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INDEX Aquaculture Magazine Volume 42 Number 2 April - May 2016


on the

cover 16 US Trout Production in 2015 6


Tomato seedling growth response to different water sources and a substrate partially replaced with dewatered aquaculture effluent.









Shrimp feeding with sound analysis: improved results in shrimp farms in nine countries.

Seafood Expo North America 2016.

All in for aquaculture World Aquaculture Society 2016 Meeting.

Aquaculture can help Totoaba, an endangered species.







Book Publishing in Aquaculture, Fisheries and Fish Biology, Part II.

Editor and Publisher Salvador Meza Editor in Chief Greg Lutz Managing Editor Teresa Jasso Editorial Design Francisco Cibrián

Toxin adsorption in feed may offer solution for EMS.

News From Aquaculture without Frontiers FAU’s Harbor Branch, Aquaculture without Frontiers Partner to Alleviate Poverty and Malnutrition.





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Volume 42 Number 2 April - May 2016

Funding Availability Announcement Competition: 2016 Aquaculture Sea Grant Conferences Workshops, Training and Information Transfer Projects. Tribal Conservation Partnership Provides Aquaculture Ponds for Walleye.

Designer Perla Neri Marketing and Communications Manager Alex Meza Sales and Marketing Christian Criollos International Sales and Marketing Steve Reynolds Business Operation Manager Adriana Zayas

Subscriptions: Design Publications International Inc. 203 S. St. Mary’s St. Ste. 160 San Antonio, TX 78205, USA Office: +210 5043642 Office in Mexico: (+52) (33) 3632 2355 Aquaculture Magazine (ISSN 0199-1388) is published bimontly, by Design Publications International Inc. All rights reserved. Follow us:







North Carolina Aquaculture Development Conference brings together industry stakeholders.

2016 North Central Aquaculture Conference Milwaukee March 12-13, 2016.

Aquaculture: renew or die.



PALINOX Engineering & Projects M-PS-15 automatic weighing for shrimp graders for boxes and baskets from 0.8 to 12 kg.



Fish grown smart Keep an eye on AquaSmart.

Latin America Report


Salmon losses blamed on “harmful algae” reach nearly 90,000 tons.

columns AQUAFEED




Aquaculture Engineering




Aquaculture Economics, Management, and Marketing


post harvest


The Fhismonger


urner barry

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Tilapia, Catfish and Shrimp Import Updates from Urner Barry. Salmon.

Upcoming events


advertisers Index






By C. Greg Lutz


hat was the response I got when I was trying to develop a theme for these comments and I asked a colleague for “one profound observation” regarding aquaculture. Those words really resonated, and they apply to a number of the topics discussed in this issue. Producers know this universal truth better than anyone, which is why they are continually searching for ways to cut costs and improve profitability. In this issue, we highlight a new use of existing technology that

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It’s Expensive is allowing shrimp growers to greatly improve their feeding strategies. It lets the shrimp decide when they feel like eating, and when they have had enough. The impacts on the bottom line and the environmental footprint are impressive. Any time a producer makes a decision to invest in new technology, it’s expensive from a certain perspective, but in the long run it can make it less expensive to produce a ton of shrimp, or tilapia, or trout. Tools and technologies already exist to solve many of the problems we run into, but sometimes this requires thinking outside the box. If a disease organism produces toxins inside a shrimp’s digestive tract, put an enterosorbent into the feed. Now why didn’t I think of that? Improving efficiency also involves finding uses for by-products from the production cycle. Recirculating aquaculture systems are becoming more widely recognized as a viable option, and what has long been considered a waste disposal issue (solid-laden effluent) could well be a source for a commercially valuable by-product with minimal investment, using widely available materials. Expansion and/or diversification of an aquaculture operation are inherently going to be expensive. But sometimes the numbers make sense. Dr. Carol Engle walks us through the

decision making process, with a focus on the types of information one would need to gather, summarize and then consider. It’s expensive. But, as in any business, it takes money to make money. Where are you making your investments? In information? Our Europe report discusses a new data-mining initiative that will hopefully allow producers to tease important trends out of the mounds of data they already record and store. Another type of information worth obtaining involves updates on industry trends, policy debates and market issues. The Fishmonger points out that most of us have severely neglected making the investments required to be better informed and represented in this arena. It’s expensive, even when things go well. And in this business mistakes are expensive too, including letting down one’s guard. Our Latin America report provides a sobering example of what can go wrong when site selection and environmental conditions go from optimal to inviable over a short period of time. It’s expensive, indeed. Dr. C. Greg Lutz has a B.A. in Biology and Spanish by the Earlham College at Richmond, Indiana, a M.S. in Fisheries and a Ph.D. in Wildlife and Fisheries Science by the Louisiana State University. His interests include recirculating system technology and population dynamics, quantitative genetics and multivariate analyses and the use of web based technology for result-demonstration methods.




Tomato seedling growth

response to different water sources and a substrate partially replaced with dewatered aquaculture effluent

Capturing and treating discharged wastes on-site would help intensive aquaculture production facilities address waste management regulations and prevent eutrophication. While intensive aquaculture facilities are examining technologies to capture and treat discharged *By: Jason J. Danaher, Jeremy M. Pickens, Jeffrey L. Sibley, Jesse A. Chappell, Terrill R. Hanson, Claude E. Boyd


phagnum peatmoss remains extremely important to the US greenhouse industry and is used as a primary component for greenhouse grown plants because of its desirable physical and chemical properties. Some regions of peatlands around the world face pressure from industrial and agricultural interests. As a result, the 6 Âť

effluent, the horticulture industry is evaluating alternative soilless substrates for vegetable seedling production.

horticulture industry has evaluated alternative substrates to substitute peat for tomato seedling production. However, few experiments have investigated solid matter in aquaculture effluent as a substrate amendment for vegetable seedlings. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate tomato plant growth in response to different combinations of

substrate and water sources and determine if dewatered aquaculture effluent could partially replace a commercial substrate while providing adequate nutrients for plant growth.

Materials and methods Discharged aquaculture effluent (AE) was collected from a 100-m3 intensive, freshwater RAS producing

Tomato seedlings - courtesy Jiffy Group.

Nile tilapia. A woven geotextile bag and polyacrylamide polymer were used to dewater discharged AE. Solids were allowed to air-dry and then further processed with a hammer mill to pass through 0.635-cm screen. Two substrates were prepared prior to the experiment by substituting (v/v) Fafard 3B (F3B) mix (Conrad Fafard, Inc., Agawam, MA) with 5 or 10% AE. The experiment was performed in a double-layer, polyethylene-covered greenhouse at the E.W. Shell Fisheries Center, North Auburn Unit, in Auburn, Alabama. The trial was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial evaluating two water sources (water with water-soluble inorganic fertilizer, or municipal water) and

F3B mix substituted with different amounts (0, 5, or 10%) of AE. The experiment was a completely randomized design with twelve singlepot replications for each treatment. Tomato seeds were germinated in a 288-cell flat containing F3B mix and on 22 October, one uniform transplant was transferred into each 473 cm-3 square (9.84 cm × 8.57 cm) plastic pot containing the aforementioned substrates when the first true leaves developed. All pots were placed on raised benches and for the first week all pots were watered with municipal water as needed. Thereafter, pots were watered as needed according to treatment with either municipal water or fertigated, twice weekly, us-

ing an injector at 100 mg∙L-1 nitrogen with a water-soluble 20N–4.4P–16 .6K fertilizer containing chelated micronutrients. At 25 days after potting (DAP) leaf greenness was quantified for all plants using a chlorophyll meter and taking the average reading of four random leaflets per plant. Plant height was measured 26 DAP. Stem dry matter (SDM), leaf dry matter (LDM), root dry matter (RDM), and total plant dry matter (TDM) were measured 26 DAP. The TDM included cotyledons.

Results and discussion The AS and CC were unaffected by increased proportions of AE; however, the inclusion of AE at ≥5% container volume resulted in greater »



Dewatering sludge - courtesy GeoTube.

There was no substrate and water interaction for pH or EC of container leachate at 4, 19, or 25 DAP. The main effect of water did not affect pH at 4, 19 or 25 DAP.

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substrate BD. Bulk density of soilless substrate typically increases as the amount of animal-based wastes used to amend the substrate increases. The PSD provides some explanation for the difference in TP and BD among substrates. As the amount of AE increased, the percent of coarsesized particles decreased and the percent of medium sized particles increased. There was no substrate and water interaction for pH or EC of container leachate at 4, 19, or 25 DAP. The main effect of water did not affect pH at 4, 19 or 25 DAP; but, the main effect of substrate directly affected both substrate leachate pH and EC values at 4, 19 and 25 DAP. Increased proportions of AE increased leachate pH at 4 DAP. In the present study, the substrate leachate pH for AE amended substrates approached optimal ranges by 19 DAP and remained lower than that of 0% AE for the remainder of the experiment.

Proportions of ≼5% AE increased substrate leachate EC values at 4 DAP. The substrate leachate EC value of 10% AE remained greater than other substrates at 19 and 25 DAP, but 5% AE was similar to 0% AE at 19 and 25 DAP. Increased substrate leachate EC values observed with 10% AE may have resulted from the continuous physical breakdown and release of soluble salts. Smaller particle size could have accelerated leaching of salts through physical breakdown of the AE substrates. In addition, the nutrient content of AE, itself, may have also contributed to observed EC leachate values. Substrates did not exceed the threshold of 3.5 mS cm-1 reported for healthy seedling growth. Fertigating tomato plants grown in substrates with 0% AE improved SPAD readings at 25 DAP by 21.6% compared to plants grown in the same substrate with municipal water. The commercial mix alone did


not contain enough nutrients to sustain plant growth. Fertigating plants in 5% AE slightly decreased SPAD readings 3.7% compared to plants grown in the same substrate with municipal water. Water source did not affect SPAD reading of plants grown in 10% AE. Fertigating tomato plants grown in 10% AE improved SPAD readings 6.4% compared to substrates with ≤5% AE. Fertigating tomato plants grown in substrate with 0% AE improved plant height 27.2% compared to plants grown in the same substrate and municipal water, indicating the potting mix alone did not have sufficient nutrients to maintain plant growth for a 26-day growing period. The combination of fertilizer and 5% AE increased plant height 19% compared to the other substrates.

Fertigating tomato plants grown in 5% AE improved LDM, SDM, RDM, and TDM 14, 8, 25, and 15%, respectively, compared to plants grown with 5% AE and municipal water. This suggests these potting mixtures, alone, were unable to supply the plants with sufficient amounts of nutrients, but fertigating these substrates improved plant growth. When substrate was partially replaced with 10% AE water source had no effect on plant growth indices, indicating this potting mix did have sufficient nutrients to maintain plant growth without the need for additional inorganic fertilizer. The present findings further advocate the potential benefit of AE alone as a nutrient source for tomato seedling production. In this experiment, starter nutrients in the commercial mix were unable to supply sufficient amounts of nutrients for 26-day-old tomato plants, requiring the addition of commercial fertilizer to improve plant growth. Although water source did make a difference in final growth indices for 5% AE, the difference between plants receiving fertigation or municipal water was small. Water source had no impact on plant growth 26 DAP for plants grown in 10% AE, indicating this substrate could provide optimal physico-chemical parameters and

sufficient nutrients for tomato plant growth without the need for fertigation. A simple economic analysis indicated a cost of $1.32 per kg for dewatered solid matter (dry weight).

Conclusions Increasing the proportion of dewatered aquaculture effluent to 10% container volume provided optimal physical and chemical properties for tomato plant growth, but different tomato growth responses occurred when grown with specific combinations of substrate and water source. In an integrated production system the dewatered effluent from the fish production system could be utilized as a resource for the production of tomato transplants without the need for additional inorganic fertilizer. The authors wish to thank the United Soybean Board for providing financial support through Grant #1340-512-5254.

*This article originally appeared in the International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 2016, and was adapted for presentation here under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by/ 4. 0/). The authors work in the Department of Horticulture and the Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquaculture, at Auburn University.




Shrimp feeding with sound analysis: improved results in shrimp farms in nine countries By: Regis Bador, Ross Dodd, Peter Blyth*

Except in extensive farming systems, the use of balanced rations comprises a large portion of production costs in shrimp aquaculture.

Naturisa shrimp in Ecuador with AQ1.

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Introduction fter many years of the use of feed trays in shrimp production, either placing a few per hectare to have an indication of consumption, or placing dozens per hectare and feeding in all of these (with the associated labor cost), automatic feeders are being developed to allow for feeding at night and to improve growth rates. However, these methods require staff on hand to decide when and how much to feed, and how food is to be distributed to hundreds of thousands of shrimp under the water. At the same time these animals have highly variable feeding behavior in terms of amounts consumed at various times due to the influence of numerous biological and environmental parameters that staff cannot monitor or control all the time. It is known that the appetite of shrimp does not follow the same strict schedule as the feeding staff, especially at night. Shrimp farmers around the world have observed that on certain nights, at least, shrimp are very active beginning shortly after sundown. Automatic feeders allow feeding at night, but up to now the timing and amounts per hour are programmed by the manager in advance, while shrimp appetites, on the other hand, are quite variable. When feed consumption in trays is analyzed, decisions for adjustments in ration amounts and schedules are made after the fact, in a constant attempt to correct overfeeding or underfeeding errors. Therefore, with the limits of current equipment, human decisions alone and delayed reaction times cannot maximize growth capacity and can contribute to food waste and increased feed conversion. A new system for shrimp to receive food whenever they need it For the past several years a technology from Australia has been available that monitors sounds underwater, recognizes the specific noise of

shrimp consuming feed and makes real-time adjustments in feed quantities and distribution schedules, automatically, 24 hours a day. The system, called SF200, operates with underwater hydrophones permanently connected to an electronic control box where a specific program analyzes the information directly. This same controller is connected to feeders (“AQ1”) placed in specific locations of each pond, and controls distribution schedules for each unit. In Australia and Asia initially, since 2009, this new system was tested in intensive ponds of relatively small sizes (¼ to 1 ha), with densities between 40 and 180 PL/m2. The system was very efficient with several species, mainly P. monodon and L. vannamei. Since 2012 it has begun to be used in semi-intensive ponds of 3-15 ha with L. stylirostris and L. vannamei. As of the middle of 2015, 15 countries, including 7 of the 10 largest producers of shrimp in the world, are using this system successfully. Presented below is a summary of the average results of 32 shrimp farms from 9 countries in Asia, the South Pacific and the Americas.

Peru. In these farms, ponds were of varying sizes (0.05 to 20 ha), stocked at very different densities (10-150 PL / m2) and with 4 species: L. vannamei, L. stylirostris, P. monodon and M. japonicus.

Ecuador: low density results in large ponds The SF200 was introduced in Ecuador 18 months ago, in shrimp ponds of 3-24 ha stocked at densities of 8 to 12 PL / m2. The first results confirmed the importance of good positioning of each feeder to optimize system efficiency in a large-area pond. It also confirmed that knowledge of the oxygen profile and its pattern over 24 hours are crucial to adjust feed distribution to the variations of this vital parameter. Several of the 8 shrimp farms with the system already installed completed their testing in production ponds with comparative replicas of more traditional feeding methods. In all cases, significant improvements have been achieved and repeated in terms of growth, feed conversion, survival and yield (lb/ha) as summarized in the Table 2.

New Caledonia: results with L. stylirostris in semi-intensive In New Caledonia, seasonal temperature variations have led most of the islands’ shrimp farmers to cultivate blue shrimp during a single cycle of 6 to 9 months in ponds of 3-15 ha (average of 9 ha), very similar to the “traditional” ponds in Latin America. The use of the first feed system using sound analysis began in October 2012 in a shrimp farm with only one pond of 7.2 ha; 3 years later more than half of New Caledonian shrimp companies have this technology installed in 31 production ponds of 3 to 12 ha and 8 ponds from 0.1 to 0.3 ha in a research center have also been equipped. In total, 194 feeders are handled with 65 SF200 electronic controllers. And, 44 feeders operated by 11 drivers SF200 in 11 ponds were scheduled to be set up by the end of 2015. Based on the experience of previous years in intensive systems in Australia and Asia, it is considered that an automatic feeder can feed up to 350,000 P. monodon or 250,000 L. stylirostris, considering the more “ag-

Synthesis of 32 shrimp farms in 9 countries We calculated the average results of 32 shrimp farms with at least one pond with the SF200 system compared with ponds fed in traditional ways (which included broadcasting by hand, with trays, with blower-powered distributors and feeders with simple timers) from the following countries: Australia, New Caledonia, Thailand, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Belize, Ecuador and » 11


gressive� behavior of these species, which explains the high number of controllers compared to the equipment needed for L. vannamei (for which one feeder for every 500,000 PL or a maximum biomass of 13,000 lb is considered optimal). Improved growth has been obtained in all shrimp farms using this technology when systematically compared to ponds in the same locations and stocked in the same calendar period, but still being fed by hand broadcasting 2 to 4 times per day, or when compared with the results of previous years using hand broadcasting (when an entire shrimp farm is outfitted with SF200). The following Table 3 shows the actual results of all ponds with AQ1 versus the conventionally fed ponds in the same five shrimp farms; they had at least one pond each with AQ1 in the 2014-2015 season, stocked between 18 and 28 PL/m2.

