Page 1

American Planlrlng Association

Illinois Chapter Summer 1987 #4

SUPREME COURT SAYS PAY FOR TEHPORARY REGULATORY TAKING (in some cases)

According to a new decision, when a government through regulation or ordinance unreasonably prohibits all use of private property it will be required to compensate for a taking under the 5th Amendment. Old Stuff??? Yes, but they added a new wrinkle. The time of taking shall be calculated from the date of denial rather than the date of the court decision invalidating the regulation, ordinance or statute! This may prove to be. very expensive to governmental units that have over relied on their presumption of validity and failed to establish, through planning, a reasonable basis for their regulations. Please note, this is not a zoning or subdivision case but the applicability to such ordinances is clear. In the case Los Angeles County adopted an interim Flood Protection Area ordinance which prohibited a church from rebUilding its' retreat center in an area where it had been located prior to being washed away by a flood. The Church filed suit claiming, among other things, that the County regulation denied all use of the site and that they were entitled to damages under the 5th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the motion to strike this claim should not have been sustained and that for a taking of all use (if proven) the Church must be compensated from the date of the prohibition of all reasonable use, First Evangelical Lutheran Church of Glendale v. County of Los Angeles, __ U.S. (1987). Implications of this decision will take years to fully realize as other litigation moves through the system. The current situation is that the FIRST LUTHERAN case will more than likely go to trial to determine: if ALL use was prohibited; if the ordinance was reasonable in light of the demonstrated safety problem; and the amount of damages if a . taking is found to have occurred.

morals and welfare. Alternatively, government may decide to exercise its power of eminent domain instead of regulating. Declaring a public purpose, paying compensation and then reselling to the private sector, perhaps with covenant restrictions may be the wave of the future. The fact that this is already occurring in codevelopment is instructive in its applicability. Perhaps serious attention will be turned to techniques such as Land Banking and "real" public private partnerships. Governments and planners have felt secure in the knowledge that if a local ordinance is declared to be an unconstitutional taking of private property the worst thing that could happen is that the ordinance was unenforceable or void. The June 9, 1987 U.S. Supreme Court opinion removed some of that security. The opinion may have also found the answer to the national problem of, "too many lawyers". Of course they may have also compounded a related problem of, "too much litigation". Given the indisputable fact that state, federal and local government are expected to deal with problems of health, safety, morals, environment, transportation, employment, land use, information base development, and the public general welfare I'm confident that ways will be found to deal with them and that planners will continue to be leaders in the effort.

APA 1987

UPPER MIDWEST CONFERENCE

The most important question is how does this opinion affect me? Depends on who you are: government, owner, developer, consultant, attorney, citizen or other. There will probably be a lot of litigation but little money will be paid in compensation for property. The initial result will be 'that the private side will have a new leverage point with respect to negotiations on use conditions, impacts fees. dedications,

infra

structure

improvements

and any

thing else you normally talk over during a development review procedure. The fulcrum has shifted on the tetter board, perhaps to a more equal position. The developer will know that time is not his enemy, and government has lost that chip since delay of a legitimate proposal may be at the government's expense. If, as developers complain, there are communities that have abused developers with unreasonable requests and arbitrary ordinances they should beware. Their public treasury may be attached, and the tax base mortgaged to pay for a temporary taking. On the other hand, the opinion may be a boon to serious planning. Requiring a municipality to have established a reasonable constitutional basis for an ordinance is certainly a selling point for planning. In addition planners will be in demand to serve as experts in litigation and negotiations to show the relationship of a particular use restriction to the public health, safety,

Wisconsin,

Minnesota, Iowa and Illinois Chapters

Call Charles Causier Host Chapter President for more information 414/359-2300


Participants in the study were volunteers recruited through a careful process that included help from the Internal Revenue Service, which informed potential respondents about the study and requested their permission to release their names to be contacted by the researchers.

by James D. Smith Reprinted from ISR Newsletter University of Michigan Winter 1986-87 "Wealth is a good thing, and everyone ought to have some," says ISR research scientist James D. Smith. "But when some people have a lot while others have little, the good thing that wealth does for one individual or family may make life more difficult for another."

The vast majority of the total wealth--the stored-up purchasing power--of America's 84 million households is owned by only one-tenth of those families, says Smith, who has analyzed data from ISR's periodic Surveys of Consumer Finances. These surveys are directed by Richard T. Curtin of the Survey Research Center; the 1983 study described here was jointly sponsored by the Board of ~overnors of the Federal Reserve System, the Department pf Health and Human Services, the Controller of the Currency, and other federal agencies.

The aggregate net worth of American households as of early 1983 was about'10.6 trillion dollars, held mostly in the form of real estate, corporate stock, and business assets. But ownership of the greatest share of that wealth is concentrated among a relatively few families. "The wealthiest 10 percent of families own 68 percent of that total wealth," Smith reports, "or about half of the value of all real estate, plus 90 percent of corporate stocks and business assets and 95 percent of bonds." Wealth is even more densely concentrated among the richest one-half of one percent (400,000 households) who own 27 percent of the total net worth of all American households-including about 14 percent of all real estate plus 40 percent of the corporate stock and value of business assets.

"Having wealth means being able to buy medical care and education," Smith says. "It means not having to live in fear of the financial difficulties that unemployment, retirement, or the demise of the family car can bring. Wealth can be used to pursue justice in the courts, to support political candidates who will make decisions in accordance with one's own values, or to pay lobbyists who will work to protect one's own special interests. "However,t1 Smith says, "using one1s wealth to 'buy the best,' whether it is the best of legal representation, political lobbying, or even first-rate medical care or eduction, can mean gaining an advantage over those who cannot afford the same quality of representation or services." "There

may

even

be

consequences

for

democratic

processes

when wealth is highly concentrated among relatively few people," he suggests, "perhaps even threatening the equal distribution of political power intended by the founders of

"It appears that the quality of the data from this survey is considerably higher than is usually found in field surveys of wealth holdings," Smith reports. However, Smith recalls, initial reports of the study data had been marred by the results of an interviewer error in recording one family's assets as $200 million rather than the actual $2 million. As a result of that error it had appeared that the richest one-half of one percent had substantially increased their share of the nation's wealth. This "increase" got a lot of attention and, understandably, the subsequent discovery that it was in error drew at least as much attention. "Unfortunately," Smith says, "there was also a tendency to treat the corrected figures as though the present distribution of wealth was not in itself worthy of much attention."

