Women who changed the world

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An initiative of: “Women who changed the world”

Lise Meitner Doctor and educator known for the philosophy of education that bears her name Chiaravalle, Italy (1870 – 1952)

Maria Montessori was a multifaceted woman. In addition to being an educator and physician, she was a scientist, psychiatrist, philosopher, anthropologist, biologist and Mariapsychologist.studied medicine at the University of Rome La Sapienza. She later studied Anthropology and obtained a doctorate in Philosophy. During this time she also trained in Experimental Psychology. She became involved in the study of social conditions, especially those of women and children, and how they influenced society, After deepening her studies and having several experiences with children considered mentally disturbed, Maria Montessori matured a method in which the child became the true protagonist of the educational process. Following the Montessori Method, children develop in a prepared environment, based on very clear natural principles: autonomy, independence, initiative, capacity to choose, development of the will; and self-discipline. Its educational method has been and continues to be successfully applied with many children in public and private schools around the world.

“WOMEN WHO CHANGED THE WORLD” It introduces you to... Maria www.apte.org/science-technology-in-feminineMontessori

She was part of the team that discovered the nuclear fission of uranium and thorium Vienna, Austria (1878 – 1968)

Science and Technology in feminine

Lise Meitner was a physicist specialized in the study of radioactivity and nuclear physics. She studied Mathematics and Physics at the University of Vienna where she obtained her doctorate.

For three decades, Meiner worked with Otto Hahn in Berlin to unravel the mysteries of the atom and radioactivity. She became the first professor of experimental nuclear physics at the University of Berlin. With the advent of Nazism, she had to leave Germany and moved to Stockholm. Meitner and her nephew Otto Frisch were the first to explain the nuclear fission of uranium in terms of Theoretical Physics. However, Meitner was omitted from Hahn's paper published in Nature magazine, claiming that the Nazi regime would not have allowed him to include a Jewish author. The fact that she did not appear as a co-author was used by the Nobel Committee to award only Otto Hahn the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944.

In 1942, she was offered to participate in the Manhattan project to get an atomic bomb, but she declined the offer, claiming she wanted nothing to do with a bomb. No other scientist refused the offer.

Ángela Ruiz Robles

Ángela Ruiz Robles was a pioneering teacher, writer and inventor from León who revolutionized the way we educate. She always stood out for her innovative and non-conformist vocation.

As an inventor, she carried out other projects. In 1944, she made the scientific-grammatical atlas, which served to teach Spain with grammar, syntax, morphology, spelling and phonetics lessons. In addition, she invented a typewriter, before developing the first mechanical encyTheclopedia.concepts Angela invented were too advanced for her time. However, they are still valid today. The forerunner of the e-book Villamanín, Spain (1895 1975)

Science and Technology in feminine

Edith studied Mathematics and Astronomy at Vassar College in New York. After graduating, she taught until she became a "human calculator" at the telecommunications company AT&A where she applied mathematical methods to solve long-distance electrical transmission problems.

In her effort to facilitate the teaching of her students, Ángela invented the Mechanical Encyclopedia in 1949. Her invention made learning more attractive, lightened the weight of the books for the students and adapted the content to the level of each student. Thirteen years later, she personally directed the construction of the first prototype of her invention.

“WOMEN WHO CHANGED THE WORLD” It introduces you to...


First female electrical engineer and pioneer in the field of electricity Howard, United States (1883 – 1959)

In 1921 she filed and obtained a patent for a calculator to be used in solving transmission line problems. That same year she founded the Women's College of Constantinople in Turkey. A year later she got a position as an engineer at General Electric.


In 1918 she entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). There, she studied electrical engineering, obtaining her Master's degree in 1919 and being the first woman to receive this degree at MIT. A year later she began working for General Electric as supervisor of a group of women who calculated the mechanical stresses of turbine rotors.

Edith Clarke was the first woman to present a paper at the American Institute of Electronic Engineers (AIEE) and the first woman to be nominated as a Fellow at the AIEE.

Barbara McClintock

Science and Technology in feminine

Gerty Cori was a biochemist whose work has made us understand the metabolism of carbohydrates. She studied medicine at the University of Prague where she also obtained her doctorate. During these years she met her husband, Carl Cori, with whom she began to enter the world of medical research.