Australia: results of P.monodon in intensive culture In 2 shrimp farms with ponds of 1 ha, one installed a feeder at the end of docks, while the other set it up on floats. In both cases, significant improvements in growth of 17% were obtained and a decrease in feed conversion of 12%:

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Deployment of feeders in ponds, and solar-powered controllers on the levee that divides the ponds.

Feeders arranged in the culture pond, and controller with solar panel.

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It is known that the appetite of shrimp does not follow the same strict schedule as the feeding staff, especially at night.

Thailand: L. vannamei results in intensive culture In Thailand, in 1 ha ponds stocked at 90-110 PL/m2 at Tawee Farm, hand broadcasting was compared with distribution feeders programmed by the staff and with automatic feeder machines managed via SF200, with research support from Bayer Animal Health and Kasetsart University. It was possible to improve harvested biomass by 8%, average weekly growth by 23% and reduce the feed conversion by 12% (Napaumpaiporn T. et al, 2013. Katsetsart University Fisheries Research Bulletin, 37/2). In this case, Kasetsart University of Thailand conducted scientific monitoring of the comparative trials; average levels of the key water quality parameters in the ponds are detailed in the following Table 6. It should be noted that no parameter was impacted by the feeding system in a precise pond area below the feed distributor, considering the fear of many shrimp farmers regarding possible negative impacts of the concentration of feed in a limited area. Vietnam: new project in super-intensive ponds AQ1 has begun work on feeding by acoustics in small ponds (0.05ha) with super hyper intensive production with Viet Uc, a leading shrimp farming company in Vietnam that is 14 Âť



New Caledonia.

building a huge super intensive farming facility in Hoa Binh in the Mekong Delta, incorporating the latest knowledge in production methods. The ponds have HDPE liner bottoms and are covered with greenhouses to keep the temperature more stable and have a central sludge removal system. They are stocked at between 200 and 500 PL/m2. They took this decision based on the latest results achieved in Thasorn farm in Thailand, where shrimp of

19 grams were produced in 70 days in super-intensive conditions with a feed conversion of 1.06.

Conclusion These results confirm that a management system incorporating food distribution using sound analysis of shrimp can systematically improve growth for L. vannamei, L. stylirostris and P. monodon in any culture conditions from semi-extensive to very intensive, in experimental research

ponds from 0.2 to 0.5 has and in production ponds of 1 to 20 ha, at densities varying between 10 and 250 PL/ m2.

Thanks The authors would like to thank the shrimp farmers who agreed to share their results for this article. *AQ1 Systems Pty. Contact:,

Platform feeders with floats.

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Trout Production in 2015 Based on a report released February 26, 2016, by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Value of trout sales increased 1 Percent from 2014.

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he total value of fish sales received by trout growers in the United States totaled 104 million dollars for 2015, an increase of 1 percent from 2014. Idaho accounted for 47 percent of the total value of fish sold. The number of trout 12 inches and longer sold during 2015 totaled 45.4 million fish, down 6 percent from the previous year. The average price per pound was $1.66, up 5 percent from 2014. The value of sales for the 2015 marketing year was 96.4 million dollars, up 1 percent from 2014. For trout 12 inches or longer, 58 percent were sold to processors. The number of 6”- 12” trout sold during 2015 totaled 4.9 million fish, a decrease of 5 percent from 2014. The average price per pound was $3.50 during 2015, up 6 percent from the 2014 price. The total value of sales was 6.42 million dollars during 2015, a 10 percent increase from the previous year. The major sales outlets for 6”-12” trout were for recreational stocking accounting for 48 percent of total sales, fol-

Table 1 Value of Trout Sold and Distributed - States and United States: 2014 and 2015.        Total value of fish sold    :Total value of distributed fish          State       --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                2014      :    2015    :    2014      :    2015       1,000 dollars Arkansas California Colorado Georgia     Idaho Michigan Missouri New York North Carolina Oregon Pennsylvania Utah Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Other States 1/

-   4,990 1,666 455 53,118 619 2,250 631 7,888 (D) 5,571 604 1,481 (D) 1,233 1,537 21,173 

5,390 2,045 483 49,362 1,347 2,518 636 8,469 (D) 6,122 630 1,610 (D) 1,052 1,462 23,267

United States                                                                  Value excluding eggs: 103,216          104,393          Value including eggs: 111,990          113,099         

3,122 12,794 7,618 1,259 8,972 966 2,365 3,149 (D) 5,336 6,124 7,550 2,087 20,735 (D) 2,007 28,155

112,239         (NA)           

-   Represents zero.                                                                     (D)  Withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual operations.                         (NA) Not available.                                                                       1/  Other States include State estimates not listed and States suppressed due to disclosure. 

2,612 7,761    8,918    1,075    10,198    992    3,342    2,835    (D)    9,476    10,317    7,706    1,464    19,453    (D)    2,837    28,558   

117,544     (NA)    

lowed by government agencies with 22 percent. The number of 1”- 6” trout sold during 2015 totaled 8.47 million, an increase of 1 percent from the previous year. The average value per 1,000 fish was $181 during 2015, down from $194 in 2014. The total value of sales was 1.53 million dollars, down 5 percent from last year’s total.

Distributed Trout Trout distributed for restoration, conservation, enhancement, or recreational purposes, primarily by State and Federal hatcheries, included 7.32 million 12” or longer fish, 67.0 million 6”- 12” fish, and 58.7 million 1”- 6” fish. The estimated value of fish distributed totaled 118 million dollars, up 5 percent from 2014. Trout Losses Total losses of all trout intended for sale were 28.3 million fish during 2015. Disease accounted for 90 percent of these losses.

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Seafood Expo North America 2016

By María José de la Peña

Bringing together buyers and sellers from the seafood industry from all around the world, the Seafood Expo North America 2016 was held in Boston March 6-8, offering an excellent space for the presentation of products and services.


eafood industry members gathered at the Seafood Expo North America the past 6th, 7th and 8th of March at the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center.

The Expo Seafood Expo North America is one of the largest and most important meetings of its kind, attracting seafood companies from around the world. Companies from at least 51 countries worldwide attended the exhibition, with a majority stake of 45% US companies, followed by 19% Chi18 »

nese companies, Canadian companies with 9% and with smaller shares (2%) Iceland, Spain and Vietnam. Among the exhibitors, it was possible to find representatives of governmental institutions and associations from different countries, such as the Agri-Food Export Group from Quebec, Canada or the China Aquatic Products Processing & Marketing Association. All these institutions and associations were present with the aim of promoting trade in their countries. In the exhibition area approximately 1,268 companies were present, presenting their products and services.

Year after year the presence of companies promoting aquaculture products is increasing notably. Among the species that predominated in the trade show were shrimp, tilapia, shellfish, other crustaceans, cod, Pollock, pompano, swordfish and other finfish. Among aquaculture products, Asian shrimp dominated over Central American shrimp. As for the products offered, most of the lines were frozen while fresh products were a minority, which allows us to detect an important opportunity area. It was also possible to find companies promoting their flavorings, seasonings, condiments and everything needed to prepare product with added value. Companies offering processing equipment, packaging equipment, refrigeration equipment, fishmeal and fish oil processing equipment, separation equipment, among many others were easy to find in the exhibition area. It was also possible to find companies promoting logistical, consulting and certification services. Analysis equipment, hygiene and cleaning products, containers, scales, water treatment equipment along with cooking, drying and smoking equipment was also on display in the area. The event organization designated a booth for the New Product Showcase, and a total of 56 different products were registered, all of which competed for the award of Best New Product, one of the two Seafood Excellence Awards given during the event.

Among the new products registered 24% were related to salmon, 19% to shrimp, 12% to shellfish and 10% to cod, allowing one to slightly recognize current market trends (Fig. 1). The exhibition is characterized by having a demonstrative theater in which two master classes were given this year. The first one was held on Sunday with the theme of “Octopus” and it was given by the chef Suon Vilasack. The second master class took place on Monday under the theme “Oysters for a healthy lifestyle and shucking ‘tales.”The traditional oyster shucking competition that takes place every year was also held in the demonstrative theater.

The awards During the event the Seafood Excellence awards are given in two categories: Best New Retail Product (mentioned above) and Best New Foodservice Product. This year the winner for Best New Retail Product was Kickin’ Seafood Chili of French Creek Seafood and the winner for Best New Foodservice product was SeaFusionsTM Pacific Cod Bites from Trident Seafoods. The conferences The Expo featured a series of 25 conferences during the three days of the event. The conferences started with the keynote lecture presented by Kent Greenfield, Professor of Law and Dean’s Research Scholar at the Boston College Law School who spoke about

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Figure 2. Best new Foodservice product: SeaFusion TM Pacific Cod Bites, Trident Seafoods. Source: Seafood Expo, 2016.

Figure 3. Best new retail product: Kickin’ Seafood Chili, French Creek Seafoods. Source: Seafood Expo, 2016.

success, failure and corporate social responsibility. The conferences focused on three categories: seafood business and the marketplace, seafood sustainability and seafood safety, and compliance and quality assurance. Seafood business and the marketplace was the category that had the greatest number of conferences, 10 in total. The importance of creating brands that influence the market, taking into consideration the opinions

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of consumers, consumer acceptance and the role of aquaculture in our food future, strategies and finances, and e-commerce in China were some of the subjects discussed during the conferences. One of the most unusual conferences discussed how to sell seafood to Millennials, to the generations Y & Z. The importance of adapting products to new generations and the ways this can be achieved were a few of the themes discussed during this lecture. A few examples were given, such as offering ready-to-eat seafood products in supermarkets, reducing portions and promoting frozen products. One of the matters that dominated the Seafood Sustainability conferences was product traceability. When we talk about traceability we refer to the ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location and application of products, part and materials

(United Nations, 2014). The traceability of seafood products allows the final consumer to know what they are buying, giving an added value to the product and at the same time promoting a transparent supply chain. There were 4 conferences designated to discuss Seafood safety, compliance and quality assurance, the main issues discussed included how FDA regulates aquaculture drugs, the future of seafood regulation post-FSMA (Food Safety Modernization Act) and how to deal with detention and import alerts. The US is the main seafood export market for many Latin-American and Southeast Asian countries, making the Seafood Expo North America an excellent opportunity to promote products and services among the industry members and review the market trends, allowing suppliers to adapt to them.

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All in for aquaculture

World Aquaculture Society 2016 Meeting

During the last week of February the WAS 2016 Meeting was held in Las Vegas, Nevada. As happens every three years, many exhibitors, students, organizations and companies from around the world participated, offering a little from their vision to develop this sector of great potential.

By María José de la Peña*


he World Aquaculture Society 2016 Meeting took place in the convention center of the Paris Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada from the 22th to the 26th of February 2016. The meeting officially started on the morning of Tuesday 23th with the plenary session given by Dr. James Andrews from the University of Florida, who talked about the future of aquaculture and its role in the global food system. He mentioned the importance of developing markets for aquaculture species with stable prices in the short term, as the tilapia market, with the aim of avoiding the consequences of price fluctuations. The need to improve the efficiency of crops, reduce waste and learn more about China, as it is the main producer and consumer in the world, 22 »

were some points that Dr. Andrews mentioned during his lecture. He invited us to reframe the message that is reaching consumers and investors about aquaculture and the importance of communicating the advantages of aquaculture in comparison with other animal protein sources: the ecological footprint and the resource efficiency that characterizes this activity, its cost-benefit and the nutritional benefits of fish and shellfish. In addition to this, he emphasized the importance of transmitting the vision of aquaculture as a consistent and reliable activity with the objective of increasing investment in the sector and consumption of its products.

Conference Program Over the next 4 days, about 880 short lectures were presented, lasting from

15 to 30 minutes each. The lectures were divided into 85 different sessions, each with a specific topic. One of the most recurrent themes during the conference was nutrition and the search of alternative protein sources for aquaculture feed formulations. Advances in genetics, economic and marketing strategies, training and technology transfer, mariculture and inland aquaculture, regulations, conservation, productions systems, aquaponics and diseases were a few of the topics discussed during the sessions. Shrimp was one of the species that predominated during the sessions, covering about 20% of them. Some of the topics discussed were nutrition, production systems, genetics, health and disease control. As for oysters and other shellfish, with an 18% stake, information was

exchanged related to genetic variation, diseases, use of probiotics, diets, adaptability, production systems and the effects of acidification and ocean warming. The catfish was the subject of about 45 conferences (20%) in which the progress made in nutrition, DO and nitrogen dynamics during culture, genetic engineering, intensification effects on crops, market and economic analysis, and others subjects were discussed. The tuna and seriola session had a high attendance, and the current status and progress in aquaculture of these species was discussed over a dozen conferences. Some other species that dominated the sessions were salmon, trout, zebra fish, crustaceans, percids, algae, bass, sea urchins and ornamentals. Global warming and its effects in aquaculture, resource use efficiency and contaminant impacts in crops were some other issues presented during the event as they are of public interest and of great importance nowadays.

The Expo The meeting had a trade show area in which more than 160 exhibitors Âť 23


from around the world presented their products and services. Most of the exhibitors came from the US (75%), but there were also companies from South East Asia, Mexico, Spain, France, Belgium, UK, Israel and Australia, among others. About 40% of the companies in the trade show area were focused on water and culture environments offering products such as pumps, filters, testing and containment. On the other hand, it was impossible not to notice the 42 companies related to farming equipment and electronics, in addition to 40 companies linked to aqua-

24 Âť

culture nutrition offering raw materials, additives, equipment and feed. You could also find companies offering software and systems, product development, laboratory equipment, consulting services, animal health products, professional services, certifications, exporters, importers, various publications and the presence of industry associations and US government agencies. The aquaculture industry is facing constant evolution and innovation, and evidence of this is that 96% of the exhibitors took the opportunity of the meeting to present

new products or services such as training programs, software updates and upgrades, water treatment systems, new feeds and additives, testing equipment for disease detection and many others.

WAS 2016 for students and recent graduates During the meeting there were certain activities dedicated for students and recent graduates with the aim of publish their research studies and networking with other students and academics from different universities, as well as exploring the job opportunities in the sector. Some sessions were dedicated to research projects and some others were focused on giving recommendations and advice on how to pursue a career

in aquaculture. The World Aquaculture Society designated a booth for their Employment Service during the event, and at the same time vacancies and internship opportunities from different companies around the world were published on a board located in the convention center hall. Feed the growing world population is a major challenge and aquaculture plays an increasingly important role as time passes. Fisheries will not be able to meet the market demands; therefore the FAO forecast a 62% growth in aquaculture production in the next 20 years. It is vital to find ways to make the cultures and the resource use more efficient together with refine production costs in order to make the aquaculture industry competitive in a free trade world.

Âť 25

research report

Aquaculture can help Totoaba, an endangered species

The Totoaba is an emblematic fish in the Gulf of California, a species that was overexploited to near extinction. The government, academia and private industry can come together to rescue it by protecting against illegal fishing, promoting habitat preservation, developing controlled breeding methods and aquaculture.