For purposes of tracking historical trends, roughly comparable information is available from various sources about the way wealth has been distributed during the past 50 years. Smith says that the highest measured concentration of wealth in this century occurred in 1929. The concentration declined through the Great Depression and World War II, but then increased somewhat in the mid1950s and has remained rather constant at that level-despite the substantial social programs of the 1960s. "Severe disruption of the stock market is about the only thing that can negatively affect the wealth of the richest of the rich," Smith explains, "because they have so cuch invested in corporate stocks. Given their. current ownership of over 40 percent of all corporate stock, the richest one-half percent of American families virtually control corporate America." Another unique circumstance that had contributed to that declining trend was the increased availability of credlt, through'FHA and VA loans, to purchase housing after the end of World War II. This allows more families with modest assets to purchase residential real estate and thereby increase their net worth. "For many Americans," Smith notes, "owning a home is the only way to have net worth at all." What--aside from stock market crashes and major wars-determines the distribution of wealth? Or, more to the point, how do people get to the top? Smith points out that the accumulation of great wealth is strongly influenced by chance: having the right parents or the right genes or being in the right place at the right time. "We would hope that market forces reward hard work, entrepreneurship, and frugality," he says, "but it is clear that other forces are at work too. It is beyond all reason to expect that diligence and parsimony by themselves will produce many multimillionaires."

our nation."

Obtaining reliable scientific information about wealth, particularly about the financial holdings of the very wealthy, has proven to be a difficult task. The first difficulty, Smith explains, is getting an adequate representation within a survey sample of that tiny percentage of the population who actually hold most of the wealth. Beyond that, he points out, the very wealthy are far more likely than others to refuse to participate in a survey

interview,

in

part

because

providing

accurate

information about their often complex and ever-changing financial holdings would require considerable effort. Another way of gathering reliable information about wealth-obtaining administrative records--has become increasingly difficult as the Internal Revenue Service has placed more restrictions on the use of its records by scholars. For the 1983 study of the distribution of wealth in the United States, the interview sample had to include an appropriate representation of wealthy respondents.

"There's nothing wrong with hard work and frugality," Smith says, "but even casual observation will convince one that those behaviors are as easily found among the poor as among the rich. Better to have the genes that allow one to fiddle like Itzhak Perlman or to have rich parents or to find out that the family farm is sitting over oil." Moreover, Smith says, tax laws often work to maintain or increase a high concentration of wealth among a few. "We should not assume that all social programs are aimed at helping only the poor and middle class," he says. "One of the most significant 'social programs' has been the federal income tax system, which for years has allowed the income of investors to be taxed at rates lower than the rates at which many blue-collar workers are taxed. "Indeed," Smith continued, "much of the current tax structure reflects well-intentioned efforts to improve the performance of the economy, but with a consequent increase in the concentration of wealth among the already wealthy."


of

candidates will be notified by December 15, 1987. Official presentations will be made at APA's 1988 National Conference in San Antonio, April 30-Hay 4, 1988.

"The closing of some tax loopholes will adversely affect families in the top 75th to 90th percentiles of total wealth," Smith explains, "but families in the 90th to 95th percentiles will probably come out even, suffering some from the closure of loopholes but benefitting comparably by the lowering of tax rates."

Applications will be available June I, 1987. The deadline for submissions and supporting materials is Friday, Septe.ber 25, 1987. For an application or more information, contact: Ellen Pratt, Public Information Assistant, National Planning Awards, American Planning Association, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue N.W., Washington, DC 20036; 202/872-0611.

Will the Tax Reform Act of 1986 change wealth? "Not likely," says smith.

the distribution

And what of the uppermost five percent, those who already hold most of the wealth? "That top five percent, who are deeply invested in corporate stock and long-term holdings in real estate, are likely to benefit enormously by the new tax legislation," Smith predicts.

APA is a public interest and research organization representing 21,000 practicing planners, elected and appointed officials, and concerned citizens involved with urban and rural development issues. The American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) is APA's professional and educational institute.

"Consequently," he concludes, "the share of wealth held by the very richest is quite likely going to increase."

In keeping with 1988 as an election year, the American Planning Association (APA) announces "Planners and the Political Process - How Planners Make a Difference" as the theme of its Current Topic Award, one of the 10 award categories in APA's 1988 National Planning Awards competition. The award will be given to a program or process that has influenced national, state or local legislative priorities and policies that further advance planning-related goals and objectives. The Current Topic Award changes annually to reflect societal issues that can be addressed using planning tools.

program recognizes and The National Planning Awards achievements that contribute to encourages outstanding Award categories open advances in the planning profession. to APA members, chapters and divisions include: Service Award recognizes an APA Distinguished member who has made a substantial contribution to the development and objectives of APA or its predecessors, AlP and ASPO, during a long period such as 15 years.

*

* *

*

Karen B. Smith Chapter Achievement Awards - in two subcategories: specific chapter project; and overall chapter program. Chapter Improvement Award honoring a chapter's improvement in performance and service to its members and the planning profession. Division specific project.

Achievement Award division project;

Division Improvement Award - honoring a division's improvement in performance and service to its members and the planning profession •.

Other award categories open to APA general public include:

members as

Height restrictions on new buildings to protect riverfront views in Pittsburgh, zoning provisions to prevent unsightly cOllllllercial development along major roads in New Orleans, and the designation of "historic" trees to prevent their removal in Alexandria, Virginia are all forms of aesthetic-based land-use regulation. Growing evidence reveals that aesthetic regulations can help a city economically. According to a recent survey conducted in Hampton, Virginia, almost 85 percent of Hampton's population felt that there is a relationship between visual perception and the ability of the city to attract economic development. These findings are discussed in Aesthetics and Land-Use Controls, a report published by the American Planning Association (APA). The 45-page report, by APA's Planning Advisory Service (PAS) examines the law of aesthetics and the legal tools availabl~ to help cOllllllunities maintain their special features and sense of place. It deals with four specific concerns from a legal perspective: building design review; scenic vistas and roadways; landscaping and tree protection; and signs, billboards, and other forms of outdoor cOllllllunication. Aesthetics and Land-Use Controls is one in a series of Planning Advisory Service (PAS) reports published as a subscription research service by APA. It is written by Christopher J. Duerksen, director of resource development, The Enterprise Foundation, Columbia, Maryland. APA is a research and public interest organization representing 21,000 practicing planners, elected and appointed officials, and concerned citizens involved with urban and rural planning development issues. The American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) is APA's professional and educational institute. To review a copy ¡of this report for your publication, contact Kenneth East, American Planning Association, 1313 E. 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637; 312/955-9100. All others should write to the Planners' Bookstore at APA's Chicago address and include $16 plus $3 for postage and handling.

well as the

*

Outstanding Planning planning program or project or ordinance.

*

Distinguished Leadership in five subcategories: professional planner; elected official; person who is not a professional planner or elected official; planning firm; and planning agency.

*

Diana Donald Award - to a planner who has contributed substantially to furthering the advancement of women in the planning field.

Award - in two subcategories: process; and specific planning

for projects or individuals Paul Davidoff Award to society's "have reflecting a social cOllllllitment oots." judged on originality, will be Award entries transferability, implementation, and quality, comprehensiveness. occur in November; J,:dging will

Carol Wyant earned a B.S. in Sociology with Honors from Stanford University. After raising her family, she returned to school for a Master's in Urban Administration with a concentration in Urban Planning from Tulsa University. The following is a partial list of government and civic cOllllllissions and activities since 1972.

