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Aquaculture Magazine Volume 43 Number 4 August - September 2017


editor´s comments




US Aquaculture Represented During First Farm Bill Listening Session.

12 article

Publicly-Funded Science: Boon for US Aquaculture.

16 article

Indoor Shrimp Aquaculture Which is best- A biofloc system or a recirculating aquaculture system?

on the

cover Pacifico Aquaculture Ocean-Raised Striped Bass

28 note

Transforming Aquaculture into a Knowledge-Based Industry.


Achotines Laboratory: A Review of Yellowfin Tuna Research Advances.

36 note

Aquaculture Program at Tropic Seafood, Ltd.

Volume 43 Number 4 August - September 2017

Editor and Publisher Salvador Meza Editor in Chief Greg Lutz Editorial Assistant María José de la Peña



USSEC and the Soy Aquaculture Alliance Hosted the V-Aquaculture Investment Workshop.

40 review

World Aquaculture Society (WAS) Trade show and Conference.

Editorial Design Francisco Cibrián Designer Perla Neri Marketing and Communications Manager Alex Meza Marketing & Sales Manager Christian Criollos Sales Support Expert Gustavo Ruiz


Latin America Report

Latin America Report: Recent News and Events.

76 Urner barry

SHRIMP. SALMON. Tilapia and Pangasius.

events 80 Upcoming advertisers Index 2 »

Business Operations Manager Adriana Zayas

Subscriptions: Design Publications International Inc. 203 S. St. Mary’s St. Ste. 160 San Antonio, TX 78205, USA Office: +210 5043642 Office in Mexico: (+52) (33) 3632 2355 Aquaculture Magazine (ISSN 0199-1388) is published bimontly, by Design Publications International Inc. All rights reserved.

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Aquaculture without Frontiers


Aquaculture Stewardship Council



Helping Develop “Restructured” Fish Products in Mexico.

News from the Aquaculture Stewardship Council.

The People Aspect of Fish Health. By Hugh Mitchell, MSc DVM








Aquaculture Economics, Management, and Marketing



Hybridization and then what? By Greg Lutz

Recent news from around the globe by By Suzi Dominy

Intensive feeding. By Paul B. Brown

The Regulatory Cost Burden on U.S. Baitfish/Sportfish Farms.

By Jonathan van Senten, Ph.D. as guest columnist and Carole R. Engle, Ph.D.

Solid waste in closed culture systems represents both a problem and a resource. By Asbjørn Bergheim


Aquaponics Can aquaponics help restore the US aquaculture industry? Part 1. By George B. Brooks, Jr. Ph.D.


Perspective and Opinion Aquaculture Research Needs. By Dallas Weaver, Ph.D.



We get it. We all get it. Aquaculture is great. By C. Greg Lutz


t’s going to feed the world (and it’s going to have to). It has so many benefits over traditional animal industries... Better feed conversions. More flexibility in feed ingredients (albeit this is only beginning to emerge). Nutritional profiles that provide what people (be they undernourished or overweight) really need in their diets. An economic engine adaptable to many places and cultures, with the potential to boost

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food security, foreign exchange earnings, and employment. A significant return on investment for governments’ R&D funds. I could go on and on. You could also. We know how aquaculture works. It’s obvious to us. But with the exception of a few regions in a few countries, most of the public, policy makers and politicians do not. And this unfamiliarity continues to dog our progress, to the detriment of society in

general. The way this works, whether you are out to get aquaculture, a political party or an entire religion, is to focus on the worst examples and then subtly extend that to the target group as a whole. Sure, over the past several decades there have been plenty of bad apples involved in aquaculture. Examples? Mangrove losses, private gain from public resources, environmental degradation from effluents, introduction of non-native species (although most of that was done decades ago by well-meaning development agencies… but what the heck, let’s just blame aquaculture for it – everyone else does), and on and on. We could all come up with examples of each of these bad deeds committed at some time, in some remote location, in the name of aquaculture. For example, “aquaculture” is blamed for the appearance of Penaeus monodon in the Gulf of Mexico these days, even though the chronology doesn’t quite add up. P. monodon is also found off the coast of west Africa now, and guess what… there were no monodon farms there to blame, so none of the aquaculture “haters” ever mention this. The double standard is everywhere. Only we seem to make the effort to

point out how many more people can be fed with tilapia than cows using the same amount of feed, not to mention how much less waste is produced. If some sustainability advocate or nutritional health promoter wants to take a swipe at aquaculture, who’s there to stop them? The answer is us. We should be there to stop them. I regularly have friends (and even some colleagues) asking if tilapia is really worse for you than bacon. This claim was shown to be cheap sensationalism many years ago, with numerous experts making it clear that the statement is misleading and completely flawed. Letters were written. Complaints were lodged. Those rebuttals aren’t circulating widely in social media today. They never were. But the original hyped-up, exaggerated and downright misleading claims against the fish are still out there. The other day I took the time to share the facts behind this issue on my Facebook page, only to have some moron I’ve never met make a comment fraught with falsehoods that concluded with a pledge to never eat farmed fish because they are “not natural.” Is a potato grown on a farm “not natural?” Is a pineapple grown

on a farm “not natural?” This whole phenomenon is based on two sad truths – first, since traditional agriculture has been around for so long, it has earned some degree of acceptance and recognition (including politically) that aquaculture has yet to enjoy. Secondly, the luxury of being able to demand free range chicken, organic produce and non-GMO cereal is reserved for the very rich… And those folks never seem to consider that such an approach to food production is far too inefficient to provide for the global population. How nice it must be to have the resources to simply look the other way, but eventually the dilemma of feeding the world’s population will be unavoidable, whichever direction those folks choose to cast their gaze. I was particularly struck by a term George Brooks used in his column this issue: “Highest and Best Use.” The definition is: “ The reasonably probable and legal use of vacant land or an improved property that is physically possible, appropriately supported, financially feasible, and that results in the highest value.” Hopefully, aquaculture will emerge as the highest and best use of inputs and space for production of animal protein in the coming

decades. But lots of people will need to become familiar with the facts on which this argument could be made. Sadly, facts may not be enough. The science behind global warming, ocean acidification and other environmental problems is widely doubted in the U.S., but widely recognized in most other parts of the world. In contrast, the science and scientists behind GMO technology are ignored or downright pilloried in many countries and communities that are committed to fighting climate change. How do people choose which science they will embrace and which they will ignore? How do we (or anyone else for that matter) take the correct steps to win the information battles that will only get worse as both information and misinformation are able to proliferate and spread so quickly? In the age of alternative facts, it is incumbent on all of us to speak up about the positive aspects of aquaculture. Dr. C. Greg Lutz has a B.A. in Biology and Spanish by the Earlham College at Richmond, Indiana, a M.S. in Fisheries and a Ph.D. in Wildlife and Fisheries Science by the Louisiana State University. His interests include recirculating system technology and population dynamics, quantitative genetics and multivariate analyses and the use of web based technology for result-demonstration methods.




F3 Challenge registered a voluntary commitment “Future of Fish Feed: A collaborative effort toward fish-free aquaculture feeds” at UN’s Ocean Conference United States. - The F3 Challenge registered a voluntary commitment “Future of Fish Feed: A collaborative effort toward fish-free aquaculture feeds” at the UN’s Ocean Conference June 5-9 in New York City. The pledge supports the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14 to “conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.” F3 Future of Fish Feed is a collaborative effort between NGOs, researchers, and private partnerships to accelerate the commercialization of innovative, alternative aquaculture feed ingredients to replace wild-caught fish. It was launched as the F3: Fish Free Feed Challenge in 2015. Representatives from Australia, Austria, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, China,

South Africa, Thailand, and the U.S. submitted entries to create new partnerships to accelerate this process.

The F3 Challenge Team commits to: • Award the first F3 prize in 2017. • Launch another challenge in 2017 to further innovation. • Hold another stakeholder meeting in 2019.

• Encourage an International Feed Innovation Network (FIN) that accelerates innovations to take pressures off wild-caught fisheries so that forage fish, and the higher trophic level, which represent the ocean, as we know it, will remain for future generations. The commitment can be viewed at: commitments/?id=18933

PerformFISH: A major New Research Project Focused on a New Era of Consumer-Driven Development in Mediterranean Aquaculture EU. - A new €7 million research project, funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 funding programme, titled PerformFISH officially launched in Volos, Greece, on 15-16 May 2017. PerformFISH will focus on developing consumer driven aquaculture production by integrating innovative approaches that can help ensure European sea bream and sea bass aquaculture businesses are sustainable and competitive. The project is coordinated by the University of Thessaly, Greece, and its consortium brings together 28 partners from 10 different countries, encompassing a wide range of technical expertise and know-how in the Mediterranean aquaculture area. The farming of sea bass and sea bream is an important sector in the Mediterranean, contributing significantly to wealth and job creation in rural and coastal areas. Sea bream and sea bass are by volume the third (36.4 %) and fourth (28.15 %) most farmed fish species in 6 »

the EU, and their collective value (€1.04 billion) surpasses that of salmon (€780 M), trout (€550 M) or mussel farming (€490 M) (Source: FEAP.INFO). However, in recent years, there has been growing concern regarding the lack of growth and improvement in Mediterranean marine fish farming. PerformFISH has the direct support and endorsement of the industry, with producers’ associations from Greece, Spain, Italy, France and Croatia directly involved as partners in the project, focused on ensuring that the research addresses the needs of the sector and knowledge is transferred effectively to

their members. Significantly, the associations through their membership represent 92.8 % of all sea bream and sea bass production in the EU. Over the next five years, PerformFISH will work to ensure sustainable growth of the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, based on consumer perceptions and real market requirements. It aims to support fish farms to operate not only in ideal economic and environmental conditions, but also in a socially and culturally responsible manner. The PerformFISH project website will be coming soon – keep an eye on

Genetics roadmap to develop more resilient farmed fish World Fish will embark on new research to create more resilient fish with characteristics such as disease resistance and more effective feed utilization. Based on a roadmap developed with world experts at a WorldFish-hosted fish breeding workshop on 23-24 May at The Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, UK, the research will use advanced techniques such as genomic selection to introduce these characteristics into its improved tilapia strains. Since 1988, WorldFish has used selective breeding to develop and manage the fast-growing Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain. The strain has been disseminated to at least 16 countries, mostly in the developing world, and is grown by millions of small-scale fish farmers for food, income and nutrition across the globe. Use of genomics selection tools, which enable the selection of animals based on genetic markers, will allow WorldFish to expand its GIFT research beyond a growth-only focus and introduce selection for characteristics that are otherwise difficult to measure, such as resilience and feed efficiency. Genomic selection has enabled a step change in the rate of genetic improvement of terrestrial livestock, and has the potential to do the same in fish. Expansion of GIFT research is a key part of the CGIAR Research Program on Fish (FISH) and supports WorldFish efforts under its sustainable aquaculture program to increase the productivity of smallscale aquaculture to meet growing global demand for fish. John Benzie, Program Leader, Sustainable Aquaculture, WorldFish: “Incorporating new traits in the breeding program for GIFT will help fish farmers prepare for future challenges such as climate change and increasing evidence of disease

risks. This will particularly benefit farmers in Africa and Asia, where tilapia is critical for food security yet farmers often have limited access to improved fish breeds suited to local conditions.” Ross Houston, Group Leader, The Roslin Institute: “Aquaculture production needs to increase by 40 percent by 2030 to meet global demands for fish. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is arguably the world’s most important food fish, and plays a key role in tackling rural

poverty in developing countries. The innovations in genetic improvement mapped out in this workshop are an important step toward achieving these ambitious goals.” Attendees of the workshop included experts from WorldFish’s Malaysian and Egyptian centers. Further discussions took place at the Genetics Network meeting hosted by WorldFish at the World Aquaculture 2017 conference in Cape Town on 26-30 June.




Hendrix Genetics is investing in the growing aquaculture industry. U.S. - Recently, Congressman Dave Reichert cut the ribbon dedicating the completion and use of the newly remodeled Troutlodge egg incubation facility in Bonney Lake, Washington. The renovation of the facility started shortly after Troutlodge was acquired by Hendrix Genetics. With the new facility, Troutlodge can incubate eggs at several different temperatures, as well as sterilizing and reusing the incubation water several times. The newly remodeled facility can hold and incubate as many as 100 million trout eggs at any one time. With this capacity the hatchery is one of the largest privately owned trout egg incubation facilities in the world. Congressman Reichert noted, “The new Troutlodge incubation facility is of critical importance to re-

taining jobs in the 8th Congressional District. Each year their 60 employees work hard to produce about 500 million trout eggs, of which the vast majority are exported. This is a great example of how exports help drive business and support jobs.” With Troutlodge, Hendrix Genetics is the largest supplier of live

trout eggs, although its roots in salmon breeding date back to 1980, and rainbow trout even longer, to 1945. Today, their two leading brands Troutlodge and Landcatch operate fourteen breeding and production locations on three continents.

Cargill Opens New Fish Nutrition Research Lab in Norway Norway. The new aquaculture research lab becomes part of the Cargill (formerly EWOS) Innovation Center in Dirdal, Norway, which includes the new lab, a pilot plant and the seaside fish trial sites at Gråttnes and Oltesvik. The new 550-m2-research facility will focus its work on developing new diets for the aquaculture industry. This new project represents a $1.25 million USD investment. Cargill is committed to become one of the leaders in fish nutrition research worldwide. The Dirdal lab joins cutting-edge facilities across the globe, including the $10.5 million USD fish health center opened in Chile less than 6 months ago. Cargill’s R&D success in the aqua space is dependent on close cooperation and knowledge transfer between personnel and scientists through laboratory, pilot plant and fish trials. 8 »

“We are delighted to open our new laboratory in Dirdal. Having world-class laboratory capacities sitting right next to our fish trial units and our feed processing research center will strengthen the performance of our products by giving us greater abilities to understand the interaction of raw materials, nutrients and feed manufacturing. It will also

enhance our raw material development work and build on our leading knowledge in this area, allowing us to accelerate our product development programs and introduce new solutions to the market more quickly,” said Daniel Barziza, Global Aqua R&D Director.

Spanish Scientists Reduce Aquaculture Fish Agony While Improving Quality and Shelf Life Spain. – A new sacrifice technology for aquaculture fish has been developed at the Polytechnic University of Cartagena (UPCT). It reduces fish stun times by more than 80 %, minimizing fish suffering and improving meat quality and freshness, with a shelf life extension of up to 50 %. The new patent has been validated on an industrial scale with aquaculture fish such as gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata). This was possible thanks to the collaboration of UPCT’s researchers with the University of Murcia, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography – Campus Mazarron, the IMIDA (Marine Resource Center of San Pedro del Pintanar) and the companies Pescados de Acuicultura de Murcia, Servicios Atuneros del Mediterráneo, and Cubiplaya. This new technology adds natural anesthetizing substances to the ice that

causes fish to expire from hypothermia. The stun times obtained with the new patent were less than one-minute, unlike the more than two minutes (sometimes more than 10 minutes) that it takes fish to die with the conventional system. “Both the stunning and the sacrificial process are much faster thanks to the use of nanoencapsulated essen-

tial oils, and any stress and suffering that fish experience are significantly reduced,” shared Professor Antonio Lopez-Gomez, coordinator of the R&D project. “Tests have shown that the muscle freshness is greater, and the shelf life is prolonged under refrigeration, up to 50 % more than usual,” he added.

Important Breakthrough in Indian Aquaculture Diversification: Mass Scale Seed Production of Indian Pompano India. – Indian Pompano (Trachinotus mookalee) is a marine fish considered a good candidate for aquaculture due to its fast growth rate, easy adaptability to culture conditions, quick acceptance of artificial feed, euryhaline nature, pleasant appearance, good meat quality and high consumer preference. With the objective of diversifying Indian mariculture, the breeding and seed production of the species was initiated with a broodstock collection back in 2011, at the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. However, a catastrophic cyclone prevented the consistent production of pompano seeds due to the loss of broodstock maintained in cages. In 2015, broodstock collection was initiated again. This time, the fish were stocked in land based Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) for their

development and maturation. With the manipulation of water quality and feeding protocols, fish were induced to spawn in the RAS, and mass scale seed production was finally achieved in early 2017. Larvae metamorphosis started on the 17th day post-hatch and was completed by the 22th day. After 30 days of rearing, the survival rate was 17.2 %, and the fry reached an average size of 2.9 cm in length and 1.27 g in weight. Fry were transferred

to different R&D centers to be nursery reared and subsequently stocked in cages, released in ponds or stocked in open sea floating cages for growout. The successful seed production of Indian pompano by Visakhapatnam Regional Centre of ICAR-CMFRI represents an important breakthrough in Indian mariculture, opening business opportunities through species diversification. »



US Aquaculture

Represented During First Farm Bill Listening Session The House Committee on Agriculture, chaired by Representative Mike Conaway of Texas, hosted their first Farm Bill listening session at the University of Florida on June 24th. Ten committee members and Representative Sanford Bishop of Georgia, Ranking Member on House Appropriations for Agriculture, attended to listen to comments from over 200 farmers and agricultural organization representatives.


arm Bills are written every five years to set priorities and spending for federal agricultural and human health programs managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The Farm Bill has also served as a means to amend other significant federal legislation.

U.S. aquaculture was represented by Ms. Amy Stone, Board of Directors for the National Aquaculture Association, and Mr. John Skidmore, President of the Florida Tropical Fish Farms Association. In the two minutes allotted to speakers, Ms. Stone requested that: U.S. aquaculture be designated as a Spe-

cialty Crop. With this designation, aquaculture producers will be able to compete for Specialty Crop Block Grants and included equally in the Farm Service Agency disaster assistance programs. She also requested that funding continue for Agricultural Research Service and National Institute of Food and Agriculture aquaculture-focused research efforts that include five Regional Aquaculture Centers and the Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart Aquaculture Research Center. These research funds are not wasted public monies. She noted an independent analysis published within the last 30 days reported a 37-fold return for each aquaculture research dollar spent since 2000. Ms. Stone also requested support for policies, programs and regulations that level the global trade playing field and require foreign producers to operate, produce, process, handle, and market farm-raised products to the same regulatory standards as the U.S. farmer. She noted that the catfish inspection program within the Food Safety and Inspection Service requires foreign producers to implement the same rigorous food safety requirements as U.S. catfish farmers

Eleven members of the House Committee on Agriculture attended the June 24th Farm Bill Listening Session: (left to right) Representatives Jimmy Panetta (CA), Roger Marshall (KS), Stacey Plaskett (Virgin Islands), Rick Allen (GA), Ted Yoho (FL), Mike Conaway (TX), Neal Dunn (FL), David Scott (GA), Sanford Bishop (GA), Glenn Thompson (PA) and Rick Crawford (AR).

