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CRITICAL EVALUATION ON LANDSCAPE INSTITUTE (UK) CLAIMS FOR THE BENEFITS OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Muhammad Anwar Bin Ramli MA Landscape Architecture

University of Sheffield LSC6140 Landscape Research Dissertation Department of Landscape January 2011 1


CRITICAL EVALUATION ON LANDSCAPE INSTITUTE (UK) CLAIMS FOR THE BENEFITS OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Content Chapter 1:

Introduction 1.1 Purpose Of The Review 1.2 Aim 1.3 Objectives

Chapter 2:

Literature Review 2.1 Systematic Reviews 2.2 Benefits of Green Infrastructure

Chapter 3:

Review Methodology 3.1 Setting up the Testable Statement and Related Keywords 3.2 Identifying The Scientific Evidence to Support Claims 3.3 Gap Analysis to Identify Deficient Evidence 3.4 Compilation of Summaries of Research Evidence

Chapter 4:

Scientific Evidence and Analysis 4.1 Evaluation by Theme & Testable Statement 4.2 Gap Analysis

Chapter 5:

Findings and Conclusion

References

Acknowledgement

This research was carried out with the supervision and support of Professor Paul Selman from Department of Landscape, University of Sheffield.

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Abstract

Green Infrastructure (GI) has been recognised as a tool to combat climate change and it provides social, economic and environmental benefits. In the United Kingdom, GI is becoming a prominent task to the all levels of planning either in ministerial level, regional or local development frameworks. This is reflected in various aspects of national planning policy. The Landscape Institute of UK is a chartered professional membership body of Landscape Architects who believes that landscape practitioners are playing a key role in GI delivery in collaboration with other

professions.

They

have

produced

the

position

statement;

‘Green

Infrastructure: Connected and Multifunctional Landscapes’ to explain the potential of many benefits GI can offer. Unfortunately there is a shortage of scientific evidence in the position statement that led this research. Therefore, this research will review the many benefits that GI can offer in the position statement and how the claims become a verified statement. In order to do this research, the task is to test the claims by searching the research evidence and analyzing them using gap analysis. From there, the original statement will become the verified statement.

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Chapter 1

1.

INTRODUCTION

Green Infrastructure (GI) has been recognised as a tool to combat climate change and other environmental issues because of the benefits it generates. Generally, it provides social, economic and environmental benefits. Green infrastructure is not a new idea, but it is a new term and the concept evolved over 150 years from: (1) linking of parks and green spaces for the benefit of the people, and (2) linking of the natural areas for the benefit of biodiversity and habitat fragmentation (Benedict 2002, 13).

It can be defined as an ‘interconnected network of green space that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations’ (Benedict 2002, 12). While Natural England has defined ‘Green Infrastructure is a strategically planned and delivered network comprising the broadest range of high quality green spaces and other environmental features. It must be designed and managed as a multifunctional resource capable of delivering those ecological services and quality of life benefits required by the communities it serves and needed to underpin sustainability’.

The components of green infrastructure include parks and gardens, amenity green space, natural and semi-natural urban green spaces, green corridors and others (allotments, community gardens, city farms, cemeteries and churchyards). In order to make green infrastructure functionally workable, it must be planned, designed and managed properly to achieve a multifunctional and connected nature underpinned by the concept of ecosystem services.

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Amenity green space

Park and gardens

Natural and semi-natural urban green spaces

`

Green corridors

Allotments

Cemeteries Community gardens Churchyards

City farms

In the United Kingdom, green infrastructure is becoming a prominent task to the all levels of planning either in ministerial level, regional or local development frameworks. This is reflected in various aspects of national planning policy such as: Planning Policy Statement 1 (PPS1) – Delivering sustainable development (2005), Planning and Climate Change – Supplement to PPS1 (2007) and PPS12 – Local Spatial Planning (2008). Moreover, green infrastructure has been planned and implementation is still in progress through out across the region. Most regions have produced their own green infrastructure document to ensure planning, design and management working together to achieve all the benefits expected.

The Landscape Institute of UK is a chartered professional membership body of Landscape Architects who believes that landscape practitioners are playing a key 5


role in green infrastructure delivery in collaboration with other professions. This will ensure green infrastructure delivers the wide range of benefits and they have produced

the

position

statement;

‘Green

Infrastructure:

Connected

and

Multifunctional Landscapes’ to explain the potential of many benefits GI can offer. The next chapter (literature review) will explain the detail of the benefits claimed by the Landscape Institute (Landscape Institute, 2009).

The Position Statement is designed to explain the many benefits of GI and the policy objectives it can help achieve, demonstrate the critical role that landscape practitioners have to play in the development of GI and it is also show how GI works. From the observations made, there is a shortage of scientific evidence in the benefits of GI claims by the Landscape Institute that led this research. Therefore, this research will review the many benefits that GI can offer in the position statement and how the claims become a verified statement. In order to do this, the whole research will be based on the systematic review (type 2 – review based dissertation).

1.1

Purpose Of The Review

The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate and investigate the research evidence of the Green Infrastructure benefits claim by the Landscape Institute, UK. Thus, the review method will be based on the academic literature review searching for research evidence of green infrastructure benefits.

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1.2

Aim

The aim of this research is to test the claims about the benefits of green infrastructure made in the Landscape Institute‘s Position Statement.

1.3

Objectives

The objectives of this study are:

to propose a set of ‗testable statements‘ regarding the benefit of GI based on the LI publication;

by means of a systematic review, to identify three evidencebased research papers in relation to each testable statement;

to identify where there are gaps in the evidence base to support the claims; and

to summarise the evidence gathered in relation to each statement.

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Chapter 2

2.

LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter, there will be a literature on the systematic review and the benefit of green infrastructure itself. The understanding of the systematic review and how it is used in this research will be a main focus.

2.1

Systematic Reviews

In the last decade moves have been made to ensure that policy and practice are firmly based on research evidence. The idea of using ‗what works‘ suggests a move beyond ideology but, in reality, it has become a powerful ideology in itself suggesting that government be based on pragmatic responses even where this goes against political expediency or financial constraints (Davies, Nutley, and Smith, 2000). Nevertheless, it would seem that policy based on more and better evidence is no bad thing. Indeed, social scientists have pushed for such responsiveness for decades. Systematic reviews fall neatly into this growing movement and refer to studies that try to answer a clear question by finding and describing all published and, where possible, unpublished work on a topic.

Systematic reviews may be differentiated from literature reviews in the social sciences. Such ‗narrative‘ reviews are often carried out with no explicit search criteria, are not spatially and temporarily delimited and are usually not carried out with the aim of being exhaustive. A further charge is that such reviews are also selective in their presentation of evidence, though

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many social scientists would dispute these points. Being systematic does not logically entail achieving comprehensive coverage; thus a further phase in systematic review is the attempt to estimate coverage as well as quality.

Wikipedia has defined a ‗systematic review‘ as a literature review on a single question that tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to that question. Systematic review is not limited to medicine and is quite common in other science such as psychology, educational research and sociology.

When used in contemporary literature, the term systematic refers to ‗methodological‘ or something ‗done or conceived according to a plan or system‘. The term review is defined as ‗a general survey or assessment of a subject or thing‘. A systematic review therefore could be defined as a methodical assessment of a subject using a predetermined plan. In research literature, a systematic review has been defined as a concise scientific investigation,

with

pre–planned

methods

that

summarise,

appraise,

synthesise and communicate the results of multiple primary researches.

As a conclusion, we can summarise that the systematic review is a systematic approach

for assessment

of a

subject based on the

methodological sequences. In this study, the GI benefits claimed by The Landscape Institute UK will become a subject for assessment.

2.2

Benefits of Green Infrastructure

The benefits of green infrastructure have been claimed by many parties. Benedict and McMahon (2002) agree that the green infrastructure 9


contributes to enrichment of habitat and biodiversity; maintenance of natural landscape processes; cleaner air and water; increased recreational opportunities; improved health; and better connection to nature and sense of place. Green space also increases property values and can decrease the costs of public infrastructure and services such as, flood control, water treatment systems and storm water management.

In the UK, the Landscape Institute and others such as Natural England and Commission for Architecture and Built Environment (CABE) also agree the same benefits generated from having the green infrastructure network. In the Landscape Institute Position Statement, it is emphasized on the benefit of incorporating the planning, design and management to achieve multifunctional nature of green infrastructure assets underpinned by the ecosystem services. The benefits will be reinforced and enhanced by the connectivity of these assets and include (Landscape Institute, 2009) :

i.

Climate change adaptation

Even modest increases in tree canopy cover can significantly reduce the urban heat island effect via evapotranspiration and shading, as well as improving air quality, which often suffers because of higher temperatures. Connectivity of GI via wildlife corridors is critical in ensuring that biodiversity is safeguarded in the face of a changing climate and green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding.

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ii.

Climate change mitigation

Well-designed and managed GI can encourage people to travel in a more sustainable way, such as cycling and walking. In addition to acting as carbon sinks, trees and landform can reduce energy use for heating and cooling buildings by shading them in summer and sheltering them in winter. A GI approach to planning can also optimise the potential for efficient, decentralised, renewable energy, improving local energy security, providing space for ground source heating, hydroelectric power, biomass and wind power.

iii.

