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Aquaculture Magazine Volume 43 Number 5 October - November 2017


editor´s comments



10 News from the AADAP News from the AADAP.

14 news

African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States Ministers Agree on €40 million for ACP Blue Growth Initiative.

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on the

cover Offshore Aquaculture:

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Of Magic Wands, Regulations, and Endorsements

24 article


Welcome to the Fish Culture Section.

High Profile Atlantic Salmon Escape at Cooke Aquaculture Facility in Washington State Waters.

Acuícola Gemso Praises Mexican Tilapia.

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Volume 43 Number 5 October - November 2017

Sturgeon farming on the Dniester – a story of success.

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Co-culture of White Shrimp and Nile Tilapia: Antioxidant Response and Body Composition.



How Can We Produce 27 Million Tons of Seafood Annually by 2030?


USDA-ARS Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center.

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Fish Oil Challenge seeks innovators to streamline aquaculture feed supply chain Seafood Innovation Contest to Develop “Fish-Free” Fish Oil Launches.

Editor and Publisher Salvador Meza Editor in Chief Greg Lutz Editorial Assistant María José de la Peña Editorial Design Francisco Cibrián Designer Perla Neri Marketing and Communications Manager Alex Meza Marketing & Sales Manager Christian Criollos Sales Support Expert Gustavo Ruiz Business Operations Manager Adriana Zayas


Latin America Report

Latin America Report: Recent News and Events.


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Aquaculture Magazine (ISSN 0199-1388) is published bimontly, by Design Publications International Inc. All rights reserved.

SALMON. SHRIMP. Tilapia, Pangasius and catfish.

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Aquaculture without Frontiers


Hatchery Technology and Management

Aquaculture without Frontiers.

Cryopreserved copepods the secret to a successful first-feeding of marine fish larva unveiled. By Cecilia C. Vargas



Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Immunostimulants in Aquaculture Feed: Shrimp Quality Considerations. By George Baker









Recent news from around the globe by By Suzi Dominy

Sea ranching of pink salmon causes both benefits and potential conflicts. By Asbjørn Bergheim

How Does Penaeus vannamei Cope with Low Salinity Water? Hui Gong Jiang, PhD

Is the future already here?

Photo credit: Jeff Milisen, © Kampachi Farms, LLC



Are We Preparing for the Future, or Waiting for it to Surprise Us? By C. Greg Lutz


he future is all about change. Novel ideas, new approaches, lots of positive developments… right? But, a certain mentality is required if we, as an industry, are to meet the future head on and make the most of the opportunities - and burdens - that will be waiting there. Most of us would agree that innovation has been an important driver of growth in the aquaculture industry. Nonetheless, as fish and shellfish producers we often have a degree of schizophrenia when it comes to trying new things in this business. For example, folks have been incubating channel catfish eggs the same way for almost 100 years now, in spite of the fact that safer and more cost-effective methods were demonstrated several decades ago. Along with the “but that’s how we’ve always done it…” mentality, most of us also suffer from a “but that’s how everybody does it…” viewpoint from time to time. In Colombia, for example, virtually every hatchery uses the same little plastic trays to hold their newly hatched tilapia fry, in spite of the fact that they are woefully under-sized to handle the flow coming out of their hatching jars. Now, I can embrace the “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” mentality as readily as anyone. But that won’t get this industry very far in the coming decades. A wise man once told me a story about the future… he had no clear idea of what would be there waiting, but he had come to a logical conclusion about what would NOT be there. He is the leader of a large supplier (perhaps the largest) of tilapia to 4 »

live markets throughout the northeastern US. He walked me through the exercise. Among these households that purchase these live fish… who does the shopping? Who does the food preparation? Overwhelmingly, these are older family members, and typically women. As those family members gradually leave us over the coming years, will their children and grandchildren pick up the practice of going to the market for live fish, bringing them home and preparing them? Not likely. In spite of the day-to-day pressure to make our businesses function efficiently, we must make a serious effort to not be completely focused on today’s conditions. All of us need to have some sense as to what our future challenges will be. Will energy be more expensive? Or cheaper? Will fresh water be more difficult to obtain in the quantities required for fish farming? Or, for that

matter, what about land? Of course, all of us would like to be able to predict the future, but what are we missing? Information seems like an obvious answer, but sometimes the information is there right in front of us. There are people who make a living looking at where we’ve been, where we are and where we are going. Trends. Analysis. Fancy, expensive reports on things like aquaculture pharmaceutical markets and future feed demands. We may not be able to see everything on the path ahead, but the trick is to use a bit of logic and the vast amount of information that is increasingly available to us. And as we follow that path, to never look down. Dr. C. Greg Lutz has a B.A. in Biology and Spanish by the Earlham College at Richmond, Indiana, a M.S. in Fisheries and a Ph.D. in Wildlife and Fisheries Science by the Louisiana State University. His interests include recirculating system technology and population dynamics, quantitative genetics and multivariate analyses and the use of web based technology for result-demonstration methods.

INDUSTRY researchNEWS report

Cawthron Institute Receives More than $20 M from the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment’s Endeavour Fund New Zealand. – Cawthron Institute is New Zealand’s largest independent science organization specializing in aquaculture, biosecurity, marine and freshwater studies, and laboratory testing. Recently, the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) 2017 Endeavour Round recognized the importance of the research institute’s work for the aquaculture industry and environment in the country. “We are delighted by the Minister’s announcement,” says Professor Charles Eason, Cawthron Institute Chief Executive. “It represents a real endorsement of our scientists and partners and the outstanding work that they do together. In both cases, the research that will be undertaken will make a real contribution to our understanding of key science. In turn, that will have a very positive impact in New Zealand.”

One of the projects to be funded will enable industry-relevant, cuttingedge research leading to efficient and timely diagnosis, prediction and management of aquatic disease that may impact the aquaculture industry. “Aquaculture in New Zealand has been severely impacted by recent occurrences of exotic and emerging diseases and by undiagnosed stock health issues,” says Professor Eason. Program leaders Dr. Steve Webb and Dr. Barrie Forrest are clear: “There is an urgent need to address

these challenges to protect existing aquaculture production and to provide robust research that the industry can use to inform its decision-making as it grows and diversifies.” Professor Eason added that the funding will contribute to their record of success in attracting research funding and taking a proactive approach to challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. This will allow them to undertake important science that will be of real benefit to New Zealand.

Tasmania – The Birthplace of a Rock Lobster Aquaculture Industry Australia. – PFG Group, a private Tasmanian company, is partnering with the University of Tasmania to commercialize research breakthroughs in rock lobster production. The agreement will secure the Australian license rights to the intellectual property to PFG; in exchange, the company will provide capital to commercialize the research and build a hatchery. Until now, and despite the high value of the species, the rock lobster’s long and complex lifecycle had made it impossible to produce the species in a commercially scalable hatchery. However, this aspect has changed thanks to the research carried out for more that 15 years at the University of Tasmania’s Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies (IMAS). “We are passionate about the role of research and innovation in providing a platform for economic renewal and the creation of entirely 6 »

new economic sectors,” shared Professor Brigid Heywood, University Deputy Vice-Chancellor. “This partnership paves the way for Tasmania to become the birthplace of a global industry for rock lobster aquaculture,” she added. In the next two years, scientists at IMAS-Taroona will focus their research on the optimization of technology that will underpin commer-

cial production. PFG anticipates that the first commercial production will start at the new hatchery within four years (2021). “This arrangement brings together government, academia and industry in a partnership that will create direct employment in Tasmania, and allows us to export our intellectual property to the world”, said Michael Sylvester, PFG CEO.

New Partnership - AKVA Group and West Coast Group - Towards Indian Aquaculture Development India. – West Coast Group, one of the largest vertically integrated aquaculture companies of India, and AKVA group, renowned global supplier of aquaculture technology, announced at AquaNor that they have signed an exclusive distributorship and partnership agreement to join forces in developing this market for modern aquaculture technology. “We are quite excited to announce that we are entering into this partnership with the world’s leading aquaculture technology company, AKVA group. Norway, of course, is very different from India, but we see great opportunities to adapt many products and solutions to our local needs of developing countries, across species,” says Mr. Rahul Kulkanri, Board Director of West Coast and CEO of AquaMart, a business unit of West Coast Group. “In time, India will also develop its offshore marine farming, using the Norwegian model with large

The new AKVA’s MC-250 Modular Cage concept is tailor-made for tilapia farming in lakes, rivers and sheltered marine sites. Mr. Rahul Kulkanri, Board Director of West Coast and CEO of AquaMart, business unit of West Coast Group and Trond Severinsen, Senior Vice President – Technology and Development at AKVA group.

scale cages and feed barges, and this is also very much in our plans in India, sooner than later,” he added. “We are very proud that India’s leading aquaculture company has decided to partner with us to develop the market for our technology in India. Although most of our business has been, and still is, in the salmon industry, our

technology has been exported to more than 65 countries and for a wide variety of species for many decades. In order to meet the needs of aquaculture in India, we are both adapting existing products and inventing brand new ones,” shared Trond Severinsen, Senior Vice President – Technology and Development at AKVA group.

USDA Reports First Case of AHPND (EMS) in the United States United States. – The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) notified the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) of the first documented case of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also known as EMS (early mortality syndrome), in the United States, as reported by the Southern Shrimp Alliance (SSA) on August 30, 2017. The USDA’s notice reported an outbreak of AHPND amongst pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at a semi-closed shrimp farm in Cameron County, Texas, in June 2017, confirmed through laboratory tests. The notification reported that the source of the outbreak or origin of infection was “unknown or inconclusive” and that the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Veterinary Services, along with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, were “conducting an epidemiological investigation of the event.”

The USDA’s report for the first time confirms that EMS has now been introduced into the United States. It is unclear what steps, if any, have been undertaken by federal agencies to prevent the spread of the virus associated with AHPND/ EMS, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, beyond encouraging best management practices. In contrast, other countries have begun to take aggressive measures to prevent the spread of disease from shrimp aquaculture operations. For example, a July 14, 2017 report in Seafood Source observed that “Recently, six big importers – Australia, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, China, Brazil, and Mexico – have said they will only buy products with diseasefree certification in accordance with World Organization for Animal Health regulations, or products recognized as free of diseases by their authorized agencies.” »


INDUSTRY researchNEWS report

Entobel Wins the First Aquaculture Innovation Challenge Vietnam. – Entobel uses food industry waste as feed for the production of black soldier flies, an insect found in Vietnam, which are then used to produce fish-feed as well as fertilizer. The winning team received the $10,000 USD cash prize and met with investors, both of which will help them scale up their business. Gaetan Crielaard, representative of the Entobel team, shared that they have a quite ambitious plan, “While we want to start with one factory, the goal is to build more, first in South Vietnam, then in North Vietnam, and then other tropical countries with a focus on Southeast Asia. [Eventually], we would like to expand to Africa and South America. We believe that what we have built here is really relevant for tropical countries.” Integrating public-private partnerships to jumpstart new solutions

contributed much to the success of the challenge. Carl Richter, the consul general of the Dutch consulate in Ho Chi Minh, said, “This is basically what we do as governments. We try to inspire and help start-ups, new organizations run by young bright people, to come up with new ideas and solutions for challenges.” The Aquaculture Innovation Challenge is looking for individuals, students, start-ups, project teams, SME

and other companies from all sectors that are addressing current sustainability challenges in the Vietnamese aquaculture sector. The challenge was supported by the Seafood Trade Intelligence Portal (STIP), Solidaridad, and Fresh Studio, with support from the government of Vietnam and the Netherlands, as well as several banks and companies involved in the seafood trade in Vietnam.

Canada – First Country to Consume GMO Salmon Canada. – After 25 years of seeking approval to market its product, the North American company Aqua Bounty Technologies sold the first 4.5 tons of genetically modified salmon to an unidentified customer in Canada. In November 2015, AquaBounty’s AquAdvantage salmon was approved for consumption by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), and six months later, the product was approved by the Canadian authorities. However, the sale and import of GMO salmon is pending the establishment of clear labeling guidelines in accordance with the GMO labeling law. In Canada, however, the authorities stated that the new product does not require special labeling as it is as nutritious as traditional salmon and that the decision to label would fall to distributors. AquaBounty’s AquAdvantage salmon is an Atlantic salmon genetically engineered to contain a growth hormone gene from Pacific Chinook 8 »

salmon that makes them grow faster and a gene that keeps the growth hormone activated all year around. The GMO salmon reach commercial sizes in 16-18 months, half of the regular time, representing a feed consumption reduction of 20-25 % in the fish’s life. In addition, AquaBounty only produces females and multiplies their chromosomes to make

them sterile, so the company ensures that their salmon cannot breed with or contaminate wild salmon populations. Currently, the company is in the process of expanding its facilities in Canada and in June 2017, the company acquired a fish farm in Indiana, USA. They expect to start sales of GMO salmon in the US in 2019.

Maine, Target of Grants and Investment United States. – The Economic Development Administration (EDA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce is awarding a $1.5 million USD grant to the University of Maine-Orono to make infrastructure improvements and increase the availability of business incubator space at the Darling Marine Center. The Center provides critical research in support of Maine’s commercial fishing and aquaculture economy. The project will help the Darling Marine Center demolish and replace their deteriorated pier, renovate the Flowing Seawater Laboratory, upgrade the flowing seawater system, and add three new business incubation laboratory spaces. The improvements will ensure constant availability of marine environmental and ecosystem data essential to the management of Maine’s coastal fisheries and the long-term health, as well as sustain-

ability of the commercial fishing economy. Furthermore, during the final day of August it was announced that six Maine economic development organizations and towns will get awards of around $300,000 USD through U.S. Department of Agriculture grants designed to boost job creation in rural areas.

One grant will go to the Maine Aquaculture Innovation Center which will receive $90,282 USD to support the Maine Fisheries and Aquaculture Initiative. Money will be used to provide business planning assistance to at least six existing businesses and technical training, business planning, and financing to 10 new aquaculture businesses in Washington County.

The USFDA announced the availability of an online food safety training module United States. – The new online training module is oriented to carriers engaged in the transportation of food by rail or motor vehicle in the United States. FDA is offering this training free of charge to help carriers meet the requirements of the FDA’s Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food Rule (Sanitary Transportation Rule). The Sanitary Transportation Rule requires rail and motor vehicle carriers covered by the rule to provide food safety training to their personnel engaged in transportation operations. The training must provide personnel with an awareness of 1) potential food safety problems, 2) basic sanitary practices, and 3) carrier responsibilities. The carrier training requirement applies when the shipper and carrier have agreed, in a written contract, that the carrier is responsible, in whole or part, for sanitary conditions during transportation operations.

A carrier may wish to offer this FDA module to their operations personnel as a means of satisfying the training requirements of the Sanitary Transportation Rule or to compliment other training offered by the carrier. Carriers may also elect to train their own personnel or to acquire training through a third party vendor to satisfy the training requirement. The training is available on FDA’s website (http:// ).

Individuals who complete the online module will be able to generate a certificate of completion from the website. Carriers subject to the training requirements must establish and maintain records documenting the training of operations personnel, which they may be asked to provide to FDA upon request. The first compliance date for businesses covered by the Sanitary Transportation rule was April 6, 2017. The compliance date for small businesses covered by the rule is April 6, 2018. »


News fromreport the AADAP research

News from the AADAP One of the highlights of the 23rd Annual Aquaculture Drug Approval Coordination Workshop held August 1-3, 2017 in Bozeman, MT was the series of presentations and panel discussion of Veterinary Feed Directives (VFDs) led by Dr. Mike Murphy (CVM Office Jim Bowker & AADAP Staff

of the Director, Science Policy Team).


he VFD-themed session was organized because there has been considerable confusion over extralabel use of VFD drugs as described by the Compliance Policy Guideline (CPG) released in December 2016. Although such use is illegal, Dr. Murphy pointed to the sentence in the Guideline (CPG 615.115; page 5) that states: “In general, the Agency [FDA] will not recommend or initiate enforcement action against the veterinarian, animal producer, feed mill, or other distributor when extralabel use is consistent with this document.” Compliance Policy Guideline 611.115 is for Minor Species only. The document contains useful information and veterinarians are probably very familiar with what is described in the (1) General Considerations and (2) Veterinarian Considerations sections. What may be of most interest in this document is the Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) Medicated Feed subsection that covers what a veterinarian must do when authorizing the extralabel use of a VFD medicated feed for a minor species (i.e., fish). It should also be pointed out that CPG 615.115 can be rescinded. Therefore, there needs to be a concerted effort to ensure compliance with extralabel use of VFD medicated feeds. In addition, it would be well advised to let the sponsor, AADAP, and CVM know when extralabel use occurs so we can more strategically 10 »

The AADAP program hosted the 23rd Annual Aquaculture Drug Approval Coordination Workshop August 1-3, 2017, in Bozeman, Montana.

coordinate research to expand the approved label accordingly. For more information on veterinarian responsibilities when authorizing extralabel use of a VFD medicated feed for fish, visit https://www.

The Latest AADAP Research to Support New or Expanding Fish Drug Uses With a little help from our friends, a substantial amount of data has been generated over the past couple of months to support new approvals for AQUI-S20E and Terramycin 200 for Fish. Generating data to support new or expanded fish drug uses does not automatically result in new FDA approvals but it’s definitely a step in the right direction. Here are some brief summaries of recent studies. Light sedation of freshwater salmonids – In three separate stud-

ies, groups of Rainbow Trout, Cutthroat Trout, or Chinook salmon were exposed to either 30 mg/L AQUI-S20E (10 tanks) or no sedative (5 tanks) for 5 h and assessed for whether or not they were lightly sedated. Light sedation was assessed according to the following criteria: (1) fish were still swimming and (2) maintained their equilibrium but were (3) dispersed throughout the tank water column and (4) that three fish could be caught by hand. Fish that were not lightly sedated (including fish in control tanks) were also able to swim and maintain their equilibrium, but were positioned near the bottom of the tank and three fish could not be caught by hand. Tanks of fish were assessed periodically for light sedation during the first hour and then hourly up to 5 h. Results from each study were remarkably consistent and showed that fish became lightly sedated after 5

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News fromreport the AADAP research

min of exposure, remained lightly sedated for 5 h, and then recovered within 30 min of being moved back to flowing freshwater. An AADAP Drug Research Information Bulletin summarizing results from the studies is complete and will be posted on our website soon. The studies on Rainbow and Cutthroat Trout were conducted at the USFWS Bozeman Fish Technology Center (Bozeman MT) and the study on Chinook salmon was conducted at the Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Health Laboratory (Eagle, ID). We thank the FDA Office of Minor Use Minor Species for funding the studies. Sedation of Yellowtail Amberjack and White Seabass to ‘handleable’ – We took our show on the road and traveled to the Hubbs SeaWorld Research Institute hatchery facility (Carlsbad, CA) to evaluate the effectiveness of AQUI-S20E to sedate Yellowtail Amberjack and White Seabass to handleable. Thirty fish were individually sedated to handleable with 300 mg/L AQUI-S20E and allowed to recover. Mean times to sedation and recovery for the Yellowtail

Yellowtail amberjack by B Gratwicke.