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and processors and should remain within the USDA. Ms. Stone closed by requesting the assistance of the Committee to update the National Aquaculture Act of 1980. The Act was last amended in 2002 and must be updated to create a national aquaculture economic development initiative similar to the initiatives implemented by the European Union, Japan, Ireland and Norway and to reflect the regulatory, business, and social climate of today. Mr. John Skidmore requested continued funding of the USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Aquatic Animal Health program. He added that staffing for the program should be increased by one full time employee to fully implement the Commercial Aquaculture Health Program Standards (CAHPS), respond to emerging and existing pathogen threats, and to reduce a nationwide shortage of private practice veterinarians that assist fish and

shellfish farmers. Mr. Skidmore also requested continued funding for USDA’s Wildlife Damage Management Program that works directly with farmers to prevent bird predation on fish. The variety of birds that feed on catfish, hybrid striped bass, and ornamental fish are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. A funding reduction to USDA Wildlife Services places at severe risk a very successful farmer-oriented federal program that responds to and effectively assists U.S. aquaculture to prevent crop damage by birds that are fully protected by federal law. Chair Mike Conaway closed the session by noting that 70 House members represent rural districts and 360 members do not. He added that he was sure that rural members would vote for the Farm Bill but that to pass a strong Farm Bill they would need many more votes. Rep. Conaway then deputized the audience to reach out and tell their agricultural

story and advocate for the Farm Bill to gain supporters from the rest of the House. After the session, the National Aquaculture Association (NAA) submitted a letter to support the comments made by Ms. Stone and Mr. Skidmore.

The Committee has posted a recording of the session, which can be found by clicking on, https://mediasite. 6b5c8f09fd921d, or by visiting the House Committee on Agriculture website, Within the recording, Ms. Stone’s remarks start at 1:41:16 and Mr. Skidmore’s start at 2:14:47. Chair Conaway’s closing remarks occur at 2:29:54.  For a copy of the NAA’s letter, please contact the NAA Office at 850-216-2400 or

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Publicly-Funded Science:

Boon for US Aquaculture Federal investments in aquaculture account for a small fraction of all government-funded research spending but result in a significant return on investment in terms of production value, according to a study published recently by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future in the Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Department of Environmental Health and Engineering.

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he study is the first of its kind to examine US federal grants awarded in the field of aquaculture, which includes aquatic organisms raised for food, feed, fuel, and recreation. To conduct this analysis, the researchers compiled a database of nearly 3,000 aquaculture grants awarded from 1990 to 2015. The study found that federal agencies awarded nearly $1 billion dollars in grants for aquaculture research in the past quarter century, and these grants had an estimated 37-fold return on investment since 2000. “Many industries rely on basic and applied science supported by the federal government and conducted at universities, small businesses, and

federal research labs—and the aquaculture industry is no different,” said lead author Dave Love, Associate Scientist at the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future. “Federal dollars spent on aquaculture R&D appear to be highly impactful.” According to the study, the species that received the most grant support were algae, oysters, salmon, trout, catfish, and shrimp. Federal funding was concentrated in states along the Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf Coast, and Great Lakes. Grants focused on animal health and disease, improving animal production efficiency, genetics and breeding, animal nutrition, and supporting education and job training opportunities for students. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are the lead US government agencies overseeing aquaculture, and combined they provide 80

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article Figure 1 (Graphic from Love, Gorsky and Fry, 2017). The US federal aquaculture grants from 1990 to 2015. (A) Total grant spending per year adjusted to 2015 US dollars (USD), which includes matching funds. (B) Total grants per year. (C) Total annual aquaculture value from 1990 to 2013 adjusted to 2015 USD (NOAA 2014). Data from the years 2014 and 2015 were not available. (D) Return on investment (ROI) was calculated as the gain from the investment minus the cost of the investment divided by cost of the investment. Total ROI calculated as the total gain from the investment minus the total cost of the investment divided by the total cost of the investment from 2000 to 2014. Microalgae research funding was removed from the ROI calculation.


Total grant spending ($1.04 billion) $200

Federal aquaculture grants (number of awards)

Federal aquaculture grants (millions of US dollars in 2015)




all grants all except microalgae


$0 1990





Total grants (n=2957) 250 200 150 100 50 0 1990


all grants all except microalgae 1995




U.S. aquaculture value ($29.13 billion) $1.5






Return on investments






Aquaculture production value (billions of US dollars in 2015)





40 30





$0.8 1990 1995

2000 2005


0 2000







Figure 2 (Graphic from Love, Gorsky and Fry, 2017). The US federal agency aquaculture grants awarded by US Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other organizations, stratified by (A) scientific discipline and (B) aquatic organism class. The “Other” category contains the federal agencies Administration for Children and Family (ACF), Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and US Agency for International Development (USAID). The “Other species groups” category includes alligators, non-algae aquatic plants, bryozoan, coral, echinoderms (sea urchin and sea cucumber), limpet, jellyfish, marine invertebrates, snails, sponge, squid, and whelk.




Sustainability and Society Stock Enhancement Policy Phicology Education Aquaculture Production Science Physiology Genetics and Breeding Animal Health and Desease Aquaculture Administration Economics and Marketing Animal Nutrition Food Science

USDA NOAA NSF Other Shellfish Micro algae Macro algae Crustaceans Fish

80 %

100 %

60 %

40 %


80 %

100 %

60 %

40 %


20 %

Percent of grants

20 %

None listed Other Multiple listed

Not specified

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Organism class

Percent of grants

cents of every dollar awarded by the federal government for aquaculture research. Researchers note that budget cuts to USDA and NOAA for the 2018 fiscal year proposed by the Trump Administration could have an outsized impact on US aquaculture. For instance, NOAA’s National Sea Grant College Program (Sea Grant), which makes up two-thirds of NOAA’s funding for aquaculture, would face elimination under the administration’s budget proposal. Congress preserved 2017 funding for the program in a recent spending bill, despite a previous recommendation from the Trump Administration to reduce funding for Sea Grant by $30 million. “As Congress debates future spending on aquaculture research, we hope this study will provide stakeholders with information they need to help define research priorities and aid in policymaking,” said Love. The authors noted in their manuscript that “Admittedly, this is a simplistic approach. It assumes that federal grant funding has a 1:1 impact on the industry, while we know that some publically funded research has no impact on the size or performance of the industry, and many innovations in US aquaculture come from producers themselves.” And, on the other hand: “ROI may be higher than we estimate because domestic aquaculture production statistics are likely underreported.” “An Analysis of Nearly One Billion Dollars of Aquaculture Grants made by the United States Federal Government from 1990 to 2015” was written by David C. Love, Irena Gorski, and Jillian P. Fry and published in the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society (JWAS) on May 7, 2017. The article can be freely downloaded at the JWAS website.

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Indoor Shrimp Aquaculture

Which is best- A biofloc system or a recirculating aquaculture system? Indoor aquaculture systems allow the production of high-quality, fresh shrimp near the target market regardless of season and climate. This study compares two types of systems with the objective of determining the most suitable procedure to maximize the indoor production of Andrew J. Ray , Thomas H. Drury and Adam Cecil1 1



losed aquaculture systems have low rates of water exchange, highly controlled inputs and, regularly, infrastructure that requires smaller surfaces than traditional ponds. These types of systems have gained popularity in different parts of the world, like the United States, as they improve biosafety, reduce water use, and produce marine protein far from the coast and close to the consumers, 16 Âť

Litopenaeus vannamei. regardless of the season of the year. Among closed aquaculture systems, recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and biofloc (BF) technology are the most common. Regularly, RAS consist of an external biofilter to provide space and an aerobic environment to the nitrifying bacteria. They also have one or more solids filters, and some of them have disinfection filters, such as UV lamps. On the other hand, BF systems are

characterized by having a substantial amount of suspended particles, which are created by the system, and a dense microbial community. Usually, the external filtration of BF systems consists of a single solids filter to control particle abundance. Because RAS have more components, their installation and, potentially, operating costs are higher. Nevertheless, this type of system allows greater control and stability, whereas

the installation cost of BF systems is lower because they need less equipment. Another advantage of BF systems is that biofloc particles represent an additional nutritional source for cultured organisms, recycling nutrients from feed and lowering the feed conversion rate (FCR). Biofloc is composed of a wide variety of microorganisms, whose abundance and composition is affected by system management and

environmental influences. Aeration is essential for the proper functioning of biofloc systems, as, in some cases, the microbial community can consume more oxygen than the cultured organisms. BF systems are biologically complex, especially with regard to the nitrogen cycle, and are generally more difficult to control. Examining the levels of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes in shrimp, feed and biofloc can pro-

vide estimates of where shrimp are obtaining these elements. The closer the δ-value is to one potential food source versus the other indicates that shrimp obtained a greater portion of C or N from that source. The objective of this study was to compare two shrimp indoor production systems, a clear water recirculating system (CW), and a biofloc system (BF) with regard to shrimp production, water quality dynamics, and the estimated nutritional contribution of suspended biofloc particles in BF systems.

Experimental Design The study was conducted at the Aquaculture Research Center of Kentucky State University, USA, in a building with sheet metal walls and a translucent, polycarbonate roof. Three tanks (1.36 m3) were assigned to each treatment. A diffuser was installed in each tank, blown air was supplied by a 1 HP regenera-

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tive blower, and water temperature was maintained at a constant 28.5°C throughout the experimental period. Each CW treatment tank had an external sedimentation chamber and two foam fractionators to control the solids concentration, in addition to an external biofilter to control nitrogen concentration. All filters were kept in continuous operation during the experimental period. On the other hand, each tank in the BF treatment had a sedimentation chamber and a foam fractionator, which operated when necessary to control the accumulation of solids. In both treatments, the foam fractionators were emptied daily, and sludge from the bottom of the sedimentation chambers, weekly. Half of the water initially supplied to the experimental tanks originated from existing shrimp production systems. The water for the three CW treatment tanks came from a clear-water RAS shrimp nursery tank, which had a settling chamber, a foam fractionator, and an external biofilter. The biofloc water in the experimental tanks came from a biofloc shrimp tank that only had a foam fractionator for solids control. The six experimental tanks were filled halfway with their

respective type of water, while the remainder was filled with de-chlorinated water mixed with salt (26 g¡L-1). The intention was to start the biofloc system with an established microbial community, while treating the clearwater systems similarly.

with a 40 % protein and 9 % fat diet. Just after stocking the experimental tanks, feed progressively changed to a 35 % protein and 7 % fat diet. This diet was administered throughout the rest of the experimental period. No additional carbon was added to the experimental tanks, meaning the C:N ratio was dictated by the feed, which has a C:N of approximately 8.3:1. Tanks were stocked with 0.48 g shrimp, with a density of 250 PLs/ m3, and were cultured for 55 days. The same amount of feed was administered to all tanks three times a day, adjusting the dose based on a FCA 1.5:1 and a growth rate of 1.5 g per week, along with routine checking for uneaten feed.

Experimental Organisms L. vannamei postlarvae (PL 12) used in the study were kept in a clear water nursery for 30 days prior to the start of the experiment, in order to identify with greater clarity the isotopic changes when some of the organisms were transferred to BF tanks. During the nursery phase, PLs were fed commercial feed, with a 50 % protein and 15 % fat diet. From the third week until the time the organisms were transferred to the experimental tanks, PLs were fed Water Quality During the experimental period, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH and salinity were measured twice a day, and the concentration of total ammonia nitrogen, nitrites, nitrates and turbidity was measured on a weekly basis. Stable Isotopes Shrimp, biofloc and food samples were collected five times throughout the experimental period to measure C and N stable isotope levels (week 0, 1, 3, 4 and 8). Isotope samples were sent to the University of Arkansas Stable Isotope Laboratory in Fayetteville, AR, USA, for analysis. For the purpose of obtaining stable isotope data, the CW treatment was used as a negative control. It was assumed that the shrimp in this treatment had only pelleted feed as a potential food source.

18 Âť

RESULTS & DISCUSSION Water Quality Table 1 shows the average water quality values registered during the experimental period. Total ammonia nitrogen and pH levels were significantly higher in the CW treatment, while nitrite, nitrate, and turbidity levels were significantly higher in the BF treatment, although all parameters remained within the optimal range for shrimp farming. Shrimp Production Table 2 shows performance results. The average weight of shrimp at harvest and total biomass were significantly higher, and FCR was significantly lower in CW treatment. Although there were no significant differences in the survival rate between treatments, the survival rate registered in CW treatment was markedly greater (78 %) compared to that of BF treatment (69 %). Based on these data, it can be concluded that shrimp production was substantially better in CW tanks. The lower shrimp production in BF tanks can be attributed to the high concentration of particles present in the water, reflected in the registered turbidity values. A high particle concentration may increase oxygen demand of the Âť 19


ter digestibility of carbon compounds or to a low N content in the biofloc. However, biofloc nutritional contribution to shrimp did not improve productivity results compared to the CW treatment. Nitrogen, in the form of protein, is known to be the main nutritional factor that drives shrimp growth. As can be noted from Table 1, there were no significant differences in the δ N15 values between treatments. Additionally, in the BF treatment, the contribution of N from the biofloc to the shrimp was minimal, so the biofloc did not contribute to the growth of organisms. This differs from results reported by Burford et al. (2004), who suggested that 18-29 % of the N in shrimp tissues came from biofloc. However, it is important to mention once again that that study was carried out in a pond with a lower stock density than the present study.

microbial community, clog shrimp gills, promote nuisance microorganisms, and slow shrimp growth. Furthermore, the high nitrites concentration and the low pH level registered in the BF treatment, common aspects of biofloc systems, could affect, individually or in combination, shrimp production. In general, there was greater variability in water quality in BF tanks than in CW systems. Results obtained in the present study contradict a series of studies previously published, which report that shrimp grown in ponds containing particulate matter performed significantly better than shrimp grown in clean, saline well water. It is important to mention that those studies were carried out with lower stock densities and particle concentrations than those of the present study. 20 »

It has been observed that in intensive systems, the nutritional contribution of natural biota, such as biofloc, is reduced, since a higher culture density has a greater dependence on pelleted feed. Therefore, biofloc as a nutritional supplement may not be as important in intensive systems as in semi-intensive systems.

Isotope Dynamics Table 1 shows δ values of C13 and N15. The isotope levels indicated that shrimp from BF treatment had a C and N contribution of 18-60 % and 1-18 %, respectively, in their tissues from the biofloc material; however, this effect did not positively influence performance (Figure 1 and 2). The higher contribution of C from the biofloc to shrimp, compared to that of N, can be attributed to a bet-

Conclusions In the present study, CW tanks had significantly higher concentrations of ammonia and pH, while those in the BF treatment had significantly higher levels of nitrite, nitrate and turbidity. The data obtained from stable isotope analysis indicated that shrimp in the BF system obtained between 18-60 % of the C and 1-16 % of the N in their tissues from biofloc. Even so, these nutritional contributions from biofloc were not related to better shrimp production. Individual body weight, total biomass, and FCR were significantly better in the CW treatment than in the BF treatment. Although exact reasons for differences in production are not clear, dissimilarities in water quality may have played an important role. The results of this study indicate that clear water RAS may be a more productive option than BF systems for indoor shrimp production. 1 Division of Aquaculture, Kentucky State University Land Grant Program, 103 Athletic Rd., Frankfort, KY 40601, USA.

Ray, A., Drury, T. Cecil, A. (2017). Comparing clearwater RAS and biofloc systems: shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production, water quality, and biofloc nutritional contributions estimated using stable isotopes. Aquaculture Engineering 77 (2017) 9-14

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Pacifico Aquaculture

Ocean-Raised Striped Bass


he Pacifico Aquaculture site has a number of 25 meter floating cages dedicated to the growth of one species—striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Pacifico Aquaculture has ramped up production over 300% over the past two years, and expects to double production each year through to 2019.

Early Days Eric Pedersen and Rex Ito decided to venture into striped bass aquaculture in 2012. The striped bass is an 22 »

Just 8 miles off the coast of Ensenada, Baja California, on the lee side of Todos Santos Island, is the world’s only marine striped bass farm. anadromous fish distinguished by its great taste, quality and demand in niche markets. As this species was relatively new to aquaculture, they had to develop the production technology from scratch. Based on trial and error and significant collaboration with academic experts across the United

States, they succeeded in producing striped bass juveniles at pre-commercial levels and in growing striped bass larvae to market size over the course of multiple pilot crops. In 2013, they brought a batch of juveniles acquired from an external supplier, and simultaneously per-

formed the first internal run with their own brooders. Pedersen remembered, “We produced about 30 thousand fingerlings. We had a lousy survival rate, but we learned a lot.”

The New Era In mid-2013, Pedersen and Ito welcomed two new partners (Omar Alfi and Daniel Farag, currently acting Managing Director and CFO respectively). These new partners brought a vision for the future of Pacifico Aquaculture as well as financing. It became immediately evident that to have a successful aquaculture project, scale would be key. Nowhere is scale more important than in the ability to control the supply of fingerlings. The injection of capital and a focus on international standards and technology led to the construction of the Pacifico Aquaculture hatchery in El Sauzal, Baja California with facilities that allowed them to successfully achieve commercial level fingerling production. The hatchery houses the “life-

blood of the company”—the broodstock—and to this day is the core focus of reinvestment and R&D. The ability to produce more fingerlings, improve the survival rate, better understand the species, and successfully transition to the open-ocean grow out site is the essence of the entire Pacifico Aquaculture business model. In 2015, the first commercial run was carried out, producing over 1 million fingerlings. Fingerling production has been scaling up every year; with production more than doubling in 2016, and an expectation to double fingerling production again in 2017.

Feed: A Major Challenge The increase in production is accompanied by an increase in feed consumption, one of the main production costs in aquaculture. In Pacifico Aquaculture, feed represents over 50 % of the production costs. Finding the right feed for each life stage of fish has not been easy. Therefore feed evaluation has become a constant task.

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

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The key elements for Pacifico Aquaculture’s responsible growth model are: “a dedication to the health of our fish, a sense of stewardship for our environment, sourcing of the highest quality feeds, and an investment in the local community.”

Pedersen shared that they are currently developing a digestibility study on the time it takes for fish to digest feed and absorb and metabolize the ingredients, in order to establish optimal feeding schedules. Feed efficiency and conversion has varied depending on water temperature and size of the fish, leading Pacifico Aquaculture to re-double its research into efficient feed regimes. Another important point regarding feed has been finding suppliers that meet the requirements demanded by the different certifications that Pacifico Aquaculture has obtained over the years. Recently, Pacifico

24 »

Aquaculture’s striped bass product received 4-star BAP certification from the Global Aquaculture Alliance, driven in part by the company’s commitment to source feed from responsible producers who have made the commitment and investment to achieve the BAP certification. Going forward, feed sourcing and logistics will continue to play an important role in Pacifico’s responsible production model.

