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Design x Architecture

Apple Huang | 551099 | 2014 | Studio 7


CRITERIA DESIGN

INTRODUCTION 4

ABOUT ME

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PAST EXPERIENCES Virtual Environments - Paper Nature

CONCEPTUALISATION 7

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A. 4. CONCLUSION

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A. 5. LEARNING OUTCOME

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A. 6. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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REFERENCES (PART A)

B. 3. CASE STUDY 2.0 Munich Olympic Stadium, Munich Reverse - Engineer

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B. 4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT Matrix Manipulation

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B. 5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

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B. 6. TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL Site Analysis Form Generation Energy Generation

A. 3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION Responsive Surface Structure ZA11 Pavilion, Cluj, Romania

B. 2. CASE STUDY 1.0 Green Void - LAVA, Sydney Matrix Manipulation

A. 2. DESIGN COMPUTATION Mercedez Benz Museum, Stuttgart HygroScope: Meteorosensitive Morphology, Paris

B. 1. RESEARCH FIELD

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B. 7. LEARNING OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES

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B. 8. ALGORITHM SKETCHES

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REFERENCES (PART B)

C. 1. DESIGN CONCEPT C.1.1. Project Proposal

Material System - Geometry

A. 1. DESIGN FUTURING Head in the Cloud, New York City Energy Roof Perugia, Perugia

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DETAILED DESIGN

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C. 2. Tectonic Elements

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C. 3. FINAL MODEL

102 C. 4. LAGI BRIEF 104 C. 5. LEARNING OUTCOMES 105 CONCLUSION 108 REFERENCES (PART C)


ABOUT ME

H

i, my name is Huang Shen Shen, or known as Apple. I am currently in my third year of a Bachelor of Environments majoring in Architecture at the University of Melbourne.

I have been interested in the field of arts and design since I was at a very young age. I was exposed to drawing and painting when I begged my mother to let me join an art class when I was 7. Growing up, I have always wanted to step into a field that can both cover my love for art and science and thus, bringing me into the world of Architecture. Throughout my Bachelor’s degree, I have developed my interest in sustainable architecture and design. The idea of not only designing something that is visually appealing but with a character and soul that brings good impact to the environment. Thus far, I have been developing my skills in a few computer modelling and designing programs such as Photoshop, InDesign, AutoCAD, Rhinoceros, Google Sketchup and more recently REVIT and Grasshopper Plug-In. I hope to continue my Masters in Architecture in future years and to continue improving my skills in computational design throughout this course.

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PAST EXPERIENCES

V

irtual Environments was my very first designing studio in 2012 that has put me through the process of using digital means and has opened up a whole new opportunity in my interest in design. Since then, I have been building my skills in AutoCAD and Rhinoceros whenever possible, in other studios which allowed me to utilise them as much as possible. However, from my past experiences with digital tools, I have always been afraid to step outside of the comfort zone of creating something simple and easy to be constructed. Thus, I am looking forward to learn from this subject as we continue to explore in parametric modeling in an abstract yet practical way through the design proposal for Land Art Generative Initiative (LAGI).

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PART A

CONCEPTUALISATION

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A.1 DESIGN FUTURING

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hat is meant by design? What considers to be a successful design? Design is often associated with creations that are visually appealing, something special and one-of-a kind. However, design does not only comes from what we see, but what we understand and acknowledge as a person. An ethical design practice must be acknowledged by us because it is as if we are creating substances that are destroying the world we live in. As stated by Tony Fry in his book “Design Futuring”, “Whenever we bring something into being we also destroy something - ...” [1]. The need in architecture is to not only be human responsive but site responsive as well. What I meant by site responsive is we must be sensitive towards the land that we design on, acknowledge and treat it well. The Earth provides us with all that she has and we should, as designers, start to readjust our thinking, our ways of generating our landmarks. In order for our future to have a future, we need to realise the importance of the growing design community and its effects towards the Earth. The Earth can no longer sustain us, “we have become too dependent upon the artificial worlds that we have designed, fabricated and occupied.” [2]

With what we have now, technology and resources, it is possible for us to alter our design habits for the better. The programs and approach that exist nowadays can help us to virtually create before the act of creation. Furthermore, there are various combination of materials and application that can be realised to redesign our way of designing to step further into “sustainable living”.

“Answering the ‘design futuring’ question actually requires having a clear sense of what design needs to be mobilized for or against. Even more significantly, it means changing our thinking, then how and what we design.” [3] A multidisciplinary approach is needed when we come to think about sustainable because nature itself forms an intertwined relationship with one another. Since we, humans are part of nature itself, different disciples and mindsets are needed to form a relationship in order to create something that is good in every way. In conclusion, architects and designers need to not only design for themselves, but for the people and for our mother Earth.

[1] Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008), pg 4 [2] Fry, p. 3 [3] Fry, p. 4

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HEAD IN THE CLOUDS STUDIO KCA NEW YORK CITY, UNITED STATES, 2013

H

ead in The Clouds in New York City is a project by Studio KCA that hopes to create a “place to dream in the city of dreams”. Constructed out of 53,780 recycled bottles - the amount, thrown away in NYC in 1 hour - “it is a space where visitors can enter into and contemplate the light and color filtering through the “cloud’ from the inside, out.” [4] Aluminium tubes are used as a frame to hold up the bottles on both exterior and interior of the structure. Studio KCA opted for aluminium because it is cheaper, less Carbon Footprint and lighter to bring the effect of a cloud. To increase the effect of being in a cloud, water dyed with organic food colouring is added to the bottles occupying the interior. 120 pillows are then tied flat on the outside to give that “bumpy” and soft effect of a cloud. [5]

It opens up opportunity to designers and architects in their way of using materials which can bring benefit to the environment. New explorations can be made and new innovations on how to recreate a use in this that are non-valuable. This pavilion draws attraction to public because of its creative thinking while bringing a meaning to the public that everyone can make a connection with. Visitors of any age is able to experience and understand the means of this project and its purpose.

This pavilion has brought upon the idea of giving a sense of purpose to waste materials. It teaches the community that beauty can be found in everyday life objects that we do not normally take notice of. It creates an environmental awareness to not only the visitors but the designer themselves, through generating a landmark that requires thoughts and innovations. Visitors are attracted to this structure because it forms curiosity in them. The way it is constructed and portrayed is simple yet bringing an unusual and unique outcome. Erected by 200 over volunteers, this design is thought to be the place where people can dream and be captured by their own imagination. Platform stage and seats are installed to accommodate small events or even just a space for people to daydream. Besides being visually appealing, it creates a tactile sensation and emotional atmosphere to those visiting.

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Bottles with water dyed in organic food colouring [5]

A.1 DESIGN FUTURING


Exterior view [5]

Interior view [5]

[4] Architizer, Head in the Clouds, <http://architizer.com/projects/head-in-the-clouds-pavilion/> [accessed 12 May 2014] [5] Studio KCA, Head in the Clouds, <http://www.studiokca.com/index.php#/projects/head-in-the-clouds/Exterior_7_2> [accessed 12 May 2014]

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ENERGY ROOF PERUGIA WOLF D PRIX & Coop Himmelb(l)au PERUGIA, ITALY, 2009

A

new public space and attractor is created along the Via Mazzini in the centre of Perugia by Wolf D Prix and Coop Himmelb(l)au. [6] This modern and paradigmatic design of Energy Roof creates an iconic structure that speaks the statement of aesthetics sustainability while situated on a site that holds historical significance to the public. This project is mainly driven by the generation of energy for the city. Perugia, situated north of Rome is a well-known cultural and artistic centre in Italy, The architects did not only need to fulfill the use of providing energy but it is needed for them to create something that speaks the culture of Perugia. The glass structure is formed on top of a busy street that connects to a metro station which also acts as an exhibition space. Transparent glass elements with photovoltaic cells are used to form a combination of sun-shading, energy generation and architectural integration. [6] Thus, not only fulfilling its purpose in a macro-scale but within its small context as well. This design has brought upon a strong message of â&#x20AC;&#x153;living a sustainable lifestyleâ&#x20AC;? and opens up the viewpoint of mixing modern design with old cities without having to change the old. Furthermore, this project also emphasizes the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach needed for architects to engaged in. Besides involving the need to be aesthetically appealing, it must work practically, structurally and environmentally. What makes this design successful is how it has the ability to grasp the attention of visitors to its purpose as a whole. It forms curiosity to people and creates a sense of wanting-toknow-more in an old city like Perugia.

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View from inside the laneway [6]

A.1 DESIGN FUTURING


View from main street [6]

[6] Architizer, Energy Roof Perugia, <http://architizer.com/projects/energy-roof-perugia/> [accessed 12 May 2014]

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A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION

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hen it comes to architecture, it is a constant problemsolving process. It relies on both creativity and critical thinking, solving constraints proposed by the environment such as climate, site conditions and so on. Thus, it is an activity that cannot be solved or completed with one facility alone [7] .