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Rainbow trout by Tom Koerner USFWS.

and Seabass were 1.4 and 4.3 min and 1.9 and 5.0 min, respectively. To date, we have demonstrated that AQUIS20E effectively sedates the following marine finfish to handleable: Florida Pompano, Cobia, Black Seabass, Yellowtail Amberjack, White Seabass, Sablefish and Steelhead Trout. We

thank the staff at the Hubbs SeaWorld Research Institute Carlsbad facility for their help conducting the study and the FDA Office of Minor Use Minor Species for funding nearly all of the marine fish sedation trials. Use of TM200 to control mortality in Tiger Musky caused by columnaris – Good help isn’t hard to find when the gang from the NY Dept of Environmental Conservation S. Otselic Hatchery and fish health staff is around. This group helped us conduct a study to evaluate the effectiveness of TM200 (3.75 g OTC/100 lbs fish/d administered for 10 d) to control mortality in Tiger Musky caused by columnaris. Mean cumulative mortality at the end of the 14-d post treatment period was 4% in treated tanks and 59% in control tanks. With help from our friends at the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Richloam Fish Hatchery and Florida Bass Conservation Center, we plan to launch a similar study on fingerling catfish. Fingers crossed that the fish break with columnaris and treatment results are as effective as the study in NY. For questions or to offer feedback, email

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African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States Ministers Agree on

€40 million for ACP Blue Growth Initiative


he Ministers in charge of Fisheries and Aquaculture for ACP member states concluded two days of comprehensive talks in Nassau, The Bahamas on 20-21 September with a renewed commitment to developing the fisheries and aquaculture sectors in their countries, as well as unlocking the potential of the ‘blue economy’ through a new €40 million “ACP Blue Growth Initiative”. More than 150 delegates from at least 60 fishexporting countries and regions gathered to strategise on how to enhance the role of fisheries and aquaculture in their national socio-economic development. The 5th ACP Meeting of Ministers in charge of Fisheries and Aquaculture was opened by the Prime Minister of The Bahamas Dr. The Hon. Hubert A. Minnis at the Melia Hotel Conference Centre in Nassau. Dr. Minnis pointed out a number of regional concerns, including: • Aquaculture production by Caribbean Community Countries (CARICOM) has been around five percent of total fish production by these countries in recent years. • In most Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS), aquaculture production is nearly insignificant. • The importation of fish and fisheries products shows a steep rise, with an increase of 35 percent in just over a decade. Fish imports are currently about 10 times higher than aquaculture production. • The continuing increase in population in the region, together with the impact of a more demanding tourism 14 »

The African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) is an organisation composed of 79 African, Caribbean and Pacific states, with all of them, save Cuba, signatories to the Cotonou Agreement, also known as the “ACP-EC Partnership Agreement” which links them to the European Union. There are 48 countries from Sub-Saharan Africa, 16 from the Caribbean and 15 from the Pacific.

industry, and the ongoing promotion of healthier lifestyles and diets, spurs demand for healthy, safe, and highquality food, including fish and aquaculture products. • Public and private sector investments are required if the aquaculture sector is to develop in a viable manner in the Caribbean. • The Caribbean Community must do its part to boost aquaculture and sustainable fisheries throughout the region.

“The ACP Group remains determined to play a catalytic role to enhance the sustainable flow of benefits from the fisheries and aquaculture sectors for development of our countries. To this end, it is necessary to enhance capacity building activities, deepen our policy analysis and continuously explore ways to secure funding from our partners for this purpose,” said ACP Secretary General H.E. Dr. Patrick Gomes, reaffirming the important role of the sector in ensuring food and

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nutrition security, livelihoods, and revenues for ACP states. In his opening remarks to the attendees, Dr. Gomes stated that “This is a crucial sector that underpins the food security, nutritional requirements and livelihoods of many ACP countries, particularly for Small Island Developing States. “Furthermore, it is useful to note that fish and fishery products continue to be one of the most-traded food commodities globally. Indeed, the participation of ACP countries in the global seafood trade has increased substantially. Let me illustrate. As much as US$5.3 billion worth of ACP fish exports from at least 65 ACP countries entered the international market in 2014, with most of this for the market of the European Union (EU). “It is also good to bear in mind that while aquaculture development is taking off, the capture fisheries sector is confronted with serious challenges. Data on economic loss is very disturbing. For instance, one third of the assessed fisheries globally are overfished and according to World Bank estimates, the sum of net losses, due to overfishing, is at least $84.6 billion, including $ 10.4 billion per year from Africa.” In the effort to stimulate development of the ‘blue economy’ – which engages a large range of marine-related activities, in environmentally sustainable ways – ministers agreed to allocate €40 million from the Intra-ACP envelope of the European Develop-

ment Fund (EDF) to the ACP Blue Growth Initiative. Launched during the meeting, the Blue Growth Initiative is aligned to the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and seeks to boost productivity and competitiveness of fisheries and aquaculture value chains. In a final declaration adopted by the meeting, ministers also detailed accelerated measures to be taken in order to combat Illegal Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing, promote effective fisheries management, support small scale fisheries, address the issue of fisheries subsidies at the World Trade Organisation, and strengthen aquaculture production. Ministers pledged their commitment to the ACP Strategic Plan of Action for Fisheries and Aquaculture, which helps countries to coordinate and cooperate on joint actions. They highlighted the need for stronger part-

nerships, more funding opportunities, as well as South-South and Triangular Cooperation to catalyse progress. Ministers also emphasised the urgent need to intensify efforts to mobilise financial resources, accelerate technology transfer and build human and institutional capacity in ACP countries to achieve these measures. The declaration called on development partners and the ACP Secretariat to give priority attention to this issue. Finally, it was agreed that the 6th ACP Meeting of Ministers in charge of Fisheries of Aquaculture be held in Apia, Samoa in 2019. The ACP Group´s main objectives are : • sustainable development of its Member-States and their gradual integration into the global economy, which entails making poverty reduction a matter of priority and establishing a new, fairer, and more equitable world order ; • coordination of the activities of the ACP Group in the framework of the implementation of ACP-EC Partnership Agreements; • consolidation of unity and solidarity among ACP States, as well as understanding among their peoples; • establishment and consolidation of peace and stability in a free and democratic society. For more information, please contact : ACP Press Office, Ave. Georges Henri 451, 1200 Brussels, Belgium. Tel +32 2 7430617 Email Twitter @PressACP Website

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Welcome to the Fish Culture Section The Fish Culture Section (FCS) of the American Fisheries Society has By Carl Kittel, FCS President

useful information and resources for aquaculturists.


he FCS is bolstered by its connections to the American Fisheries Society (AFS), the oldest and largest organization dedicated to strengthening the fisheries profession, advancing fisheries science, and conserving fisheries resources. The Society actually has its roots in fish culture (founded in 1870 as the American Fish Culturists’ Association), but today the FCS is the designated home to the Society’s interests in all things aquaculture. The Section is concerned with advancing cultivation technology of aquatic organisms for food, commercial and recreational fisheries enhancement, ornamental purposes, and conservation. The FCS represents fish culturists from state, federal and private organizations and those involved in allied fields such as nutrition, physiology, toxicology, drug development, genetics and breeding, bioengineering, economics, fish ecology, and everything in between. It helps members have a voice in government policy, provides information and resources, and creates a community of knowledgeable people with similar interests and expertise. The Section speaks to and for fish culturists, publishing technical articles such as Hatcheries and Management of Aquatic Resources—Considerations for Use of Hatcheries and Hatchery-Origin Fish, doi/full/10.1080/15222055.2015.10 17130; AFS and Aquaculture— a themed issue of Fisheries magazine, http://afs. 03632415.2014.966093?journalCode =ufsh2 and thought pieces regarding 18 »

the principles and practice of aquaculture, including AFS and Aquaculture—Addressing the High Stakes of a Sustainable Seafood Supply, http://afs. /03632415.2012.714315#.WYCgfojytRY. The Section provides members with online resources, highlights the latest happenings and insights via our quarterly newsletter, and sponsors forums across the country to help fish culturists continue to learn and improve at their jobs and share their knowledge with others. The quarterly newsletter provides great updates on what is going on in the world of fish culture and the FCS, and you can access it at http:// . The Guide to the Use of Drugs, Chemicals, and Biologics in Aquaculture and Treatment Calculator is a comprehensive resource describing legal and judicious use of drugs in U.S. aquaculture, written with the farmer/ culturist in mind. The practicalities and legalities of drug use in aquaculture are confusing, but the Guide makes it easy to understand. It is available at

culture-drugs-chemicals-biologics/ wgadcb-resources-tools/guide-to-using-drugs-biologics-and-other-chemicals-in-aquaculture/. The Grey Literature Library is a clearinghouse of useful grey literature (e.g., factsheets) about aquaculture, organized by topic, at The FCS website is rich with media and other resources, as well as much more information about FCS activities, student travel awards, aquaculture news and more: The FCS participates in the American Fisheries Society annual meetings each year, and is a co-sponsor of the annual Aquaculture America

meetings as well as the Triennial World Aquaculture meetings in association with the World Aquaculture Society and the National Shellfisheries Association. Members of FCS get great discounts on registration for these meetings, and membership in the Society and FCS provides numerous other opportunities and benefits for professionals and students alike.

Members of FCS participate in symposia at many meetings and have great activities for students and other participants at every meeting. General FCS members are American Fisheries Society members in good standing, who pay annual FCS dues (AFS dues plus $5 to add the Fish Culture Section) for general membership. Membership entitles

them to full voting privileges and receiving all mailings and other benefits of the Section. To join or renew your membership, go to https://fisheries. org/membership/ and select the FCS when prompted to choose AFS Unit membership. Please join us at upcoming meetings you attend or contact us via our website for further information.

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High Profile Atlantic Salmon Escape at

Cooke Aquaculture Facility in Washington State Waters After experiencing mooring failures on August 19, in which a number of

net pens broke loose from their anchor according to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Cooke Aquaculture’s Cypress Farm #2 By C.G. Lutz


oughly 305,000 Atlantic salmon had been stocked into the facility, and although the company has ultimately accounted for 145,851 of the fish, numerous reports of escaped salmon continue to come into a website set up by the Washington Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Many of the 10-lb escapees may never be accounted for. The company initially attributed the demise of the cage facility near Cypress Island to extreme tidal currents associated with the upcoming solar eclipse. Cooke’s Vice-President of 20 »

facility suffered major structural damage the following day. Communications stated that personnel at the site reported “very very high current and unbelievable conditions – in fact so much so that they couldn’t be on the farm during some of the tidal runs.” In short order, however, a number of sources pointed out that even more extreme currents had not been uncommon in the months leading up to the incident. Information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration indicated that the tidal currents on August 19, when problems first began, were comparable to conditions recorded often during the prior two months.

Although the cage farm had been operating for some 30 years, Cooke had only acquired the facility last year and was planning to upgrade the net pens once the fish on hand at the time of the incident had been harvested. Shortly after the salvage/response plan was underway, the CBC reported that in July Cooke personnel had observed the net pens moving in response to strong tidal currents, requiring emergency stabilization efforts by the company. By August 23, response and recovery efforts were well underway. Cooke employees bolstered the remaining

nets and structures in an effort to contain fish still inside the nets, and four anchors were attached to the cages. Through an emergency permit, they also began collecting fish with a beach seine. Of the initial 228 salmon captured by seine, all had empty stomachs, suggesting they either were not hungry, or they were hungry but unable to do much to feed themselves. The following day, an ROV showed images of large numbers of fish still present in the pens. A crane barge was also put into service to begin removal of walkways, nets and other materials. Literally hundreds of recreational and tribal vessels flocked to the site of the escape. On August 24 well over 100 vessels were present at the site. At times they were present in such great numbers that the Coast Guard had to implement a Temporary Safety Zone in all waters within 100 yards of the collapsed cages, from surface to bottom. On August 26, the Washington State departments of Natural Resources, Fish and Wildlife, and Ecology, along with the Governor’s office and the State Emergency Management Division issued a joint press release announcing a cooperative Unified Response command structure. Governor Jay Inslee and Commissioner of Public Lands Hilary Franz stated that the state would not issue any new leases or permits for Atlantic salmon net pens until a full review of the Cooke incident has been completed. On August 31, a sample of 500 escaped fish was examined. Again, all stomachs were empty. Daily water quality sampling indicated no adverse impacts from the incident or the salvage operations. By this time, crews had begun cutting nets, cage pieces and walkways in preparation for removal and disposal, and as of September 2 seven nets and various structural sections had been offloaded at a site known as Curtis Wharf. All offloaded materials were made » 21

available for inspection by government officials and tribal government representatives. By Monday, September 4, all ten stock nets had been removed and all fish left at the site had been recovered, while deconstruction and salvage continued. On September 5, Cooke announced that a total of 145,851 fish had been removed from the damaged structures and an additional 388 fish had been captured by beach seines. The company indicated that it intended to have all gear removed and the site entirely cleared by September 24 in accordance with Washington Department of Natural Resources requirements. The following day the company issued a statement on the incident, one of the main points of which was: “We are deeply sorry about this event and the loss of Atlantic salmon from the Cypress farm. Over the past two weeks, we have been focused on properly and safely removing the fish and equipment from the farm and working with tribal partners, experts and agencies to meet our obligations.” While the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife was encouraging fishermen to target the escapees in marine waters and freshwaters open to fishing for salmon and trout, concern was raised by the Lummi Nation that the excessive fishing pressure would also harm the native Chinook. WDWF regulations stated that anglers could only fish until they had caught their daily limit of trout or Pacific


salmon, regardless of how many (or few) Atlantic salmon they had landed at that point. However, Elden Hillaire, Chairman of the Lummi Nation Natural Resources Commission asked “WDFW has encouraged recreational harvesters to catch as many as they can, but what does that mean to the other species?” Byron Andes, a Senior Aquaculture Biologist for the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) told Times Colonist reporter Richard Watts that after two years of no Atlantic Salmon sightings, some 42 had been reported since the Cooke Aquaculture incident, some as far away as Tofino and Campbell River. He men-

tioned that previous research indicates that escaped Atlantic salmon are not active foragers, and that current investigations have shown no evidence of established reproduction by this species in British Columbia waters. In Washington State, officials consider Atlantic salmon an “invasive species” citing their potential to compete with native chinook and steelhead. In contrast, science plays a much greater role in Atlantic salmon policy north of the border. Terry Beech, parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard, pointed out to the CBC that “our science shows that there is an extremely low likelihood of Atlantic

Reported sightings of escaped Atlantic salmon as of 09/19/2017.

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salmon becoming established in B.C. waters…” Although one research paper claimed that Atlantic salmon were established and reproducing in the Tsitika River in British Colombia almost 20 years ago, no further evidence of such an event has come to light on either side of the border. Decades ago, the DFO introduced hundreds of thousands of Atlantic salmon into British Colombia’s coastal waters hoping to establish a recreational fishery, and while tens of thousands of Atlantic salmon have accidentally escaped from cages along the Pacific coasts of both the U.S. and Canada, a report by Fisheries and Oceans Canada in 2015 indicated that no Atlantic salmon were found in any streams surveyed on Vancouver Island. While the question has been raised as to whether these large escapees from the Cooke operation might have a better chance of surviving in the wild, as compared to smaller escapees or juvenile fish that were intentionally stocked in the past, research generally confirms that farmed Atlantic salmon are ill-adapted to sustain themselves when forced to forage in the wild. Recent research out of the University of Melbourne (as reported here in AQM) suggests that many farmed salmon also suffer from hearing loss, which could significantly reduce their ability to capture wild prey and elude predators. Cori Simmons, a spokesperson for the Washington Department of Natural Resources, indicated a report outlining findings from a state investigation of the incident was expected to be released in November.

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Acuícola Gemso

Praises Mexican Tilapia Since 2013, Acuícola Gemso has produced high quality tilapia in floating cages in the El Novillo reservoir. The company has commercialized its product in the best national and international markets, and firmly believes in the potential of the tilapia farming industry in Mexico.


emso (Grupo Empresarial Sonorense) is a family business established over 80 years ago in the state of Sonora, in northeastern Mexico, and it currently operates in several states of the country. Gemso started with the production of candles, a business that was ultimately abandoned to venture into the milling industry. Its success allowed the diversification of the company’s activities, which now include car agencies, hightechnology agricultural greenhouses, and real estate. In 2013, Gemso saw a great opportunity in aquaculture and bought Sanagro S.A. de C.V., one of

the companies with the strongest tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) production in Sonora, resulting from more than 9 years experience in the industry. Juan Loustaunau, Aquaculture Manager of Gemso, received us at this successful company, which employs a staff of more than 180 employees. Loustaunau has more than 15 years of experience in tilapia farming; he worked in Sanagro S.A. de C.V., and is currently in charge of production at Acuícola Gemso. Acuícola Gemso started operations in April 2012, and it began exporting to the U.S. in early 2014. Since then, the market has determined the growth in their production. The proj-

Nurseries of Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) and Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

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ect started with 2,000 tons a year, which were distributed by a recognized company with experience in the U.S. fresh tilapia market. At the end of 2016, Gemso set out to seek new markets, clients and products, which in turn had a positive impact in the company’s sales capacity. In 2017, Acuícola Gemso’s production will reach 4,000 tons a year, with an expected growth of 25 %.

Tilapia Production Currently, Acuícola Gemso produces Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) and Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in floating cages at El Novillo reservoir in the state of Sonora, Mexico. When planning the project, Gemso opted for this growing method because it is the most similar to the fishes’ natural conditions.

Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) and Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production in floating cages at El Novillo reservoir in the state of Sonora, Mexico. Photo courtesy of VIMIFOS.