Mexico and its Developing Mariculture Industry Recently, Mexico’s private and public sectors have identified mariculture as

a priority due to its high potential, and the Mexican government has distinguished itself by its support for the industry’s development. For many years the fishing industry played a critical role in Mexico’s food and labor landscapes. However, with the continued global pressure on wild fisheries and the rise of viable aquaculture projects, the Mexican government sees the opportunity for a new industry to develop focused on innovation and efficient production. Nowhere is this more relevant than in a town such as Ensenada. Just 90 km from the Tijuana-San Diego border, this city that was once

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a hub for the fishing industry has seen a significant growth in the local aquaculture industry. Through close collaboration between the state and federal governments and the private sector, the goal is to develop a full blown aquaculture ecosystem within the region. Pacifico Aquaculture’s proximity to local universities, such as the Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), has allowed them to develop a mutually beneficial relationship. “We have the advantage of collaborating with UABC for their professional services; their students work with us while still in university, and when they graduate, we hire the best. At this time, they already have practical experience and they know the company, which reduces costs and training time,” Pedersen commented. “Each semester, highly experienced technicians graduate from the UABC. In Pacifico Aquaculture, 25 % of the company’s 150 employees are UABC graduates, and they hold positions both in aquaculture areas as well as business administration and human resources,” he added.

26 »

Responsible Production Along with an injection of capital and the push to scale the business in order to achieve commercial viability, the values of the company have always been focused on building a responsible aquaculture company. As many businesses inside and outside of the aquaculture industry discover, the cost of growth can often present decisions to sacrifice the sustainable and responsible aspects of the business model. Fortunately, Pedersen and Ito found that their new partners shared the vision of responsible, controlled growth. According to Pedersen and his partners, the key elements to this re-

sponsible growth model are: “a dedication to the health of our fish, a sense of stewardship for our environment, sourcing of the highest quality feeds, and an investment in the local community.”

Certifications: The Demonstration of a Company’s Values The Pacifico Aquaculture striped bass is marketed and sold throughout the U.S. and Mexico. From the beginning, Pacifico Aquaculture has sought sustainable and responsible marine protein production, while building a successful business. The company provides an example that

Location is Key In their target markets, there are few products that compete for quality, freshness and cost with Pacifico Aquaculture’s ocean-raised striped bass. The location of the company allows for a three hour drive between the facilities of the company and Los Angeles, California, a core market of Pacifico Aquaculture as well as the primary distribution center for U.S. sales. On the east coast of the U.S. there Christian Criollos (Marketing & Sales Manager, Aquaculture Magazine), MSc. Yann Ramirez-Vincent, Eric Pedersen (Senior is a wild striped bass fishery with a Director at Pacifico Aquaculture), Patrick James Keane (Hatchery Manager at Pacifico Aquaculture), and Salvador Meza long and storied history. However, in (Editor & Publisher, Aquaculture Magazine) the recent past the fishery has been these aspects are not at odds with field of responsible aquaculture in limited to strict quotas due to historical overfishing and to allow for the one another, and that it is possible to Mexico and globally. use sustainability as a competitive adThe BAP 4 Star rating is an inter- recovery of the wild stocks. Pacifico vantage. Pacifico Aquaculture has ob- national certification program based Aquaculture views its product as comtained several certifications over the on achievable, science-based and parable to wild fish from the East years; including the Best Aquaculture continuously improved performance Coast and is proud to offer greater acPractices by the National Service of standards for the entire aquaculture cess to the U.S. market of an historiAgri-Food Health, Safety and Quality supply-chain—hatcheries, farms, pro- cally loved fish. of the Mexican Federal Government cessing plants and feed mills—that as(SENASICA), as well as the Whole sure healthful foods produced through Foods Market 3rd party certification. environmentally and socially responsiEric Pedersen welcomed us at the company’s facilities. Pedersen has more than 12 years of experience as a Recently though, it is their newest ble means. BAP certification is based farm manager, 4 years with Bluefin tuna and 8 years with striped bass. Currently, he holds the position of certification—BAP 4 Star from the on independent audits that evaluate Special Projects Director at Pacifico Aquaculture, where Global Aquaculture Alliance that has compliance with the BAP standards he works on different projects such as vaccine development, broodstock maturation, and nutrition research, had an incredible impact on the com- developed by the Global Aquaculture among many others. pany’s ambition to be a leader in the Alliance.

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Transforming Aquaculture into a

Knowledge-Based Industry As commercial scale aquaculture continues to advance, optimizing the data in typical record-keeping systems will become increasingly important. Managers must be able to understand what is happening and why it’s happening, as it happens. A number of efforts are underway to develop off-the-shelf software packages to meet this challenge.


odern informationbased management packages can provide a number of benefits in aquaculture operations. Some example involve: • Reducing costs by enabling production managers to view, analyze and control costs during the production cycle. • Improving product quality by analyzing multiple factors contributing to fish health and growth, and identifying problems as they arise. • Improving production scheduling by ameliorating immediate feedback on performance plans. • Increasing efficiency and utilization throughout the input, production and value chain. One example of an integrated system for efficient management that collects data from every part of the aquaculture production chain is marketed as “aquaManager.” This system offers support in all stages of fish production, from egg to harvest. aquaManager combines data mining technologies with analytical approaches gained from years of experience working with leading companies. Some of the package’s applications include production planning, cost analysis, inven28 »

tory management, nutrition and feed management, water quality and fish health analyses, and reports exploring the interaction of the different variables recorded. aquaManager’s development started in 1998 as a special project for a group of aquaculture companies in Greece. After two years, the project resulted in the creation of a product, the first version of which was released in September 2000, making its way into small and medium-size aquaculture companies in the Mediterranean region and, later on, into larger operations. The aquaManager package provides visibility and control over a range of variables driving the success of the production process— cost, quality, volume, scheduling, and profitability—as they occur. With this type of tool, businesses can effectively

analyze performance, identify and act faster on emerging trends, and take decisions at any level. As the industry continues to advance in various parts of the world, this type of system will become increasingly important. The company behind aquaManager is i2s, a firm specializing in information technologies for aquaculture. Its efforts focused on developing and delivering technology to help companies lower production costs, increase profitability, improve operational efficiency and carry out business in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. To quote the company’s materials, “In i2s, we want to have a positive impact on the sector and contribute to the transformation of aquaculture from an experience-based activity into a knowledge-based industry.” The underlying philosophy is that good management is not a matter of re-

cording information, but of knowing how that data can best be used.

A System for All Species Clearly, aquaculture involves numerous species and production systems, but aquaManager was designed as a multi-species application. It can be adapted to specific production methods or species, and it even works with co-cultures, that is, different species in the same cages or tanks. aquaManager has been used successfully in sites producing a wide variety of species, including bass, bream, meagre, trout, tilapia, salmon, perch, catfish, carp and others, in sea- and landbased production sites located around the world. Easy to Use and Simple to Understand The aquaManager team has invested time to understand commercial aquaculture, which has resulted in a process-

oriented, user-friendly application that includes many time-saving features and does not require technical knowledge. Often, aquaculture production occurs in remote locations, whether in floating cages sites or ponds, and aquaManager allows the use of mobile devices to capture information in real-time (feeding, behavior, mortalities, water quality parameters, among others), thus increasing data accuracy, reducing administrative requirements and increasing productivity. This management application also allows remote access to information already on-hand. aquaManager was designed to handle thousands of production units (cages, ponds, etc.). Especially for hatcheries, the program includes a hatchery module with unique features, such as live feed management, egg cost calculation, detailed larval cost calculation for separate populations (not just aggregates), complete

traceability, and easy management of high numbers of manipulations (grading, mixing, splitting) without any loss of traceability information, biological details or financial data. As with any advanced management package, technical support is a key component, and the aquaManager team works closely with users understand their needs and provide the necessary service for successful implementation.

Continuous Improvement Recently, the company launched a new data mining and machine-learning platform, which is integrated into aquaManager. It is an add-on to aquaManager that uses advanced mining and analytics to help companies to explore their data, convert data into knowledge and use this knowledge to improve production. It allows companies to understand and quantify the interaction between the parameters involved in the production process, respond in real time to a wide range of production challenges, understand what has happened, and more significantly, what is most likely to happen next. As the industry expands over the coming years, i2s plans to also continue improving, and to explore new technologies and provide innovative products and services. For more information, visit:

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R&D Center

Achotines Laboratory:

A Review of Yellowfin Tuna Research Advances


he Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) is responsible for the management and conservation of tuna and billfish in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The IATTC was established in 1949 by the United States and Costa Rica. Over the years, other countries in the region have joined the commission, which is currently composed of 21 member countries and 4 cooperating non-members. Tuna is among the most commercially important fisheries species in the world. As a pelagic species, tuna spends most of its life in the open ocean, making it difficult to study in its natural habitat. Before the 1980s, there was very little information available on the early life stages of tuna and the mechanisms that control their 30 Âť

Vernon P. Scholey, Director of the Achotines Laboratory, welcomed us at this research center and shared the advances in tuna ecology and early life stages achieved throughout these past decades by the Early Life History Group of the IATTC.

recruitment and survival rates. This motivated the IATTC to establish a research center focused on studying the early life histories of tropical tuna and other related species. Costa Rica and Panama were the main prospects for the establishment of this new laboratory. In the end, Panama was the best option, both for the site selected and for the support of the Panamanian Government. The center opened in mid-1985 and since 1988,

the Early Life History (ELH) Group of the IATTC has been conducting research on the reproductive biology and early life history of tropical tunas. The group consists of Vernon Scholey, Daniel Margulies (Program Coordinator), Jeanne Wexler (Associate Scientist), and Enrique Mauser (Assistant Scientist). A local staff of biologists and technicians provides research support at the Achotines Laboratory.�

“There is no other place that has achieved as much progress in Yellowfin tuna as the Laboratory of Achotines”, V. Scholey.

Achotines Laboratory, photo courtesy of Liam Scholey.

A Unique Research Center Achotines Laboratory is located on the southern coast of the Azuero Peninsula on the Pacific coast of Panama, next to Achotines Bay. Its location is ideal to do research on tropical tuna because the continental shelf is quite narrow and water is over 200 m deep just 6-10 km from the shoreline. This provides relatively quick access to oceanic waters, where Yellowfin tuna and other marine fish species can be observed in their natural habitat, and samples can be collected and transported back to the laboratory. Creating the Knowledge Bases Scholey remembers when he joined the Achotines Laboratory team in late 1985. “At the beginning, we used to do ichthyoplankton tows for tuna larvae and juvenile collection. We collected larvae of different scombrid species.” In the Achotines Bay region there are about 7 species of tuna. During the first years (1984-1995), the Laboratory’s research focused on coastal, tropical scombrids such as black skipjack (Euthynnus lineatus), bullet tuna (Auxis spp.), sierra (Scomberomorus sierra) and striped bonito (Sarda orientalis). During that period all life stages of black skipjack (E. lineatus) were cultured in captivity and the development of a captive spawning population of black skipjack was also achieved. The Yellowfin tuna is one

Collaboration with the OFCF In 1993, a joint project, centered at the Achotines Laboratory, was initiated of the most economically important by the IATTC, the Overseas Fishery species within the IATTC’s study Cooperation Foundation (OFCF) of area; therefore, since 1996, research Japan and the government of Panahas focused on this species. ma. The objective was to investigate “At the beginning, we collected the culture and spawning in captivity larvae of different tuna species and of Yellowfin tuna, snappers (Lutjaniwe brought them back into the lab. dae spp.) and drums (Sciaenidae spp.) We studied them, although they were in land-based tanks to provide eggs, not of the same species; they were of larvae and juveniles for research purthe same family, so the cycle was sim- poses. ilar, same size, same eating habits... The scheme required a massive inAt the end, all the information was frastructure expansion of the laborauseful, since at that time there was tory’s facilities, which was completed no information available,” Scholey by mid-1996, and the construction of remembered. additional tanks and a concrete pier Prior to 1996, the facilities did not were completed by late 1999. Scholey allow researchers to maintain Yellow- shared that most of the infrastructure fin tuna until they were large enough of the laboratory these days is the reto spawn; therefore, research was fo- sult of the OFCF project. “The projcused on the adult life stage. “Since 1996, with the expansion of our facilities, we have eggs in the laboratory to study,” recalled Scholey. Currently, the Achotines Laboratory has nearly year-round availability of tuna eggs and larvae for research purposes. Scholey added, “In early research years, the study of tuna larvae collected from the sea allowed us to understand what was happening in their natural habitat. For example, we were able to analyze the larvae’s livers to know more about their nutritional conditions and seasonal variability. We also managed to understand what they were eating and to compare it with the size of their mouth, which helped determine which feed to administer in the Laboratory.” » 31

R&D Center

This is the fifteenth year for the IATTC-UM aquaculture workshop.

Experimental tanks in the larval-juvenile lab. Credits IATTC.

ect we carried out with the OFCF was very successful. An extension of the project was made, actually two, so by the end it was an eight-year project, whose main objective (to maintain Yellowfin tuna in captivity and achieve reproduction in these conditions) was achieved. During this period, an exchange of researchers between Japan and Panama took place.”

Comparative Studies of the Early Life Histories of Yellowfin Tuna and Pacific Bluefin Tuna In 2011, the IATTC, Kindai University (KU) of Japan, and the Aquatic Resources Authority of Panama (ARAP) began a five-year comparative study of the reproductive biology and early life history of Yellowfin and Pacific Bluefin tunas. An additional objective of the project was the development of technologies for juvenile Yellowfin tuna aquaculture, including cage culture. In 2015, for the first time, Yellowfin juveniles were transferred to and reared in sea cages located offshore at the Achotines Laboratory. Juveniles survived up to 158 days after hatch. Tuna larvae were fed rotifers and Artemia, and later transitioned to an artificial feed formulated especially for tuna. “In the sea cages, the tuna reached sizes between 150-160 mm. Then, we transferred a few of them back into the lab, and reared them until they reached 250 mm (200-300 g),” recalled Scholey. Experimental research on juvenile Yellowfin is being emphasized during 2017-2018, and 32 »

the possibility of carrying out another project to close the life cycle is being explored.

Achotines Laboratory and Aquaculture Development Although Yellowfin tuna aquaculture is not the main objective of the Commission, throughout all these years the research center has shown openness to research agreements with academic institutions from its beginnings, aiming to contribute to establishing the knowledge and technological bases for Yellowfin tuna culture. Recently, the Achotines Laboratory collaborated with Texas A&M and a private company in Bluefin tuna feed research trials. During the research, different artificial diets were administered to Yellowfin tuna to assess the acceptability level. The best formulation was selected and

then tested in a Bluefin tuna ranch in Ensenada, Mexico, obtaining positive results. The study was presented at the Offshore Mariculture Conference held in Ensenada, Mexico, in March 2017.

IATTC-University of Miami Annual Workshop The IATTC organizes an annual workshop together with the University of Miami’s Aquaculture Program, entitled “Physiology and Aquaculture of Pelagics with Emphasis on Reproduction and Early Development Stages of Yellowfin Tuna,” which is held during the month of July. During the 10-day workshop, the Achotines Laboratory opens its doors to international researchers, students and industry professionals to study and share advanced technologies and improved methods for experimental

Yellowfin larvae at first-feeding stage (3.6 mm in lenght). Credits IATTC.

studies as well as rearing larval tuna and other marine fish species. A fee for participants covers the expenses of conducting the workshop.

Research Adaptability The research site offers the advantage of studying different ocean conditions in one place. Previous research in other fish species has shown that abiotic factors, such as temperature, light, current patterns, wind conditions and pH affect recruitment. As the combination of these factors probably controls the survival of prerecruit fish, the IATTC has focused its research on the interaction between the biological system and the physical environment. Marine fish, and particularly pelagic species, are highly fecund and can produce millions of eggs per spawning. Pre-recruit life stages of these fish are characterized by fast growth periods and high mortality. “A female tuna can spawn millions of eggs per day during spawning season, but only

a tinypercentage of the eggs survive, which is why they spawn millions of them; it is their reproductive strategy. Any increase or decrease in the survival rate will have a great impact on the final population,” commented Scholey. Scholey shared that in the laboratory they perform simulations, varying different factors such as illumination, turbulence, pH, and larval density, and examining their impact on the eggs and the larvae’s first weeks of life. As a result of these investigations a relation between turbulence and larval survival rate has been proven. There are a couple of publications on the subject (Kimura et al., 2004 and Margulies et al., 2016). “If there is low turbulence, larvae have to expend a lot of energy to find feed and are more vulnerable to prey encounters. If there is high turbulence, larvae have to expend a lot of energy to capture feed in motion. There is an estimated optimum range of turbulence,” commented Scholey.

Currently, the research team in the IATTC’s ELH Group is working on a correlation between the Commission’s catch data and NOAA’s historic wind speed records when those tuna were in their early life stages, and positive correlations have been found so far. The ELH group objectives are to be able to obtain information that can help make catch estimations based on environmental information; and predict how climatic conditions of a given year will affect the wild tuna

The ELH group objectives are to be able to obtain data that can help make catch estimations based on environmental information.

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R&D Center

Not Everything Is About Tuna Amado Cano is project coordinator of the project “Development of snapper aquaculture in Panama” for the ARAP (Panamanian Aquatic Resources Authority). He has been working with L. guttatus at the Achotines Laboratory, focusing his research on stock densities, water parameters, and reproduction, among other variables. The life cycle of this snapper species has been closed and up to F3 generation cultured at Achotines Laboratory. In recent years, research has also been conducted into the feasibility of bycatchreduction devices and bycatch species, such as turtles and dolphins. Currently, the IATTC serves as the Secretariat for the International Dolphin Conservation Program (IDCP).

populations available for fisheries in the upcoming years, in addition to the significant naturally occurring fluctuations of wild fish stocks. The ELH Group also seeks to understand these fluctuations in order to provide the tuna industry in the region with more accurate catch predictions. At present, catch limits are estimated with catch data of previous years and other factors such as size and age, but little environmental information is considered. The research approaches made in Achotines Laboratory have been adapted to the needs of the Commission and the variable environmental

The Achotines Laboratory is one of the few places in the world where research on tuna can be done in all its life stages.

34 »

Vernon P. Scholey, Director of the Achotines Laboratory.

conditions observed in the past and expected to increase in the upcoming years. Climate change is a recurring subject these days, but little is heard about ocean acidification, which can greatly affect humans, directly and indirectly.