Computers, on the other hand, are only analytical by their own nature. It is true that computers can help realise the ideas and concept of architects without being tired and changes to whatever instructions they were called to do but that forms an issue itself. They only work when we told them to work. They only create when we, humans puts our creativity into the systems. This is why the human-computer relationship is important when it comes to producing a design [7]. We often associate the advancement of machinery and technology working together with designers helping to create different and unique outcomes. The relationship between designers and computers have helped bringing ideas into realisation, transforming concept and ideas into reality. This form of utility that is commonly used is defined as computerisation, the storing and manipulating of a designer’s concept which is already in his or her mind [8]. Computerisation is not limited by the knowledge known

by designers with computers, it is merely constraint by the designer’s own mind and imagination. Computer programmes are just tools to help designers bring their concepts into a visually perceivable manner. The Mercedes Benz Museum in Stuttgart, Germany by UN Studio is an example of “computerisation”. Based on the idea of trefoil, the spaces within the museum create a chronological timeline when one circulates around the building from top to bottom [9]. Before using computers to help visualise the design, features such as the programmes, infrastructures and even structures are thought out using a strong physical design model. With the help of computer modeling, twisted concrete work and large column-free space are then achieved within the design to accommodate its purpose as display platform [9]. With the on-going development of both human minds and computer programs, the term ‘computerisation’ has slowly taken over by ‘computation’. Computation allows designers to go beyond their imagination and their creativity. Computation means to generate a new set of ideas and design using programs without having any initial thought to it [8]. It allows exploration and generation of unexpected outcomes, a more playful, creative and complex geometry can be formed without any limitation.

[7] Kalay, Yehuda E., Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5-25 [8] Roudavski, Stanislav, Design Computation. Presented to Year 3 Architecture Students at University of Melbourne on 13 Mar 2014.

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A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATIONAL


[9] Mercedes Benz Museum

[9] Mercedes Benz MuseumView of Roof from Inside

[9] Mercedes Benz Museum - Curved elements interior

[9] Basulto, David, Mercedes Benz Museum / UN Studio, photos by Michael Schnell. (ArchDaily, 2010) <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=72802> [Accessed 20 Mar 2014.]

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[10] HygroScope by Achim Menges Architects

[10] HygroScope by Achi Menges Architects reacts to climate changes

[10] Achim Menges Architects, Morphogenetic Design Experiment, (2012) <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083> [Accessed 20 Mar 2014. ] [11] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), pp. 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;10

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A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATIONAL


HygroScope: Meteorosensitive Morphology by Achim Menges contributes to computational design being the drive to explore new findings for the future. This project explores on the notion of responsive architecture based on the nature of material used and computational morphogenesis which is an unique innovation presented by computation [10]. It is an example of biomimetic principles of design which is potentially a significant involvement to design knowledge [11]. This project does not only imitate the appearance of the organic but it is learning from the natural environments on how to produce form in response to the conditions around its context. According to designerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s description, computational design research and its development has played a big role in generating the system which is directly related to the way materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behaviour in response to moisture [10]. Within the design and construction industries, material experimentation and innovation in generating unique forms has become the ongoing and incoming changes. The idea of sustainability and the way to achieve that has become the dominant drive for all researchers and designers. Organic shapes, movement, dynamism and emotion are what architects and designers search from the natural to be included in their work. Forms and shapes can no longer be de-

scribe or being put into words when computation comes into play. It is no longer just a blob or curvilinear, but generation of parametric algorithmic thinking and creativeness that comes from digital materiality [11]. Computational design is not an easy tasks that only involves the designers creativity. This cultural technological shift has also established an environment to strengthen the collaboration between architects and engineers [11]. The Hygroscope was done by several project teams which included the architects themselves, computational designers and climate engineers in assisting them in their research [10]. Computation has opened up to the use of fabrication design to help assisting in bringing the digital designs into reality. Critical thinking of reducing material waste, labour and cost have come into play when things are being created uniquely. Architects and designers, again need to involve environmental considerations into their design because it is the future that they are designing for. Once again, computation has brought together arts and science in a whole new approach. Challenging ourselves to continue searching and learning what the systems and technology have to offer.

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A.3 COMPOSITION / GENERATION

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he birth of the modern age driven by machine-driven architectural design has led architects and designers exploring new generation of form and language for this new era. Architects are building the age of digitisation through developing tools to help improve the design process, construction methods and fabrication. [12]

Moving from a composition-based era which revolved around designing with mass and space, architects and designers have slowly changed their way of designing to a generation-based approach. Generating with an unexpected and unique results triggers the mind of designers, allowing them to go beyond their own intellect. When an architect uses purely computation as a mean for the design process, further options can be explore through constant modification that changes with the model. This process is called “sketching by algorithm” [12]. An algorithm, stated by Robert and Frank [13], is simple a recipe or technique in doing something. In a more technical sense, an algorithm is “an intensional definition of a special kind of function—namely a computable function”, which describes how it is computed instead of what [14]. Thus, we need to adapt the idea of algorithmic thinking which means, according to Peters, to understand and be able to interpret the process and end results of the generating code, and knowing how to modify them to explore new options and achieve new potentials in the design [12].

One of the steps which architects take from the development of computation is the form of simulating performance within their design. As mentioned in previous section, mimicking the way nature works is one of the main interest in the world of architect and designing nowadays. The abstract relationship happening around us has led to imitation and the emergence of new ideas and propaganda. Through the exploration of digital tools with materials, tectonics and parameters of production machinery, architects can create more responsive design and explore the way our surroundings respond [12]. Responsive Surface Structure by Achim Menges is a research project which explores the possibility of utilising the response of wood to its surrounding climate through dimensional changes [15] . Through examining the thickness, movement and types of wood, a structure without any mechanical help involved is made to be successful. Parametric design is highly involved in this project as they study the changes in the material. The interactive relationship between the material and whole form of the structure is studied through a set of parameters set to the design which allow the architects to alter and update based on the pre-set associative rule.

[12] Peters, Brady, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, 2013, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 [13] Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 [14] Peters, p. 10

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A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION


[15] Responsive Surface Structure by Steffen Riechert

[15] Riechert Steffen, Responsive Surface Structure (Achim Menges, 2012) <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083> [Accessed 24 Mar 2014. ]

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“When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture” - Robert Peters

One of the biggest challenge in computational design is the constructibility and buildability of the design. The skills and knowledge of a designer with computation is limiting how a design should be modified and created in order for it to work. Furthermore, as a design increases in complexity as it keeps getting changed by the design team, they might end up having difficulties to adjust anymore and thus decreasing the freedom of the designer. As stated by Holzer et al. about one of their project, “At one point in the setup of the parametric model schema, changes required by the design team were of such a disruptive nature that the parametric model schema could not cope with them.” [16] Thus, it is important to think of the topology, relationship between parts, types of materials and its meaning when we begin to design parametrically [12]. For example, a project

done by a few students for the ZA11 Speaking Architecture event in Cluj, Romania has successfully attract passer-by to the event and showcase the design processes empowered by digital tools with its simple yet strong elements. Using Rhino-Grasshopper and a small budget, the team was able to explore and overcome constraints within their design in reality. The exploration of how each section is joined together varying in material thickness is done to achieve the desired outcome. [17] Through thinking beforehand of their concept and workability, constructability and constraints has helped the team to reach their full potential. Thus, Limitations of computational design can be overcome with constant experiments and increasing of algorithmic thinking that comes with not only in a conceptual way but practical way too.

[17] ZA11 Pavilion

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A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION


[17] Design Process of ZA11 Pavilion

[17] ZA11 Pavilion

[16] Holzer D., Hough R. & Burry M., Parametric Design & Optimisation for Early Design Exploration, in International Journal of Architectural Computing (2008), 04:05, p.638. [17] A-ngine, ZA11, A-ngine (2011), <http://www.a-ngine.com/2011/06/clj02-za11-pavilion.html> [Accessed 25 Mar 2014]

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A.4 CONCLUSION

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he future of our nature is in the hands of those who create and design. Parametric design and algorithmic thinking creates a new way of thinking and building. As mentioned by Fry, in order to design for the future, we must first think of the future and change the way we operate as designers who bring ideas and new movement into the world because we are the people that speaks louder than anyone, that brings the most impact and permanent effect to our built surrounding.

When an idea is being conceptualised through computation, it is crucial to think about the materials we are working with and how to work with them in order to reduce any wastage, time and cost. With the help of computer programs, an interactive relationship which is beneficial to our design process can be made. We are able to understand more of our approach in many ways and not be restricted by our own minds as we modify and change things through a set of parameters.

With the development of computational and parametric design, we can now create things that are beyond our understanding and experiment with new technology before really bringing a consequences into the reality.

Being creative in the way we treat materials and the construction methods can demonstrate the use in parametric design and digital tools. It helps to create understanding within the public and how technology can be helpful in creating unique and forward-looking design. As shown through precedents such as “Heads in the Cloud” and “ZA11 Pavilion”, the feature which captures the eye of visitors is the material and its simple yet different construction methods used. It draws curiosity and making them wanting to know how it is done and why.

The brief, Land Art Generative Innovation of this subject has opened up the opportunity for students to reach for great and unseen potential as we explore both design and technology in aesthetics, function and influences as well. Through approaching the idea of learning from the nature and the processes within in, elements such as materiality, responsiveness and relationship between parts of design can be explored. It is important to consider not only the things our design can produce (e.g. energy) but also what our design have (e.g. embodied energy, waste materials).