Floating cages, with 20-meter diameters and 6-meter depths (1,884 m3), are seeded with tilapia juveniles from three different genetic lines: Genetilapia (Spring Genetics), CRILAB (big nin -gift, Thailand) and Aquamol. Even though Acuícola Gemso does not have a genetic program, it is deeply involved in the product’s development to guarantee its quality and biosecurity. The cages have a rearing density of up to 25 kg/m3 and use different net mesh sizes depending on the organism’s stage of growth. The production cycle of Acuícola Gemso is divided in three main stages: nursery (0.3 g to 2 g), pre-fattening (2 g to 50 g) and fattening (50 g to 1 kg). Acuícola Gemso’s team has achieved average survival rates of 70-80 %, from 0.3 g to 1kg, and average feed conversion ratios of 1.85 for >850 g fish and 1.60 for 500-850 g fish. These great results can be attributed to good handling practices through the production system and to the way feed is administered. Gemso’s experience has allowed the development of its own feeding chart, which adapts to the farming system and site characteristics. The company’s success is the result of a lot of work, perseverance and dedication. Loustaunau shared that it has been a very interesting learning process, and that there are two factors that, due to the production system (cages), have required more attention: the continuous care of the nets to avoid escapes and correct feeding methods to obtain a better FCR. In the case of nets, a second protective net is used to allow better protection and retention of the fish. For feed-related activities, continuous monitoring, analysis, supervision and training are required.

Processing Plant Since the beginning, a functional processing plant that complies with national and international specifications was considered a necessary part of the project. After a long design pro» 25


Juan Loustaunau, Facility Manager, Salvador Meza, Aquaculture Magazine Editor & Publisher and Pedro García, of Acuícola Gemso.

cess, during which Acuícola Gemso sought advice from various experts, the plant started operating in November 2015. The processing plant has two production lines with a 36-ton fillet capacity per week. Currently, one line is being used; however, the second line is being prepared for a new project focusing on frozen products. Tilapia is harvested and transported live to the processing plant. To do so, it travels 6 km by water and 3 km by land. Once in the plant, the processing starts, with strict safety and quality control. The plant produces tilapia in different forms: fresh fillets, whole fish (natural with viscera and also fish without viscera), and cur-

Transfer of channel catfish fingerlings.

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rently they are starting to produce fish chorizo and hamburgers. In 2017, 4,000 tons of production are expected; 75 % is exported (85 % fillet, 15 % whole), and the other 25 % goes to the national market (90 % whole, 10 % fillet). The company’s geographical location is a competitive advantage to cover the demand of the western US, where Gemso’s tilapia is sold in supermarkets (Walmart, Sam’s, Von’s, Aberstson’s, and others). In México, this product is sold in supermarkets, such as Walmart, and in supply centers.

Gemso’s Tilapia: Certified Product The demand for high quality products in local and international mar-

kets significantly increases with time. To ensure the continuity of the project and to respond to market competition, Gemso decided to certify its product. “The market demands it. To reach the best markets, one must offer the best product, and it is not enough to say that your product meets the highest demands; this must be validated, and that is where certifications come in,” said Loustaunau, who assured that the experience they have had with certification procedures has been great, since it has led them to improve continuously, to be more environmentally friendly, and to live harmoniously with the surrounding community. Certification processes require a constant effort from each company member, at all levels. To obtain certifications, Gemso started to work with documented and standard procedures, which allowed the measuring of everything. Anything that can be measured can be controlled, and everything that is controlled can result in lower time and/or cost. The Company has a Certification and Quality Control Department, responsible for monitoring and auditing processes. In addition, Gemso collaborates with NSF (National Sanitation Foundation) and Control Union (certification agencies), Mexico’s National Service for Food Health,

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Safety and Quality (SENASICA: Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria), and Mexico’s Committee for Aquaculture Health in the State of Sonora (COSAES: Comité de Sanidad Acuícola del Estado de Sonora). “At Gemso, we see certifications as an opportunity to improve what we do, both as a team and individually, forcing ourselves to be the number one tilapia company in Mexico, with 100 % Mexican capital,” Loustaunau added.

Currently, Acuícola Gemso has the following certifications: • BAP (Best Aquaculture Practices) in the farm and processing plant The BAP certification is in process for Gemso’s two balanced feed suppliers, at which point Gemso’s tilapia will reach three BAP stars. • ASC (Aquaculture Stewardship Council) in the farm. • MSC (Marine Stewardship Council) in the chain of custody for the plant. • SENSAICA – Good tilapia aquaculture practices certification Additionally, the same certification is about to arrive for the processing plant and catfish farming operation. Consejo Empresarial de Tilapia Mexicana (CETMX) CETMX is comprised of the main tilapia companies in Mexico, which are located in the states of Campeche, Chiapas, Jalisco, Michoacán, Tabasco and Sonora, and producing around 30 % of the country’s total production. CETMX was created by and for the industry with the objective of creating strategies to face the challenges that limit the growth and development of tilapia farming in Mexico. CETMX members firmly believe in the potential and quality of Mexican tilapia, which is why some of their goals are to promote its consumption, position Mexican product against imported products, and create better conditions for the industry’s development by means of adjustment of laws and regulations. 28 »

Gemso and CETMX The global vision and local approach of Acuícola Gemso allowed it to play a crucial role in CETMX’s creation. The initiative for the creation of a board to regulate the market conditions to offer equal opportunities to national producers originated with the synergy among Acuícola Gemso, Acuagranjas Dos Lagos (Regal Springs), and Granja La Noria, who later invited other producers from the country to join the project. “The creation of CETMX has allowed us to identify the problems that affect the industry in different states”, shared Juan Loustaunau. “The Board has moved forward little by little. We are currently working on strengthening our internal structure so more producers or members of the supply chain share our same interests.” Since its creation, CETMX has worked closely with Mexico’s National Commission for Acuiculture and Fishing (CONAPESCA: Comisión Nacional de Acuicultura y Pesca). Currently, a working commission formed by members of CETMX and representatives from Mexico’s Tax Administration Service (SAT), Secretariat of Economy (SE), National Service for Food Health, Safety and Quality (SENASICA), Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risk (COFEPRIS), and the National Institute of Fishing (INAPESCA) is working in the creation of strategies to regulate tilapia imports and to increase national production to meet national demand. In order to assure Mexican tilapia quality, CETMX is working on a Mexican certification program that will be accessible to all production scales and systems. Future Directions Acuícola Gemso seeks to continue expanding in a sustainable manner, while maintaining its presence in the best national and international markets. Gemso is characterized by its knowledge about its own product and production practices, which is why it

seeks to anticipate the market’s needs to meet them as they arise. The company is in a constant innovation process to diversify its range of products and exploit tilapia sub-products. Acuícola Gemso recognizes the importance of increasing fish consumption among Mexico’s population in order to boost demand and, thus, production. As part of the promotion of Mexican tilapia consumption, the company explores value-added products and innovative packaging that meet consumers’ needs and preferences. Additionally, the company has a new frozen product project. Since its first move into the aquaculture sector, Gemso has gained valuable experience in the industry. In the years to come, the company hopes to take advantage of the knowledge

gained and its operational structure to explore the farming of new species and the diversification of products. “Some of our short-term objectives (two years) are to increase production by 70 %, diversify cultured species, and add at least two freshwater species to the market,” said Loustaunau. “Acuícola Gemso bets on the use of technology in its culture practices, and the search for new feeding systems,” he added. In the long run, Acuícola Gemso will seek to consolidate its position as one of the main high-quality tilapia producers in Mexico and the U.S., to boost investment in new aquaculture projects in Sonora and other regions of the country, and to contribute to the growth and development of Mexico’s aquaculture sector. » 29


Sturgeon farming on the Dniester – a story of success Dietmar Firzlaff; aquaFUTURE e.K.

Sturgeon (Acipenser spp.) populations are endangered around

the world. Numerous factors have led to a dramatic decrease in populations especially within the last two decades.

28 round tanks with 9 m diameter.


elieving that aquaculture can provide a substantial contribution to rescue sturgeon in the wilderness and to meet the demand for “black caviar,” in 2005 a company named Aquatir Ltd. in Tiraspol, Moldova, decided to build a modern recirculating system for sturgeon farming. The project was developed by Dietmar Firzlaff, owner of aquaFUTURE e.K., and has been guided by him until today. The technical implementation for the project was assigned to Billund Aquaculture Service in Denmark. This is a company that has successfully been building recirculation systems for various species for more than 25 years. In spring 2017, the final section with 28 round basins 30 »

was put into operation. Henceforth approximately 60,000 m2 are now under roof. With the completion of the final section, the farm in Tiraspol now consists of the following modules, among others: - one incubation system - one system for first feeding - two fingerling units - four units for grow-out - two pre-wintering systems - four wintering systems - two processing plants - a laboratory for chemical and microbiological assessments Different age groups of the following sturgeon breeds are currently held at the farm: - Sterlet (A. ruthenus) - Bester (A. ruthenus x Huso huso)

- Beluga (Huso huso) - Osetr (A. güldenstaedtii) The Sterlet and Bester were primarily used for gaining experience. However, in the long run mostly Belugas and Danube Sturgeon (Osetr) will be cultured. Nowadays several thousand of these sturgeons from different year classes can be found at the farm. They originate from spawning fish out of the Black Sea as well as the Caspian Sea and are strictly segregated. Caviar has been obtained for several years now from Sterlet, Bester and Danube Sturgeon. Due to the well-directed control of the production processes, use of high quality feed and optimal welfare conditions, sexual maturity has been achieved significantly earlier than in nature. The time savings were approximately 25 %. Currently, the first Belugas are being brought into wintering grounds. They weigh around 100 kg at a length of approximately 2 meters and are approximately 10 years old. The first caviar has already been harvested. The company, which is certified according to ISO 22000 and HACCP and registered at CITES, has adopted the following production goals: - Black caviar of the highest quality for the world market. - Various other sturgeon products. - Brood stock management for a gene bank, intended for reintroduction measures for both the Caspian and the Black Sea. - Eggs and fry for export. - Giant sturgeon for suitable customers. The firm owns two processing facilities, which are geographically fully separated from each other. In the first facility, products for the eastern European market as well as the Gulf region are produced. The second facility was built solely for the target markets in Europe, Australia, USA and Japan. The reason for the separation of the two facilities primarily involves different legal frameworks and conditions. For example, caviar can be extracted without killing the sturgeons in some former CIS coun-


Beluga 4 Years old.


Belugas in Wintering.


Round Tanks with 25 m diameter.

tries. The requested quality is guaranteed by a processing procedure which has been known for many years. The sturgeon meat is highly sought-after regionally and higher prices can be realized than in many Western European countries. An entirely new brood stock system was designed based on the expertise of company specialists, making it possible to produce high quality caviar year-round and deliver it as freshly as possible. As early as autumn 2009, approx. 50,000 young-of-year fry of the Danube sturgeon with an average weight of around 100 grams each were released into Dniester. This was the first important contribution to improving the ecological situation, in particular the promotion of fish populations in

this river. Through this first of many examples, Aquatir Ltd. established its ecological and economical responsibility for the benefit of the region. Due to history, you would expect this type of facility to be found in Russia, Iran or Kazakhstan – countries which have traditionally been involved with sturgeon farming and the production of caviar. It is even more encouraging to see that this story of success has been realized in Transdniestr – with teamwork and trust making it possible.

For further information on this project, visit or

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Co-culture of White Shrimp and Nile Tilapia: Antioxidant Response and Body Composition

Co-culture of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Nile tilapia Zaki Z. Shaeawy1, Rajko Thiele2, Eman M. Abbas1, Mohammed A. El-Magd3, Mohammed S. Hassaan1, Corina Peter2, Jan Schmidt2, Reinhard Saborowoski2, Ashraf M. A. S. Goda1, Mattew J. Slater2


n aquaculture, co-culture, often referred to as Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture (IMTA), combines species with different but complementary feeding and habitat requirements to maximize productivity through the efficient occupation of physical space and utilization of resources. IMTA systems make use of the waste and by-products of one species as new sources of feed for another species. However, this should not lead to competition between species or generate nutritional stress. 32 Âť

Oreochromis niloticus is an example of a highly promising production method with potential commercial and environmental benefits. The present study demonstrates how the co-culture of these two species is successful in terms of health status and nutritional supply for shrimp.

Although the co-culture of L. vannamei and O. niloticus offers important benefits, such as increased performance and efficient use of resources, it is also important to evaluate if the feeding regimes and culture conditions meet the animals’ nutritional requirements and minimize stress reactions. To evaluate if the organisms are receiving optimal diets, it is possible to use somatic measures, such as hepatosomatic indices and animal growth performance and survival, as they broadly reflect nutritional status. On the other

hand, the ability and capacity to utilize the offered food can be determined by digestive enzyme activities and enzyme expression patterns. In co-culture, animal performance may also be affected by stressors caused by the presence or interaction between species or rearing conditions. Many stressors tend to increase the production of oxygen-reactive species (ROS). To minimize the deleterious effects of ROS, shrimp has an enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system (AD) that becomes

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more active in response to stressors. Some of the most important antioxidant enzymes are glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), which are necessary to reduce high ROS levels in tissues. The antioxidant gene expression response is among the most important stress biomarkers. Previous studies have reported that the GPX and cMnSOD genes contribute significantly to GPX and SOD enzymatic activity and indicate its importance in the redox system regulation for L. vannamei and Oreochromis spp. In the present study, shrimp and tilapia were maintained in monoculture and co-culture under controlled conditions in recirculating aquaculture systems and with different dietary regimes (Table 1). Growth parameters, the nutritional status index, and antioxidant gene expression (as an indicator of the stress status of shrimp) were determined to establish the viability of this culture method.

Experimental Organisms The study was conducted at the Centre for Aquaculture Research (ZAF) within the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmboltz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany. For the trials, shrimp L. vannamei (PL12) and red Nile tilapia males O. niloticus were obtained from commercial hatcheries in Miami, USA and the Netherlands, respectively. The shrimp and tilapia were acclimated to the experimental conditions (12-15 PSU and 28ºC) separately for three weeks before the trial. During this period, tilapia and shrimp were fed commercial diets to satiation 4 times daily. The same diet was fed during the subsequent trial. Experimental Design Replicate culture units were constructed from 2 plastic boxes, each 60 x 24 x 35 cm (L x W x H) in size (Figure 1). In each unit, the two boxes were lined with 1 mm nylon net, placed one on top of the other, and tied together to avoid loss of shrimp, feed or feces. A 34 »

tube was inserted through a hole in the bottom of the upper box to provide direct access to the bottom box, allowing the passage of uneaten feed and feces with the help of a small pump in the appropriate treatments. The trial consisted of four treatments: (1) red tilapia in monoculture fed with a commercial diet (OF), (2) shrimp in monoculture fed with a commercial diet (OS), (3) red tilapia and shrimp in co-culture, tilapia fed with a commercial diet and shrimp fed only with tilapia’s feces and uneaten feed (FS) and (4) red tilapia and shrimp in co-culture, tilapia fed with a commercial diet and shrimp fed with 25 % of the recommended ration, together with tilapia’s feces and uneaten feed (FSD). All treatments were performed in triplicate, thus, in total, 12 units were submerged into 3 tanks (600 l) connected to a RAS in a randomized manner (Figure 1). The upper box was stocked with 12 red tilapias (2.6 kg or 240 fish m-3), while the bottom box was stocked with 50 shrimp (0.024 kg or 1000 shrimp m-3) according to the characteristics of each treatment.

Commercial diets were administered twice daily to a total of 5 % of body weight for red tilapia and 10 % of body weight for shrimp. The tilapia diet contained 37 % crude protein and 10 % crude lipid, while the shrimp diet contained 40 % crude protein and 9 % crude lipid. Furthermore, it was estimated that the mixture of tilapia waste diet and feces contained on average 23 % crude protein and 0.4 % lipid. During the 84-day experiment, continuous aeration was provided and water quality parameters were closely monitored.

Performance Parameters Fish were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and bi-weekly thereafter, while shrimp were weighed at the beginning and then only every month during the experimental period to avoid stress caused by excessive handling. At the end of the trial, fish and shrimp weight gain (WG), shrimp hepatosomatic index (HSI), specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), feed conversion rate (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and productive value (PPV) were calculated.

Chemical Composition of Organisms At the beginning of the experiment, a sample of 5 tilapia and 12 shrimp were collected to determine the whole-body proximate composition, while at the end samples of 3 tilapia and 3 shrimp for each treatment were collected for the same purpose. Total RNA Isolation and cDNA Synthesis Total RNA was isolated from the abdominal muscles of shrimp (n=3 per tank and per treatment) using a GeneJET RNA Purification Kit. Subsequently, the integrity of total RNA was assessed by inspection of the ribosomal RNA bands (18S and 28S). RNA purity was determined by measuring the 260/280 nm optical density (OD) ratio using an UV-visible spectrophotometer. Total RNA samples with clear intact ribosomal bands and high RNA ratios were used for cDNA synthesis. The RNA was reversely transcribed using RevertAid H Minus Reverse Transcriptase. Antioxidant Genes Expression Relative expression of cMnSOD and GPX genes was determined using Step One Plus real time PCR system. Enzyme and Protein Analysis At the end of the experimental period, eight shrimp from each treatment were selected for enzyme and protein analysis. The organisms were weighed, midgut glands (hepatopancreas) were dissected, and extracts were prepared for further analysis. Trypsin, leucine-exopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activities were also measured photometrically. Gel Electrophoresis Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate DNA fragments or other macromolecules based on their size Âť 35


and charge. This technique was used to separate the proteins and active enzymes from the crude extracts of each sample.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Performance Parameters Tilapia in monoculture (OF) had significantly better growth performance (final body weight, FBW, and SGR) compared with tilapia in co-culture treatments (FSD and FS) (Table 2). On the other hand, shrimp in coculture and co-fed with a commercial diet registered higher values of FBW, WG and SGR compared with shrimp in mono- (OS) and unfed co-culture (FS). However, the SR of FSD shrimp was significantly lower than those of OS and FS shrimp. FCR for tilapia in co-culture treatments was significantly lower than in monoculture treatments, indicating better use of the feed, while FCR of shrimp in FSD treatment was significantly lower compared to shrimp in monoculture (OS) and unfed shrimp in co-culture (FS). The hepatosomatic index (HIS) varied between treatments, but the values were not statistically significant. Effect of Co-culture on Gene Expression of cMnSOD and GPX Various stressors (such as temperature, inadequate salinity, pH, starvation, and chemical or biological agents) can result in increased production of ROS

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in fish and shrimp. In these cases, an enzymatic defense system is activated in shrimp, which includes the GPX, SOD and CAT enzymes to reduce high ROS levels in the tissues. In the present study, results showed a significant decrease in the expression of both antioxidant genes, cMnSOD and GPX, in shrimp from both co-culture treatments (Figure 2). Therefore, it is evident that abiotic parameters across treatments and interaction between species did not represent stress factors for shrimp. In fact, stress levels could even be lower in co-culture treatments due to the excess of feed in the form of uneaten feed and tilapia feces, or by the nutritional supply of biowastes. Previously, it has been reported that some feces components, like beneficial bacteria and pre-digestion of refractive elements by tilapia, increased vitamin availability, which may have contributed to better growth rates in FS and FSD co-culture treatments in the present study.

