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licenzianti

cai in veni taivanis prezidenti jastin triudo kanadis premier-ministri

Planet Trump


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2017

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11 redaqtorisgan liderebi 13 planeta trampi axali msoflio wesrigi 14 ori sityviT rogor Secvlis donald trampi amerikas da msoflios 17 bolSevizmis dabruneba Seteva liberalizmze 18 xangrZlivi daRmasvla globaluri ekonomika sustdeba 21 CineTis yvelafris Tavmjdomare sis ambiciebi 22 qera pompezuroba evropis populistebis aRzeveba 24 WiSkarTan ratom gaizrdeba imigracia 26 aramyari wonasworoba biznesi ufro `mwvane~ unda gaxdes 27 gamoiyene 2017 wlis yvelaze `cxeli~ samuSao adgilebi 2017 wlis kalendari 30 Cven mier yoveli TvisTvis SerCeuli msoflio movlenebi

41 42 43 44 44 45 46 46 48

evropa brZola safrangeTisTvis kidev erTi `Sxamiani kampania~ problemebis zRva migrantTa krizisi ufro gamwvavdeba leninis `SurisZieba~ uxerxuloba putinisTvis maradi kancleri dRegrZeli qalbatoni merkeli eklesiis gamxleCi martin luTeris suliskveTeba arsebobas agrZelebs `muxruWebis gareSe~ TurqeTis demokratiis daRmasvla Cqardeba espaneTis gasaWiri mTavroba, rogorc iqna rencis fsoni italiis bedi bewvze hkidia kidev erTi 1917 maria alioxina imaze, Tu ras niSnavs revolucia dRes

britaneTi 33 lodini CamoSlamde breqsitis tkivilis SegrZneba 34 breqsitis barometri rva cvladi dasakvirveblad 35 opoziciis gareSe ararelevanturi opoziciis safrTxeebi 35 matareblis asaki britaneTis uaxlesi rkinigza 36 saSinao WeSmaritebani ekonomikuri sirTuleebi 37 Brent-is dasasruli navTobis sabado `scenidan Cadis~ 38 iqneb imitom, rom londoneli var sadiq xani qalaqebis mniSvnelobaze

azia 59 samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis qveynebis asociaciis (ASEAN)-is gza klubi saSualo asakis xdeba 60 WaRara kaci Zalauflebas inarCunebs malaiziis arasasurveli lideri 61 gaiRe! hiroSi mikitani iaponiis xelaxla gamogonebaze 62 Zala cifrebSia indoeTis impulsi 63 `Sinaurebi~ da `ucxoebi~ ozebis qveyanaSi avstraliis nacionaluri identoba 63 pani kacia samxreT koreis arCevnebi 64 taivanis isev `vefxvad~ gadasaqcevad cai in veni reformebze CineTi 65 sis brZola ZalauflebisTvis brZola adgilisTvis partiis ierarqiaSi 66 ocwliani brZola daZabuli arCevnebi honkongSi 67 Zalian politikuri ekonomika zrda safrTxeSia 68 axali grZeli marSi Cineli studentebi sazRvargareT miemarTebian 68 mcire moTamaSeebi makaoSi azartuli TamaSi saSualo fenaze 70 ganviTarebis aziuri gza jin likuni infrastruqturaSi investirebaze axlo aRmosavleTi 71 roca `islamuri saxelmwifo~ warsuls Cabardeba `islamuri saxelmwifos~ dasasruli? 72 yvelaferi metismetad feTqebadia turi regionis cxel wertilebSi 73 gaicaniT Cirani irani, axali CineTi afrika 74 wyevlisgan Tavis daxsna saocrad xelSemwyobi vardna 75 uCveulo politika kenia saarCevno yuTebTan midis 76 CamoecaleT gogonebs gzidan ivon Caka Caka gogonebisTvis warmatebis miRwevaSi daxmarebaze saerTaSoriso 77 birTvuli iaraRis gavrcelebis daweuli barieri kvlavac bombze Relvis droa 78 fardaaxdili 2016 wlis gaumarTlebeli prognozebi 79 antiglobalistebis aRzeveba Tavisufali vaWroba safrTxis winaSea

25 St James's Street London SW1A HG telephone: 020 7830 7000 On the web: theworldin.com E-mail:worldineditor@economist.com Editorial close: November 9th 2016

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SeerTebuli Statebi `miwisZvra~, saxelad `trampi~ demagogis gamarjveba xaTabala gamarjvebulTaTvis kongresis sindisis qenjna `tramponomika~ misi Zala da safrTxeebi qalaqebi Statebis winaaRmdeg brZola ara mxolod tualetebisTvis 52 siyvarulo, Zalsa Sensa rasaTaSorisi qorwinebis aRmasvla 49 50 51 52

amerikis kontinenti 53 kanadis aRmavloba 150 wlis iubiles zeimi 54 halifaqsis afeTqebis istoria gakveTilebi didi afeTqebidan 55 wiTlebis ukandaxeva samxreT amerika marjvniv ixreba 58 kanadis gaxsniloba jastin triudo globalizaciis Sesaxeb


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80 saetapo mniSvnelobis monacemebi 2017 wlis mniSvnelovani TariRebi 81 airCie da nu daakonkreteb moqnili midgoma genderis mimarT 81 savali zolebis Secvla gakveTilebi Sveduri reformidan 82 cxovrebis erTi weli 2017 wlis damaintrigebeli iubileebi 83 gadaketeT naRdi fulis wyaro, SeaCereT konfliqti jorj kluni da jon prendergasti korufciasTan brZolaze aTaswleulis Taoba specialuri seqcia amomavali varskvlavebis prognozebisTvis 85 sem altmani momavlis asaSeneblad 86 saianda mohuCiva panafrikanistebi modian 86 isaak ernandesi cekva xsnisTvis 87 deizi ridli laiTsi kamera, moqmedebis droa 87 hani al-mulia sruliad axali xedva 88 amani al qaTasbeqi brZola brendebisTvis 88 teticia gaska xelovnuri inteleqtis galileos dro 89 amanda koleta Zarcvis TamaSebi 89 Sivon zilisi botebis siyvarulis saswavleblad 90 Tor garneti TvalTvali Sexedulebebze 91 joSua vongi gamowveva CineTisTvis 91 luiza onili feminizmi niuansebiT 92 Tomasa del riali momavlis xmauri 92 boian slati okeaneebis gasawmendad msoflio cifrebSi 93 prognozi 81 qveynisTvis 103 prognozi 14 industriisTvis globaluri mimoxilva The Economist Intelligence Unit-isgan biznesi 109 veTxovebiT warsuls did garigebaTa dasasruli 110 mklavic uWris da gonebac xandazmulTa pyroba biznesisa 111 daqiravebuli daxmareba gaicaniT Tqveni piradi TanaSemwe 112 vicnob am xmas saubari Tqvens macivarTan 113 dnobis wertili foladis daRmasvla 114 qalebi marTvis sadaveebs euflebian gadaadgilebebi marTvis oTaxSi 115 indoeTis `fuTis gasaxsnelad~ IKEA kars aRebs 115 `saburvelis Semoxsna~ Saudi Aramco-s gayidva 116 msubuqad mrbolebi umZRolo manqanebi gzaze gadian 117 srulyofa varjiSis gziT CineTis dauxvewavi menejmentis ideebi 118 grZelvadiani xedviT martin soreli riskis Tavidan aridebaze

finansebi 119 bazrebi politikosTa wyalobis imedad cali Tvali centralur bankebze, meore ki – mTavrobebze 120 jaWvuri reaqcia blokCeinis namdvili gamocda 121 metismeti sinaTle? gamWvirvaloba fraivesis sapirispirod 122 breqsiti da qalaqi udidesi gayra istoriaSi 123 dividendebi an katastrofa kapitalis nakadebi da migracia 124 daxieT saxelmZRvanelo areul-dareuli ekonomika 125 ukan, momavalSi rei dalios principebi 2017 wlisTvis mecniereba da teqnologia 126 medicina personalizebuli xdeba moemzadeT piradad Tqvenze morgebuli mkurnalobisTvis 127 geni-aluri genuri Terapiis epoqa 128 damibeWdeT saxli 3D-beWdva frTebs Slis 128 frTebis interneti frinvelTa kvaldakval 129 roca kompiuterebi Tqvens tkivils grZnoben robo-fsiqiatrebi 130 mSvidobiT, susi? supersimetriis WeSmaritebis wami 131 planetebi, yvelgan planetebi sacxovrisis ZiebaSi 132 mecniereba yvelasTvis iuri milneri cnobismoyvareobis Zalaze kultura 133 kompendiumebi evropis aTwleulis xelovnebis mxolod erTi zafxuli 134 Txrobis droa virtualurad namdvili Txroba 135 wignebis winaswari gayidva sakiTxavi sia 2017 wlisTvis 135 somalilendis `malamo~ wignis axali gamofena-gayidva frTebs Slis 136 iv sen loranis memkvidreoba iv sen loranis ori muzeumi ixsneba 136 deJa viu televizia nacnobi axali Souebi 137 cqeris axali samyaro Susan Wojcicki on viewing habits and the new video economy nekrologi 138 barak obamas pauzebi prezidentobis saxasiaTo niSnebi

133 saqarTvelo 2017 seqcia momzadebulia `jorjia Tudei jgufis“ mier GEORGIA TODAY

EDITOR: Daniel Franklin MANAGING EDITOR: Yvonne Ryan DEPUTY EDITORS: Laurence Blair, Leo Abruzzese EDITORIAL ASSISTANT: Amanda Coletta COUNTRIES EDITOR: Alasdair Ross INDUSTRIES EDITOR: Martin Adams; DESIGN AND ART DIRECTION: Mike Kenny, Bailey and Kenny ART DIRECTOR: Anita Wright CHARTS: Michael Robinson ILLUSTRATIONS: Steve Carroll, Lauren Crow, Matt Herring, Sam Kerr, Joe McLaren, Kevin (“KAL”) Kallaugher, Dave Simonds PICTURE EDITOR: Juliet Brightmore RESEARCH: Carol Howard, James Yan EDITORIAL ASSISTANCE: Ingrid Esling, Patsy Dryden Cover images: Joe McLaren (Tarot Cards), ESA/Hubble & NASA (Galaxies) `msoflio 2017 wels~ The World in 2017 Targmani: `jorjia Tudei jgufi~ Georgia Today Group © 2016 gazeTi `ekonomisti~ The Economist Newspaper Limited yvela ufleba daculia© beWdva: Sps `gamomcemloba qolori~ ISSN 2233-3649