Barbara McClintock was a scientist specializing in cytogenetics. She obtained her PhD in Botany from Cornell University where she worked for several years leading the corn cytogenetics group until she joined the University of Missouri as an assistant professor. Finally, she obtained a position as a full-time researcher at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. She specialized in cytogenetics and discovered how genes in corn can transfer information across chromosomes, which proved to be of great importance to the understanding of hereditary processes and genetics. She was very productive in scientific publications. As a result, she received numerous distinctions and awards. However, the greatest distinction came at the age of 81, when she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology. She was the first woman to be awarded this distinction alone "for her discoveries in the field of genetic transposition. The recognition came 30 years after she reported her findings. Nobel Prize in Medicine "for her discoveries in the field of genetic transposition" Hartford, United States (1902 – 1992)

The first woman worldwide to win a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

With the outbreak of the First World War they had to emigrate to the United States to continue their research. In 1931, Carl accepted a job as a researcher at the University of Washington School of Medicine and applied for a similar position for his wife, backed by his experience and publications. In the end, Gerty had to accept a position as a research associate. Gerty did not give up and continued his research. Her tenacity and determination paid off almost ten years later when she landed a position as a full professor. In 1947 their work was recognized with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine shared with physiologist Bernardo Houssay. They received it for discovering the mechanism of transformation of glycogen into lactic acid, a process known as the Cori cycle.

“WOMEN WHO CHANGED THE WORLD” It introduces you to... Gerty www.apte.org/science-technology-in-feminineCori

Prague, Czech Republic (1896 – 1957)

Joan Clarke

Considered the mother of computer programming and architect of the first complex computer language New York, United States (1906 – 1992)

Science and Technology in feminine

Grace Hopper was a computer and military scientist. She graduated from Vassar College with a degree in physics and mathematics. She later obtained a doctorate in mathematics from Yale in 1934.

When the United States entered World War II, she joined the Navy. There, the Navy sent her to Harvard University, where she worked as a programmer on the first large-capacity computer, the Mark I. After the war, she joined a company developing UNIVAC, the first electronic computer, where she proposed to create a programming language. Her idea was rejected for years, but it ended up being the first compiler, the programs that 'translate' programming instructions into machine Hopperlanguage.waskey in the development of the COBOL language, one of the first high-level languages (and still used today). Her work was so valuable that after retiring from the Navy, she returned several times at the government's request, even being promoted by Presidential order until she became a rear admiral in 1985.

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Joan Clarke was a brilliant mathematician and one of the exceptional minds of the 20th century. Joan studied at Newnham College, Cambridge, where she obtained a double degree in mathematics, although at that time she was refused the full degree. In 1939, Joan was recruited by one of her professors in Cambridge and became part of the UK Government's School of Codes and Ciphers (GC&CS) whose sole purpose at the time was to break the German Enigma Code. Enigma was a machine that the Germans invented to encrypt their messages and which they believed to be invioLaterlable. she became part of the Hut 8 group led by Alan Turing. Thanks to her brilliance and perseverance, Clarke's team achieved their goal: to break the Enigma code. Her role in this process earned her awards and citations, including appointment to the Order of the British Empire (MBE). Cryptologist who helped decipher the Enigma Code that led to the Allied victory in World War II West Norwoord, United Kingdom (1917 – 1996)

“WOMEN WHO CHANGED THE WORLD” It introduces you to... Gertrude www.apte.org/science-technology-in-feminineB.Elion

Evelyn Berezin was a computer engineer. She graduated from New York University with a degree in physics and a few years later began working at the Eletronic Computer Corporation (Elecom) as a computer designer.

The woman who discovered treatments for leukemia, malaria and made organ transplants possible New York, United States (1918 – 1999)

After three decades designing and developing software and hardware, she changed her career path to become a technology consultant to companies. In recognition of her contribution to computing, Berezin was named to the U.S. Museum of Computer History in 2015, "for her pioneering work in computer design and a lifetime of entrepreneurship”.