Ocean Acidification In 2011, a research project conducted by multiple collaborating organizations at the Achotines Laboratory was carried out to test the impact of increased pCO2 on eggs, yolk-sac larvae, and first-feeding larvae. “Ocean acidification is already affecting aquatic species around the globe, as is the case of the oysters in Washington State. U.S. Oysters are spending more energy in making their shells and less in producing meat,” commented Scholey. “The critical point with ocean acidification is that nobody knows if animals will be able to adapt over time.” To date, there is evidence that ocean acidification can have negative effects on organ development, survival and growth of Yellowfin tuna eggs and larvae. If ocean acidification progresses, it is not clear whether tunas will be able to adapt through selection for more resistant individuals and if these traits are heritable. At Achotines Laboratory, efforts are being made to understand the effects

of such environmental variables on tuna stocks in the Pacific Ocean. This will allow the implementation of appropriate management and conservation strategies, and the development of culture technologies that consider these factors and ensure long-term sustainability of the activity. In addition to the aforementioned joint projects, the IATTC maintains linkages with universities, government agencies and research centers at national and international levels, providing opportunities for scientists to carry out independent research in the Achotines Laboratory. Over time, Achotines Laboratory has become a standard in tuna research worldwide. In the future, this research center will continue to provide a unique site to learn more about this species and its natural environment, and to develop management and conservation measures, as well as to establish the basics for Yellowfin aquaculture. For more information about Achotines Laboratory, including detailed descriptions of the research programs and a full list of publications based on research conducted there, please visit: Special thanks to Dr. Vernon P. Scholey, Director of the Achotines Laboratory, for his hospitality during our visit and for making this report possible. References: Margulies, D.; Scholey, V.P.; Wexler, J.N.; Stein, M.S. (2017). Review of Research at the Achotines Laboratory. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. Document SAC-08-09c.

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Aquaculture Program

at Tropic Seafood, Ltd.

captivity for future commercial aquaculture potential.

Olive flounder culture at Tropic Seafood, Ltd. Tropic Seafood, Ltd., is culturing Japanese/Korean Olive flounder (also known as “Hirami” in the sushi and sashimi restaurants) with very positive results. To date, three groups of juvenile or fingerling Olive flounder have By: Jon Chaiton* been received by Tropic Seafood, Ltd., and are currently being cultured. Growth and survival are great with In order to reduce commercial fishing pressure on natural resources test marketing of both fresh and live and to ensure a consistent steady supply of product, Tropic Seafood, fish currently being conducted. The Olive flounder held and maintained Ltd., has been engaged in conducting research in Aquaculture to find the at Tropic Seafood, Ltd., are kept in best candidate species for commercial fish farming in Nassau, Bahamas. a closed water system with strict biosecurity, so that there is zero chance of introducing an exotic species to the he most important criterion (locally known in The Bahamas as Al- Bahamian waters. The flounder grow to about 1.0 is that the species selected maco Jacks (Latin name: Seriola rivoliwould be based on a strong ana)), (and also known as “Hamachi” – 1.5 kg in 12 months, and being a global market demand, that in the sushi and sashimi restaurants) cousin to the Alaskan halibut, these commands a relatively high price. Sec- were grown at Tropic Seafood, Ltd., fish can grow to four feet in length. ondly, the technology for raising that with great success. They attained a Spawning is controlled by temperature and both the hatchery and growspecies must be well understood, have size of 10-12 lbs., in two years. great survival and must also be availCurrently, Japanese/Korean Olive out technology for this species are able as fingerlings or be able to be suc- flounder (Paralichthys olivaceous) are be- well understood as the Japanese and cessfully cultured in an onsite hatch- ing cultured at Tropic Seafood, Ltd. Koreans have been growing this fish ery, within the specific environmental Additionally, Nassau grouper (Epi- for the past 40 years. conditions found in The Bahamas. nephelus striatus) broodstock has been Those criteria narrow the field of held at Tropic Seafood, Ltd., for the Nassau grouper culture at Tropic candidates to about half a dozen spe- past three years in order to acclimate Seafood, Ltd. cies. In the past yellowtail kingfish this wild caught species to spawn in With permission from the Department of Natural Resources of the Bahamas, 46 wild Nassau grouper were collected during the open commercial fishing season three years ago. The average weight of the fish was 3-10 lbs. at that time. The fish have been kept in above ground holding tanks and fed a natural diet of squid, capelin, shrimp and fish without any mortality. Today, those same fish weigh 10-25 lbs., each. Last February 2017, the fish were transferred to large deep tanks two days before the full moon. Within 24 hours of that transfer, 100% of the fish spawned naturally, in captivity. Over 50 million eggs were collected Coloration of Nassau grouper while spawning. and released to the wild.


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Fertilized Nassau Grouper eggs (12 hour post fertilization).

While in the open ocean, this species forms spawning aggregations during the Winter months, breeding on many sites throughout The Bahamas. These spawning aggregations may contain between 50 and 500 fish which come to a specific spot each year to join in this behavior, sometimes coming from hundreds of miles away. This is why the Bahamian Department of Marine Resources closes the fishery for wild grouper from December through February each year. They would be too easy of a target during their spawning aggregations and harvesting this resource would endanger their entire population. What happens next is spectacular. Male and female fish swim together in what is described as a “moon dance” where they swim together near the sea floor then shoot up towards the surface while winding around each other and releasing gametes (the males release sperm and the females release their eggs). It is believed that as the fish swim to the surface, their swim bladders expand and exert pressure on their gametes which causes them to be pushed out and into the water column. With so much sperm and eggs in the water, fertilization takes place and the fertilized eggs drift in the current for about three days until they hatch as larvae. The larval period lasts about 45 days while the larvae go through several metamorphoses before becoming baby grouper. Amazingly, even at the very first larval stage, body pigmentation resembles those of adult grouper.

For the record: The most fascinating thing happened at the full moon in July 2017. First, the grouper changed into their spawning colors (they transform from vertical stripes to having a dark brown top half and a pure white bottom half prior to and during spawning events). Then, there was another allnatural spawning event at Tropic Seafood, Ltd. This is the first ever midsummer, all-natural spawning event in captivity on record. They began two nights before the full moon and released sperm and eggs each night for a period of 5 consecutive nights. Because this event was unexpected, the eggs were not able to be held, but were collected and released to the sea to hatch in the natural environment. Although grouper culture technology has been practiced for the past 25-30 years in Asia, Tropic Seafood, Ltd., is only now bringing it to the West, specifically The Bahamas. Tropic Seafood, Ltd., works closely with Dr. Daniel Benetti and his staff at the Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Miami. In February 2015, a few fish were induced to spawn and produced enough larvae to allow an attempt to culture them. As a result, about 100 fish (F1 generation) survived and should be producing offspring themselves this upcoming Winter. For additional information, please contact Jon Chaiton, Director of Aquaculture at Tropic Seafood, Ltd., in Nassau, Bahamas.

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Outdoor Olive flounder tanks in a greenhouse.


USSEC and the Soy Aquaculture Alliance Hosted the

V-Aquaculture Investment Workshop Panama City welcomed aquaculture industry stakeholders from around the U.S. and Latin America to meet at the V-Aquaculture Investment Workshop, an event organized by USSEC and the Soy Aquaculture Alliance (SAA). The purpose of this workshop was to outline investment opportunities in all segments of the production and value chain of the aquaculture industry.


he event was carried out on June 13 and 14 at the Trump International Hotel & Tower in Panama City, Panama. During the two-day workshop, more than 85 participants from over 14 countries had the opportunity to hear more than 20 lectures, attend discussion sessions and panels, and enjoy seafood tastings. The event had the primary objective of bringing together the main aquaculture participants, including aquaculture producers, aquafeed producers, researchers, bankers, technicians, government officials, investors, and seafood buyers to outline the issues that may be delaying the expansion of the marine aquaculture industry in Latin America, as well as to define what must be done to accelerate expansion and creation of markets for these aquaculture products. A secondary objective was to put mariculture on the table as an alternative to shrimp and tilapia production, both dominant activities in the region. Throughout the event, various topics were discussed, such as tech38 Âť

Jairo Amezquita, USSEC Consultant, gives a welcome and provides introductions.

nical presentations by aquaculture experts, regulatory issues by government officials, investment opportunities by regional investors, investment funds available by venture capital investors, and market opportunities by buyers of seafood from the U.S. and Latin America.

Mariculture in Latin America: Status, Issues and Trends The first day of the event began

with a warm welcome from Jairo Amezquita, USSEC Aquaculture Consultant. He also gave an overview of the U.S. Soy Aquaculture Program. The workshop was officially opened with the welcome word of Charles Atkinson, American Soybean Association (ASA) and Kansas Soybean Commission director, and Kenlon Johannes, Soybean Association CEO. Later, Will McNair, USSEC Stakeholder Relations Manager, talked

continued with the presentations of several scientists that talked about aspects and opportunities of mariculture projects in the region. Finally, the day ended with a discussion panel on technology challenges and opportunities.

Yahira Piedrahita, CAN-Ecuador.

Hans Steffens, Ara.

Juan Carlos La Puente, INAPESCA, Mexico.

about the ever-growing consumer expectation of sustainable products that is pushing the U.S. soy industry to get on board. During his presentation, he announced that the U.S. Soybean Sustainability Assurance Protocol (SSAP) was recently approved by the Global Aquaculture Alliance’s (GAA) Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP). During the first session, experts reported trends in production, financing, market regulation, and opportunities for the near future. Dr. Francisco Saraiva Gomes, from Pontos Aqua Holding, presented “Sustainable Investments in Aquaculture,”

addressing the risks of project execution and the next steps to develop the mariculture industry. Next, Behan de Jong from Rabobank presented the opportunities that markets offer after China’s change of trends from export to import, with the lecture “The Dragon’s Changing Appetite and Its Impact on the Global Aquaculture Industry.” The Auburn University professor and creator of the Intensive Pond Aquaculture (IPA) technology, Jesse Chappelle, provided updates on new implementations and upcoming installations in Latin America. The day

The Immense Potential of Mariculture On the second day, the GAA and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) presented interesting information on global and local aquaculture industries. The lectures covered topics such as offshore mariculture projects, the evolution of feeding systems and technologies, issues related to the latest developments in the market of aquaculture products, trends and expectations of supply, and global demand. A very interesting aspect of the day was the presentation of case studies of successful seafood marketing in the U.S. and Mexico. Funding is a critical aspect in many aquaculture projects worldwide. Aquaculture is a relatively unknown activity for many, so creating meeting spaces between investors, bankers and aquaculture producers and stakeholders is crucial for the development of the industry. During the second day of the workshop, banking experts and financial representatives addressed topics related to the financial opportunities available in aquaculture for investors interested in the industry. Day two culminated with a general discussion panel comprised of experts, speakers, and guests to address the final conclusions of the event, including a set of commitments that must be done over the next few years to boost mariculture in the region. The group concluded that opportunities for financing, correct regulation, environmental commitment, health transparency, innovation and efficiency, as well as product differentiation, will set the standards for sustainable and profitable growth of mariculture in Latin America. » 39


World Aquaculture Society (WAS) Trade show and Conference Cape Town South Africa 25th – 30th June 2017 Sustainable Aquaculture - New Frontiers for Economic Growth- Spotlight on Africa was this year’s theme and nowhere is this more appropriate than in Africa, where a huge aquaculture potential has been talked about for 25 years.


fter many false dawns, there seems to be growing momentum to finally make this happen. Africa – the world’s second fastest growing regional economy, offers significant investment opportunities through aquaculture development. The 87 trade booths, representing commercial and government sectors, all reported strong interest and good returns on their investment in attending. The conference was co-organised with the Aquaculture Association of Southern Africa (AASA) and the South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Sponsors included several African development institutions including DAFF, the African Union, NEPAD and World Fish Centre. This was the first time the WAS had held their annual conference and trade show on the African continent. With 1981 participants from 87 countries, of which 1297 were from 33 African countries, it was deemed a successful conference. With almost 500 oral presentations and 215 academic posters there was also a broad range of research topics covered. Africa is expanding its aquaculture industry to feed the steadily increasing population of relatively poor and 40 »

Tilapia harvest on Kafue Fisheries, Zambia, one of the first commercial farms set up in Africa. This is a traditional pond based operation.

malnourished people. Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector within Agriculture and the increasing demand for healthy high protein food is vital for food security throughout the African continent. One of the highlights of the conference was the setting up of a WAS Africa Chapter that will work closely with the Aquaculture Association of Southern Africa. The WAS president, Dr. Juan Pablo Lazo from Mexico and the other WAS Directors formal-

ly announced the Chapter at a special conference meeting. There were two plenary addresses, one by Dr. Rohanna Subasinghe the former chief of Aquaculture for FAO who spoke on “Feeding the Nine Billion: The role of Aquaculture” where he highlighted the importance of increasing fish production through aquaculture to alleviate poverty and provide food security for the world’s growing population. The second plenary address was given by Dr Sloans

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Chimatiro, acting country director of World Fish Zambia, “African Perspectives on Aquaculture” who highlighted the success of aquaculture in Zambia and the surrounding countries. As usual the conference covered all aspects of aquaculture and included a special 2 day post conference workshop on aquaponics organised by Stellenbosch University. Aquaponics is gaining momentum globally and in Africa. Tilapia is the local fish in Africa, and Egypt with a production of 1.17 million MT in 2015 is by far the main aquaculture producer and the third globally after China and Indonesia. Historically there has been very limited production from all the other African countries, but aquaculture investment, both local and foreign, is driving a major expansion in the industry. In South Africa the Tilapia Aquaculture Association of Southern Africa (TAASA) is helping to drive the expansion. Lack of good quality feed and high quality fry have been major limiting factors in Africa’s expansion, but new confidence in the

region has led to Aller Aqua (the conference’s Gold Sponsor ) building a new tilapia feed mill in Zambia and expanding its factories in Egypt. The Zambian mill will produce 50,000 MT/yr and will be fully operational in September 2017. It has already signed an agreement with Yalelo, which is proposing significant expansion of its Zambian cage farm operations in Lake Kariba up to 30,000 MT/yr. Lake Harvest is also based on the Zimbabwean side of Lake Kariba. There is also a new feed factory in Nairobi, Kenya developed in partnership with Nutreco and Dutch funding, which is producing 5000 MT/yr to supply local tilapia farmers in the region. This combined with the news that Alltech has purchased Coppens the Dutch feed supplier with strong links to Africa, shows that confidence in the continent is improving. A major new challenge to the Tilapia industry is the Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) sweeping through many countries from Ecuador to Egypt to Israel. This was discussed a lot at the conference. MSD Animal Health sponsored

China South Africa Agricultura - China is becoming a major presence throughout Africa and is involved in many aquaculture projects throughout Africa with the aim of exporting the seafood produced back to China which has a huge demand for aquaculture products.

Aller Aqua the gold sponsor of the conference and its large booth on the trade show area. During the conference, Aller Aqua promoted their major expansion into Africa to supply fish feed to the growing African aquaculture industry.

Skretting’s trade booth.

Mario Stael Trade show manager for WAS discusses the trade show with the team from Evonik, one of the world leaders in animal nutrition. A new product launched at the show was AMINOTilapia, a dynamic tool that delivers precise recommendations for amino acids optimized according to size, feeding level, production intensity and naturally occurring nutrient sources.

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Aquaculture In South Africa trade booth. There is a big aquaculture expansion planned throughout the region and the government offers technical support to new farmers.

Red Ants Tilapia farm in South Africa, a new farm using RAS technology and associated with a large hydroponics farm growing tomatoes and cucumbers.

a session on Tilapia Health and Dr. Win Surachetpong talked on “Tilapia Lake Virus: a novel pathogen that threatens worldwide tilapia culture – how to handle?” Locally known as “Summer Mortality” in Egypt, 37 % of Egyptian tilapia farms were affected in 2015.The virus has been identified in Colombia, Ecuador and Israel (Bacharach et al., 2016; Ferguson et al., 2014; Tsofack et al., 2016), and most recently, Egypt (Fathi et al., 2017) and Thailand (Dong et al., 2017). However, a lack of thorough investigation of all mortality incidents

means that the geographic distribution of TiLV may be wider than currently reported. For example, reports of mortality in tilapia in Ghana and Zambia in 2016 have not been attributed to TiLV but the available information does not indicate that the presence of the virus has been investigated. A partial genome from Thailand showed relatively high similarity to strains from Israel (around 97 % nucleotide identity) (Dong et al., 2017). All the main tilapia producing countries are monitoring the spread of TiLV closely, with some

Eric Roderick, from Fishgen visiting a cage farm in one of the dams close to Stellenbosch University, north of Cape Town. In this farm, they grow tilapia in the summer when it’s hot and trout in the winter when it’s too cold for tilapia.

countries reporting mortalities of up to 90 %. There is some evidence that certain genetic strains of tilapia are more resistant than others. Feed companies and feed-related companies were very well represented with 32 companies directly or indirectly related to the feed industry. One of the main drawbacks of tilapia involves low levels of Omega 3 and higher levels of Omega 6, as the consumer is being told to eat fish high in Omega 3. This is an issue likely to be addressed in the near future with exciting new research from Cargill using Omega 3 rich Canola oil added to the feed. Not only will this reduce our global dependence on fish oils high in Omega 3 but could be a very cost effective way of boosting Omega 3 levels in mainstream commodity fish such as tilapia. In successful trials with salmon feeds Cargill was able to completely replace fish oil with this Canola oil. Another big story that has enormous repercussions for the aquaculture industry is the “Feed Kind” protein produced by Calista in collaboration with Cargill and many other investors. This fermentation product is 71 % crude protein which seems suited as a very cost effective fish meal alterative. There is significant investment in this new technology and hopefully it will help fuel a rapidly expanding global aquaculture industry. These new feed ingredients combined with huge research on microalgae (DSM and Evonik are leading the field) as sources of many essential feed ingredients especially omega 3 fatty acids, bode very well for feed suppliers and consumers. Megatech a Swiss based company has also developed an algae based product with high protein and Omega 3 oils which is also poised for rapid expansion. The next WAS conference will be held in Montpellier France in August 2018 in partnership with the European Aquaculture Society.