Enzyme Activities Total protein activity, exopeptidase and phosphatase did not show significant differences between treatments, whereas the trypsin activity of the FSD treatment (15.49 ± 2.42 Ug-1fw) was slightly higher than that of the OS and FS treatments, 9.87 ± 3.60 Ug-1fw and 10.64 ± 3.68 Ug-1fw, respectively (Figure 3). It has been reported that trypsin and chymotrypsin account for 40-60 % of total protein digestion in penaeid shrimp (Galgani et al. 1984, 1985), and that prolonged starvation of white shrimp caused a reduction in digestive enzymatic activities including trypsin. Lee et al. (1984) reported that large and medium size shrimp tend to have higher trypsin activity than smaller sized shrimp. Since the largest organisms were those of the FSD treatment, the high trypsin activity in this group may be explained by the larger size of the shrimp, rather than malnutrition or excess protein in the diet. Electrophoresis The electrophoresis patterns of proteins and active endopeptidases showed a similar appearance between specimens and treatments (Figure 4),

indicating that the enzymatic ability of organisms to utilize dietary proteins is not affected by the origin of food, even if they are made up largely of fish feces. In general, the present study shows that shrimp and tilapia in co-culture have reduced levels of stress indicators, both for unfed shrimp and co-fed fish. Co-cultured shrimp maintained an excellent nutritional status and per-

formance parameters. However, the reduced growth levels of tilapia in co-culture treatments remains unexplained and needs to be investigated. Beyond the known benefits, such as increased yield and efficient use of resources, the results of the present study showed that co-culture of tilapia O. niloticus and white shrimp L. vannamei is viable in terms of nutritional supply and shrimp health status.

Aquaculture Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Suez, Egypt 2 Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany 3 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Karfrelsheikh Univeristy, Karfrelsheikh, Egypt


Shaeawy, Z. et al. (2017). Antioxidant response and body composition of whiteleg shrimp co-cultured with Nile tilapia in recirculating aquaculture. Aquaculture Environment Interactions. Vol 9:257-268,2017.

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How Can We Produce 27 Million Tons of Seafood Annually by 2030?

By: Salvador Meza


ncreasingly, the worldwide commercial seafood industry is perceiving the scarcity of available fish products to keep their markets satisfied. The great majority of the executives and employees of these companies, as well as public officials from fishing agencies in countries with great production and exports, do not accurately grasp the origins of this product deficit. As they concentrated on the growth of their companies and exports, they never paid attention to the over-exploitation of fishing or to the alternatives that might have been

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Any government budget earmarked for the recovery of fisheries is a budget that is not invested in the growth of aquaculture, and this means millions of tons less in production between now and 2030. generated by investing in the development of aquaculture. In some cases this was due to ignorance and in others simply to denial. And, in the case of government employees, during the past years many have avoided all information regarding 1) the need to restrain fishing exploitation of our oceans and seas, 2) the reality of over-exploitation of fisheries all over the world, 3) the effects of fishing on the environment, and 4) illegal, uncontrollable fishing including during official “closure” periods. To them, everything mentioned above was an exaggeration promoted by environ-

mentalist groups to gain political and financial popularity for their own interests. Today, still without adequate information, still in denial, and still with the evident lack of recognition of fisheries production data looking them in the eyes, they react with confusion. Many still expect the emerging production shortfalls could be resolved by the recovery of some fisheries that have not been managed well and others that have been impacted by a lack of public policies or ignored in preference to the interests of competing stakeholder sectors such as tourism,

gas and oil exploitation, sea transportation, industrial contamination, and the contamination coming from cities that grow on coasts. All these factors have actually affected fisheries production in one way or another in many different countries, with production thus diminished (and often drastically in the most affected countries), but the recovery of these fisheries would probably not contribute to worldwide fisheries production by more than a few hundred thousand tons. It might possibly reach one to three million tons, assuming a number of magnificent recoveries. But this amount of fisheries products, in comparison to the yearly 27 million tons that are going to be needed in the next 13 years (which is what the FAO predicts is going to be consumed in fish and seafood worldwide in the year 2030 if, with 8.5 billion inhabitants, we merely sustain our present per capita consumption of 18 kilos) is a ridiculously insignificant quantity that is not going

to solve future provision problems. Following this order of ideas, 27 million tons is roughly a fourth of our current worldwide seafood consumption. How do we increase total production of fish and seafood by one fourth in the next 13 years? Recovery of depleted fisheries? Impossible. The only possibility for increasing the production of fish and seafood by millions of tons per year is through aquaculture. However, the challenge is not easy - at all. Any government budget earmarked for fisheries recovery is a budget that is not invested in promoting the growth of aquaculture, and that will mean millions of tons less seafood that would be produced from now until 2030. In a recent study carried out by the University of California in collaboration with a number of other prestigious institutions (Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara; National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California;

Beijing Office, “The Nature Conservancy”; Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California Los Angeles; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; London Imperial College) titled “Mapping the global potential for marine aquaculture,” the authors found that the current worldwide fisheries production could be produced through aquaculture in less than 0.015 % of the total available ocean area –a surface smaller than Lake Michigan. They demonstrated that the availability of optimal areas for the development of marine aquaculture in our oceans would pose no limit to the growth of aquaculture production to satisfy future demands for animal protein. This is where investment should be made.

Salvador Meza is Editor & Publisher of Aquaculture Magazine, and of the Spanish language industry magazine Panorama Acuicola.

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R&D Center


Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

Helping to identify and solve the industry’s biggest challenges, while concurrently providing for a safe, nutritious and economical protein source for consumers is the goal on which research conducted at USDA-ARS Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center (SNARC) is predicated.

Carl D. Webster


f aquaculture is to continue to grow in a responsible manner, there are many hurdles that must be overcome and it will be applied research that allows the industry to expand. It is against this backdrop that the mission of the SNARC takes on critical importance.

Brief History In 1958, Congress enacted the Fish 40 Âť

Rice Rotation Act, directing the Secretary of the Interior (in cooperation with the USDA) to develop a program to solve problems related to production and harvest of warmwater fish. The idea was to establish a program to grow fish in flooded rice fields in rotation with the rice crop. The Fish Farming Experimental Laboratory (FFEL) was opened in 1961 and was devoted to conducting research, ex-

tension, and fish disease diagnostics. The facility was located on 86 acres of land twelve miles east of Stuttgart, Arkansas. The FFEL consisted of research ponds of various sizes, several office buildings, and other support buildings and was administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Over the subsequent 50+ years FFEL grew and in 1992 the newest building was opened; a research laboratory and of-

fice building consisting of 18,000 ft2 of space for research (60 %) as well as providing office space (40 %) for many employees. In 1996, FFEL was transferred to the USDA-ARS and was renamed the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center. Since extension is not within the purview of the ARS, diagnostic and extension activities were ended in 1998 and in 1999 SNARC was renamed after the retirement of long-time director Harry K. Dupree. Other directors of the Center have been James Stevenson (1961-1965), Kermit Sneed (1965-1973), and Don Freeman (2000-2011). SNARC has had its highs and lows since its construction. In 1974, FFEL employed 23 full-time employees, but by 1983, this had declined to nine. Today, SNARC has 26 personnel including 7 research scientists, 2 support scientists, 8 technicians, and 9 administrative and facilities support persons.

Research Activities The following are summaries of the research programs at SNARC and brief synopses of current research conducted at the Center. Genomics, Molecular Physiology, and Immunology SNARC researchers are focusing on functional genomics of important traits in warmwater aquaculture species using a computational approach to assess massive amounts of data, and sometimes whole genomes, in combination with field and lab work. The ultimate goal is to identify genes or other biological elements within the fish genome that correlate to these important traits to understand their function and inform breeding practices to improve gains. On the microbe side, functional genomics assessment will allow the potential to identify better targets for therapuetants to use as feed additives, for example, as well as to improve vaccines. One of the major factors limiting further development of the U.S. aquaculture industry is the lack of a reliable

supply of seed stock, a problem largely stemming from obstacles in captive breeding such as delayed maturation and poor fecundity or fertility. Delay or failure of fish to sexually mature requires long-term maintenance of broodstock, dramatically increasing husbandry costs and exposure of the broodfish to risks associated with stress and disease. Alternatively, exceptionally early (precocious) sexual maturation can negatively affect growth, feed utilization, health, and animal welfare as energy is diverted from growth. To address these problems, an understanding of the fundamental molecular mechanisms associated with sexual maturation and fertility in farmed fish is needed. Researchers at SNARC are confronting these issues by employing various molecular, cellular, and next-generation sequencing approaches to identify key genetic regulators of sexual maturation in white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to improve reproductive yields. Research on mechanisms by which pathogenic bacteria adhere to, and gain entry into fish through mucosal surfaces is another area of focus. Mucosal surfaces (such as the skin, gill, and intestine) function as the first line of defense against pathogen invasion and simultaneously carry out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes including nutrient uptake, osmoregulation, and waste excretion. Aquaculture species depend more

heavily on mucosal barriers than terrestrial animals as they are continuously interacting with the microbiota of the aquatic environment. One principal disease focus in this context is columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, which is an opportunistic pathogen that causes substantial mortality globally in freshwater ornamental and food-fish species. Despite the obvious importance of this disease, little was known regarding how F. columnare bacterial cells actually adhered to and initiated disease in host fish. Our group has made tremendous progress in this area by employing cutting edge nextgeneration sequencing (RNA-seq) and microarray techniques, which have allowed for identification of many molecular immune events that control the susceptibility/resistance of fish to columnaris and other bacterial diseases. Hybrid Striped Bass (Sunshine Bass) Broodstock Selective Improvement Sunshine bass, the white bass (Morone chrysops) female Ă— striped bass (M. saxatilis) male hybrid, is a high-value, high-quality fish contributing over $30M annually to the U.S. aquaculture industry. Due to heterosis, or hybrid vigor, it possesses traits such as aggressive feeding behavior and tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, making it more suitable for aquaculture than either of its parental species. The main areas of emphasis for Morone research at SNARC are: Âť 41

R&D Center

1) molecular and quantitative genetic evaluation and resource development; 2) genomic and physiological evaluation of reproductive development and fertility; and 3) identification of genomic and physiological responses to nutrients and environmental stressors. Scientists at the Center have developed the first multi-tissue reference transcriptomes for white bass and striped bass, as well as hepatic transcriptomes for hybrid striped bass. We are currently examining the genetic relationships, using highthroughput genotyping-by-sequencing, between the F9 population of domestic white bass currently housed at Stuttgart and five populations of white bass collected from drainages in Arkansas, Texas, and Alabama. We have also evaluated growth response and disease resistance of white bass and hybrid striped bass in indoor tank culture, as well as communal pond rearing experiments to determine heritability for broodstock selection. In addition, we have embarked on a series of studies to determine nutritional, physiological, and genetic fac42 Âť

tors controlling captive breeding of hybrid striped bass. First, kisspeptins, peptides which have been shown to control maturation in animals, were administered to both immature and mature white bass and striped bass. Repeated injections of these peptides accelerated puberty in juvenile fish and improved the quality of gonads, all in the absence of any photothermal manipulation or industry-standard hormone injections. Next, we performed DNA methylation analysis of high-fertility and low-fertility striped bass spermatozoa. Sperm epigenetic modification has been predicted to be associated with fertility, which could switch genes on and off without changing the DNA sequence itself. Results from this research will aid in the identification of individuals with superior gametes for this important fish. Lastly, a vital factor in fish production is the level of dissolved oxygen. We found that the expression levels of over 1,400 genes were changed under conditions of short-term and long-term hypoxia. The genes that changed under hypoxia were primarily related to fat metabolism, cell death, and cell growth. This study offers a detailed view of what happens in the tissues of hybrid striped bass over time during low oxygen conditions. These findings will enhance future ef-

forts to identify molecular markers in fish that are better suited to tolerate hypoxia in ponds. Increased Production System Efficiency Biofloc technology (BFT), or mixed suspended-growth production systems are a culture method whereby a complex of living organisms is closely associated with particulate organic matter and is maintained in suspension by continuous aeration so that more fish can be produced per volume of water while maintaining the optimal culture environment. SNARC’s BFT research is directed at optimizing stocking rates and biomass to produce market-size or stocker-size fish in one season and the associated effects on water quality; at estimating primary productivity to understand the phytoplankton’s role in nitrogen dynamics during the culture cycle; and at managing solids levels in the system and how this impacts water quality dynamics and fish growth. Researchers achieved net yields of large (> 550 g) channel catfish as high as 9.3 kg/m3. Disease challenge research will also be conducted to determine if channel catfish reared in the BFT system are more resistant to columnaris or ESC. An important research component is to also characterize the microbiome in the biofloc production system and its interaction with cultured fish.

Another research focus is dissolved oxygen (DO), which is of particular importance in earthen pond production systems, especially as water temperatures rise in response to global climate change. Net yields of hybrid catfish and hybrid striped bass increased curvilinearly with increasing DO concentrations. Results suggest that maintaining a minimum of 40 % DO saturation in ponds, something that is feasible, would result in fast growth, while allowing DO to drop to 25 % saturation results in a significant reduction in growth and efficiency of feed utilization. Novel Ingredients and Diets for Hybrid Striped Bass The focus of aquaculture nutrition research at SNARC is to optimize diets for different production goals in hybrid striped bass and other warm-water fish. Emphasis is on evaluating fish performance when different combinations of ingredients in the diet are used, particularly as replacements for fish meal and fish oil. High levels of plant proteins and oils often result in dietary nutrient imbalances, particularly in essential amino acids and fatty acids, and poorer fish performance if the diets are left unbalanced. The amino acid profile of the fish’s muscle has been found to be a sensitive indicator of the order of nutrient limitation for practical diet formulation. Researchers are also investigating sunshine bass performance when fed all-plant-protein diets. Specific focus involves the fish’s sensitivity to soy derived anti-nutritional factors that cause gut enteritis and poor nutrient digestibility along with flavor enhancers to stimulate fish consumption of all-plant diets, and supplementation with feed enzymes, such as phytase, to enhance diet nutrient availability  43

R&D Center

and utilization in hybrid striped bass and tilapia. There are significant gaps in the digestibility and performance data for substitute ingredients in carnivorous fish, particularly for hybrid striped bass. SNARC researchers continue to conduct feeding trials aimed at developing a database of nutrient composition and digestibility coefficients for a variety of common and emerging feed ingredients for different aquacultured fishes. The current database is assembled on a CD and is also posted and regularly updated on a federal website ( docs.htm?docid=21905). Disease Control in Aquaculture Scientists at SNARC have evaluated the efficacy, toxicity, human food safety, and target animal safety of copper sulfate in channel catfish for future FDA approval for the control of “Ichâ€? on catfish and fungus on their eggs. They have also collaborated on international research using peracetic acid to investigate the effectiveness of this new therapeutant to control various aquatic pathogens. Recent research also demonstrated that pretreatment with copper sulfate can prevent columnaris when risk of the disease is greatest (e.g., seining ponds, grading fingerlings, and hauling fish to grow-out facilities), and that white bass are more resistant to the disease than sunshine bass. Current research focus involves determining the amount of calcium required by Flavobacterium columnare to attach to the gills of channel catfish. Another research focus includes toxicity studies on therapeutic compounds used for disease control. Some of the compounds tested were potassium permanganate (in tilapia, channel catfish, and sunshine bass); copper sulfate (in channel catfish fingerlings and fry, sunshine bass, tilapia, and rainbow trout); peracetic acid (in channel catfish fry, grass carp, tilapia, sunshine bass, and Atlantic salmon); isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (in eggs and fry of golden shiner and channel 44 Âť

catfish); and rotenone (in freshwater shrimp). A third research area concerns drug approval for use in aquaculture operations. Treatments for fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) control on catfish eggs are expensive and pose potential health issues for hatchery personnel so scientists conducted experiments on the use of copper sulfate to treat channel catfish eggs. It was found that treatment limits fungus, improves survival, and is safe for catfish eggs which led to copper sulfate being recommended as a safer and more economical fungi-

cide option for producers. A typical hatchery with 300 hatching troughs treated during the spawning season would spend $35 to treat with copper sulfate compared to $2,155 or $1,370 to treat with formalin or hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Future Directions Scientists at SNARC will continue to conduct vital research on catfish, tilapia, shrimp, and possibly a marine fish species in the future, while continuing to focus on hybrid striped bass. To be responsive to the needs of the

aquaculture industry and all interested stakeholders, SNARC will allocate resources and expertise that will be: I. Devoted to research that directly benefits stakeholders in the aquaculture industry, including a. research on more efficient production methods; b. research on evaluating alternative protein sources in diets;

c. research on disease mitigation strategies and therapeutant use, II. Dedicated to research that benefits American consumers by ensuring a safe, nutritious seafood, including a. research on product quality and safety of cultured fish and crustaceans, III. Determined in providing assistance for development and expansion of rural economies and

IV. Diligently focused on improving U.S. aquaculture production and keeping it competitive in the global marketplace.

Carl D. Webster is the Research Leader/Center Director at the Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center. He can be reached at

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Fish Oil Challenge seeks innovators to streamline aquaculture feed supply chain

Seafood Innovation Contest to Develop “Fish-Free” Fish Oil Launches


he F3 Fish Oil Challenge will award a $100,000 prize to the company or team that makes and sells the most fish-free “fish oil” to aquaculture operations or feed manufacturers. The prize amount is expected to increase through additional crowdsource fundraising. The F3 (Future of Fish Feed) team, a collaboration of scientists, environmentalists and industry leaders, is currently recruiting innovators to join the global race to help remove a bottleneck to growth in the aquaculture industry. Aquaculture is poised to explode as the supplier of one of the world’s most efficient sources of animal proteins to feed our planet’s growing population. However, the industry is being held back by the availability of 46 »

A new contest to innovate a fish oil alternative that doesn’t rely on wild-caught fish officially launched in early September. one key ingredient: fish oil, which provides important omega fatty acids for animal and human nutrition. The University of Arizona, New England Aquarium, University of Massachusetts Boston, Synbiobeta, Anthropocene Institute and The World Bank are sponsoring the contest that aims to both support and streamline the aquaculture feed supply chain.