By: Lorenzo M. JuĂĄrez*


otoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) is undoubtedly the most emblematic of the Gulf of California fishes. It is the largest species of the family Scianidae, in which belong corvinas, grunts and drums. Totoaba reach up to two meters (m) long and weigh up to 135 kg; it is estimated that they can live more than 30 years. The species occurs naturally from the mouth of the Colorado River to the Bay of La Paz in Baja California Sur, and to the mouth of the Rio Fuerte in Sinaloa. During the first half of the twentieth century populations of Totoaba were subjected to intense commercial fishing pressure. The fishery was developed without effective regulation and characterized by wastage, since large quantities were captured to market only the swim bladder, which fetches high prices in Asia. Although their meat is excellent, the lack of refrigeration resulted in many fish that were left to rot on the beach after the extraction of the swim bladder (see Figure 1). Because Totoaba is a species with a greatly reduced population and because it naturally inhabits a restricted 26 Âť

geographical area it remains highly susceptible to overfishing. The evolution of catches between 1929 and 1973 (see Figure 2) is a classic example of overfishing combined with habitat loss to cause the collapse of a fishery. The bycatch of juveniles by shrimp boats also compounded the

unregulated fishing and habitat alterations. In 1974 a permanent ban on totaba fishing was decreed. Today Totoaba is listed as an endangered species under Mexican and international standards, and with it the marine vaquita, a small species of porpoise

Fig. 1. Fishing of Totoaba in Bahia Kino, Sonora. Photo 1935, #9232 of the special collection of the library of the University of Arizona.

considered to be the world’s most endangered marine mammal, which unfortunately suffocates and dies incidentally in illegal nets used to capture Totoaba. To preserve and leverage the Totoaba responsibly, we must know its biology, population status and critical habitat. The Faculty of Marine Sciences at the Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC), launched studies on the reproduction of the species in 1994. The knowledge generated has been very useful to promote conservation, fisheries management and techniques to produce this species through aquaculture.

Totoaba’s Aquaculture The availability of fry of Totoaba produced in captivity promoted interest in grow-out for commercial cultivation. Since 2007 pilot studies were begun by several companies. By 2012 the company Earth Ocean Farms (EOF) of La Paz, Baja Cali-

fornia Sur, established an Environmental Management Unit (UMA), carrying out grow-out tests on a commercial scale. Because of optimum conditions in the area and the culture system used (see Figure 3) the results were surprising. Totoaba showed a capacity of growth almost unheard of for farmed fish, reaching on average 6 kg in 24 months (see Figures 4 and 5). Although these Totoaba are exceptional for the size of the swim bladder, which fetches high prices in Asia, they also produce excellent quality meat that is sold legally and at a good price in the domestic market. The production model is very efficient; extrapolating the productivity of the pilot farm, and only as an illustration, it would be technically possible to produce more than the maximum captured by the fishery at levels of overexploitation (2,300 t in 1942), using only 30 cages in a marine area of approximately 1,200 x 1,200 m.

Controlled breeding and conservation Controlled reproduction of endangered species can be an effective tool for conservation. Reproductive captive management allows the maintenance of genetic variability, the establishment of genebanks and repopulation programs. Growing these species avoids extinction and is preferable to create sustainable models of conservation and provides an alternative to fighting a losing battle against illegal activity. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which Mexico is a signatory, and the General Wildlife Act of Mexico provide mechanisms for the conservation, use and legal trade in endangered species under cultivation. Repopulation programs Many of the world’s fisheries are fully exploited or over-exploited. Global catches have not increased since the

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research report Figure 2 Fishery catches of Totoaba 1929-1974. Tons 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

E). Implement a health management plan, F). Consider the ecological patterns and preferences of the species and acclimate them to natural conditions before releasing them,























0 1929

1980’s, while the demand for food continues to increase significantly. In addition to regulation of fishing effort and measures of habitat protection, enhancement programs are another tool to restore fisheries, but by themselves they cannot offset the effects of overfishing, or the loss or degradation of habitat. Successful repopulation programs are based on principles of fisheries management with an ecological approach. The principles of this responsible approach are: A). Select the species to repopulate and evaluate the reasons for decline in their wild population, B). Develop a management plan that incorporates regional plans, C). Define quantitative measures of success, D). Give priority to the preservation of genetic diversity,

G). Identify fish released and evaluate their effects on population abundance to continuously monitor the program’s success, H). Use empirical processes to define release strategies,

Historical repopulation of the Totoaba in Baja California Sur CONAPESCA, SEMARNAT and the state of Baja California Sur are working together with Earth Ocean Farms, a leader in sustainable aquaculture in open water, in order to promote Mexico as an example of sustainable mariculture. In this context, on 16 December 1500 Totoaba fingerlings (Totoaba) were released to the Sea of Cortez, in an attempt to repopulate the area with a species subject to special protection by federal authorities. The release took place in Santispac beach, municipality of Mulege, B.C.S. The currently endangered Totaba is a fish endemic to Mexico, and at one time it was abundant in the waters of the Sea of Cortez. It is being bred and cultivated in a sustainable manner by Earth Ocean Farms, a mariculture company located in La Paz, as part of a management plan to help Totoaba recover. Projects like these require the support and coordination of multiple government agencies, federal and state governments and scientific experts. The comprehensive plan based on science for restocking is implemented by the Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC), the Institute of Aquaculture (IAES) and Earth Ocean Farms. CONAPESCA, SEMARNAT and the State of Baja California Sur are crucial visionaries and supporters of this project. “Mexico is and will be a leader in sustainable mariculture, and this type of innovative projects and partnerships are what we seek to promote in Mexico. We are pleased to be the first to make alliances for sustainable aquaculture,” said Mario Aguilar, National Commissioner for Aquaculture and Fisheries.

28 »

I). Identify economic program objectives and the regulatory guidelines that govern them, and J). Adapt and constantly refine the repopulation plan. Aquaculture can contribute very effectively to the protection of endangered aquatic species, but the factors mentioned in this article must be considered during the process. In the case of Totoaba, government institutions, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and private companies have a great opportunity to cooperate to help restore this valuable species in its natural habitat, working together and in favor of nature and integrated sustainable development of the impacted areas along the upper Gulf of California.

Fig. 3. A submersible cage company Earth Ocean Farms of La Paz, BCS with Totoaba. Photo Johnny Friday.

*Lorenzo Juárez is director of Earth Ocean Farms, a company related to marine fish farming in Baja California Sur. He studied Biochemical Engineering at the Monterrey Institute of Technology and has a Masters of Science in Aquaculture from Auburn University (Alabama, USA). Lorenzo has served as president of the World Aquaculture Society and deputy director of the Office of Aquaculture of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Washington, D.C. Contact:

Fig. 5. Totoaba of approximately 6 kg, grown at Earth Ocean Farms in La Paz, BCS.

Figure 4 Growth of a batch of Totoaba juveniles in a submersible marine cage. Totoaba Growth 2012-2014 7000

35 30










5 25-Sep-14

























0 15-Aug-12

Average Weight (g)



Average Weight (g)

Weight gain (g / d) and Average water temperature (° C)

Gain Weight (g / d)

Sampling dates

» 29


Book Publishing in Aquaculture, Fisheries and Fish Biology Part II In Part I, we reviewed how concepts for new aquaculture and fisheries books are developed, up to the point of proposal submission and agreement to proceed. Continuing on this topic, we will review By Nigel Balmforth

What about the agreement (contract) with the publisher? he contents of publishers’ agreements (contracts) with authors do vary but should include details of any key aspects agreed between you and your contact at the publisher. An agreement is likely to cover the following aspects: •Scope and size of the manuscript •Timescale for completion •Author’s and publisher’s responsibilities •Copyright / rights assignment •Any royalties or fees, and other author benefits •Warranties, indemnity and termination clauses


What are the steps between signature of agreement and delivery of the manuscript? Publishers have guidelines for authors relating to preparation of their manuscripts and illustrations, details 30 »

subsequent steps in the publishing process.

of how to seek permission to re-use previously published material (see below) and may sometimes provide other support during the writing process, such as ‘authoring tools’, or ‘manuscript preparation tools’ which will aid in how the manuscript is structured. Manuscript structure, including the use of chapter abstracts and keywords is an important aspect in facilitating discoverability of any electronic version of your work. While you are writing your book, your main contact at the publisher may change from the commissioning / acquisitions editor to a managing or project editor. Publishers will let authors know what they can expect from the publisher, and what the publisher will expect from the author during this time. Timescales for writing books will vary. At a publishing company I worked with previously, one of my colleagues was delighted to receive a book manuscript from an author who

had been under agreement for around 20 years! A more normal timescale is 1 – 2 years, but sometimes (rarely in the aquaculture area) authors will approach a publisher in the first instance with an almost complete manuscript. When your manuscript is finished and ready to submit, your contact at the publishers will advise you on the publisher’s preferred method of submission.

What about permissions? Publishers need to ensure that, where it is needed, permission has been granted for the re-use of any material previously published. Permissions granted usually should encompass permission for re-use in all formats (bearing in mind many books may also be published in various electronic formats, and in print) and in all territories, languages and for any future editions of your book. For a new book most permissions needed will probably be for illustrations which


have been published previously in another book or journal. Publishers will normally supply a form that authors can use when seeking permission to re-use material, and a form to list all permissions. There are likely to be author guidelines on how to seek permission available on your publisher’s website, or through your contact at the publishers. If in doubt about what needs permission to re-use, ask your contact.

What are the steps after I deliver my manuscript? Your manuscript will be assessed by the publisher’s staff before it is accepted and then the production process can begin. In some cases your manuscript might be sent by the publisher for external peer review before it is accepted.

Your publisher should let you know what the steps in the publishing process will be and provide a schedule to you so that you know, e.g. when proofs will be ready for you to check. The publication date will also be discussed, as for example there may be a particular conference, or commencement of a course by when the book should be available. Some publishers have online systems which allow authors to track a book’s publication progress. Copy editing. Publishers now tend to employ freelance copy editors rather than having an in-house copy editing team. A copy editor will go through your manuscript, reading for consistency and sense, and checking that it is in the publisher’s house style (or a style agreed with you) and will check grammar, spelling, writing

style, use of units, references, and so on. Levels of copy editing may vary dependent on, e.g. whether the author is a native English speaker. Copy editors will also include electronic tags into the manuscript for use by the typesetter. Queries resulting from the copy-editing process will be raised with you before the manuscript proceeds to the next stage. Style and page layout. In many cases publishers will use a standard book page size, type size, type face, and page layout and will not consult an author except in the case of major textbooks or heavily-illustrated books, or where there is a particular layout requirement for the subject area. Front matter. The publisher will compile the book’s front matter which encompasses the book’s title » 31


British Museum reading room.

page, copyright page (including British Library / Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication information, which the publisher will arrange), and material provided by you, e.g. a dedication, acknowledgements, a contents list and preface, and any contributor list, perhaps a foreword, introduction and glossary and/or list of abbreviations or units used within the book. Typesetting and proofs. Once copy-editing is complete and any queries have been answered, then

your manuscript will be typeset and proofs of the book will be produced and shared with you, usually by email. Proofs will normally be ‘watermarked’ for security purposes, indicating that they are proofs. Proofs should not be shared with anyone not connected with the book. Some publishers will now provide correctable e-proofs. Publishers will also usually appoint a proof reader to check the proofs. Proofs are provided by the publisher as an opportunity for the author to see their manuscript as it will look as a book. Any rewriting at this stage by the author will be costly, time consuming and runs the risk of introducing new errors. Dependent on what is written in your agreement, a publisher may seek to charge you if there are substantial corrections or rewriting that you request, which are not a result of any errors introduced by the publisher or by a supplier engaged by the publisher. Camera-ready copy. Although rare, some publishers may request that authors provide to them cameraready copy (also called print-ready copy) using a template provided by the publisher into which authors put the manuscript. In this case there is

no (or perhaps a light) copy-editing stage, nor typesetting and proofing, because what the author supplies will be used as the final version of the text which will be printed in the book. Cover design. Some publishers produce book covers in a set style with no images, but many other publishers will appoint a cover designer who will produce a variety of designs including images sourced by the cover designer of publisher. For some books, publishers will ask authors if they have any suitable high-quality images which could be considered for use on the book’s cover. The cover designs are then shared with the author, who will be asked for their preference before a final design is agreed. Indexing. Some book authors may be keen to produce their own index for their own book, as they know their manuscript the best. Publishers will normally be able to provide you with a guide on how to index. Sometimes a publisher may engage a professional indexer to put together the index for a book, but this is costly, and dependent on what is written into your agreement, the publisher might charge you for this service. In the next, and last, segment of this discussion, we will review the final stages involved in getting your book published.

*Nigel Balmforth has over 25 years’ experience building up publishing programs in fish biology, aquaculture, fisheries, aquatic sciences and related areas. Nigel has recently been appointed as Head of Publishing at 5m, part of Benchmark Holdings. Nigel can be contacted at:

32 »


Toxin adsorption

in feed may offer solution for EMS Fifty percent of shrimp feed produced in Mexico in 2015 contained an ingredient intended to counter the effects of Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) with positive feedback. This market penetration rate was significant, as the product was introduced to the Mexican market just months earlier.

Figure 1 Survival Rate, %




75 50 25



Control EMS

EMS + 0.25% Calibrin-Z

Figure 2 Accumulated Mortality

110 EMS Dead Shrimp

to induce Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) vs. 5% for challenged shrimp not fed the enterosorbent. A total of 318 specific pathogen free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei at an average weight of 1 gram were stocked for 5 replications (2 reps in trial 1 and 3 reps in trial 2) at 20 or 22 animals per tank into 90 L aquaria. Overall, five tanks of shrimp were designated as negative control tanks and received no EMS challenge, five tanks served as positive controls, receiving the EMS challenge, but fed a diet without the enterosorbent, and five tanks were fed the diet containing enterosorbent and challenged to induce EMS. After a 7 day pre-feeding period EMS challenged groups were fed with diets contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus multiple times (1x/ day in Exp.1 and 2x/day in Exp. 2) until mortality stabilized in the positive control (Figures 1 and 2).

110 Shrimp Started


he product, marketed as Calibrin-Z, is an enterosorbent bacterial toxin control intended to protect the hepatopancreas from the damaging effects of EMS in shrimp. This disease was first reported in Mexico in 2013 and appears during the first seven to 30 days after planting. Mortalities are the result of toxins secreted by a modified strain of the bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V.p.) which is transmitted orally and colonizes the shrimps’ gastrointestinal tract, causing tissue destruction and dysfunction of the hepatopancreas. EMS is characterized by a high mortality rate, often reaching 100 percent within the first 30 days. Two studies conducted at the University of Arizona and summarized by Ron Cravens, Fang Chi and San Ching, PhDs, in a technical bulletin provided by Amlan International (the product’s manufacturer) showed that shrimp fed the product had survivability of 84% when challenged

73 37 0

EMS + 0.25% Calibrin-Z












» 33


News From Aquaculture without Frontiers

FAU’s Harbor Branch, Aquaculture without Frontiers Partner to Alleviate Poverty and Malnutrition

Facilitating self-sufficiency and sustainability is critical in helping to alleviate hunger and malnutrition worldwide, and we are very excited to join forces with Aquaculture without Frontiers to address this important need,” said Megan Davis, Ph.D., HBOI interim executive director and a leading aquaculture researcher. “Aquaculture without Frontiers believes that by collaborating and working with likeminded organizations such as Florida Atlantic University, we will be able to make major contributions to the core of our main objectives,” said Roy Palmer, executive director of AwF. “We are very excited about the arrangement and discussions we are having about the future with FAU.”

AwF announces Dr. Veikila Vuki as the Woman of the Month for February 2016 There are numerous challenges facing women striving to make social changes in the aquaculture and fisheries arena. Firstly, female advocates, experts and researchers are scarce in this domain and are often unique in their institutes; secondly they are nearly always isolated from each other. One of the few standing information networks is in the central and western Pacific, where women are most actively engaged in fisheries and aquaculture. The conduit for this information exchange is the Secretariat for the Pacific Community’s 34 »

HBOI and AwF will work jointly to support and promote responsible and sustainable aquaculture farming to help enhance food security and alleviate poverty and malnutrition in developing and impoverished countries. Discussions between HBOI and AwF are under way for the first joint project, which is expected to commence mid-year and will involve a number of countries in Africa.

(SPC) Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin (WIF) —http://www. bulletins/women-in-fisheries.html—, which has been ongoing since 1997.