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2017

redaqtorisgan

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evoluciis suli itrialebs evropaSi 2017 wels, da ara mxolod, imitom rom ruseTSi bolSevikuri gadatrialebis 100 wlisTavia, aramed karl marqsis `kapitalis~ pirveli tomis gamocemis 150 da uTvalav maisurze aRbeWdili revolucis saxis – Ce gevaras sikvdilis 50 wlisTavicaa. suraTis sisrulisTvis, 500 weli sruldeba mas Semdeg, rac martin luTerma vitenbergis taZris karebze amokawra Tavisi 95 Tezisi (rogorc istoria metyvelebs), romelic protestantuli reformaciis dasabami gaxda. Zneli ar iqneba paralelebis moZebna warsulSi areulobebis gamomwvev pirobebsa da meamboxe ganwyobilebebs Soris momavalSi. amerikelebma ukve dauWires mxari TamaSis wesebis Secvlis damangrevel pirobebs. prezidentad donald trampis sensaciuri arCeva mianiSnebs, rom amboxs TeTri saxlidan gauZRvebian, sadac kongresis orive palata aseve respublikelebis xelSia. Sin batoni trampi pirobas debs, rom megamSenebeli iqneba, da ara mxolod gareSeTagan qveynis dasacavi kedlebis, aramed gzebis, xidebis, gvirabebisa da

baton trampis gamaognebeli gamarjveba qariSxaliviT gadauvlis mTel msoflios sxva infrastruqturis. man aseve miznad daisaxa Tavisi winamorbedis wamowyebebis dasamareba, maT Soris, `obamaqearis~ ukugawveva. rac Seexeba qveynis gareT, introverti aSS ara marto daasustebs mokavSireebs evropidan da aziidan, romlebic zesaxelmwifos mastabilizebel mxardaWeraze arian damokidebulni, aramed baton trampis gamaognebeli gamarjveba qariSxaliviT gadauvlis mTel msoflios. evropaSi ryeva mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi iqneba SesamCnevi. masStaburi protestiT gajerebuli aRmoCndeba saprezidento arCevnebi safrangeTSi da saparlamento arCevnebi germaniasa da niderlandebSi. imedgacrueba mdored mzardi ekonomikis gamo, uaryofiTi saprocento ganakveTebis am areul-dareul droSi, evrokavSiridan iaponiamde kidev ufro gaaZlierebs amomrCevelTa ukmayofilebas. britaneTSi, imavdroulad, oficialurad daiwyeba evrokavSirTan `ganqorwinebis~ procesi, romelsac mwvaved daupirispirdebian rogorc Sin, ise gareT. nebismieri ajanyeba umalve iqneba CaxSobili dRevandel ruseT-

Si, sadac vladimir putini sul ufro emsgavseba axal mefes, da CineTSi, sadac si Zinpini aqtiurad gamoiyenebs komunisturi partiis centraluri komitetis yrilobas Tavisi imperiuli ambiciebis misaRwevad. orive qveyana Seecdeba daarRvios amerikis mier mxardaWerili (ganmtkicebuli) status kvo, yofili sabWoTa imperiis periferiebidan moyolebuli, axlo aRmosavleTsa da samxreT CineTis zRvamde. Tu amas davumatebT terorizmis safrTxes da birTvul muqaras CrdiloeT koreis prezident kim Cen inis mxridan, msoflios usafrTxoeba myifed gamoiyureba. farTo SromiT bazarzec revoluciuri Zvrebia mosalodneli. es ara mxolod qalebis mier wamyvani poziciebis dakavebis xelSewyoba, aramed upirveles yovlisa miRwevebia axali teqnologiebis ganviTarebaSi. axali samuSao adgilebi – upiloto TviTmfrinavebis dispetCerebidan `funqciuri programuli modulebis (botebis) operatorebamde~ da virtualuri modis dizainerebamde – farTo SesaZleblobebs Seqmnis. xelovnur inteleqts mzardi gavlena aqvs adamianTa cxovrebaze (xolo personificirebuli medicina gaaZlierebs am tendenciebs). ufro da ufro meti kompiuteri, imavdroulad, cifruli personaluri momsaxurebis ufro efeqtur servisebs SesTavazebs momxmarebels. axalgazrdobas, rogorc Cans, naklebad Seawuxebs es Zvrebi. isini ufro dainteresdebian maTi gamoyenebiT momavlis gansazRvrisTvis. wlevandeli gamocemis specialur ganyofilebaSi vepatiJebiT axalgazrda Semoqmedebs, aqtivistebs, mewarmeebs da novatorebs, raTa movisminoT maTi prognozebi 2017 wlis da Semdgomi periodisTvis. isini savse arian ideebiT da reorganizebis mZafri surviliT – Tanamedrove luTeris an leninis msgavsad, oRond gacilebiT simpaTiurebi. ase rom, 2017 wels ar unda movelodeT mSvid stabilurobas, Tumca zogi ram damaimedebeli simtkiciT gamoirCeva. indoeTi rCeba didi ganviTarebadi bazrebis varskvlavad. avstralia agrZelebs 26-wlian uwyvet zrdas. samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis qveynebis gaerTianeba Tavisi arsebobis 50-e wlisTavs aRniSnavs, klubi SekavSirebulia, maSin rodesac evrokavSiri SemcirebisTvis emzadeba. fineTi dabadebidan 100 wlisTavs aRniSnavs, kanada – 150-s. kanadis premier-ministri – jastin triudo wers, rom misi qveyana apirebs `moicvas msoflio~, Riaa vaWrobisTvis, axali ideebisTvis, sxvadasxva kulturisa da xalxisTvis. antiglobalistTa yayanis fonze es TiTqmis revoluciurad JRers. deniel franklini redaqtori, The World in 2016


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2017

liderebi

`planeta trampi~ donald trampis amerikis 45-e prezidentad yofnis pirobebSi 2017 weli dasabams daudebs axal, ufro bnel globalur wesrigs, — gvafrTxilebs zani minton bedousi

l

zeni minton bedousi: mTavari redaqtori, The Economist

moklevadian perspeqtivaSi es `adrenalinis inieqciaa~ ekonomikaSi. SesaZlebelia es sakmarisi gamodges proteqcionizmis minimalur doneze dasakaveblad da, savaraudod, ramdenime simboluri antidempinguri tarifiT Semoifargleba. Sedegi, savaraudod, im scenariT warimarTeba, romelic 1980 wels, ronald reiganis Tavbrudamxvevi gamarjvebis Semdeg ganviTarda, rasac msoflio didi SeSfoTebiT adevnebda Tvals. ukeTes SemTxvevaSic ki, trampis prezidentoba mniSvnelovani negatiuri Sedegis matarebeli iqneba Ria msoflio wesrigisTvis. transwynarokeanuri partnioroba (TPP) – yvelaze didi savaWro garigeba wlebis ganmavlobaSi, mkvdaria. parizis klimaturi cvlilebebis SeTanxmeba nakleb savaraudoa, rom enTuziazmiT iyos miRebuli. iranis birTvuli SeTanxmeba SesaZloa CaiSalos. amgvarad, `ukeTesi SemTxveva~ ufro dakvirvebuli ganxilvisas naklebad savaraudoa. reigani dabadebiT optimisti iyo, romelmac irwmuna, rom amerika gabrwyinebuli qalaqia borcvis Tavze. baton trampis mowodeba mrisxanebasa da izolacias efuZneba. maSin, rodesac respublikelebi akontroleben kongresis orive palatas, misi mxardamWerebi, rogorc minimum, elian barierebis gaZlierebas, ukanono emigrantebis deportacias da xisti konservatorebis daniSvnas uzenaes sasamarTloSi. amerika sakuTar TavSi Caiketeba. mTel msoflioSi, imavdroulad, avtoritarebi aRmavlobis gzaze arian da Zlieri survili amoZravebT gamoiyenon amerikis introvertsia. CineTSi si Zinpini – yvelaze Zlieri lideri den siao pinis Semdeg, Seecdeba gamoiyenos komunisturi partiis kongresi misi avtoritaruli gavlenis ganmtkicebisTvis. is dros ar dakargavs da Seecdeba Seavsos geostrategiuli sahaero „jibe“, romelic aziaSi gaCnda trans wynarokeanuri marcxis Semdeg. ruseTSi vladimir putini isiamovnebs baton trampis yuradRebiT, magram sakuTar daucvelobas qveynis SigniT ucxouri agresiiT SeniRbavs. ar aris mosalodneli bolo moeRos ukrainisa da ruseTis danarCeni `axlo sazRvargareTis~ destabilizaciis mcdelobas. baton trampis gamarjvebiT gaZlierebuli evropis popu-