“We are seeking innovators who do not accept business-as-usual and will apply their ingenuity to make the aquaculture industry more feasible, and more environmentally responsible now and in the future,” said University of Arizona Professor Kevin Fitzsimmons, a judge of the Fish Oil Challenge and former president of the World Aquaculture Society. “Changing

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the way we grow farmed fish is vital to feed ourselves without further depleting the wild-fish populations on which aquaculture depends.” Fish farms, or aquaculture, now provide about half of the world’s seafood. And, fish farm owners are looking for new and innovative ways to feed all those billions of fish in a way that doesn’t rely on fish resources from the ocean. Oily fish, like sardines, anchovies and menhaden, called “forage fish,” are currently harvested from the wild and fed to farmed-raised fish to provide them with these essential fatty oils. The problem is that these fish are also crucial food for other commercial fisheries like cod, salmon, tuna, as well as marine mammals like whales, dolphins and seals as well as seabirds. If

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these wild fish populations at the center of the food chain disappear, so will the life that depends on it. For the current rate of expansion of aquaculture to continue, most scientists and aquaculture industry analysts agree that alternative ingredients need to be used. If alternatives are not found the aquaculture industry will contract, according to the World Bank. Some of the innovations may be found in new collaborations between the biotechnology and seafood sectors to create a fish-free fish oil that provides essential nutrients for aquaculture and for people using fewer land and water resources. “From its inception, biotechnology has been about finding solutions to societal challenges,” said Christopher Oakes, director of corporate de-

velopment at SynBioBeta, the activity hub for the synthetic biology industry. “Our hope is that we can apply engineering principles to biology and increase collaboration between these two industries to improve the sustainability of farm-raised seafood.” Essential fatty acids (EFAs), known as omega-3s and 6s and found in fish oils, are critical building blocks of a fish diet. An optimal balance of these key nutrients in aquacultureraised fish feed is needed to ensure that the fish are healthy and highly nutritious for consumers. Currently only one of these fatty acids, called DHA, is available from non-fish sources such as algae. Innovating a complete fish oil replacement that contains the other two essential fatty acids, known as EPA and ARA, in an optimal ratio that mimics the fatty acid profile found in forage fish is the goal of the challenge. EFAs are important for the health of the human nervous system, including the health of the heart and brain. To help the contestants, the F3 team’s fish nutrition experts have used known fatty acid profiles of wild forage fish to develop target values that will need to be met to qualify as a viable fish oil replacement.  Raising healthy fish on fish-free feed has many consumer benefits as well. The sustainable harvest of forage fish is of increasing importance for preserving life in the oceans and to make aquaculture more environmentally responsible for consumers.  Since the current supply of fishmeal and fish oil from the ocean is limited and fluctuates based upon environmental conditions, sourcing of sustainable ingredients for aquaculture feeds is a main factor considered by seafood eco-labels, which provide consumers with important information about the sustainability of the seafood they buy.  Recent scientific studies have also found harmful levels of mercury and other pollutants in some  forage fish that accumulate in the ocean, which could be a cause for concern among consumers.

“Our goal is to use technological innovation to overcome challenges in the aquaculture supply chain and change the way we feed farm-raised fish,” said Fitzsimmons. “The industry has made tremendous strides to vastly increase yields of aquaculture products with limited supplies of fish meal and fish oil. However, if we are to become even more sustainable and want to ensure a robust industry in the future, more innovation is needed to find cost-effective alternative ingredients.” China and the Asia-Pacific region are the largest markets in the global aquaculture industry, which is expected to be worth over $200 billion by 2020. The global fish oil market is projected to reach over $4 billion by 2021, and the rapidly expanding growing global aquaculture industry is the greatest source of demand for fish oil. Demand for fish oil as an ingredient in dietary supplements and pet food is also on the rise.

The first challenge by the F3 team, the Fish-Free Feed Challenge, was a game-changer in the fish feed industry by helping to promote the adoption of fish-free feed to improve the overall sustainability of the aquaculture industry. The challenge drew contestants from all over the world who have collectively sold over 100,000 metric tons of fishfree feed, saving over 100 million forage fish from being used as fish feed. This new challenge will help provide a key strategic ingredient that will enable aquaculture to expand more quickly, independent of wild-caught fish stocks, enhancing global food security. The goal of the F3 Fish Oil Challenge is to accelerate the availability of cost-competitive, viable alternatives to fish oil that provide the essential nutritional components for fish and at the same time to help reduce demand for wild-caught fish for fish feed and thus enhance food security. To learn more and register to compete, visit:

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Latin America Report

Latin America Report: Recent News and Events By: Staff / Aquaculture Magazine

Skretting Opens New Aquaculture Research Center in Chile Chile. – The new Aquaculture Research Center (ARC), located in Pargua, is expected to start operations in the first half of 2018. This center will focus on the validation of sustainable raw materials and high nutritional value ingredients for the aquaculture industry, as well as in the validation of supplements, additives and elements that can be incorporated into functional and commercial diets. In recent years, Skretting has made progress with raw materials that contribute to the nutrients present in fishmeal and fish oil, but the company must continue working to further deepen knowledge about the local realities of each market, in this case the Chilean aquaculture industry. The Pargua ARC will contribute with this type of research and also in the search for solutions that will strengthen the sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry in Chile and the world. The project represents a total investment of 4 million USD. The ARC will have recirculating aquaculture systems with the latest technology for fresh and marine water, which will allow having close control of the culture systems. The center will also work on creating networks with Chilean and foreign universities to develop collaborative works between the academic world and the private sector. Another goal is to strengthen linkages between government agencies and unions, suppliers and the community in general, and contribute to local economy development. In addition, it will establish cultivation units for conducting validation tests in freshwater stages from 0.1 g to 150 g and in sea water from 150 g 50 »

to 5 kg, thus allowing coverage of the entire cycle and evaluation of the best nutritional alternatives (raw materials and supplements) for each life stage.

The Turkish Aquaculture Leader, Kiliç Deniz, Starts Sea Bream and Sea Bass Operations in the Dominican Republic for Export to the U.S. Dominican Republic. - Kiliç Deniz, one of the world’s leading producers of sea bream and sea bass, has recently started operations in the Dominican Republic aiming to enter North American and South American seafood markets in 2018.

Currently, the company exports its products to 37 countries around the world, including the U.S. However, the new operations in the Dominican Republic offer the right conditions to culture Mediterranean fish species, as well as advantages in final product transportation to the destination market. In addition, the company seeks to exploit its knowledge and experience in aquaculture and explore the production of local species. The investment in the Dominican Republic occurred just after the company established a trout farm in Albania and a feed mill in Mauritania. In

addition, the company is conducting research for possible projects in Africa. Currently, Kiliç Deniz produces around 60,000 tons of sea bream, sea bass, trout, tuna, corvina and carvallo, and exports 70 % of its production to Russia and the European Union.

Freshwater Artemia With Potential as Aquaculture Feed Colombia. – As part of a project to validate new technology and innovations to reduce production costs in aquaculture, the National Aquaculture and Fisheries Authority (AUNAP) is carrying out research on the potential of freshwater artemia as a live food for the larval phases of native fish such as bocachico (Prochilodus madgalenae) and dorada (Brycon moorei sinuensis). The freshwater artemia, which inhabits the pools formed by the rain in the Guajira desert, was taken to the Ropelón fish farm, where a reproductive process was started. After several studies, two different types of freshwater artemia were found. Currently, researchers are working to determine their behavior in captivity and how they might serve to feed larvae. Throughout this year, research will be carried out to assess the use of enrichers, conduct feed trials with native species larvae, and perform technical and economic feasibility analyses for commercialization. Additionally, a comparison study between saline and freshwater artemia will be performed. At present, several producers and marketers import artemia from the U.S. at a high price. This study aims to test the use of freshwater artemia as feed for native species larvae in order to provide a more economical alternative and reduce aquaculture production costs.

Argentine Aquaculture: Regulations In Place to Promote Activity Argentina. - In early September the Aquaculture Law (decree 692/2017) that was approved by the Congress of the Nation at the end of 2015 was published in the Official Gazette. This was the last step of the process that began with the legislative work to develop the law. It will now provide the aquaculture industry with a regulatory framework for its regulation, control and promotion. Although the volume of aquaculture production in the country remains small (3,712 tons in 2016), there is enormous potential for growth given the existence of natural resources and quality waters, the wide availability of inputs for production, the availability of existing teaching, research and development institutions, and the positive image that Argentina has as a food produc-

ing country. In that sense, international organizations such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) argue that Argentina is one of the countries with the highest potential for development of the activity. With the aim of promoting aquaculture in different regions of the country, the law provides for the creation of a National Aquaculture Fund (FONAC), which will have a national budget item for ten years. The Fund will provide financial assistance to small-scale projects and SMEs producing a maximum of 1,000 tons. In addition, the law provides tax benefits for ten years for producers, including deductions from provincial taxes on personal property and gross income, early amortization of the value of acquired machinery and elimination of import tariffs on machinery that is not produced domestically.

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Aquaculture Without Frontiers

Aquaculture without Frontiers: AIMING HIGH WITH NEW PROJECTS AISP (Association of International Seafood Professionals) has joined forces with ISPIM (International Society for Professional Innovation Management) in this annual event and will focus efforts on the ‘Blue Economy’ section of ISPIM’s innovation theme, ‘Achieving Blue Growth.’ On the first day of the conference there will be a group-think activity to have everyone engage innovative ideas to ‘THE WICKED CHALLENGE’ on Plastics in the Ocean. The challenge is a well-established event activity where the innovators put their minds to solving issues around the world. The theme will continue through to the SUMMIT DINNER at Melbourne Town Hall which will include a special promotion for the ISPIM preferred charity, Aquaculture without Frontiers. AwF volunteers are encouraged to engage through the Scientific Committee (if you apply, please make sure to mention that you are an AwF volunteer). You are also able to make Submissions to the Summit. AwF will

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AwF has been named as preferred charity for the “ISPIM Innovation

Summit: Building the Innovation Century” to be held at RMIT in Melbourne, Australia 10-13 December 2017.

be the preferred charity for this and next year’s summit in Fukuoka, Japan 2-5 December, with an extra event in Hiroshima 6-7 December 2018. More can be seen at

CELEBRATION FOR INDIA On the 10th July, we celebrated the lives of Fish Farmers in India – important to also include all the fisheries scientists/ researchers as well as the fish farmers on their aquaculture success – and long may this continue! Our good friend, Professor Dinesh Kaippilly, Head of Aquaculture, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS) reminded us of this very special day in India. At present, India is the second largest aquaculture producer in the world following China and besides providing livelihood security to cover 14 million people, the sector has been one of the major foreign exchange earners. We learned about the history of this day and specifically that when India was grappling with food and protein shortages at the end of World War II, fish

culture activities got a boost in India and the trade in fish seed expanded. An important development during that time was the establishment of the Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI) at Barrackpore in 1947 by the government of India, where fisheries officers from different states were trained – this facility was originally known as the Inland Fisheries Training Centre. With this establishment, several small ponds around Howrah constituted a network of nurseries that evolved to be the centers of fry supply chains, and systematic marketing became possible with the establishment of a Fish Seed Syndicate. The major carp culture sector of today owes its present flourishing status to Prof. Chaudhuri, who ushered in the system of ‘Induced Breeding of major carps’ through administration of carp pituitary extract in the breeding of major carps, and standardized the system. It was on 10th July 1957, that the first success in induced breeding was achieved at Angul in Odisha by Dr. Chaudhuri with support from Dr. Alikunhi. The spawn that was produced out of this experiment was successfully raised into fry and later into fingerlings. This pioneering work, over years, has led to an aqua-explosion in the country, principally through quality major carp seed production and supplies to fish farmers from hundreds of hatcheries that sprang up in the country based on this induced breeding technology. The Indian fisheries sector has made great strides in the past five decades with incredible increases, from 0.75 million MT in 1950-51 to 9.58 million MT in 2013-14.

OYSTERS IN MEXICO Under the auspices of the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Council on Australia Latin America Relations (COALAR) has awarded a grant to Aquaculture without Frontiers (Australia) Limited to bring together seafood educators/professionals in Australia and Mexico to strengthen links in business, education, sustainability and applied research creating a long-term sustainable Oyster industry in Tamaulipas, Mexico. This will then be used as a model for extension to other suitably located areas in Mexico and more Latin American countries and for additional seafood species. Aquaculture without Frontiers (Australia) Limited will be working with Universidad Tecnológica del Mar de Tamaulipas Bicentenario (UTMarT) which specializes in aquaculture, tourism and information and communication technology. There has been a long-term arrangement between the parties which was started with an earlier AwF USA USAID Farmer to Farmer

project where AwF was involved in establishing an Oyster farming concept. The objective was to assist fishermen in Tamaulipas who were dealing with a depleted oyster situation and to take them on a journey (with their families) to help them become Oyster farmers thus creating a more sustainable income model. UTMarT, being the specialist educational center of the area, is keen to establish a center of excellence for oysters and other similar shellfish as part of a new plan with the Tamaulipas State Government in creating an eco-coastal area based on long-term, resilient and sustainable activities. The launch and promotion of the COALAR Project will be at the ISPIM Conference on Building the Innovation Century 10-13 December 2017 at RMIT in Melbourne. It is planned that Dr. Antonio Garza de Yta, Rector of UTMarT, will be in Melbourne for this and for meetings with some of the Australian specialists. In 2018 the plan is to bring two Mexican specialists to Australia to visit various locations for detailed discussions about oysters and then for one Australian specialist to travel to Mexico where workshops and further discussions will see the project develop. AwF is keen to meet the highest standards for the project and is having discussions with its MoU partner, Deakin University through Professor Giovanni Turchini, to get their input. In addition, there will be discussions with other organizations who have supported the project.

Dr. Antonio Garza de Yta, Rector of UTMarT.

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Offshore Aquaculture

Of Magic Wands, Regulations, and Endorsements. By Neil Anthony Sims*

What would you do if someone gave you a magic wand, and said

“Change what you will”?


his was the vertigo-inducing proposition that was presented to the Ocean Stewards Institute (the open ocean aquaculture trade association) and other offshore aquaculture advocates, when the U.S. government asked for recommendations on “Streamlining Regulatory Processes and Reducing the Regulatory Burden” for the Department of Commerce, which includes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). So, OK … perhaps the magic wand is an overstated analogy: it was only a chance to offer recommendations, not to actually affect any real change; and it only referred to regulations, not legislation. The Administration was offering to help where they can, but the U.S. Constitution puts legislative power firmly in the hands of the Congress. But regular readers of this column will understand how such an offer might still be giddily received. Commercial offshore aquaculture development has been stalled in the U.S. since before the Constitution was drafted. Initially, the problem was the absence of any enabling legislation. Favorable interpretations of the

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Magnusson-Stevens Fishery Management and Conservation Act had then opined that – well, sure – under the Act’s definitions, aquaculture is technically fishing, so … you are good to go! There then ensued a decade-long process for establishing a regulatory framework for Federal waters, beginning in the Gulf of Mexico. This hurdle was cleared in January 2016, however, to our knowledge there has not been a single offshore aquaculture proponent who has come forward to apply for a permit. Bloomberg mocked the entire process as “The $100 million US government fish farm that nobody wants.”1 Ouch! The anti-aquaculture activists were snorting derisively into their quinoa salads. But truth be told, the regulatory framework was a fearsome Gordian Knot of overlapping jurisdictions and responsibilities, and poorly defined criteria for farm siting and permit evaluation. It’s not just NOAA, but it’s also the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s NPDES regulations) and the Army Corps of Engineers (USACE’s Section 10 permit), along with State Coastal Zone Management obligations, and priority rights to any current or future oil or

gas installation. The Ocean Stewards had identified these failings earlier in the regulation-making process, but the cumbersome cycle of NOAA, Office of Management and Budget oversight, and the Regional Fishery Management Council, overlaid with EIS obligations after every hiccup, meant that the concrete was already setting as it was being poured. (Seriously … I kid you not … the EIS for the Aquaculture Fishery Management Plan, which had been accepted in 2009, had to be completely revisited in 2014 because the BP oil spill … umm, well … who knows, really? There was an oil spill, so someone decided the EIS for offshore aquaculture should be re-done, and so NOAA dutifully re-did the entire process2 … sigh.) Now that was all water under the bridge. Here was a new Administration, asking us what we would like to

Photo credit: Jeff Milisen, © Kampachi Farms, LLC – Kampachi in an offshore net pen. Conservation International and The Nature Conservancy, along with researchers from UCSB and UCLA, are not just recognizing the importance of expanding offshore aquaculture, but are now actively advocating in its favor.