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A.4 CONCLUSION

Besides only designing in a practical sense, a strong conceptual idea is important to help guiding us through the design process. This is not to say being constraint by the idea but to continue exploring and generating the best out of the intended design idea using computation.


A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES

B

efore this subject, I had never distinguished the difference between computerisation and computation. My understaing of digital tools has always been computers and programs being tools to help portray an idea that has already been thought out way before the modeling stage. Through exploration of the change in the use of computers to a generationbased form, I have began to understand the use of algorithm and parametric design. Instead of fixing on a certain outcome or design approach, the use of parameters has helped me to interact with 3D models in a more flexible and generative way. The learning process was quite difficult at the beginning especially with Grasshopper because it challenges my way of designing. Before this, I have been designing with a specific idea in my head and only uses 3D modeling to help me visualise my idea. On the other hand, computing requires the process of a continuous modification without any form of expected outcome, which was quite difficult for me to adapt to. However, as my knowledge with how it functions deepens, I started to produce results in a faster and more unique way,

leading my thinking to another level. From my past experiences, I have always been afraid to go â&#x20AC;&#x153;outside the boxâ&#x20AC;?, afraid of producing something that is difficult to be constructed or seems too complicated. But after learning about computing, it has helped me to look beyond my capabilities and not be afraid of designing outside of my comfort zone. The theories and ideas being discussed has helped me to understand that computing is a process altogether, that comes with mistakes and experiments. New ideas and movement of something new come from the constant exploration and research into the world of digitisation. Furthermore, this subject so far has taught me the meaning of designing for the future. The way and thinking I should adapt in my design in thinking about the consequences and influences to people and our surroundings. I believe this subject is a stepping stone for me to explore many new opportunities that can contribute to my future learning process as a student or a graduate architect.

A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES

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A.6 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

These images show the most interesting explorations in my parametric modeling so far: FIG 1 + 2: Demonstrates the patterns formed using grid and points as attractors to help create iterations within a certain boundary. This algorithm is useful in creating patterns of different kind, mimicking natural process and studying the responsiveness from different variables. These patterns can be created freely and then mapping them onto surfaces and 3D model. These patterns create a baseline in generating more possibilities within the design.

FIG 5 + 6 Demonstrates the use of parametric design in changing the 2D and 3D pattern that can be form on a surface. Patterns can be changed and modified easily moving from 2D to 3D due to a set of linked parameters. This allows designers and architects to explore more possibilities and interact with the design visually.

FIG 3 + 4 The generation of gridshell on a surface contributes to a simply construction method that is widely used nowadays. It showcase the honesty use of materials and its features. I was surprised at how quickly it can be done through computation. This shows the flexibility and advance of digitisation.

FIG 1

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FIG 2


FIG 3

FIG 4

FIG 5

FIG 6

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REFERENCES (PART A)

A-ngine, ZA11, A-ngine (2011), <http://www.a-ngine.com/2011/06/clj02-za11-pavilion.html> [Accessed 25 Mar 2014] Achim Menges Architects, Morphogenetic Design Experiment, (2012) <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083> [Accessed 20 Mar 2014. ] Architizer, Energy Roof Perugia, <http://architizer.com/projects/energy-roof-perugia/> [accessed 12 May 2014] Architizer, Head in the Clouds, <http://architizer.com/projects/head-in-the-clouds-pavilion/> [accessed 12 May 2014] Basulto, David, Mercedes Benz Museum / UN Studio, photos by Michael Schnell. (ArchDaily, 2010) <http://www.archdaily. com/?p=72802> [Accessed 20 Mar 2014.] Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008) pp 1-16 Holzer D., Hough R. & Burry M., Parametric Design & Optimisation for Early Design Exploration, in International Journal of Architectural Computing (2008), 04:05, p.638. Kalay, Yehuda E., Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5-25 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, 2013, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 Riechert, Steffen, Responsive Surface Structure (Achim Menges, 2012) <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5083> [Accessed 24 Mar 2014. ] Roudavski, Stanislav, Design Computation. Presented to Year 3 Architecture Students at University of Melbourne on 13 Mar 2014. Studio KCA, Head in the Clouds, <http://www.studiokca.com/index.php#/projects/head-in-the-clouds/Exterior_7_2> [accessed 12 May 2014]

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PART B

CRITERIA DESIGN

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B.1 RESEARCH FIELD GEOMETRY

A

s discussed in Part A, when it comes to parametric modeling, materiality and its construction method are important aspects which determines the buildability and aesthetics of the final outcome. Exploring with materiality within the digital model can be challenging but at the same time offering opportunities to designers and architects in their design. Choosing to focus on this fundamental aspect of parametric modeling, my group has decided to explore with the design field of “Geometry”. This field offers the idea of minimal surface and relaxation of form which is largely determined by the materiality and its constructability. From this, the sustainability aspects of the parametric modeling can also be revealed in a new way. Adolf Loos stated that minimalism is the proper way of designing, that ornaments and decorations are crime to architecture. [1] However, it can be argued that the geometry itself is forming a pattern which is integrated into the form itself. The arrangement, composition and texture are part of the pattern forming within the structure, thus concluding that ornament cannot be separated from the object. [1] Therefore, it may seem that minimal surfacing lacks of decorative elements but the materials and type of construction method determines the form of pattern or decorative element of the design. According to Mousavvi, materials used can contribute to the form which affects the psychological of people. [2] They changes how people interact with the subject and thus, contributing to the brief of the subject.

Geometry design is not a new way. The form and aesthetics of the design is highly appreciated by designers and even by the public. Massing and creating different volume in spaces within design is the aim of architects since the ancient times. The play with materials and how they can help to create different shapes has been the main interest since the 20th Century. Architect such as Frank Gehry and Zaha Hadid explore with how material bends and form shapes in helping to bring the geometry of their design into reality. It is an approach which aligns with the brief’s (Land Art Generator Initiative), main purpose of creating an impression and to attract visitors, challenging their mind with the form and the design’s purpose as a sustainable design. As seen from precedents shown above, materiality brings out the overall form, aesthetics and experience to visitors. What and how objects are used can create different entities to the design. Exploring with materials and how they respond can be an exploration which brings unexpected outcome to the project. With digital tools like Grasshopper and Kangaroo, aspects such as relaxation of form can be explored. Different patterns and shapes can be extracted and experimented straight to examines its stimulation with the changes made with each modification. The next part of the journal will explore on that matter with idea of relaxation and minimal surface forming the shape and form of the model.

[1] Roudavski, Stanislav, Materiality. Presented to Year 3 Architecture Students at University of Melbourne on 10 April 2014. [2] Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14

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FIBROUS TOWER Kokkugia 2008 This concrete tower is designed in a single shell which is inspired by an exoskeleton structure. The initial topology of the shell’s expression is algorithmically generated through a cell division procedure in response to the tower geometry. The tower is designed in such a way that it operates as a nonlinear structure with load being distributed through a network of paths and thus, resulting a column free tower. The form of the structure ensures minimal wastage with the pure form of use of reinforced concrete which enable the use of conventional formwork techniques. [3] This speculative project reflects the consideration of material within a parametric design. Not only does it considers aesthetically but practically as well. It explored the generation of ornamental, structural, spatial order and sustainability within the structure. The project demonstrates the idea of ornamentation can be included within the form of the structure through the type of material used. [4]

[3]

MINIMAL RELAXATION USC AAC Summer Studio 2012 Shanghai China, 2012 This temporary installation reflects the idea of mesh relaxation and tensile forming within the geometry. The canopy examines the potential of gravity forces and internal tensions to derive geometry by relaxing a tensioned net. The dynamic and responsive movement of the form is captured within the installation which undergoes a physical and digital form-finding processes for minimal surface through mesh relatioxation techniques. Using simple materials and construction method, the dynamic installation on a roof-terrace successfully acts as a landmark viewable from surrounding high-rise towers. [5] This projects shows that parametric design can portrayed through a simple structure. Without the need of complicated method, the understanding of its use and meaning is conveyed to those using the space and those looking at it from afar. This project shows the influence in the psychological and social sense in people which is an important aspect of a design. [6] [3] Architizer, Fibrous Tower, <http://architizer.com/projects/fibrous-tower/> [accessed 10 April 2014] [4] Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14 [5] SuckerPunch, Minimal Relaxation, <http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/10/23/minimal-relaxation/> [accessed 10 April 2014] [6] Farshid Moussavi, “Style Agency” Youtube Video, 1:27:49, posted by “The Harvard Graduate School of Design”, Oct 26, 2012, http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=pDaBdzMaOxU

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[5]


Active Modular Phytoremediation System SOM + Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Bronx, New York The Active Phytoremediation Wall System is a modularbased wall system comprised of pods which house and hydroponically cultivate plants. The pods are made up of a vacuum-formed plastic that incorporates a thin strip of lights at the edges providing maximum air flow around the roots and lights for the grow of plants. The thin plastic material is used to ensure minimum use of material. The elastic nature of the material enables the pods to be stretched, forming a tensile relationship within the structure.[7] This projects shows the use of parametric design for sustainable purpose. This unique bio-mechanical hybrid wall acts as an air purifier that creates a friendly approach in an office room. This project gives opportunity to wall facade system which does not only apply to commercial building but also ideally suited for smaller spaces.