Water management

GI is a good approach for managing flood risk. This can involve placing sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) in developments to attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation. Agricultural land and wetlands can be used to store flood water in areas where there is no risk to homes and commercial buildings. GI can be used to manage coastal retreat as well as to restore wetlands, enhancing carbon sequestration whilst providing important wildlife habitat.

iv.

Dealing with waste

GI assets can deal with waste in a sustainable way. A good example of this is the use of reed beds which remove pollutants from water. Historically, waste has been placed in landfill sites, which have then been adapted for other GI functions, including wildlife habitats and 11


leisure parks. Closed landfill sites are a legacy which could provide a much greater range of functions if greater investment was made available.

v.

Food production

Creating

space for food production through

allotments and

community gardens and orchards, increases access to healthy food, provides educational opportunities, contributes to food security and reconnects communities with their local environment. Connecting local communities with these assets via footpaths and cycle ways can encourage this reconnection further.

vi.

Biodiversity enhancement, corridors and linkages

The role of GI in providing wildlife habitat in both urban and rural areas is well established, but taking a landscape-scale approach to the planning, design and management of connected GI assets provides the framework within which species migration can more readily occur in response to environmental pressures such as climate change.

vii.

Recreation and health

As illustrated by all of the case studies in this position statement, accessible GI provides important opportunities for informal and active recreation. Ensuring that these assets are provided in close proximity to people‘s homes, are maintained properly, and are designed with 12


the needs of local communities in mind, is critical to their positive role in public health and wellbeing.

viii.

Economic values

Quality green space can have a major positive impact on land and property markets, creating settings for investment and acting as a catalyst for wider regeneration.

ix.

Local distinctiveness

Well-designed and managed GI assets, particularly those that engage local communities and which relate to landscape character and heritage, can enhance local sense of place and foster community spirit. They can be a catalyst for regeneration and stimulate employment opportunities by attracting investment and tourism.

x.

Education

As demonstrated by the River Ray Corridor and Ingrebourne Hill, natural environments which are connected to local communities can provide a range of educational opportunities and assist in reconnecting society with the natural environment; a fundamental prerequisite of living within environmental limits, and a cornerstone of the Government‘s sustainable development strategy.

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xi.

Stronger communities

GI can help in meeting a wide range of community needs. The spirit of the GI approach means that social, environmental and economic potential is considered and optimised. It can be a focus for community participation through public management, as well as providing opportunities for education, training, volunteering and capacity building.

From the above statement, it‘s clearly shown that there are eleven (11) aspects of GI benefits claimed by Landscape Institute of UK in the position statement and it‘s covered all aspects. Unfortunately there is a lack of the scientific evidence for each aspect and this research will explore into it.

While the Commission for Architecture and Built Environment (CABE) focuses on the benefit of GI for residents and local communities in terms of better quality of life, healthier residents, stronger local economy and protection from climate change. The detail of the benefit quoted from CABE website as below:

Table 2.1: The Benefit of GI Quoted by Commission for Architecture and Built Environment (CABE)

Aspects Better quality of life

Benefit

Mechanism

Reduce crime.

Boost-up community integration. Attracting businesses.

Increasing prices.

 

house

Natural surveillance of public spaces. Green spaces for social events. By ensuring attractive environmental surroundings. By increasing green spaces.

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Aspects Healthier Residents

Benefit 

Reduce urban island effect.

heat

 

Provide safe and highly accessible green routes. Reduce physical and mental problems. Increasing green space.

Creating environmentally attractive surroundings. Manage surface water runoff for flood prevention. Storing tidal flood water to reduce flooding in estuaries. Storing river flood water to reduce the risk of fluvial flooding. Create cooler microclimates will reduce the need for cool buildings. Providing shelter and protection in extreme weather. Provide habitats, corridors and a more permeable landscape to help wildlife adapt to climate change. Provides wildlife habitat Creates green corridors

 Stronger Local Economy

 

Protection from Climate Change

   

 

Higher Biodiversity

Mechanism

 

 

 

   

Evaporative cooling. Shading and providing corridors for cooler air to flow into urban areas as well as filtering polluted air. Walking and cycling. Recreation using open space and nature. Lead to an increase in average house prices in an area. Encourage businesses to relocate to a place. Provide local recreation area to reduce travel. Providing sustainable transport corridors to reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. Supplying biomass or bio-fuels to directly replace fossil fuels. Encourage sustainable construction materials by supplying timber. Increasing local food production to reduce food miles. Improving carbon sink and sequestration.

Source: Adapted from CABE Website (http://www.cabe.org.uk/sustainable-places/green-infrastructure/benefits)

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Natural England believes that green Infrastructure can provide many social, economic and environmental benefits close to where people live and work including:

Table 2.2: The Benefit of GI Quoted by Natural England Aspects

Benefit

Social

 

Provide places for active and passive recreation Improved health and well-being – lowering stress levels and providing opportunities for exercise

Economic

Local food production - in allotments, gardens and through agriculture Reserve and habitat for wildlife with access to nature for people Climate change adaptation - for example flood alleviation and cooling urban heat islands Environmental education

 Environmental

 

Source: Adapted from Natural England Website http://naturalengland.etraderstores.com/NaturalEnglandShop/NE176

In conclusion, there are many benefits of green infrastructure claimed by various parties and this is a good sign of awareness of the existing environmental issues that we are facing today. Based on the initiative from the Landscape Institute and others, indirectly it will increase community awareness to the environmental issues and also can educate people to act with communities to battle the environmental issues such as climate change, urban heat island, flooding and others.

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Chapter 3

3.

REVIEW METHODOLOGY

3.1

Setting up the Testable Statement and Related Keywords

In order to review the benefits of GI claim by the Landscape Institute of UK, it is vital to understand that this review will be undertaken as a review based (Type 2) dissertation which is focused on academic or scientific research evidence. The initial effort has been worked out by dividing the benefit of GI (subject to evaluate) as a ‗theme to evaluate‘ and the ‗testable statement‘ is formulate from the evaluate theme as the table 3.1 below.

Table 3.1: Formulation of Testable Statement From the Theme to Evaluate No 1

Theme to Evaluate

Testable Statement

Climate Change Adaptation Even modest increases in tree canopy cover can significantly reduce the urban heat island effect via evapotranspiration and shading, as well as improving air quality, which often suffers because of higher temperatures. Connectivity of GI via wildlife corridors is critical in ensuring that biodiversity is safeguarded in the face of a changing climate and green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding.

1. Modest increases on tree canopy cover can reduce urban heat island via evapotranspiration and shading, improving air quality. 2. Green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding. 3. Connectivity of GI via wildlife corridors is critical in ensuring that biodiversity is safeguarded (also mentioned in the other section)

Testable Statement 1 Modest increases on tree canopy cover can reduce urban heat island via evapotranspiration and shading, improving air quality. Keywords for search engine: Trees, urban heat island, vegetation, climate change adaptation, green infrastructure, urban green space.

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Testable Statement 2 Green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding. Keywords for search engine: Trees, green space, rainwater runoff, flood. 2

Climate Change Mitigation Well-designed and managed GI can encourage people to travel in a more sustainable way, such as cycling and walking. In addition to acting as carbon sinks, trees and landform can reduce energy use for heating and cooling buildings by shading them in summer and sheltering them in winter. A GI approach to planning can also optimise the potential for efficient, decentralised, renewable energy, improving local energy security, providing space for ground source heating, hydroelectric power, biomass and wind power.

3. Well designed and managed GI can encourage cycling and walking. 4. Trees are carbon sinks. 5. Trees and landform can reduce energy use for heating and cooling building. 6. GI approach to planning can optimise the potential for decentralised energy production.

Testable Statement 3 Well designed and managed GI can encourage cycling and walking. Keywords for search engine: Greenway movement, walking, cycling, active transport, landscape design. Testable Statement 4 Trees are carbon sinks. Keywords for search engine: Urban trees, benefits, vegetation, ecosystem service, trees, carbon sequestration, carbon sink. Testable Statement 5 Trees and landform can reduce energy use for heating and cooling building. Keywords for search engine: Trees, Heat loss, Urban Heat Island (UHI), mitigation, shade trees, reduce energy Testable Statement 6 GI approach to planning can optimise the potential for decentralised energy production. Keywords for search engine: Energy conservation, urban trees, renewable energy, wood fuel, micro generation

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3

Water Management GI is a good approach for managing flood risk. This can involve placing sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) in developments to attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation. Agricultural land and wetlands can be used to store flood water in areas where there is no risk to homes and commercial buildings. GI can be used to manage coastal retreat as well as to restore wetlands, enhancing carbon sequestration whilst providing important wildlife habitat.

7. Sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) can attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation. 8. GI can be used to manage coastal retreat, restore wetlands. 9. Wetlands are also carbon sinks.