see fixed. The Ocean Stewards recommended five primary changes to the current regulations, asserting that American open ocean aquaculture needs: 1. A single agency – NOAA - to take the lead for ocean aquaculture permitting; 2. Specific ocean areas to be designated as appropriate for aquaculture, where projects do not significantly conflict with other ocean user-groups, and where permit applications might be expedited; 3. An overarching EIS for ocean aquaculture that would identify all potential significant impacts from a generic net pen fish farm, and describe the required monitoring and mitigatory measures for such projects to ensure that some uniform standards are applied and to expedite applicant reviews; 4. A timely review process to be es-

tablished for commercial aquaculture projects; and 5. A simplified process to be put in place for expedited review and approval of experimental aquaculture projects. Taken together, these steps could “help reverse the imbalance of seafood trade, revitalize working waterfronts, create high-paying jobs in the US aquaculture sector and seafood processing sector, and increase the quality and availability of healthful, domestically-grown seafood for American consumers.” The details of the Ocean Stewards recommendations are on the government’s on-line portal3, and you can review all 167 other comments here4. Yes, as you might expect, there was a litany of suggestions from commercial fishermen, and the anti-aquaculture activists inevitably recited their long list of gripes about the evils of

farming fish in deep, offshore waters, far away from the coast, and how it is so much better to put marine fish in a shallow, circular tank in a dark room on land, and never let them see the sun or smell the ocean. So, we wait with bated breath to see what will transpire, and whether the Administration will move these ideas forward. It won’t be magic, but it may allow American entrepreneurs to build an environmentally responsible, productive offshore aquaculture industry. We also wait eagerly to see who will join us in promoting these notions. Perhaps, we might suggest, it is time for the conservation movement to engage with offshore aquaculture advocates to move this industry forward and help us make it happen in the right way, rather than just allowing it to happen. And perhaps it is time for the conservation movement to lead in disabusing U.S. consumers of their negative opinions of fish farming – borne of years of NGO smearing and besmirching - and help Americans understand that responsible aquaculture is the right thing to do, and responsibly farmed seafood is the right choice for consumer health, ocean health and planetary wellness. This doesn’t require magic – it simply asks our NGO colleagues to acknowledge the power of Science, and to speak out. And, Hallelujah! This is happening! There is a quiet revolution occurring among marine conservationists – or at least, among the true thought-leaders of the community. For many years, most of the eNGOs were staunchly opposed to the idea of growing fish in the ocean, yet somehow simultaneously celebrated and encouraged the farming of pigs, cows or chickens as a pastoral ideal. This first began to change with WWF’s support for the Aquaculture Dialogues, and then culminated in 2012 with Conservation International’s pivotal publication “Blue Frontiers”, which concluded that considering the full Life-Cycle Analysis of greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater » 55

Offshore Aquaculture

availability, land use and protein conversion efficiency, aquaculture was far less impactful on the planet than terrestrial livestock production. Other NGOs – at least, those that allow science to drive their policy positions – looked at the Blue Frontiers data, swallowed hard, and started searching for ways to quietly promote their preferred forms of aquaculture: Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture, culture of filter-feeding bivalves and freshwater fish, and Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS). Even Seafood Watch is now tweeting out, loud and proud, for aquaculture: “… farmed seafood is … the solution for our growing global demand for seafood.” But yet, it seemed that net pen culture – and ipso facto – offshore aquaculture – was just a bridge or two too far – until now. In “Human Nature,” the Conservation International blog, Leah Duran recently dismembered the “5 Myths about Farmed Seafood.”5 Myth No. 5 – that “Farmed seafood is only grown on land and close to shore” - was eloquently and resoundingly dispelled, in what is the most forthright endorsement of offshore aquaculture that we have ever seen from the NGO quarter. “Deeper waters and faster currents lessen pollution and disease, increase production, and reduce pressures on terrestrial and coastal habitats.” Ben Halpern (“lead scientist for the Ocean Health Index, a tool developed by CI that tracks ocean health”), embraced “the ‘vast, untapped potential’ of deepwater aquaculture to meet global seafood needs — sustainably.” The CI Blog also referenced a recent study by researchers from UC Santa Barbara, the Nature Conservancy, UCLA and NOAA. According to the study, published in the peerreviewed journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, use of the available ocean space for marine aquaculture (excluding those areas with other conflicting ocean uses or conservation concerns, and extending out to a depth of only 200 m) could produce 56 »

Photo credit: Jeff Milisen, © Kampachi Farms, LLC – Small-scale, non-commercial offshore aquaculture research projects – such as The Velella Beta-Test, offshore of Kona, Hawaii - present minimal environmental risk, yet still face a convoluted, protracted permit process. The Ocean Stewards are advocating for a streamlined process for experimental offshore permits.

more than 100 times the current level of global seafood consumption. That would certainly go a long way towards replacing hamburgers with fish-burgers. Further underscoring the point: they found that the equivalent of the current harvest of all of the world’s wild-caught fisheries could be farmed in an area less than 0.015 percent of the total ocean surface; i.e. an area about the size of Lake Michigan. The challenge, the study concluded, is not ocean space, it is primarily one of policy. Willpower, if you will. All that is needed is “good governance, sustainable investment and rock-solid science.”

We do love to see these endorsements! But … can the conservation community now partner with offshore aquaculture advocates to promote the regulatory changes that we need to allow this industry to grow? There was perhaps an opportunity lost by Miriam Horn, of the Environmental Defense Fund, in her 2016 book and recent Discovery Channel documentary entitled “Rancher, Farmer, Fisherman; Conservation Heroes of the American Heartland”6. Ms. Horn weaves a wondrous vision in transiting from the Rocky Mountains in Montana to the Gulf of Mexico, of cattlemen, wheat-growers, tugboat companies and snapper fishermen 2 gulf_fisheries/aquaculture/documents/pdfs/dsfpeis_gulf_aquaculture_fmp.pdf


3 4


Norton and Co. New York. 394 pp. The Discovery Channel documentary is available at https://www. 6

© Kampachi Farms, LLC – Expanding the production of delicious, healthful sashimi could provide alternatives to more impactful land animal proteins.

who understand the critical connections between their business health, and the health of their surrounding environment. If only that vision had extended into the future, and further into the Gulf of Mexico’s offshore

waters! Perhaps we might hope for a sequel: “Rancher, Farmer, Fisherman … and Offshore Aquaculturist”? That, my friends, would be truly magic!

Neil Anthony Sims is co-Founder and CEO of Kampachi Farms, LLC, based in Kona, Hawaii, and in La Paz, Mexico. He’s also the founding President of the Ocean Stewards Institute, and sits on the Steering Committee for the Seriola-Cobia Aquaculture Dialogue and the Technical Advisory Group for the WWF-sponsored Aquaculture Stewardship Council.

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Hatchery Technology and Management

Cryopreserved copepods the secret to a successful first-feeding of marine fish larva unveiled

When I heard that Planktonic AS had introduced cryopreserved copepods to the aquaculture market, I needed to ask twice: By Cecilia C. Vargas*

cryopreserved copepods? Did I hear correctly? Too good to be true!


es, you heard well, cryopreserved copepods! I realized then that we were going to witness a revolutionary time in the larval production of marine fish species. This is because most marine fish species present an undifferentiated gut at hatching which makes it difficult to develop a formulated feed that can be offered to fish larvae from first feeding. The larval production of marine species has therefore been relying for many years on the use of the cultured live feeds: rotifers (Brachionus sp.) and Artemia followed by a weaning period onto microparticulate diets …none of which is their natural prey, which would be copepods. However, the use of cultured live feeds may be a potential vector for pathogens and does not really accommodate the larva’s nutritional requirements. Fish larvae produced on copepods have a substantially higher growth rate, lower mortality rate, and lower prevalence of bone deformations than those grown on rotifers and Artemia. However, the use of copepods has been limited so far due to restricted access to mass production. Now with cryopreserved copepods in the market, the situation might be different. How did Planktonic come up with this interesting idea? The company was founded in 2008 by PhD. Nils Tokle (Chief Technology Officer), and Haavard Aakeroy began its operations in 58 »

2009. At that time, they offered preserved inert copepods, but they soon found out that the company needed to offer a “live” feed product. Work on the live feed started in 2012/2013, and only in 2016 did they manage to produce the product in volumes that were interesting to the aquaculture industry. Their copepods, after being harvested from the pristine waters of the coast of Norway, are mixed with a cryopreservation agent and sealed in 600g bags which are kept frozen following specific protocols. After the freezing process, the bags are stored in containers with liquid nitrogen for an undefined period. The cryopreserved copepods can then get revitalized and brought back to life by hatchery staff – a process that only takes approximately an hour!

The cryopreserved copepods are 320-350 μm long and 150 μm wide. Thus, comparable to the smallest AF Artemia on the market. The copepods are at the Nauplius - stage 1 and have not yet started to eat, so there is no danger that the organism has eaten parasite eggs or any other pathogen. The cryoprotectant also serves as disinfectant. The first sale of cryopreserved copepods (2 metric tons) took place in the spring of 2016 and in 2017 the company has produced 4 metric tons. Planktonic AS plans to increase production gradually in the coming years, aiming to produce more than 200 tons of cryopreserved copepods in 2025. The company has also managed to cryopreserve an even smaller species of copepod, which is about 230 μm long and 100 μm wide. It is like a large

rotifer, and it is used by seabream and seabass breeders. The smaller species is still only being frozen on an experimental level. Next year Planktonic AS will focus on upscaling production, running several trials before the product is launched to the market in 2019. The company has its main market in Norway, with hatcheries producing Ballan wrasse and lumpfish among its customers. Feeding trials of Sole species using cryopreserved copepods has given amazing results of 50-60 % higher growth rate compared to the standard feeding regime. In the near future, we will probably hear that the larval production of marine fish species like, for example, amberjack and tuna has become reliable and successful. In summary, the most important question related to larval nutrition, growth and survival is: Which nutritional and microbial characteristics of the prey and larval cultures create morphologically and immunologically robust, healthy, fast-growing, and viable larvae and juveniles? Further improvements in this area can only be achieved by new knowledge-based advances in live feed production and larval rearing protocols and systems. Even small enhancements in larval growth and quality may create large improvements on the other end when it comes to fish size and juvenile quality at time of stocking. For details about the production and use of cryopreserved copepods, see ( watch?v=VLgan3DI7CY).

Cecilia C. Vargas is currently R&D Manager at Let Sea AS in Sandnessjøen, Norway. She has many years of experience in production of aquatic species including rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, cod, various Japanese fishes, and live feed production. Her PhD studies focused on differences between diploid and triploid Atlantic cod in digestive and muscle systems. E-mail:

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Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Immunostimulants in Aquaculture Feed:

Shrimp Quality Considerations By George Baker

Over the past 10 -15 years, a number of helpful articles associated

with prebiotics, probiotics, and immunostimulants (PPIs) in shrimp feed and water treatment have been published in this and other periodicals.


he use of PPIs is now a common practice in shrimp aquaculture. This can be done by either PPI addition to the feed or to the culture water itself. It is well known that feed composition is especially important in animal farming due to the accumulation of nutritional components from the feed in the muscle tissue of most livestock. As an example of this phenomenon in aquaculture, multiple studies have shown that fatty acid composition of farm-raised shrimp muscle tissue is significantly affected by feed. Seeding bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp can be done similarly through probiotic addition to their feed. Several researchers have shown greater disease resistance with increased abundance of Lactobacillus, Streptomyces, Bacillus, and Vibrio species in the digestive tract of shrimp. Beside potential benefits to the digestive tract, PPIs likely also provide some benefit to the shrimp by protecting them from pathogens in their environment, as some studies have suggested. 60 Âť

What are Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Immunostimulants? Probiotics are defined as a mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms to improve the properties of the indigenous microflora or improve the health of hosts. Probiotic use in aquaculture has been of interest for some time and investigated by a number of researchers, primarily as an alternative to antibiotic or chemotherapeutic drugs. Prebiotics are substances that increase beneficial gut bacteria in the host. Some, but not all, prebiotic definitions include immunosaccharides and they may also be classified as immunostimulants. Immunostimulants are chemical agents, bacterial preparations, polysaccharides, animal or plant extracts, nutritional factors, and cytokines that enhance immune response by interacting with the cells of the system activating them. An example of an immunostimulant is β-glucan, which appears to enhance the growth, survival, and immune response in cultured shrimp. Review papers on the use of probiotics in aquaculture by Verschuere (2000), Martinez-Cruz (2012), Akhter

(2015), Lakshmi (2013), Hai (2015), and others provide abundant information involving probiotic use and benefits for growth promotion, pathogen inhibition, nutrient digestibility, water quality, stress tolerance and improvement of reproduction. One such study showed increases in growth and survival of farm-raised white shrimp while decreasing the use of antimicrobials by 94 %.

Use of Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Immunostimulants in Other Food Industries The pork and poultry industries have had great success using prebiotics and probiotics to improve food safety and quality. For example, Suo (2012) found an increase in pork quality as a function of texture by introducing Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 to pig diets. Takahashi and others (2005) showed increased carcass yield and meat quality in poultry by supplementing feed with a mixture of prebiotics and probiotics. A number of studies conducted on poultry quality by supplementing chicken feed with probiotics showed positive meat quality attribute results,

ment that supports their pathogens independently of the host animals…, reach high densities around the animal…and are continuously ingested.” In other words, aquatic animals reared in high-density submit to greater exposure of potential disease-causing agents when compared to land animals. If successes from other food industries using PPIs are to be applied in the shrimp aquaculture industry, modifications should be considered because of their environmental differences.

such as improved water-holding capacity, tenderness, oxidative stability, and sensory properties. Although the use and application of prebiotics, probiotics, and immunostimulants in land-animals is a good reference for aquaculture research, an aquatic animal environment is quite different to terrestrial species and cannot be directly applied. As Verschuere (2000) points out, “aquatic farmed animals are surrounded by an environ-

Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Immunostimulant Use and Shrimp Quality Considerations Dozens of peer-reviewed publications have proven effective uses of prebiotics, probiotics, and immunostimulants in shrimp aquaculture. The use of prebiotics, probiotics, and immunostimulants is very interesting, well-studied technology. What seems to be lacking in the scientific literature is any evidence (whether positive or negative) that the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and/or immunostimulants in shrimp feeds influences edible quality post-harvest. It is easy to assume that if an added substance results in a healthier farmed shrimp, there must be some sort of benefit assigned to its quality as a seafood. However, assume that one of the antimicrobial factors of a prebiotic, probiotic, or immunostimulant is de-

rived from a drop in the shrimp’s intestinal pH caused by the formation of lactic acid. Lactic acid produces a “sour-milk” aroma. If the concentration of certain organic acids formed by certain probiotic microflora is high enough to change either the color, odor, or flavor of shrimp reared in these environments, quality issues will be apparent. Microbiological analysis of shrimp raised in a PPIrich environment as a quality metric or regulation would be impacted. As an alternative to antibiotic use, probiotics added to either the feed or the water supply may be the best available method to cultivate healthy shrimp in aquaculture. Recently published research suggests a focus on probiotic mixture adaptation to marine ecosystems and potential consequences of introducing them to an aquaculture environment, such as increased antibiotic resistance gene expression in probiotic plasmids. In addition to these very important areas of research, additional information is needed to elucidate shrimp quality effects in the application of prebiotics, probiotics, and immunostimulants in shrimp aquaculture. As it is with food technology, novel techniques are developed with the best intentions as we attempt to feed a growing population. Without careful attention, however, technology can be overused and quality will ultimately be affected.

Dr. Baker is the Florida Sea Grant seafood science and technology specialist in University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Science extension program. He has been a faculty member in the Food Science & Human Nutrition Department at the University of Florida since 2009. Dr. Baker provides extension services, such as seafood HACCP and other seafood quality and safety training courses, to seafood processors and retailers. Additionally, his research involves the technical aspects of seafood and aquaculture product safety and quality using instrumental flavor and odor profiling and sensory analysis techniques.  Contact:

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Recent news from around the globe by

Specialized feeds are increasingly hitting the market, while

sustainability, and particularly fishmeal and oil replacement, continue to hold center stage.

By Suzi Dominy*


n its recently released annual sustainability report BioMar Group boasted a FIFO ratio of below 1, in alignment with UN Sustainable Development Goals. BioMar has over several years aimed to take the lead in researching alternative materials for fish oil and fishmeal including plant proteins and marine ingredients like micro algae. New alternative raw materials as well as high prices of fish oil and fishmeal in 2016 made it possible to formulate price competitive, high performance feed with a low FIFO ratio. This year’s Sustainability Report showcases a few of these success stories including the partnership with Aker BioMarine in the sustainable harvesting of krill from

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the lower trophic levels and an article on novel sources of marine omega-3s. “Although it is unlikely that BioMar will achieve such a good FIFO ratio every year due to ever changing market conditions, this is a major milestone and shows that we are progressing towards an industry where sustainable and high-performance alternatives to fish oil and fishmeal are accessible and becoming commercially viable,” stated Carlos Diaz, BioMar Group CEO. The move away from fishmeal is not confined to Europe and Scandinavia: Thailand’s agrifood conglomerate Charoen Pokphand Foods PLC (CPF) has announced it is moving forward in collaboration with various organizations to reduce the fishmeal ratio

in aquaculture feed production to no more than 5 %. Sujint Thammasart, chief operating officer for CPF’s aquaculture business, said that as part of the company’s commitment to sustainability and conservation, it had shifted production from black tiger shrimp farming to Vannamei shrimp. “Fishmeal portion in shrimp feed production thus falls from 35 % in the past 20 years to 7 % at present,” he said. CPF said fishmeal for the company’s shrimp farms is generally sourced from by-products of processing plants like surimi, canned tuna and fish ball plants; and by-catch, which is subjected to the sustainability and traceability rules under the International Fishmeal

and Fish Oil Organization’s Responsible Supply Chain of Custody (IFFO RS COC) which are certified by the IFFO. Researchers at Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre (ARC) have been actively investigating alternative raw materials for many years. Through their research, Skretting has gained the knowledge and developed the technology to replace traditional marinebased feed components with alternative ingredients. N3, a salmonid diet that utilizes a new marine algae oil, was launched at Skretting’s Infinity Seminar at Aqua Nor 2017, and will be globally available in 2019. Jointly produced by DSM and Evonik, the natural algae oil incorporated in N3 contains high levels of EPA and DHA. N3 is already being used by some salmon producing operations that were keen to evaluate its performance, and guests at the Infinity seminar became some of the first people in the world to taste salmon that had been reared without any fishmeal or fish oil.

“It is widely maintained that the proof of the pudding is in the eating, and so the salmon tasting was a fitting finale to the seminar,” said Evy Vikene, Marketing Manager in Skretting  Global Salmon. “Our guests, including many leading figures from the salmon and seafood industry, were very complimentary about the fish’s quality, flavor and texture, with many saying that it was indistinguish-

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able from a top-quality salmon fed on a traditional diet containing fishmeal and fish oil.”