Evelyn Berezin

World War II and the departure of men to the front made it easier for women to enter the scientific field. Elion went from working in a food company to being part of the pharmaceutical company Burroghts-Wellcome, led by George H.Hitchings, with whom she would share the Nobel Prize. She discovered drugs that are now essential: azathioprine for organ transplants, mercaptopurine for leukemia and acyclovir against the herpes virus, as well as contributing to the development of the first anti-AIDS drug, AZT. In 1988, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for discovering "key principles in drug development and treatment".

In 1953, while working for the Underwood Company, Berezin created what is now considered the first office computer. Later, she started working at Teleregister where she developed the first computerized reservation system for airlines.

Gertrude B. Elion was a biochemist and pharmacologist who revolutionized the field of medicine. From a very young age, she set out to fight disease through chemistry, a discipline she graduated from at the age of 19, at Hunter College. She earned a master's degree from New York University, but she did not earn a doctorate because of the hard time given to women in the academic world.

In 1968, Berezin devised a word processor to simplify work in the office and in 1969 she founded the first company to develop text processors, Redactron Corporation.

Creator of the first digital word processor New York, United States (1925 – 2018)

Science and Technology in feminine

Josefina Castellví

During these years, she also directed the National Antarctic Research Program and later, the Institute of Marine CastellvíSciences.researched so many important aspects of the oceans that in 1998 she received the Spanish Geographical Society's National Award. She has also received many other awards, for example, the Gold Medal of the city of Barcelona.

The astronomer received the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Great Britain, which made her the second woman recognized by this institution after the German astronomer Caroline Herschel in 1828. The Nobel Prize in Physics was never awarded to her.

The astronomer Vera Rubin showed great interest in the sky and its peculiarities from a very young age. She graduated in astronomy from Vassar College (New York) in 1948 and then tried to enter Princeton University without success. Women were not accepted into the Astronomy program until 1975. Rubin ended up opting for Cornell University, where she studied physics and earned her PhD in 1954. In her thesis, the physicist concluded that galaxies were clustered together, and not distributed randomly as was thouThisght. idea was not accepted by scientists until 20 years later. In trying to solve the problem of the galaxy's rotation, in 1970 she obtained the strongest evidence yet for the existence of dark matter. Her pioneering work made it possible to determine that more than 90% of the universe is composed of this impalpable substance.

Spanish pioneer in the study of Antarctica and in leading an Antarctic base Barcelona, Spain (1935)

Science and Technology in feminine

The woman who discovered dark matter Philadelphia, United States (1928 – 2016)

“WOMEN WHO CHANGED THE WORLD” It introduces you to... Vera www.apte.org/science-technology-in-feminineRubin

Josefina Castellví is a biologist, oceanographer and writer. Josefina grew up in post-war Spain, where boys and girls studied separately, and where girls had to be housewives. However, Josefina managed to go to university and get her PhD in Biological Sciences from the University of Barcelona. From 1960 she worked at the Institute of Marine Sciences and was a research professor at the CSIC. From 1984 she participated in the organization of research in Antarctica and led the installation of the Spanish Antarctic Base Juan Carlos I on Livingstone Island, which she directed until 1997.

Radia Joy Perlman is a software developer and network engineer, security expert.

In addition, she is known as the creator of the Sapanning Tree algorithm and the Spanning-Tree-Protocol (STP), which transformed Ethernet from a technology limited to a few hundred nodes confined to a building, to a technology that allowed the creation of large networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes scattered over a large area. This is why she is known as the "mother of the Internet".

Radia graduated in Mathematics and obtained a PhD in Computer Science in 1988 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Her doctoral thesis addressed the problem of routing when malicious network failures occur and it has been the basis for most of the work in this field.

Margaret Hamilton is a computer scientist, mathematician and systems engineer. Margaret obtained a degree in mathematics and a few years later began working in the Department of Meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where she joined the unit that was working on the Apollo program. She was in charge, along with her team, of designing part of the software that made the Lunar Module work, and probably was the person who prevented the mission from Beforefailing. the Lunar Module landed on the moon, there was a failure that set off all the alarms. Because the software was designed to prioritize critical functions, an overload of the system was avoided. Margaret Hamilton was a pioneer at a time when programming was not considered a science. She helped create the foundation for programming and the basis for software engineering, a term she coined. She has received countless awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor bestowed on a civilian in the United States.