[7]

Synthetic Nature Vlad Tenu London, United Kingdom, 2009 Inspired by the molecular behavior of soap bubbles, this project is about symmetry that was inspired by the mathematical principals of triply periodic minimal surfaces. Various configurations are generated which includes several geometric parameters from the pure computational form-finding of geometries. Focusing on periodic minimal surfaces, the design process challenges the idea of repetition, creating modular structures that are infinitely expandable. [8] This projects shows the pure use of computation design that can help generate interesting geometry with the use of plastic material. Parametric design helps to determine the way material can be worked to form its shape. Parametric is an essential step in computation design which creates unexpected opportunity in form-finding. This process demonstrates Woodbury argument of continuous exploration using the same parametric tools. [9]

[8]

[7] Arch2o, Active Phytoremediation Wall System, <http://www.arch2o.com/active-phytoremediation-wall-system-som-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute/> [accessed 10 April 2014] [8] DesignBloom, Synthetic Nature, <http://www.designboom.com/art/synthetic-nature-by-vlad-tenu-09-27-2013/> [accessed 10 April 2014] [9] Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;How Designers Use Parametersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 153â&#x20AC;&#x201C;170 pdf

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B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 - GREEN VOID LAVA Sydney, Australia, 2008

[10]

30


T

he Green Void by LAVA is a 3D lightweight sculpture which purely based on minimal surface tension, stretching wall and ceiling and floor. This project optimized minimal surface design and computer numeric code fabrication technology which allows the sculpture to reveal a new dimension in sustainable design practice. Research team has successfully designed this structure with optimum efficiency in material usage, construction weight, fabrication and installation time. Furthermore, at the same time achieving maximum visual impact in the large atrium space. [10] The study of material is really important in this project as it determines the weight which affects the shape of the design. Using a Physics engine with interactive simulation call Kangaroo, the flexible form of the design can be studied clearly within the virtual world. This shows the interdisciplinary connection formed between architects and engineers which demonstrates the contribution of parametric design to incorporate different knowledge. [11] Started with the algorithm which produced the 3D form of the design, we explored with the how mesh relaxation works using Grasshopper and Kangaroo. My group explored with the use of exoskeleton within the design (Species 1) and experiment with different shapes and geometries (Species 2). Through

changing different parameters such as size and radius of nodes, number of lines and thickness, different outcomes are produced. The curves are then extracted using Weaverbird plug-in and further being manipulated to create different outcomes of vector lines Then, we tested out different mesh which later on being manipulated through moving control points of the model in Rhino. Through changing the flexibility (goal length) within the Kangaroo Springs definition, we were able to explore how curves can move within the geometry itself. Through manipulating the control points that were plugged into the anchor point of Kangaroo springs definition, different iterations that forms tensile relationship were created. (Species 3) Furthermore, we explored with different voronoi patterns that were manipulated through both exoskeleton function and Kangaroo Spring. (Spesies 4) This also created different interations that formed the idea of tensile and compression within the form of the geometry. The next part of the journal documents the outcomes produced through different manipulation of matrix and parameters used for the Green Void project

[10] ArchDaily, Green Void, <http://www.archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava/> [accessed 10 April 2014] [11] Peters, Brady. (2013) â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuronâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56-61

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B.2.1 MATRIX

(-) Size of Nodes

Sp e cies 1 (Exoskeleton)

(+) Number of lines

(-) Goal length (-) Size of Nodes

(-) Thickness (-) Number of Sides

32


(-)

(+)

(+)

Sp e cies 2 (Exoskeleton - Different Ge ometry

(+)

(+)

(+)

33


34

Sp e cies 3 (Manipulation using control p oints)


35

Sp e cies 4 (Voronoi x Kangaro o)


B.2.2 BEST FOUR OUTCOMES

1

2

3

4

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T

hrough the explorations of forming different geometry using Kangaroo Physics, the final four outcomes demonstrates the idea of minimal surfacing formed by tensile forces acting on the material from different vertices. These four outcomes are very different from one other although they uses the same system and definitions within the digital tools. They are considered to be the most successful ones because they are volumetric that spaces can be form within them. Throughout the progress of creating geometric variation, my group and I were trying to achieve forms that can demonstrate the idea of tensile and minimal surface which can also provide spaces within them. This is so that it can be aligned with the brief which is to create a landmark that interacts with visitors. They create a continuous path which is an important element when it comes to exploration within a structure. Especially in outcome 1 and 3, the space created within the geometry can clearly be occupied by functions which can be beneficial in a land art.

These outcomes can be explored further with the use of materials, constructibility and the overall circulation within the geometry. I believe these outcomes can portray not only the visual impact, but psychological sense in people, showing affections of emotion, mood and action. The different knowledge needed to expand the potential within design is one of the many advantages of parametric design process. Woodbury stated that a great community can be created within the design process itself with different disciplines contributing to the design. [12] Demonstration of ornamentation within these outcomes is also visible. In outcome 4, the pattern formed clearly shows the idea of ornamentation forming within the geometry. Furthermore, the idea of “sharing systems” is shown in these outcomes where each of them are created using the same methods but still vary in different form. [12] Therefore, showing one of the main features of parametric design.

[12] Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 153–170 pdf

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B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 - Munich Olympic Stadium Frei Otto & Gunther Behnisch Munich, Germany, 1972

[13]

38


T

he Munich Olympic Stadium by Frei Otto demonstrates the idea of minimal surfacing and tensile feature in the use of materials within the geometry. Completed in 1972, this projects offers a light-weight tensile structure which flows continuously across the site to imitate the draping and rhythmic protrusions of the Swiss Alps. [13] The design intent to achieve different hierarchy of volume within the space is achieved using this light weight material and construction methods. The changing of form, scale and sectional characteristics within the structure is designed in order to create a series of volume that flows across the site. Besides being used as a coverage over buildings, the series of volumes that are covered by the suspended surface created flexible spaces which can be used to accommodate stands and hold public event. The type of material chosen also is to form connection with the landscape, the acrylic glass panels that clad the tensile membrane establish a relationship to its context and the light exposure that it experiences. The reflectiveness of the panels which captures the colour of sunlight and sky enhance the feeling of clouds floating across the site. [13)

The use of both computation and architectural idea are brought together in this project. The performance of the

structure became the main component which determines the form of the structure. Otto’s use of structural system demonstrates the early thinking process of fabrication within the design. With the help of Otto’s precise calculation the entire structural system and membrane was constructed off site. [17] This innovation of pre-fabrication allowed for simple assembly which at the same time is one of the world’s most innovative and complex structural system. As stated by Peters, “through approaching fabricators early in the design process, techniques and machine sizes can be incorporated as parameters in the custom digital tool, and then used to make the design more efficient, more buildable, and more integrated with the architectural idea.” [14] This project further demonstrates the advantages of fabrication and manufacturing of new materials to help achieve a dynamic and complex form of design. It shows the capacity of digital technologies has helped to create a new sense of “ornamentalism” in contemporary architecture stated by Kolarevic and Klinger. [15] Because of the the careful use of materials and structural systems, the form, lines and structure still create an architectural awe even after almost 40 years after its completion.

[13] ArchDaily, Munich Olympic Stadium, <http://www.archdaily.com/109136/ad-classics-munich-olympic-stadium-frei-otto-gunther-behnisch/> [accessed 17 April 2014] [14] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron’. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56-61 [15] Kolarevic, Branko and Kevin R. Klinger, eds (2008). Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York; London: Routledge), pp. 6–24 pdf

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B.3.1 DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECT USING PARAMETRIC TOOLS 1

Create a mesh plane

2

Generate mesh edges to turn into springs

3

Create vertices on grids

4

Bake vertices to choose anchoring points

5

Select anchoring points around boundary (marked in red)

40


6

Put generated edges and anchoring points into Kangaroo physics to generate new flexible geometry.

7 Choose another set of anchoring points (marked in purple) to form the pointed geometry.

8

Input new sets of points into Kangaroo Physics and start simulation

9 Offset purple anchor points in positive Z direction to create pointed geometry

41


B.3.2. FINAL OUTCOMES

T

he final results imitates quite closely to the original project. The main component of the geometry and form produced purely based on tensile strength is achieved. Also, volume underneath the structure is also driven from the outcome which was one of the features of the original structure. The idea of a continuous dynamic form is also created using one form of surface. However, the structure fails to deliver the smooth transition showing its flexibility and curvature. Also, any form of rigid structural element is not known from this derivation. The pattern formed by the acrylic glass panel in the original project also did not portrayed in the outcome. The atmosphere and experience that the original project generates also fail to be delivered through our outcomes. Thus, giving us an opportunity to explore in creating different patterns on the surface and generate tensile forces across them. We would like to adopt several patterns and more complexity to the structure. The study of type of material used and construction method can be further developed and improved aligning with the brief of generating energy. We would also like to explore more on its interaction with visitors, how it can be tactile and generate psychological sense in them.

42


B.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT B.4.1 Matrix Manipulation

I

n search for the technique to help develop our understanding towards tensile and compressive structure, we began to input different strength of gravity forces acting on a single surface (Series A). We wish to achieve a more dynamic and complex form using the same definition we developed in Case Study 2.0. Just by inserting a uniform force and different anchor points into the algorithm, we were able to create much more complex tension-created form in our iterations. However, these outcomes do not create the volumetric design we want to achieve to create an interactive art work to the site. So, we applied the same definition to a geometry that has a volume shown in series B.