Since 2007, its editor has been Fijian researcher, educator and community worker Dr. Veikila Vuki. In 2007, Veikila took over the Information Bulletin after a series of active

Dr. Veikila Vuki.

editors who had also had women in fisheries responsibilities inside the SPC’s fisheries programs. The WIF Information Bulletin has maintained a global profile on women in fisheries by providing an information network. Veikila and her ongoing efforts are a major reason for this success. Dr. Veikila Vuki was formerly with the Fiji Fisheries Division and the University of the South Pacific (USP) and, since 2006 has been the Director of Oceania Environment Consultants. She also works with grassroots women’s groups on fisheries development in Fiji. Veikila comes

from Ono-i-Lau, an isolated southerly island in the Fiji group. She has nearly 30 years of research experience in Australia, Fiji, Samoa, Cook Islands, Kiribati, Vanuatu, Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae and Yap), Guam, Marshall Islands and Palau, plus a great deal of international and regional experience. Recently, she and her colleagues have worked to reinvigorate the regional Women in Fisheries Network based in Suva. You can access issues of the Women in Fisheries bulletin: http:// wif.htm. If you would like to nominate a woman to be the next AwF Woman of the Month, please check the AwF website at

Loaves and fishes - Charity formed for milling and aquaculture The Charity Commission of the UK has confirmed the registration of Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF UK), as a Charitable Incorporated Organisation. AwF (UK) CIO will have a few differences to AwF (USAGlobal) and AwF (Australia) in that

it will connect with the milling and grain industry as well as its usual connections with the seafood industry. This new UK charity will see a unique program created, initially called ‘Loaves & Fishes,’ which will enable it to attract donators, sponsors and supporters to engage in either milling and/or aquaculture programs as they are established. Roger Gilbert is the inaugural Chairman and Trustee for AwF (UK) CIO. He is publisher and CEO of Perendale Publishers Limited which produces Milling and Grain magazine (first published in 1891) and its sister publication International Aquafeed and the annual directory, The International Milling and Grain Directory. All three publications focus on storage, processing and transportation technologies, and nutrition as they relate to milling and animal feeding. Executive Director, Roy Palmer, who is also a trustee of the new charity says, “Our first actions will be to establish a strong, skilled Board and to start the process to undertake project work which is consistent with AwF UK’s objects. Now that we have the approval in place we can start getting our plans moving. The UK will allow us to have that north-south type of arrangement, through which we can utilize connections that are already there in the UK with Africa and build relationships. Cliff Spencer, CEO of the United Nations-backed Global Biotechnology Transfer Foundation and Goodwill Ambassador for the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) has agreed to join the charity’s new board. We are also very thankful for the effort of Simon Birks, Director, Sherbornes Solicitors Limited, in being very thorough with the administration involved in setting up a charity and we are pleased to report that he will be working with us into the future.”

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Funding Availability Announcement



he National Sea Grant Office anticipates that at least $400,000 will be available to support proposals for conferences, workshops, and training and information transfer projects addressing regional or national issues with an emphasis on aquaculture. Applications for this funding will be considered until 11:59 pm, Eastern Time, May 20, 2016. Applications must address the focus area of Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture, but may address additional focus areas as well. Additional focus areas are Healthy Coastal Ecosystems, Resilient Communities and Economics, and Environmental Literacy and Workforce Development. Descriptions on each focus area can be found in section I.A. of the Special Projects Funding Opportunity, which can be found at: Federal Funding Opportunity NOAA-OAR-SG-20162004772

It is a program priority that: a) About 50% of the selected projects address at least one other focus area in conjunction with Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture. An attempt will be made to distribute these selected applications broadly across the other three focus areas (depending on the number, size, quality, and goals addressed in the applications received). b) An attempt will be made to fund some work that reflects the value of Sea Grant’s integrated approach to research, extension and education 36 »

If you are a stakeholder in a Sea Grant state, contact your state’s

Aquaculture Specialists and Sea Grant administrators if you have an idea that would fit with the funding goals of this competition.

(again, depending on the applications received). Applications should request no more than $20,000 in federal funds to be considered for this funding opportunity. Non-federal matching funds of at least 50% of the federal request must be included in the application. An application must include a project description and Standard forms found in the application package located on These Standard Forms include 424A, 424B, and CD511. In addition, applications must include the Sea Grant forms 90-2 (short form) and 90-4, available on the Sea Grant Forms and Templates webpage. Include the phrase “2016 Aquaculture Sea Grant Conferences and Workshops” in the proposal title. Applicants need not fill the entire 15page maximum for Project Description. Depending on the complexity of the proposed activities, a 2-or 3-page

description may suffice. Applications must have the concurrence of the Director of the state Sea Grant Program that is submitting it. Applications must be submitted on to Federal Funding Opportunity NOAA-OAR-SG-20162004772, Special Project “B”, no later than 11:59 PM Eastern Time on May 20, 2016. This competition is only open to Sea Grant Programs, the National Sea Grant Library, and the National Sea Grant Law Center. For how to submit, evaluation criteria, general programmatic priorities and selection factors, eligible applicants, required elements of the application, and other necessary information, please consult Federal Funding Opportunity NOAA-OAR-SG-20162004772, available on Questions may be sent to

» 37


Tribal Conservation Partnership Provides Aquaculture Ponds for Walleye

“The Tribe wants to provide a sustainable supply of walleye for tribal and non-tribal fishing in reservation waters,” said Lac du Flambeau By Tivoli Gough, USDA NRCS*

Tribe Natural Resources Director Larry Wawronowicz.


e added, “Raising the fish larger is necessary now due to shoreline development, increased competition from aquatic invasives like zebra mussels, and climate change.” Sustainable conservation and protection of natural resources has always been a goal of the Lac du Flambeau Tribe since inhabiting parts of Wisconsin in 1745. The Tribe acquired the name from its gathering practices of harvesting fish by torchlight at night. Their focus is to protect pristine areas, restore degraded natural and wildlife resources, and help build strong communities. The reservation, established by the Treaty of La Pointe in 1854, includes 86,000 acres of land, 24,000 acres of wetlands, 260 lakes and 65 miles of streams and rivers. From its small beginnings with a fish hatchery in 1936 to today, Lac du Flambeau now has grown into a multi-faceted Tribal natural resources department raising and re38 »

stocking fish to meet their vision of sustainability. Over the last 30 years, the hatchery has restocked the lakes with well over 415 million walleye.

Common missions and participation in the Wisconsin Tribal Conservation Advisory Council, an advisory group consisting of the

(Left to right) Chris Borden, NRCS soil conservationist; Celie Borndal, NRCS soil conservationist; Larry Wawronowicz, Lac du Flambeau Tribe natural resources director; and Tom Melnarik, NRCS soil conservation technician; view the new aquaculture pond site.

11 federally recognized tribes in Wisconsin, have fostered a strong conservation partnership with USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the Tribe. Multiple technical and financial assistance projects to combat shoreline erosion, improve wildlife habitat, improve forest health, improve wild rice populations and build hoop houses, were made possible through NRCS’ Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and the Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP). “We’ve addressed resource concerns on more than 11,000 acres

of tribal land, through EQIP, since 2009, and we recently re-enrolled more than 28,000 acres of forestland in CSP,” said NRCS District Conservationist Michael Stinebrink. The most-recent project partnership between the Tribe and NRCS includes the renovation of five aquaculture ponds through EQIP. After 30 years, the original fish pond liners had fallen into disrepair and the harvest of fish was labor intensive. Since reconstruction, the facility has gone from 13 small ponds, having about five acres of usable rearing space, to six large ponds with more than seven acres of surface area. Two newly-constructed, centrally-located, fish gathering structures ―known as kettles― save the hatchery’s staff the labor of harvesting each pond individually and reduce stress and mortality on the fish during harvest. NRCS provided technical and financial assistance to redesign the ponds and implement the renovations, including a new network of water supply and aeration lines and a sediment tank for treating the water before entering an adjacent wetland.

“Before the reconstruction, the Tribe was rearing two-to-four inch fingerlings in the small ponds, and now they can raise six-to-eight inch fish for better survivability in the wild,” said Tom Melnarik, soil conservation technician, and designer of the new aquaculture pond site layout. In spring, fish spawn and tribal spawning crews collect and fertilize eggs. Most fish are hatched by early June when the aquaculture ponds are stocked with the walleye fry. The young fish feed on zooplankton until approximately six-to-eight weeks old. Their diet then changes to aquatic insects and other fish species. Fish are raised from the size of a mosquito in spring to six-to-eight inches in fall and are then released into reservation waters. The new aquaculture ponds will help the Tribe to restock more than 200,000 fish per year in area lakes and other waterways. “We wouldn’t have been able to get this project done without the technical support, financial assistance, and partnership of the USDA―NRCS,” said Wawronowicz. » 39


North Carolina Aquaculture Development Conference

brings together industry stakeholders By: Alejandra Meza / Aquaculture Magazine

The 2016 NC Aquaculture Development Conference took place in New Bern, NC on the 12-13 of February. The Conference also featured pre- and post-meeting workshops for aquaponics and shellfish production. Closing Friday activities included the infamous Aquafoods Festival.


ear after year, the NC Aquaculture Development Conference brings together fish farmers, scientists and personnel from regulatory agencies to share information and ideas about the development of aquaculture in North Carolina. This year’s keynote presentation by Bob Rheault, Executive Director of the East Coast Shellfish Growers

Association, covered “Fisheries and Aquaculture: shared opportunities and shared threats,” where he mentioned that the only real difference is who owns the shellfish: are they public or private? And he pointed out that fisheries managers and farmers both invest in the resource. The main difference is who pays for the investment and who reaps the benefit. Rheault also included an insight from Roger

Bing’s presentation at Managing our Nations Fisheries III: “There is really no difference between fishing and aquaculture they are just two extremes of a spectrum of seafood extraction techniques.” Roger Bing1. A major focus this year was the concept of market placement, whether it meant exporting, selling into chain stores or selling to local retail markets. Stephen Corradini from Whole Foods Market, explained that one of the fastest growing categories is frozen and meal-solution oriented food, and the tendency shows that Americans are now paying less for groceries than for eating out. On this topic, Kevin Hubbard, coowner/Chef of Patrick-Janes Restaurant, highlighted the ‘from farm to table’ trend in restaurants and offered a solution to retail using a given product in a recipe and stating the suggested pricing for that particular dish (in a three to one ratio). The NC Aquaculture Development Conference concluded in a gathering of innovators and industry professionals with new plans to develop responses for the challenges ahead in the aquaculture industry. To review the full 2016 conference program please visit: Comments from Roger Bing/VP of Protein Purchasing for Darden speaking at Managing our Nations Fisheries III in Washington DC, May 2013



Pentair / Jason Danaher

Cargill / Amanda Rosequist and John ORourke


AquaCal / Stan Crisp

Jack Jonhson / Carolina Classics Catfish Inc

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2016 North Central Aquaculture Conference Milwaukee March 12-13, 2016

This year’s meeting combined the Wisconsin Aquaculture Association By: Bob Robinson

(WAA) with the North Central Regional Aquaculture Center (NCRAC).


have been to most of these meetings (there have been more than 20 of them) and they are always a hoot. This year’s theme was Fresh Ideas for a Sustainable Aquaculture Industry. With an abundance of fish geeks from all kinds of backgrounds the presentations were better than normal and bigger in quantity. Here is a rundown of what I feel some of the highlights were.

John Ewart’s talk on communicating the positive message made a number of key points: • World population is projected to grow to 9-10 billion by the year 2050. This will require global food production to double by 2050. • Increases in animal protein demand will be required as a result of improved economies in developing countries. • Natural resource expansion (land and water) will be stretched to their limits. • Higher demands for food production will compete for energy in energy markets. Points to Communicate included: • Fish or aquatic foods are an important but often little recognized element in food security and nutrition. • Supply will have to be expanded significantly to meet future population growth. • Environmental impacts from both wild-caught fisheries and aquaculture are less than those of land-based animal protein production. • Many of the world’s major fisheries 42 »

Ron Johnson (Retired Extension, U.W.) & Dani Klontz (George´s daughter and Executive Chef).

are sustainable and will continue to play an important role in human nutrition. • Future supply increases will come from aquaculture, which may have to double in output to meet future seafood demand. • US consumers and policy makers need to better understand the role of fish protein in meeting the dietary needs of present and future populations. • US seafood: recognized as the highest quality with international demand. As usual, the WAA put on a feast of farmed fish from producers throughout the Midwest. No one could come up with a good excuse for leaving hungry. The list of fish cooked was probably the most diverse ever and included: • Barramundi • Lake Trout

• Rainbow Trout • Walleye • Tilapia • Atlantic Salmon • Arctic Char • Bluegill

John Ewart (DE Extension) & Joe Morris (Iowa State and head of NCRAC).

Alan Johnson – Mr Walleye (Iowa DNR).

Konrad Dabrowski – (The Ohio State University).

Value-added and aquaponics products included: • Many varieties of lettuce • Basil • Smoked Chowder • Trout Spread • Pickled Trout • Smoked trout and salmon It is really cool to know that all of these healthy food products are raised in the Midwest and this really pushed home the idea of buying fresh, local and farm raised. Ben Brancel – Secretary of Agriculture for the State of Wisconsin, had a few interesting words to say: • Wisconsin ranks 12th in the nation in Agriculture exports including cranberries, ginseng, dairy products, potatoes and more.

• He predicts that by 2050, 4 out of 4 people will be eating fish as a primary source of protein. I was very impressed with Teyanna Loether. She is the reigning Alice in Dairyland. In fact she is the 68th Alice. One of the most recognizable spokespersons of Wisconsin agriculture, Alice in Dairyland is a public relations professional working for the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection. She travels throughout the state to promote Wisconsin products to audiences of all ages, educating the media, youth and civic groups about the many facets of the state’s agricultural industry. Teyanna related to fish when she was 3 years old, when she caught her first fish on a Mickey Mouse pole. Her message was simply Eat Wisconsin Fish, they are healthy, local and support our economy. If you care to find out more about Alice, reach out to her at teyanna.loether@wisconsin. gov.

Greg Fischer once again supplied some great information from his research on tank-raised Arctic Char at the UW Stevens Point NADF facility. Some of the more interesting results included: • He is always looking at fish that lend themselves to high stocking densities. • It took 17 months to get eggs to a harvest size of 2.2 pounds. • Flesh is high quality. • Stocking rate was roughly 1 pound per gallon. • The market demands a product anywhere from 2.2 – 6.6 pounds. • Filet yield of 50% can be achieved. • Eggs came from Troutlodge. • From 20 grams to 1 pound it took 125 days (Rainbow trout will take 150 days to achieve this same size and brook trout will take 200). • Feed is 44% protein and 25% fat. • Average feed conversation was 1.2:1. • They do not see fin erosion on their fish.

• The biggest drawback could be that in order to really start raking in money, a farm with this type of fish might need to produce in the neighborhood of 100 tons annually while making sure not to flood the market and drop the selling price.

My Walleye, Alan Johnson from the Iowa DNR, had some interesting tidbits to share about walleye culture: • He has consistently achieved 9-10” fish in one growing season. • They are piscivorous from fingerling to adult so you better feed them well or they will eat their neighbors and relatives. • There is really no good domesticated broodstock for this fish currently, so eggs need to come from the wild. • The demand for walleye in the Midwest is large: 7-10 million pounds of walleye/pike perch are imported annually. • Survival is greater than 70% from fry to 9”. • They are photo positive from hatch to 21 days and photo negative from 21 days through adult. In summary this was once again a good meeting. I barely touched on all the good topics. It certainly is difficult when there are 3 concurrent sessions at the same time and you have all three circled on the program AND one includes the talk you are giving… but you can’t be everywhere. Buy local, buy fresh, and buy US Farmed Fish… it’s what should be for dinner. Together we need to spread the word that farm raised fish is the future of protein to feed the expanding world population. Another goal is to move U.S. per capita consumption off of the 15 pound mark. Let’s do it!

*Bob Robinson is a Fisheries Biologist and Director of Sales and Marketing with Kasco Marine.

