. Aquaculture trials Once the new ingredients were produced, the second challenge was to assess the digestibility and feed efficiency of these ingredients in three species of aquaculture: sea bream (Sparus aurata) as a model of a Mediterranean aquaculture species; Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) as a model of an Atlantic specie; and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a model of a freshwater species. Four prototypes of ingredients were obtained by combining hydrolysis and drying process: brewer spent yeast; hydrolised brewer spent yeast; brewer spent grain; and hydrolised brewer spent grain. These four prototypes have been tested in digestibility trials (isoproteic, isolipidic and isoenergetic aquafeed with 30% of inclusion of each experimental ingredient) in two species RAS aquaculture systems: sea bream and rainbow trout. The results showed acceptable digestibility results between 71% to 90%.

Hydrolised prototypes showed greater digestibility than non-hydrolised ones.

Conclusions It can be concluded that brewer by-products stand out as a potential alternative to replace fishmeal in aquaculture food, due to its availability in Europe, nutritional characteristics and the results obtained in fish digestibility tests. Hence, their inclusion in aquafeed will contribute to increase the sustainability of aquaculture by providing new sources of sustainable and economically advantageous proteins that can replace fishmeal. Its availability will also contribute to reducing the environmental impact related to aquatic feeding based on fishmeal. Once the digestibility trials have ensured the potential of these ingredients, the next step will be to carry out the growing trials in which the feed efficiency in fish will be assessed such as growth in weight and length, etc. In addition, the main barriers to the final transfer and replication of this solution in several European regions will be addressed. Acknowledgements

Life BREWERY project (LIFE16ENV/ES/000160) aims to demonstrate the viability of reusing brewer by-products as new feed ingredients for aquaculture. It is funded by LIFE European Environment Program, which is the EU’s financial instrument supporting environmental, nature conservation and climate action projects throughout the EU.

References available on request

More information: David San Martin Food researcher AZTI, Spain E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Aquafeed participation in GMP+ FSA on the rise Johan den Hartog, GMP+ International

Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food production sector. At the same time, the debate about the sector’s sustainability challenges – either real or perceived – continues. In this rapidly changing environment, more and more companies in aquaculture are looking to place safe bets. As a result, aquafeed producers place strong emphasis on feed sustainability, including feed safety. With its “one-stop-shop” approach (safety and sustainability), the GMP+ Feed Certification scheme is gaining a foothold in international aquafeed. The recent growth of aquafeed in GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance (GMP+ FSA) is remarkable since aquaculture participation in this scheme has traditionally lagged behind agricultural sectors like poultry, pig and dairy feed production. This discrepancy, which still exists, can be traced back to our origin in 1992. After some high-profile feed contamination incidents, companies from the animal feed production sector (dairy cows, pigs and poultry) in the Netherlands came together to formulate best practices for safe production of feed. Since aquaculture has a relatively small market share in the Netherlands, it was not involved in this initiative.

Snowball effect To this day, poultry, pig and dairy feed producing companies are the majority of GMP+ FSA certified companies. Their supply chain, which includes collection, feed material production, trade and transport, receives most of the remaining GMP+ FSA

certifications. But times are changing. The number of participating aquafeed companies has risen steadily over the last few years. During recent visits to Turkey and France, it was heartening to hear that several market aquaculture leaders started asking their feed suppliers to become GMP+ FSA certified. Because of our chain approach, these requests often lead to a snowball effect. We are very encouraged by these developments, since aquafeed producers and GMP+ International have not had a close relationship. We have always had companies in aquafeed within our scheme, but because aquaculture has not been involved from the start, GMP+ FSA has not always been their minds. Yet, I believe the all-important issue of feed safety binds us all together. Many aquafeed producers also have pig and poultry feed production in the same production facility. A GMP+ FSA certificate can cover all feed types with one feed safety management system which complies with the world’s highest standards.

Chain approach Since our founding almost three decades ago, GMP+ FSA has developed into the world’s most recognizable feed safety scheme. Over 18,000 companies in more than 85 countries are GMP+ FSA certified. One of the things that makes GMP+ FSA unique among peers is our chain approach. This allows certified companies to trade exclusively with businesses that are GMP+ FSA

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


(or equally) certified as well. That way, feed safety is ensured from start to finish. We see feed safety as a shared responsibility for the entire feed chain. Every company needs to keep feed safe, all the way from collection and storage, through transport and final production. Because a chain is as strong as its weakest link, this is also true for the aquafeed sector. Besides a feed safety framework based on the principles of GMP (prerequisites), ISO and HACCP to prevent contamination, we also provide certified companies with additional tooling and support, like tracking and tracing, crisis communication guidance, and an early warning system to reduce the impact (“damage control”) if contamination occurs. Because GMP+ FSA covers all of these aspects, separate certification for GMP, ISO and/or HACCP can be skipped, which will save companies money.