Testable Statement 7 Sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) can attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation. Keywords for search engine: Sustainable drainage system, water runoff, biodiversity, greenway, recreation. Testable Statement 8 GI can be used to manage coastal retreat, restore wetlands. Keywords for search engine: Coastal retreat, wetland restoration, planning / manage coastal, manage retreat, coastal squeeze. Testable Statement 9 Wetlands are also carbon sinks. Keywords for search engine: Wetland, carbon sinks, carbon sequestration. 4

Dealing With Waste GI assets can deal with waste in a sustainable way. A good example of this is the use of reed beds which remove pollutants from water. Historically, waste has been placed in landfill sites, which have then been adapted for other GI functions, including wildlife habitats and leisure parks. Closed landfill sites are a legacy which could provide a much greater range of functions if greater investment was made available.

10. Wider range of after uses on reclamation closed landfill sites. 11. Use of reed beds to remove water pollutants

Testable Statement 10 Effective reclamation of closed landfill site. Keywords for search engine: Closed landfill, biodiversity, woodland, recreation, education, tourism

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Testable Statement 11 Use of reed beds to remove water pollutants Keywords for search engine: Wetland, water pollution, water treatment, reed beds. 5

Food Production Creating space for food production through allotments and community gardens and orchards, increases access to healthy food, provides educational opportunities, contributes to food security and reconnects communities with their local environment. Connecting local communities with these assets via footpaths and cycleways can encourage this reconnection further.

12. Space for food production through allotments will increase access to healthy food, provide educational opportunities and reconnect communities.

Testable Statement 12 Space for food production through allotments will increase access to healthy food, provide educational opportunities and reconnect communities. Keywords for search engine: Community garden, urban health, local participation 6

Biodiversity Enhancement, Corridors And Linkages The role of GI in providing wildlife habitat in both urban and rural areas is well established, but taking a landscape-scale approach to the planning, design and management of connected GI assets provides the framework within which species migration can more readily occur in response to environmental pressures such as climate change.

13. Species migration – response to climate change.

Testable Statement 13 Species migration – response to climate change. Keywords for search engine: Green space corridors, connectivity, species migration, greenway movement 7

Recreation And Health As illustrated by all of the case studies in this position statement, accessible GI provides important opportunities for informal and active recreation. Ensuring that these assets are provided in close proximity to people‘s homes, are maintained properly,

14. Accessible GI provides opportunities for informal and active recreation.

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and are designed with the needs of local communities in mind, is critical to their positive role in public health and wellbeing. Testable Statement 14 Accessible GI provides opportunities for informal and active recreation. Keywords for search engine: Greenways, recreation, health, landscape health, landscape fitness, landscape wellbeing 8

Economic Values Quality green space can have a major positive impact on land and property markets, creating settings for investment and acting as a catalyst for wider regeneration.

15. Quality green space – positive impact on land and property markets. 16. Attract investment and tourism.

Testable Statement 15 Quality green space – positive impact on land and property markets Keywords for search engine: Greenways, property values, economic valuation, tree, water, open space Testable Statement 16 Attract investment and tourism. Keywords for search engine: Green space, investment, green tourism, landscape, inward investment 9

Local Distinctiveness Well-designed and managed GI assets, particularly those that engage local communities and which relate to landscape character and heritage, can enhance local sense of place and foster community spirit. They can be a catalyst for regeneration and stimulate employment opportunities by attracting investment and tourism.

17. Enhance local sense of place and foster community spirit.

Testable Statement 17 Enhance local sense of place and foster community spirit. Keywords for search engine: Community, landscape, sense of place, landscape character, local distinctiveness 10

Education As demonstrated by the River Ray Corridor and Ingrebourne Hill, natural environments which are connected to local communities can provide a range of educational

18. GI provides range of educational opportunities. 19. Reconnecting society with natural environment. 21


opportunities and assist in reconnecting society with the natural environment; a fundamental prerequisite of living within environmental limits, and a cornerstone of the Government‘s sustainable development strategy. Testable Statement 18 GI provides range of educational opportunities. Keywords for search engine: Environment for play and development, education, recreation, landscape learning. Testable Statement 19 Reconnecting society with natural environment. Keywords for search engine: Ecological networks, connecting environment, social 11

Stronger Communities GI can help in meeting a wide range of community needs. The spirit of the GI approach means that social, environmental and economic potential is considered and optimised. It can be a focus for community participation through public management, as well as providing opportunities for education, training, volunteering and capacity building.

20. Focus for community participations through public management.

Testable Statement 20 Focus for community participations through public management. Keywords for search engine: Community Participation, green community investment / engagement

After the entire ‗theme to evaluate‘ has been converted into the ‗testable statements‘, the suitable keywords will be identified from the testable statement and from there, the appropriate scientific or research evidence can be found from the search engine. In terms of searching the suitable research evidence, familiar search engines such as Google Scholar will be used and from there it will direct to another search engine for academic purposes such as Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Science

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Direct. The other resources are also available from publications, reports, proceedings and conference papers.

The important part in searching the scientific evidence of Green Infrastructure claims by the Landscape Institute is to understand the green infrastructure assets because all these assets will determine the success of the benefits it can generate.

3.2

Identify The Scientific Evidence to Support Claims

The next step is to identify at least three (3) or more scientific papers or other research evidence for each testable statement to support the claims (theme to evaluate). So, the next chapter will have the scientific evidence for each testable statement and compile summaries of research abstracts (from the research paper).

3.3

Gap Analysis to Identify Deficient Evidence

In this type of research, we cannot expect all the testable statements should have the scientific evidence from the previous researcher. Maybe there is lack of published evidence and we just can simply treat it as a claim, and this is where the use of gap analysis is needed to identify areas where the evidence is currently deficient.

3.4

Compilation of Summaries of Research Evidence

This is the last stage of this research where the entire claim will become the verified statement after each claim filled by the gaps from the 23


supporting scientific evidence. However, some of the testable statements simply remains ‗claims‘ because they cannot yet be substantiated.

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Chapter 4

4.

SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE AND ANALYSIS

In this chapter, the research evidence will be found out from the academic research papers based on the keywords generated on each ‗testable statement‘ for each theme (GI benefit claim by LI) and these are useable for gap analysis.

4.1

Evaluation by Theme and Testable Statement

Theme 1: Climate Change Adaptation

Testable Statement 1: Modest increases on tree canopy cover can reduce urban heat island (UHI) via evapotranspiration and shading, improving air quality

The higher temperature in urban area is caused by the presence of hard surfaces such as concrete and asphalt and the absence of greenery that would otherwise help to cool the local atmosphere. The existence of buildings exacerbates this issue. Cars and buildings also contribute to produce waste heat to the overall effect of UHI.

Gill et al. (2007) found that if there is increasing green cover by 10% in urban areas could keep extreme surface temperatures by 2.5°C by 2080s, despite climate change. By removing 10% green cover would increase expected maximum surface temperature by 7°C by the 2080s.

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While Solecki (2005) proved that urban vegetation can reduce health hazards associated with the UHI effect by removing pollutants from the air. Planting trees in urban area is an effective and economically efficient way to reduce energy consumption at the sites. The effectiveness of UHI mitigation strategies demonstrated that additional trees in neighbourhoods in and around Newark, UK and Camden, UK will increase the amount of cooling energy saving.

Leonard (1972) found that the transpiration of a mature tree corresponds to a refrigerator with a capacity of more than 150,000 thermal units/BTUs per day. A large mature tree is able to transpire 450 litres of water per day. This enables it to consume 1000 MJ of caloric energy in order to carry out the transpiration process, thus lowering urban temperatures.

Akbari (2002) confirmed that urban tree planting can account for a 25% reduction in net cooling and heating energy usage in urban landscapes. In hot climates, deciduous trees shading a building can save cooling-energy use, meanwhile in cold climates; evergreen trees shielding the building from the cold winter wind can save heating-energy use.

Testable Statement 2: Green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding

The same research done by Gill et al. (2007) also found that by adding 10% green cover would reduce run-off from a 28mm rainfall event by 4.9% by the 2080s. Reciprocally by adding 10% tree cover can reduce run-off from 28mm rainfall event by 5.7% by 2080s. However, by adding green roofs to all the buildings in town centres, retail and high-density residential areas significantly reduces run-off from 8% to14.1% by the 2080s for a 28 mm rainfall event. 26


According to Mentens, et al. (2006) green roof (green space) can reduce rainwater runoff. The application for the region of Brussels showed that extensive roof greening on just 10% of the buildings would result in a runoff reduction of 2.7% for the region and of 54% for the individual buildings. Green roofs can therefore be a useful tool for reducing urban rainfall runoff.

Kolb (2004) reported that 45% of all rainfall can be recycled using the green roofs. It may reduce runoff water by 60% to 100%, depending on the type of green roof system.

Even though green roof systems retain storm water, runoff will still occur after it becomes saturated. However, runoff is delayed because it takes time for the green roof to become saturated and for the water to drain through the media. This delay can prevent storm water sewer systems from overflowing, by allowing it to process runoff for a longer time at a lower flow rate (Getter et al., 2006). Green roofs can delay runoff between 95 min (Liu, 2003) and 4 hour (Moran et al., 2004), compared with the reference roofs for which runoff was nearly instantaneous.