In series C, we started to explore with basic forms such as cylinders, tube and spheres that are volumetric which can create different spatial experience within the volume. These volumetric shapes has helped to create a mixture of minimal surfacing

and tensile-compressive form which is a combination of both Case Study 1.0 and 2.0. To further emphasize on our interest in minimal geometry, we decided to explore in a new algorithm that can demonstrate similar idea to our previous series. The iterations formed in series D, E and F are generated using a grasshopper plug-in called â&#x20AC;&#x153;Millipedeâ&#x20AC;? and it has an isosurfacing function which computes and draws a surface within a volumetric data field. The outcomes are more complex and dynamic compared to Series A and B. Thus, we decided to use this technique to be further developed in our design proposal. While performing these iterations, materiality and constructability are constantly the aspects that we review. These aspects affects the overall minimised form of our structure and its stability as a whole. Thus, physical prototyping became an important step in our technique development.

43


Series

A

B

C

D

E

44

1

2

3

4


5

6

7

8

9

45


B.3.3. SELECTION CRITERIA

Adopted from Series A, this iteration is formed through both tensile and compressive force. This single surface structure can be developed further in terms of its constructability and stability as a self-sustaining structure. It has a potential in creating different patterns that can inform different energy systems such as solar or wind.

46

Developed from Series A, this iteration demonstrates our intent of wanting to create a volumetric structure to create a more dynamic purpose. This provided us an opportunity to explore the structural system and the spatial performance in our design proposal later on.


This dynamic and complex structure can provide a more interactive movements within the site and the structure. Moving from just a single surface generation, this iteration acts as a structural element itself that can potentially hold tension membrane developed in Series A.

This outcome is the most developed one among the iterations in terms of size, complexity and the dynamism we want to achieve in our design. This gives us opportunity to develop further in usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; circulation, type of functions and its energy generation system.

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B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPE Prototype 1 -Polypropylene

48


I

n order to maintain the minimal surface and rigidity of our design, we have decided to panel our form following the triangulated mesh. Also, we have chosen to work with materials that are flexible enough to retain the curvature of our form. The first prototype is constructed using polypropylene and the materials was able to achieve the form we wanted. Although the material was easy to work with, they are not strong enough to be self-sustaining and as a structure that can hold functions within the volume inside. Laser cutting this prototype has given us precision and accuracy that helps the model to be assembled easily. However, one problem we found in our first prototype is the joint and penetration of the panels. The penetrations were not evenly distributed and some did not form on the panel. These problem are fixed in our second prototype by changing to a more mathematically resolved algorithm. The prototype is later on being put to test. Loads are applied on it through twisting, bending, sagging, compressing and stretching. The material was able to keep its shape in the end and has minimal deformation.

49


Compressing and twisting

50

Sagging

Stretch


hing

Bending

Stretching

51


Prototype 2 - Aluminium Sheets

52


The lack of rigidity in the first prototype has informed the change in the use of our material which is shown in the second prototype. The second prototype is constructed using aluminium sheets and the rigidity of the structure is much improved although it was harder to work with. A laser cut template was needed to be formed before cutting the aluminium panels by hand. This has less precision and some panels did not match properly as compared to the first prototype. Even though the penetration issue is fixed in this prototype, due to the process of handmaking, the joining of panels still lack in accuracy. Furthermore, bolted joints may not be the best options when it comes to having loads acting on the surface panel. This causes shearing in the bolts when movement occurs on the panels which can cause deformation. Thus, because of the design intent we wish to achieve, we need to explore in a more feasible way of constructing our structure. We also need to think about the aesthetics and experiential aspects of the material contributing to our final proposal. The prototype is being put to similar test as the first prototype. Unlike the first, the loads acted on the prototype left permanent deformation to the prototype.

53


Compressing

54

Sagging

Twisting


Stretching

Stretching and twisting

After performance test

Slightly deformed after testing the prototype.

55


B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

H

aving to analyse the brief and site context, sunlight, entrances, wind and views are taken into consideration into generating the proposed form of our design. We chose to focus on movements and interaction between user, site and our design as the main drive to generate the aesthetics and energy generation of the design. With the technique we have chosen to explore, it creates a dynamic and interactive outcome that can form curiosity and interest in people. The study of demographics and their needs are also conducted to be included into our proposal.

The Little Mermaid

DES

IGN

Water Taxi Terminal

56

SITE


Families Comfort Safety Attraction Large space View Fun

Teenagers

Community Relaxing Educational Accessibility

Fun Fast pace Vibrant Energetic Atmosphere View Privacy Unique

Elderly Comfort Safety Attraction Large space View Peaceful

Community Relaxing Accessibility Quiet Openness Quality time

Tourist Comfort Fun Safety Unique Attraction Gathering Large space View Vibrant

summer sun

winter sun

LEGEND Entry point Wind path Sun path

57


B.6.1 Form Generation

View, exit point

Division of form

58

Optimum angle for receiving sunlight

Framing system of structure based on entrances and circulation

Merged frame

Central Atrium Space

Form generated


Iterations Throughout the process of generating our proposed form, iterations are continuously made to allign with the aspects which we have analysed from the site. To develop our form, we have used the same system we explored in technique: development process. By altering the curves of the framing system and the boundary box of the form in the definition, we were able to change the size and number of voids (entrances and movements), angle of framing structure (sunlight) and size of openings (view). This technique was able to create that volumetric space we wanted to achieve and at the same time allowing us to alter its generated outcome based on the site. However, from the feedback of the interim presentation, we realised that we could have expanded our design based on its typology and energy generation requirement. Since we have chose to focus on movements and interactions to generate energy, aspects such as light, space sizes, siting on site and topography of our form could be better considered to accommodate more people and create more experiential experiences in our design to constantly attract interest in people.

59


60


61


B.6.2 Energy Generation Mechanical force from footstep Surface Panel Enclosed stack actuator

stored energy used as lighting Lithium polymer battery

62


16

T

he energy generation method which our design would like to incorporate is through piezoelectricity. Piezoelectric are energy generated from tension and compression forces acting on crystal blocks attached to a certain surface. The reason why we have chosen this form of energy generation is because of our focus in movements and interactions of visitors with the design. Footsteps or any kind of forces such as wind, wave or rain acting on surface panels which generate pressure can help to generate electricity. This electrical energy can then be used to power other devices or stored for later use.

Aspects such as number of people, size of flooring tiles, number of modules and type of movements need to be considered in our design proposal. These aspects will influence the final form of our design in terms of aesthetics, function and its construction methods. We also need to consider the feasibility of the amount of ratio energy generated to the cost and embodied energy used to construct the system. Also, the rigidity of the structure for the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s installation is also an issue we need to consider since we would like to have different types of movement within our structure.

[16] Burns, Chris, Piezoelectricity Generation X, <http://www.yankodesign.com/2010/01/13/piezoelectricity-generation-x/> [accessed 1 May 2014]

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B.7 LEARNING OUTCOMES & OBJECTIVES

T

hroughout the process of developing our techniques, I have learnt that computational design needs to be supported by a design intent in order to be successful. Instead of just generating random forms, a certain motive needs to be considered before that. The biggest issue that I have encountered with my group is that we firstly did not know the drive to generating our form. We got lost in the midst of just exploring with the tools and not considering the architectural elements of our design during the earlier process. This problem has led us to analyse the context and the brief of the project closely which have influenced in our designing process and really see how computational design can help generate outcomes that were not expected of.

2) Size of structure We need to consider how to occupy the area the design site. Do we design a mass structure or smaller structures with different functions across the site? 3) Typology of design What is the main attraction of our design? The typology affects how we generate the form varying in space sizes, lighting, materiality and constructability. 4) Energy generation How feasible is piezoelectricity? How is that informative and innovative to attract users? Do we need to consider any other alternatives? We need to make further research and collect data to support our argument

However, our design proposal has failed to include a solid argument in the field of energy generation because we did not fully consider the factors needed for it to be successful. This consequently affected the solidity of our design intent as well. Factors such as number of users, functionality of space, types of movements and the main typology of our design are not well-considered of.

The learning process of this stage has helped to me not be afraid to criticize limitations and shortcomings of a design proposal. It is important to always learn from the past and adopt new ways and technique to help develop a better proposal. The process of rediscovering can help to develop our understanding towards the world of computational design. It is a process with plenty of explorations and experiments to try to achieve the best outcome possible.

Thus, this has given us directions and steps in which we must consider in our next stage. The list below shows how our technique could be extended to further produce a structure that meet the requirements of the brief: 1) Users: The type of users we want to attract. Who produces the most energy through movements? How many needed to produce the amount of energy needed?

64

Furthermore, the understanding of virtual and reality environment is explored throughout the design process. Physical fabrication has informed in the type of algorithm we chose and understand how things come together as a whole. Joint, material behaviour and its quality are important aspects that can further help to develop the use of techniques for the final project.


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B.8 ALGORITHM SKETCHES

The main learning outcomes that I have received throughout Part B is to develop my understanding in creating minimal surface geometry through either a framing system or forces acting on a single surface. They have helped to inform how I developed my technique in generating forms for the design proposal.