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Latin America Report

Latin America Report: Recent News and Events By: Staff / Aquaculture Magazine

Five New Tilapia Production Areas Granted in Brazil Brazil. – In the second week of June, the Minister of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA) of Brazil, Blairo Maggi, signed a 20-year concession of five new areas for tilapia production, located in two municipalities of the states Mato Grosso do Sul and Selviria y Aparecida do Taboado. With a production capacity of 112 thousand tons per year, these new farms represent a 20 % increase in the total Brazilian aquaculture production (including fish, crustaceans and shellfish), which is currently 574,000 tons/annually (IBGE). Two leading aquaculture companies will participate in this concession: GeneSeas, which already produces about 10 thousand tons per year in nearby regions and will double its production in the coming years, and Tilabrás, a company formed by the world leader in tilapia production Regal Springs, in partnership with the Brazilian Company Axial. Tilabrás anticipates the installation of 821 net cages for the production of 25 thousand tons of tilapia each year. The two companies will install floating cages across 554 hectares of water. In addi-

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tion to the increase in fish production, these new areas will generate 3,400 direct jobs in the region and an annual turnover of 131 M USD. Maggi expressed that the country has an enormous potential for fish farming and that the newly granted areas represent only a step toward what must be done to increase Brazil’s participation in the global seafood market. According to data from the Aquaculture and Fisheries Secretary, in recent years, concessions for more than 3,700 areas with a production capacity of 480,000 tons of fish per year have been granted. There are more than 2,400 additional areas that have already

been requested for fish farming, and the forecasts indicate that they could produce 6 million tons of fish annually, thus generating more than 200,000 directs jobs and $935 million USD.

Chinese Experts Offer a Fishing and Aquaculture Techniques Course in Costa Rica Costa Rica. – As part of the cooperation between China and Costa Rica, Chinese experts shared their knowledge on fishing and aquaculture techniques in a 20-day course during May-June 2017. During the course, aquaculture producers, officials, biologists, academics and farm owners from Costa Rica had the opportunity to review issues such as the reproduction of marine fish, marine fish farming in cages, aquaculture in recirculating systems, and marine ornamental fish breeding and culture, among other subjects. Sponsored by China’s Ministry of Commerce and organized by the Fujian Institute of Oceanography, with the support of the Costa Rican Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture and the Ministries of Agriculture and Livestock and Environment and En-

ergy, the course was held with the aim to raise the technical level of aquaculture in Costa Rica and to promote industry development in the country.

Alimentsa, Leading Ecuadorian Shrimp Feed Company, Becomes Part of BioMar Group Ecuador. – As part of the company’s expansion strategy, Grupo Biomar acquired 70 % of Alimentsa, which has a market share of 12-15 % in the Ecuadorian market. The $119 M USD investment will position BioMar among the leading feed producers in Latin America. Since 2016, BioMar has supplied Latin American shrimp producers from its plant in Costa Rica. With the acquisition of Alimentsa, BioMar will get a foothold in Ecuador, one of the world’s leading shrimp producing countries. With a volume of more than 450,000 tons of shrimp, Ecuador is widely recognized for its high quality and sustainable production. “We foresee a solid business potential in Ecuador, but first and foremost, we believe that the combination of a strong local company with recognized products and deep insights into

the markets, together with a global company with BioMar Group’s size and innovation muscle, will enable us to meet the future requirements of the markets as well as the endconsumers. We are very confident in the local management and the organization,” stated Carlos Diaz, CEO in BioMar Group. Alimentsa, leading shrimp supplier for the Ecuadorian market, was established in 1986. The company is characterized by offering feed solutions, quality technical support and training to shrimp farmers. Alimentsa’s factory has 145 employees and an estimated production capacity of 110,000-120,000 tons.

Peruvian Government Offers over 5 M USD to Boost Innovation in Fisheries and Aquaculture Peru. – The Ministry of Production (PRODUCE) will launch four tenders this year to boost innovation in fisheries and aquaculture, within the framework of the National Program of Innovation in Fisheries and Aquaculture (PNIPA). The tenders, which will be launched in September, seek to fund extension services, and to strengthen capacities for innovation, research and development, adaptive research and applied research, as well as technological development in both sectors. One of PNIPA’s main objectives is to position Peru within the top three aquaculture producers in Latin America by 2021, and to turn it into a major global competitor in the seafood market for direct human consumption. The Deputy Minister of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Hector Sodi, stated that they expect to fund around 2,000 innovative projects in the following five years. PNIPA will have a total budget of 127 M USD. It consists of three basic components: innovation in fisheries, innovation in aquaculture and governance improvement of the innovation system. For the improvement of the quality of public-private governance of the sector, six regional offices of PNIPA (South Center, South East, South West, North Center, Northeast and Northwest) will be established.

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Aquaculture Without Frontiers

Aquaculture without Frontiers: Helping Develop “Restructured” Fish Products in Mexico


ewly appointed UTMarT Rector, Dr. Antonio Garza de Yta, has created a buzz, which you can feel with both the staff and students and extends to the local industry and community. With assistance of the State Government, UTMarT is working with the local fishermen and their cooperative organisers in offering specific education opportunities to the children of the fishermen, helping to bridge communication between all parties. One of the programs starting to take shape because of these new liaisons is the Restructured Fish program, which creates new products for the market from underutilized species and “waste fish.” This is employing local women while helping to feed schoolchildren. Everyone sees this as a win-win arrangement, which solves many problems. Unwanted or waste fish are a major issue in many countries so this approach is something that could be transferred to any country. Many assorted products were designed using the skills and imagination of the talented staff and students at UTMarT. After trialing, products were locked in with recipe and manufacturing instructions. Women from the community were then trained to prepare the products, which are used to feed schoolchildren in the area. The State Government assisted with the funding and even got engaged in taste testing during product development. Young people at schools will benefit from the out46 »

In Mexico, Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF) has developed a

Memorandum of Understanding with the new Universidad Tecnológica del Mar de Tamaulipas (UTMarT) based in La Pesca, Soto La Marina in the state of Tamaulipas.

comes of the program as they are now enjoying nutritious fish as part of their weekly diet and everyone sees this as a breakthrough where government, higher education, industry and the community is involved in diverse ways in solving a significant issue and creating a great outcome. In various parts of the world many species of fish are discarded because they are not popular and much fish is wasted through poor processing or infrastructure so the program highlights what can be done if people work together. The next phase is to work with the community and local conserva-

tion groups in improving the mangroves in the area. The initial plan is to create a mangrove restoration centre, which will encourage students and members of the community to work together. UTMarT staff will build study programs around mangroves and will, with AwF, reach out to other groups around the world. Mangroves provide ecosystem services to coastal communities across 123 tropical and subtropical countries and support fisheries through nursery habitat provision, refugia and nutrient out-welling. The lack of large-scale data on mangroves means the importance of mangrove-fishery

linkages is not understood in a global context as well at it should be. We do know that mangroves are disappearing globally at an alarming rate so there is a need to build some global understanding to: • Understand current mangrovefishery linkages and determine which attributes related to the presence of mangroves are important to fisheries.

• Determine whether global and regional catch data suggests a link between mangrove presence and fisheries productivity. • Relate resulting conclusions to many fine-scale local case studies which investigate the link between mangrove attributes to local artisanal fisheries and community livelihoods. • Estimate the potential impacts of global change (including mangrove

loss by climate related and anthropogenic impacts) over a range of spatial scales on artisanal fisheries and, subsequently, the communities dependent on them. Environmental issues such as these are typically far away from the minds of people who are struggling to obtain food to survive or who are trading products globally. There clearly needs to be more education and engagement in understanding the consequences; if we are not getting those important messages through to the industry, then it will be even harder to get them through to the public. UTMarT is working with the Tamaulipas State government and the various Mexican national government authorities to organize a Rural Aquaculture Conference where discussions on subjects like these can take place and practical workshops can be arranged. AwF will be engaged in this effort, and welcomes inputs from interested parties.

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Aquaculture Stewardship Council

News from the

Aquaculture Stewardship Council Aquaculture Stewardship Council Salmon Recommended by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch ® Program On June 5th, the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) announced that with the release of a new benchmark report, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch program now recognizes the ASC Salmon Standard as at least equivalent to their Good Alternative recommendation. In the report, Seafood Watch credits the requirements for data collection and performance based standards, including parameters for the responsible use of natural resources, the use of responsible feed and restrictions on the use of antibiotics for farms certified to the ASC standard as the basis for the deferral. The update is further recognition of the strength of the ASC program and an independent confirmation of the rigor and credibility of the salmon standard.

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The standard was benchmarked upon completion of the Operational Review of the ASC Salmon Standard which began in 2015. The ASC updated or added 10 indicators to further improve the environmental and social performance of farms in the program, including a reduction in the amount of wild fish allowed in aquafeed used to feed farmed salmon. “The recommendation that consumers buy ASC certified salmon by

one of the most respected conservation organizations in the world is further confirmation of the credibility and effectiveness of our program,” said Chris Ninnes, CEO of ASC. “We work collaboratively with those who share our dedication to improving the environmental and social performance of the rapidly growing aquaculture sector. This rating highlights the strengths and synergies of our programs and directly supports

the ASC theory of change by encouraging more consumers to purchase responsibly farmed salmon certified with high levels of assurance that the farm operates at industry best practices and the products are traceable back to source.” Ryan Bigelow, Program Engagement Manager for Seafood Watch said, “Our benchmark for deferral reflects the current industry best practice. The improvements ASC has made to their farmed salmon standard, particularly the mandate to further reduce the amount of wild fish ingredients used on the farm, allow us to recommend ASC certified salmon to our partners, the public and other sustainability organizations that rely on our recommendations. We support continuous improvement and hope that the ASC will continue to strengthen its standards.” Seafood Watch recommendations are determined through a rigorous assessment process that ensures that seafood rated Good Alternative has fewer environmental impacts which allows them to recommend their purchase. The report classifies the ASC Salmon Standard as equivalent to or better than the Seafood Watch yellow rating- their Good Alternative category- and recommends that consumers purchase ASC certified salmon to support healthy ecosystems and thriving communities. ASC certified salmon farms have been independently audited against a comprehensive standard that measures both social and environmental impacts across 8 principles, using 43 criteria, 154 performance indicators and 521 compliance points. ASC’s standards for responsible aquaculture

are based on best practices and sound science and are truly global. The program currently includes 198 salmon farms and a further 47 are under assessment in eight countries around the world.

New ASC Farm Standards Based on the market demand for new standards, the ASC has moved forward with developing draft standards for the following species groups: Sea Bass, Sea Bream, and Meagre, Flatfish, and Tropical Marine Finfish. Building upon similarities of both farming practices and types of impacts of certain aquaculture systems, the ASC has taken a practical approach to developing these new standards; basing them on the existing multi-stakeholder derived ASC standards content. For Flatfish and Sea Bass, Sea Bream, and Meagre, and with the help of NGO and industry partners, the ASC field-tested combinations of the existing standards that were relevant to the new species. Site visits for Sea Bass, Sea Bream, and Meagre were conducted during the early part of 2017 in Greece, Spain, Croatia, Turkey, and Japan. For Flatfish, site visits were conducted during the later part of 2016 in South Korea and China. The objective of the field-testing exercise was to identify any gaps between the existing standards content and farming practices and performance of the new species. It followed the pilot assessment approach that had been undertaken against early versions of the ASC standards and the testing of the applicability of the original ASC audit manuals. These draft standards are the result of that gap analysis and incorporate input

and recommendations from NGOs and industry. The draft Tropical Marine Finfish Standard is the culmination of a WWF Coral Triangle Aquaculture Dialogue process that began in 2013. During the three year process, almost 100 stakeholders including producers, civil society organizations, seafood buyers, scientists, academics and government representatives have participated. The draft standard was finalized after a meeting in Bali, Indonesia in December 2016. Species included in this standard are Grouper, Snapper, Barramundi, and Pompano. The standard follows closely in line with the other new draft standards and builds off of the expertise and knowledge base of the original Aquaculture Dialogues. In developing new standards, ASC follows the ISEAL Guidelines for Setting Social and Environmental Standards v6.0. Important parts of the standard setting process are two public consultation periods. During these public consultation periods all stakeholders (industry and non-industry) can provide feedback on the draft versions of the standards. The ASC welcomes all feedback on these draft standards from all relevant stakeholders.

ASC Staff

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The People Aspect of Fish Health

The importance of the quality of people to a business, in general, is unquestionable. For agribusinesses, this factor has been specifically studied by researchers.

Hugh Mitchell, MSc DVM

The Overall Role of People to the Health of an Aquaculture business/operation Throughout animal agriculture, managers and employees have more impact on animal health, productivity and business profitability than stock, equipment, systems, medicines and biologicals combined. There is no reason to think that this would not translate directly to aquaculture. Although the reminder is an obvious one, in trying to control or prevent disease at an aquaculture facility, do not neglect giving meticulous attention to the people aspect of your operation. The primary objective for aquaculture health and production management, especially in the private sector, is to maintain the most efficient level of health and productivity that provides the maximum economic returns to the aquaculture enterprise. Ideally, this means that the managers and the workforce are: 1) continually seeking new stock, equipment, and techniques/practices; 2) striving to improve on what they have; and 3) doing this while also taking into consideration animal welfare and environmental aspects of the business (Radostits et al, 1994, Herd Health: Food Animal Production Medicine. 2nd Ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia). 50 »

A team’s impact on fish health risk cannot be overstated. An observational generality that can be made regarding these teams (based on years of consulting) pertains to the dynamic that successful aquaculture ventures reach and sustain. The secret appears to lie in an antagonistic balance. Enterprises which have achieved this balance in the “tug of war” between the perspectives of biologists/culturists/technicians versus those of accountants/salespeople/executives tend to succeed (Figure 1). Those in which the balance tips to either side run into problems, both businesswise and from a fish health perspective. The critical role of people in mitigating a fish health issue is illustrated in Figure 2. The initial investigation and intervention starts with “diagnosing and treating the immediate problem.” This leads to the need to figure out what risk factors contributed to the disease, in order to minimize the chances of having to repeat the “band-aid” mitigation measures (e.g.: chemotherapeutics) that may be initially required. Of course identification and correction of the risk factors cannot be considered without also considering overall business goals and cost-effectiveness.

The necessary final step of “making the case” can often be glossed over by a consultant or fish health professional. However, this step of “selling” the overall fish health implementation plan to the farm’s personnel is the linchpin to overall success (and client satisfaction). Obviously, the quality of the fish farm team, and its understanding and involvement, can have a huge bearing on successful implementation, subsequent disease mitigation and future risk reduction.

Aquaculture Stockmen/women Again, the skills, knowledge, eagerness, and dedication of fish farm personnel are integral to the health of the production animal in ways that have been studied in more detail in traditional agriculture. These skills of employees directly in charge of the fish are collectively termed “stockmanship.” This has been defined in beef production as: “the knowledgeable and skillful handling of livestock in a safe, efficient, effective, and low-stress manner (Stockmanship Journal)” (Jones, 2014, Sainsbury (1986, Farm animal welfare – cattle, pigs and poultry, Collins Prof. and Tech. Books, London) has a sim-

Figure 1. A balance is needed from the different perspectives of managers and the workforce. Without it, disproportionate influence can result in an unhealthy business or fish culture situation. It is important to realize that some individuals fancy themselves on both sides (when they really aren’t)!

pler definition which incorporates the management aspect: “the skilled management and handling of livestock by their attendants.” Directly applicable to aquaculture, there is widespread evidence that good stockmanship in agriculture has a major influence on animal performance and production, with greater growth rates, FCR’s, less disease, etc. English (2006, http:// provides several references to studies of various ani-

mal groups that demonstrate significant influences of the stockperson on animal performance. However, something that will also resonate with aquaculture managers, is the notion amongst leaders in the swine industry that the lack of quality stock people is now becoming the “Achilles heel” of swine producers. Therefore, many enterprises provide new training and continuing education for their employees as a means to increase the overall level of stockmanship, given a dearth in the labor pool. A study by Alcedo et al. (2015

Figure 2. The steps of a fish health investigation, with the final step to a successful consult often being the requisite implementation buy-in from management and workers.

Stockmanship competence and its relation to productivity and economic profitability: the context of backyard goat production in the Philippines, Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28(3):428-434) demonstrated the value that stockmanship and training has on goat production in the Philippines. They developed a stockmanship competence test that 101 goat farmers responded to. Scores were correlated with farm productivity and income. After a livestock school course on integrated management, not only did stockmanship scores increase more than 35 %, but herd mortalities dropped 19 % and weights improved by 5 kg (36 %). If a farm (terrestrial or aquatic) is experiencing low productivity and/ or disease or risk of disease, levels of stockmanship are an important factor to review. Although every farm manager/owner obviously wants good workers, a careful, objective and quantitative assessment of the current level of stockmanship at an aquaculture facility, along with a plan for continuous improvement, is probably a wise investment (“measure and monitor”). The evidence from agriculture is that this will have untold benefits on the health and productivity of the fish. » 51


Defining Good Stockmen/women and Attracting and Cultivating Them English (2006) cites research that emphasizes the complexity of livestock care jobs and the high level of skills needed, including a comprehensive understanding of the needs of the animals and their care. He proposes six essentials of good stockmanship (adapted for aquaculture) and suggests that these can be the basis for a fish farm Stockmanship Improvement Program (Figure 3). Many of these essentials can be initiated with employee screening, training, and motivational plans. It is important that training involves all levels of managers and staff in a company, not just the “stockpeople,” so that an allencompassing view of existing or potential problem areas, with strengths and weaknesses, can be identified and addressed as needed. For evaluation purposes, the six skill areas can be indexed with each employee scored from 1 to 10 by both their manager and with a selfevaluation (to make sure there is agreement!). The average for the farm determines a baseline and goal: to increase scores through training and management of each employee, together with the overall farm score over time. Again, agricultural data suggests that the better the overall farm score, the lower the risk of dis-

Figure 4. Stockpeople on a fish farm.

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1) Sound basic knowledge for the comprehensive needs of fish and how best to provide these in varying circumstances 2) Competent in the full range of perceptual (reading fish), handling, and technical skills. 3) Problem detection and problem solving ability (detecting early stage problems and diag nosing rudimentary causes, working out remedies, application of remedy and monitoring outcome) 4) Personal characteristics and attitude and a good sense of priorities. 5) Devoting sufficient time to detail of essential aspects of fish husbandry 6) The motivation to perform sound fish keeping husbandry duties and practices to a consis tently high standard and associated job satisfaction Figure 3. English’s 6 Good Stockmanship Essentials (adapted to Aquaculture)

ease and disease-related business disruptions. Of course, if the health and productivity of fish is so dependent on the employees, a fundamental concern is: what can be done to attract, motivate, and retain good stockmen and stockwomen? Again, lessons can be taken from agribusiness. The swine industry has mapped reasons why potential employees are attracted to their operations. What appears to be important is a career progression ladder within an operation that is made clear to prospective and existing employees. The reasons why employees are attracted to this ladder (in order of priority) are: improving job satisfaction; helping with better treatment of animals; improvement of job status; better motivation; greater incentive to improve; better animal performance; and increased chance of pay raise. It is interesting to point out that the monetary reason was the least important.