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renew or die Aquaculture is a new industry made by older people. If you attend any of the aquaculture conferences or symposia, whether national or international, you will see people in their autumn years, in their 60s and 70s, while the “young” folks are in their 40’s. By: Salvador Meza


he more recognized and sought after consultants and advisors, the “Rock Stars” of global aquaculture, are contemporaries of the Rolling Stones and the Beatles, and many are already in retirement. Not that there’s anything wrong with the fact that aquaculture provides opportunities for all these people who have contributed to the early development of this industry. They are farmers, scientists, academics and politicians with knowledge and valuable experience, but we must admit that aquaculture requires new blood to maintain a state of development. As a growth industry, aquaculture is an activity of challenges, requiring audacity, courage to confront paradigms, beating postulates, changing the way one sees things... and a lot of energy and time to spend on it. All these attitudes and skills are not exactly the characteristics of middle-aged people or older individuals. Considering honorable exceptions, the tendency of most of the “big” people is precisely the resistance to change. Any technologi-

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cal innovation that means changing the already-accepted paradigms of aquaculture production will be met with skepticism, disbelief and fear. That is why aquaculture is currently facing its greatest challenge

since it began its sustained growth in the decade of the 70’s: renewal. For the “second wind” of global aquaculture growth, agile and free minds are required, flying to all directions that human imagination is capable,

to reach around the development of aquaculture. It requires energy and young people with time to experiment, to make mistakes and to go back and try again several times. And finally, aquaculture will not develop if it does not incorporate all the technologies, including information technologies, that are already available and being used in other livestock and agro-industrial activities. These technologies, involving global communication networks connected in real time, are those of the population group called “millennials.” These are people who have reached young adulthood between the year 2000 and today, who incorporate IT technologies so intuitively, naturally and practically into their daily life. People under 35 years of age that practically live in a virtual, interconnected world. These young people seem to not have any difficulty. Any questions or doubts, including technical or sci-

entific issues related to a project or aquaculture production practice, can be consulted and addressed on the spot. They pick up their cell phones and make contact with anyone they need to, even if they are in Israel, China, Japan or Canada, and consult without problems. And if that particular contact does not respond, they will consult another, and so on until they get the answer they need. And if they decide to visit farms or aquaculture projects, universities or research centers, they buy their plane ticket on the same phone, and with a “backpack” they go to the nearest airport to catch a flight and undertake the journey without further delay. Nothing stops them, no wife or husband, no children. They speak several languages, they travel with little money, have virtual friends around the world where they can stay, they eat fruits and drink water, and most importantly, do not fear anything.

This is the generation that will lead aquaculture to feed the world in the next fifty or one hundred years. But we have to look for them, they are not yet part of the world’s aquaculture guild. We have not been able to attract their interest, we have believed that they are the ones who need to care, and that they have been fools not to realize all the opportunities that aquaculture can offer to them. When, in fact, the fools have been us who have delayed aquaculture development by not integrating new generations into the industry, thinking selfishly that we will be eternal, that we are the only ones worthy of the awards, recognition of colleagues and earnings of industry. Today the global aquaculture industry is facing its biggest challenge; renew or die. Salvador Meza is the Publisher of Aquaculture Magazine, and of the Spanish language industry magazine Panorama Acuicola.

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Engineering & Projects M-PS-15 automatic weighing for shrimp graders for boxes and baskets from 0.8 to 12 kg

The team of PALINOX INGENIERĂ?A Y PROYECTOS S.L., has moved a step closer to the shrimp sector, developing an innovative automatic weighing and filling system that is easy to manage.


his system consists of one or several weighing modules for each of the sizes that can be produced by the different grading and sorting machines currently in the market. This equipment can be easily adapted to any sort of grader, thus replacing current manual conveyor belts.

Unit Components: Weighing module: This component incorporates two weighing boxes that can be pneumatically driven with the corresponding weight cells. This is a double system, capable of

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managing 15 weights per minute per weighing unit. It is completely made of stainless steel and independent of the other components for easy preventive maintenance. Each set has a touch display for programming and weight management, allowing it to record the most essential data. Loading conveyor belts for boxes: Depending on the format, a single operator is sufficient, with the main purpose of depositing boxes on the loading conveyor belts, the rest of the process would be automatically managed by the weighing system. Collecting conveyor belts for shrimp: located and adapted on the lower part of the sorting rollers. There are several conveyor belts that are part of this unit, including filling and clearing ones, which perform automatically according to the programmed format. Collecting and emptying conveyor belt for boxes and baskets: Properly synchronized to the system, this equipment handles transporting and collecting the heavy loads for freezing them afterwards. The M-PS-15 (weighing module, 15 weights/min) is a technological breakthrough for packing, saving manpower, thus improving the production and the product. PALINOX INGENIERIA Y PROYECTOS S.L. engineers have taken the most suitable materials into account during the design process, in order to satisfy the needs of a packaging machine with high moisture resistance protection and easy maintenance.

1. Roller grader for shrimp 2. Set of belts with filler and batch compensator 3. Weighing module (15 times/minute) 4. Loading conveyor belt for boxes and baskets from 0.8 to 12 kg 5. Removal conveyor belt for heavy boxes

Model M-PS-15 Technical Features • AISI 304 robust stainless steel construction • Hard plastic modular belt, blue color • Touch screen for programming, 10 inches • Weighing boxes (2 per module) • Weighing cells by module (4, in stainless steel) • Thermal protection for cells IP-67 • Automatic belt drive • Automatic box positioning drive • Weighing for boxes from 0.8 to 12 kg • Weight tolerance +/- shrimp • Module production up to 15 weights per minute

• Air pressure of 6 Bar • Total power of 4kw • Removable weighing module for maintenance • Easy access for cleaning

Software • 10 inch touch screen color • Screen with gross, net, total and total number of boxes • Internet connection for data dump • Format récipes • Weighing software with historical data. *C/ Riu Ripoll, 28, Polígono Industrial Riu Ripoll, Sector Sur | 08205 Sabadell | Barcelona | España. Tel +34 93 780 00 03 | Fax +34 93 786 91 90 | | | |

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Europe Report

Fish grown smart

Keep an eye on AquaSmart Being aquaculture producers, one of our main concerns on a day-to-day basis is how to maximize the growth rate of our livestock while minimizing the production costs and at the same time reduce the impact to the environment.

By Eva A. Kyriakopoulou*


nfortunately, answering this question is not that simple. We can invest in the latest technology for our cages or feeding system or use the most advanced feed for our livestock but we cannot overlook two key aspects: The success of our production is affected by a range of different parameters, from environmental parameters, to feed types, feed composition, feeding rates and practices, as well as net changes, production management strategies, the people who are actually involved, as well as many other considerations. Even though we capture and store large amounts of data, it is difficult to interpret the data and thus identify trends, issues or integrated patterns that may help us improve. It is very difficult (almost impossible) to understand and quantify the complex interactions between the different parameters and make decisions, just by looking at our data. Aquaculture companies from all over the world are drowning in data, but starving for the knowledge and insights that will help them to reduce costs, improve operational efficiency and increase performance. How 48 »

many times have we wondered about the efficiency of the feed we are using, the fry supplier or the feeding rates and practices? In January 2015, Niordseas (Andromeda group) along with two other aquaculture companies, Grammos S.A (GRE) and Ardag (ISR), started working on a €3.1 million, 2 year long project called “AquaSmart“(www., funded by the Horizon 2020 framework Programme of the EU. Aquasmart is run by a skilled and experienced consortium including top research institutes (WATERFORD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY - WIT from Ireland, INSTITUTO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DE NOVAS TECNOLOGIAS - UNINOVA from Portugal, Q-VALIDUS LIMITED - Q-Validus from Ireland, INSTITUT JOZEF STEFAN - JSI from Slovenia) and a major player in the aquaculture IT sector (OLOKLIROMENA PLIROFORIAKA SISTIMATA - I2S from Greece). AquaSmart will use big data, data mining and open data to assist companies in transforming data into knowledge, and then using this knowledge to improve efficiency, increase profitability and carry out business in a

sustainable, environmentally friendly way. By providing production datasets and actively contributing to developing a better understanding of the way aquaculture companies process data the commercial co-operators are aiming to assist in the creation of global models, which will be used to evaluate production. Globally, it is the only data mining and big data technologies initiative applied to the aquaculture sector. By using AquaSmart, we will be able to take decisions and improve the main Key Performance Indicators KPI’s of our production such as FCR, mortality rate, growth rate, production time, health, etc. In doing so, we should be able to better: • Control the production process for maximum profitability,

Photo courtesy of:

• Respond to a wide range of production challenges, in real time, • Identify, in a timely manner, production problems or trends, • Evaluate feed and fry suppliers, feeding practices and fish management strategies and • Continuously improve feeding and management practices. AquaSmart is innovative because it enables us to perform data mining at the local level and get actionable results. It also provides highly accurate descriptive and predictive models to help understand not only what has happened, but more significantly what is most likely going to happen next! However, the project goes much further: through the availability of multi-lingual Open Data, companies will be able to compare their specific results with other results that are stored in the cloud. By collecting and managing the data mining results from many companies and a large number of rearing cycles in variable conditions, with full respect to confidential data, Aquasmart will generate a knowledgebase that will be of maximum usefulness for all the stakeholders of the Aquaculture sector (i.e. companies, researchers, environmental agencies and governments). Whether Aquasmart is used to

drive new business, reduce costs or gain the competitive edge, data mining is a most valuable and transformational asset for every fish farming organization, be it a large or small business. The secure and unobtrusive collation of data should enable analysis of huge volumes of historical data to deliver informed business driven knowledge from models built for prediction, estimation, and other inferences involving uncertainty. The aim of data mining is to extract valid, novel, potentially useful, meaningful and understandable patterns accumulating in large and complex databases. It involves mathematical and statistical methodologies to explore the data, develop the models and discover previously unknown patterns. The project commenced in February 2016, and it has recently launched a free data exploration tool which is available from the Aquasmart website: http://www.aquasmartdata. eu/data-exploration-tool/) The tool helps companies to gain insight into already available production data and is completely free, without any restrictions or limitations. You are most welcomed to register on the web site, use the tool and subscribe to the newsletter, which will provide

you with up-to-date information on the project, as well as more free tools that will be provided in the future. Added to this, the Aquasmart project also delivers a European standard CEN workshop agreement standard that complements the use of big data for the aquaculture industry. It is further supported by an intelligent training tool and programme that is designed specifically for the aquaculture industry and for professionals to up-skill their big data knowledge for the industry. In addition, Aquasmart delivers a certification assessment programme that complements the advancement of the use and skills of big data in the aquaculture industry.

Eva A. Kyriakopoulou is an Oceanographer - Ichthyologist from Greece. She comes from a seafaring family and the sea has always been her great passion. She graduated from the department of Marine Sciences of the University of the Aegean, in Lesvos island and she immediately started working for Andromeda S.A., one of the biggest sea-farming corporations in the Mediterranean. She is currently stationed in Preveza, eastern Greece.

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Latin American Report

Salmon losses blamed on

“harmful algae” reach nearly 90,000 tons Twelve Chilean salmon farming companies have been impacted by algal blooms over the past month.

By Yojaira Paternina Cordoba*


s part of the complex situation that has resulted from a widespread bloom of algae across the salmon farming region of Los Lagos, the National Director of Fisheries and Aquaculture, José Miguel Burgos, was in the field during the first week of March carrying out inspections of fishing vessels, fish meal plants and farms in order to monitor and supervise the actions being carried out by salmon-related businesses since the beginning of the month. Meanwhile, mortality had continued to increase significantly since February. At that time, Burgos confirmed that up to 29 culture facilities had been affected, with mortalities amounting to 13,092,000 fish, equivalent to a biomass of roughly 26,200 tons. To date, losses have been reported for twelve companies, including AquaChile, Blumar, Camanchaca, Austral salmon, Marine Harvest, Australis Mar, Salmones Humboldt, Marine Farm, Cermaq, Snowdrifts, Caleta Bay and Salmones Aysen. The most affected areas 50 »

include the northern part of the Los Lagos region and some hot-spots in the area of Chiloe. Burgos highlighted the efforts being carried out by several of the companies involved to remove the cages of dead fish at appropriate

times. This was important, he said, “in order to prevent a health emergency.” He added that a number of vessels had been brought into service “so as to increase the extraction capacity and for processing mortalities.” Similarly, Sernapesca has three

of its own vessels which, together with the support of the maritime authority, would be “monitoring so that contingency plans are developed in accordance with the law.” The Director went on to explain that in the case of those mortalities whose advanced level of decomposition does not allow for reduction to fish meal, ocean disposal by the Navy 60 miles out to sea would be considered to avoid any risk to human health, as stipulated in the London Protocol governing international disposal of waste at sea. “We will do everything possible so that this does not happen, and

oversight is important to assure we have no alternative prior to proceeding to ocean disposal. It must be remembered that Chile is a member of the London Protocol, which allows this possibility under strict conditions, but it must be absolutely justified,” he said. In early March, the National Office of Fisheries and Aquaculture issued two resolutions of force majeure with the objective of providing facilities to expedite the process associated with the movement of live fish from the affected region to other areas with better conditions and also to authorize requests for anticipated harvests. Authorities explained that the mortalities were the result of asphyxiation from oxygen depletions caused by the algae blooms, rising water temperatures and lack of wind and rain associated with the El Nino climate event. By Saturday, March 5, according to information provided by im-

pacted companies, the loss estimates had risen to about 20 million fish, equivalent to 85,000 tons of Atlantic salmon. In Coho salmon species, meanwhile, losses of 4,500 tons have been reported. Had these fish survived and been harvested at normal marketing weights they would have yielded almost 90,000 tons, and most of them would have been harvested during the second half of 2016 and the first quarter of 2017.

Yojaira Paternina Cordoba has a degree in Animal Husbandry from the National University of Colombia. She currently manages production, technical and marketing activities at Piscicola del Valle, S.A., specializing in production of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and the white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus).

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There’s more to sustainability

than dumping fishmeal By Suzi Dominy*


he GFLI aims to provide a freely accessible, transparent life cycle assessment (LCA) database of feed ingredients. This will allow for globally harmonized assessments and benchmarking of environmental footprint calculations of feed manufacturing. In addition, the technical concept of the GFLI is designed to be compliant with the Product Environmental Footprint project, coordinated by the European Commission and scheduled to be ready by summer 2016. Ruud Tijssens, president of the European feed manufacturers’ federation, FEFAC, observed that given the significant share of feed production in the environmental footprint of animal products, feed is also the key area where emission mitigation strategies can be developed. In the aquafeed arena, when we hear the words ‘environmental responsibility’ and ‘sustainability”, our thoughts automatically turn to the familiar narrative of finite fishmeal and fish oil resources. Aquafeed companies are heavily invested in developing diets that utilize grains rather than marine oils and proteins. A boost to this already established trend is being delivered by a challenge with a prize of $128,025 to the first company that sells 100,000 tons of seafood-free aquaculture feed - or to the company that has sold the most seafood-free aquafeed by the time the challenge ends Sep52 »

The fact that environmental footprint is now a major factor in protein production, and that feed plays an important part was underscored at the start of the year by the launch by the European, U.S. and Canadian feed industry associations of the Global Feed LCA Institute (GFLI). tember 15, 2017. The crowd-funded F3 Fish-Free Feed Challenge, which will be judged by a committee consisting of Dr. Kevin Fitzsimmons of the University of Arizona, Corey Peet of the Monterey Bay Aquarium and Dr. Michael Tlusty of the New England Aquarium, hopes to see the initiative lead to a new product category for consumers, the equivalent of ‘grassfed seafood’. While on the face of it the move from marine to land-based ingredients seems a logical progression towards ever more sustainable feed production, it is not that straight forward: increasing levels of plant based ingredients in aquafeeds brings its own challenges. There is of course a need for enzyme additions to help in digestion, attractants and palatants to get the animals to recognize the pellets as food and to eat it and formulation balancing and processing adjustments. Beyond these obvious factors, the use of field crops raises other issues: in an article in the Spring issue of our quarterly magazine, Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation, Dr. Markus Pahlow, from the University of Twente, The Netherlands, argues that while the use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial-crop based ingredients may reduce the pressure on fisheries, it may also significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources due to water consumption, and pollution from crop production in

aquaculture. Furthermore, the competition with feed for humans and livestock, as well as with plant material for biofuels is aggravated. While Dr. Pahlow’s point about water-footprint may be highly significant in terms of sustainability, and one that has been given little emphasis, his observations about pollution in crop production has the more immediate practical implications for feed producers and farmers. Pesticide use in crop production is starting to draw attention from aquaculture researchers. Dr. Monica Sanden, a Senior Scientist at the Norwegian research institute, NIFES, said while pesticide residues in Norwegian fish feed show a general downward trend with the decline in fish oil usage, plant feed ingredients can contain new pesticides not previously associated with aquaculture. Currently little is known about the effect of these pesticides on fish health and food safety. NIFES’s monitoring program for fish feed in Norway conduct-

ed on commission for the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, shows residues of chlorpyrifos and pirimiphos in fish feed at levels of concentration similar to that found in imported fruits. NIFES has previously found that chlorpyrifos can affect fat metabolism in Atlantic salmon. However, there is much to learn and NIFES hopes to find answers during the four-year of its research program. Mycotoxin contamination is also a major consideration, particularly this year as the inconsistent weather patterns in 2015 have created high levels of mycotoxin contamination in the most important crop growing regions worldwide. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolic products of molds that cause a toxic response (mycotoxicosis) when ingested by higher animals. They are generally produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium species and found on grains. Feed ingredient company, Alltech, surveyed 100 North American corn samples from across the United States and Canada from September to November 2015. They found an average of 3.1 mycotoxins per sample. Ninetyseven percent of samples tested positive for at least one mycotoxin. Another feed additive company, Nutriad, turned up alarming levels of mycotoxins in its surveys in various European countries and in South America. For Poland, one of Europe’s biggest grain producers, and Spain, the company went so far as to say that this year’s maize crop should not be considered safe for inclusion into finished feed for any animal. The company also surveyed pet food in Brazil and concluded that pet food that contains grain should not be considered safe for cats and dogs. Grains and grain by- products such as maize, maize gluten meal, wheat, soya etc. are the most important sources of mycotoxins in pet food and are the same ingredients that are supplying an increasing proportion of aquatic diets. Their impact on aquatic species range from reduced weight gain and feed conversion ratio to disrupted spawning patterns, liver tumors, kidney damage and high mortality.