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REFERENCES (PART B)

Architizer, Fibrous Tower, <http://architizer.com/projects/fibrous-tower/> [accessed 10 April 2014] Arch2o, Active Phytoremediation Wall System, <http://www.arch2o.com/active-phytoremediation-wall-system-som-rensselaerpolytechnic-institute/> [accessed 10 April 2014] ArchDaily, Green Void, <http://www.archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava/> [accessed 10 April 2014] ArchDaily, Munich Olympic Stadium, <http://www.archdaily.com/109136/ad-classics-munich-olympic-stadium-frei-otto-gunther-behnisch/> [accessed 17 April 2014] Burns, Chris, Piezoelectricity Generation X, <http://www.yankodesign.com/2010/01/13/piezoelectricity-generation-x/> [accessed 1 May 2014] DesignBloom, Synthetic Nature, <http://www.designboom.com/art/synthetic-nature-by-vlad-tenu-09-27-2013/> [accessed 10 April 2014] Kolarevic, Branko and Kevin R. Klinger, eds (2008). Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York; London: Routledge), pp. 6–24 pdf Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14 Moussavi, Farshid, “Style Agency” Youtube Video, 1:27:49, posted by “The Harvard Graduate School of Design”, Oct 26, 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDaBdzMaOxU Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron’. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56-61 Roudavski, Stanislav, Materiality. Presented to Year 3 Architecture Students at University of Melbourne on 10 April 2014. SuckerPunch, Minimal Relaxation, <http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/10/23/minimal-relaxation/> [accessed 10 April 2014] Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 153–170 pdf

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PART C

DETAILED DESIGN

70


C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT

B

ased on the learning outcomes driven from Part B, my team and I have reconsidered the concept and proposal of our design based on the criteria below: A)THE BRIEF Similarly, we wish to design a space where users can interact with and form a sense of rediscovery and curiosity towards the environment. Incorporating some of sculptural land that comes as functional space can help users to find themselves creating different experiences within the site. Aligning with the vision of Copenhagen, our design aims to improve the space quality of the harbours which led to our idea of reconverting an unused industrial land to an attractive location as a harbour bath as well as spaces for leisure activities. B) ENERGY GENERATION TECHNIQUE My team and I have chosen to reconsider our energy generation technique, changing to a method that is more consistent compared to piezoelectric. The use of solar pond is chosen because it can be directly seen by the users and the use that it can proposed to our design intent of a community space. Despite of its simple system, this technique does not get utilised very often but potetianlly is able to bring further interest in users through its use not only as a energy production system but heating as well. C) FORM GENERATION While maintaining our research field of minimal surfacing, the

form of our design is altered to improve the efficiency of the energy generation technique through analyzing the physical constraints of the site. With the help of computational tools, we were able to analyse the way our form perform on site in relation to the energy generation technique. Furthermore, the scale and types of geometry formed within the design is also considered to improve the relationship between the users and design. The use of algorithm has allow us to change and alter our form easily based on these different factors we wanted in our design. Rediscovery and curiosity are ideas we wished to portray through the complex and dynamic form of the design. Light and shade, openings and solids, and closure and openness are the elements we look for through the iteration process. D) Fabrication Through learning from the prototypes in part B, we began to focus on the technicality of the fabrication method in terms of rigidity and structurally. We explored in ways to strengthen our paneling methods at the joints and can how it can be fabricated in real world construction. Computation has allowed us to continuously change the elements of our prototypes when we encounter any issues during physical fabrication. For example, changing of scale has changed how the materials are connected. Computation has also broaden our knowledge in the use of 3D printing and has helped us to realise our form physically. We have also looked at how these prototypes can bring forward our idea of creating the sense of rediscovery through the play of shading and solidity.

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FORM GENE

1

SITE ANALYSIS

4 TRIMING OF CURVES BASED ON SITE ANALYSIS 72

2

BOUNDARY AND POINT

5 FORM GENERATION USING MILIPEDE PLUG-IN


ERATION

TS

3

CURVES

6 INSERT FUNCTIONS

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ENERGY GENERATI

8 1 2 3

4

1

Low-salt-content cool water

2

Salt-gradient layer

3

High-salt-content hot brine with heat-absorbing bottom

4

Water circulating pump

5

Organic working fluid pumped through copper tube in evaporator

6

Organic working vapour drives turbogenerators to generate electricity

7

Organic working vapour enters condensor and returns to fluid

8

Low-salt-content cool water fed through condensor

9

Organic working fluid is pumped back to the evaporator

5

6

Diagram 1

residual hea

extraction of solar energy via solar ponds

74

electricty pro grids, or used f

Rankine cycle generates electricty through turbogenerator, which in turn also generates residual heat energy

Diagram 2


ION - SOLAR POND

at is used to heat swimming pools

Solar pond is pool of saltwater that comes with different salinity which acts as a large-scale solar thermal energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy which can be converted into electricity. The pond naturally divides itself according to the saltiness of the water (saltiest being the most bottom layer to least salty being the top layer). This gradient formed by the pond allows the top layer to act as an absorbent medium while the bottom layer as a storage zone which is the part where energy is being extracted from. The process of energy extraction is shown in Diagram 1. Besides generating electricity, the residual heat formed from the pond may be used to provide heating for the public pools integrated with our design (Diagram 2). In order to ensure a constant efficiency of this technique, the factors below are considered: 1) The depth and size of the pond To minimize heat losses and linear costs, the pond area should be more than 10,000m2 and should be 2m or more in depth.

7

9

2) Pondsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; exposure to sun In order to maintain the efficiency of the system to generate electricity, maximum exposure of sunlight is needed to be obtain by the pond. Thus, shadow analysis of our form is done to ensure the amount of shadow cast on the pond is as little as possible. We have chosen to conduct the analysis during the coldest time of the year which is around the end of January to beginning to February. During winter time, the sun is very low and thus increase the amount of shadow casting on the site. This analysis has affected the height of the design and also reconsideration of the pondâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s position in relation to the site. 3) Pondsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; exposure to wind To prevent the evaporation and cooling of water surface caused by wind, the density of solid structure across our design in different parts of site is varied. For example, the ponds need to be protected from south-west wind which is the strongest throughout the year. *Note: Research based on readings referenced end of Part C

oduced is fed back into electric d for any other maintenance/functional reasons

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C.1.1 PROJECT PROPOSAL

76


T

hroughout the process of creating an innovative design, the constraints and functions of the site are often revisited to maintain the efficiency of the solar pond and interaction between users and the design. Iterations are created to determine the best outcome to help deliver our design intent of creating different element varying in light and share, folding and merging, size and shapes and so on. Explorations are done using Millipede and shadow analysis done through using LadyBug plug-in to study the relationship of them to the site. Initially we created iterations based on where we would like the solar ponds to be placed and how users should move around the site but soon we realised that the technique is not feasible due to the unexpected outcomes of our form generation that are not fulfilling our purpose of creating a variety of form within the design. Thus, we resulted to generate iterations based on the interesting characteristics extrapolated from previous iterations and then carefully inserted functions into the form. This process of revisiting both function and form continuously has strongly helped in creating the best outcome of our design. This has uniquely helped us to incorporated the idea of function affecting form but also the vice-versa. The use of computational tools has helped us to realise the performance of our design and also increases opportunities for us to gain more understanding towards the site, technology and aesthetics of our design.

Site constraints

Function

Form

Site constraints

Function

Form

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SITE CONSTRAINTS AND FUNCTIONS AFFECTING FORM

1

2

3

4

5

78

Height

:

22

Height

:

25

No. of points

:

150

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

3

Grid size

:

5

Iso value

:

3

Iso value

:

5

Minimal surfacing:

4

Minimal surfacing:

8

Height

:

22

Height

:

20

No. of points

:

150

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

3

Grid size

:

6

Iso value

:

6

Iso value

:

8

Minimal surfacing:

9

Minimal surfacing:

8

Height

:

23

Height

:

24

No. of points

:

100

No. of points

:

100

Grid size

:

3

Grid size

:

4

Iso value

:

6

Iso value

:

5

Minimal surfacing:

9

Minimal surfacing:

4

Height

:

23

Height

:

24

No. of points

:

80

No. of points

:

100

Grid size

:

3

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

6

Iso value

:

6

Minimal surfacing:

9

Minimal surfacing:

4

Height

:

25

Height

:

20

No. of points

:

120

No. of points

:

100

Grid size

:

3

Grid size

:

4

Iso value

:

5

Iso value

:

7

Minimal surfacing:

8

Minimal surfacing:

5

6

7

8

9

10


Possible solar ponds position

Wind-prone areas

This set of iterations are affected by the position of the solar ponds and wind rose. The set of curves that are used to generate these forms are trimmed out by where we would like to place ponds on the site based on the sun. On the other hand, more curves are added across the windprone areas. We noticed that the higher the height of the structure, the more shadow is cast on the ponds. Furthermore, the decrease of grid size creating more details also causes more shadows to form. These sets of iterations are interesting because of they consist of the correct amount of structural and minimised surface elements within the structure. Some iterations such as 6 and 7 have parts where merges with the landscape but flows up to create some sort of sculptural element. The only element that needs to be improved is their scale in terms of height, which need to be reduced to cast less shadows as well as to maintain a human-scale proportion.