New targeted feeds

Salmon feeds There has been a slew of new feed products during the summer. Skretting’s N3 launch comes hot on the heels of Prime and Express, a duo of salmon feeds designed for faster and


more efficient digestive break down and processing. They work in tandem to facilitate the best growth of the fish at two crucial growth stages: Prime optimizes consumption at the first seawater growth phase of the production cycle – up to 1 kilogram; Express takes over in the final grow-out phase – taking the salmon right through to harvest. With the new grower diets, an organ system approach was followed with the aim to redesign growth from a complete perspective. The result was two distinct products – each tailored to the physiological requirements of the fish at different life stages. Prime prepares, or primes, the fish, building a solid foundation to support fast, highquality growth. Express builds on the framework created by Prime, maximizing the speed of growth by enabling the fish to fully utilize the potential in the feed. This means that the feed can go through the digestive process much faster. “Good growth in the first phase in seawater should support the recruitment of new muscle fibres and a healthy bone deposition,” explained Christian De Santis, Researcher at Skretting ARC. “In the later seawater phase that leads to harvest, growth occurs primarily by enlargement of the existing muscle fibres and by deposition of fat. Growth at this final stage is only as good as the foundation that we lay in the first phase. With Prime and Express, we are supporting fast 64 »

growth while giving the salmon everything that they need to support the right type of growth.” Grower feeds typically contain high levels of fat. Salmon will digest and absorb this fat and deposit it in the fillet. However, processing a high-fat feed can be challenging to the fish’s digestive system. Express is designed to enable salmon to take up the fat from the feed more proficiently. Validation trials conducted with Express showed that it significantly reduced the accumulation of fat in the intestinal cells, suggesting a far more effective absorption of fat, De Santis said.

Specialized RAS feed EWOS CLEAR for recirculating aquaculture systems is a new holistic salmon feed developed specifically to deliver optimum RAS operational results through targeted feed design and optimal fish performance. Rearing salmonids in RAS facilities is a high technology business. EWOS identified the needs of a specialized feed to meet the challenges of suspended solids removal and disposal, fecal stability, and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) build up in the water. The EWOS CLEAR product is based on a model that combines RAS engineering, nutrient mass balance and bioenergetics and thus takes a holistic approach. The focus on designing the feed was threefold: macronutrient balance (digestible protein & digestible energy); digestibility of the raw materials and physical quality of the feed. Initial development started with trials measuring a wide range of relevant parameters including feed digestibility, fecal stability and fish health (histological appearance of gastro intestinal tracts). Field trials were subsequently held at one of the largest commercial RAS facilities in Norway to confirm freshwater feed that meets the needs of the fish and also the requirements

of the RAS operations. EWOS claims the feed allows for more fish to be produced within the same facilities, thus making better use of the RAS. Feed for health Aller Aqua Norway has carried out promising trials with rainbow trout using their new Aller Active feed, which has added organic minerals to strengthen overall fish health. The trial, carried out in 2015 and 2016, focused on the feeds impact on skin and mucus layer, as well as the overall health and quality of the fish. The fish and a control group were fed Aller Active and another Aller Aqua feed, respectively. The trials showed that the fish resistance to disease and lice, as well as mucus layer, increased significantly when fed Aller Active. The feed aids in better utilization of nutrients, proteins, minerals, and oils. The fish mucus layer is thickened, which has been confirmed by both the inspecting vet and customers. A Quantidoc analysis of the fish mucus layer – both control fish and the fish fed Aller Active - showed an increased density of mucus cells and larger areas of these in the Active-group compared to the control group. Quantidoc concludes: “There was a clear tendency to increased density and size of mucus cells on both skin and gills in the fish fed Aller Active.”  Enhanced probiotics INVE Aquaculture introduced a new and enhanced version of its successful feed probiotic for shrimp farming, Sanolife PRO-2. The company’s innovation team has identified ways to improve the activity and efficiency of the Sanolife strains of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus. These strains were selected for their ability to inhibit pathogens, be metabolically active in the shrimp gut and in the pond, and improve feed digestibility. The Bacillus strains were deposited in the Belgian LMG Culture Collection, which guarantees the unique composition, quality, performance and consistency of the product. “The remarkably high Bacillus spore count (20 billion viable spores per g) grants Sanolife PRO-2 the highest number of viable active Bacillus per US dollar invested.”  Olivier Decamp,  Product Manager Shrimp Farm, INVE Aquaculture said. INVE Aquaculture has developed this new probiotic in close collaboration with the industry. Feedback was gathered from farmers worldwide to match the new product to their challenges. Rearing trials and AHPND (EMS) challenge tests were conducted in Asia and Latin America, reliably demonstrating the ability of Sanolife PRO-2 to increase growth rate and survival while reducing FCR. The release of the enhanced Sanolife PRO-2 probiotic coincides with the rebranding of INVE Aquaculture’s packaging labels, which will be introduced in the market » 65

as of September 2017. The product will also be integrated into renewed expert rearing protocols for different culture conditions, from semi-intensive to super-intensive shrimp farming. INVE Aquaculture’s local technical support teams will assist their customers to effectively benefit from its performance advantages. Meanwhile, INVE do Brasil, the Brazilian branch of INVE Aquaculture announced they are now collaborating closely with Escama Forte to guarantee the adequate distribution and implementation of their products on the Brazilian aquaculture market.

Suzi Dominy is the founding editor and publisher of She brings 25 years of experience in professional feed industry journalism and publishing. Before starting this company, she was co-publisher of the agri-food division of a major UKbased company, and editor of their major international feed magazine for 13 years.


Sea ranching of pink salmon causes both benefits and potential conflicts

Pink salmon is the most abundant Pacific salmon species, distributed from Puget Sound to Kotzebu Sound in North America and from the Bering Strait to Northern Japan. Similar to other Pacific salmon species, the recruitment of pink salmon has been stimulated by hatchery-produced fry since the late 1950’s in order to increase the harvest. In North America, Russia and Japan overfishing By Asbjørn Bergheim*

of Pacific salmon strongly reduced harvests after the 2nd World War.


t present, the global catch of pink salmon represents the total catch of the other wild salmon species together, i.e. an annual harvest of approximately 400,000 tons of pink and a similar quantity of primarily chum and sockeye salmon (Marine Harvest Industry Handbook). Japan is the dominating producer of sea ranched chum salmon. None of these species plays an important role in aquaculture characterized by controlled on-growing in cages or tanks. When male pink salmon return to freshwater for their spawning run they develop a large hump above the spine area and the species are commonly called “humpy” salmon. The species’ life cycle typically lasts for two years, where both males and females die shortly after spawning in autumn. The following spring, their fry migrate to sea and dwell for some 15 months until they return to freshwater and spawning. Consequently, 66 »

Figure 1. A sexually mature pink salmon male with a dorsal hump (early stage). Note the typical dark spots on the tail fin (courtesy: Eva Thorstad).

pink salmon strains that spawn in odd number years are separated reproductively from other strains spawning in even number years. Fraser River east of Vancouver is famous for its pink salmon run every odd number year in September ( Between 6 and 30 million salmon are typically returning, providing productive fishing for anglers. Up to 50+ hooked pinks are reported per trip for each angler! The introduced pink salmon

strains in the Kola Peninsula rivers in Russia are also typically dominated by odd number year spawners (2015 – 2017 – etc.). Pink salmon are aggressive biters and easy to catch by anglers in rivers and at the river mouths. The flesh quality will be poorer during sexual maturation with softer texture and less flavor. Before the run, seawater pink make a good table fare. In a recent note, a fisherman in Northern Norway mentioned that he pre-

ferred pink salmon caught at sea to other fish species; smoked and toasted pink meat is very tasty and delicious. Without doubt, hatchery releases of fry have strongly contributed to pink salmon populations. Prince William Sound (PSW) in Alaska is among the dominating regions for pink salmon and, according to research reports, sea ranched salmon made up about 75 % of the total runs during 1991 - 2001. Thus, hatchery releases have provided large net benefits to the salmon fisheries in this region. The forecasted harvest of the odd-year pink salmon run in PSW this year is c. 67 million individuals (Peggy Parker, Seafood. com NEWS). That corresponds to more than 130,000 tons assuming an average weight of 4 – 6 lbs. Natural stock salmon make up c. 21 million while the rest (46 million, 69 %) originate from hatchery releases. Sea ranching in Alaska has restored the stocks under strong fishing pressure and has allowed an increase of up to 80% of the total catches. According to AOS (, hundreds of millions of pink salmon are collectively placed in the ecosystem each year. The high number raises concerns about negative effects on other species, even seabirds that are competing for the same prey organisms. Pink salmon introduced in the Kola Peninsula from native strains in rivers in Sakhalin Island during 1955-1979 failed to establish self-reproducing stocks (Finnmark County Governor, Report 3-2016). A new selection of an odd-year pink salmon population from a river in the Magadan region of Russia was introduced in 1985 and succeeded in reproducing in Kola rivers. Mainly due to massive hatchery releases, catches of pink salmon have become the dominating commercial fish harvest in the White Sea. “Humpy” salmon catches in the sea and rivers along the Norwegian

Figure 2. Pink salmon male before spawning (late stage) (courtesy: Eva Thorstad).

coast occur every year. The Norwegian catches were large in the 1960s after the first years of introduction in rivers in Kola, but were gradually reduced year by year (NINA Norwegian Institute for Nature Research). This summer, many catches of pink salmon are reported along the entire coastline from the Russian border to the Swedish border. Eva Thorstad, researcher at NINA, received more than 200 reports of pink salmon being caught over 10 days in mid-July, the highest number in recent years. One month later, the reported number of pink salmon spawners had increased to around 2,000 individuals in 166 Norwegian rivers. Landed salmon were mature with milk/roe and some had started to spawn before 10th of August. This is the highest number of pink salmon caught along the Norwegian coast in 40 – 50 years. Pink salmon are on the Norwegian blacklist representing nonnative species within the “high-risk category.” Pinks mainly spawn in the lower part of the rivers in August/ September before the main spawning period in September – November of Atlantic salmon. Newly hatched pink fry enter the sea in the spring and represent a low risk of compe-

tition for food for native salmon in the rivers. The ecological effects of this non-native species are not well documented at present but researchers at NINA have started filling the knowledge gaps.

Dr. AsbjØrn Bergheim is a senior researcher in the Dept. of Marine Environment at the International Research Institute of Stavanger. His fields of interest within aquaculture are primarily water quality vs. technology and management in tanks, cages and ponds, among others.

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How Does Penaeus vannamei Cope with Low Salinity Water?

Penaeus vannamei is a tropical marine species indigenous to the eastern Pacific Ocean, but has been the dominant shrimp species Hui Gong Jiang, PhD


he optimal salinity range for the growth of penaeid shrimp in the juvenile stage is between 15 to 25 parts per thousand (ppt) while the iososmotic point of P. vannamei hemolymph is approximately 26.1 ppt (Figure 1). Although it is considered a euryhaline species, the osmoregulatory capability of P. vannamei in low salinity is developmental-stage specific. P. vannamei become more capable of adapting to low salinity during older post-larval and juvenile stages when, under natural conditions, they would begin to migrate to the coastal estuaries for more food sources. In fact, the establishment of osmoregulatory mechanisms is initiated in the first day of post-larval development. Osmoregulatory capacity gradually improves until shrimp grow into

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cultured worldwide in a wide range of salinities. young juveniles. However, the production performance of this penaeid species is hindered to a great extent when the salinity of the rearing water medium drops to 1.5 ppt or lower. It is noteworthy that in addition to external salinity levels, ambient ionic composition has profound effects on food consumption, osmoregulation, energy demand, nutrient utilization, molting and metabolism of shrimp as they actively maintain internal homeostasis under hypo saline conditions. As a matter of fact, the osmoregulatory mechanism of P. vannamei under these conditions can be categorized as hyper-osmoregulation. This hyper-osmoregulation mechanism is activated at external salinities lower than 26ppt, when the shrimp need to actively keep the osmotic and ionic concentrations of hemolymph at

concentrations above those in the surrounding water, such as in dilute seawater. P. vannamei is able to maintain its hemolymph osmolality approximately 450mOsm kg H2O-1 above the ambient osmolality at 5ppt (Figure 1). Because the maintenance of internal ionic homeostasis is an energy demanding process, hyper-osmoregulation related activities account for 2050 % of metabolic energy depending on the surrounding water composition. Four main adaptive strategies of P. vannamei osmoregulation are: • Decrease the permeability of the body surface to salt and water, • Reduce the osmotic gradient maintained across the body surface, • Increase production of urine to compensate for the passive inflow of water,

• Actively absorb salt (mainly NaCl) to compensate for the passive, diffusive loss of salt (mainly NaCl). Many organs/tissues of shrimp work collectively in osmoregulation, including body surfaces, the digestive system, pleopods, gills, antennal glands, maxillary glands, and others. When euryhaline marine shrimp are exposed to low salinities, the permeability of shrimp surfaces decreases, NKA activity increases (see below), water excretion via renal organs increases and organic osmolytes in body fluids are decreased. As the hemolymph osmolality decreases, so does that of the cells, causing them to swell. Swelling then decreases intercellular space causing an increase in tonicity that in turn slows water flow into the body. Gills are the major osmoregulatory organs responsible for sodium and chloride regulation. One key ionic transport mechanism is mediated by Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). Bound to baso-lateral membranes of gill epithe-

lial cells, NKA is an energy consuming enzyme, which can export three Na+ ions out of the cytoplasm in exchange for transporting two K+ ions into the cell. Potassium ions then pass through a potassium channel driven by a down-concentration gradient. Similarly, the chloride channel acts by down-concentration gradient as well. If the ionic composition of the low salinity water is different from that of seawater, higher NKA activities are required. Na/K-ATPase activity increases 1.8-fold for P. vannamei reared in 1.5ppt compared to 15ppt. Different ionic compositions can cause shrimp to spend even higher energy to expand osmoregulatory capabilities for proper ionic transportation and normal cell function. If imbalanced external ionic compositions persist as a common challenge in inland shrimp farming, shrimp would be expected to suffer from stresses of various degrees, ultimately including the disruption of osmoregulation. For example, low ex-

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Shrimp Fig. 1 The hemolymph osmolality in Penaeus vannamei in comparison with the osmolality of its culture water (Adapted from Gong et al., 2004).

26.1 ppt

ternal magnesium concentration could particularly result in disruption of osmoregulation because magnesium is essential for normal NKA function. Supplementation of potassium and magnesium ions in water or in shrimp diets proves beneficial for improving production performance in inland shrimp farming. Antennal glands may filter hemolymph and then reabsorb sodium and chloride into tubules, thus excreting a diluted urine. Divalent ions, such as calcium, magnesium and sulfate are also regulated by the antennal gland, and Ca2+ can be actively transported into hemolymph and

then diffuse into cells via a divalent cation channel. V type H+-ATPase is important to generate both H+ gradients and transmembrane electrical gradients, which can be used to energize electroneutral or electrogenic exchange of Na+ and/or K+ for H+, thus helping maintain electro-neutrality while not influencing osmolality. The Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter helps facilitate transport of Na+, K+, Cl- from the external water medium to the cells, while the 2Na+/3HCO3co-transporter helps to remove Na+ from cells. Free amino acids and some nitrogen metabolites could serve as

effective osmolytes and participate in the osmoregulation. Although P. vannamei can adapt to a wide range of external salinity thanks to its osmoregulatory capability, there is no doubt that extremely low salinity causes significant stress effects, and adversely affects the immunological response and disease resistance of shrimp. For example, a shrimp is 10 time more susceptible to ammonia toxicity at 1.5ppt as compared to 15ppt, and they are more susceptible to Vibrio and yellow head viral infections under extremely low salinity conditions. Suppressed expression of some immunity related protein and enzymes can also occur at low salinities. In order to improve shrimp hyperosmoregulation and minimize the adverse impacts of extremely low salinity or unbalanced ionic composition in culture water, ionic modification and nutritional supplementation are the remedial approaches supported by several research findings, yet our understanding is still very limited. Additionally, dietary requirements for minerals, amino acids, essential lipids and vitamins under low salinity conditions, which would presumably differ from those of shrimp reared in full strength seawater, deserve more research efforts for this dominant penaeid species. Adequate and more refined dietary formulations would potentially help shrimp establish more robust internal mechanisms for coping with low salinity rearing water and associated stresses, as would proper ionic management of the culture medium.

Hui Gong, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the College of Natural and Applied Sciences at the University of Guam. Her expertise in shrimp aquaculture has built on 17 years of experience in applied research in both academic and industrial backgrounds.

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the fishmonger

IS THE FUTURE ALREADY HERE? If a member of the public wants to buy seafood they are limited by what their retailer has available.

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nd, unfortunately, it is not everywhere in the world you can find decent fishmongers/retailers who really have knowledge on product and consumer needs. As a result, many communities are missing out on the great offering that seafood can bring them and especially the fantastic nutrition that seafood provides. For those that are fortunate to be able to have variety of choices of seafood they are getting more interested in the provenance of the product. In the age that we live where terrorism, fraud and other illegal activities abound, governments and global buyers are reacting to ensure that supply chains can demonstrate traceability. Of course, for many years seafood harvesters/producers have suffered at the hands of middlemen who have added margins and this has made seafood more expensive for the consumer or more marginal for the harvester/producer. Governments generally failed the industry by not grasping the need for sustainability evidence or that this was equally as important as proving healthfulness. This left the industry open to outside forces and, therefore, certification costs have added to the burden. Buyers want evidence of sustainability but are not necessarily keen to pay for that. In a project in Australia some years ago relating to the supply chain of fresh fish from fisherman to consumer, the evidence was that there could be between 15 and 20 ‘hands’ involved. It is a rarity for the fisherman to have any connection with, or even knowledge of, who is the end buyer of his catch. Granted it is not quite the same in aquaculture if the product is being sold domestically but, if it is exported, a comparable situation is evident. Banks are involved in most seafood transactions and the costs of each change of hands increases as the years go on. No one stops to think about who will pay for this if it is not themselves. In many develop-

ing countries banks do not have the outreach or systems available, which adds to the burden of seafood harvesters/producers in such countries. The burden always falls on either the beginning or the end of the chain. The seafood industry is unlike other food commodities. For example, in coffee there are no more than six companies who control 80% of the industry. This enables global planning and engagement in improving issues as they appear on the horizon. How many companies would you need to connect with to control 80 % of seafood? Have a guess, but more than likely they would not fit into the largest sporting stadium in the world (which surprisingly is Rungrado 1st of May Stadium in North Korea). An impossible task to get a diverse and difficult industry together. Trust is in short supply in seafood. As supermarkets have come under pressure from NGO’s they have turned to certification as the answer. Producers/harvesters wanting to expand sales through supermarkets and other such like businesses have had to pay to meet standards established by private organisations – a minefield due to a lack of a truly global standard. Whilst there has been talk of harmonisation we must understand that certain organisations have built their wealth around the money in this system. Some areas of certification are excellent. The industry is far better for adopting training and aiming for the world’s best practices but the process has also created a new industry which has a voracious appetite for money to spend either in empire building or in areas outside the seafood industry.