(the two modules in the GMP+ Feed Certification scheme) can be awarded with just one audit. There are companies that work with more than one scheme because they are active in, for example, both poultry and aquaculture. Or they have one certificate for feed safety here, and another for sustainability there. With GMP+ FSA plus FRA all activities are covered under the same scheme, which saves companies a lot time and hassle. Our GMP+ FSA module, which is set to undergo a complete renewal in 2020, actively involves certified companies when it comes to the contents of the scheme. Although we are a privately owned non-profit organization, participants in the scheme still have a lot of influence – just like back in 1992. We invite companies to participate in several expert committees that advise us about the standards of GMP+ FSA. GMP+ FSA is not ours – it’s yours!

Sustainability One aspect that is especially appealing to companies in aquaculture looking to improve sustainability, is an additional module called GMP+ Feed Responsibility Assurance (GMP+ FRA). This certificate allows companies to demonstrate that they meet market requirements with regard to people and the environment. So far, we included standards for the use of responsible soybean products and non-GMO feed materials in mixed feed. The assurance of these aspects can easily be managed (or implemented) in the same management system as for feed safety assurance. Whether it is perceived habitat destruction, overfishing, marine ingredients in feed or use of antibiotics, aquaculture companies are increasingly confronted with sustainability demands from business partners, stricter regulations and critical end consumers. GMP+ International is willing to integrate these aspects in the GMP+ FRA module to ensure aquafeed companies work responsibly, while opening new doors for them at the same time. We hereby invite aquafeed companies, as well as the scheme holders active in aquaculture and retail, to collaborate in defining the required feed responsibility parameters.

Multi-stakeholder participation When other companies participate, we both increase our engagement and ensure our scheme is workable in practice. We will always continue this open dialogue with our industry partners, because we are convinced this multi-stakeholder approach is the safest road to achieving Feed Safety Worldwide. Yet this cannot be achieved without all parts of the feed chain participating – aquaculture included. Although we’re heading in the right direction, we would love to see more aquafeed companies participating. This becomes even more essential, considering new ingredients in the feed supply chain are gaining a foothold in aqua feed, like algae, seaweeds, insects and single cell proteins. We will continue to do our part and invest in building long-term relationships in aquafeed and aquaculture. Because we believe strongly that GMP+ FSA provides you with all tools needed to produce safe feed, and to thrive in these challenging and promising times.

One-stop shop GMP+ International is a “one-stop shop” for feed certification. GMP+ FSA and GMP+ FRA certificates

More information: Johan den Hartog GMP+ International, The Netherlands E:

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020


Industry Events

Send your meeting details to:


Aquaex India, Bhimavaram, India

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China Aquafeed Summit 2020

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International Conference on Aquaculture, Bangkok, Thailand

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Engineering, Management & Operation of Extrusion Plant Course, Potchefstroom, South Africa

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VICTAM and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia, Bangkok, Thailand


Mar 23 – Apr 1: Aquafeed Extrusion Technology Course, Temuco, Chile

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Food and Feed Drying Technology Course, Temuco, Chile

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International Conference on Aquaculture and Marine Biology, Tokyo, Japan


Biofloc Technology 2020, Singapore

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Guatemala Aquaculture Symposium, Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala

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ONE: The Alltech Ideas Conference, Lexington, KY, USA

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International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding, Busan, South Korea

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Insects to Feed the World, Quebec, Canada

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XXIX FEFAC Congress, Antwerp, Belgium

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World Aquaculture 2020, Singapore



Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 12 Issue 1 2020

AQUAFEED CONTACT US Editorial: Editor: Lucía Barreiro Executive Editor/Publisher: Suzi Dominy Technical Editors: Peter Hutchinson, Albert Tacon, Ph.D Conferences: Advertising Enquiries/request media pack: Technical Feed Consulting: Senior Technical Consultant: Warren Dominy, Ph.D Accounts & All Other Enquiries:

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