Named recipient of The Outstanding Young Woman in America Award, 1972


developmen t. Information about the Corps regulatory program may be obtained from their District Office at 219 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60604-1797; 312/353-6428. Also, Illinois Wetland Inventory Maps developed by the Illinois Department of Conversation (IDOC), in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlifo Service are availllble through Northern Illinois University; Contact Person: Ruth Ann Tobais, 815/753-1901.

Chairman, Citizens Development, Tulsa Chairman, Sounding Project, Tulsa Chnlrmnn,

Board

Board

of

of

the

Dlroctors.

Volunteers Program, Tulsa Mayoral

appointee

to

administrative/economic

preservation, San Antonio It was as Chairperson of the Citizens Coalition for the Community Development that Carol first demonstrated her sensitivity to and interest in Historic Preservation. After a stringent preservation ordinance failed to pass the Tulsa City Council, and its failure to pass resulted in the demise of Tulsa's preservation group, she formed a coalition consisting of representatives of Downtown Tulsa Unlimited, the Chamber of Commerce, real estate developers, and civic leaders. This coalition formed Tulsa's current preservation group, Preservation, Inc •• This not-for-profit advocacy group has developed preservation education in the public school system, produces a newsletter, and fosters community support for preservation. She also persuaded the City of Tulsa to allocate the first CDBG for preservation purposes. In 1980 she began a career in real estate development as a financial/economic analyst with the Williams Company. Currently, she is a Development Director with the same employer. Her responsibilities include design definition, construction management, government and public relations, legislative interface and negotiation, budgeting operations, leasing strategy planning and implementation, and staff management. Since 1980 she has served as Development Director for the revitalization of two historic structures. In Tulsa, the Union Depot, an art-deco train station eligible~the National Registry, was restored for an adaptive reuse under Carol's direction. More recently, she directed the exterior restoration and interior renovation of the 110 Broadway office building in San Antonio. The 110.Broadway Building is a contributing building to the Alamo Plaza Historic District.

On May 19, 1987 Planning Resources Inc. received national recognition from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). At an award ceremony, HUD representative Mr. James Barnes presented the Certificate of National Recognition. The award honored the participants in Mount Prospect's ongoing facade improvement program. Planning Resources has been Mount Prospect's downtown design consultant since the inception of the project. N. J. "Pete" Pointner has served as Project Manager, and W. Lockwood Martling, as Senior Design Architect for Planning Resources. The program was begun in February of 1984 and continues to enhance the esthetic appeal and identity of Mount Prospect's downtown. More than 35 storefronts have been assisted through the program. Businesses within the downtoWn received conceptual design services and one half of the cost of facade improvements up to $5,000 through community development funding from HUD. The program was conceived and directed by the Village of Mount Prospect. Planning Resources Inc. has carried out downtown.planning and design assignments in Providence, Rhode Island, Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Hammond, Indiana as well as many Illinois communities including Barrington, Lombard, Bloomingdale, Tinley Park, Flossmoor and West Chicago. For additional information please contact: N. J. "Pete" Pointner II, AlA, AICP, President, Planning Resources Inc. 615 W. Front Street, Wheaton, IL 60187, 312/558-3788.

Carol sees the opportunity to direct LPCI's operation as a coming together of the things she loves most and does best: managing, developing, and nurturing an organization whose purpose she believes in and to whose mission she can contribute her unique experience. This, combined with LPCI's civic role, both excites and challenges her.

The American Planning Association Board of Directors met in New York City in April as part of the National Planning Conference there. Among the actions the Board took were the following: Did you know that the US Army Corp of Engineers received authority over the regulation of Wetlands in 1972 with the passage of Section 404 of the Clean Water Act? The significance of the passage of this amendment is that approval must be obtained for any changes to wetlands from the US Army Corp of Engineers prior to the development of property with wetlands. Wetlands are areas that are periodically or permanently inundated by surface or ground water and support vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil. Wetlands include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas. They are crucial spawning areas for fish and also breeding grounds and habitat for waterfowl and other wildlife. A significant natural resource, wetlands provide flood control, filter water and play an important role in replenishing underground water supplies. The nation's draining for construction,

wetlands are commercial, for agriculture

disappearing rapidly through industrial and residential and

for navigation.

At one

time wetlands dominated more than 237. of the Illinois landscape. Today that figure is probably less than 27.. While some wetlands conversions have been beneficial, Illinois has reached a point where further conversion is affecting flooding, water quality, available habitat for wildlife and other important natural functions. Under the Clean Water Act a permit is necessary from the US Army Corp of Engineers for the discharge of dredged or fill material to construct fast land for site development, road ways, erosion

protection

necessary step

in

etc.

the

This

process

requirement

of

gaining

is

another

approval for

Adopted a comprehensive set of financial policies which I drafted as the Board's SecretaryTreasurer. The policies including increasing the operating reserve, which is the beginning of the year general fund balance, equal to 10 percent of APA's annual operating budget by FY 88, with a target of 25 percent of the budget as a longer term objective. I initiated these policies because I have been concerned that the APA staff has not had clear policy guidance in the formulation of the budget. As we enter a biennial budget cycle this year, it is important that the Board establish policies which will assure a secure financial future for APA. Adopted the APA Statement of Ethical Principles for Planning developed by the AICP Ethics Committee which I chair. The Statement is aimed at both practice planners and public planning officials (planning commissioners, board of zoning appeals members, etc.) and establishes guidelines for ethical conduct. Voted to expand the availability of JobMart, APA's jobs listing publication, to the membership. JobMart will continue to be available at the rate of $8 for six months mailed first class. The new option, the result of Immediate APA Past President Dan Lauber's investigations, will allow APA members to


purchase JobMart for $10 for rate instead of first class.

one

year

mailed bulk

Encouraged the involvement of planning commissioners in APA programs by unanimously endorsing the report of the Planning Commissioners Task Force chaired by Board Member Sue Powers, AICP. The Board agreed to support a membership campaign aimed at planning officials slated to begin in September 1987. Decided to implement a proposal for "Planners Contact," a telephone support network for planners whose jobs have been politically threatened, along with a follow-up form to evaluate its effectiveness. The support network, the idea of University of Illinois Planning Professor Charles Hoch, would prOVide threatened planners with the names of other planners to contact who would offer advice and counsel in how to deal with politically explosive situation.