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SITE CONSTRAINTS AND FUNCTIONS AFFECTING FORM

1

2

3

4

5

Height

:

20

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

5

Iso value

:

10

Minimal surfacing:

20

Height

:

18

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

4

Iso value

:

5

Minimal surfacing:

20

Height

:

12

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

4

Iso value

:

5

Minimal surfacing:

20

Height

:

12

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

3

Minimal surfacing:

4

Height

:

12

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

5

Minimal surfacing:

80

30

6

7

8

9

10

Height

:

12

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

7

Minimal surfacing:

15

Height

:

10

No. of points

:

110

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

4

Minimal surfacing:

10

Height

:

10

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

4

Iso value

:

5

Minimal surfacing:

25

Height

:

10

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

2

Iso value

:

4

Minimal surfacing:

30

Height

:

10

No. of points

:

130

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

4

Minimal surfacing:

20


Possible solar ponds position

Wind-prone areas Learning from the precious set of iterations, we decreased the height of the structure but this subsequently changed the overall form of our design. These set of iterations has lost the structural and minimised characteristics of the geometry field we were looking at. However, they do portray the some characteristics we want to include in our structure such as the changes in levels across the floor of the site. These iteration also shows the improvement in relation to the amount of shadow being cast on the ponds We tried to generate more structural components in our design but the definition we used did not allow us to do so because of the size of grid cells were not parametric to the size of the boundary box (Thanks to our tutor, Cam for helping us). This shows the benefit of parametric modeling within the field of design where each element are connected together as a recipe that makes changes and explorations easier. The better outcomes are shown in the following page.

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SITE CONSTRAINTS AND FORM AFFECTING FUNCTION

1

2

3

4

5

82

Height

:

12

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

7

Minimal surfacing:

30

Height

:

12

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

5

Minimal surfacing:

20

Height

:

13

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

4

Minimal surfacing:

12

Height

:

11

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

2

Iso value

:

4

Minimal surfacing:

20

Height

:

14

No. of points

:

120

Grid size

:

3

Iso value

:

2.8

Minimal surfacing:

10


FINAL OUTCOME

After changing our definition, we started to create more iterations that find a balance between the characteristics we wanted to have to create a dynamic design. To make it clearer, the items below are the elements we searched for while generating these outcomes: 1) Structural columns 2) Minimised tubular forms 3) Cantilevered structure 4) Mergining of form with ground 5) Spaces with different intensity of shade and light 6) Free movement across the structure and site 7) Arches/Pavilion 8) Area enough to have solar ponds covering half the site

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A

A Solar pond

SECTION A-A

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Swimming pool

Water features

Central plaza


Although initially we had the solar ponds to determine how the form should be produced, this did not give the best outcome to the aesthetics of our design as well as the performance of the design in relationship to the solar pond. Therefore, we began to analyse the form we have chosen and began to deliberate on how the function should be set out in relation to our design in order to create a more efficient system. Since we were able to capture those characteristics we wanted, we began to insert some functions that the community could use and gather for different purposes. For example, the flat area in the middle of the structure is suitable to be used as a main central plaza where events can be held occasionally. Water features are also inserted into parts of structure to make a connection between the solar ponds and public baths. Most importantly, solar ponds are placed in areas where least shadows are cast during different periods of times and also making sure it covers approximately half the site. The reason why we decided to have separate ponds because it is easier to be cleaned and it takes less time to allow the surface area to be heated. The solar ponds needed to be place close to a water source to allow cleaning to be done as well.

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C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS

D

eveloping from our prototypes made in Part B, the main issue that we encountered is the weakness in material and joint of the panel. Due to the geometry of our form, it is important for the material to still deliver the characteristics of minimal surfacing and at the same time being able to be selfsustaining. One of the methods that we used to strengthen the joints between the panels is by having a second layer of panel on top connecting from the centroids of the lower panels (Fig. 2) Although the second layer increases the strength of the paneling, we still encounter the problem of permanent deformation overtime which the choice of material. The continuous overlapping method resulted in overcrowding at the joint area which may effect the aesthetics of our design in a larger scale. Furthermore, the main use of metal as the finish of the design may not seem welcoming as a community space.

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Instead of having a single panel overlapping one another at the ends, we decided to join a few panels together forming a large panel to decrease the number of joints which cause weakness to the system. However, the issue that we encountered is that the panels have less flexibility in terms of how they can be bent. We also tried to use wood because it performs better aesthetically as compared metal because of its natural look. However, we faced an issue in terms of how it can be bent to create the geometry of our design. If we were too use a thinner wood, it might not perform well structurally.

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ACRYLIC panel sheets connections Scale 1:10

Learning from the previous prototypes, not only does the material need to be rigid but have a relatively flexible property to work with. Thus, we resulted to looking at acrylic which can be bent under heat to create the curved surface in our design. Also, we wanted a material which is able to sunlight to pass through to decrease the amount of shadows casting on the solar ponds during winter season.

1. The laser cut panel is heated along the bending area.

2. The moulded acrylic panel is tied down to allow it to set.

3. Final result of the moulded panel showing the curved form.

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With the second skin layer, we decided to incorporate the benefits we found in our first polypropylene prototype done in part B. The soft and flexible material is good in resisting tension formed by the bottom layer due to bending. Aesthetically, it also provides as shading purposes and adds contrast to the overall look of the design. Gaining from the feedback given in the final presentation, we could have explored in different coloured acrylic to create a more dynamic and interactive space for our design, both visually and spatial qualities. Furthermore, with these steps, we realised that a solid mould of the exact form of our design is needed to be build first before bending the acrylic panel to take its shape properly. Nonetheless, the result that we aimed for is achieved.

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Joint detail Scale 1:1

90


As seen from the prototypes, the core construction element that repeats across our design is the joint between the panels. Thus, we decided to construct a 1:1 prototype of this detail. The items below are those that we needed to reconsider in this full scale prototype: 1) Thickness of panel - To ensure rigidity, a few layers of acrylic panels needed to be laminated together to form the desire thickness. However, given from the feedback we received in presentation, we would encounter the problem of bending the panel due to the thickness because it will crack. Thus, each sheet of panel is needed to be moulded first before laminating them which can very labour intensive and difficult. One solution is to not produce too many variations in the panels so that it can be mass produced. We could perhaps design our form more mathematically to produce a set of uniform panels across our design. This would reduce the cost and labour work in a real world construction. (The lack of our knowledge in mathematics and Grasshopper has led us to not solving this problem, sadly) 2) One of the issue we had to reconsider is the connection method between the panels. Since it is impossible to have one bolt connecting such a large panel, a series of bolts are flushjointed, connecting the panels together. The flush-joint method is used to ensure the layer of polypropylene can be fixed smoothly on top of the bottom later and also to create a smooth finish to the panels.

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C.3 FINAL MODEL 94


95


96


97


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3D Print (Workflow) Scale 1:500

1. 3D printing the form of our model has allowed u to realise the characteristics of our form. Interesting outcomes such as arches, cantilevered structures, merging of our form from land to the air (acting as landart and pavilion) are displayed in through the 3D printing. However, due to the unplanned workflow in preparing our 3D digital model for printing, many problems were only encountered after collecting our model. The process and problems we faced are stated below: 2.

1. The raw mesh that was generated through grasshopper was not clean and has non-planar joints and floating geometry. Using the ‘Check’ and ‘MeshRepair’ command, we were able to clean up the mesh in order to be accepted for printing. 2. Another issue that we have encountered is the size of our model. The maximum printing area for the 3D print powder was 20x20cm and thus, we had to split our model into 3 separate parts to be printed separately.

3.

3. In order for the model to not break during the process of cleaning by the FabLab staffs, we had to include a base plate at the bottom of the model. 4. One of the requirements for 3D printing is the model needs to have a thickness of at least 2mm. This was quite difficult for our complex shape but it was easily done using “thicken mesh” tool provided by Millipede plug-in.

4.

Without considering how our model will be stuck together in the end, we encountered a problem with the model not being able to meet up. This was only realised after we sent in the file. We should have inserted the base plate before spliting the model so that they can be joined accurately. Furthermore, some parts of our model needed to be split off because it was still too large for the print area. Another element that we could have done to improve our model is to actually incorporate the paneling pattern onto the model to be printed. This would have helped to show the overall aesthetic characteristic of our final design.

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100


The final 3D model has allowed us to realise the dynamism and complexity of our digital model. Different spatial qualities are created through the different intensity of light casting through the panels of different material that wraps the form of our structure. With the help of computational tools, we were able to not only have a design that brings out the design intent but the performance and constructability is also explored.

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C.4 LAGI BRIEF

CONCEPT: Historically, the harbour of Copenhagen has been an industrial harbour affected by maritime traffic, noise and wastewater pollution. The vision of improving the water quality of the harbours has led to different changes to the city and one of them is to convert these empty industrial areas to an attractive location as a harbour bath as well as spaces for leisure activities.

as an absorbent medium while the bottom layer as a storage zone which is the part where energy is being extracted from. In the summer it is expected that solar pond will reach temperatures of above 80 °C. This heat will be available through the night as well as the day. In winter, the pond will still be able to supply useful heat because the temperature of the lower layer will remain some 30 °C above that at the surface. [1]

Similarly, the key idea to our design is to reclaim an unused industrial harbour to become an attractive urban community space that benefits not only to the environment but also the livability of the city. Besides only creating a visually appealing piece of land art that speaks of environmental awareness, the inclusion of a community space that brings people together can generate a social response to the city.