wyvdiadi usasrulo ver iqneba

s

iberalebisTvis 2016 Savbneli weli gamodga. populisturi risxvis talRam gadauara dasavleTs. aiZula britanelebi xma miecaT evrokavSiridan gamosvlisTvis, xolo amerikelebi – Tavis 45-e prezidentad aerCiaT uZravi qonebis magnati yovelgvari saxelmwifoebrivi gamocdilebis gareSe da romelmac Tanamedrove aSS-is istoriaSi yvelaze Seuracxmyofeli da dapirispirebiT aRsavse saarCevno kampania Caatara. sul ramdenime Tvis ganmavlobaSi amomrCevelma atlantis okeanis orive mxares Zlieri ukmayofileba gamoxata Tavisi politikuri istebliSmentis (mmarTveli wreebis) mimarT; dasavluri politikis wyalgamyofma memarjveneebsa da memarcxeneebs Soris dapirispirebidan, Riasa da daxuruls Soris dapirispirebisken gadainacvla; ifeTqa koleqtiurma guliswyromam globalizaciis mimarT, rodesac korumpirebuli (gayalbebuli) sistemis farglebSi sargebels mxolod sakuTari interesebis gamtarebeli elita Rebulobs. es gamanadgurebeli dartymaa liberaluri msoflio wesrigisTvis. xolo ramdenad seriozulia es, 2017 wels gamoCndeba. yvelaze mniSvnelovani iqneba, Tu rogori prezidenti aRmoCndeba donald trampi. mianiWeT mis sityvebs saarCevno kampaniis win da misi msvlelobisas nominaluri Rirebuleba da samomavlo prognozi muq ferebSi warmogvidgeba. batoni trampi mowodebiT ekonomikuri nacionalistia – adamiani, romelsac miaCnia, rom Tavisufalma vaWrobam daangria amerikis ekonomika, romelsac saeWvo hgonia amerikis valdebulebebi misi mokavSireebis mimarT da mouwodebs meqsikasTan gamyofi kedlis aSenebisa da muslimi emigrantebis Seviwroebisken. miuxedavad amisa, naklebad savaraudoa, rom prezidenti trampi Seecdeba aamoqmedos yvela punqti am araliberaluri dRis wesrigidan. albaT zogi ram gadarCeba (ix. CanarTi momdevno gverdze). rogorc Cans, amomrCevels, romelmac kandidat tramps moqmedebis Tavisufleba mianiWa, naklebad ainteresebda politikis detalebi. es ufro upirobo ndobaa misi gzavnilebis mimarT. saukeTeso Sedegi misi kabinetidan fokusireba iqneba ekonomikur gegmebze, minus proteqcionizmi. gadasaxadebis mniSvnelovani Semcireba da, amasTan erTad, mniSvnelovani xarjebi infrastruqturidan Tavdacvamde, gaakotrebs amerikis biujets grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi. magram


10

msoflio 2017

liderebi

ori sityviT rogor Secvlis axali prezidenti aSS-s da msoflios

m

iuxedavad imisa, rom moqmedebda detalizebuli politikuri platformis gareSe, donald trampma mravali miniSneba gaakeTa imis Taobaze, Tu ras gaakeTebda kabinetSi moxvedris SemTxvevaSi. erT-erTi yvelaze kanonzomieri aqti iqneboda Tebervlis Semdeg vakanturi adgilebis Sevseba uzenaes sasamarTloSi. zogi mosamarTlis asakis gaTvaliswinebiT, es ar iqneba erTaderTi daniSvna misi prezidentobis dros. kanoni abortebis Taobaze – milionobiT evangelisti qristianis guliswuxili, romlebmac xma misces baton tramps, didad ar Seicvleba, magram axalgazrda mosamarTleebis daniSvniT man SeiZleba momavalSi didi xniT daafiqsiros konservatiuli umravlesoba. kampaniis dros batonma trampma piroba dado, rom dablokavs barak obamas sufTa energiis gegmas, romelsac ukve Seeqmna problemebi sasamarTloSi. eleqtrosadgurebidan naxSirorJangis emisiis Semcirebaze mimarTuli RonisZiebis gareSe, amerikis mcdeloba – SezRudos globaluri daTboba, CaiSleba. parizis xelSekruleba klimaturi cvlilebebis Taobaze poziciebs dakargavs. `obamaqeari~ – misi winamorbedis mier xelmowerili jandacvis sadazRvevo sqema, Zlivs gadaurCa winasasamarTlo gamowvevebs. mosalodnelia `obamaqears~ problemebi Seeqmnas kongresSi. saarCevno kampaniis dros batonma trampma piroba dado, rom gaauqmebs programas da Secvlis `raime grandiozuliT~. adgilobrivi moTxovna garkveul biZgs miiRebs baton trampis sakamaTo korporaciuli sagadasaxado reformebisgan, romelsac mtkiced aqvs gadawyvetili, naxos miliardobiT dolaris qveyanaSi dabruneba multinacionaluri korporaciebis mier, gadasaxadebis Semcireba da damatebiTi infrastruqturuli xarjebi. biujetis deficiti gaizrdeba (`gaibereba~). misi proteqcionizmi aseve emuqreba msoflio ekonomikas. miuxedavad imisa, rom mas gadawyvetili aqvs, gadaxedos amerikis savaWro garigebas kanadasa da meqsikasTan (NAFTA), savaraudod, molaparakeba gadarCeba. Tumca wynari okeanis partnioroba mkvdaria. Tu batoni trampi daiwyebs savaWro oms, daawesebs axal tarifebs zogierT Cinur saqonelze. Sedegad SesaZloa globaluri krizisi miviRoT. Tu mivyvebiT movlenaTa msvlelobas, baton trampis ritorika amerikis pirvelobis Taobaze, `Zlieri xelis~ si-

s

listuri Semobruneba Zalas moikrebs 2017 wels. ukiduresad memarjvene partiebis aqtivoba arCevnebze gaizrdeba rogorc holandiaSi ise safrangeTSi da SesaZlebelia, pirvelad meore msoflio omis Semdgom epoqaSi, maT moipovon adgilebi germaniis parlamentSi. ra saxes miiRebs xangrZlivi, gamaRizianebeli saarCevno sezoni? evropul politikaSi wamyvani iqneba `safrTxobelebis gamofena~ – migrantebisgan momdinare safrTxeebi, uRirsi savaWro garigebebi da evrokavSiris ukeTureba. savaraudo Semdgomi teroristuli Tavdasxmebi kidev ufro daamZimeben viTarebas. finansuri Sokic am mimarTulebiT imuSavebs: fiskaluri krizisi portugaliaSi da qronikuli sabanko problemebis gamwvaveba italiaSi didi albaTobiTaa mosalodneli. msgavs febrilur garemoSi molaparakebebi breqsitis garSemo xangrZlivi, garTulebuli da mwvave iqneba.

gvirabis bolos sinaTlea es pirquSi wlebis Sesatyvisia, liberalebi SeSfoTebulni unda iyvnen, Tumca wyvdiadi usasrulo ver iqneba. populisturi da izolacionisturi politika sabolood moaxdens sakuTari Tavis diskreditacias, radgan misi Sedegebi damRupvelia. sastiki ironia – laTinur amerikaSi, regionSi,

yvaruli da saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebis ignorirebis mzadyofna mniSvnelovan gavlenas iqoniebs geopolitikaze. ruseTis prezidenti vladimir putini Seecdeba warmoaCinos baton trampis prezidentoba, rogorc msoflio mowyobaze sakuTari xedvis gamarjveba. igi Seecdeba miiRos ialtis axali SeTanxmeba, romelic daumtkicebs ruseTs sakuTari gavlenis sferos, ukrainis CaTvliT. axlo aRmosavleTSi batonma trampma unda airCios izolacionalistur instinqtebsa da sakuTar dapirebas Soris, `gamobertyos nagavi~ `islamuri saxelmwifodan~. is, savaraudod, `mwvane Suqs aunTebs~ baSar al-asadis reJims siriaSi, romelsac mxars uWers ruseTis samxedro Zala, raTa terorizmTan brZolis saxeliT imoqmedos opoziciuri Zalebis winaaRmdeg. birTvuli SeTanxmeba iranTan saTuoa. CineTis miswrafeba, moawyos sakuTari regioni, nakleb winaaRmdegobas waawydeba. prezidenti si Zinpini – kidev erTi avtoritari lideri, romelic baton trampis aRfrTovanebas imsaxurebs, Seecdeba ganavrcos qveynis upiratesoba aRmosavleTSi da samxreT CineTis zRvaSi, daZlios mezoblebis pretenziebi, romelTac mxars uWerda amerikis Zala, da gaagrZelos kunZulebis eqspansionisturi mSenebloba. taivanis de-faqto damoukidebloba amerikis saWoWmano garantiebs eyrdnoboda, rac axla kidev ufro myifed gamoiyureba. iaponia da samxreT korea imedovneben, rom batoni trampi realurad ar gulisxmobda, rom maT unda hqondeT sakuTari birTvuli iaraRi, rodesac amaze TiTqosda mianiSna. marko rubiom – baton trampis erT-erTma konkurentma respublikelebidan, saeWvod miiCnia misi unari, itvirTos mZime pasuxismgebloba amerikis birTvuli arsenalis gakontrolebaze. batonma trampma ganacxada, rom sulac ar miiCnevs amas iolad. magram rogor SeZlebs igi gaumklavdes mzard dapirispirebas, misi mowyvladobisa (mgrZnobelobis) da moqmedebis maCo stilis gaTvaliswinebiT?

amerika, upirveles yovlisa breqsitis Semdeg, eTnikur umciresobebs britaneTSi xSirad esmiT SekiTxva – ratom ar toveben qveyanas? espanuri da muslimuri warmoSobis amerikelebma SesaZloa igive moisminon 2017 wels. batoni trampi ibrZolebs, raTa Seasrulos Tavisi danapirebi, 11 milioni ukanono migrantis deportaciis, muslimTagan Tavis garidebis da meqsikis sazRvarze kedlis aSenebis Sesaxeb. magram imigracia garTuldeba, xolo axali cxovreba amerikaSi naklebad mimzidveli gaxdeba. ara mxolod rasizmi, aramed qalTmoZuleobac ufro Tavisuflad gaJRerdeba. amerika nakleb stumarTmoyvare qveyana iqneba. n helen joisi: saerTaSoriso seqciis redaqtori, The Economist

romelic cota xnis win yvelaze metad asocirdeboda Ria liberaluri ekonomikis sawinaaRmdego ganwyobebTan, kvlav aRiniSneba Semobruneba liberaluri mimarTulebiT. ganicades ra imedgacrueba, laTinoamerikelebi yelamde savse arian populizmiT. safrTxe, rom dasavleTis nativizmis es risxviT aRsavse Semoteva kidev ufro gaZlierdeba, kompensirdeba sxva ufro Rrma fesvebis mqone ZalebiT. teqnologiebi ganamtkiceben globalur urTierTobebs, rogoric unda iyos winaaRmdegoba migraciis an vaWrobis mimarT. studentebi swavloben sazRvargareTis universitetebSi onlainkursebis meSveobiT; mcire biznesi awarmoebs eqsports onlainbazrebze; adamianebi saubroben da uziareben erTmaneTs siaxleebs socialur mediaplatformebze. axalgazrda (momavali) amomrCevlebi izrdebian am cifruli SesaZleblobebis garemoSi da ufro miiswrafvian globalizaciisken, vidre maTi mSoblebi; axalgazrda Taobis arCevani breqsitisa da trampis winaaRmdegia. sakiTxavi is ki ar aris, rodis Semobrundeba msoflio gaxsnilobisken, aramed – ramdenad swrafad da rogori iqneba amasobaSi miyenebuli ziani. pasuxi am SekiTxvaze erTaderT adamianzea damokidebuli da mas donald j. trampi hqvia. n