What is the Solution? ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ has shown us the way! Satoshi Nakamoto is the name of the person accredited with designing bitcoin and along that journey devising the first blockchain database. This process solved the double spending problem that digital

currency had experienced and bitcoin has since flourished. (Note – according to Wikipedia Nakamoto has claimed to be a man living in Japan, born on 5 April 1975. However, speculation about the true identity of Nakamoto has mostly focused on several cryptography and computer science experts of non-Japanese descent, living in the United States and Europe.) In 2016 the authors of Blockchain Revolution, Don & Alex Tapscott, said “The blockchain is an incorruptible digital ledger of economic transactions that can be programmed to record not just financial transactions but virtually everything of value.” Whilst it is never harmful to invest time to learn how the technology works, it is not dissimilar to the Internet or your car; you don’t need to know how the blockchain works to use it. It has been proven to work and it will create a solution with many added bonuses. Blockchain can assist producers/ harvesters and brands to build trust through transparency. Through this it will help eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and/ » 73

the fishmonger

or misrepresented seafood products that have affected global seafood markets. Offering a blockchain framework availably globally through an open source system will enable organisations to input their own information and make that available to their customers. In the USA starting January 2018, the Seafood Import Monitoring Program will require specific data related to seafood imports to be provided electronically to U.S. Customs and Border Protection. In the EU similar requirements, specifically special catch certificates, have been in place for several years. The pressure on paperwork through vessel owners and individual company systems linking with government approvals has been a bone of contention and the cause of much angst. The recently announced Earth Twine-Stratis Platform partnership will significantly help all companies and governments solve the issue, and the winners will be all seafood consumers. This partnership creates the first dedicated blockchain system for origin data and tracking for the global seafood industry. It combines collaborative technologies (Earth Twine, Stratis, and SPARKL), and will provide the means for tracking

mandatory data for IUU compliance. This is a game changer for the industry. For Earth Twine this is the result of many years of working hard behind the scenes connecting with and interpreting the wants and needs of the seafood industry. In collaboration with The Association of International Seafood Professionals (AISP), Earth Twine has established the means for inclusive representation of all sectors of the seafood industry. This has culminated in Earth Twine getting a comprehensive understanding of the unique seafood supply chain, and with the knowledge of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR’s) these efforts have led to the development of a solution that provides

a product for all stakeholders of the supply chain, small and large. Stratis has been described as the most technologically advanced blockchain platform in the world. This has not been an easy path and Stratis has been working hard at building their tech into one of the most powerful platforms in the space. The roadmap they offer shows that they are well organized and have thought through many potential technical issues. That is why Earth Twine chose them as their partner. SPARKL enables the multiple tracking applications and systems to work collaboratively within legacy environments and this fuels the platform to orchestrate multiple structures and will reduce complexities in the seafood supply chain. Of course, this whole area has been a dynamic space and as governments have engaged rules and regulations have changed. To keep ahead Earth Twine has created another partnership with the largest law firm in the USA, Greenberg Traurig Law. Greenberg Traurig Law’s international presence, industry specific knowledge of blockchain innovation, and its understanding of the US Securities and Exchange Commission’s emerging regulations for cryptocurrencies adds massive value and governance to the program. Seafood producers and harvesters will soon be able to provide real confidence in the provenance and supply chain. Happy Fishmongering!!! The Fishmonger

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urner barry

Salmon By: Paul B. Brown Jr.*


verall salmon imports in September remain less than one percent higher on a YTD basis. Total imports on a month to month basis were up 3.30 percent compared to the previous month. YTD imports through July are up 4.3 percent from 2016. Canada is down 13.7 percent YTD, while Norway and the U.K are up 83.9 and 112.2 percent, respectively. Canada’s total market share is down to 60 percent from 2016’s 72 percent. There appears to be a slow shift back to the norm on a month-to-month basis. However, Canada did see its imports decrease 3.7 percent compared to June 2017. Overall monthly imports for July 2017 were also down 2.7 percent compared to June 2017. Overall imports, in contrast, for July 2017 were up 4.8 percent compared to July 2016. Currently, the Northeast wholefish market has been full steady to firm. Supplies have been adequate to barely adequate for a moderate to more active demand. Regarding the threeyear average thus far, all sizes in the Northeast are trending above those averages. The West Coast wholefish market throughout September has been full steady to firm; which is somewhat an

anomaly for the month of September. However, with Hurricane Irma affecting Chilean imports and then the Chilean holidays; the market has been lighter than what is typical. Additionally, overall imports of wholefish out of Canada are lower than last year; YTD 13.7 percent. The lack of Canadian fish this year has been offset by the increase in European wholefish imports; overall wholefish imports are 4.3 percent higher. Despite large volumes of whole fish out of Europe and falling prices throughout the first quarter of 2017, prices for Chilean fillets in the weekto-week negotiated/spot market remained relatively flat until Memorial Day. Prices trended lower through the rest of the summer. However, the market has been full steady to firming throughout September. Some of this upward movement can be attributed to Hurricane Irma and the disruption resulting from it as well as the Chilean

holidays which also affected supply. Demand is currently active and supplies are falling short of buyer’s needs. 2-3s and 3-4s are now under last year’s pricing and just slightly above the three-year average. What has been clear is that prices and portions for frozen fillets have increased significantly because of diminishing inventories. This remains the same this month, however, the scenario is starting to change. We are seeing the frozen fillet and portions markets adjusting lower. Retail prices in September 2017 are $0.37 lower than September 2016 in all areas of the U.S. The ratio of retail ad prices to wholesale prices was at its lowest point last year; the lowest seen in at least the last five years. However, this ratio is beginning to increase, but is still quite low. What this means is that the price difference between these two has come crashing after large price differences seen from the last quarter of 2014 to the end of 2015. These price differences started eroding in Q1 of 2016 after the price spike in the wholesale market caused by the algae bloom supply shock. The 2017 wild salmon season has seen historic volumes of sockeyes, and the coho market is on par to above where it was last year. Supplies of wild in general are starting to slow down as the season starts to come to an end. *President of Urner Barry

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SHRIMP By: Paul B. Brown Jr.*

U.S. Imports India continues to provide the bulk of US imports; fully 30% of all imports. Indonesian imports were off sharply in July and lower YTD. Ecuador imports were up; despite sending most of their shrimp to Asia, as their production continues at record levels. Thai imports were about even in July but down YTD. Monthly Import Cycles by Country (All Types) Vietnamese imports surged in July as did China’s. Chinese imports are running well above a year ago. India, Ecuador and Indonesia lead the way on

HLSO and easy peel imports. The increase in HLSO imports appears to be centered on 31-40 count and larger.

U.S. Shrimp Supply & Gulf Situation The market has been largely unchanged since the region was impacted by backto-back hurricanes. Especially steady were headless shell-on shrimp. Participants appeared to be content with steady markets as they assessed conditions post-Harvey and Irma. *President of Urner Barry

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urner barry

Tilapia, Pangasius and catfish By: Paul B. Brown Jr.*


ilapia imports in July increased less than one percent compared to the previous month, but fell nearly 10 percent when compared to the same month a year ago. All categories follow a seasonal pattern. Pangasius and Channel Catfish: Imports of Pangasius jumped significantly in July prior to the USDA’s inspection start date in August; July figures registered a record high of 34 million pounds. Still, YTD figures remain below last year’s levels. Meanwhile, imports of Chinese catfish retreated slightly from the previous month, but are well above on a seasonal basis. Imported Channel Catfish: Imports of frozen channel catfish fillets decreased 15 percent from the previous month, but remain significantly higher on a seasonal basis. On a YTD basis imports are nearly 40 percent greater. Shipments in July entered the U.S. with a declared value of $3.04 per pound, registering a $0.03 increase from the previous month. The wholesale market remains steady to about steady despite prices adjusting slightly lower in July. Pangasius: July imports registered a monthly record high; mainly due to the USDA’s inspection deadline of August 2nd, totaling 34 million pounds. Still, imports on a YTD basis remain nearly 10 percent below those registered a year ago. The unusual behavior of monthly imports this year has caused prices in the U.S. to firm. In addition to the uncertainty, there have also been delays and increased costs due to the USDA mandatory inspection. European data revealed lower imports of Pangasius through June. On a YTD basis Pangasius imports in Europe are down nearly 23 percent. 78 »

Tilapia Whole Fish: Imports of frozen whole fish increased from the previous month following a seasonal pattern; however, July imports remained below last year’s figures and the three-year average. On a YTD basis, imports are now 15 percent lower compared to last year. Tilapia Fresh Fillets: Imports in July decreased from the previous month by 7 percent and nearly 20 percent compared to the same month last year. Imports from Ecuador continue to decline steeply with YTD figures showing a nearly 40 percent decline compared to last year. Meanwhile, year-to-date shipments versus 2016 from Colombia and Costa Rica are up 16 and 3.4 percent, respectively. Imports from Honduras, the largest supplier of this commodity to the U.S. market, are nearly 10 percent lower through July compared to the same period last year. Total imports of this commodity are 5 percent lower on a YTD basis through July.

Tilapia Frozen Fillets: Imports decreased slightly from the previous month as seasonally expected. YTD imports are now 14 percent below those recorded last year and remain the lowest since 2009. The gradual and consistent decline in imports for this commodity is clear. Although we cannot pinpoint a specific reason, we can name a few possibilities: from bad publicity over the course of many years and changes in consumer preferences, to substitution at the wholesale level due to high prices registered in 2014. According to many traders, supplies in the U.S. remain adequate despite flat prices and a 14 percent drop in imports through July. Domestic Catfish: Prices in the domestic catfish market went unchanged. Some discounting has still been reported on larger-sized whole fish and fillets due to fully adequate supplies. Demand was rated moderate. *President of Urner Barry

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aquaculture events

NOVEMBER CHINA FISHERIES & SEADOOD EXPO 2017 Nov. 1 – Nov. 3 Qingdao International Expo Center Qingdao, China W: LAQUA 17 Nov. 8 – Nov. 10 Mazatlan International Center Mazatlan, Mexico T: +1 760 751 5005 E: W: EXPO PESCA Y ACUIPERU Nov. 8 – Nov. 10 Jockey Exposition Center Lima, Peru T: +511 201 7820 E: W: XIV FENACAM Nov. 15 – Nov. 18 Natal Convention Center Natal, Brazil T: +84 3232 6291 E: W:

JANUARY 4TH SHRIMP FARMING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Jan. 25 – Jan. 26 Auditorium of the Universidad de La Salle Noroeste Cd. Obregon, Mexico T: +52 33 8000 7595 E: FEBRUARY AQUACULTURE AMERICA 2018 Feb. 19 – Feb. 22 Paris Hotel Las Vegas, USA E: W: MARCH SEAFOOD EXPO NORTH AMERICA Mar. 11 – Mar. 13 Boston Convention and Exhibition Center Boston, USA T: +1 800 803 5804 E: W: Oceanology International London 2018 Mar. 13 – Mar. 15 ExCel London, London, UK T: +44 0 20 8439 8858 E: W:

APRIL SEAFOOD PROCESSING GLOBAL 2018 Apr. 24 – Apr. 26 Brussels Expo Brussels, Belgium T: +1 207 842 5590 E: W:

MAY 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MARICULTURE May 16 – May 17 Caracol Science Museum and Aquarium Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico E: AQUACULTURE UK 2018 EXHIBITION May. 23 Macdonald Aviemore Resort Aviemore, Scotland, UK T: +44 0 7880 230399 E: W: AUGUST AQUA 2018 Ago. 25 – Ago. 29 Le Corum Congress Centre Montpellier, France T: +1 760 751 5005 E: W:


antibiotics, probiotics and FEED additives ALGAEnergy, s.a..................................................................................1 H.Q.:Madrid, Prodution Plant: Cádiz (Spain) T: (+34) 91 490 2020 E-mail: / Lallemand Animal Nutrition........................................................57 Contact: Bernardo Ramírez DVM Basurto. Tel: (+52) 833 155 8096 E-mail: / Megasupply.......................................................................................13 USA, Europe, South America, Asia and Middle East: T.: +1 (786) 221 5660 Fax: +1 (786) 524 0208 Reed Mariculture, Inc....................................................................63 900 E Hamilton Ave, Suite 100. Campbell, CA 95008 USA. Contact: Lin T: 408 377 1065 F: 408 884 2322 E-mail: / SYNDEL...............................................................................................49 CANADA.T: 1 800 663-2282 USA. T: 1 800 283-5292 aeration equipment, PUMPS, FILTERS and measuring instruments, ETC ADVANCED AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS, INC..........................................73 4509 Hickory Creek Lane, Brandon, FL 33511. USA. Contact: Dana Kent T: (800) 994-7599 / (813) 653-2823 E-mail: / aquaFUTURE e.K..................................................................................5 Dietmar Firzlaff Hans-Böckler-Str. 5 D-57223 Kreuztal Germany. T: ++49 (0)2732-6535 F: ++49 (0)2732-6371 Mobil: 0171 260-5060 Skype: aquafuture-d / Aquatic Equipment and Design, Inc.............................................43 522 S. HUNT CLUB BLVD, #416, APOPKA, FL 32703. USA. Contact: Amy Stone T: (407) 717-6174  E-mail: Fresh Flo..........................................................................................21 3037 Weeden Creek Rd. Sheboygan, WI 53081 Contact: Barb Ziegelbauer T: 920-208-1500 E-mail: / GENESYS PUMPS................................................................................11 MDM Incorporated 3345 N. Cascade Ave. Colorado Springs, CO 80907 T: 800-447-8342 (Toll Free) Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc..............................back cover 2395 Apopka Blvd. Apopka, Florida, Zip Code 32703, USA. Contact: Ricardo Arias T: (407) 8863939, (407) 8864884 E-mail: / RK2 Systems.............................................................................39 421 A south Andreassen Drive Escondido California, USA. Contact: Chris Krechter. T: 760 746 74 00 E-mail: /

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Sun Asia Aeration Int´l Co., Ltd.....................................................29 15f, 7, Ssu-wei 4 road, Ling-ya District, Kaohsiung, 82047 Táiwan R.O.C. Contact: Ema Ma. T: 886 7537 0017, 886 7537 0016 E-mail: / Valterra Products LLC...........................................INSIDE COVER Mission Hills, CA Contact: Tera Grengs, Marketing Manager. T: 818-898-1671 x11 E-mail: YSI.................................................................................................69 1700/1725 Brannum Lane-P.O. Box 279, Yellow Springs, OH. 45387,USA. Contact: Tim Groms. T: 937 767 7241, 1800 897 4151 E-mail: / applications such as oxygen, ozone, nitrogen, compressed dry air Adsorptech, Inc.........................................................................35 22 Stonebridge Rd. Hampton, NJ 08827 USA. T: +1 908 735 9528 E-mail: / events and exhibitions 1st INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MARICULTURE.....................33 May 16 and 17, 2018. Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. Caracol Science Museum and Aquarium. E: 4th Science and Technology CONFERENCE on Shrimp Farming.......................................................................................15 January 25 - 26, 2018. Ciudad Ogregón, Sonora, Mexico. Contact: Christian Criollos, E-mail: XII SIMPOSIO CENTROAMERICANO DE ACUICULTURA.................79 August 21 -24, 2018. Choluteca Honduras. E-mail: FENACAM 2017.........................................................................71 November 15 - 18, 2017. City of Natal, Brazil. T: (84) 3231.6291 / (84) 3231.9786 SKYPE: fenacam E-mail: Latin American & Caribbean Chapter World Aquaculture Society (LACQUA17).............................27 November 7 - 10, 2017. Mazatlan, Mexico. Contact: Nashieli Rodríguez Núñez Mobile phone: +52 (1) 612 142 69 21 WAS LAS VEGAS 2018.........................................................................17 February 19-22, 2018. Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. P.O. Box 2302 Valley Center, CA 92082 USA T: +1 760 751-5005 F: +1 760 751-5003 E-mail: John Cooksey Conference Management: John Cooksey Trade Show and Sponsors: Mario Stael farming equipment Seapa Oyster Baskets...................................................................45 4410 Cimmaron Trail Granbury, TX 7604. USA. Contact: Sean Grizzell. Business Development Manager, North America T: 214-238-4640 E-mail: /

Continental Western Corporation...........................................65 2855 Miller Street San Leandro, CA 94577, USA. T: (800) 292 7717 Information Services Aquaculture Magazine....................................................23 & 75 Design Publications International Inc. 203 S. St. Mary’s St. Ste. 160 San Antonio, TX 78205, USA Office: +210 504 3642 Office in Mexico: +52(33) 8000 0578 - Ext: 8578 Subscriptions: Ad Sales. Chris Criollos, Sales Manager | Office: +52 33 80007595 Cell: +521 33 14660392 Skype: christian.criollos Gus Ruiz, Sales Support Executive | Office: +52 33 80007595 Cell: +521 3314175480 | Skype: gustavo.rcisneros Web portal · Newsletters · Magazine · Conferences · Technical Consulting. Urner Barry.....................................................................................77 P.O. Box 389 Tom Ride. New Jersey, USA. Contact: Ángel Rubio. T: 732-575-1982 E-mail: Machinery and Feeding Systems MARINE AQUACULTURE (Department of Fisheries, Western Australia)........................................................................59 Department of Fisheries, Western Australia P.O.Box 20 Northbeach, WA 6920 Australia Contact: Dr Sagiv Kolkovski T: +61-8-92030220, C: 0417940498 Email: / RAS SYSTEMS, DESIGN, EQUIPMENT SUPPORT GEMINI FIBERGLASS...........................................................................37 3345 N. Cascade Ave. Colorado Springs, CO 80907. USA. Contact: Michael Paquette, President T: 858-602-9465 Email: / www. Veolia Water Technologies.............................Inside BACK cover 250 Airside Drive - Airside Business Park - Moon Township, PA 15108 - USA T: +1-412-809-6641 Fax: +1-412-809-6512 tanks AND NETWORKING FOR AQUACULTURE REEF Industries...............................................................................19 9209 Almeda Genoa Road Z.C. 7075, Houston, Texas, USA. Contact: Gina Quevedo/Mark Young/ Jeff Garza. T: Toll Free 1 (800) 231-6074 T: Local (713) 507-4250 E-mail: / / /

Aquaculture Magazine October November 2017 Vol. 43 No.5  

Offshore Aquaculture: Of Magic Wands, Regulations, and Endorsements

Aquaculture Magazine October November 2017 Vol. 43 No.5  

Offshore Aquaculture: Of Magic Wands, Regulations, and Endorsements