Stockpeople are also motivated with inclusion into policy making of management and helping to problem-solve. This gives them an increasing sense of partnership in the business and has been found, by several researchers, to contribute to job satisfaction, motivation and retention. In conclusion, substantial investment in stock, equipment, and supplies is required in trying to keep fish healthy and an aquaculture enterprise productive. Formally paying attention (measuring and monitoring) to the people aspect and investing in human resources is often a fairly cost-effective way to garner more “value” than all the capital expended in other areas toward these goals. Strive for, and emphasize, increasing the level of stockmanship in your operation, and both the fish and the operation will be healthier in the long run.

Hugh Mitchell, MSc, DVM is an aquaculture veterinarian with more than 25 years of experience, who provides services and fish health tools to fish farmers across the US and Canada. His practice is AquaTactics Fish Health, out of Kirkland, Washington, specializing in bringing a comprehensive professional service/product package to aquaculture, including: vaccine solutions, immune stimulants, sedatives, antimicrobials and parasiticides. website:; contact:

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Hybridization and then what?

There are many examples of the use of hybridization as a means to develop superior production animals. Sometimes, it’s just the beginning of a more complex journey.

By Greg Lutz*


any years ago, researchers in the U.S. demonstrated the Channel catfish by Blue catfish hybrid consumed more feed, grew more rapidly, exhibited better food conversion, and had higher overall production, survival and carcass yields than pure Channel catfish. At the time, however, there were too many technical difficulties in producing hybrid fingerlings on a large scale, since these two closely related species usually refuse to spawn together of their own volition. Most researchers involved in these early efforts to develop “a better catfish” moved on to other topics, but over the years improvements in the administration of maturation hormones, the equipment used for holding broodstock prior to spawning and the understanding of crucial steps in artificial spawning have allowed the industry to shift to hybrid production. Today in many catfish operations in the American south, hybrid catfish and “straight channels” are grown side by side (albeit in separate ponds). Another common North American example of superior production through hybridization involves the sunfishes from the genus Lepomis. Many common Lepomis hybrids have been shown to exhibit superior growth in recreational ponds, and several even been identified as serious candidates for food fish culture operations. The great thing about these 54 »

hybrids is that they are usually fairly easy to produce – all that’s required is to stock males of one species in spawning ponds or tanks with females of another species. The downside is that although some crosses produce monosex populations, most are not entirely sterile. This can result in unwanted reproduction and eventual overpopulation by inferior, slow-growing and stunted ‘mongrel’ sunfish. Hybrid striped bass, including the reciprocal crosses between Morone saxatilis and M. chrysops, have been the basis of a modest aquaculture industry in the U.S. for over 25 years. These days, domestic production has been more or less steady at about 10 million pounds per year, but this fish

has also been cultured in a number of other countries, and a significant portion of the “hybrid striper” fry and fingerlings produced each year find their way to far-off lands. Other examples of hybridization in aquaculture are easy to find. Hybridization has shown promising results with diverse organisms, including sturgeon, oysters, groupers, snappers, carps, and many others. One of the more mundane constraints in the use of hybridization, regardless of whether spawning occurs naturally or artificially, is the need to maintain (or collect) breeding stock from two distinct species. Typically, in animal or plant production, or in aquaculture, the value of first generation (F1) hybrids is lim-

ited simply to grow-out for harvest. But the question continuously arises… what if we could somehow ‘fix’ the desirable traits in the hybrids we are working with and avoid having to continuously use two distinct groups of broodstock year after year? First generation hybrids are comparatively uniform, being isogenic (genetically identical) for all the heterozygous loci that result from combining distinct alleles that were fixed in the parental species. The variability in subsequent generations as this condition is lost through the formation of homozygotes at these various loci often allows the breeder to select for specific combinations of traits that suit his or her needs and markets. This method has been successfully utilized in production of synthetic lines of tilapia throughout the world, and in Europe and elsewhere in the

development of sturgeon “breeds” derived from hybrid broodstocks. The fact that roughly half the gains from heterosis persist indefinitely to complement any available additive genetic variation also opens the door for substantial genetic improvement in populations derived from hybrid parents. Well… the first hurdle in such a strategy involves getting the F1 hybrids to produce viable F2 offspring. In some aquatic species, that’s no big deal. Fairly good results are often attained with tilapia: most red varieties across the planet are descended from F1 crosses of Oreochromis niloticus and O. mossambicus (the original Taiwanese red tilapia) or O. mossambicus and O. hornorum (the Florida red tilapia), through the F2 generation and onward for many, many more beyond it. Researchers at the Shanghai Fisheries University used this approach to develop a salt tolerant tilapia with good growth under saline conditions by utilizing F2 fish from original crosses of O. niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron. Another great example in tilapia is the “Pargo UNAM,” developed at the Centro de Ensenanza en Ganaderia Tropical in Veracruz, Mexico. This strain of fish is the result of using hybrids to produce a population from which desirable characteristics were fixed through selection. Unfortunately, in most hybrids between aquatic species, getting from the F1 generation to the F3 and beyond is often not easy, or downright impossible. Low hatching rates, low survival and high incidences of deformities are often encountered when crossing first generation hybrids. Similarly dismal results have been reported for hybrid oysters (Crassostrea hongkongensis x C. gigas), hybrid African catfishes (Heterobranchus longifilis x Clarias anguillaris) and many others. This can be explained, at least partly, by a phenomenon referred to as “outbreeding depression.” If fitness depends on specific interactions within gene complexes found in each parental species, the breakdown and

separation of these interacting genes in the F2 generation can cause irreparable harm. Nonetheless, in many cases, if enough viable F2 animals can be produced they can serve as an “artificial center of origin” from which to begin development of a synthetic strain. Let’s examine the case of Morone. In

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the early 1980’s, researchers showed that striped bass hybrids were fertile and could produce viable offspring. Interest in spawning hybrids at the time stemmed from the fact that traditional fingerling production involved the need to collect, transport, inject, hold and strip spawn wildcaught broodstock of both parental species. Further pursuit of this line of inquiry by Smith, Jenkins and Snevel (1986), demonstrated that the F2 progeny produced from these hybrids were not, themselves, suitable for commercial production, being much more variable phenotypically 56 

and on average only intermediate in performance when compared to their F1 parents and the striped bass parental species. This is exactly what quantitative genetic theory would predict, an inflation of variation and simultaneous conservation of only half the heterosis derived from the original cross (Falconer 1989). Similar efforts in Asia and Europe were not nearly as successful in producing F2 Morone, most likely due to outbreeding but also perhaps to a lack of experience with Morone larviculture. But, some gems are usually scattered in the rubble of many F2 populations. One interesting result from the Smith et al. (1986) study, in keeping with phenomena plant and animal breeders have utilized for centuries, was that several F2 progeny were the fastest-growing fish in the entire study when generations were compared side by side. In all likelihood, due to the tremendous phenotypic variation in this generation, the smallest fish in the study early on were also probably F2 progeny that were cannibalized by their siblings before contributing to data analysis.

Producing a synthetic strain of Morone would involve raising the very best performing fish from the F2 generation and spawning them to produce F3 fish, and onward to ultimately attain a uniform, high-performing production stock. Large numbers of these F2 fish might be required to offset inbreeding in such an initiative, and the extensive time and facility requirements might never be justified. But if you’re a hybrid striped bass producer, it might just be worth it to be able to collect your broodstock in your own back yard every spring.

Dr. C. Greg Lutz is the author of the book Practical Genetics for Aquaculture and the Editor in Chief at Aquaculture Magazine.

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Recent news from around the globe by By Suzi Dominy*

Insects: the buzz word in aquafeed Fish producers increasingly look to feed containing plant-based proteins to provide the essential component of nutrition that builds and repairs the cells that sustain life. Agriculture produces roughly 525 million tonnes of plant protein a year from corn, rice, wheat and soybeans. However, today’s protein production is not sustainable: only 25 % of proteins land as vegetable proteins on our plates, while 15 % are wasted and 60 % are used to produce animal protein. Furthermore, with the growing world population, protein production needs to double by 2050. Experts agree this cannot be achieved using traditional farming practices and resources, which is why alternative sources for protein such insects or algae are becoming increasingly important. Insects offer a sustainable alternative: grown on organic residues, they can recover up to 70 % of nutrients, thus recycling these underutilized streams back to the food value chain. Insects such as fly larvae or mealworms are relatively easy to breed and rear. Some species such as the larvae of the Black Soldier Fly can be fed with organic waste products such as farming or food waste and are remarkably efficient in transforming feed into protein: insects require only two kilograms of feed to produce one kilogram of mass. Another benefit is their low space requirement: on a single square meter of insects, one kilogram of protein can be 58 »

Buehler Insect Technology Insect Research.

produced. The yield could be further increased with vertical farming concepts. Besides that, excrements from the insects can be used as a fertilizer in farming. From July 1, New EU regulations permit the use of insect-based nutrients in aquafeed and there is significant movement by industry to fill the space. In June, the insect supply industry reached a significant milestone with Netherlands-based Protix, a leading insect company, closing 45 million Euro in funding – delivered by AquaSpark, the first investment company focused on sustainable aquaculture, Rabobank, BOM and various private investors. Protix is a highly technological and data driven insect producer, regarded for its automated breeding

and rearing process. The company has turned insect production into a commercial success by serving the animal feed industry, while also developing food applications for consumers. Their products are used in over 12 countries to date. The driver behind Aqua-Spark’s interest is Protix promising uses for aquaculture. Swiss engineering company, Bühler has joined forces with Protix to establish a joint venture, Bühler Insect Technology. It has announced plans to build the largest insect-processing plant on an industrial scale in Europe, which will serve as a modular and scalable blueprint for future projects. The plant will be situated in the Netherlands and construction will start this year; the plant is expected to be operational in the first half of

2018. It will produce protein meal and lipids for animal and aquaculture feeds. The black soldier fly larvae are fed carefully selected organic byproducts from local distilleries, food producers and vegetable collectors in the Netherlands, which further underlines the sustainability of the process. Meanwhile, Agriprotein aims to build a network of 100 insect protein factories by 2024 and 200 by 2027, to supply the $100 billion aquafeed market. It has brought in heavyweight executives from the banking and financial sector to help spearhead the growth and moved its global HQ to London. The company has allocated licenses in the US, Asia, Australasia and the Middle East. In February, it announced a partnership with Austrian engineers, Christof Industries, enabling it to roll out its fly factory blueprint on a turnkey basis anywhere in the world at the rate of 25 per year.

Protix Processing.

There is a nascent industry in Australia too. Western Australian company Future Green Solutions, for example, sells live and dried insects to the reptile and aquarium industries and is now working on a project with the University of Western Australia. Fruit and vegetable scraps from six Perth restaurants

are fed to soldier fly pupae, which in turn are fed to rainbow trout. Byproducts from the process are oil and castings, organic matter that can be used as compost. Pilot scale trials are still five years away and industrial scale production 10. It is early days, but the movement is real. Earlier this year the Insect Protein Associa-

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tion of Australia was incorporated, which aims to help provide a legislative framework for the industry, communicate with government and help with funding.

‘CleanFeed’ project aims to determine nutrition requirements of cleaner fish Nofima is leading a new project to determine the feed and nutrition requirements of cleaner fish, which are an important weapon in the struggle against sea lice on salmon farms. In the four-year ‘CleanFeed’ project, Nofima, NIFES, the NMBU School of Veterinary Science and NTNU Ålesund will collaborate closely to discover new knowledge in an efficient manner. Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) and ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta Ascanius, 1767) are the two cleaner fish the industry is cultivating, so research efforts will be concentrated on these two species. Lumpfish and ballan wrasse have quite different physiology, behavior and characteristics. The industry expectation is for both species to be robust, have low mortality and a solid health and nutritional status, in order to thrive in the salmon nets and do their job as lice eaters. “The fish must receive the proper feed if we are to achieve this,” stated Lein. The first trials in the project will examine the need for nutrients of both species. The first trial will ad-

Protix Storage.

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Protix Ingredients Protein.

dress what the optimal balance of primary nutrients is for lumpfish. The next step is to investigate the need for micro-nutrients, i.e. minerals and vitamins. The need for nutrients varies according to factors such as size of the fish, temperature, growth speed and stress. It is therefore impossible to define one need that will apply to all situations. Experience from cultivated lumpfish shows that they can often develop grey cataracts. The lens of the eye becomes clouded so that sight in the fish is diminished. Good sight is especially important to the cleaner fish so they are able to graze efficiently on the lice that are attached to the salmon. Scientists will also investigate whether there is a connection

between feed and the development of cataracts. “In this project, we will find the optimal composition of feed for the sizes of lumpfish and ballan wrasse concerned. Because the two species are so different to begin with, it is necessary to develop feed that is suitable for each individual species,” stated Øystein Sæle of NIFES. “The objective is for cleaner fish, preferably a combination of lumpfish and ballan wrasse, to be in the cage with the salmon throughout an entire production cycle. One of the prerequisites for this is without doubt good nutrition for the cleaner fish. We are looking forward to obtaining results in this project over the next four years,” said Lein.

Suzi Dominy is the founding editor and publisher of She brings 25 years of experience in professional feed industry journalism and publishing. Before starting this company, she was co-publisher of the agri-food division of a major UK-based company, and editor of their major international feed magazine for 13 years.

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Intensive feeding Whenever you have dynamic interactions between 300 million

people and the American economy acting in really complex ways, that introduces a degree of almost chaos theory to the system, in a literal By: Paul B. Brown*

sense.” Nate Silver (1978-), American writer.


ate Silver’s description of the American population and their interaction with the economy come close to describing the complex interactions in intensive aquaculture systems. All food production systems tend to intensify over time to improve efficiency and gain control. Aquaculture systems have been in the process of intensification since the explosion in production that began in the 1990’s. The most intense systems imagined to date are the closed loop, recirculating systems (RAS). In our previous article we considered the nutritional needs of the plants that can be incorporated into the system (aquaponics); however, there is a third organism in an aquaponic system, or a second organisms in a RAS that must be fed. Intensive systems rely on bacteria to oxidize the excreted ammonia-N from the fish/shrimp. Ammonia is toxic and if not oxidized can increase to concentrations that cause harm, even death, of the target organisms. Ammonia is oxidized in a 2-step process, initially to nitrite, which is also toxic, then finally to nitrate, which is almost nontoxic. Facilitating the oxidation of ammonia-N is almost identical to the N cycle found on land, the same one farmers use to fertilize field crops. Common bacteria carry out this 2-step process. However, do we provide the nutrient needs of these organisms? Can they sur62 »

vive on simply nitrogenous products and oxygen? Unfortunately, the typical perception is that bacteria need a source of N and oxygen, when in fact, they have relatively complex nutrient needs. Table 1 depicts the nutrient needs of the two basic bacteria needed to complete the N cycle in RAS, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter, compared to the mineral nutrient requirements of fish. Many of the nutrients required for pure culture of bacteria are indeed required by fish and supplemented into the diet, but several are not. Qualitatively, molybdenum, cobalt, and chromium have not

been clearly identified as required nutrients for fish, although they are considered essential nutrients for other animals. Based on this simple comparison, we might suspect that fish/shrimp diets are inadequate for sustainable growth of N oxidizing bacteria. As we were working on this topic several years ago, we incorporated a quick analysis of several RAS systems in the Aquaculture Research Laboratory. Table 2 contains the results of mineral analyses from existing RAS system operated at various temperatures and containing three different species. Tilapia were operated at 28º C, perch

Table 1 Nutrient solution for growing targeted bacteria and the mineral nutrient requirements of fish. 1

Mineral Distiller water (NH)SO4 NaNO2 MgSO4 · 7H2O CaCl2 · 2H2O K2HPO4 Chelated iron NaMoO4 · 2H2O MnCl2 · 4H2O CoCl2 · 6H2O CuSO4 · 5H2O ZnSO4 · 7H2O Selenium Chromium

Ammonia Oxidizers

Nitrite Oxidizers

1000 ml 2000 mg ----200 mg 20 mg 16 mg 1 mg 100 μg 200 μg 2 μg 20 μg 100 μg ---------

1000 ml ----69 mg 100 mg 6 mg 2 mg 1 mg 30 μg 66 μg 1 μg 6 μg 30 μg ---------

Fishz ------------.04-.08 % .34-.7 % .5-.8 % 30-170 mg ???? 2-13 mg ???? 3-5 mg 15-30 mg .15-.4 mg +++3

1.Formulation provided by Dr. J. Alleman, Purdue University, Civil Engineering. 2.NRC requirements 3.Needed but not quantified.

at 22º C and trout at 14º C. Each fish species was fed a specific commercial diet that met their nutritional needs. All systems had been in operation for over 3 months, and some as long as 9 months. Other than the macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K and S), all microminerals were below detectable limits (BDL) of the instrument, despite the fact these minerals were being added to the system daily (via the fish food). Our conclusion was that the bacteria we rely on to complete the N cycle were uptaking the minerals from solution at a faster rate than they were being added to the system. The question that needs

addressing is at what point do we not provide adequate mineral nutritional needs for the bacteria? This will be a function of stocking density, feed input, mineral availability through the animal, and solubilization of minerals once excreted. Water quality will likely play a role in feeding the bacteria. Can we look at the data in Table 2 and feel comfortable the bacterial populations are being provided their nutrient needs? Is this a sustainable scenario? The answers are we do not know. So, 300 million people interacting in a complex economy. Chaotic, yes, which might be why so few people

understand the nuances of the economic system. Data in Table 2 includes 18 minerals, which interact with a target organism (fish/shrimp), then bacteria, then potentially plants in an aquaponic system, all influenced by water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide). Our producers can see nutritional deficiencies in fish/ shrimp, and those are rare these days, and they can see the more common mineral deficiencies in plant species in aquaponics. We cannot easily detect nutrient deficiencies in bacteria, until ammonia-N or nitrite-N increases to dangerous concentrations. These systems are complex, poorly understood and not adequately modeled to allow producers to have a high degree of certainty whether all organisms have sufficient nutrients. We have a great deal of research to do in this area, but the basic systems and operational parameters are working for those pioneers in this field. Further intensification will require a far more precise understanding of these and other interactions.

Table 2 Mineral concentrations in RAS systems operated at Purdue University. Species Mineral Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Sodium Potassium Iron Copper Manganese Zinc Sulfur Cobalt Selenium Molybdenum Aluminium Chromium Nickel Vanadium Boron

Tilapia 74.7 0.76 28.4 6.05 2.35 BDL BDL BDL BDL 14.0 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL

Yellow Perch 77.5 1.98 30.0 15.5 3.38 0.06 BDL BDL BDL 14.9 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL

Rainbow Trout 75.0 BDL2 28.0 11.0 2.24 BDL BDL BDL BDL 13.3 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL

Yellow Perch 73.1 .58 28.0 444.0 4.05 BDL BDL BDL BDL 14.1 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL

Dr. Paul Brown is Professor of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences in the Department of Forestry and Natural Resources of Purdue University. Brown has served as Associate Editor for the Progressive Fish-Culturist and the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, among many others.