After runoff begins on a green roof system, the rate at which the rain leaves the roof is slower than a non greened roof because of the nature of the green roof components. Liu, 2003 found that when initial rainfall was 2.8 mm/h, runoff from the green roof was reduced to 0.5 /hour. By slowing down the rate of runoff and turning it out over a longer period of time, green roofs can help mitigate the erosion power of runoff that does enter streams, either through direct runoff or storm sewers.

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Theme 2: Climate Change Mitigation

Testable Statement 3: Well designed and managed GI can encourage cycling and walking

Pikora et al. (2003) performed the research on influence of the environment to the physical activity whether walking or cycling in the neighbourhood area. A physical environmental factor that may influence walking/cycling in the local neighbourhood is functional, safety, aesthetic and destination. Based on the interview result, the first reason for walking/cycling is factor is personal safety and aesthetics is become the second reason. This is including the presence of trees, garden, parks or views that encourage people to do so. This is where green infrastructure elements can become an important factor for people to walking or cycling.

Good design of the public open space (green infrastructure component) will encourage physical activity in community that potentially contribute to the health of local residents. Corti et al. (2005) examined the influence of attractiveness on the use of public open space. 28.8% of the respondents using it for physical activity with the increasing level of access are distance, attractiveness and size. 50% of the respondents are attracted to the large public open space associated with the high levels of walking (95% confidence level, 1.06 - 2.13). The study confirmed that access to attractive large public open space is associated with higher levels of walking or jogging.

Cervero et al. (2008) examines the influence of built environments on walking and cycling with the example of Bogotá, Colombia. The city is well known as sustainable urban transport systems. Ciclovı´a (‗‗cycleway‘‘) is the largest linear park 28


in the world located in this area are being used by the cyclist and pedestrian for recreational purpose especially on Sundays and holidays. Surveys reveal around half of Ciclovı´a users are on bicycle or roller-skate and the other half are on foot. The influence of using this area was street design and for recreational activities, having reserved lanes for bicycles and pedestrians reasonably close to one‘s residence encouraged Ciclovı´a usage.

Parks and trails can promote physical activity. Killingworth et al. (2003) revealed that a survey of U.S. adults using a park or walking and jogging trail, nearly 30% reported an increase in activity since they began using these facilities. This is similar in a Missouri where 55.2% people using trails reported an increase walking since they began using trails.

Testable Statement 4: Trees are carbon sinks

Under the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology has been developing an inventory of carbon in the vegetation and soils of Great Britain (GB). Milne and Brown, (1997) discover the total amount of carbon held by vegetation is estimated to be 114 Mtonnes. Woodlands and forests hold 80% of the GB total although they occupy only about 11% of the rural land area. Broadleaf species hold about 50% of the carbon in woodlands and forests. The predominant location of vegetation carbon is the broadleaved woodlands of southern England while the amount of carbon in the soils of GB is estimated to be 9838 Mt (6948 Mt in Scotland and 2890 Mt in England and Wales). In Scotland, most soil carbon is in blanket peats, whereas most soil carbon is in stagnogley soils in England and Wales. Scottish peat soils have the greatest density of carbon and in total contain 4523 Mt of carbon, 46% of the GB total.

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It is estimated that the urban trees in Syracuse store some 163,500 tons of carbon and have an annual carbon uptake of 3,870 tons/yr . As CO2 is an important greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming, the value of the effect of urban forests on carbon is estimated at $3 million for storage and $71,500/yr for uptake. (Nowak et al. 2001)

Urban vegetation is increasingly recognized as an alternative ameliorative method by removing some pollutants mainly through dry deposition process. Jim (2008) examined the capability and monetary value of the ecosystem service in Guangzhou city in South China. The annual removal of SO2, NO2 and total suspended particulates at about 312.03 Mg, and the benefits were valued at RMB90.19 thousand (US$1.00 Âź RMB8.26). More removal was realized by recreational land use due to a higher tree cover. Higher concentration of pollutants in the dry winter months induced more removal.

Birdsay et al. (1993) reported that since 1952, carbon stored on US woodland has increased by 38% (8.8x1015g), primarily in the East. This increase is consistent with recently reported trends in Europe and accounts for as much as 21% of a hypothesized carbon sink in Northern temperate forests.

Testable Statement 5: Trees and landform can reduce energy use for heating and cooling building.

Trees and cool roofs that shade buildings also reduce the amount of solar energy that enters building and help to reduce summer air conditioning loads. This saves mainly electricity and of course money. The analysis by Rosenfeld et al. (1996) in Los Angeles (LA) show that a ―cool communities‖ strategy (shade trees) can directly lower the annual air conditioning bills in LA by about $100 million (M), 30


cooling the air (saving indirectly $70M more in air conditioning) and help to reduce smog by 10% (worth another $360M) for a total savings of about $0.5 billion per year.

It was reported in a study conducted by Spronken-Smith et al. (2000) that parks could help control temperatures through an evaporation of more than 300% as compared to its surrounding.

Urban trees and high-albedo surfaces can offset or reverse the heat-island effect. Mitigation of urban heat islands can potentially reduce national energy use in air conditioning by 20% and save over $10B per year in energy use and improvement in urban air quality. This amounts to 40 TWh/year saving worth over $4B per year by 2015, in cooling-electricity savings along. (Akbari, Pomerantz & Taha, 2001)

Kikegawa et al. (2005) make conclusions based on simulation of cooling energy saving and suggested that reduction in the air-conditioning anthropogenic heat can be the most effective measure in office buildings‘ canopies and vegetation increase on the side walls of buildings. This could decrease in near-ground summer air temperature of 0.2 – 1.20C. Indirectly this decrease could result in the buildings‘ cooling energy-savings of 4 – 40%.

Testable Statement 6: Green infrastructure approach to planning can optimise the potential for decentralised energy production

There is not much research evidence found for this testable statement.

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However, Alanne and Saari (2004) suggested a new trend of distributed energy generation which means that energy conversion units are situated close to energy consumers. A distributed energy system is an efficient, reliable and environmental friendly compare to the traditional way. They conclude that a distributed energy system is a good option with respect to sustainable development in the long run. Distributed energy generation aims at utilizing local fuels like biomass and establishing local fuel storage.

Recently, South Yorkshire Forest Partnership introduces South Yorkshire Woodfuel Program as a renewable energy generation from wood or biomass. It is one of a number of alternative energy sources that can significantly reduce the amount of harmful emissions that are released into the atmosphere. Wood is a renewable fuel, and growing trees take up carbon dioxide as they grow, so burning wood is far more sustainable and overall contributes some 90% less CO2 emissions, than burning fossil fuels. Since heating consumes most of the energy used in buildings, the introduction of low carbon fuels for heating will reduce the contribution this has on climate change. Woodchip can also be a cheaper fuel than traditional fossil-based resources such as oil or LPG. Woodfuel can be burned to generate heat or electricity and is an important part of the UK‘s renewable energy supply. It is a sustainable, low carbon, source of energy that is produced from managed woods, where felled trees are replanted.

Theme 3: Water Management

Testable Statement 7: Sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) can attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation

There is not much research evidence found for this testable statement. 32


Boller (2004) introduces a new technique for urban stormwater management to ensure it can functional such as retention, contaminant barrier, infiltration or direct discharge. Surface runoff in open channels, small creeks, ponds, reed beds and other planted systems can be considered as elements of landscaping. It is suggested that the structures for stormwater handling are integrated into local landscaping in the surrounding of buildings such as ponds, reed-beds, ditches, etc. creating attractive blue-green environments.

Broadhead and Jones (2010) recommend that flood risk management can be done through restoration of natural systems. This is important for habitat creation and biodiversity enrichment by integrating flood risk and biodiversity in river and floodplain management. To achieve this, it should be extended to other communityled benefits such as soil health, renewable energy, recreation and fishing.

Springhill Cohousing, Stroud, UK. High density housing on a steep site, yet SuDS proliferates here; rills and swales collect and store rain water, while benefiting biodiversity (Robert Bray Associates) 33


Testable Statement 8: GI can be used to manage coastal retreat, restore wetlands

According to Maddrell (1995), recycling shingle has been used for a beach protection was unique and it is applied for Dungeness Nuclear Power Station to protect it from erosion by beach feeding. The beach feeding scheme has operated for 29 years and it is suitable to manage coastal area of Dungeness and protect this area from flooding, damage to the station and has small adverse environmental impacts. The concept of coastal retreat significantly reducing the quantities of recharge shingle required.

Hsieh et al. (2004) explore the establishment of wetlands conservation greenway. It will connect the various types of wetlands to form a conservation greenway in Changhua County Coast, Taiwan. Three (3) different types of wetland management areas are recognized: (1) protected areas, (2) ecological parks (for sustainable use), and (3) restoration areas.

The wetlands conservation greenway along the west coast of Taiwan.

A wetlands conservation greenway on the Changhua County coast, Taiwan.