Approved a flat $10 dues increase for.AICP members. The Commission debated this increase at length, questioning whether to go to a salary-based dues system like APA or a flat increase. Generally, Commissioners felt'that the flat increase would be simpler to administer. Dues have not been adjusted for inflation in several years and this small increase will allow the Commission to keep pace with rising costs. Rejected the addition of any essay component to the AICP examination, on the basis of cost and because of the difficulty of objective grading. The Commission decided that the Institute should concentrate on improving and updating the current multiple choice test. The Commission is undertaking a major reevaluation of the examination, now in its tenth year. Note: The two states which have licensing or registration for 路planners, New Jersey and Michigan, now use the AICP examination in their testing process.

While the National Planning Conference was underway, the New York Court of Appeals (highest court) heard the oral argument for Suffolk Housing Services v. Town of Brookhaven. As a friend of the court, APA supports the plaintiff in this case which seeks to establish that municipalities have an obligation under the!!!l! constitution to provide realistic opportunities for low and moderate income housing in their zoning regulations. I attended the hearing before the Court in Albany with APA's special counsel on the case, attorneys Tom Hall and Henry Hill of Brener, Wallack and Hill of Princeton, N.J. While the opinion will not be handed down for several months, it appeared, by the tenor of the judges' questions, that the Court is going to make some type of strong statement that communities cannot systematically use zoning to keep out poor people.

I made the 12-hour drive from Oxford to attend the Michigan APA conference at the beautiful Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island in May. Apart from learning about the state of planning in Michigan, I sampled fudge from the ubiquitous fudge shops and, with my wife and two-year-old daughter, huffed and puffed on a tandem bicycle around the Island. In April, I attended a Massachusetts APA Chapter meeting near Boston where I did two workshops on planning ethics using the AICP manual, Ethical Awareness in Planning. I plan to attend the Indiana APA chapter meeting in June in Columbus where San Francisco Urban Designer Richard Hedman is the featured speaker. Hedman is the coauthor, with Fred Bair, Jr., of that hilarious book, And On the Eighth Day, and recently authored a text on urban design, published by APA's Planners Press. If you have any questions about APA or AICP activities, please call me at 513/523-2171 or write c/o Municipal Building, 101 East High Street, Oxford, OH 45056-1887.

Communities participating in the NFIP must adopt and enforce an ordinance regulating new development in floodplains so it is safe from flood damage and does not cause increased damages elsewhere. The ordinance outlines the criteria that must be met to ensure these objectives are met. In working with local permit officials, we have found a general pattern of non-compliance throughout the state in three basic areas: lowest floor elevation certificates are not being completed for new buildings, permits are not required for the placement of fill or other land altering activities, and finally, the placement of mobile homes is not being regulated.

First, these requirements are often not met because people are unaware that they must comply with them. Consequently, a general educational effort to advise citizens of the floodplain ordinance requirements is needed. Ask your local newspaper to carry an article on the ordinance. Mail a flyer to floodplain residents describing the ordinance requirements. Meet with local neighborhood groups to explain the ordinance. Usually, if people are better informed, they are willing to cooperate and comply with provisions of your local codes. To ensure elevation certificates are acquired, the community can take on this responsibility itself. Permit fees can be raised to cover the cost. Another alternative would be to refuse to issue occupancy permits until the elevation certificate is supplied. A problem with permits for fill is often that a community's permit application form does not address any activity other than new buildings or improvements to buildings. A solution is to amend your development permit system to include all land altering activities and not just buildings. Many communities have incorporated a "floodplain" designation on their building permit form. Others have separate permit systems for fill and other land altering activities. The problem with mobile homes is primarily in mobile home parks. Many communities believe they have no authority to regulate in mobile home parks. This is not true. It is necessary to work with mobile home park owners and advise them that, at least in the floodplain, the placement of individual mobile homes is subject to the floodplain ordinance requirements. Any mobile home placed on a site in a floodplain must be elevated, anchored, and have an elevation certificate. Even when a good system is in place, enforcing a floodplain ordinance can still be a problem. An article in the March '87 issue of the American Planning Association Zoning News, cited two reasons for路 poor enforcement of zoning ordinances: lack of staff and complicated and costly legal procedures. The article reported two innovative approaches being taken by some communities across the country to improve their enforcement actiVity. One is a ticket approach. Communities in Virginia and Ohio have decriminalized minor zoning violations which reduces the burden of proof and prosecution of such offenses. This allows those communities to use a system of citations and civil fines. In Dayton, OH for example, the City's Department of Inspectional Services issues warning tags for zoning violations. The warning tags inform property owners of the corrective action that must be taken. If it is not, the violation is eventually ticketed and assessed a fine. According to local officials, the threat of an immediate fine and the hassle of going to court often motivate people to correct violations. A second approach, which is particularly appropriate for big cities or cou~ties, is to target zoning enforcement. This involves dividing the community into neighborhoods or special districts and then methodically inspecting each one, property by property, to identify code violations. This approach was used in San Diego. The city established special zoning teams to conduct the inspections.


Accordlnll 1.0 local officials, when property ownerll were Ilotified of violations. 95% of them were corrected. Proper enforcement

of floodplain

ordinances

is not an easy

task. Tools such as a good permitting system, or innovative approaches like those described above. make the

preferably some llxl'erloncll In II01ld waHte 11111'14'11. SIIJllry range $22,920 to $29,988 with benefits. Interested applicants should apply with resume to: J. Maichle Bacon, Public Health Administrator. McHenry County Department of Health, 220 North Seminary Avenue, Woodstock, IL 60098. Executive

joh p.:tsier.

Director.

Challunglllg

EdRewater Development Corporation.

opportunity

Development Corporation to investment. Masters in equivalent education and Edgewater Community Council FEMA has recently published two very useful protecting buildings from flood damage.

wIth

new

non-profit

local

stimulate long term community Urban Planning, Business or experience required. 'Contact 3i2/334-5609.

manuals for

~LOODPROOFING NON-RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES illustrates a broad range of measures that can be used to protect new or existing non-residential buildings. DESIGN MANUAL FOR RETROFITTING FLOOD PRONE RESIDENTIAL STRUCTU~ describes permanent retrofitting measures that provide flood protection for residential buildings. Both manuals include information on factors that affect floodproofing (such as regulations, flood hazards, economics or site factors). permanent and contingent measures. costs and benefits. and case examples. Single copies of both manuals are available by writing to the: Federal Emergency Management Agency, Natural and Technological Hazards Division. 300 South Wacker Drive, 24th Floor, Chicago. IL 60606.