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Aquaculture Economics, Management, and Marketing

The Regulatory Cost Burden on U.S. Baitfish/Sportfish Farms

“Measurement is the first step that leads to control and eventually improvement. If you can’t measure something, you can’t understand it. If you can’t understand it, you can’t control it. If you can’t control it, you By Jonathan van Senten, Ph.D. as guest columnist1 and Carole R. Engle, Ph.D.2

can’t improve it.” – H. James Harrington


hat follows then, is a story of measurement. An ambitious attempt to quantify direct and indirect costs stemming from compliance with the United States regulatory environment; described as the 3rd most stringent amongst a group of developed and developing nations (Abate 2016, Aquaculture Economics & Management 20(2): 201–221). In terms of total aquaculture production, the U.S. was ranked as the 17th largest producer in the world in 2014 (FAO, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2016). While global aquaculture has continued to grow, now contributing half of the total seafood production, the U.S. industry has not been developing as quickly as others. In fact, from 2000 to 2014, the U.S. has exhibited a 0.3 % decline in the growth rate of aquaculture (FAO); causing great concern amongst industry members and stakeholders. While the U.S. regulatory environment is just one of the areas believed to be contributing to this trend (See Lockwood 2017 for detail – Aquaculture Magazine April/May 2017, pp. 72-75), it was the one we sought to measure; specifically, for baitfish and sportfish production. As most of the producers we met with during this study would point out, the interactions and resulting frictions 64 »

between U.S. aquaculture and regulatory agencies are nothing new. There is evidence in the literature dating back to the 1970s and 1990s discussing the regulatory barriers to aquaculture in the U.S. (Anonymous 1979, “Aquaculturists seek relief from regulatory constraints,” The Commercial Fish Farmer and Aquaculture News January 5(2): 8–11, 44–45; Gibson 1979, “Red tape

versus green light,” The Commercial Fish Farmer and Aquaculture News May/June 5(4): 12–14; and Thunberg et al. 1994, “Economic, regulatory, and technological barriers to entry into the Florida aquaculture industry,” Journal of Applied Aquaculture 4(2): 3–14). An earlier effort to characterize the complexity of the U.S. regulatory environment identified over 1,300 laws

at local, state, and federal levels that affected the aquaculture sector (Engle and Stone 2013, “Competitiveness of U.S. aquaculture within the current U.S. regulatory framework,” Aquaculture Economics & Management 17(3): 251–280). Our more recent effort to quantify the farm-level regulatory burden and its economic effects on the baitfish and sportfish aquaculture industry sector is in direct response to the many calls for relief from the industry and from aquaculture experts. It would also be prudent to point out that the baitfish and sportfish study, has now become the first in a series of projects to assess the cost of regulatory compliance on multiple aquaculture sectors; including west coast shellfish and trout, which are currently ongoing. Throughout 2015 a survey of U.S. baitfish and sportfish producers was conducted, targeting the 13 major U.S. production states as identified by the USDA Census of Agriculture. The survey was conducted as a census, at-

tempting to capture the totality of the baitfish and sportfish industry in the relevant study states. When all was said and done, survey responses captured 74 % of the U.S. volume of baitfish and sportfish production (van Senten and Engle 2017, “The Costs of Regulations on U.S. Baitfish and Sportfish Producers,” Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(3): 503-517). Summarizing the data collected from producers revealed that as a national average, only 1 % of total regulatory costs were direct costs of regulation, such as permit and license fees. The remaining 99 % of the regulatory compliance costs are due to lost or foregone sales (60 %), changes in management or infrastructure to remain in compliance (23 %), and manpower used for compliance (11 %). Using the collected data, it was estimated that the farm-level compliance cost to the United States baitfish and sportfish industry was in excess of $12 million. Across all respondents the average regulatory costs were found to

be $148,554/farm, or $2,998/acre; although there was variation amongst study states. The analysis also demonstrated that the regulatory burden on small farms was relatively higher, with farms under 50 acres in size averaging $5,631/acre in annual compliance costs, compared to $321/acre for large farms over 500 acres in size. The data also revealed that the cost of regulations exceeded the value of profits on 38 % of participating baitfish and sportfish farms, a concerning discovery. The dataset was also used to perform a statistical analysis to assess the impact of various cost factors on overall farm efficiency. While this technical efficiency analysis produced efficiency estimates for participating baitfish and sportfish producers, it more importantly revealed that regulatory costs factors, specifically the cost of manpower to comply and the number of annual permit and license renewals, were statistically significant contributors to inefficiency on farms.

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Aquaculture Economics, Management, and Marketing

While the research team is not advocating for a removal of all regulations governing aquaculture, the findings from this study do confirm previous reports of the complexity of the U.S. regulatory environment. Results demonstrated that the total regulatory burden has increased farm-level costs and restricted access to markets, thereby reducing profitability and contributing to reduced growth of the baitfish and sportfish industry. This reduced access to markets is particularly troubling, given that it limits the ability of producers to spread increasing costs over increased sales volumes. In a sense, the regulatory environment is having a double effect on producers; namely increasing costs, while si-

multaneously restricting their ability to spread those increased costs over increased sales volumes. A look at recent USDA Census of Aquaculture data reveals that there has been a 25 % decline in the number of baitfish and sportfish farms between 2005 and 2013. However, the number of the large baitfish/sportfish farms in existence over that period has remained unchanged, the number of medium-sized farms declined by 21 %, and small farms declined by 29 %. Regulatory costs, constraints, and complexity may not have been the sole cause of this decline, but the disproportionately greater regulatory costs per acre for smaller farms observed in our study may explain a

portion of this decline. The findings of this regulatory cost study on the baitfish/sportfish sector support the conclusions of Abate et al. (2016) that the stringency of environmental regulations in the U.S. have contributed to limited growth of U.S. aquaculture. Now that the measuring is done, it is time for understanding and improvements to be made. Based on the findings of this study, the research team strongly recommends that policy makers identify ways to streamline the regulatory processes, reduce duplication in licenses, permits, and reporting requirements, and develop user friendly information systems to notify farmers promptly and reliably of regulatory changes. Furthermore, we recommend that policy makers consider the economic impacts of their proposed legislation at the farm level, and ensure their decisions are informed by the best available science. It is clearly in the best interest of our nation for regulators and representatives of aquaculture farms to sit down and search for ways to provide adequate oversight without the redundancies, overlap, and delays that impose unreasonable and excessive cost burdens on a U.S. sector recognized for its environmental sustainability. For more information, see: virginia-seafood/research/regulatorycosts-for-us-baitfish-and-sportfish. html

Post-doctoral Researcher, Virginia Tech University (Guest Columnist) 2 Carole Engle holds a B.A. degree in Biology/Rural Development from Friends World College and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Auburn University where she specialized in aquaculture economics. Dr. Engle is a past-President of the U.S. Aquaculture Society and the International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management. She is currently a Principal in Engle-Stone Aquatic$ LLC, and can be reached at 1

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Solid waste in closed culture systems

represents both a problem and a resource

By Asbjørn Bergheim*


n salmonid culture, the waste situation has improved over the last decade as a result of stricter guidelines, better feed quality and introduction of more efficient technology for waste removal and processing. At a feed conversion ratio of 1.0 (kg feed/kg growth), the mechanically removable solid dry matter (DM) is about 100 g per kg of feed used or fish produced (landbased salmon/ trout farms combining particle sieving and sludge dewatering). Consequently, production of 100 tons of fish means 100 cu. m of sludge containing 10 % DM.

Dealing with solid waste in aquaculture due to undigested feed and uneaten feed is a well known operational issue for fish farmers. Accumulation of solids in the fish units reduces the water quality for the fish stock and sedimentation in the recipient environment, e.g. on the sea/lake bed beneath cages and at the pipe outlet from closed systems, may represent a major ecological footprint.

Modern salmon smolt farms are large and produce several millions of fish every year for stocking in cage farms. The annually produced biomass in the majority of such freshwater farms is between 100 – 1,000 tons. Moreover, the ascending production of post-smolt in onshore recirculating farms (RAS) and in floating, closed cages (S-CCS) will probably represent biomasses 5 – 10 times higher, i.e. up to 10,000 tons annually per farm. These are systems fit for solids removal. Farming rainbow trout to harvest size in inland, freshwater farms also represents substantial biomasses and

A Figure 1. Sludge water treatment at a rainbow trout farm in Denmark (courtesy: Anne Johanne T. Dalsgaard) A) Pump station for solid enriched backwash water B) Ponds for further two-step settling of solids

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sludge production in some countries. Such farms mostly load freshwater recipients, lakes and rivers, and the discharge ought to be properly treated before entering the recipient. In freshwater, removal of phosphorus is vital as regards eutrophication and well-designed and properly operated effluent treatment systems catch solid-bound phosphorus efficiently. The major part of lost phosphorus from fish farms is usually incorporated in particles. Danish trout farmers are subject to strict regulations by the environmental authorities in order to protect freshwater bodies. Figure 1


illustrates a common way to treat produced backwash water from the effluent drum sieves (Anne Johanne T. Dalsgaard, pers. comm.). Subsequent solid settling occurs in basins with the overflow going to a lagoon for nutrient removal by plants. Dewatered sludge from salmonid farms contains favourable levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, major nutrients for plant production, but the sludge is low in potassium. Stabilized sludge with added lime is considered an applicable organic manure spread on arable land. Analysis of heavy metals, such as chromium, chrome and lead, indicate low and harmless levels. However, the national agriculture authorities are concerned of the potential negative effects from the salt content in sludge from seawater farms. Manure application is the most common way so far to dispose/utilize the produced sludge from Norwegian smolt farms. A few reports indicate stimulated plant growth but in most cases sludge delivery to agriculture means extra costs for the fish producers. Other, more advanced ways for sludge utilization are impending. Among these are sludge as a source for production of biogas. The research centre, Bioforsk (Norway), estimated a yield of more than 500 L methane per kg of sludge organic dry matter. Biogas is an actual fuel source, e.g. to make city buses more environmental friendly. Salmonid sludge is moreover a considerable direct energy source and contains approximately 20 MJ per kg of dry matter. Combustion of dried sludge from aquaculture is thus a potential application and has been assessed as an alternative, more sustainable fuel source in cement factories compared to the present use of fuel of fossil origin that represents serious local air pollution. Only a small part of the totally produced sludge in salmon and trout farming is removed and processed. A brief calculation indicates a maximum removal rate of less than 5 % of the total volume. As long as the predominant biomass production takes place in open cages inappropriate for waste handling, the coastal areas will remain the primary recipient of wastes from feed and fish.

Dr. AsbjĂ˜rn Bergheim is a senior researcher in the Dept. of Marine Environment at the International Research Institute of Stavanger. His fields of interest within aquaculture are primarily water quality vs. technology and management in tanks, cages and ponds, among others.

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Can aquaponics help restore the US aquaculture industry?

Part 1 By: George B. Brooks, Jr. Ph.D.

Can aquaponics help restore the US aquaculture industry? Well yes, and it already is. Allow me to elaborate.


vor years now we have watched the slow decline of the aquaculture industry in the United States. A great discourse on this challenge was recently penned by John Hargreaves, an Editor for the World Aquaculture Society. Putting it simply, with the US producing only 10 % of the seafood it eats, the American industry is a shadow of what it used to be. To quote Hargreaves: “The stagnation of US aquaculture is obvious at many levels. The largest aquaculture sector in the country, catfish farming, 70 »

peaked in 2002 and has not yet come close to recovering 15 years later… Trout production has barely budged in decades. Salmon farming in net pens in Maine and Washington, never fully developed, peaked around 2000. Shellfish production, one of the brighter lights of US aquaculture, grows modestly but faces ongoing challenges… University research programs in aquaculture have been scaled back and, in some cases, done away with altogether.” So there you have it. Why? Well it’s pretty straightforward: 1. Challenging environmental conditions. Only certain places within the

U.S. are well suited for year-round production preferred by the traditional aquaculture models. 2. Hand in hand with the environmental conditions comes regulatory oversight that in some states is considered overbearing and restrictive. Along with this comes this little thing in real estate called “Highest and Best Use.” The technical definition, taken from Google, is: “The Appraisal Institute defines highest and best use as follows: The reasonably probable and legal use of vacant land or an improved property that is physically possible, appropriately supported, financially feasible, and that results in the highest value.” In other words, what is the use that will make the most money? Too often the answer is not fish or shellfish farming. Finally (for now), come the challenges of complying with US food safety rules and regulations. These are absolutely necessary in my book but can run up the costs. 3. As we discovered all too well when seeking to develop a fledgling aquaculture industry in my home state of Arizona long ago, many nations can better leverage their social, economic and environmental resources than can the United States and thus provide a consistently available quality product at a lower price. In a market where

first price and then quality rule, these realities often put local US produced fish and shellfish at a disadvantage. The situation is not all doom and gloom, but this is a realistic overview. So do we simply pack up our farms and go home as I heard someone actually suggest? Well no. Let me give you a different vision. Imagine if there was an opportunity for a “do over”? Well we have one and it is already working today. All we need to do is pay attention and this brings us back to my opening statement. Yes, aquaponics can indeed help to restore the US aquaculture industry and it already is. Back around the year 2000 my goal was to find some way to once again grow a competitive fish. My examination of aquaponics revealed it not to be “ready for prime time” in my opinion. Fast forward 10 years and I saw it as actually having the potential, but could it be done? Yes it can and better yet, yes it is and here is the evidence: From NPR on Monday, June 26, 2017 the headline read: “Wisconsin Fish Farming Sees Growth After Decade Of Stagnation.” University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point biology professor Dr. Chris Hartleb has tracked the state’s aquaculture indus-

try for some time. He told Wisconsin Public Radio that over the past three years many new farms have opened, and they are often run or owned by a younger generation and based on aquaponics. A gracious individual, in a followup conversation Dr. Hartleb provided some additional details. Over a 10-year period Wisconsin’s aquaculture industry declined from approximately 2,500 farms to about 2,300. But recently he has seen a jump to 2,800 farms with the majority of the new ventures (300) using aquaponics. Most of these are on the hobby/back yard “farmer’s market” scale but 50 or so are on a commercial scale and many are owned by a new generation of farmers in the 40 year old age range as compared to the boomerowned traditional farms. One business is projected to produce up to 160,000 pounds of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout as well as 2 million pounds of lettuce annually. When asked if he sees this trend continuing, where aquaponic ventures help restore the state’s aquaculture industry, his response was that it will depend on the current farms’ success. If they are successful that will encourage more to follow.

So we have empirical evidence that it is possible for aquaponic production to help restore the aquaculture industry for at least one state in the union. If the US produces only around 10 % of the seafood it consumes that is around 500 million pounds of product. So just to raise that production number to 15 % would require an additional 250 or so million pounds. That’s a lot of seafood. Thus the question now is how to understand and emulate Wisconsin’s success story so as to make a dent in this needed number of fish. This conundrum will be discussed in part II of this article.

*Dr. George Brooks, Jr. holds a Ph.D. in Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences from the University of Arizona in Tucson and served as that institution’s first Aquaculture Extension Specialist. He is currently Principle at the NxT Horizon Consulting group and also teaches Aquaponics at Mesa Community College. Dr. Brooks is co-chairing the upcoming Aquaponics Association conference in Austin Texas. He may be reached at

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Perspective and Opinion

Aquaculture Research Needs

There is an inherent food conversion efficiency advantage of aquaculture over terrestrial meat production, based upon the fact that aquatic animals don’t have to expend energy to stand up or keep warm.

By Dallas Weaver, Ph.D.*


his fact, combined with the coming 3 billion more people, as well as the already present 2 billion people on this planet who desire more edible protein sources, means that the world will be forced by finite agriculture area to grow “feed stuff ” to produce meat. This will result in an inevitable shift towards drastically increasing aquaculture production of meat. Therefore, research will be required in all areas of aquaculture production — ranging from “nut and bolt” research into practical culture systems, genetics, and nutrition, to advanced ecological genetic research necessary to obtain some control over microbiological ecologies associated with aquaculture. At the present time, this world wide shift to aquaculture to obtain these meat production efficiency advantages of 2 to 3 more meat per unit of “feed stuff ” is occurring outside the U.S. Our regulatory systems and other factors are preventing our development of aquaculture. We are even falling behind the rest of the world in aquaculture technology as they develop off-shore aquaculture systems and massive high intensity production with a growth rate in the range of 9 %/year, while aquaculture is actually shrinking in the U.S. If this trend continues, all the jobs associated with meat production by chickens and pigs in the U.S. will lose market share to imported aquaculture 72 »

production from countries ranging from Norway to Bangladesh and India and everywhere in between. The continued technological evolution of aquaculture will make fish/shrimp a cheaper meat than pigs and chickens, which have higher food energy demands per unit of meat. Unless policy changes, the U.S. will not be part of that evolution. This being left out of the party is unnecessary. The U.S. could utilize its technological leading position in biotechnology to regain a top position and prevent the above massive job losses to aquaculture imports. One area would be GMO animals, however, this is a politically loaded area and probably a non-starter in

the “Land of Activist Veto” of any implementation by any miscellaneous anti-science nut group with good PR desires. However another area has to do with the external and internal micro-biomes associated with aquaculture, where the relevant biological games deal with viruses, phages, bacteria, fungi, algal organisms and their complex interactions that activists don’t understand and can’t even imagine. To most activists, “ecology” is just a buzz word with no understanding of the real complexity of the interactions implies in this word. Except for flow-through aquaculture and systems with massive water exchanges (net pens, raceways and fast exchange ponds on rivers, etc.),

most aquaculture systems, including all pond culture and recycle aquaculture systems, depend upon microbiological ecology to handle, detoxify and recycle the waste products. This complex ecology contains thousands of species of viruses (phages), bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoans, zooplankton, pathogens, etc. whose complexity and dynamics are poorly understood. Crude attempts are being made to influence these microbiological ecologies using “probiotic” and “prebiotic” formulations which are being utilized around the world. However the results are neither consistent nor reproducible. In the natural world, we know that the structure and composition of many of these aquatic microbiological ecologies depend upon the entire ecology down to the phage level. The phage (virus) level can determine which strain of algae will be dominant and whether that is a toxic strain or a non-toxin producing strain. If we could control these microbiological ecologies in pond and recycle aquaculture systems, we could control the water chemistry, energy flows and the performance of our target species. To control these system, we need basic research to define the systems down to the DNA/RNA level and all their interactions. Modern biological technology is now on the exponential cost-decreasing curve, long associated with microelectronics. This is an area where the U.S. is a dominant player and the spillovers from this area could be utilized to make the U.S. a top aquaculture producer. Basically, all pond and recycle aquacultural systems are really “polyculture” systems of thousands of interacting species, which presently only sell one or a few species. Opportunities are present to capture more of the internal energy flows into sellable products or to shift the energy flows away from detrimental outcomes that limit production. For example, in conventional pond aquaculture with » 73

Perspective and Opinion

fish being fed by the farmer, the nutrients are being recycled in the algal ecology, which maintains the water quality of the system. If this algal production were then used to feed a filter feeding species or harvested for sale, the net production of sellable product can be increased without increased resource usage (increased sustainability). However, such systems are unstable in an open environment, where new microbiological species/ strains can be introduced. For example, an algal species that can’t be harvested by the filter feeder species can have an advantage and become dominant at the expense of a more desirable, nutritious, digestible (i.e., sellable) algal species. In order to create stability in an inherently unstable environment, a true understanding of the ecology becomes critical. For example, if a species/strain of toxic algae becomes dominant, it is theoretically possible to introduce a mix of specific phage (a virus) that will selectively kill/control those algae. With cheap enough DNA analysis to determine what strains of what organisms make up the microbiological ecology and a library of lytic phages, we could, in theory, stabilize the ecology in a structure that is beneficial to the farmer as the system shifts from one species of profitable algae to another species by

killing unwanted toxic algae with specific phage additions. With enough information on the status of the microbiological ecology and enough control tools, the problem of stability becomes a standard control theory problem through which an unstable system is made stable by active feedback control. Research in this direction will be tightly coupled with basic research into natural microbiological ecologies, biotechnology and the rapidly changing area of bioinformatics. To accomplish this necessitates support of very basic research along with

support of the more applied practical research and increasing the communication between the two complimentary research areas. Future aquaculture will of necessity be tightly coupled with biotechnology. Consequently research efforts should be concentrated in biotechnology. Initially, the amount of money devoted to research will represent a high percentage of sales, because the amount of resources devoted to aquaculture R&D needs to be based upon what the industry will be two decades from now, not on what it is today.