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bolSevizmis dabruneba `msgavseba msofliosTan, romelmac warmoSva ruseTis revolucia, metad didia, damSvidebis saSualeba rom mogvces~, — acxadebs edrian vulriji

e

s mwuxare aswleulebis periodia. pirveli: 2014 – asi weli pirveli msoflio omis gaCaRebidan. msoflio omisa, romelmac moSala liberaluri wesrigi. Semdeg: 2016 – asi weli somaze brZolis Semdeg, erT-erTi yvelaze sisxliani konfliqti samxedro istoriaSi. 2017 – asi weli gavida mas Semdeg, rac leninma ruseTSi Zalaufleba miitaca. leninis putCs mTeli rigi tragikuli Sedegebi moyva: stalinis aRzeveba; 20 milionze meti adamianis daRupva koleqtivizaciisa da forsirebuli industrializaciis dros; da nawilobriv, rogorc reaqcia komunizmze, hitleris, musolinis da frankos aRzeveba. meore msoflio omis dasasruls, dasavleTis politika im mimarTulebiT warimarTa, rom avtoritarizmis (rogorc memarcxene, ise memarjvene) aRmocenebis safrTxe minimumamde yofiliyo dayvanili. aliansis wevrebma Seqmnes globaluri institutebis triada – msoflio banki, saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi da gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia – romlebic, savaraudod, uzrunvelyofda stabilizacias globalur ekonomikaSi da konfliqtebis aRmocenebas aRudgeboda. qveynebis umetesobam ganaviTara (an gaaZliera) `sayovelTao keTildReoba~, Seqmna socialuri usafrTxoebis sistemebi da xelsayreli pirobebi warmatebis misaRwevad. amerikis politika mimarTuli iyo, pirvel rigSi, sabWoTa kavSiris eqspansiis Sesakaveblad, Semdeg ki, mis srul kolafsze (daSlaze). miuxedavad yvelafrisa, es `oqros xana~ dasasruls uaxlovdeba. amjerad pirveli gasrola marjvnidan gaisma – es iyvnen breqsitis momxreebi britaneTSi da donald trampi amerikaSi. magram msgavseba liberaluri wesrigis 1917 wlis kolafssa da dRevandel situacias Soris TvalSisacemia. yvelaferi daiwyo fin de siècle (`saukunis dasasruli~) atmosferoSi. ruseTis revoluciamde, 40 wlis ganmavlobaSi liberalizmi zeimobda. Tavisufalma vaWrobam (romelsac britaneTi xelmZRvanelobda) msoflio erTad Sekra. liberalurma demokratiam gaimarjva britaneTsa da amerikaSi, da perspeqtivaSi es sxva qveynebzec unda gavrcelebuliyo. 1980-iani wlebi msgavsi triumfis periodi iyo. globalizacia (amerikis mewinaveobiT) Seuferxeblad ikrebda Zalas. im qveynebis raodenoba, romlebic kvalificirdeboda, rogorc demokratiebi, mravldeboda. politikosebi (rogorc memarjvene, ise memarcxene orientaciis) erTmaneTs ejibrebodnen `vaSingtonis konsesusisadmi~ erTgulebis gamoxatvaSi. sabednierod, msoflio gadaurCa kidev erT totalur oms (magram axlo aRmosavleTis garkveuli regionebi cecxlis alSia gaxveuli). Tumca sxva paralelebi TvalSisacemia: amerikaSi batoni trampi pirobas debs, bolo mouRos liberalur wesrigs – ara mxolod Tavisufali vaWrobisa da liberaluri Rirebulebebis, aramed globaluri aliansebis winaaR-

liberalebma meti unda gaakeTon, vidre `mobezrebuli mantrebis dudRunia~.

edrian vulriji: Sumpeteris mesvete, The Economist

mdeg, xisti reJimebis sasargeblod. britaneTSi tereza mei – premier-ministri, cdilobs gamoiyvanos sakuTari qveyana evrokavSiridan. baton trampis gamarjveba stimuls miscems dasavleTis sxva avtoritarebs, rogoricaa marin le peni, da gaaZlierebs antidasavlur avtoritarul liderebs, kerZod, vladimir putins. batoni putini Tavisi epoqis suliskveTebis bevrad ufro mkafio gansaxierebaa, vidre amerikis warmavali prezidenti – barak obama.

vin aris damnaSave da ra unda gakeTdes? garkveuli wili aq SemTxveviTobas ekisreba. demokratebs SesaZloa arc waegoT arCevnebi, hilari klintonze – warmavali reJimis gansaxierebaze, rom ar daedoT fsoni, xolo britaneTi ar gaemzadeboda evrokavSiris dasatoveblad, devid qemeroni rom ar mieRo pirdapiri demokratiiT eqsperimentirebis sabediswero gadawyvetileba. magram liberaluri wesrigi Tavad aris damnaSave. globalurma ekonomikam meti sargebeli umdidresT mianiWa: amerikaSi gadasaxadebis dafarvis Semdgomi Semosavlis wili, romelsac mosaxleobis umdidresi – 1% flobs, gaormagda 8%-dan 1979 wels, 17%-mde 2007 wels. da bevri TvalsazrisiT momavali kidev ufro uaresad gamoiyureba. produqtiulobis zrda Seferxda. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu es yvelaferi ar Seicvleba, politika aucileblad gadaiqceva `noyieri wilebis~ mopovebisTvis brZolad. teqnikuri gigantebi, rogorebicaa Google da Amazon, sargebloben grandiozuli sabazro wilebiT, rac arnaxuli ramaa me-19 saukunis – yaCaRi baronebis epoqis Semdeg. rogor SeiZleba liberalebma gadaarCinon liberaluri wesrigis narCenebi? nawilobriv gamosavali is gaxlavT, rom ufro aqtiurad daicvan Tavi – magaliTad, miuTiTon, rom globalizaciam milionobiT adamiani gamoglija siRaribes da rom ukuqceva dRevandel ekonomikur problemebs gacilebiT daamZimebs. nawilobriv gamosavali isicaa, rom gamoaaSkaravon liberalizmis mtrebi, rogorc `qaRaldis vefxvebi~, rasac isini sinamdvileSi warmoadgenen: kerZod, putini, daSinebisa da TaRliTobis meSveobiT marTavs qveyanas, romlis ekonomika daavadebulia, xalxi ki daTrgunulia siRaribiTa da sneulebebiT. msoflios danarCeni avtoritari liderebi gacilebiT nakleb Zlierni arian, vidre amas acxadeben. Tumca `liberalizmis Cempionebma~ meti unda gaakeTon, vidre ubralod `idudRunon mobezrebuli mantrebi~. maT ufro seriozulad unda miiRon saemigracio problemebi da Seakavon sakuTari instinqti – daTrgunon umciresobebi. magaliTad, evangelisti qristianebi. maT aseve unda gaaormagon Zalisxmeva kapitalizmis umniSvnelovanesi problemebis dasafiqsireblad. uTanasworobis maRali done stabilurobas emuqreba. ekonomikuri koncentracia kompaniebs rekorduli mogebebis saSualebas aZlevs. zedmetad mkacri marTva biznesmenebis ukidures gaRizianebas iwvevs. bolSevizmis aRorZineba samgloviaro zariviT JRers. liberalebma ufro mkafiod unda ifiqron da gacilebiT Zlierad imoqmedon, daRmasvla rom SeaCeron. n


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liderebi araviTari aRmasvla mSp-s realuri zrda %

xangrZlivi daRmasvla

`msoflio ekonomikas simaRlis akrefa gauWirdeba~, — prognozirebs leo abruceze

d

une zrda axali normaluri mdgomareobaa globalur ekonomikaSi. sabazro savaluto kursiT gazomili msoflio gamoSvebis zrda, 2017 wels, ukanaskneli bolo eqvsi welia zedized Seadgens 3%-ze naklebs, rac susti zrdis yvelaze grZeli, naxevarsaukunovani monakveTis Semdgomi gagrZelebaa (ixileT grafiki). intensiuri aRdgena, romelsac elodnen 2008 wlis globaluri krizisis Semdeg, ar moxda da es arc 2017 wels daiwyeba. donald trampis antisavaWro politika Tu ganxorcielda, mniSvnelovnad daazaralebs globalur ekonomikas, Tumca 2017 wels ziani didi ar iqneba – Tuki ar daiwyeba `tarifebis omi~ CineTTan, rac nakleb savaraudoa. susti moTxovna da produqtiulobis zrdis dabali tempi momavali wlis udidesi problema iqneba. Zlieri globaluri ekonomika, rogorc wesi, daaxloebiT 4%-iT izrdeba, izomeba sabazro ganakveTiT (romelsac investorebi iyeneben valutis samoZraod sazRvrebs Soris, xolo biznesi – mogebaTa repatriaciisTvis). 3%-iani zrda axlosaa normasTan da warmoadgens saSualo maCvenebels msoflioSi 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi, 2005 wlamde. ekonomika regularulad axorcielebda mokle garRvevebs. magram es ukve aRar moxdeba. The Economist Intelligence Unit varaudobs, rom globaluri mSp 2017 wels mxolod 2,5%-iT gaizrdeba da uaxloes momavalSi gaumjobeseba ar aris mosalodneli. sisuste yvelgan gamosWvivis. zrdis tempi evrozonaSi, ukanaskneli eqvsi wlis ganmavlobaSi ar aRemateba ­2%-s. bolo aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi, aSS-s ar ganucdia Zlieri zrda zedized ori kvartlis ganmavlobaSi da ukeTesi arc trampis araprognozirebadi prezidentobis pirvel welsaa mosalodneli. iaponiis ekonomika ibrZvis weliwadSi Tundac 1%-iani zrdisTvis. valebiT damZimebuli CineTi zrdis temps 2017 wels 6%-mde aiyvans, magram momdevo wels es ukanaskneli isev 4%-mde daecema, rac saocrad dabali maCvenebelia sakuTriv qveynis standartebis mixedviT. msoflio didi ekonomikebidan mxolod indoeTi gamoiyureba SedarebiT sicocxlisunarianad – zrdis tempi qveyanaSi 7.5%-mde gaizrdeba. dune zrda msoflios SeWirvebul centralur bankebs yuradRebis centrSi amyofebs. amerikis federalurma sarezervo sistemam, imis imediT, rom samuSao Zalis bazari normas uaxlovdeba, ukve mianiSna maRal saprocento ganakveTebze, Tumca trampis prezidentad arCevisgan gamowveulma Sokma SesaZlebelia Seasustos misi xeli. ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, is mxolod erTxel aswevs ZiriTad ganakveTs 2017 wels da mxolod erTi kvartlis ganmavlobaSi, vinaidan mets ekonomikac ver aitans. evropis centraluri banki (ecb), iaponiis banki (ib) da breqsitis Semdgomi inglisis banki ecdebian maTi dasustebuli ekonomikis gamococxlebis gzebi monaxon. wlebis ganmavlobaSi TiTqmis nulovani saprocento ganakveTebi – axla ki uaryofiTi saprocento ganakveTebi ecb-sa da ib-Si, amcirebs Semosavals, magram centraluri bankebis mesveurebi ver gabe-