The City of Kankakee. Illinois (Population 31.000) is desirous of hiring a manager of planning. Salary negotiable. The individual sought will become an intricate part of a management team dedicated to the future development of the community. The ability to develop a comprehensive plan is mandatory. The Manager has responsibility for inherent planning functions (i.e •• land use. transportation, capital improvements. industrial growth, central area development, annexations, economic analysis, etc.). This is a unique position that will combine education, experience, initiative, and planning skills to contribute to the interim and long range goals of this self-contained community. For particulars. send resume or contact: Donald C. Pearson, The Pearson Consulting Group. Suite 101-A. Fairhills Mall, Springfield, IL 62704, 217/546-6648. Professional services are required to draft a sample sign ordinance for future adoption by Lancaster County IIlllnlclpalltles.Interested parties mnst submit a resumn of qualifications and experience by July 6, 1987 to the Pennsylvania Dutch Visitors Bureau. 501 Greenfield Road, Lancaster, PA 17601. Attn: Wm. Moshos. RFPs will be mailed to candidates most qualified. Telephone 717/2998901 with questions. Community Development Director/Village Engineer: The Village of Carol Stream (pop. 22,000). a well balanced and fiscally sound community, located in the western Metro Chicago area. is seeking a unique individual to head its Community Development Department. Community Development is a multi-divisional department consisting of Engineering, Building, and Planning and Zoning. Carol Stream is a high growth .community the Community Development Director/Village Engineer is responsible for administering and coordinating all aspects of growth and development in this dynamic environment. Position requires a unique individual with strong administrative and managerial skills with department head experience or equivalent in a high growth community. Good oral and written communications skills required as well as the ability to work effectively with staff, developers and residents. Ideal candidate will be a P.E. with a Masters in Public Administration, Planning or related field. Salary: $50.000 DOQ and experience. Send resume to: Greg Bielawski, Village Manager. 500 N. Gary Avenue, Carol Stream, IL 60188. EOE. Solid Waste Manager. McHenry County Illinois (pop. 161,000) is looking for an individual with specialized knowledge and administrative skills in initiating, developing, modifying and improving the efficiency of a comprehensive solid waste program. Good verbal and written and presentation skills are essential. Candidates should have a minimum of a Bachelor's degree in environmental sciences, engineering, planning or related background with

Planning Intern. Village of Gurnee. Contact Tim McGrath, Village of Gurnee, 4580 N. Grand Avenue. Gurnee, IL 60031, 312/244-8635 or 312/244-8632. Director of Planning and Zoning. Lombard, Illinois (pop. 38,000). Progressive community in the Chicago area experiencing rapid commercial/office development. Mini~~ 5 years progressively responsible experience in the management of planning and development programs. Knowledge and experience in growth management. downtown redevelopment, code enforcement. transportation planning. economic development desired. Masters degree in urban planning; public administration or related field preferred. Salary range $34,522 to $46,604 depending upon qualifications and experience. Send resume to Village Manager, 255 E. Wilson, Lombard, IL 60148. Associate Planner. The City of Park Ridge, Illinois (population 38,700) is seeking qualified applicants for the position of Associate Planner. This mid-level professional position is responsible for research and data collection, comprehensive plan development and zoning subdivision administration. Reports to Director of Preservation and Development. Experience with one or more of the following highly desirable: historic preservation techniques, urban design/appearance codes, downtown revitalization, data base administration. Drafting ability, strong interpersonal and communication skills essential. Minimum qualifications include; two years of professional planning experience, bachelor's degree in urban planning, architecture, landscape architecture or closelY related field. Master's degree in urban planning preferred. Starting $24,170-$26,648 DOQ, plus excellent fringe benefits. Send resume to: Personnel, City of Park Ridge, 505 Park Place, Park Ridge, Illinois 60068.

by Eileen Fiegel DOJlartment of Urban and Rogional Planning State and local governments have entered an increasingly competitive atmosphere for luring new manufacturing firms to their region. As the demand for jobs increases, more pressure is put on government officials to be successful in their bid to attract firms to a particular region. As a result, states, counties, and municipalities are offering more and more incentives in an effort to be the most attractive location to manufacturing firms. This recent escalation in package competition between regions have confronted planners with the crucial question: How much can a region give in incentives to new firms and still guarantee a net benerit to their communrty? All levels of governments have become involved in location incentive packages, from the state to the county to the_ municipality to special districts within the municipality. Each level of government, then, must be able to determine: 1) the direct and indirect benefits to the community (such as increased sales volume, increased employment, increased tax revenues, etc.) and 2) the direct and indirect costs to the community (such as increased government expenditures for police and fire protection, infrastructure improvement costs, schooling costs, etc., resulting from the new firm. Only when a reliable forecast of the net benefits is determined does the local government have some gauge with which to measure how much it can afford to give away in location incentives. Obviously, such forecasts must be made prior to the creation and offering of the incentive package to ensure the local or state government does not give away too much. Suppose a county is competing to the site of a $5 million manufacturing plant which is to produce bumpers for a large automobile manufacturer located in an adjacent


Income of Personnel. The user inputs appear in boxes. They are derived through simple calculations using data from the 1980 census nf Manufacturers. This data is available on-11ne through I!!l'S.

county. The incentives to be offered include a 507. property tax abatement for 10 years, a $50,000 subsidy for the cost of the land, and a 40% reduction in development fco~.

In LUltlltlon,

Lhu

govornmont

ugruu:I

to

Improvu strout

access to the interstate highway and to extend water, sewage, and electricity lines to the proposed site to meet the needs of the manufacturer. .

As shown, the forecasted sales volume resulting from the plant's first year of operation is over $37 million dollars. The 300 employees working at the plant will directly support 147 additional jobs such as barbers, grocers, etc. These workers, in turn, will also create jobs giving e grand total of 653 new jobs and a $10 million increase in local income. The net change in local government revenues is calculated on the final line of output. This number, $2.4 million, is the maximum value of location incentives which can be offered to still guarantee a net positive gain for the county. From this number, the planner subtracts the 507. property tax abatement, the land subsidy, the reduction in development fees, and the cost of the infrastructure improvements to be made. If the value of the location incentive package surpasses $2.4 million, the net gain to the government will be negative.

For the planner to assist government officials in creating and evaluating location incentive packages such as this, a readily implemented analysis technique is required for assessing the magnitude and significance of potential socioeconomic impacts on a region. One source of such an analysis technique is the Economic Impact Forecast System (EIFS) which is offered through the Department of Urban and Regional Planning at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. EIFS contains models for projecting regional impacts due to the construction of a new facility, the closing of an existing facility, the expansion of an existing facility, and the operation and maintenance of new and existing facilities. The incentive package described above,can be evaluated by looking at the forecasted impacts over the next several years. The economic impact of the manufacturing plant is evaluated here with the use of EIFS. A condensed EIFS forecast for the bumper manufacturer is shown below. The table indicates the economic impacts for the first year of the plant's operation. The net effec~ of the impacts becomes the planner's gauge against which to evaluate the industry location incentive package.

As regional competition increases, location incentive packages are approaching this critical value and have, in some cases, surpassed the break even point. Planners and other government officials must carefully evaluate the benefits and costs to their communities resulting from new firms in the region, and must tailor their incentive packages to be a realistic reflection of these benefits and costs thereby ensuring a net gain to the people of their community.