Fish eat fish Not everyone is dumping fishmeal: Scottish salmon producer, Loch Duart, is one company that has taken a different approach: while keenly aware of its environmental responsibility, the company says the natural diet of a salmon is fish and fish must form the major part of its salmon diet. “The ideal fish for us, as it is high up the trophic scale, feeding on large plankton and small shrimps, and short-lived, is Icelandic capelin,” said managing director Alban Denton. One advantage of Icelandic capelin is that the fishery is for human consumption but uses only the roe. The rest of the fish is waste. “Imagine our delight when our feed company, EWOS (Scotland), contacted us to say that Isfelag, an Icelandic fishing company based in the Westman Islands, was able to produce a fishmeal for us that ticks every box we could want. The meal, produced exclusively from capelin and exclusively for Loch Duart, will be called ‘Royal’,” said Denton. Isfelag has a large proportion of the capelin quota; it processes the roe for human consumption in Japan, Russia and some European countries, and has been looking for a better use for the fish processing waste. CEO Stefan Fridriksson, believes that the partnership will show how relationships between salmon farmers and fishmeal providers can strengthen the sustainability of both industries. Norwegian fish farmers Kvarøy and Selsøyvik are working with aquafeed company BioMar, importer Blue Circle Foods and Whole Foods Market, to create ‘In the Blue’, an innovative farmed aquafeed that conserves marine resources and reduces environmental contaminants in farmed salmon. The new feed has led to the first farmed salmon with a fish-in, fish-out ratio below 1-to-1, earning it a “Good Alternative” rating from Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch program. In the Blue is made with trimmings from wild-caught fish that are already bound for human consumption. The trimmings are pressed into oil that is

cleaned to reduce environmental contaminants like heavy metals and PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls). Because environmental contaminants found in farmed fish are predominantly passed through feed ingredients, removing those substances from the oil keeps them out of salmon that end up on dinner plates. The production method for this salmon feed was developed by connecting existing capabilities. The trimmings are sourced from established wild-caught seafood processors, and the oil-cleaning technology is already common in producing fish oil supplements. This salmon is sold at Whole Foods Market, which launched its farmed salmon standards in 2007 and has continued to strengthen the requirements every year since. “We knew we’d have to make a significant investment of time and budget to create this custom feed for only two farms, but the risk was definitely worth it when we saw the difference this process could make for consumers, the industry and our planet,” said Vidar Gundersen, Group Sustainability Manager for BioMar. Going forward, all stakeholders involved hope the model created for farmed salmon feed can become common practice, and eventually expand to other species. The sooner the market will support this kind of growth, the industry and consumers alike can expect this highest quality farmed seafood to become an even more affordable, sustainable protein option.

Suzi Dominy is the founding editor and publisher of She brings 25 years of experience in professional feed industry journalism and publishing. Before starting this company, she was co-publisher of the agri-food division of a major UK-based company, and editor of their major international feed magazine for 13 years.

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Growing Marine Shrimp in The Sahara Desert

Located in the Northern part of the African Continent, Algeria, the second largest African country, is famous for its Sahara desert and abundant resources of oil and gas production. Although shrimp aquaculture is not an ordinary activity naturally associated with the desert, Algeria proves its capability of using underground water to produce Penaeus vanamei, the whiteleg shrimp which is originally from the Pacific Ocean.

By: In-kwon Jang, Hui Gong


he Sahara Golden Shrimp production is housed at the Ouargla Shrimp Cultivation Research Center, an Official Development Assistance project funded by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), with a total investment of US $6 million. On January 26, 2016, a tasting demonstration from the first successful harvest of 500kg of shrimp with an average weight of 23g after a 110 day grow-out period, became a sensation when the news was broadcast on both Algerian and Korean TV stations and distributed through news media outlets. 54 Âť

The facility is in Ouargla which is in the middle of the Sahara desert, about 800 km from the Mediterranean coast. The construction of the facility was initiated in 2011, and some preliminary bioassay trials in a facility nearby had been conducted 3 years prior. Operations have been ongoing for one and half years, with an estimated production of 100 tons from an outdoor demonstration farm this year. Dr. In-kwon Jang, the project manager and his team from the National Institute of Fisheries Science, Republic of Korea, are responsible for transferring bio-floc technology and providing technical support. Encouraged by this recent demon-

stration farm success, the Algerian government plans to develop more extension farms in oasis areas in five adjacent states, and aims to produce 2000 tons of shrimp by 2020. Prior to the Sahara project, there had been tremendous efforts and preparatory work in shrimp research in the region and these should also be credited for the recent successes. For example, the same Korean research team had completed the first shrimp project in Skikda, on the eastern coast of Algeria, to successfully produce Penaeus japonicus postlarvae from hatchery facilities and subadults from a grow-out farm from 2008 to 2011. In addition, the Korean re-

Total 12 outdoor ponds.

search team was also responsible for producing several millions of Penaeus kerathurus postlarvae, the indigenous species, for restocking in the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, the Sahara project encountered various challenges as the operation moved forward. To help the readers catch a glimpse of the complex culture issues, some detailed information for the Sahara operation are provided as below.

Water Quality Water used for rearing the shrimp is the local underground well water with a salinity of 2 ~ 4 ppt drawn from a depth of approximately 100 meters. Apart from the salinity difference, the ionic composition and ratios in the underground water are totally different from those in seawater, especially Mg2+/Ca2+, Na+/K+, and K+/ Cl-. These differences posed strong energetic, metabolic and physiological challenges for shrimp to maintain proper osmo-regulatory functions. Many trials/attempts had been carried out to correct the water mineral imbalance issue. Extreme ambient temperatures and dry climate make

the control of water temperature within a desirable range a great challenge. Daily variation of temperature and seasonal changes are usually huge, with differences reaching up to 25°C.

Shrimp seedstock and acclimation The 1st batch of P. vannamei postlarvae was imported from Shrimp Improvement Systems in Florida, United

States in September 2015. With five airport stops, the shipment lasted 45 hours in total transit, which resulted in the survival rate between 70% and 80% upon its arrival at the Algerian research center. With the rather different ionic composition profile of underground water as compared to the seawater, long distance hauled seawater from the northern Mediterranean Sea proved to be essentially effective in initiating the salinity ac-

Inside of nursery building with three raceways.

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climation for the shrimp postlarvae received and for microalgae culture. After the salinity acclimation process, nursery culture started with a stocking density of 10267/m2 and lasted three weeks in October, yielding a survival rate of over 97% as the shrimp were growing to 0.079g from the initial weight of 3.8mg.

System Upon completion of the acclimation process, a biofloc recirculation system was used for the shrimp growout. The stocking density was between 150 to 300 / m2, which yielded a harvest of 500kg on January 16, 2016 with harvest shrimp size of 23 grams. The facility includes both indoor and outdoor systems. Indoor facilities consist of three raceways (80 m2 each) and three circular tanks (25 m2) with well established aeration and piping systems to foster uniform and consistent biofloc for shrimp culture. Lined with HDPE material, the outdoor tanks are 0.1 ha, 0.2 ha, or 0.5 ha, and there are four tanks in each size category. To avoid extremely high temperatures during the summer, when the mid-day ambient temperature can reach up to 60°C under direct sunlight, the 1st harvest is programmed to be completed by July, while the 2nd stocking should take place in September and be harvested in November.

Dr Jang, feed mill and nursery building seen.

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The research building is comprised of several laboratories, such as a water quality lab, a pathology room, a laboratory microscope chamber in order to perform routine water analysis, ion chromatography, and diagnosis for shrimp bacterial and viral diseases on site. Exploring this new live penaeid species for aquaculture under extreme environmental condition, the success story of the Sahara Golden Shrimp project not only infuses the barren desert with great potential for shrimp business opportunities, but also makes a strong statement concerning what the combination of science, technology transfer and aid programs can do for a mission “impossible.”

Nursery cultured juveniles.

Bird eye view - all buildings and ponds were constructed.

In-kwon Jang is Project Manager of Sahara Shrimp Farming Project of Algeria, NIFS/KOICA, Republic of Korea. He can be reached at

Hui Gong, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the College of Natural and Applied Sciences at the University of Guam. Her expertise in shrimp aquaculture has built on 17 years of experience in applied research in both academic and industrial backgrounds.

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Aquaculture Engineering

Carbonate Chemistry Games for Aquaculture: Alkalinity

In the last column, we looked at the basic carbonate chemistry in all its forms from CO2 in the gas phase to CO2 dissolved in water to hydrated CO2 as H2CO3, which can then ionize into HCO3- and CO3-2, depending upon the pH. How much, of which forms, of inorganic CO2 By Dallas Weaver, Ph.D., P.E. Scientific Hatcheries


f you take a sample of water and titrate it by adding acid until the pH decreases to 4.5 (the typical test kit), the amount of acid added in meq/l (milliequivalents per liter: < Equivalent_%28chemistry%29>) is the titration or total alkalinity as normally measured with test kits. By adding acid, all the ionized bicarbonate and carbonate species were converted to unionized H2CO3. However, other weak acids and materials that change ionization states in the titrated pH range, like borates, phosphates, silicates, and a variety of organic acid materials etc. are also measured. In most natural water, the carbonate alkalinity from HCO3- and CO3-2 makes up almost all of the total al58 Âť

exists in the water is related to the alkalinity and pH of the water.

kalinity. For seawater, the amount of borates is significant for doing detailed carbonate chemistry calculations relevant to global CO2 budgets and transfer rates into the oceans, but insignificant in most aquaculture type applications. Given the pH of the water and the carbonate alkalinity, you can calculate the partial pressure of CO2 or the “free” CO2 dissolved in the water, which is the relevant number for the health of the fish. When the carbonate alkalinity is very similar to the titration alkalinity everything is easy, with some software to handle the mathematics. Crude limits on “free” CO2 dissolved in water of 20 mg/l provides some guidance on acceptable levels of free CO2 or partial pressure of CO2 before serious health issues arise. Presently there are probes and instruments available to directly measure the CO2 partial pressure in the water. However, most of these instruments are expensive, and most aquaculturists don’t have them. In aquaculture, especially in recycle aquaculture systems operating at high feed levels per unit discharge (cumulative feed burden – CFB – gm of feed/M3 of discharge), the titration measured alkalinity is not the same as the carbonate alkalinity. We can have significant phosphate concentration buildup, which will show up in the titration alkalinity. We can, without ozone or other advanced oxidation processes, have a buildup of soluble refractory organic compounds, which also behave like weak acids, providing even more measured alkalinity.

In recycle systems the water can become colored with yellow/brown refractory organic materials being produced in the biofilters and from the tannins and related compounds in the diets. These soluble polyphenolic components have a significant cation exchange capacity (CEC), effectively meaning that they behave like a weak acid and can be titrated as part of an alkalinity titration. This can create a significant difference between the carbonate alkalinity and what is measured by a total alkalinity titration. This can become very significant and provide misleading information on your water chemistry status in a RAS. For example, let’s look at a high intensity RAS with tilapia operating at a pH of about 6.8. When you measure the titration alkalinity, you find the alkalinity is about 5 meq/l (250 mg/l as CaCO3). Pulling out your trusty Excel spread sheet you will see that your “free” CO2 is up around 40 mg/l or a partial pressure equivalent of 2,700 ppmv. At these levels, you become seriously “concerned” as the fish can have health problem, slower growth rate and increased FCR. To find out what is really going on, without a direct reading CO2 meter, you can now take a sample of the water in a flask and drop in an air stone at a high flow rate with air from the outside. After a couple of hours, the aeration will bring that sample to equilibrium with the 400 ppmv CO2 partial pressure found in outside air. You then measure the pH and find that the pH is only 7.2. If you go back to your calculation spread sheet and shove in the information to calculate the alkalinity with an “equilibrium” pH of 7.2 and a partial pressure of CO2 of 400 ppmv, you calculate an alkalinity of about 0.19 meq/l (9 mg/l as CaCO3). You now have a calculated alkalinity based upon the pH and known CO2 partial pressure and a measured alkalinity that are dramatically different. This equilibrium pH measurement says that using titration alkalinity and pH to calculate the free CO2 may be wrong.

What has happened is all the yellow compounds in the water were neutralizing the acid you were adding in your alkalinity titration and creating a high total alkalinity. It is alkalinity in terms of its ability to buffer the water and keep small amounts of acid from drastically dropping your pH. So we still have the question of whether we have a fish health problem or not. To answer the health question, we can make a reasonable guess or actually titrate the buffering capability in the water between the equilibrium pH and the operating pH and add that much CO2 to the total inorganic carbon calculated at the equilibrium pH then solve for the partial pressure. In this example, this comes out to 6.7 mg/l of free CO2, which is a safe level. In summary, when looking at the pH, alkalinity and CO2 in high intensity systems or systems with highly colored and tannin and humic rich waters, when you don’t have high performance direct measurement of the CO2 or DIC, just aerating a sample with outside air to an equilibrium pH value can tell you a lot. This same equilibrium pH game can be played with algae culture to give an idea of where you are operating with respect to CO2 partial pressure required for plant growth. If the operating pH is less than the equilibrium pH, your algae are being subjected to CO2 partial pressures greater than 400 ppmv, which is desirable for most algae species.

Dallas Weaver, PhD, started designing and building closed aquaculture systems in 1973 and worked for several engineering/consulting companies in the fields of air pollution, liquid wastes, and solid wastes until 1980. Today, he’s the Owner/President of Scientific Hatcheries. e-mail:

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Water footprint – the next truly wicked problem in nutrition?

Water, water every where Nor any drop to drink (Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 1798).

By: Paul B. Brown*


oleridge’s quatrain from The Rime of the Ancient Mariner seemed an appropriate backdrop for this article. We live on the blue planet, life as we know it cannot exist without water, and readers of this publication work with, raise or have a general interest in animals that live in water. However, water may be the next major obstacle to further development of aquaculture. Credit must also be given to Professor Otto Doering, Purdue University, Department of Agricultural Economics for the phrase “truly wicked problem”, a phrase he used to describe the challenge of achieving sustainable food production “because it is not amenable to the traditional scientific method of problem solving.” Further, truly wicked problems have “no single solution, and there is no

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stopping point. There is also a higher degree of outcome uncertainty with wicked problems” (Doering, 2014. A truly wicked problem. Resource Magazine, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, November/ December:23). At first glance, water and nutrition may not appear related, particularly as we focus on aquatic organisms. However, demand for water exists within all food production systems. In aquaculture, this demand has been related to the water required to produce feed ingredients. Thus, the dietary formulation and associated water required to produce each ingredient contribute to the water foot print. The more carnivorous species in aquaculture have the lowest water footprint because dietary formulations contain a high percentage of fish meal and fish meal

requires relatively little water to produce, process and distribute. Overall water footprints for mandarin fish and gilthead seabream are 88 and 500 m3/ton of fish produced, respectively (Table 1 - Pahlow et al., 2015. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production. Science of the Total Environment 536:847-857). For more omnivorous species, water footprints can be over 2000 m3/t. Commodity feed ingredients (soybean, corn, wheat, canola, groundnut, lupin, cassava, etc.) require significant water resources during their production, processing and distribution cycles and use of those ingredients in diets increases the water footprint of that species. Data presented in Table 1 reflect only the dietary water footprint; complete freshwater demands

Table 1 Interpolated water footprints for aquaculture feeds (m /t). 3

Species Grass carp Common carp Indian major carps Nile tilapia Channel catfish Mandarin fish Atlantic salmon Rainbow trout Milkfish Barramundi Atlantic cod Gilthead seabream Red drum Whiteleg shrimp

2,200 2,350 1,700 2,300 2,000 88 1,850 1,500 2,450 1,100 650 500 2,150 1,700

From Pahlow et al. (2015).