sisuste yvelaferSi Cans

*2016 wlis Sefaseba, 2017 wlis prognozi, wyaro: msoflio banki, Economist Intelligence Unit

daven kursis Secvlas. Zlierma fiskalurma stimulirebam SesaZlebelia dadebiTi Sedegi gamoiRos: dabalma gadasaxadebma gayidvebze da dabalma saSemosavlo gadasaxadebma, ukeTesma Semweobam umuSevrobaze da sargebelma kargad dagegmili infrastruqturuli proeqtebidan SesaZloa miaRwios imas, rac ver SeZles centralurma bankebma. kanada am mimarTulebiT moZraobs da, savaraudod, britaneTic SeZlebs imaves. ekonomikis finansuri stimulireba trampis dRis wesrigSic iqneba, magram msgavsi araferia mosalodneli bevr sxva qveyanaSi. ekonomikuri zrdis neli tempi, nawilobriv, ganpirobebulia produqtiulobis SemcirebiT. 1990 da 2005 wlebs Soris, amerikaSi, gamoSveba erT dasaqmebulze weliwadSi 1.9%-iT izrdeboda, Tumca bolo aTwleulSi am maCveneblis mxolod naxevars Tu Seadgenda. evros zona amerikasTan SedarebiT sastarto etapzeve nakleb produqtiuli iyo da tempi aqac sanaxevrod Semcirda. produqtiulobis zrda Cveulebriv maRalia ganviTarebad bazrebze, magram CineTSi tempi aseve daeca. prognozi 2017 wlisTvis arcTu ukeTesia. dasavleTSi susti investireba da zedmetad mkacri regulireba, rogorc Cans, sagangaSoa.

movlenaTa naTeli mxare arc erTi es maCvenebeli ar iZleva totalurad uaryofiTi prognozis sababs. amerikeli momxmarebeli aRidgens Tavdajerebulobas (TviTkmayofilebas). Semosavlebis stagnacia, rasac xeli Seuwyo xarjebis Semcirebam, Seqcevadia: ukanaskneli monacemebiT, saSualo ojaxis Semosavali swrafi tempiT izrdeba – minimum 1967 welTan SedarebiT. erovnuli Sromis bazari 2017 wels 2 milioni poziciiT gaizrdeba, rogorc es ukanaskneli eqvsi wlis ganmavlobaSi xdeboda: biznesis SeSfoTebas trampis politikiT gaaneitralebs kmayofileba naklebi regulaciebisa da dabali gadasaxadebis gamo. CineTis gadaxra momxmarebelze orientirebuli ekonomikisken kidev ufro gaZlierdeba, miuxedavad valebis Tavbrudamxvevi masStabisa. krediti samjer swrafad izrdeba, vidre nominaluri mSp. miuxedavad imisa, rom breqsiti momavalSi evropas krizisebis seriiT emuqreba, ekonomikuri zarali umetesi qveynebisTvis mniSvnelovani ar iqneba (britaneTis ekonomikas Tavad mouxdeba brZola fasebis zrdasTan da ganviTarebis sust tempebTan, rac evrokavSiridan TandaTanobiT gasvlasTan erTad daiwyeba). orwliani recesiis Semdeg, ruseTi 2017 wels mcire zrdas miaRwevs. braziliis recesiac dasruldeba, Tumca sajaro finansebSi gaurkvevlobaa da qveyana wlebiTaa daSorebuli solidur aRdgenas. mTeli rigi qveynebisTvis, romlebic damokidebulni arian mompovebel mrewvelobasa da soflis meurneobaze, fasebi sabirJo saqonelze, 2017 wels, ukanaskneli xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi pirvelad, gaizrdeba daaxloebiT 4%-iT. marTalia, fasebis dacemis tendencia Sesustda, magram maT zrdas piri mainc ar uCans. amisaTvis globaluri ekonomikuri zrda Zalian sustia. adreul epoqaSi, rodesac biznesciklebs jer kidev mniSvneloba hqondaT, es SesaZloa perspeqtivaSi Zlier zrdaze mianiSnebda. SesaZloa, magram ara 2017 wels.n

leo abruceze: sajaro politikis direqtori da gamomcemeli redaqtori, The Economist Intelligence Unit


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CineTis `yvelafris Tavmjdomare~ `si Zinpinis avtokratiul da imperiul ­ambiciebs winaaRmdegoba unda gaewios~, — acxadebs saimon longi sini ikribebian Semodgomaze, kongresze, romelic xuT weliwadSi erTxel imarTeba. CineTis komunisturi partiis centraluri komitetis daaxloebiT 400 wevri dainaxavs, rom maTi adgili istoriaSi garkveul formas iRebs. es yriloba mecxrametea partiis 68-wliani uwyveti mmarTvelobis Semdeg. Tu partia xelisuflebaSi me-20 kongresamde darCeba, CineTi gauswrebs yofil sabWoTa kavSirs da gaxdeba msoflioSi yvelaze xangrZlivi komunisturi diqtatura. TanamebrZolebs SeuZliaT axlave miulocon erTmaneTs – maT kontrols mxolod ramdenime gardauvali safrTxe Tu emuqreba. si Zinpinis – 2012 wels maT mier arCeuli lideris meTaurobiT, ekonomikuri zrda Seferxda, magram weliwadSi 6%-is doneze darCa. prodemokratiuli disidentebisa da separatistebis moqmedeba tibetsa da sinZianSi adviladaa CaxSobili. amerikas ar ZaluZs CamoSalos komunisturi mmarTveloba, igi mxolod CineTis aRzevebas ebrZvis. vinaidan Zalauflebis SenarCuneba maTi upirvelesi motivaciaa, delegatebis umravlesoba Tanaxmaa mxari dauWiros batoni sis gegmebs saTaveSi meore vadiT da Semdgom yofnaze. isini uxalisod eTanxmebian amas – gaubedavi, mfrTxali angarebiT. baton sis mmarTvelobis erT-erTi niSan-Tviseba – mZlavri antikorufciuli muxti, warmoadgens iaraRs, romelic SesaZloa misi kritikosebis winaaRmdeg iyos gamoyenebuli. Tumca komitetis ufro SorsmWvreteli wevrebi xedaven, rom mas partia da qveyana saxifaTo mimarTulebiT mihyavs – politikurad, ekonomikurad da saerTaSoriso donezec.

i

batoni si did TamaSs iwyebs

despotizmis safrTxeebi

batonma sim Tavisi pirveli vadis umetesoba Zalauflebis sakuTar xelSi koncentracias moandoma. misi winamorbedis – hu Zintaos, `koleqtiuri xelmZRvaneloba~, romlis drosac `yornisferTmiani teqnokratebis~ anonimuri kabala marTavda qveyanas, Caanacvla ufro individualurma despotizmma – perioduli aqtivobiT batoni sis pirovnebis kultis garSemo. `mcire mmarTveli jgufebi~ partiis SigniT aregulireben politikas praqtikulad yvela sferoSi. magaliTad, iReben kontrols ekonomikaze, premier-ministrisa da ministrTa kabinetisgan gverdis avliT. batoni si – CineTis `yvelafris Tavmjdomare~, uZRveba am jgufebis umravlesobas. kongresi SesaZleblobaa, ganamtkicos misi Zalaufleba, sakvanZo postebze meti mxardamWeris daniSvniT. savaraudod, isini uflebas miscemen ugulvebelyos wesebi, romelic zRudavda mis winamorbedebs ori vadiT. CineTi, tiananmenis 1989 wlis ajanyebidan TiTqmis 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi, sargeblobda politikuri stabilurobiT, magram es nawilobriv eyrdnoboda umaRlesi Zalauflebis or mowesrigebul monacvleobas. Tu batoni si sistemas aRudgeba, aman SesaZlebelia safrTxis winaSe daayenos stabiluroba. batoni sis momxreebi SesaZlebelia amtkicebdnen, rom Zlieri xeli mocemul periodSi aucilebelia, rogorc es iyo, rodesac den siaopinma daiwyo maoisturi memkvidreobis, kole-

saimon longi: finansebis redaqtori, CineTis sakiTxebis mimomxilveli, The Economist