The EIFS data base contains a vast store of regional specific socio-economic data needed for economic impact forecasting, hence required user inputs are minimal. The user specifies the region of interest and three case specific values for the firm: Total Expenditure for Services.and SURplies, Number of Employees, and Average

Region:

I SomeCounty,

concerning EIFS or for For subscription information assistance in running data on your problem, call Lynn Engelman, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, 217/244-5359.

Illinois

I

Project name: AUTOMOTIVE PARTS PLANT r Total expenditures for services and supplies: $15,750,000 Calculated local expenditures for services and supplies: $9,2~5.446 Change in employment: 1317.ll£l.12I01 Average income o·f affected personnel: 1·$24, 00QJ

>-----1

Change in local Sales volume •••••••••••••••

Direct: Induced: Total: Employment ••••••••••••••••• Direct: Total: Income ••.•••••••••••••••••• Direct: Total (place of work): Total (place of residence): Consumption ...•••••••..••• Housing: Non-housing: Investment ••.•.•••••.••••• Housing: Non-housing: Number of school children •..••••• Property values •••.••••••••...••. Government reventies •.•....•• Taxes: State and federal aid to schools: Government expenditures ••. Schools: Other: Net change in local Govt revenues .. :

$15,680,000 $22,055,0~0 $37,734,000 447 653 $8,837 •. 000 $10,577,000 $10,482,000 $1,887,000 $6,604,1300 $877,000 $792,000 178

$59,979,000 $4,097,000 $305,00121 $364,00121 $1,632,000 $2,41216,1210121

0.7711.) 121.5641.)

0.706%) 1.300%)


9

1ITh® Urbana Incorporated

.Lane Kendig. inc. ~r'orrTWlCC

(GjU'@OOIJ)

Planning Resources • • • • •

CONSULTING SERVICES IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING AND RELATED FIELDS

ConcCpf'\ i.n M.vvlJng

Planning" Zoning" Design " Housing Research" Computer Software 472 Killarney" Mundelein. illinois 60060 Telephone 3121949·8288

AREA CODE 217 344-PLAN

Post Office Box 1028 Urbana, IL 61801·9028

Planning ResourcesInc. 615 West Front Street

urban design landscape architecture THOMPSON

DYKe &

899 Skokie BouleY~rd (312) 272 - 6280

~IJ

ASSOCIATES,

• Northbrook,

LTD. Illinois 60062

/7J

TESKA ASSOCIATES, Inc. WEBSTER, McGRATH & CARLSON, LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS LAND SURVEYING AND CIVIL ENGINEERING 207 SOUTH NAPERVILLE STREET WHEATON. ILliNOIS 60187

A. oi MONTE ond L. STEFANIAK

CHICAGO. t\.L1HQI$ 60656 1312) 775·8338

NEW ALTERNATIVES,

o

• • • • •

• Economics • Daill"

5201 N. HARLEM AY£NU[

EUGENE

INC.

Transpor1alion Development Planning and Zoning Policy Analysis Environmental Analysis

II SO. MICHIGAN

AVENUE

CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 312·}63·211011

60603

• PLlIVlint

(312) 668·3788 Wheaton. IL60187

(j)I

planning

ALAN

Urban Planning & Design Landscape Archileclure Hisloric Preservation Environmental Analysis Public Participation

627 Crove Street Evanston. Illinois 60201 (312) 869-201S

EllS'

I-"",mi

HtJ'M.'lnOrn P~rJ.:wQr .'\";11'),,0 . JliII.:. II/inoo 60061 (Jllj 6&O-OJOl .


Executive Chapter

Committee

APA

Student Representative: Tom Bartnik University of Illinois - Chicago College of Architecture Art & Urban Planning School of Urban Planning Policy Box 4348 Chicago, IL 60680

- Illinois

President: Steve Aradas, AICP 336 Orile Trail Crystal Lake, IL 60014 815/459-5597 Vice-President: Jacques A. Gourguechon, Principal Consultant Camiros, Ltd. 411 S. Wells Chicago, IL 60607 312/922-9211

Cathy Huff University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Urban and Regional Planning 1003 W. Nevada Urbana, IL 61801 217/333-3890

AICP

Secretary: Judy C. Douglas, Planner University of Illinois at U-C Department of Urban and Regional Planning 2002 Winchester Drive Champaign, IL 61821 217 /356-8423 Treasurer: Joseph H. Abel, AICP Director, Economic Development City of Chicago 200 Forest Glen Ellyn, IL 60137 312/744-9547 Past President: Bruce W. Heckman, AICP Executive Vice President Teska Associates, Inc. 627 Grove Street Evanston, IL 60201 312/869-2015

Executive e.-tttee APA Chicago Ketro Section

Assistant Director: Hichael Peirceall Director, Community and Economic Development City of Centralia 222 S. Poplar Street Centralia, IL 62801 618/533-7623

Chairman: John V. LaMotte Jr., AICP Director of Planning Perkins & Will Architects/Engineers/Planners 2 N. LaSalle Chicago, IL 60602 312/977-1100

Secretary: Kim M. Johnson Procurement Specialist Southeastern/John A. Logan Colleges R. 4, College Drive Harrisburg, IL 62946 618/252-6376 Ext. 411 618/985-3741

Vice-Chairman: Stephen B. Friedman Manager, Laventhol & Horwath 300 S. Riverside Plaza Chicago, IL 60606 312/648-0555

Treasurer: Sandra Andres Director Land-Use and Development City of Fairview Heights 14A Holloway Court Collinsville, IL 62234 618/344-0459

Secretary: Bonnie Jacobson Associate Economics Research Associates 1140 S. Dearborn, Suite 1512 Chicago, IL 60603 312/322-0110

Illinois Professional Development Officer: Clyde W. Forrest Professor, University of Illinois Urban & Regional Planning 1003 W. Nevada Urbana, IL 61801 217/333-3890

Treasurer: Richard Dunn Director of Economics and Community Development Village of Arlington Heights 33 S. Arlington Heights Road Arlington Heights, IL 60005 312/253-2340

(clip and save) Aug. 21, 1987 - Chicago Section - Downtown/Evening

"CULTURAL FACILITIES

TOUR"

Aug. 26, 1987 Farm Estate and Business PlanningChampaign, Illinois. Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education, (217)787-2080 or (312)726-5785. 11:3012:15 Compensation for Regulatory Taking, First Lutheran Church vs. Los Angeles County, Clyde W. Forrest, AICP, Professor of Urban Planning Sept. 13-19, 1987 - The Assessment Effects of Development Proposals: Sciences and Environmental Impact Cotlrsn.

lJl\lvnrslt.y

of

Ahnrd(!nn;

of Environmental Health The Interface of Health Assessment - A Training write

Director: Wayne Anthony Director, Planning and Zoning Department City of Peoria 419 Fulton Street Peoria, IL 61602 309/672-8556

Sllndrn'

Hnlst.on.