Radia Joy Perlman

For all its contributions and patents, she has received numerous recognitions and awards. In 2004, she was recognized as Silicon Valley's Inventor of the Year. She is also a member of the Internet Hall of Fame and the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Known as the Mother of the Internet Virginia, United States (1951)

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The programming pioneer who brought Apollo to the Moon Paoli, United States (1937)

Science and Technology in feminine

As a professor at Stanford, Maryam was respected for her ability to blend mathematical theories and for her willingness to solve problems without solution. In 2014, at the age of 37, she won the Fields Medal, becoming the first woman to achieve this prestigious award. Maryam Mizakhami died at the age of 40 from breast cancer. The first woman to win the Fields Medal, the most prestigious award in mathematics Tehran, Iran (1977 – 2017)

Maryam became known on the international math scene by winning two Gold Medals at the Mathematical Olympics, becoming the first female Iranian student to do so. After earning a bachelor's degree in mathematics from Sharif University of Technology in Tehran, Maryam earned a doctorate from Harvard University. Her thesis on hyperbolic surfaces solved problems that had confused the mathematical community for more than 30 years.

Jemison left NASA and founded her own company that developed ALAFIYA, a satellite-based telecommunications system intended to improve health care in developing Sincecountries.then, she has been a professor at Cornell University and Dartmouth College. She has also launched several projects, many of which are aimed at attracting young people to areas of scientific and technological knowledge.

Mae C. Jemison is an engineer, doctor and astronaut. Mae graduated from Stanford University with a degree in Chemical Engineering and African-American Studies. Mae entered Cornell University where she earned her PHD in medicine and worked for several years as a doctor in Africa. After this experience, she continued her engineering stuIndies.1987, she became the first African-American woman to be admitted to NASA's astronaut training program. In 1992, she embarked on her only space mission where she served as a science specialist and conducted a series of experiments on weightlessness and motion sickness.

Maryam Mirzakhani

Maryam Mirzakhani was a mathematician and professor at Stanford University. As a child, her dream was to become a writer, but soon her mathematical talent was spotted.

Science and Technology in feminine

The first African-American woman to go into space Decatur, United States (1956)

“WOMEN WHO CHANGED THE WORLD” It introduces you to... Mae C. www.apte.org/science-technology-in-feminineJemison

Among her notes on the machine is what is recognized today as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine, that’s why she is considered the first computer programmer.

It introduces you to... atician of whom one She was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher and teacher , member and head of the Neoplatonic school of y, improved the design of the primitive astrolabes and in , which is why she is considered a

One of the first women mathematicians for She was a mathematician and writer, daughter of the poet Lord Byron, whose fame comes mainly from her work on the mechanical calculating machine, the socalled analytical machine.


Between 1842 and 1843, she translated an article by the Italian military engineer Luigi Menabrea about the machine, which she complemented with a large set of his own notes; "Notes". These notes contain what is considered to be the first computer program. Her program was inspired by the punch cards of mechanical looms.

She was the first person to create a computer program London, United Kingdom (1815 1852)


Science and Technology in feminine

She died at the hands of the ancient Christians for her She is represented in Raphael's famous painting entitled Ada Lovelace

She initially studied botany, physics and chemistry at Cambridge University. In view of the impossibility of obtaining a degree there due to her sex, she left England in 1922 with the intention of living in the United States, whose nationality she eventually obtained in 1931.

She was the first person to correctly "read" the temperature of a star.


www.apte.org/science-technology-in-feminine Science and Technology in feminine

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In 1925, she became the first person to achieve a doctorate in astronomy at Radcliffe College (now part of Harvard) and did so thanks to his dissertation on "Stellar Atmospheres, a Contribution to the Study of High Temperatures in the Inverting Layers of Stars".

Hedy Lamarr

As a child she was always noted for her intelligence and was considered gifted. She was the first woman to star in a nude scene in the history of cinema. In 1997 she received the Innovation Award from the Electronic Frontier Foundation. She worked on a new traffic light and an improved tissue box.