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Henry and Amoros (1974) recognized ecological restoration as a discipline that should be conducted scientifically and rigorously to increase success and selfsustainability of restored ecosystems. Thus for future restoration projects should follow these following steps: (1) increase restoration legitimacy with a team of interdisciplinary scientists working on the project; (2) must have a precise restoration missions, goal and objectives; (3) monitoring ecosystem changes (before and after restoration).

Testable Statement 9: Wetlands are also carbon sinks

Wetlands are important in global carbon dynamics because of their large soil carbon pools, high methane (CH4) emissions, and potential for carbon sequestration in peat formation, sediment deposition and plant biomass.

Euliss Jr. (2006) evaluated the potential carbon sinks of wetlands restoration in North America. It is estimated to sequester 378 Tg of organic carbon over a 10year period. It also can sequester over twice the organic carbon as no-till cropland on only about 17% of the total land area in the North America. This research also estimated the wetland restoration to offset 2.4% of the annual fossil CO 2 emission for North America in 1990 was 1.6 Pg C.

Twllley et al., (1992) revealed that the global storage of carbon (C) in mangrove biomass is estimated at 4.03 Pg C; and 70% of this C occurs in coastal margins from 0 째 to 10 째 latitude.

Meanwhile, according to Chmura et al., (2003) mangrove swamps and salt marshes (wetlands) store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1, and it release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area. 35


Theme 4: Dealing With Waste

Testable Statement 10: Effective reclamation of closed landfill site

Aplet and Conn (1997) examined the successful conversion of landfill sites for parks or other beneficial land uses in Los Angeles County, California. The uses of completed landfills as golf course are golf courses, parks, playgrounds and ball fields, botanical gardens, residential and industrial development, and others (parking areas, airport runways and goods-transfer yards).

Simmons (1999) revealed a technique for restoration of landfill sites for ecological diversity of both rural and semi-urban locations and improving their visual appearance. The appropriate techniques for restoration for ecological diversity is important and it must consider the combination of intervention followed by natural progression, unless a particular habitat type needs to be established. The timing of restoration works must take post-closure operational and environmental protection works into account to minimize conflicts and wasted effort.

Brownfield land is used for waste disposal and closed landfills within ‗community forest‘ in England account for some 3,000 hectares. Tree planting and reclamation of the brownfield land can meet the target of converting the landscape from 4 to 12% woodland cover in period of 30 years. Dickinson et al. (2004) found that closed landfill sites can be successfully restored to community forest with selected species such as F. Excelsior, Q. Petraea, M. Sylcestris, S. Aucuparia, A. Pseudoplatanus, C. Monogyna, A. Glutinosa, P. Padus and P. Spinosa.

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Testable Statement 11: Use of reed beds to remove water pollutants

Gersberg et al. (1986) investigated the role of each of three higher aquatic plant types, Scirpus validus (bulrush), Phragmites communis (common reed) and Typha latifola (cattail), in the removal of nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) from primary municipal wastewaters using artificial wetlands. The bulrushes and reeds proved to be superior at removing ammonia (1.4 mg 1-1 for the bulrush bed and 5.3 mg 1-1 for the reed bed). The high ammonia-N (and total N) removal efficiencies shown by the bulrush and reed beds are attributed to the ability of these plants to translocation O2 from the shoots to the roots. The oxidized rhizosphere so formed stimulates sequential nitrificationdenitrification. Similarly BOD removal efficiencies were highest in the bulrush and reed beds, both with mean effluent BOD levels (5.3 and 22.2 mg 1-1, respectively).

Green and Upton (1994) proved that design and construction of reed beds used for effluent polishing in UK. The majority of sewage treatment plants in UK are designed to meet effluent quality standards of 45 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS) and 25 mg/L biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) on a 95 percentile basis. It is cheaper in capital running costs than sand filters for population less than 2,000.

Nevertheless, Cooper and Green (1995) realized that after 10 year‘s implementation of reed bed treatment system for sewage system in UK (since 1985), the problems has overcome with the use of gravel-based system because of the difficulty experienced with over-land flow in soil systems. After that, reed bed treatment system has been accepted in the UK as an appropriate solution for village treatment and they are being installed widely.

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Theme 5: Food Production

Testable Statement 12: Space for food production through allotments will increase access to healthy food, provide educational opportunities and reconnect communities

Martin and Marsden (1999) explore the re-emergence of urban food production initiatives in the local authorities of England and Wales. From the questionnaires to the local authorities, the perception that urban food production strengthens communities was reiterated, with the majority of respondents stating that community development was a main benefit of urban food production and a major reason why local authorities believed they should become involved in schemes.

Holland (2004) examined the community garden movement in the UK and these are to be found in the inner city areas such as Bradford, Leeds, Bristol and Sandwell. They are usually are open spaces managed and operated by members of the local community for a variety of purposes: in conjunction with vegetation growing (either as landscape or for consumption), some schemes are experimental permaculture plots, others use organic methods and yet others are concerned with health, education and training. All appear to be based in a sense of community, with participation and involvement being particularly strong features.

Wakefield et al. (2007) investigated the health impacts of community gardening in Toronto, Ontario through participant observation, focus groups and indepth interviews. Result suggested that community gardens were perceived by gardeners to provide numerous health benefits including improved access to food,

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nutrient, physical activity and improved mental health. The community gardens were also seen to promote social health and community cohesion.

Theme 6: Biodiversity Enhancement, Corridors and Linkages

Testable Statement 13: Species migration – response to climate change

Fabos (1995) broad up the issues of greenway movement and its emergence since it was initiated by Sir Frederick Law Olmsted in the US. Majority of greenways fall into one of three categories and that the three types are; (1) Greenways of ecologically significant corridors and natural systems, mostly along rivers, coastal areas and ridgelines to maintain biodiversity and to provide for wildlife migration and appropriate nature studies; (2) Recreational greenways; and (3) Greenways with historical and cultural values to attract tourists and to provide recreational, educational, scenic and economic benefits.

Gilbert (1998) conduct field experiments to test the idea that corridors can reduce the rate of loss of species help to maintain species richness and minimized the extinctions by establishing the corridors. The result is positive whereby connecting patches of habitat with corridors did slow the rate of extinction of species and preserving species richness for longer period of time than disconnected habitat patches. This is because the habitat can migrate to the other area using the corridor. It is true that the theory predicts that species richness can be maintained or at least extinctions minimized by boosting rates of immigration through corridors.

MoĂˆrtberg and Wallentinus (2000) investigated if the remnants forest in the city and green space corridors could support target species for conservation. The findings can be used for developing guidelines for design of urban green space 39


corridors. The logistic regression models showed that important properties of remnants of natural vegetation were large areas of forest on rich soils, together with connectivity in the form of amounts of this habitat in the landscape. These properties were associated with the green space corridors.

Theme 7: Recreation and Health

Testable Statement 14: Accessible GI provides opportunities for informal and active recreation

Shafer et al., 2000, conducted a research on three greenway trails in Texas. The research was based on the human ecosystem concept and was intended to determine if and how such greenway facilities were contributing to quality of life and how people might perceive such contributions based on the way they used the trail (e.g. for transportation or recreation). The results indicated that most people used greenway trails for recreation but that trails differed in user types and activities based on location and policy. Users felt that these urban greenway trails were contributing most to community quality of life through resident health/fitness, the natural areas they provide, better land use and resident pride. They felt that they contributed least to diversifying industry, business development and access to shopping areas or public transportation.

Dunnett, et al. (2002) estimated that in the UK there are 27,000 urban parks, covering 14% of cities and towns and adding up to a total of 143,000 hectares. About 74% of adults agree that green spaces are important for their general health.

Kuppuswamy (2009) reviewed the relationship between exercise and open green space and reported that green infrastructure will help the government reach 40


targets to increase levels of physical activity and to provide a significant economic reason to maintain green space.

Theme 8: Economic Values

Testable Statement 15: Quality green space – positive impact on land and property markets

Anderson and Cordell (1988) conducted a survey on sales of 844 singles family dwellings in Athens, Georgia, USA. The results indicated that trees are associated with a 3.5 - 4.5% increase in the selling price of single family dwellings. During the study period (1978 – 1980), the average house sold at $38,100 and this sales price increased due to the trees between $1475 and $1750. This result means that when the housing area is associated with the green element, it will increase the property value and have economic impacts on land.

Tyrväinen (1997) investigated study on how urban forest benefits are capitalized in property (apartment) prices using hedonic pricing method. The result indicated that urban forests are an appreciated environmental characteristic and their benefits are reflected in the property prices. Proximity of watercourses and urban forest areas had a positive influence on apartment price.

While Luttik (2000) performed the research about an attractive environment is likely to influence house prices using hedonic pricing method. The biggest impact in housing prices is environmental factors (up to 28%) for houses with a garden facing water or connected to a sizeable lake. From the 3,000 house transaction in Netherlands, the research demonstrated that a pleasant view can lead to a considerable increase in house price, particularly if the house overlooks water 41


(8±10%) or open space (6±12%). It can conclude that, the analysis revealed housing prices varies by the landscape type and an attractive landscape types were shown to attract a premium of 5±12% over less attractive environmental settings.