Table 2 Total water footprint of selected feed ingredients (global average, m3/t). Ingredient Barely Canola meal Cassava meal Corn Corn gluten meal Cottonseed meal Groundnut meal Lupin kernel meal Rice bran Soybean meal Soy protein concentrate Sunflower meal Wheat Wheat bran

1,423 2,270 1,878 1,222 12,534 860 3,272 2,607 754 2,524 1,779 3,960 1,826 855

From Pahlow et al. (2015).

Table 3 Total water footprint for production of various animal products (m3/t). Product Beef Sheep Goat Pig Chicken Egg

15,415 10,412 5,521 5,988 4,325 3,265

From Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2012. A global assessment of the water footprint of farm animal products. Ecosystems 15:401-415.)

for various species and production systems have not been developed. There is significant variability in the water footprint of common feed ingredients. Data in Table 2 are the total global average water footprints for several commonly used ingredients in aquaculture feeds. Changing dietary formulations by altering concentrations of major ingredients will alter the overall water footprint of aquaculture. The calculation of water footprint includes consideration of the feed conversion ratio (FCR) for the target species. While overall water footprints for aquaculture species/system combinations have not been determined, the efficient conversion of ingested food to body mass in aquatic organisms might place aquaculture production in the more efficient category of water footprints for animal production. Table 3 shows values for all phases of beef, sheep, goat, pig, chicken and egg production, from birth/hatching to market. These values are not comparable to the aquaculture data in Table 1. However, these values have a similar pattern to other a comparative animal production figures, particularly those comparing feed conversion ratios for various animal species. Further work in this area will help identify those approaches that minimize the water footprint of aquaculture. The first truly wicked problem in aquaculture nutrition was fish meal; a great ingredient, but finite supply, increased demand, resulted in increasing price. Research on alternative ingredients to fish meal began over 30 years ago and continues today. A wide range of ingredients have been evaluated in response to the fish meal dilemma and substitutions vary across the globe.

This seems to fit Professor Doeringâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s definition of a truly wicked problem (i.e., no single solution, no stopping point, and high degree of outcome uncertainty). Attempting to solve the initial wicked problem in aquaculture nutrition may be driving us toward the next wicked problem. Water footprint is a bit broader issue than the focused fish meal issue, but one that deserves consideration in the short term. Population increases and changing food habits are placing significant demand on food production systems. Between now and 2050, increases of 60-100% over current food production levels have been projected. The limiting resource in food production will be freshwater. Currently, food production, harvesting, processing and distribution demands approximately 70% of the total global supply of freshwater. There is not enough freshwater to realize increases in food production of 60-100% above current levels. Future food production systems will need to consider the demand for freshwater and limit its use. If the water footprint of aquaculture production and feeds becomes a significant consideration, research in this area will most likely conclude there is no one solution and the research may continue for many years into the future. The outcome of this line of research is uncertain.

Dr. Paul Brown is Professor of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences in the Department of Forestry and Natural Resources of Purdue University. Brown has served as Associate Editor for the Progressive Fish-Culturist and the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, among many others. Dr. Liu Bo, Visiting Scholar at Purdue University, is Associate Professor at the Chinese Academy of Fisheries Science, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Wuxi City, China.

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Aquaculture Economics, Management, and Marketing

Growing Your Aquaculture Business:

Is It Time to Expand or Diversify?

This column presents the contents of a webinar hosted by the National Aquaculture Association in November, 2015. The slides and recording of that webinar are available at: By: Carole R. Engle, Ph.D.* Engle-Stone Aquatic$


s now the right time to expand or diversify your aquaculture business? Is it time to move into new markets, produce new products or increase production? If the primary reason for considering expansion or diversification of the business is: 1) the owner is tired of what he/she is doing; 2) the business is not doing well; 3) other people are changing; or 4) there appear to be new opportunities for the business, then the next step is to devote the time to thorough planning and analysis. The first step is to conduct a careful financial analysis of the current financial performance of the business. Previous columns discussed the three components of a successful aquaculture business: adequate cash flow, moderate financial position, and acceptable level of profitability. What “adequate” means will vary from farm to farm but should be based on whether the farm is meeting the specific short and long-term goals established for the business. It is critical to spend time setting these very specific goals for each upcoming year. These goals and a detailed understanding of the financial performance of your business provide the platform from which to make decisions related to expanding or diversifying your business. 62 » Under what conditions does it make economic/financial sense to expand the business? One good reason to expand is if the business model and plan include goals of becoming the primary and preferred supplier to a profitable segment of the market. An often related reason to expand the business is to take advantages of economies of scale. However, under no circumstances should a business undertake a major expansion without a great deal of certainty and proof that the additional volume can realistically be sold at an acceptable price.

Economies of scale typically exist in industries with high fixed costs of production such that expanding output results in spreading the fixed costs over a greater amount of production. As long as fixed costs of production remain “fixed” and do not increase, then greater production will reduce the fixed costs per pound of production. It is important to understand that there also are diseconomies of scale. There are many examples of businesses growing too large to be managed in an efficient manner. For example, a

seafood processing plant that adds too many additional processing lines may find that coordinating the delivery of live fish on trucks becomes difficult, backlogs develop, and overall efficiencies of the plant decrease. While fixed costs per pound of fish will decrease with an expansion of the quantity of product sold, variable costs will also increase as production increases. The feed bill, fingerling costs, total costs of harvest, labor, and other costs will increase because more inputs are needed. If the expansion involves investing in new ponds, trucks, or processing lines, then total fixed costs will also increase. The key question that requires careful analysis is what effect will the entire set of changes have on the bottomline cost per pound of production. If the cost analysis shows that the overall cost per pound of production would go down with an expansion, the second step in the analysis is to evaluate the effect on cash flow. For example, a farmer may recognize that a new technology would increase profits on the farm, but the farm is experiencing cash flow problems. Expanding production would require the farm to spend more cash to purchase more feed, fingerlings, and other inputs that would likely create even greater cash flow problems that could lead to even more serious financial consequences for the farm. Such a farm would need to first resolve the cash flow problems this year and then begin the expansion process at a later date. The rate of expansion should be determined through careful and realistic projections of what the farm’s cash flow will allow. The final step in the analysis of whether to expand or not in the near future is to examine the effect on the farm’s financial position. For example, if a farm with a debt-to-asset ratio of 55% borrowed additional capital to invest in new ponds, equipment, or increased operating expenses that drove the debt-to-asset ratio to 85%, the farm would end up in a posi-

tion of very high financial risk. Such a farm business would be better off taking the necessary steps this year to first decrease the debt-to-asset ratio to, perhaps 25% to 30%. Then, even with the 30% projected increase in the debt-to-asset ratio from the new investment, financial risk in the business would remain at a moderate level. The analysis of whether to diversify into a new crop, new product, or new market should also include the following steps: 1) careful financial analysis of the farm’s current profitability, cash flow, and financial position; and 2) careful financial analysis of the effect of diversification on profitability, cash flow, and financial position. Additional investment in distribution or marketing equipment and facilities must be accounted for. As with the expansion decision, the market analysis done to justify diversification must provide a great deal of certainty that any new products can be sold at the volume and price necessary to cover the additional costs. There are three important reasons to consider diversification. One is to spread overall economic risk. For diversification to successfully reduce economic risk, the new products produced or the new markets targeted must have prices that vary in the opposite direction of prices of the existing products sold or existing markets sold into. In other words, the new product’s price would tend to be high when the

primary product’s price is low. A second reason to diversify production is to improve cash flow. If a foodfish grower who sells into a market with the greatest demand in the spring Lenten season can identify a product that can be sold in the fall holiday season, cash flow in the business may improve. A third reason to diversify may be to adjust, over time, to the product’s life cycle. Most products do not last forever in the market place. There comes a time when sales of that particular product begin to wane, and the successful business must be prepared to introduce and develop new products. Expansion and diversification of an aquaculture business can be advantageous. However, such decisions must be preceded by careful and thorough financial and market analysis to chart a successful path for growing the aquaculture business.

Carole Engle holds a B.A. degree in Biology/Rural Development from Friends World College and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Auburn University where she specialized in aquaculture economics. Dr. Engle is a past-President of the U.S. Aquaculture Society and the International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management. She is currently a Principal in Engle-Stone Aquatic$ LLC, and can be reached at

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Post harvest

Why Fish Quality Deteriorates During Storage

– and What You Can Do About It Freezing does not destroy all microbes present, but temperatures below about +15°F (-9.4°C) preclude microbial growth, as the water activity (Aw) at this temperature is 0.90. However, enzymatic and nonenzymatic chemical reactions occur even at 0°F (-18°C).

By: Michael Jahncke*


Shelf-life helf life is the time between food manufacture and attainment of unacceptability to customers. Regardless of the type of preservation employed, all foods eventually undergo change in flavor, color, texture, and nutritional status. Intrinsic factors that affect shelf life include: The amount and type of lipid (fat), type of pigments, amount of water (i.e., water activity), pH value and acidity, etc. Extrinsic factors include: Package, film permeability, seal integrity, chemical reactivity, light transmission potential, internal gas atmosphere, storage temperature and temperature fluctuations, relative humidity, etc. Classification of Fish Examples of high fat fish include: • Salmon • Tuna

• Trout • Herring • Sardines • Mackerel Examples of low fat fish include: • Tilapia • Cod • Haddock • Pollock • Flounder

Composition of Fish Lean fish, such as flounder, cod, Pollock, tilapia, are approximately 78-83% water, 15-20% protein, 1-4% lipid (fat), and 1-1.3% ash. Fatty fish, tuna, mackerel, blue fish, mahi-mahi, on the other hand, contain anywhere between 4 and 25% fat, Usually fat and water (moisture) content total approximately 80%. Fish composition, however, will vary between and within fish species depending on sex, age, season, water temperatures, and type and abundance of available food. Major compositional changes within species can be due to changes in their nutritional status. There is one report in the literature of a fish captured post spawning being 95% water. Muscle structure (Protein) Similar to other vertebrate species,

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fish muscle is comprised of both red and white muscle fibers. Red muscle is located primarily along the lateral line and may comprise, depending upon species, up to 30% of the fish muscle. Red muscles are used by the fish primarily during sustained swimming activity. White muscle, on the other hand, is used for short bursts of swimming activity. Red muscle fibers are also higher in fat (lipid) content compared with white muscle fibers. In some species, there can be 4.5 times more fat in red muscle compared with white muscle fibers.

Lipids (Fat) Fat in fish is found primarily under the skin, in the belly flap region and in the dark red muscle. The amount of fat in fish can vary from 0.6% in cod to over 25% in mackerel. Fish fat is extremely polyunsaturated, which means that it is a very perishable product. Marine fish contain many long chain omega-3

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Post harvest

fatty acids, in contrast to mammals which contain a higher percentage of omega-6 fatty acids compared with the omega-3 fatty acids found in marine species. The omega-3 fatty acids are good for cardiovascular health, but they are also much more susceptible to oxidizing and turning rancid during refrigerated and frozen storage.

Refrigerated Storage: Microorganisms are found on all surfaces (skin and gills) and in the intestines of live fish or fresh fish. The total numbers of microorganisms vary greatly. There are several different types of spoilage bacteria, but one of the main types of spoilage bacteria belong to the genus Pseudomonas and can be found on meat, poultry, seafood and milk and dairy products. Spoilage bacteria are generally harmless, but can cause changes in the color, flavor, odor, and texture of food. In contrast, pathogenic bacteria are illness-causing bacteria that can produce toxins or cause infections.

Problem Unpreserved raw fish and unpasteurized cooked fish and fishery products spoil rapidly during refrigerated storage. Solution Maintaining low constant storage temperatures. First-in First-out (FIFO) management schemes to shorten the time fish are kept in refrigerated storage. A trained workforce that understands the importance of following Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) and having and following Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) and implementing following, and monitoring the 8 Key Sanitation Conditions and Practices mandated by the USFDA. (NOTE: Packaged products such as refrigerated unpreserved raw fish and refrigerated unpasteurized cooked fishery products require a film with a minimum Oxygen Transmission Rate [OTR] of 10,000 cc/ m2/24hr or 3,000 cc/m2/24hr, or higher to prevent formation of toxin from C. botulinum).

Effects of Freezing Method and Frozen Storage on Quality of Fish Storage at 0°F (-18°C) is satisfactory for maintaining adequate shelf life for most frozen foods. At that temperature, chemical changes that degrade food quality occur at a slower rate which eventually terminates shelf life. High barrier packaging films for frozen product and lower constant storage temperatures will help to lengthen the shelf life of these type products. Freezing does not destroy all microbes present, but temperatures below about +15°F (-9.4°C) preclude microbial growth, as the water activity (Aw) at this temperature is 0.90. However, enzymatic and non-enzymatic chemical reactions occur even at 0°F (-18°C). Q10 Effect The effect of temperature on the biochemical reaction rate is called the temperature accelerating effect. (i.e., Temperature Accelerating Factor: 66 »

Q10). The biochemical reaction rate is increased 2-3 fold when temperature is increased by 10°C (18°F). Conversely, the reaction rate is reduced 2-3 fold when temperature is decreased by 10°C (18°F). Problem Changes in fish texture, lipid (fat) oxidation, loss of pigment color, etc., are caused by a combination of dehydration, ice crystal formation, increased extracellular salt concentrations, etc. Dehydration can be caused by the removal of water during a slow freezing process, along with poor packaging, and low humidity levels in the room. Large ice crystals form during a slow freezing process and fluctuating storage temperatures by diffusion of water from the surrounding muscle fibers. These large ice crystals distort cells and muscle fibers, and create spaces in between the muscle fibers. The large ice crystals are formed during slow freezing, because the cell exteriors cool faster than the cell interiors. During this slow freezing of extracellular water, extracellular salt concentrations may increase as much as tenfold in the unfrozen solute. The higher extracellular salt concentrations will osmotically draw intracellular water into extracellular spaces causing extracellular space expansion. Solutions A high barrier packaging film to prevent oxygen transmission and dehydration (freezer burn) to help maintain texture, color and lipid (fat) quality. Quick freezing rates and low constant storage temperatures, to ensure lower extracellular salt concentrations, resulting in smaller ice crystals, less disruption of muscle fibers, and protection of pigments and lipid (fat).

Texture Changes in Gadoid Species

Problem The Gadidae family of fish includes some of the most important commercial species of fish such as haddock, pollock, cod, whiting, cusk and hakes.

ucts in both refrigerated and frozen storage. Rather modest temperature abuse can dramatically shorten acceptable shelf life in refrigerated and frozen foods as can excessive cycling of storage temperature. In addition, the 3 Ps also have a profound effect on the shelf life of chilled and frozen food (i.e., Nature of the Product; Type of Chilling/ Freezing Process Used; Type of Packaging Used). Thus, it is important to recognize that adequate chilled and frozen food shelf life is linked not only to the chilled and frozen food storage environment, but also to the 3 Ps.

The textural deterioration in these species during frozen storage is due primarily to the breakdown of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), which is a compound found naturally in many marine species, into dimethyl-amine (DMA) and formaldehyde (FA), by the enzyme TMAO-dimethylase (TMAO-ase). The FA then cross-links the protein fibers resulting in a dry, fibrous fillet. Solution Quick freeze these type fish and optimize the First In First Out (FIFO) policy to maintain good quality. If these type products will be stored for more than 6 months, keep them at temperatures less than 0°F (-18°C).

Undesirable Lipid (Fat) Changes in Fish

Problem Deleterious changes in the quality of the lipid (fat) in marine fish during frozen storage is also caused by a combination of dehydration, ice crystal formation, and increased extracellular salt concentrations in fish fat (lipid). The fat (lipid) in higher fat fish will tend to oxidize or turn rancid, due to exposure to oxygen, high salt and mineral concentrations, iron in the blood of the fish, and fluctuating storage temperatures. Solution Use a high barrier film to prevent oxidation of the fat and dehydration which can lead to rancidity and hydrolysis of the lipids. Quick freeze the fish to minimize formation of large ice crystals, and to minimize high concentrations of salt and minerals, which can oxidize and accelerate rancidity. As stated above, these high concentrations of salt and minerals form in the muscle tissue during a slow freezing process. Minimize exposure to light, and minimize fluctuating storage temperatures, which can lead to partial thawing and refreezing resulting in large ice crystal formation.