qtivizmis, dagegmvisa da ekonomikuri stagnaciis demontaJi. mas mere, TiTqmis oTxi aTeuli wlis STambeWdavi ganviTarebis Semdeg, CineTi kvlav kritikul zRvarzea. muSaxelis raodenoba mcirdeba; CineTis, rogorc `msoflios saxelosnos~, pozicia safrTxis winaSea, izrdeba Sromis xarjebi; wlebis ganmavlobaSi valebSi gaflanguli investiciebi saboloo gakotrebiT imuqreba. Tumca, rogorc Cans, batoni si sulac ar gegmavs, mopovebuli Zalaufleba CineTis obieqturi aucileblobiT ganpirobebuli reformebis gatarebas moaxmaros. miuxedavad grandiozuli dapirebebisa mmarTvelobis dasawyisSi, misi ekonomikuri instinqtebi politikuris paralelurad viTardeba. is eWvis TvaliT uyurebs Tavisuflebas, ar aris midrekili riskebisadmi da ar surs daTmos saxelmwifos mmarTvelobaze yovlismomcveli partiuli kontroli. ekonomikuri Sesustebis kvaldakval, batoni si sul ufro metad daeyrdnoba Cinur nacionalizms, rogorc legitimaciisa da popularobis wyaros. es saxifaToa, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom man, rogorc Cans, gadawyvita daupirispirdes amerikis strategiul upiratesobas, ramac Tavis droze xeli Seuwyo CineTis mSvidobian aRzevebas. misi agresiuli miswrafeba, ganavrcos CineTis teritoriuli pretenziebi samxreT CineTis zRvaSi, regionSi aRelvebas iwvevs. rogorc Cans, CineTi darwmunebulia, rom grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi misi mezoblebi iZulebulni iqnebian gaacnobieron, rom CineTis siaxlove – es geografiuli faqtia, misi mzardi Zalaufleba – gardauvali istoriuli tendencia, da rom amerikis gancxadebebi, win aRudges CineTis eqspansionizms, mxolod carieli dapirebebia. am SemTxvevaSic, batoni si did avantiuraSi erTveba. arasworma gaTvlebma SesaZlebelia ubiZgos amerikas sapasuxo dartyma ganaxorcielos, an ormxriv samxedro-sazRvao Zalebis demonstrirebas SesaZloa mohyves SemTxveviTi Setakeba, romelic SemdgomSi eskalacias ganicdis. bevrad ukeTesi iqneboda imis gacnobiereba, rom amerikis mTavrobebi xels uwyoben CineTis aRzevebas ara sisustis gamo, aramed imitom, rom darwmunebulni arian amerikis siZliereSi. Cinuri politika gaumWvirvalea. SeuZlebelia imis dadgena, Tu ramdenad Zlieria opozicia CineTis komunisturi partiis SigniT batoni sis Zalauflebis ganuxreli gaZlierebis mimarT, Tumca SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom sakmaod mniSvnelovania. msoflios imedi aqvs, rom garda amisa, efeqturic. n


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liderebi

msoflio 2017

qera pompezuroba `evropis centristebi uZlurni arian populizmis winaSe~, — amtkicebs met staeinglasi

a

merikaSi donald trampis gamarjvebamde didi xniT adre, evropaSi aRiniSneboda wvrili, rogorc memarjvene, ise memarcxene, partiebis aRzeveba. 2017 wels es procesi dasruldeba ara imitom, rom aseTi partiebi aRar ganimtkiceben poziciebs, aramed im mizeziT, rom isini aRar arian marginalur poziciebze. evropis ZiriTadi partiebi Seecadnen gamoedevnaT populistebi, am mizniT Camoayalibes centristul-memarjvene-memarcxene koaliciebi da Seqmnes „sanitaruli kordoni“ maTi ZalauflebasTan armiSvebis mizniT. es taqtika aRar imuSavebs. zogierT qveyanaSi radikalebi Sedian mTavrobaSi. sxvagan isini aiZuleben centristebs, miiRon maTi politika. es niSnavs, rom evropaSi, sadac emigrantebi da muslimebi sul ufro arasasurvelni xdebian, Tavisufali vaWroba arapopularulia, xolo evro da Tavad evrokavSiric myifea. rac Seexeba populistebs, pirveli didi gamocda maTTvis iqneba sayovelTao arCevnebi holandiaSi 2017 wlis 15 marts. gert vailderss Tavisuflebis partiidan, romlis platinisferma varcxnilobam metsaxeli `didi qera fulis gamTeTrebeli~ daumkvidra, surs Caketos qveynis sazRvrebi, daxuros meCeTebi da gamovides evrokavSiridan da evrozonidan. Tu egzitpolebis prognozi gamarTldeba, is pirvel an meore adgils daikavebs. amas mohyveba aprilSi saprezidento arCevnebis pirveli turi safrangeTSi. marin le peni – nacionaluri frontis kidev erTi `qera saxe~, romelic miznad isaxavs SeaCeros imigracia, datovos evrokavSiri da evro, savaraudod, ibrZolebs gamarjvebisTvis arCevnebis meore turSi, maisSi. batoni vaildersi ar gaxdeba premier-ministri, xolo qalbaton le pens mxolod mcire Sansi aqvs gaxdes prezidenti (Tumca imaves ambobdnen batoni trampis Sesaxebac). niderlandebSi Camoyalibdeba farTo centristuli koalicia Tavisuflebis partiis (da ukiduresi memarcxene socialistebis) dasablokad, iseve rogorc es 2012 wels moxda. safrangeTSi,zomieri memarcxene da memarjvene frTebi Camoayalibeben alianss, raTa darwmundnen, rom meore turSi nacionaluri fronti ar gaimarjvebs. Tumca evropuli didi koaliciebis strategia yavlgasulad gamoiyureba. rodesac aRiarebuli (damkvidrebuli) partiebi populistebs da maT mxardamWerebs damcinavad `sacodav xrovas~ uwodeben, es mxolod adasturebs populistebis rwmenas, rom elita maT winaaRmdeg SeTqmulebaSia. imavdroulad, TanamSromloba zomier memarjveneebsa da memarcxeneebs Soris arRvevs maT identobas da ubiZgebs amomrCevels ukiduresi orientaciis mqone partiebisken. espaneTSi politikurma danawevrebam SeuZlebeli gaxada umravlesobis mTavrobis Camoyalibeba. germaniaSi, safrangeTSi, niderlandebsa da poloneTSi ZiriTadi centristul-memarcxene, socialur-demokratiuli partiebi sagonebelSi arian Cavardnili. ZiriTad memarcxene da memarjvene partiebs Soris gansxvavebebis Sesustebis kvaldakval, populistebi ukve realur opozicias warmoadgenen. wamyvani partiebis kandidatebi holandiasa da safrangeTSi saarCevno kampaniaSi ufro baton vailderss da qalbaton le met staeinglasi: evropis redaqtori,The Economist

pens daupirispirdebian, vidre zomier mowinaaRmdegeebs. maSinac ki, Tu Zalauflebas ver moipoveben, radikalebi moaxerxeben dRis wesrigi maTTvis sasurveli mimarTulebiT warmarTon. safrangeTSi, respublikelTagan prezidentobis kandidatis wardgenisas, yofil prezident nikola sarkozis winadadeba terorizmSi eWvmitanilTa sasamarTlos gareSe dapatimrebis Sesaxeb imdenad radikaluri iyo, rom qalbatonma le penmac ki dagmo igi. Tu italiaSi arCevnebi 2017 wels Catardeba, mateo rencis centristul-memarcxene demokratebs brZola ZiriTadad ukiduresad memarcxene, `xuTi varskvlavis moZraobis~ warmomadgenlebTan mouwevT. batoni trampis gamarjvebis Semdeg, dasavleT evropis mcire partiebis popularoba arc ise Sokismomgvrelad gamoiyureba. marTlac, kontinentis aRmosavleTiT populistebis gamarjvebebi wlebis win daiwyo. ungreTSi viqtor orbanis memarjvene frTis partia `fideSi~ dominirebs politikur ZalTa ganawilebaSi – antiemigrantuli nacionalizmisa da `araliberaluri demokratiis~, anu umciresobaTa uflebebis ignorirebis wyalobiT. poloneTSi mmarTveli „samarTlisa da samarTlianobis partia“ mihyva dinebas da saxelmwifo SeRavaTebis jansaRi doza mimarTa dedaTa da moxucTaTvis. batoni vaildersi da qalbatoni le peni moxarulni iqnebian miiRon es dRis wesrigi: konservatiuli kultura da saxelmwifoebrioba, saxelmwifos kontroli ekonomikaSi. ramdenadac Zalaufleba am gamoxatuli nacionalistebis xelSi gadadis, memarcxene frTis warmomadgenlebi Tavs TamaSgare mdgomareobaSi grZnoben. marTlac, zogierTi maTgani uars acxadebs saarCevno politikaSi monawileobaze. poloneTSi, italiaSi, espaneTsa da germaniaSic ki, uiRblo centristuli da memarcxene partiebi dRis wesrigze kontrols socialur mediaze agebul radikalur saprotesto moZraobebs uTmoben. ivan krastevi – politologi, amas uwodebs `demokratias arCevnebs miRma~. `axalgazrdebi, zogierTi maTgani memarcxene, zogi ufro liberaluri, xalisiT saubroben quCis saprotesto aqciebis an nebismieri tipis eleqtronuli demokratiis Sesaxeb, magram maTTvis kenWisyras didi mniSvneloba ar aqvs~, – ambobs batoni krastevi.