Des Rosiers, et al. (2002) undertake study on effect of landscaping on house values based on the field survey of 760 single-family homes at the Quebec Urban Community. Findings suggest that the good trees cover in the visible surroundings housing area give a positive price to the higher house value (raises a property‘s value by nearly 4%).

Nicholls and Crompton (2005) proved that the effect of greenways on surrounding residential property. By using the hedonic pricing method, the study showed that greenways had significant positive impacts on properties sales prices.

Testable Statement 16: Attract investment and tourism

Lerner and Poole (1999) found that greening projects in the US tend to reduce costs related to urban sprawl and infrastructure provision; attract investment, raise property values and invigorate local economies; boost tourism; preserve farmland; prevent flood damage; and safeguard environmental quality generally.

De Sousa (2003) conducted research on ―greening experience‖ in Toronto where Brownfield sites is redeveloping in urban areas as a green space to bring improvement to the environment. Brownfield sites have a great potential for ―greening‖ the city environments, through the implementation of parks, playgrounds, trails, greenways, and other open spaces. Overall, the greening projects generated new 614 hectares of green space in Toronto and it is involved former industrial area, former railway corridor and properties contaminated by previous land filling and 42


waste disposal activities. Some of the famous site is Parliament Square, The Music Garden, Woodbine Park, Beaches North, Colgate Park and Don Valley Brickworks. All of the projects were carried out by the public sector, with the majority of sites redeveloped by the municipal government‘s Parks Department and each one taking from 3 to 5 years to complete. Over half of the sites were already owned by the city or by some other level of government, while the remaining sites were privately owned.

Dodds and Joppe (2010) examined how the Green Tourist Association in Toronto, Canada, developed the concept of urban green tourism by developing the ‘Other Map of Toronto’ to highlight ‗green‘ activities including eco-businesses, green spaces, galleries and heritage sites, natural food stores and sustainable transportation. It‘s also provided features relating to environmental awareness. Short paragraphs on the map also added a green perspective, addressing topics such as natural history, environmental visits, green spaces and parklands, special garden and tips on how to be a green tourist.

Theme 9: Local Distinctiveness

Testable Statement 17: Enhance local sense of place and foster community spirit

There is not much research evidence found for this testable statement.

However, Mazlina & Ismail (2008) conducted a study on the roles of green infrastructure network as social spaces for well-being of urban residents in Taiping, a town in central Peninsular Malaysia. It‘s involved 32 respondents from the residents. A large percentage of residents (91%) participated in recreational 43


activities with the greenery and open spaces allowing mobility and active living, thus trigger many positive moods such as feeling serene, cheerful, relaxation, comfort and restful. The physical experiences are associated with social interactions of residents in the open spaces that stimulate community integration and empowerment affording sense of harmony, bonding and attachment to the town. The study suggests that the characteristics and experience of the green network resulted in progressive physical, cognitive and social functioning of urban residents, hence, offering well-being.

Meanwhile Ottmann, et al, (2010) interviewed the gardeners by visiting and observing the Community Gardens in Bronx, New York City with 19 community gardens and 32 gardeners in this study. It can conclude that the community gardening can play a very important for the social reproduction of the community in the Bronx, NY. The program is beneficial to the community for food production but also as a place where gardeners and community ‗feel at home‘. Basically the garden is help to promote a sense of place which is a focus for communities and as a centre for community cultural and educational activities.

Theme 10: Education

Testable Statement 18: GI provides range of educational opportunities

DeLucio and Mugica (1994) considered that visiting national parks or other ecologically valuable areas is positive in terms of environmental education. The experience of the visit can contribute to improving the visitors‘ sensitivity and in changing their preferences. It is the result of the comparison from the four Spanish national parks from different types of visitor relating to their behaviour, expectations and attitudes. 44


While Fjørtoft (2001) conducted an experimental study to a small group of five to seven-year-old children in kindergartens in Telemark, Norway. The experimental site was a small forest of 7.7 hectares of mixed woodland vegetation, located closed to a kindergarten. The children were allowed to go at will, but they will accompanied by adults in certain part. The children have some favourite places in the forest so that they can climb the trees, hiding and role-play, climbing rocks. From the result, there is strong relation between the structures of the landscape (environment) and the impact on motor fitness in children. The motor fitness tests showed a general tendency that the children using the forest as a playscape performed better in motor skills than the children on the traditional playground.

At the international level, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Network of National Geoparks was established to preserve geological heritage for future generations (conservation) and at the same time to educate and teach the public about issues in geological landscapes and environmental matters (education). There are about 25 National Geoparks (17 European an 8 Chinese) are members of the UNESCO Network until February 2004 (Eder and Patzak, 2004).

Testable Statement 19: Reconnecting society with natural environment

There is not much research evidence found for this testable statement.

However, we can see the evidence of Natural England‘s Access to Nature grant scheme is aiming to encourage people to appreciate England‘s natural environment and enjoy green spaces to those people who currently have little or no contact with the natural environment. The scheme is about £25 million funded through the Big Lottery Fund‘s Changing Spaces programme. The programme is 45


aiming for 1.7 million people from urban, rural and coastal communities to have benefited from the grant that gives them the opportunity to experience and enjoy the natural environment through variety of funded projects. The recipients of the grant funding so far are Community Service Volunteers at country parks in Birmingham with the grant value of ÂŁ225,140.00. The project will establish ranger clubs in primary schools and work with community groups. Visits to the wider countryside will be organised where children will be able to learn about the work of countryside rangers and undertake activities like guided walks/pond dipping.

Theme 11: Stronger Communities

Testable Statement 20: Focus for community participations through public management

There is not much research evidence found for this testable statement.

4.2

Gap Analysis

Gap analysis has been identified in the early stage of the research to become the analysis method for this research review. In that manner, to complete the gap analysis, the table 4.1 below include verifiable evidence to produce verified statement. By adding the scientific evidence to the statement (italic and bold font), the statement is verified. Meanwhile, the other statement which is lack of scientific evidence (verifiable evidence), it will remain as it before.

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Table 4.1: Gap Analysis of the verifiable evidence to produce verified statement Benefit of GI Claimed by Landscape Institute 1.

Climate Change Adaptation Even modest increases in tree canopy cover can significantly reduce the urban heat island effect via evapotranspiration and shading, as well as improving air quality, which often suffers because of higher temperatures. Connectivity of GI via wildlife corridors is critical in ensuring that biodiversity is safeguarded in the face of a changing climate and green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding.

Testable Statement 1.

Modest increases on tree canopy cover can reduce urban heat island via evapotranspiration and shading, improving air quality.

Verifiable Evidence 

2.

Green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding.

2.

Climate Change Mitigation Well-designed and managed GI can encourage people to travel in a more sustainable way, such as cycling and walking. In addition to acting as carbon sinks, trees and landform can reduce energy use for heating and cooling buildings by shading them in summer and sheltering them in winter. A GI approach to planning can also optimise the potential for efficient, decentralised, renewable energy, improving local energy security, providing space for ground source heating, hydroelectric power, biomass and wind power.

3.

Well designed and managed GI can encourage cycling and walking.

4.

5.

6.

Trees are carbon sinks.

Trees and landform can reduce energy use for heating and cooling building.

GI approach to planning can optimise the potential for decentralised energy production.

Verified Statement

Increasing green cover by 10% in urban areas could keep extreme surface temperatures by 2.5°C, however by removing 10% of green cover would increase expected maximum surface temperature by 7°C by the 2080s. Urban tree planting can account for a 25% reduction in net cooling in urban landscapes. By adding 10% green cover would reduce runoff from a 28mm rainfall event by 4.9% by the 2080s. Reciprocally by adding 10% tree cover can reduce run-off from 28mm rainfall event by 5.7% by 2080s.

Even modest increases in tree canopy cover can significantly reduce the urban heat island effect via evapotranspiration and shading, as well as improving air quality which often suffers because of higher temperatures. By increasing 10% green cover in urban areas could keep extreme surface temperatures by 2.5°C, however by removing 10% of green cover would increase expected maximum surface temperature by 7°C by the 2080s. Tree planting in urban area can account for a 25% reduction in net cooling in urban landscapes.

The presence of trees, garden, parks or views that encourage people to cycle and walk. Access to attractive large public open space is associated with higher levels of walking or jogging Total amount of carbon held by vegetation in Great Britain (GB) is estimated to be 114 Mtonnes (Mt.) while the amount of carbon in the soils of GB is estimated to be 9838 Mt. Canopies and vegetation increase on the side walls of buildings could decrease in near-ground summer air temperature 0 of 0.2-1.2 C, indirectly this decrease could result in the buildings‘ cooling energy-savings of 4-40%. Distributed energy system is an efficient, reliable and environmental friendly compare to the traditional way. Distributed energy system is a good option with respect to sustainable development in the long run and aims at utilizing local fuels (biomass and local fuel storage).

Well-designed and managed GI can encourage people to travel in a more sustainable way, such as cycling and walking. Trees, garden, parks or views will encourage people to do cycling and walking.

Connectivity of GI via wildlife corridors is critical in ensuring that biodiversity is safeguarded in the face of a changing climate and green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding. By adding 10% tree cover can reduce run-off from 28mm rainfall event by 5.7% by 2080s.