Besides being an actress, she made the first studies of what we know today as WI-FI Vienna, Austria (1914 – 2000)

She discovered that the sun is composed of hydrogen and helium Wendover, United Kingdom (1900 – 1979) Film actress and co-inventor of the first version of the spread spectrum that would enable long-distance wireless communications This discovery would lay the foundation for what we know today as the connectivity technologies that include WI-FI.

She was an astronomer who in 1925, in her PhD thesis, proposed that stars are composed primarily of hydrogen. This work was considered at the time as "the most brilliant doctoral thesis ever written in astronomy".

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Katherine Johnson

She was also the first female astronaut to crew a Thespaceship.daughter of a tractor driver and a textile worker, she practiced the sport of parachute jumping from an early Stronglyage. attracted by space research, she did not hesitate to volunteer as a future astronaut, and although she lacked the proper training, the Soviet space agency decided to prepare her, along with three other women.


Science and Technology in feminine

First woman to travel into space and exceed the maximum time she could stay there Maslennikovo, Russia (1937)

She is a physicist, space scientist and mathematician who contributed to the United States' aeronautics and space programs with the early application of digital electronic computers at NASA. It's nicknamed the Human Calculator Although in 1962 NASA began using electronic computers to do the calculations, she was in charge of checking the accounts of the computer that carried John Glenn on his flight around the Earth. She calculated the trajectory for Project Mercury and the Apollo 11 flight to the Moon in 1969. She has been a pioneer in special science and computing, something that is reflected in the awards she has received and the number of times she has been presented as an example to society.


After hard training, on June 16, 1963 Tereshkova was laun-ched into space aboard the Vostok 6 spacecraft, with which she orbited the Earth 48 times in a 70-hour, 50-minute space trip, which ended on June 19. Tereshkova later became interested in politics and in 1982 received the Simba International Women's Movement award or the Joliot-Curie Gold Medal for her work in promoting women.

On November 16, 2015, President Barak Obama included Johnson in a list of 17 Americans who will be recipients of the Medal of Freedom in 2015. She calculated the drop point of the capsule that brought back the first astronaut the United States launched into space in 1961 White Sulphur Springs, United States (1918 – 2020)

Rosalind Franklin

Once her work on DNA was completed, Franklin led research into the molecular structures of viruses, which led to previously unseen discoveries such as polio and the tobacco mosaic.

She was a chemist and crystallographer, responsible for significant contributions to the understanding of the structure of DNA, RNA, viruses, carbon and graphite. She was accepted to university at the age of 18, and won a 30-pound per year scholarship for three years. Her personal contribution to DNA-related studies had a profound impact on scientific advances in genetics, but it was not recognized in the same way as the work of James Dewey Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins related to the same study.

www.apte.org/science-technology-in-feminine Science and Technology in feminine

She discovered the human factor of nerve growth Turin, Italy (1909 – 2012)

She helped to understand the structure of human DNA London, United Kingdom (1920 – 1958) She was a scientist specializing in neurology. She discovered the first known growth factor, nerve growth factor, for which she received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine shared with Stanley AtCohen.theend of World War II she emigrated to the United States, where she worked in the Viktor Hamburger laboratory at the Washington University Institute of Zoology in St. Louis. Her work with Cohen led to the discovery that cells only begin to reproduce when they are ordered to do so, an order that is transmitted by substances called growth factors.

It introduces you to...


Rita Levi-Montalcini

Pioneer in radioactivity research and winner of 2 Nobel prizes Warsaw, Poland (1867 – 1934)

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She was a French nationalised Polish scientist, a pioneer in the field of radioactivity and the first person to receive two Nobel Prizes in different specialties: Physics and Chemistry.

She founded the Curie Institute in Paris and Warsaw, which remain among the leading medical research centres today. She was the first woman to obtain a doctorate in France and the first to be honoured for her own achievements, that is why she was buried in the Pantheon in Paris.