Conclusions Poor packaging, low relative humidity, and substantial temperature fluctuation cause deterioration of seafood prod» 67

*Dr. Michael Jahncke is a Professor at Virginia Tech and the Director of the Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center. He earned his Ph.D. in Food Science at Cornell University. His research interests include safety and quality of wild catch and aquaculture species, sensory evaluation of seafood products, handling and processing of fish and fishery products, public, environmental, and animal health issues associated with aquaculture systems.

The Fishmonger

How Engaged Are you? Many people seem to arrive in the seafood industry more by accident than design and very few look outside the small circle that they operate.


he seafood post harvest industry is a nil entry level industry meaning that we are not setting any minimum education/training standards for entry so when you add to that the reluctance, in many countries, to engage in industry associations it does not help create a solid foundation.

COFI 2016 courtesy Infofish.

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In order to understand your role in the industry it is necessary to have a good understanding of how the industry operates. How the regulations and standards are established and how you can engage is important if you want to have some say in how the laws of the future are crafted. Of course, you can remain ignorant

and just absorb what is ‘dished out’ and then react. Getting on the front foot and being pro-active may seem to be creating extra work but there is an old saying “If you don’t learn to manage your own industry, other people will find ways to (mis)manage it for you!” At the end of February in Morocco the United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) held a meeting [Committee on Fisheries (COFI) Sub-Committee on Fish Trade] to discuss Fish Trade - and who was sitting at the table representing you? From previous knowledge the answer is probably ‘no one.’ That means ‘you’ have no one looking after your interests on subjects which have enormous impacts on your future. This is not a new initiative as it is has been held every two years since its first session took place in October 1986. FAO estimates that for 2015 the value of international fish trade was130 billion USD, indicating a sharp drop from the fish trade

COFI trade poster.

peak of 144 billion USD reached in 2014. Interestingly they advise that although traded volumes remained steady over the two year period, the decline in value is largely due to currency fluctuations. Wow…USD14 billion on foreign exchange loss – that is 10 percent of the value. We all should know and be proud that fish and fishery products are the most traded food commodities worldwide. For many countries, especially developing countries, fishery exports are essential to national economies. Fascinatingly today our industry is operating in a progressively more globalized environment. Fish may be harvested in one country, processed in a second, and consumed

in a third. It is a dynamic situation which not only creates opportunities but also brings many challenges. If you are struggling as an insider in this area then imagine how difficult this is for policy makers. Items which are already on the COFI agenda are Recent developments in fish trade; Building resilience along the value chain; Guidelines for Catch Documentation Schemes; Food quality and safetyrelated market access requirements; Trade in fisheries services; Voluntary Guidelines for Small-Scale Fisheries; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) – related activities; Monitoring the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and Impact of aquaculture supply on trade and consumption. These are the sorts of topics which are the foundation to fish trade and impact on your business in one way or another. Whilst the FAO brings together FAO member countries with an interest in fish trade, and has a fairly generous ‘open door’ to industry and civil society organizations (as observers), there generally are few industry associations that take part. Of course there are processes to engage which are not that onerous but it is amazing how little this is reported through the trade. Certain subjects, such as market access and import regulations, remain constant, and in recent years,

delegates have been discussing issues such as certification, traceability, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, catch documentation, decent work and social conditions in the industry - but where is this all feeding into and out of the industry? Just talking trade and the competing red meat industry, there is steady commentary coming from the major red meat suppliers that the prices for beef and lamb have increased by up to 20 per cent over the past six months. Pork had been cheaper to buy until late last year but even that product has started to firm. As cattle prices soar, people down the line such as distributors and consumers will continue to feel the increases. It has been muted in Australia that some processors are losing $200 to $300 per head to process meat. That’s not because of strong live export demand; it’s because of the low national herd number. Numbers are down some 30 per cent and they are warning consumers could expect to pay double or more for beef products over the coming years. Additionally many of the processors/abattoirs are suffering from what they call ‘audit fatigue’ and some highlight that they have more audit days per annum than they have production days. This is something that the seafood industry will be facing more and more unless it starts focusing on working on limiting the number of certification organisations which are allowed in the industry. There are lessons here for seafood but first we need to engage in local, country and international dialogues to debate such issues. Will we see that day or will we continue to have our industry controlled for us?

The Fishmonger

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urner barry

Tilapia, Catfish and Shrimp Import Updates from Urner Barry

Total tilapia imports into the U.S. in 2015 declined when compared to the previous year for both fresh and frozen fillets. Conversely, frozen wholefish imports increased 3.5 percent. By: Paul B. Brown Jr.*


Pangasius angasius and Channel Catfish: Traders of both pangasius and Chinese catfish have reported mixed sentiments due to the uncertainty that new regulations may cause. At the moment, the market appears to be at a stand-still. Imported Channel Catfish: December imports increased from the previous month as historically seasonal data would suggest. Still, YTD imports are well below last yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s figures by about 28 percent. Supplies in the U.S. to that point had been reported as tight with high replacement costs. Replacement costs came in at $3.32 in December, which is the highest level since March 2012. Because of this, as well as in addition to the costs incurred to clear shipments into the U.S., offering levels in the U.S. have been pushed to near record at $3.80 on average. Finally, adding the uncertainty surrounding the new upcoming regulations, the undertone is mixed going forward. Pangasius: December imports decreased slightly compared to the 70 Âť

previous month and the same month a year ago. 2015 monthly imports did not reveal any seasonal pattern but total yearly imports reached a record high at 237 million pounds. Despite

record high imports and a relatively weak market going into the fourth quarter of 2015, product holders have mixed opinions as to what the future will entail. As a result, anec-

dotal reports indicated replacement offerings surged in early February —which could be reflected in future arrivals— as a result offerings in the U.S. also surged slightly. European data in November —the most updated data available— revealed that imports of pangasius to the EU (both on a monthly and YTD basis) surpassed those of the U.S. again. Whether or not new inspection rules in the U.S. will divert pangasius shipments to other markets, say Europe, is yet to be seen; however, it is a likely scenario. That said, when comparing import prices, product entering the U.S. came in at a much higher price level than in the EU.

Tilapia Tilapia Whole Fish: Imports of frozen whole fish increased compared to the previous month and the same month a year ago. As a result, total imports into the U.S. ended 3.5 percent above last year’s figures but below imports in 2013. Tilapia Fresh Fillets: Monthly imports in December followed the historical and seasonal trend and jumped up from the previous month. However, at roughly 4 million pounds, December 2015 marks the lowest monthly figure for that month since December 2010. From a seasonal point of view, changes

in monthly imports were less drastic from April to October but sudden drops from their peak in March, and in November were greater than the three year-average. Now, total imports in 2015 added 55.1 million pounds, which is the lowest yearly figure since 2011. Shipments from top suppliers Honduras and Mexico were down 10 and 35 percent respectively when compared to last year. Imports from Colombia, now the second largest supplier of this commodity, almost reached the 12 million pound mark on a YTD basis which translates into a 31 percent increase from a year ago. Former top supplier Ecuador continues to recover with shipments up 17 percent YTD from a year ago. Costa Rica, the third largest supplier, was down 5 percent on a YTD basis from a year ago. Market prices adjusted downward during March and have remained barely steady ever since. A seasonally soft demand explains the bearish undertone in the market. December replacement costs rose slightly after falling significantly throughout the year. Still, this replacement figure for December is the second lowest figure since June 2012. Tilapia Frozen Fillets: December imports increased from the previous month as historical and seasonal data suggests. However, 8

out of the last 9 months, monthly imports have fallen below last year’s levels and the 3-year average. This translates into total imports in 2015 falling to the lowest level since 2011 at 347.5 million pounds. Additionally, replacement prices have also adjusted lower, with the exception of October and November, which increased but only slightly. In December, replacement costs remained flat from October. This market remains generally mixed with a barely steady undertone. According to Chinese reports, production in 2015 dropped, which would suggest higher prices, everything else equal. One of the explanations could lie on reports suggesting packers in China did not have the expected orders amid lower production; as a result, offering levels from China trended down. Recent reports of bad weather in China, combined with a seasonally low production period, could impact the market in the short term. Still, more information will become available once New Year’s festivities in China are over. For now, the market is mixed. » 71

urner barry

Shrimp December 2015 shrimp imports were up over 14% compared to December last year. So for the year 2015 compared to 2014 imports were 3.3% ahead. However, the value of the total imports as expressed in dollars per pound dropped 21% from $5.34 in 2014 to $4.21 for 2015. Shrimp imports to the US market were the second highest ever on record in 2015 at 1.29 billion pounds. The figure was just 8.9 million pounds short of hitting the all-time high set in 2006. Imports from most producing countries are way up in December compared to the same period a year ago. Ecuador is down and Indonesia is up only slightly. Shell-on imports for December are up 1.8% for the month and 1% for the year. Peeled imports were up over 20% in December but finish the year only 1.5% higher.

72 Âť

Cooked imports were up over 26% in December and are 7.3% higher for the year. Breaded imports posted substantial gains both for the month and for the year. India was the top shrimp supplier to the US market again in 2015 increasing year end imports by 24.9%. Despite flooding and some reports of disease Indian imports in December were huge. HLSO imports increased 14% for December compared to a year ago in count sizes 31-40 count and larger and centered on 16-20 and 21-25 count. Peeled imports increased 70.9% for the month. Lower imports and production due to the flooding, disease issues, and lower stocking densities due to previously weak market conditions are anticipated; by some, to show up in early 2016 imports. The widely reported flooding issues appears to have been the main catalyst in the market strength seen in December. From the low in November 2015 on 16-20 count HLSO of $5.20 the market has increased 17.3% to currently $6.10. Of course

this strength is multi-faceted and stems from ALL the issues mentioned above. Currently the Asian shrimp market is mostly steady but some premiums continue particularly on 26-30 count and larger sizes. Additionally, some report holes in inventories as well as difficulty replacing product due to the disconnect between replacement offerings and the current US spot market. However, currently the situation has eased somewhat with reports of additional raw material deliveries to Indian plants and a few increasing offers. This could be enough to match the slower US demand typical in the first quarter and currently indicates a steady market. Indonesia was the second largest supplier of shrimp to the US market in 2015 with annual imports up 10.7%. HLSO imports from Indonesia were down 31.1% in December and are generally considered mostly easy peel shrimp. Peeled imports were up 5.8% and cooked imports were 138.4% higher. Although the cooked percentage increase is very high, Indonesia is a sig-

nificantly smaller supplier of cooked shrimp when compared to Thailand and Vietnam and ranks third. US imports from Indonesia typically are heaviest from October through to about March or April. Dry conditions due to a strong El NiĂąo are blamed for poor production and the anticipated shortfall in imports in the first quarter. Without rain, salinity is higher in the ponds and that limits shrimp growth. Like India replacement offerings from Indonesia have been reported strong and disconnected from the current US spot market. The figure 1 show the green condition in October 2014 followed by the same period in 2015. The dry conditions are readily noticeable. October would generally be the beginning of seasonal production. Figure 1. Indonesia - Greenness (No Noise NDVI)

*President of Urner Barry

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urner barry

Salmon By: Paul B. Brown Jr.*

Currently the farmed salmon complex ranges depending on the market. February thus far has seen the Northeast wholefish market been steady while the West Coast wholefish market has been firm on smaller fish and weaker on larger fish. The Chilean fillet market has been steady to full steady.


he salmon market finishes the 2015 year 13.81 percent higher YTD. Total month-to-month data reveals an increase of 6.06 percent when compared to November. Fresh Atlantic wholefish imports are up 36.26 percent and fresh fillets are up 9.64 percent YTD. And when comparing the current imports to December of 2014, we see a 17.28 percent increase.

Fresh Atlantic Wholefish YTD wholefish imports ended the year with large increases; up 36.3 percent. Canada and to a smaller extent

Norway are the drivers with 67.2 and 87.4 percent increases respectively. The month-to-month data also reveals an increase when comparing December 2015 to November 2015 of 8.4 percent. Additionally, when comparing to December 2014, imports saw a 18.3 percent increase. 2015 has surpassed all previous years and 2015 imports are at the highest volume to date of wholefish. December imports into the Northeast continue to see large jumps compared to 2014. Currently the market in the Northeast is steady. With the beginning of Lent and Valentineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Day, market participants re-

Figure 1 Atlantic Salmon Fillets Fresh, 2-3 D-trim Chile. Retail Ad Average Price VS. UB Quotations %Change Imports


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

% Change in Price $

30% 20% 10% 0%

-10% -20% -30% Jan-12

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port that activity was slower than anticipated, but market is currently steady at listed levels. Supplies are adequate for a moderate to fair demand. Imports into the Northeast are under but close to 2013 as seen in the bar graph above. All sizes listed for Northeast wholefish are trending below their three-year averages. Imports of European wholefish during December were higher than last year at the same time. The European wholefish market, in general, is somewhat unsettled with both higher and lower offerings noted for the middle of February. 6-7s are currently below the threeyear averages. Imports from Canada on the West Coast (WC) increased during December. Imports on the WC are at the highest volume to date. Currently the market in the West is full steady to firm on 4-6 through 12-14 pound fish. 14-ups are barely steady to weak. Overall demand is moderate to fair. All sizes listed are trending below their three-year averages.

Fresh Atlantic Fillets December 2015 imports of fresh fillets reached 288 million pounds which is the highest YTD volume on record. Month-to-month data shows a slight increase when compared to November 2015 of 0.1 percent. When comparing imports to last year at the same time, there is a 15.3 percent increase. Chile is the driver of these increases and 214 million pounds have been imported thus far for the year which is up 5.2 percent YTD. Norway continues to see double digit increases YTD; up 55.5 percent with 36.6 million pounds imported for 2015. Fillet imports from Chile and Europe total 288.2 million pounds, the highest total seen in the past four years. Currently the Chilean fillet market is steady to full steady as of mid-February. Supplies of fillets out of Chile range adequate for a moderate demand. Some still higher offerings have been collected as well. All sizes for Chilean fillets are trending well below the three year average. Frozen Fillets Imports of frozen fillets are down 13.5 percent YTD. However, when compared to November 2014 levels, imports are up 11.7 percent. Shipments from Chile are up 3.4 percent YTD while imports from Norway are down 2.7 percent. YTD. Month to month data does show an increase when compared to November 2015 of 12.0 percent. Currently the market is barely steady to weaker on frozen portions while frozen fillets are full steady to firming. Imports of frozen fillet (non-Atlantic) decreased 0.2 percent YTD. In contrast, when compared to the same

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time a year ago, December 2015 is 1.6 percent higher than December 2014. Shipments from China, the main supplier of this commodity —chum— increased by 5.6 percent YTD and totaling 70.2 million pounds.

Retail Retail data for the month of February shows the average price for Atlantic salmon fillets adjusted lower when comparing to February of 2015. 2015’s average was $8.22 where 2016’s average was $6.94, a $1.28 difference. Moreover, when comparing February 2016 to January 2016, there was a $0.13 decrease from an average of $7.07 to an average of $6.94. The bottom chart shows the % change in pricing of the wholesale market vs. retail ad pricing since 2012. The graph shows a clear correlation between these two.

*President of Urner Barry



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Commercial Marine Expo Apr. 27th - Apr. 28th State Pier New Bedford, MA. USA. T:+1 800-925-1994

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Sirha Budapest May 9th - May 11th Hungexpo Budapest Budapest, Hungary. Cibus May 9th - May 12th Parma Exhibition Center. Parma, Italy. T: +39 0521 996 206 E: E:

Food Safety Summit May 10th - May 12th Chicago, Illinois. USA. Aquaculture UK May 25th - May 26h Macdonald Aviemore Highland Resort Aviemore Inverness Shire - PH22 1PN - Scotland. United Kingdom. T: +44 (0)1862 892188 E: World of Seafood May 25th - May 29h IMPACT Exhibition and Convention Center - Popular Rd, Ban Mai, Pak Kret District, Nonthaburi. Bangkok Thailand. T: +65 6500 6712 F: +65 6294 8403 E:

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Aquaculture Magazine April / May 2016 Volume 42 Number 2  
Aquaculture Magazine April / May 2016 Volume 42 Number 2  

US Trout Production in 2015