In addition to acting as carbon sinks, it is estimated that carbon held by vegetation in GB is to be 114 Mtonnes (Mt.) while the amount of carbon in the soils of GB is estimated to be 9838 Mt. Trees and landform can reduce energy use for heating and cooling buildings by shading them in summer and sheltering them in winter. Canopies and vegetation on the side walls of buildings could cool energy-savings of 440%. A GI approach to planning can also optimise the potential for efficient, decentralised, renewable energy, improving local energy security, providing space for ground source heating, hydroelectric power, biomass and wind power. This is because the distributed energy system is an efficient, reliable and environmental friendly and it is good for sustainable development. The example of local project is South Yorkshire Woodfuel Program as a renewable energy generation from wood or biomass.

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Benefit of GI Claimed by Landscape Institute 3.

Water Management GI is a good approach for managing flood risk. This can involve placing sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) in developments to attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation. Agricultural land and wetlands can be used to store flood water in areas where there is no risk to homes and commercial buildings. GI can be used to manage coastal retreat as well as to restore wetlands, enhancing carbon sequestration whilst providing important wildlife habitat.

Testable Statement

Verifiable Evidence

7.

Sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) can attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation.

The structures for stormwater handling are integrated into local landscaping such as ponds, reed-beds, ditches for creating attractive blue-green environments.

8.

GI can be used to manage coastal retreat, restore wetlands.

Recycling shingle has been used for a beach protection was unique and it is applied for Dungeness Nuclear Power Station to protect it from erosion by beach feeding.

9.

Wetlands are also carbon sinks.

Global storage of carbon (C) in mangrove biomass is estimated at 4.03 Pg C The annual fossil CO2 emission for North America in 1990 was 1.6 Pg C.

4.

Dealing With Waste GI assets can deal with waste in a sustainable way. A good example of this is the use of reed beds which remove pollutants from water. Historically, waste has been placed in landfill sites, which have then been adapted for other GI functions, including wildlife habitats and leisure parks. Closed landfill sites are a legacy which could provide a much greater range of functions if greater investment was made available.

10. Wider range of after uses on reclamation closed landfill sites.

11. Use of reed beds to remove water pollutants.

 

The uses of completed landfills as golf course are golf courses, parks, playgrounds and ball fields, botanical gardens, residential and industrial development, and others (parking areas, airport runways and goodstransfer yards). Closed landfill sites can be successfully restored to community forest. Design and construction of reed beds used for effluent polishing in UK. The majority of sewage treatment plants in UK are designed to meet effluent quality standards. Reed beds proved to be superior at removing -1 ammonia (5.3 mg 1 ). BOD removal efficiencies were highest in the reed beds, with mean effluent -1 BOD levels (22.2 mg 1 ).

Verified Statement GI is a good approach for managing flood risk. This can involve placing sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) in developments to attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation. Agricultural land and wetlands can be used to store flood water in areas where there is no risk to homes and commercial buildings. The structures for stormwater handling can be integrated into local landscaping such as ponds, reed-beds and ditches for creating attractive blue-green environments. GI can be used to manage coastal retreat as well as to restore wetlands through recycling shingle to protect it from erosion by beach feeding. This can be seen at Dungeness Nuclear Power Station. GI also could enhancing carbon sequestration and it is estimated that global storage of carbon in mangrove biomass is 4.03 Pg C whilst providing important wildlife habitat. GI assets can deal with waste in a sustainable way. A good example of this is the use of reed beds which remove pollutants from water. Reed beds proved to be superior at -1 removing ammonia (5.3 mg 1 ) -1 and BOD at (22.2 mg 1 ). Historically, waste has been placed in landfill sites, which have then been adapted for other GI functions, including wildlife habitats and leisure parks. Closed landfill sites are a legacy which could provide a much greater range of functions if greater investment was made available. Completed landfills can be used as golf courses, parks, playgrounds and ball fields, botanical gardens, residential and industrial development, and others (parking areas, airport runways and goods-transfer yards). It also can be restored to community forest.

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Benefit of GI Claimed by Landscape Institute 5.

Food Production Creating space for food production through allotments and community gardens and orchards, increases access to healthy food, provides educational opportunities, contributes to food security and reconnects communities with their local environment. Connecting local communities with these assets via footpaths and cycle ways can encourage this reconnection further.

6.

Biodiversity Enhancement, Corridors And Linkages

Testable Statement

Verifiable Evidence

12. Space for food production through allotments will increase access to healthy food, provide educational opportunities and reconnect communities.

13. Species migration – response to climate change

14. Accessible GI provides opportunities for informal and active recreation

Community development was a main benefit of urban food production in the local authorities of England and Wales. Community gardening in Toronto were perceived by gardeners to provide numerous health benefits including improved access to food, nutrient, physical activity and improved mental health, promote social health and community cohesion.

Creating space for food production through allotments and community gardens and orchards, increases access to healthy food, provides educational opportunities, contributes to food security and reconnects communities with their local environment. Connecting local communities with these assets via footpaths and cycle ways can encourage this reconnection further. Local authorities of England and Wales agreed that the main benefit of urban food production was community development and it is similar in Toronto where it is improved access to food, nutrient, physical activity and improved mental health, promote social health and community cohesion.

Corridors can reduce the rate of loss of species help to maintain species richness and minimized the extinctions by establishing the corridors. This is positive whereby connecting patches of habitat with corridors did slow the rate of extinction of species and preserving species richness for longer period of time than disconnected habitat patches. This is because the habitat can migrate to the other area using the corridor.

The role of GI in providing wildlife habitat in both urban and rural areas is well established, but taking a landscape-scale approach to the planning, design and management of connected GI assets provides the framework within which species migration can more readily occur in response to environmental pressures such as climate change. This is proved where corridors can reduce the rate of loss of species whereby connecting patches of habitat with corridors did slow the rate of extinction of species and preserving species richness for longer period of time so that habitat can migrate to other area using the corridor.

About 74% of adults in UK agreed that green spaces are important for their general health. In Texas, most people used greenway trails for recreation. Users felt that these urban greenway trails were contributing most to community quality of life through resident health/fitness, the natural areas they provide, better land use and resident pride.

As illustrated by all of the case studies in this position statement, accessible GI provides important opportunities for informal and active recreation. In UK, about 74% of adults in UK agreed that green spaces are important for their general health. Ensuring that these assets are provided in close proximity to people‘s homes, are maintained properly, and are designed with the needs of local communities in mind, is critical to their positive role in public health and wellbeing.

The role of GI in providing wildlife habitat in both urban and rural areas is well established, but taking a landscape-scale approach to the planning, design and management of connected GI assets provides the framework within which species migration can more readily occur in response to environmental pressures such as climate change.

7.

Recreation And Health As illustrated by all of the case studies in this position statement, accessible GI provides important opportunities for informal and active recreation. Ensuring that these assets are provided in close proximity to people‘s homes, are maintained properly, and are designed with the needs of local communities in mind, is critical to their positive role in public health and wellbeing.

Verified Statement

49


Benefit of GI Claimed by Landscape Institute 8.

Economic Values Quality green space can have a major positive impact on land and property markets, creating settings for investment and acting as a catalyst for wider regeneration.

Testable Statement 15. Quality green space – positive impact on land and property markets

Verifiable Evidence 

16. Attract investment and tourism

 

9.

Local Distinctiveness Well-designed and managed GI assets, particularly those that engage local communities and which relate to landscape character and heritage, can enhance local sense of place and foster community spirit. They can be a catalyst for regeneration and stimulate employment opportunities by attracting investment and tourism.

10. Education As demonstrated by the River Ray Corridor and Ingrebourne Hill, natural environments which are connected to local communities can provide a range of educational opportunities and assist in reconnecting society with the natural environment; a fundamental prerequisite of living within environmental limits, and a cornerstone of the Government‘s sustainable development strategy.

17. Enhance local sense of place and foster community spirit

18. GI provides range of educational opportunities

19. Reconnecting society with natural environment

Verified Statement

Trees are associated with a 3.5 - 4.5% increase in the selling price of single family dwellings. Proximity of watercourses and urban forest areas had a positive influence on apartment price. The good trees cover in the visible surroundings housing area give a positive price to the higher house value (raises a property‘s value by nearly 4%) Greening projects in the US tend to attract investment. Redeveloping in urban areas as a green space in the city of Toronto the implementation of parks, playgrounds, trails, greenways, and other open spaces can attract tourism activity.

Quality green space can have a major positive impact on land and property markets, creating settings for investment and acting as a catalyst for wider regeneration. The good trees cover in housing areas will increase 3.5 – 4.5% property’s value. At the same time, having a greening project or green space will attract investment and tourism activity.

The characteristics and experience of the green network resulted in progressive physical, cognitive and social functioning of urban residents, hence offering well-being. Community gardening can play a very important for the social reproduction of the community in the Bronx, NY where the garden is help to promote a sense of place which is a focus for communities and as a centre for community cultural.