Center for Environmental Management and Planning, Department of Geography, University of Aberdeen, High Street, Old Aberdeen AB9 2UF, Scotland, U.K. The Internationalization of the Sept. 16-18, 1987 Council of State Planning Agencies Governor's Office Chicago, Illinois CSPA; James Souby Annual Heeting. (202)624-5386. Sept. 19-24, 1987 - International Public Works Congress and Equipment Show - Chicago, Illinois. American Public Works Association; contact Robert Bugher, (312)667-L200.

Training Coordinator: Ronald L. Dickerson Director, Community Development City of Pekin Pekin, IL 61554 309/346-2196 Immediate Past Director: Fred W. Walker Director, South Central Illinois Rl\gional Planning and Development CODlDission Marion County Public Service Building Salem, IL 62881 618/548-4234

Oct. 18-25, 1987 International New Towns Association 11th Annual Conference Transforming the City: The London Docklands. London, England. INTA; contact Irene Mitchell, Wassenaarseweg 39, NL-2596 CG The Hague, The Netherlands. Oct. 26-30, 1987 - Second Geographic Information Systems Conference and Workshop San Francisco, California. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing and the University of California, Berkeley; contact Prof. Russell Congalton, (415)642-5170. Oct. 26-30, 1987 - Hodern Housing and Planning Policies for Historical Cities: International Federation for Housing and Planning International Congress - Seville, Spain. IFHP; write Wassenaarseweg 43, 2596 CG The Hague, Tho Notlwrlnnd"

or call

070-21,/,557.

Oct. 27-28, 1987 Preparing Successful Requests for Proposals (RYP) for Public and Private Real Estate Development Chicago, Illinois. Georgia Institute of Technology, Department of Continuing Education; contact Deidre Mercer, (404)894-2547. Parking Plans for Oct. 29-30, 1987 - Preparing Workable Commercial Districts Chica80, Illinois. Georgia of Technology, Department of Continuing Institute Education; contact Deidre Mercer, (404)894-2547.


Quarterly The Environmental Technical Information System Newsletter

is to keep users tlp to The purpose of the ETIS Quarterly date on the systems and programs available through ErIS. If you have any questions or comments rega~Jing ErIS. please contact the Program Office: ETIS Program Office University of Illinois 909 West Nevada Urbana, IL 61801 (217)333-1369

PIP, a new service offering data through the Department of Urban and Regional Planning. is available to ETIS Program subscribers, local and regional planners. and governmental agencies. The Planning Information Program is an expansion of the Environmental Technical Information System. In addition to the programs available on-line through ETIS. PIP offers data on a wide range of subjects including demographics,

economic

and environmental

impacts,

current

research, published work. and data tailored for specific planning issues. The client defines the question or issue to be addressed. and the information desired is researched by a PIP staff or graduate assistant. The staff does not purport to provide advice or recommendations. but rather offers a research service with many information sources at its disposal including an on-line data base of socioeconomic statistics for every county in the U.S •• a series of computerized forecast models. the College of Law Library. and the extensive library holdings of the University of Illinois. The final form of product delivered will vary dependent upon the nature of the question and the form in which it is submitted. Typical responses to a PIP inquiry may include a research note of information found including "on-line" data. referrals to experts. references to published work. or a printout from an impact model. The fee for PIP services will be $25 per hour plus the cost of anyon-line services, phone charges. postage and other out-of-pocket expenses. A minimum fee of $50 will be charged to take on a project. Clients may pre-set a maximum cost.

The Department of Urban Planning's ErIS Program office will offer a three and a half day hands on Training Workshop September 15-18. 1987. This workshop will introduce users to the University of Illinois' Pyramid computer. cover background. basic capabilities. and limitations. and application of the following ErIS components: 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

Economic Impact Forecast System. Environmental Impact Forecast System. Computer-aided Environmental Legislative Data System. Soils System a. Soils Information Retrieval System b. Multiple Parameter Series Search. Hazardous Materials Management System UNIX Electronic Mail.

This workshop will not address how to create processing procedures.

files or word

The workshop format will be alternating presentations by professors from the University of Illinois, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Department of Geography.

Department of Agronomy's Cooperative Extension Service, ErIS Program Office and CELDS personnel. and hands on sessions at the computer terminals. The afternoon of the third day will address the miscellaneous systems that CERL is retaining responsibility for; presentations will be made by CERL personnel. The workshop site will be open during the evenings of September 16th and 17th to provide additional hands on time with the computer. There will be ETIS personnel present to provide assistance. On the morning of the 18th. participants may visit CERL to see their facilities and other projects. or spend the morning at the workshop site working with the systems.

The workshop will be held at the University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign. in room 407 of the Levis Faculty Center, 919 West Illinois, Urbana. Illinois 61801. It is scheduled to run from Tuesday, September 15 - Thursday, September 17, with an optional morning session Friday, September 18.

The registration fee for the course is $150. (NOTE: The fee is prepaid by CERL for Army. Air Force, and Civil Works personnel). Please return the attached sheet with your registration information to the address below. or register by phone or electronic mail '(login: engelman). There will be a limited enrollment of 20 for this . workshop. Registration Forms, or notice of intent to attend must be,received by September 1. 1987.

Attendees are responsible for making their own arrangements for accommodations. A list of local motels. with addresses. telephone numbers. and government rates (where applicable), will be forwarded upon registration.

All correspondence concerning the workshop addressed to the ETIS Program Office. 1003 Urbana, Illinois 61801, (217)333-1369.

should be W. Nevada,

The Soils System is an interactive. user friendly, family of programs for efficient retrieval. analysis. and use of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Soil Conservation Service (SCS) solIs data. The system originally consisted of three programs: (1) the Soils Information Retrieval System (SIRS). (2) the Line Printer Soils Information Retrieval System (LPSIRS). and (3) the Multiple Parameter Series Search (MPSS). Each of these accessed the SCSSoils 5 (Soil Interpretation Records) database. Recently. a number of additions have been made to the Soils System Program. A new database. the Soils 6 (Map Unit Records) database, has been added along with 'two programs that access that data: (1) the Map Unit Use File System (MUUFS) and (2) the Computer Assisted Land Evaluation System (CALES). Altogether, the S01-5 and SOI6 databases include information on more than 16,000 soil series and more than 175.000 soil mapping units. The Map Unit Use File System (MUUFS) runs much like the existing HPSS except the result of this search is a list of mapping units (not soil interpretation records) that fit the search criteria. The Computer Assisted Land Evaluation System (CALES) is an outgrowth of two SCS activities, the Soils Potential Ratings system and the Agricultural Land Evaluation and Site Assessment (LESA) System. (CALES does not include the site assessment part


of LESA). CALES rates soils from best to worst, for a specific agricultural use, based on an indicator crop. It is designed to determine the relative quality of land for agricultural uses including their economic viability. Several new options have been added to the Multiple Parameter Series Search (MPSS). These new commands serve to make the Soils System more interactive and to provide means for the user to easily obtain more detailed information on any soil record or records. A brief description of each of these naw MPSS commands follows.