Cveni bunebis ukeTesi angela miuxedavad yvela am miswrafebisa, proevropuli liberaluri konsensusi, romelic kontinentur politikaSi berlinis kedlis dacemis Semdeg dominirebs, damajerebeli damcvelis gareSe aRmoCnda. `dadebiTi liberalur-demokratiuli narativis sruli ararseboba gansacvifrebelia~, – ambobs qes madi – evropis ultramemarjveneebis eqsperti. am evropuli xedvis SemorCenili mimdevrebi, ZiriTadad, `mwvaneebi~ arian, memarjvene-centristuli evrofilebis bolo dasayrdenTan – germaniis qristian-demokratebTan erTad. Tu angela merkeli 2017 wlis Semodgomaze kancleris Tanamdebobaze meoTxe vadiT iyris kenWs da gaimarjvebs (savaraudod, asec iqneba), mas populistur dinebasTan brZola martos mouwevs. n


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liderebi

msoflio 2017

klebadi damokidebulebis koeficienti

1 piri 65 wlis an ufrosi asakis piri

mxardaWera 20-64 wlis momuSave pirTa ricxvi

evropa

2015

CrdiloeT amerika

2030 – prognozi wynari okeanis auzis regionis qveynebi

laTinuri amerikis da karibis auzis qveynebi

afrika

azia

WiSkarTan `mogwonT es Tu ara, emigracia dasavleTSi gaizrdeba~, — prognozirebs joel badi 017 wels dasavleTis politikosebi mkacr zomebs miiReben imigraciis winaaRmdeg. aSS-Si prezidenti donald trampi daiwyebs misi didi, lamazi kedlis aSenebas meqsikis sazRvarze da mouwodebs teqnologiur firmebs, met amerikels miscen samuSao. britaneTis premier-ministrma tereza meim `Caixeda amomrCevelTa sulebSi~ da daaskvna, rom maT arCies evrokavSiris datoveba, radgan surT xisti kontroli migraciaze (romelic, ucnauria da, Tavidanve misi instinqti iyo). safrangeTSi, germaniasa da italiaSi antiemigrantuli partiebi `SeaTreven~ zomier politikosebs meryev antiemigrantul teritoriaze. da mainc, sabolood, yvela imedgacruebuli darCeba. zustad imis gamo, rom dasavluri demokratiebis azriT, imigracia unda SeizRudos, movlenebis ganviTareba politikur kontrols miRma, mis gaZlierebaze miuTiTebs. demografia, urbanizacia da ekonomikuri cvlilebebi ubiZgebs xalxs, Raribi da saSualo Semosavlis mqone qveynebidan mdidar qveynebSi gadainacvlon, rac am ukanasknelT ase ar moswonT. vinaidan, rogorc wesi, migracia axalgazrda asakobrivi jgufisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli, swored am jgufis zoma gansazRvravs potenciuri migrantebis raodenobas. is uzarmazaria da mzardi. 2000 wels, gaero-s monacemebiT, saharis samxreTiT mdebare afrikis teritoriebze 25-dan 29 wlamde asakis daaxloebiT 48 milioni adamiani cxovrobda. 2015 wels maTi raodenoba 75 milioni iyo, xolo 2030 wels, savaraudod, 113 milions miaRwevs. zog qveynebSi, rogorebicaa indoeTi da TurqeTi, sadac dReisTvis Sobadobis saSualo an dabali donea, 20 wlis win es maCvenebeli maRali iyo. Sedegad, axla aq uamravi axalgazrdaa. yovelTviurad milion indoels usruldeba 18 weli. es axalgazrdebi momarTulni arian gadaadgilebisken. miuxedavad imisa, rom saerTaSoriso migracia sasurvel qveynebSi Zalian martivad gamoiyureba, realurad es friad rTuli da ZviradRirebuli procesia. socialurad daucveli soflis mSromelebi amas iSviaTad Tu ganaxorcieleben; ukeTesi ganaTlebis mqone qalaqis mcxovreblebs meti SesaZlebloba aqvT. afrikisa da aziis bevr qveyanaSi ganaTlebul qalaqelTa raodenoba ufro swrafad matulobs, vidre mTlianad mosaxleoba. bangladeSis soflis mosaxleoba stabiluria, magram qalaqebis mosaxleoba weliwadSi 3.5%-iT izrdeba. Tu Rirseul samuSaos Sin ipovis, axalgazrda, savaraudod, qveyanaSi darCeba. filipinebSi, swrafad mzardi qolcentris industria emigraciis karg alternativas warmoadgens, Tumca filipinebi gamonaklisia. afrikis ganviTarebis bankis monacemebiT, 10-dan 12 milionamde afrikelidan, romlebic avseben samuSao Zalis bazars yovel wels, mxolod 3 milioni Tu ipovis formalur samuSao adgils. danarCenebi potenciuri migrantebis did, mzard `rezervuars~ warmoadgenen. zog qveyanaSi, maT Soris, CineTsa da indoeTSi, biWebisa da mamakacebis Warbi raodenobaa, rac farTod gavrcelebuli SerCeviTi abortebis Sedegia. ver pouloben ra sacoleebs da ar arian SezRudulni

2

joel badi: globalizaciis redaqtori, The Economist

wyaro: gaero

bavSvebis arsebobiT, isini gansakuTrebiT advilad gadaadgildebian. zogi adamiani erTi Raribi qveynidan meoreSi migrirebs. sxvebi cdiloben scadon bedi mSeneblobebze dubaisa da saudis arabeTSi. magram sparseTis yuris qveynebSi cxela, cudi samuSao pirobebia, gansakuTrebiT – qalebisTvis. gacilebiT ukeTes SesaZleblobebs maT dasavleTi sTavazobs. Tu bevr Rarib qveyanaSi axalgazrdebis siWarbea, mdidar qveynebSi, rogorc wesi, maTi nakleboba igrZnoba. yvela evropul qveyanaSi Sobadobis maCvenebeli 2.1-ze naklebia, rac sakmarisia mosaxleobis bunebrivi monacvleobisTvis. 2015-2050 wlebSi sikvdilianoba evropaSi 63 milioniT gadaaWarbebs Sobadobas. Tu mdidar qveynebs ar surT miiRon dRiTidRe mzardi uaryofiTi Tanafardoba momuSaveebsa da pensionerebs Soris, rac Zirs gamouTxris socialur – usafrTxoebis sistemebs, maT mouwevT axalgazrda ucxoelebis miReba. rac ufro `berdeba~ dasavleTi, misi moTxovnileba warmoebul saqonelze mcirdeba, personaluri momsaxurebis sasargeblod, rasac xSirad arakvalificiuri migrantebi asruleben. oficialuri gaTvliT, aSS-Si, im specialobebidan, romlebzec momdevno aTwleulSi yvelaze didi moTxovna iqneba, pirvel xuTeulSia personaluri momvlelebi, eqTnebi, qronikulad daavadebulTa Sin momvlelebi, e.w. swrafi kvebisa da sacalo gayidvebis muSakebi. aqedan mxolod erTi – saeqTno, anazRaurdeba saSualoze maRali xelfasiT an moiTxovs bakalavris xarisxs. CamoTvlilTagan yvela emigrantebis klasikuri samuSao poziciebia. Znelia aRudge erT globalur tendencias; oris an samisTvis winaaRmdegobis gaweva SeuZlebelia. dasavleli politikosebi, romlebic acxadeben, rom SeuZliaT Seakavon imigracia, sinamdvileSi amtkiceben, rom Seamcireben msoflios potenciuri migrantebis wils da maT qveyanaSi araprestiJul samuSao adgilebs adgilobrivebi Seavseben. es nakleb savaraudoa. imis mtkiceba, rom maT SeuZliaT realurad aRkveTon emigracia, daujerebelia.

ra saxis migrantebi urCevniaT mdidar qveynebSi?

namdvili arCevani winaa es ufro mZime politikuri sakiTxebidan yuradRebis gadatanaa. Tu moZraoba dasavleTisken gardauvalad gaizrdeba, ra saxis migrantebs mianiWeben upiratesobas mdidar qveynebSi? miiCneven upiratesad migrantebs mezobeli qveynebidan da yofili koloniebidan, rasac amas Cveulebriv akeTebdnen me-20 saukuneSi, Tu Seecdebian miiRon adamianebi mTeli msofliodan da `erT qvabSi moxarSon~? gauxsnian migrantebs gzas moqalaqeobisken, Tu gamoagdeben qveynidan ramdenime wlis muSaobis Semdeg? `wauyrueben~ imigracias da aitanen uamrav aralegal mSromels? dasavleTs uamravi arCevani aqvs. mas ubralod ar gaaCnia varianti, Seamciros migrantTa raodenoba. n


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liderebi

aramyari wonasworoba `firmebma is gezi unda daicvan, saiTkenac mivyavarT garemos dacvis diplomatias~, — acxadebs miranda jonsoni

m

Tel rig qveynebSi ratificirebulia SeTanxmeba globaluri daTbobis Sesaxeb, romelic parizSi 2015 wlis dekemberSia miRweuli da miznad isaxavs SeinarCunos winaindustriuli periodis temperaturis zrda 2°c-s qvemoT, Tumca is oficialurad ZalaSi Sedis 2016 wlis noembridan. msoflios mTavrobebi iwyeben dapirebebis Sesrulebas garemos dabinZurebis Semcirebis Taobaze. Tumca, 2017 wlisTvis ori didi SekiTxva ikveTeba. pirvelia donald trampisagan momdinare saSiSroeba parizis SeTanxmebisTvis. arCeuli prezidenti acxadebs, rom globaluri daTboba amerikuli biznesis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli mistifikaciaa. igi Seecdeba CaSalos sufTa energiis gegma, romelic awesebs erovnul standartebs, eleqtrosadgurebidan naxSirorJangis emisiis SezRudvis mizniT, xolo Tavad apirebs gavides parizis xelSekrulebidan. Tumca, es advili gasakeTebeli ar aris. axla, rodesac es SeTanxmeba ZalaSi Sevida, qveyana oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi valdebulia Seasrulos misi pirobebi. trampis administracias SeuZlia dablokos garemosdacviTi Zalisxmeva, magram amas SeewinaaRmdegebian, maT Soris, CineTi. mzisa da qaris energiaze fasebis mkveTri Semcireba batoni trampis naxSirwyalbadisadmi erTgulebis didi gamocda iqneba. Zlieri Statebi (rogoricaa, magaliTad, kalifornia), gauZRvebian bunebisdamcvelTa moZraobas iq, sadac federaluri Zalebi mizans ver miaRweven. meore sakiTxia is, Tu rodis moekideba biznesi seriozulad emisiis SezRudvas. msoflios aqvs Sansi Seamciros globaluri daTboba 2°C-s qvemoT, xolo gamonabolqvis nulamde dayvana saukunis Sua wlebSia mosalodneli. Tumca, gaTvlebis safuZvelze aSkaraa, rom parizis SeTanxmebis farglebSi, saxelmwifoTa Zalisxmeva dabinZurebis asalagmad, daTbobis maCvenebels mxolod 3°C-is farglebSi Tu Seakavebs. kerZo seqtorma ki es sicariele unda Seavsos. xSir SemTxvevaSi maT SeuZliaT meti Semosavali miiRon `gamwvanebis~ xarjze. aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi, 2015 wlisTvis, Walmart-ma – msoflioSi yvelaze msxvilma sacalo vaWrobis kompaniam, dazoga daaxloebiT miliardi dolari, yovelwliurad sakuTari amerikuli avtoparkis marSrutebis cvlilebis xarjze, ramac gaaormaga misi efeqturoba. maTi reputacia riskis winaSea. bolo wlebSi, Lego – saTamaSo agurebis mwarmoebeli, ukve gaakritikes navTobis mrewvelobasTan urTierTobisTvis, xolo kvebis mrewvelobis giganti, rogoricaa Nestlé, zeTis palmebis plantaciebis gaSenebis mizniT tyeebis gaCexvis gamo.