Through the use of Organic Rankine Cycle, electricity is generated based on a turbine driven by heated low-boling-point fluid formed into pressurized vapour. In order to prevent fluctuation in temperature which can affect the efficiency of the system, factors such as height, shape and density of structure of the design is carefully altered based on the constraints proposed by the site such as sun and wind. Besides only generating electricity, residual heat is also released during the process and this heat is transferred to water pipes system that runs under the baths. [2]

TECHNOLOGY: To include our concept of having water features in our design, we have chosen to use solar pond as the energy generation technique. Solar pond is pool of saltwater that comes with different salinity which acts as a large-scale solar thermal energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy which can be converted into electricity. The pond naturally divides itself according to the saltiness of the water (saltiest being the most bottom layer to least salty being the top layer). This gradient formed by the pond allows the top layer to act

Furthermore, this method is a low-cost energy generation technique because the ponds is constructed with what is often reject brine which considered as a waste product, to build the salinity gradient. Solar ponds uses readily made available materials such as salt an brackish water without the need to waste any other materials to be built. It is also an energy generation technique that does not cause greenhouse gas

[1] R. Ganesan and C.H. Bing, ‘ Theoretical Analysis of Closed Rankine Cycle Solar Pond Power Generator’, Modern Applied Science, Vol. 2 (2008), 3-8 [2] The University of Texas, Salinity Gradient Solar Technology <http://wwwold.ece.utep.edu/research/Energy/Pond/pond.html> [accessed 21st May 2014]

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emission or any other pollution to the environment. The use solar ponds are capable to provide not only electricity to various applications but also heating. They can provide heat without the burning of any fuel for houses, industrial spaces and any other low-application temperature application. [2] The incorporation of solar ponds into a habour front community space can help improve the awareness of people towards different types of energy generation that can be used. The solar ponds do not provide a visual experienced to users but also in a tactile sense through the public pools heated by the solar ponds. This simple display and method of using solar ponds can help change people’s views towards the difficulty of energy production. Recognising the use of solar ponds in a commonplace may help to bring out realisation and actions to actively engage the ways to contribute to the environment. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT: According to research done by Weinberg and B.Doron [3], with an average annual insolation of 2000kWhm-2 and net pond efficicency of 18%, the collected energy is about 360 kWhm-2 year. However, Copenhagen’s anual insolation is 1025kWhm-2 which makes the collected energy is 185 kWhm-2. Assuming turbine efficiency of about 80%, the resulting cycle efficiency is about 10%. This means that in terms of power production,

each m2 will produce 18.5 kWh per year. Through occupying half the site (approx. 54000m2), the solar ponds are able to generate 495 mWh/year. According to Danish Energy Savings Trust, 1,000 kWh is used by per person annually. These solar ponds will then provide enough energy for about 499 people a year. [4] MATERIALS: 1) Acrylic panels Size: Approximately 1.5m x 3m Thickness: 8mm 2) Polypropylene panels Size: Approximately 1.5m x 3m Thickness: 4mm 3) Bolts Size: 5mm diameter

[3] Fisher, J. Weinberg and B. Doron, ‘ Integration of Solar Pond with Water Desalination’, Renewable Energy Systems and Desalination, Vol. 2 [4] City of Copenhagen, Copenhagener’s energy consumption, <http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/Consumption.aspx> [accessed 21st May 2014]

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C.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES

T

his part of the learning process has taught me the importance of keeping a balance between conceptual ideas, technicality and architectural impact when designing. This is one of the crucial understanding when it comes to computational design because it restructures the way we design and our attitude towards how we deliver the creativity we have before. Based on the feedback we received during the final presentation, I have learnt that it is important to constantly relate the steps that we made to support the architectural side of our design. For example, it is important for us to only deliver the physical outcome of our prototypes but it is crucial the relate these physical elements to our concept and architectural intent of our design. Many new challenges as well as opportunities were created throughout the design process in part C. The flexibility of computational tools has allowed us to explore not only within the structure and form of our design but its performance as well. One of the major learning outcomes that I have personally achieved is learning the benefits of computational design associating with performance-based processes that were not available in the pre-digital era. Plug-ins such as Ladybug and Honeybee have helped us to simulate real-life situations for our unbuilt project and this has created new opportunities for us to further improve our design. Furthermore, I have also learnt the importance of scale when in comes to computational design. Due to the flexibility of

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computational tools, it is very easy to neglect the relationship between human and the design in terms of scale. This weakness of not being able to design in accurate scale virtually brings out the importance of physical fabrication process. For example, we encountered several issues such as panel size, thickness and connections when we made the 1:1 prototype and changes were made computationally to fix the issues. Besides that, the 1:500 3D printed model has also helped us to understand and improve our designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relationship to the site. However, what I would really wanted to do is another prototype to show the final outcome of the design aesthetically, both form and paneling together in a smaller scale. Lastly, gaining from the feedback, it is important to not only be able to present an idea verbally but through visual presentation as well. I agree with the words of critics that improvement is needed in the way we presented our ideas through drawings and renderings (Tried to render acrylic but failed miserably). Elements such as materiality, scale and spatial experiences could have been executed better. Due to the complexity of ideas formed through computational design, it is crucial to present a clear intent of every detailed made throughout the process. Overall, I have gained a thorough understanding towards the benefits of computational design to the built environment. Computational tools act as a platform to create better designs not only in a visual sense but performance wise as well.


CONCLUSION

T

his design project has challenged me to explore the impact of computation on architectural design. This exploration is crucial because of the use in technology and the term “digital architectural design” have developed and influenced widely in contemporary architectural discourse and practice. New opportunities and challenges that require new skills formed within the advancement of technologies have triggered a new workflow in the design process. These new methods of designing have changed the conventional way of design and has put upon new considerations into the way I resolve a problem. For example, I was to able to explore in how my design would perform in regards to not only aesthetically but in construction and environmentally as well. This emergence of performancebased design is one of the most crucial element that brings forward the capabilities of computational design.[5] Although the process of learning digital architectural design approaches is quite demanding and difficult, it has proposed a new way of thinking and has helped me earn new techniques that can be applied in many areas in a design process. The brief given by this course has allowed critical thinking in regards to giving me an opportunity to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation. Besides having to design an innovative land art, the brief allows us to go deeper into exploring different energy generation technologies and construction systems within the real industry. The flexibility of algorithmic design has allowed me to explore in many ways to

resolve a situation and generate new outcomes. Furthermore, this design project has challenged me to continuously to extend my knowledge within the world of computational design. Often at times these tools and techniques can bring constraints to creativity because of the lack in experience. This project has helped me build a solid and lasting foundation towards the understanding of digital tools. Grasshopper is not only a flexible toolset that can be easily extended with various plugins but it exposes mathematical, geometrical and computational concepts that are directly applicable to many other situations in the contemporary architecture discourse. As mentioned briefly before, the change in design workflow in this course is one of the elements that is challenging and engaging. Instead of starting with a conceptual design phase (conventionally), we began with conceptual and technical learning which allows us to be familiar with practical implications of parametric modelling through research and tutorials. With these appropriate technical-based starting points and the explorations with different methods, we were then able to integrate a design proposal into a structure that demonstrates the unique capabilities of computation. The overall design process is rewarding and a great learning process. This course has helped me to develope an understanding towards the change in architectural profession with the development of digital architectural design and technology.

[5] Kolarevic, Branko (2014). ‘Computing the Performative’, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, pp. 103–111

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REFERENCES (PART C)

ENERGY GENERATION TECHNIQUE RESEARCH: Fisher, J. Weinberg and B. Doron, ‘ Integration of Solar Pond with Water Desalination’, Renewable Energy Systems and Desalination, Vol. 2 J Srinivasan, ‘Solar pond technology’, Sadhan~, Vol. 18, Part 1(1993), 39-55 R. Ganesan and C.H. Bing, ‘ Theoretical Analysis of Closed Rankine Cycle Solar Pond Power Generator’, Modern Applied Science, Vol. 2 (2008), 3-8 R. Peter Fynn and Ted H. Short, ‘Salt Gradient Solar Ponds: Research Progress in Ohio and Future Prospects’, Sixth International Symposium on Salt, 1983-Vol. JI, 431-438 The University of Texas, Salinity Gradient Solar Technology <http://wwwold.ece.utep.edu/research/Energy/Pond/pond. html> [accessed 21st May 2014] COPENHAGEN’S CLIMATE RESEARCH: City of Copenhagen, Copenhagener’s energy consumption, <http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/Consumption.aspx> [accessed 21st May 2014] Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Copenhagener’s wind roses, <http://mesonet.agron.iastate.edu/sites/ windrose.phtml?station=EKRK&network=DK_ASOS> [accessed 21st May 2014] READING: Kolarevic, Branko (2014). ‘Computing the Performative’, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, pp. 103–111

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