Dallas Weaver, PhD, started designing and building closed aquaculture systems in 1973 and worked for several engineering/consulting companies in the fields of air pollution, liquid wastes, and solid wastes until 1980. Today, he’s the Owner/President of Scientific Hatcheries. e-mail:

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urner barry

Salmon By: Paul B. Brown Jr.*


hrough the first half of July, the overall salmon market is barely steady to weaker. The market has been trending lower out of Chile since before Memorial Day weekend in the U.S. and the trend continues through the first part of July. The European wholefish market has been unsettled; trending higher and lower week to week. Wild salmon is in full swing; supplies of sockeye are adequate to fully adequate for a moderate demand. YTD imports through May are higher than in 2016; up 3.9 percent. There continue to be significant changes in the country breakdown. Canada is down 17 percent YTD while Norway and the U.K. are up 96.6 and 118.4 percent respectively. Canada’s total market share is down to 57 percent from 2016’s 71 percent. On a month to month basis, we are starting to slowly see a shift back to the norm. Canada did see their imports increase 21 percent compared to April 2017. Overall monthly imports for May 2017 are up 5.5 percent compared to April 2017. Overall imports for May 2017 are also up 2.4 percent over May 2016. 76 

Total May imports from Europe were 15.2 million short of Canada. The reductions seen out of Canada through the first half of the year are beginning to dissipate. Month to month Canada is up 21.0 percent compared to April 2017, however when compared to May 2016, Canadian imports for wholefish are down 9.8 percent. The market varies, sometimes widely, week to week with some weeks seeing a stronger market and the next week seeing a weaker market. Total imports, as noted below are up 63 percent when compared to 2016.

The West Coast wholefish market is seeing a shift in available sizes to the market with smaller fish available and less large fish. The market though the first half of July has been steady to about steady. Looking at pricing, all sizes above continue to trend higher than their three-year averages. Although supplies are lighter out of Canada during the first half of the year, as noted by imports, the market has seen a decline throughout the first half of the year. Overall imports of fresh wholefish remain higher when compared to 2016 YTD

figures. The lack of Canadian fish has been offset by the increase in European wholefish imports. Total YTD imports continue to contract, 6.5 percent. Chile, the main driver in this category, continues to see decreases; imports are down 8.0 percent YTD. On a month-to-month basis out of Chile, imports decreased 2.2 percent. Overall, May 2017 was 4.0 percent lower than May 2016. Fresh fillet imports out of Norway saw a 13.5 percent decrease in month to month imports and is now seeing a 3.3 percent decrease in YTD imports. Retail prices in July 2017 are $0.37 lower than July 2016 in all areas of

the U.S. When looking at prices in the wholesale market and retail ad prices collected in Urner Barry’s retail database available on Comtell, we can notice that the ratio of retail ad prices to wholesale price is at its lowest point in at least the last 5 years. According to Chilean data, exports of Chilean salmon to the world contracted 11.4 percent through May 2017 compared to the same period last year. In May, most countries saw lower imports. Shipments of fresh fillets to the U.S. are also 11.4 percent down on a YTD basis. *President of Urner Barry

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urner barry

SHRIMP By: Paul B. Brown Jr.*


ay shrimp imports were just released and continue a record setting pace. May imports are up 22.2 percent pushing YTD imports 6.9 percent higher. India continues to be the driving force in the U.S. shrimp supply. Indian imports are 100.3 percent higher for the month of May leaving YTD imports up 54.8 percent higher. Ecuador imports were 7.3 percent higher for the month and are 1.6 percent higher YTD. Although Ecuador exports are very heavy into Asia their production is on record pace so exports trend higher to all destinations. With the exception of China all the other top supplying countries are lower. Peeled shrimp are where the big increases are…for May imports are 38.6 percent higher pushing YTD imports up 10.3 percent. Cooked imports are very strong while breaded imports are mixed. The aggregated import price for May imports is $4.35 vs $4.11 for May 2016; the increase is likely offset by the increase in imports of valueadded shrimp. India is almost 30 percent of all US shrimp imports through May. The transition to the top supplier began with a push from black tiger to white shrimp farming but production really gained traction when due to EMS in Thailand everyone ran to India for supply. Now stable prices and limited disease issues combine with increased worldwide demand to encourage India’s growth in shrimp farming and production. Both farming and processing have grown tremendously and the trend appears to be continuing. HLSO imports from India were 92.2 percent higher in May compared to the same period a year ago and 45.9 percent higher YTD. This is the largest five-month wild shrimp total in any of the years since the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. However, anecdotally market partici78 »

pants suggest that the bulk of the catch in the Gulf is comprised of 16-20 and larger count shrimp, and very small shrimp; leaving supplies of many midand-smaller counts somewhat short of full needs. As stated above, imports from Ecuador were up 7.3 percent for the month and are now 1.6 percent higher YTD. However, the U.S. remains in third place with Asia garnering over 50% of Ecuador’s production followed by Europe at around 24 percent. With so much demand for Ecuador’s shrimp overseas, offerings of Ecuadorian shrimp have remain generally steady and somewhat disconnected from a barely steady to weak U.S. spot market which has eroded margins. Thailand has continued to slide through May as imports are slightly lower for the month but 12.3 percent lower YTD. Vietnam imports are also significantly lower. In both cases strong Chinese and Japanese demand may account for some of the slippage in the U.S. market as product is destined for there.

Mexican imports are way off but seasonal imports of farmed will not pick up until August and wild shrimp will follow beginning in September. Peruvian imports; which put downward pressure on Latin American large shrimp recently, were higher for May but lower YTD. Argentina which is producing good quantities of wild shrimp saw imports jump 89.7 percent for the month and 87.3 percent YTD. Guyana imports of wild shrimp are also sharply higher. Recently, except for 13/15 count and larger shrimp, the Asian farmed white shrimp market has seen some slight weakening due to the improved supply. But the market like the last 2 ½ years continues to trade in a narrow range as imports have increased but so apparently has demand especially given shrimp’s value in the shellfish space. Black tiger shrimp are increasingly a niche item with limited overseas offerings generally firm. *President of Urner Barry



mports of frozen channel catfish fillets increased slightly compared to the previous month. On a YTD basis imports are virtually flat compared to figures recorded at the same time last year. Shipments in May entered the U.S. with a declared value of $3.01 per pound, registering no change from the previous month. The wholesale market remains steady to about steady despite prices adjusting lower in July. According to data from the USDOC, replacement prices remained virtually flat from the previous month. Please consider that the replacement cost we publish from the USDOC is not DDP (Delivered Duty Paid); therefore, if we are to properly assess this cost we must add extra to this price per pound. The newest announcement regarding USDA’s mandatory inspection has pushed up replacement offering prices from catfish and Pangasius packers overseas and U.S. importers; in other words, these higher costs—largely led by impending inspections—are likely to be passed along the distribu-

tion chain. Additionally, the uncertainty surrounding this market come August 2nd, 2017 has made many traders hold inventories closely, further increasing prices upwards. Tilapia imports in May decreased from the previous month and the same month last year, 3.5 and 12.4 percent, respectively. Imports from Ecuador continue to decline steeply with YTD figures showing a 33 percent decline compared to last year. Meanwhile, shipments from Colombia and Costa Rica are up 15 and 10 percent respectively year-to-date versus 2016. Imports from Honduras, the largest supplier of this commodity to the U.S. market, are nearly 15 percent lower through May compared to the same period last year. Total imports of this commodity are 3.5 percent lower on a YTD basis through May. From a replacement cost basis and the adjustments made to weight the import price per pound, including only the top 5 suppliers, we found that May’s figure of $2.75 decreased minimally from the previous month. The market

in the U.S. continues to be reportedly quiet but steady. Imports increased from the previous month as seasonally expected. YTD imports are now 16 percent below those recorded last year. However, the gradual, yet consistent decline in imports for this commodity is clear. Although we cannot pinpoint a specific reason, we can name a few: from bad publicity over the course of many years and changes in consumer preferences, to substitution at the wholesale level due to high prices registered in 2014. According to many traders, supplies in the U.S. remain adequate despite flat prices and a 16 percent drop in imports through May. YTD weighted replacement costs are at their lowest level since 2010; where levels were only $0.02 higher through May. Demand in the U.S. remains weak relative to the last 5 years, at least. Meanwhile, imports of Pangasius have surged since then but this species is likely to hit some obstacles as the USDA takes over mandatory inspection. Will this be an opportunity for tilapia to make a comeback? We will see. Prices of domestic catfish went unchanged. Supplies of smaller sized fish are just adequate bordering on barely adequate while availability of larger sized fillets are fully adequate. Some discounting has been reported on larger sizes of whole fish, fillets and nuggets. *President of Urner Barry

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aquaculture events

SEPTEMBER AQUA EXPO – GUAYAQUIL 2017 Sep. 25 – Sep. 28 Hilton Hotel Guayaquil. Guayaquil, Ecuador. E: W:

FIACUI 2017 Sep. 27 – Sep. 29 Fiesta Americana Minerva Hotel. Guadalajara, Mexico. T: +52 22 8000 7595 E: W: AQUACULTURE TAIWAN Sep. 28 – Sep. 30 Taipei Nangang Exhibition Center. Taipei, Taiwan. T: +886 2 2738 3898 E: W: OCTOBER 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FISHERIES & AQUACULTURE Oct. 2 – Oct. 4 Bond Place Hotel. Toronto, Canada. W: Global Aquaculture Alliance GOAL Conference Oct. 3 – Oct. 6 Croke Park. Dublin, Ireland. T: 1-603-317-5000 W:

XIV INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON AQUACULTURE NUTRITION (SINA) Oct. 4 – Oct. 6 Centro Social, Cívico y Cultural Rivera. Ensenada, Mexico. T: +52 646 1744570 ext. 115 E: W: AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2017 Oct. 16 – Oct. 20 Valamar Resort. Dubrovnik, Croatia. T: +1 760 751 5003 E: W: 9TH WORLD AQUA CONGRESS 2017 Oct. 23 – Oct. 24 JW Marriot Hotel. Dubai, United Arab Emirates. E: W: www, 2017 ALGAE BIOMASS SUMMIT Oct. 29 – Nov. 1 Grand America Hotel. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. W: NOVEMBER CHINA FISHERIES & SEADOOD EXPO 2017 Nov. 1 – Nov. 3 Qingdao International Expo Center. Qingdao, China. W:

LAQUA 17 Nov. 8 – Nov. 10 Mazatlan International Center. Mazatlan, Mexico. T: +1 760 751 5005 E: W: EXPO PESCA Y ACUIPERU Nov. 8 – Nov. 10 Centro de Exposiciones Jockey. Lima, Peru. T: +511 201 7820 E: W: XIV FENACAM Nov. 15 – Nov. 18 Natal Convention Center.Natal, Brazil. T: +84 3232 6291 E: W: FEBRUARY 2018 AQUACULTURE AMERICA 2018 Feb. 19 – Feb. 22 Paris Hotel. Las Vegas, USA. E: W: MARCH Oceanology International London 2018 Mar. 13 – Mar. 15 ExCel London, London, UK. T: +44 0 20 8439 8858 E: W:

advertisers antibiotics, probiotics and FEED additives heliae...........................................................................................1 578 E Germann Road Gilbert, AZ 85297. USA. T: (800) 998-6536 E-mail: Reed Mariculture, Inc............................................................33 900 E Hamilton Ave, Suite 100. Campbell, CA 95008 USA. Contact: Lin T: 408 377 1065 F: 408 884 2322 E-mail: SYNDEL.......................................................................................17 CANADA.T: 1 800 663-2282 USA. T: 1 800 283-5292 aeration equipment, PUMPS, FILTERS and measuring instruments, ETC ADVANCED AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS, INC..................................55 4509 Hickory Creek Lane, Brandon, FL 33511. USA. Contact: Dana Kent T: (800) 994-7599 / (813) 653-2823 E-mail: AIRE O2...........................................................Inside BACK cover T: +1 (800)-328‑8287 E-mail: aquaFUTURE e.K........................................................................15 Dietmar Firzlaff Hans-Böckler-Str. 5 D-57223 Kreuztal Germany. T: ++49 (0)2732-6535 F: ++49 (0)2732-6371 Mobil: 0171 260-5060 Skype: aquafuture-d Aquatic Equipment and Design, Inc.....................................73 522 S. HUNT CLUB BLVD, #416, APOPKA, FL 32703. USA. Contact: Amy Stone T: (407) 717-6174  E-mail: Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc......................back cover 2395 Apopka Blvd. Apopka, Florida, Zip Code 32703, USA. Contact: Ricardo Arias T: (407) 8863939, (407) 8864884 E-mail: RK2 Systems.............................................................................11 421 A south Andreassen Drive Escondido California, USA. Contact: Chris Krechter. T: 760 746 74 00 E-mail:

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applications such as oxygen, ozone, nitrogen, compressed dry air Adsorptech, Inc.................................................................19 22 Stonebridge Rd. Hampton, NJ 08827 USA. T: +1 908 735 9528 E-mail: / events and exhibitions AQUAEXPO 2017....................................................................35 September 25th - 28th, 2017. Guayaquil, Ecuador. E-mail: / 4th Science and Technology CONFERENCE on Shrimp Farming...............................................................................61 January 25 - 26, 2018. Ciudad Ogregón, Sonora, Mexico. Contact: Christian Criollos, E-mail: 12th FIACUI.........................................................................21 September 27 - 29, 2017. Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Information on Booths Contact in Mexico: Christian Criollos E-mail: | FENACAM 2017..................................................................67 November 15 - 18, 2017. City of Natal, Brazil. T: (84) 3231.6291 / (84) 3231.9786 SKYPE: fenacam E-mail: Latin American & Caribbean Chapter World Aquaculture Society (LACQUA17).....................53 November 7 - 10, 2017. Mazatlan, Mexico. Contact: Nashieli Rodríguez Núñez Mobile phone: +52 (1) 612 142 69 21 WAS LAS VEGAS 2018................................................................25 February 19-22, 2018. Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. P.O. Box 2302 Valley Center, CA 92082 USA T: +1 760 751-5005 F: +1 760 751-5003 E-mail: John Cooksey Conference Management: John Cooksey Trade Show and Sponsors: Mario Stael farming equipment for oysters Seapa Oyster Baskets...........................................................59 4410 Cimmaron Trail Granbury, TX 7604. USA. Contact: Sean Grizzell. Business Development Manager, North America T: 214-238-4640 E-mail: FeedS EWOS........................................................................INSIDE COVER T: 1 800 663-0476 E-mail: |

Information Services Aquaculture Magazine................................................57 & 75 Design Publications International Inc. 203 S. St. Mary’s St. Ste. 160 San Antonio, TX 78205, USA Office: +210 504 3642 Office in Mexico: +52 33 3632 2355 Subscriptions: Ad Sales. Chris Criollos, Sales Manager | Office: +52 33 80007595 Cell: +521 33 14660392 Skype: christian.criollos Gus Ruiz, Sales Support Executive | Office: +52 33 80007595 Cell: +521 3314175480 | Skype: gustavo.rcisneros Web portal · Newsletters · Magazine · Conferences · Technical Consulting. Urner Barry.............................................................................77 P.O. Box 389 Tom Ride. New Jersey, USA. Contact: Ángel Rubio. T: 732-575-1982 E-mail: RAS SYSTEMS, DESIGN, EQUIPMENT SUPPORT GEMINI FIBERGLASS...................................................................13 3345 N. Cascade Ave. Colorado Springs, CO 80907. USA. Contact: Michael Paquette, President T: 858-602-9465 Email: www. Machinery and Feeding Systems MARINE AQUACULTURE (Department of Fisheries, Western Australia).................................................................................69 Department of Fisheries, Western Australia P.O.Box 20 Northbeach, WA 6920 Australia Contact: Dr Sagiv Kolkovski T: +61-8-92030220, C: 0417940498 Email: SMART VEHICLES FOR FARMS Aquabotix Technology Corporation..................................65 21 Father Devalles Blvd #106 Fall River, MA 02723. USA. T: 508-676-1000 tanks AND NETWORKING FOR AQUACULTURE REEF Industries.......................................................................47 9209 Almeda Genoa Road Z.C. 7075, Houston, Texas, USA. Contact: Gina Quevedo/Mark Young/ Jeff Garza. T: Toll Free 1 (800) 231-6074 T: Local (713) 507-4250 E-mail: / /

Aquaculture Magazine August / September 2017 Volume 43 Number 4  

Pacifico Aquaculture Ocean-Raised Striped Bass

Aquaculture Magazine August / September 2017 Volume 43 Number 4  

Pacifico Aquaculture Ocean-Raised Striped Bass