Currently, it is a little tricky to access AIMS. Therefore, instructions are included here. To access AIMS, follow these steps: From the ETIS main menu, enter EIFS 3.0 by selecting entry 4. After specifying your region, select section M for EIFS models. From the models menu, select 2 to enter CERL-AIMS.

COMUUF, STMUUF, and LRAMUUF These commands retrieve acreage information from the SOI-6 database for the soil record(s) that result from a MPSS session. They retrieve acreages for counties, states, and MLRAs (Major land Resource Area), respectively.

Over the last twelve months, EIFS has been the focus of a major updating effort. The new version, 3.0, is scheduled to be released as the standard version of EIFS by the end of July. Version 3.0 will contain data profiles found in the current 2.8 version (with revised data), as well as several new data profiles. This article will briefly examine the contents of EIFS 3.0.

SHOW and FREQ - Both of these commands can be used to prOVide additional information on the soil interpretation record(s) after the search is completed. After running a MPSS session, the SHOW command can be used to further break down the soil interpretation recor~s into the class intervals of any class that may be of interest. The FREQ command works in a similar way as the SHOW command but the resulting table is a frequency table giving the number of records, the percentage, of the total and the cumulative percentage for each class interval.

EIFS contains county level socio-economic data for every county in the United States, as well as some population and income data at the census tract and minor civil division level. Data sources within EIFS include:

OR - This command has been added to MPSS to allow the user to search all records that are greater than or less than the class value that follows the > or < the command. For information on the updated interactive Soils Information Users Manual, contact the ETIS Program Office.

ECONOKIC IMPACT ANALYSIS AND TIlE AUTOMATEDINPllT-OUTPUT KULTIPLIER SYSTl!K (AIMS) The Automated Input-Output Multiplier System is used to do economic impact analysis for a given region. The "region" can be any county or multi-county area (including a whole state) in the United States. AIMS produces 1-0 type multipliers which relate change in a specific industry's final demand to changes in the region's gross output, income or employment" For example, if a region's concrete block industry experienced an increase in final demand, AIMS will project what the resulting change will be in the region's gross output, income, or total employment. AIMS offers users a choice of either the 1972 or 1977 U.S. National Input-Output Tables to use in calculating regionspecific and industry-specific multipliers. The AIMS multiplier has two components: the direct component which measures the direct effect (i.e. the sum of the regional direct inputs required by the industry experiencing the initial change in final demand), and the indirect-induced component which measures the sum of all other rounds of expenditures. AIMS uses a fairly conventional method to estimate the direct requirement coefficient table. However, the estimation of the indirect-induced component - unlike the conventional method of estimation introduces new information about the economy which prOVides useful control totals.

The direct component is computed by applying county specific location quotients to the National Input~Output Model. The indirect-induced component, in conventional 1-0 models, is computed solely from the direct component. AIMS draws on additional information about the region to estimate the indirect-induced component (i.e., the indirect effect is based on the region's economic concentration in agriculture, its economic concentration in manufacturing, the relative size of the regional economy, AND the direct effect). This means that the errors in the direct component are not allowed to distort the calculation of the indirect-induced component to the extent that they woulJ if the direct component were the only source of this estimate. This is a significant advantage of the AIMS approach. An additional advantage to the AIMS approach is the highly disaggregated level of information available. AIMS uses 4 digit SICS to provide multipliers for over 500 industries.

US Bureau of Census: Census of Housing Census of Population County Population of Estimates Census of Government Finance Census of Wholesale Trade Census of Retail Trade Census of Service Industries Census of Manufactures Census of Agriculture County Business Patterns

1970, 1970, 1970, 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 1977 ,

US Bureau of Economic Analysis: Employment by Division Industry Earnings by Division Industry Farm Income and Expenditures Detailed Transfer Payments

1969-1984 1959-1983 1969-1983 1959-1983

US Bureau of Labor Statistics: Local Area Unemployment Data

1976-1983

1980 1980 80, 82, 84

1982

Data are retrievable for any single county, or combination of counties. The user can also retrieve data by different types of predefined regions (Metropolitan Statistical Areas [MSAs], Bureau of Economic Analysis [BEA] Economic Areas, or military installations). There is an additional option available for selecting counties falling within a radial distance from a location specified in geographic coordinates. Users are also able to save regions under an alias region name, allowing them to be retrieved quickly in subsequent EIFS sessions.

In addition to the data, there are several analytical tools available in EIFS. The forecast models allow users to quickly compare the economic impacts of alternative programs and projects. The simple model st~ucture, ease of use, and minimal user-supplied inputs make these models ideal for preliminary planning purposes. For more detailed study, the Automated Input-Output Multiplier System (AIMS) and the Air Force Region of Influence Model (AFROI) are also available. AIMS is a non-survey inputoutput modeling system, estimating output, employment and income multipliers for specific industrial sectors and, regions. (For more on this system, see the article on AIMS in this newsletter.) AFROI is an economic base model, similar to EIFS, but has the added capability of estimating spatial distribution of income and employment effects among individual counties in a study area.

The forecast models in EIFS were originally designed to estimate socio-economic impacts that resulted from major changes in activity at military installations. Now, however, the models are being used more and more in nonmilitary applications such as analyzing regional impacts of factory closures or relocations, large scale construction projects, or the continued operation of an activity. The EIFS models estimate the impacts on such variables as employment, income, business volume, government general revenue and expenditures, revenue and expenditures for education, and housing demand.


like more information on EIFS, contact the If you would ETIS Program Office at the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Illinois, 1003 W. Nevada, Urbana, Illinois 61801 or call (217)333-1369.

REGISTRATION ErIS TRAINING WORKSHOP

ETIS encompasses a wide range of subject matter. to your needs at the workshop and your job site.

Your answers

to the folloWing

questions

will enable us to speak more directly

(3)

Have you used a "dial-up" computer YES ( )

(4)

In the MISC portion of the workshop we will concentrate on those programs that are of greatest interest participants. Please indicate which of the MISC programs 'or packages are of specific interest to you.

d.

system before? NO ( )

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System PerJllitManagement System ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••.••••••••••.••••••••••

f.

Polychlorinated

g.

Civil Works (CWCELDS) •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Biphenyl

(PCB) System •.•••••..•••••••••••..•.•.••••••••••••••••...•••••••• '••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

,(

( (

FIRST CLASS U.S. POSTAGE PAID PERMIT 075 CIDl~AIGN IL 61820 Clyde W. Forrest. AICP Editor June Hansen. Copy Editor Department of Urban and Regional Planning University of Il11n10s at Urbana-Champaign 1003 West Nevada Urbana. Illinois 61801 217/)3)-)890

to the

Illinois Planning News, Summer 1987, Edition 4  

Editor, Clyde W. Forrest, FAICP

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you