Well-designed and managed GI assets, particularly those that engage local communities and which relate to landscape character and heritage, can enhance local sense of place and foster community spirit. This is where the community gardening play a very important role in Bronx, New York to promote sense of place and focus as a centre for community cultural. They can be a catalyst for regeneration and stimulate employment opportunities by attracting investment and tourism.

Visiting national parks or other ecologically valuable areas is positive in terms of environmental education. It can contribute to improving the visitors‘ sensitivity and in changing their preferences. Natural England‘s Access to Nature grant scheme is aiming to encourage people to appreciate England‘s natural environment and enjoy green spaces to those people who currently have little or no contact with the natural environment.

As demonstrated by the River Ray Corridor and Ingrebourne Hill, natural environments which are connected to local communities can provide a range of educational opportunities and assist in reconnecting society with the natural environment; a fundamental prerequisite of living within environmental limits, and a cornerstone of the Government‘s sustainable development strategy. By visiting the national parks or other ecologically valuable areas is positive in terms of environmental education and Natural England’s Access to Nature grant scheme is helping people who currently have little or no contact with the natural environment.

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Benefit of GI Claimed by Landscape Institute 11. Stronger Communities GI can help in meeting a wide range of community needs. The spirit of the GI approach means that social, environmental and economic potential is considered and optimised. It can be a focus for community participation through public management, as well as providing opportunities for education, training, volunteering and capacity building.

Testable Statement 20. Focus for community participations through public management

Verifiable Evidence 

None

Verified Statement GI can help in meeting a wide range of community needs. The spirit of the GI approach means that social, environmental and economic potential is considered and optimised. It can be a focus for community participation through public management, as well as providing opportunities for education, training, volunteering and capacity building.

From the table 4.1 above, we can see most of the testable statement have its own scientific or research evidence. Only one (1) didn‘t have any of scientific or research evidence to support the statement. The next chapter will discuss detail on findings of this research review.

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Chapter 5

5.

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION

5.1

Findings

According to the previous chapter, the benefit of green infrastructure has been recognized by many and research evidence is successfully proven to verify the Position Statement from Landscape Institute, UK claims the many benefits of GI. Generally, there is certain testable statement with too many scientific or research evidence and some of them none. This can be seen from the topics of climate change adaptation and mitigation, water management, waste, biodiversity and corridor linkages, food production, recreation and health, economic values and education. There is significant lack of scientific or research evidence under the topics of stronger communities, local distinctiveness and some of the topics related to the communities. Therefore, further research should lead to a lack of research evidence to this topic to support the claims.

In the meantime, it is vital to understand the GI assets related to each testable statement and the benefits it can offer. For example, the education benefit can be achieved through the GI assets (urban forest, national park or green space) by the community. On the other hand, there must be the GI assets stated in the claims for each position statement.

The other findings is also weather the scientific or research evidence is really can apply in the UK context is still questionable. This is because

52


there is no specific scientific or research in UK which is only focus on the specific topics under the green infrastructure benefits in UK. So, this research review is necessary to make an assumption there is same scenario can be applied in UK or throughout the world. Below are the new position statement suggested for the Landscape Institute to include in the position statement:

i.

Climate Change Adaptation Even modest increases in tree canopy cover can significantly reduce the urban heat island effect via evapotranspiration and shading, as well as improving air quality which often suffers because of higher temperatures. By increasing 10% green cover in urban areas could keep extreme surface temperatures by 2.5째C, however by removing 10% of green cover would increase expected maximum surface temperature by 7째C by the 2080s. Tree planting in urban area can account for a 25% reduction in net cooling in urban landscapes. Connectivity of GI via wildlife corridors is critical in ensuring that biodiversity is safeguarded in the face of a changing climate and green space can ameliorate surface water run-off to reduce the risk of flooding. By adding 10% tree cover can reduce run-off from 28mm rainfall event by 5.7% by 2080s.

ii.

Climate Change Mitigation Well-designed and managed GI can encourage people to travel in a more sustainable way, such as cycling and walking. Trees, garden, parks or views will encourage people to do cycling and walking. In addition to acting as carbon sinks, it is estimated that 53


carbon held by vegetation in GB is to be 114 Mtonnes (Mt.) while the amount of carbon in the soils of GB is estimated to be 9838 Mt. Trees and landform can reduce energy use for heating and cooling buildings by shading them in summer and sheltering them in winter. Canopies and vegetation on the side walls of buildings could cool energy-savings of 4-40%. A GI approach to planning can also optimise the potential for efficient, decentralised, renewable energy, improving local energy security, providing space for ground source heating, hydroelectric power, biomass and wind power. This is because the distributed energy system is an efficient, reliable and environmental friendly and it is good for sustainable development. The example of local project is South Yorkshire Woodfuel Program as a renewable energy generation from wood or biomass. .

iii.

Water Management GI is a good approach for managing flood risk. This can involve placing sustainable drainage systems (SUDs) in developments to attenuate surface water runoff and enhance biodiversity and recreation. Agricultural land and wetlands can be used to store flood water in areas where there is no risk to homes and commercial buildings. The structures for stormwater handling can be integrated into local landscaping such as ponds, reed-beds and ditches for creating attractive blue-green environments. GI can be used to manage coastal retreat as well as to restore wetlands through recycling shingle to protect it from erosion by beach feeding. This can be seen at Dungeness Nuclear Power Station. GI also could enhancing carbon sequestration and it is 54


estimated that global storage of carbon in mangrove biomass is 4.03 Pg C whilst providing important wildlife habitat.

iv.

Dealing With Waste GI assets can deal with waste in a sustainable way. A good example of this is the use of reed beds which remove pollutants from water. Reed beds proved to be superior at removing ammonia (5.3 mg 1-1) and BOD at (22.2 mg 1-1). Historically, waste has been placed in landfill sites, which have then been adapted for other GI functions, including wildlife habitats and leisure parks. Closed landfill sites are a legacy which could provide a much greater range of functions if greater investment was made available. Completed landfills can be used as golf courses, parks, playgrounds and ball fields, botanical gardens, residential and industrial development, and others (parking areas, airport runways and goods-transfer yards). It also can be restored to community forest.

v.

Food Production Creating space for food production through allotments and community gardens and orchards, increases access to healthy food, provides educational opportunities, contributes to food security and reconnects communities with their local environment. Connecting local communities with these assets via footpaths and cycle ways can encourage this reconnection further. Local authorities of England and Wales agreed that the main benefit of urban food production was community development and it is similar in Toronto where it is improved access to food, nutrient, 55


physical activity and improved mental health, promote social health and community cohesion.

vi.

Biodiversity Enhancement, Corridors And Linkages The role of GI in providing wildlife habitat in both urban and rural areas is well established, but taking a landscape-scale approach to the planning, design and management of connected GI assets provides the framework within which species migration can more readily occur in response to environmental pressures such as climate change. This is proved where corridors can reduce the rate of loss of species whereby connecting patches of habitat with corridors did slow the rate of extinction of species and preserving species richness for longer period of time so that habitat can migrate to other area using the corridor.

vii.

Recreation and Health As illustrated by all of the case studies in this position statement, accessible GI provides important opportunities for informal and active recreation. In UK, about 74% of adults in UK agreed that green spaces are important for their general health. Ensuring that these assets are provided in close proximity to people‘s homes, are maintained properly, and are designed with the needs of local communities in mind, is critical to their positive role in public health and wellbeing.

viii.

Economic Values Quality green space can have a major positive impact on land and property markets, creating settings for investment and acting as a 56


catalyst for wider regeneration. The good trees cover in housing areas will increase 3.5 – 4.5% property’s value. At the same time, having a greening project or green space will attract investment and tourism activity.

ix.

Local Distinctiveness Well-designed and managed GI assets, particularly those that engage local communities and which relate to landscape character and heritage, can enhance local sense of place and foster community spirit. This is where the community gardening play a very important role in Bronx, New York to promote sense of place and focus as a centre for community cultural. They can be a catalyst for regeneration and stimulate employment opportunities by attracting investment and tourism.

x.

Education As demonstrated by the River Ray Corridor and Ingrebourne Hill, natural environments which are connected to local communities can provide a range of educational opportunities and assist in reconnecting society with the natural environment; a fundamental prerequisite

of

living

within

environmental

limits,

and

a

cornerstone of the Government‘s sustainable development strategy. By visiting the national parks or other ecologically valuable areas is positive in terms of environmental education and Natural England’s Access to Nature grant scheme is helping people who currently have little or no contact with the natural environment.

57


xi.

Stronger Communities GI can help in meeting a wide range of community needs. The spirit of the GI approach means that social, environmental and economic potential is considered and optimised. It can be a focus for community participation through public management, as well as providing opportunities for education, training, volunteering and capacity building.

5.2

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is hoped that this review may informed the Landscape Institute, UK on how the benefit of green infrastructure should be addressed in the Position Statement. The scientific or research evidence is very important to address together with the statement to ensure that the benefits of green infrastructure are able to deliver by the landscape practitioners. The research evidence found from this review is applicable to the UK context and some of the can be apply throughout the world.

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Critical Evaluation on Landscape Institute UK Claims for The Benefits of Green Infrastructure