A chemist who developed an injectable oil extract from the Chaulmoogra tree, which was, until the 1940s, the most effective treatment for leprosy. She was the first American woman of African descent to graduate from the University of Hawaii with a master's Thedegree.University of Hawaii did not recognize her work for nearly 90 years, but finally, in 2000, the university honored her by dedicating a plaque with her name, located on the only Chaulmoogra tree on campus. In 2007, the University of Hawaii again awarded her the Medal of Distinction. She saved a large number of people with her leprosy treatment Washington, United States (1892 – 1916)


Marie Curie Alice Ball

She was the first woman to hold the position of professor at the University of Paris. Her achievements include the first studies on the phenomenon of radioactivity (a term she coined herself), and the discovery, with her husband Pierre, of two radioactive elements - polonium and radium.


Science and Technology in feminine

Science and Technology in feminine

She initially studied Biology in Frankfurt, then changed to Physics and later to Biochemistry. Together with scientist Eric Wieschaus, they were among the first scientists to study embryonic fruit fly mutations to find out how genes affected the development of organisms and how they could cause defects in the embryo.


Since 1985, she has been head of the genetics division at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in Tübingen, Germany In 1995 she received, along with Edward B. Lewis and Eric Wieschaus, the Nobel Prize for Medicine. Today she is a leading scientist who, as a top-level researcher in her country, is a symbol of her generation. Her contributions have been so outstanding that experts consider her among the most important specialists in her field. She helped us understand how a human embryo develops Magdeburg, Germany (1942)Biochemist with a degree in Chemistry from the Complutense University of Madrid. She was a disciple of Severo Ochoa, with whom she worked in the United States, and together with her husband Eladio Viñuela, she initiated the development of molecular biology in Spain. Her study of the bacterial virus Phi29 has allowed us to understand how DNA works, how its instructions are transformed into proteins and how these proteins relate to each other She worked as an "ad honorem" professor at the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), and continued her work at the Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa in Madrid (CSIC-UAM) until her death. She was also an academic of the RAE since 2003. In 2016 she became the first woman to receive the Echegaray Medal, awarded by the Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences.

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

It introduces you to... www.apte.org/science-technology-in-feminineMargaritaSalas Science icon in Spain, she discovered a system to duplicate DNA Asturias, Spain (1938 – 2019)


She studies how to perform light speed deceleration Vejle, Denmark (1959)

Arlene Sharpe

In 1989 she accepted a two-year post-doctoral research stay in the physical sciences at Harvard University. In 1991 she joined the scientific staff of the Rowland Institute for Science, Cambridge (USA) and since 1999 she holds the chairs of Applied Physics and Physics, at HarInvard.1999 she led a team at Harvard University that succeeded in reducing the speed of a light beam to approximately 17 meters per second and in 2001 they managed to stop a beam momentarily, thanks to the use of a suSheperfluid.holds an honorary position at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences.

Science and Technology in feminine

Works on stimulating the immune system to fight cancer Denmark (1953) www.apte.org/science-technology-in-feminineLeneVestergaardHau

She is an immunologist and the George Fabyan Professor of Comparative Pathology at Harvard Medical InSchool.2017, she received the Warren Alpert Foundation Award with Gordon Freeman, Lieping Chen, James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo for their collective contributions to the preclinical foundation, and to the development of immune control point blocking, a novel form of therapy that has transformed the cancer treatment landscape.

It introduces you to... Her specialty is theoretical physics, but her interest has turned to experimental research in an effort to create a new state of matter called Bose-Einstein condensate.

She served as president of the American Association of Immunologists from 2016 to 2017 and was a member of the AAI Council from 2013 to 2016. She is Co-Director of the Evergrande Center for Immunologic Diseases at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital.

and Technology in feminine


She's working on the genetic editing technique. In 2020 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the development of a method for gene editing", a prize she shared with Jennifer Doudna. She's a microbiologist and a biochemist. She currently directs the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin (Germany) and she is a visiting professor at the University of Umeå (Sweden). Charpentier is known for her role in deciphering the molecular mechanisms of the bacterial immune system CRISPR-Cas9 and its application as a tool in genetic engineering.

In collaboration with Jennifer Doudna's lab, Charpentier's lab discovered how Cas9 could be used to make cuts in any desired sequence of a genome and insert, delete or modify DNA. Researchers around the world are using this method to effectively manipulate DNA from laboratory plants, animals and cell lines. you


It introduces you to... Emmanuelle Charpentier Juvisy-sur-Orge, France (1968) Dare to change the world!

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