cudi kompania magram ramdenad seriozuli iqneba biznesis Zalisxmeva? batoni trampis amerikaSi wnexi SesaZloa Sesustdes. zogadad, korporaciul samyaroSi sityva `mdgradoba~ Zalian xSirad gamoiyeneba, rogorc Jargoni, garemos damcvelTaTvis Tvalis axvevis mizniT. gamonabolqvis gazomvasTan dakavSirebuli gaurkvevloba saqmes namdvilad ar wadgomia: firmebs ar gaaCniaT angariSgebis SeTanxmebuli meqanizmi planetaze maTi zemoqmedebis miranda jonsoni: garemosdacviTi redaqtori, The Economist

gTxovT _ meti mwvane

dasadgenad. mravali gza arsebobs, Sefasdes wylis xarjva, qimiuri nivTierebebis gamoyeneba an emisia Senobebidan, produqciidan da momaragebis qselidan. kompaniebis mier gansxvavebuli standartis gamoyeneba eSmakuri fandia. amis gakeTeba maSin, rodesac firmebi cdiloben dafaron sakvanZo informacia, mistifikaciaa. `dou jonsis~ mdgradobis indeqsis Tanaxmad, Volkswagen-i 2015 wels msoflios yvelaze mdgrad saavtomobilo firmad Seracxes; ramdenime kviris Semdeg gavrcelda informacia, rom firmis dizelze momuSave 11 milion manqanaze damontaJebuli iyo specialuri programebi gamonabolqvis makontrolebeli testebis mosatyueblad. 2017 wels SeRavaTebi naklebi iqneba. naxSirbadis gamovlenaze pasuxismgebeli samuSao jgufi did oceulsa da finansuri stabilurobis sabWos, globalur ekonomikur forumze rekomendaciebs warudgens. mizans warmoadgens nebayoflobiTi sistemis Seqmna, romelic saSualebas miscems kompaniebs regularulad gaaxmovanon maTze klimaturi riskebis zemoqmedeba. amis Semdeg, meti informaciiT SeiaraRebuli bazari ufro efeqturad SeZlebs ekologiurad usafrTxo gaxdes. axali, naxSirbadis gamovlenis struqtura firmebisTvis xels Seuwyobs emisiis Semcirebis erovnuli valdebulebebis progress. sxva tendenciebi SesaZloa daexmaros danakargebis Semcirebas. saubari `cirkularul ekonomikaze~ dafuZnebul gadamuSavebasa da produqtebis meorad gamoyenebaze, metad popularulia. lizingis modelebi – manqanebidan dawyebuli, naTurebiT damTavrebuli, xels Seuwyobs resursebis dazogvas. ­ parizis xelSekruleba erovnuli valdebulebebis gaZlierebis meqanizmebs moicavs. axali molaparakebebi, progresis Sesafaseblad, 2018 wels gaimarTeba; qveynebi daisaxaven axal miznebs 2020 wlisTvis. im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu aSS ukan daixevs, haeris saSineli dabinZureba CineTsa da indoeTSi niSnavs, rom maTi mTavrobebi ver moaxerxeben emisiis ugulebelyofas. xeebis damcveli evropelebi moiTxoven Semdgom reagirebas. ase rom, miuxedavad cdunebisa, amerikaSi mainc, amoefaron klimaturi cvlilebebis axal, mTavar Semfasebels TeTri saxlidan, firmebisTvis saukeTeso grZelvadiani strategia is iqneba, romelic Seamcirebs maT zegavlenas planetaze. n

firmebma mTavrobaTa Zalisxmeva unda Seavson


21

liderebi

msoflio 2017

profesiebi aSS-Si, romlebzec yvelaze didi moTxovnaa savaraudo zrda 2014-2024 % qaris turbinebis momsaxurebis teqnikosebi profesiuli Terapiis asistentebi

gamoiyene

fizikuri Terapiis asistentebi

optometristebi

tom stendegi cdilobs 2017 wels yvelaze axali samuSao adgilebis dadgenas rsebobs SiSi, rom robotebi gamoiwveven masobriv umuSevrobas, Tumca jerjerobiT amis niSnebi ar Cans. nacvlad amisa, avtomatika, rogorc Cans, ubiZgebs adamianebs Secvalon rutinuli samuSao – magaliTad, muSaoba qarxanaSi da gadainacvlon ararutinul samuSao poziciebze, romlebic kerZod moiTxoven kognitiur da socialur unarebs. teqnologiuri progresi gamoiwvevs samuSao poziciebis arsis da maTi ganxorcielebisTvis saWiro unarebis cvlilebas. danamdvilebiT SeuZlebelia vTqvaT, rogori iqneba es axali samuSao adgilebi – luditebi, romlebmac wamoiwyes kampania safeiqro dargis meqanizebis winaRmdeg me-19 saukunis dasawyisSi, verc warmoidgendnen, rom ganviTardeboda iseTi axali sferoebi, rogorebicaa: rkinigza, telegrafi da eleqtrifikacia. magram ori instrumenti dagvexmareba axlo momavlis samuSao adgilebis identificirebaSi. esenia realisturi statistika da intuiciuri prognozireba. Tavdapirvelad statistika ganvixiloT. aSS-is Sromis statistikis biuro warmatebiT awarmoebs gamokiTxvas yovel or weliwadSi erTxel, raTa mimdinare tendenciebis eqstarpolirebis gziT, ganaxorcielon sxvadasxva kategoriis samuSao adgilebis zrdis prognozireba (ukanaskneli, 2014-2024 wlebisTvis). ase rom, romeli izrdeba yvelaze swrafad? zeda zRvarze, 108%-iani zrdiT, imyofeba qaris turbinebis momsaxurebis teqnikosi. es gasakviri ar aris, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT ganaxlebadi energiis swrafi ganviTarebis tendencias, romelic, savaraudod, ramdenime aTwleuli gagrZeldeba. momavalSi gaCndeba qaris bevri sxva turbina da rodesac isini mwyobridan gamova, aucilebeli iqneba maTi SekeTeba. sxva mravalwliani tendencia gvarwmunebs, rom samuSao adgilebis Seqmna dakavSirebuli iqneba bevr qveyanaSi mosaxleobis asakis zrdasTan. es samuSao adgilebia profesiuli Terapiis asistentebi (+43%), fizioTerapiis asistentebi (+41%), qronikulad daavadebulTa binaze momvlelebi (+38%), audilogistebi (+29%), sasmeni aparatebis specialistebi (+27%) da optometristebi (+27%). yvela am amocanis gadaWra saWiroebs TanagrZnobas da socialur unarebs. biznesSi, kompaniebi agroveben ufro da ufro met monacems maTi momxmareblebis da operaciebis Sesaxeb, SeuZliaT amonaweridan gamowvlilon informacia da uzrunvelyon konkurentuli upiratesoba. esec patara siurprizi, rom statistikosebi (+34%) da operatiuli kvlevis analitikosebi (+30%) siaSi yvelaze swrafad mzardi profesiebia. medicinaSi genetikuri kvlevebis swrafi ganviTareba gamokvlevisa da mkurnalobis axal SesaZleblobebs iZleva, magram aseve SeuZlia gamoavlinos, rom pacientebis genetikuri memkvidreoba usiamovno siurprizebs Seicavs. es asabuTebs mzard moTxovnas konsultant-genetikosebis (+29%) poziciaze. miuxedavad amisa, es statistika Semoifargleba ukve arsebuli samuSao kategoriebis zrdis SefasebiT. sruliad axali tipis samuSao adgilebis warmoSoba varauds gulisxmobs. ganviTarebadi tendenciebi – es aris kompaniebTan urTierTobisa da onlainmomsaxurebis praqtika, sasaubro interfeisis an teqsturi Setyobinebebis saSualebiT. Apple-is Siri,

a

Cems Svils surs iyos robofsiqologi

tom stendegi: redaqtoris moadgile, The Economist

sasmeni aparatebis specialistebi binaze momvlelebi

genetikis mrCevlebi

audiologistebi

komerciuli myvinTavebi

personaluri finansuri mrCevlebi meddebi

operatiuli kvlevis analitikosebi eqimis asistentebi

fizikuri Terapevtebi statistikosebi `saswrafos~ mZRolebi wyaro: aSS-is Sromis statistikis biuro

Amazon-is Alexa da Microsoft-is Cortana yvelaze TvalsaCino magaliTebia, magram bevri kompania qmnis korporaciul `Catrobotebs~ (`Catbotebs~), romelic SeZlebs reagirebas klientebis SekiTxvebze an informaciis miwodebas. organizaciis saitze Sesvlis nacvlad, Tqven SeZlebT moagvaroT saqme mis robotTan gasaubrebiT. iseve, rogorc vebsaitebs esaWiroebaT dizainerebi da programistebi, `botebsac~ sWirdebaT specialistebi, romlebic SeimuSaveben maT bizneswesebs, daweren maTTvis dialogebs da daafiqsireben Tanamedrove doneze. es gaxlavT samuSao kategoria, romelsac SeiZleba erTianad `bot-ranglerebi~ vuwodoT. amboben, rom silikonis velis firmebs samuSaoze ahyavT poetebi da komikosebi, raTa daweron eleganturi, maxvilgonivruli xumrobebi sasaubro kompiuteruli sistemebisTvis.

gvWirdeba: `bot-ranglerebi~ da virtualuri modis dizainerebi. amasobaSi, avtonomiur satransporto saSualebebs an dronebs iyeneben haerSi da gzebze. dronebs ukve iyeneben soflis meurneobaSi, cxovelTa samyaros dacvisTvis, samecniero-kvleviTi da humanitaruli miznebisTvis. isini saWiroa jarSi personalisa da teqnikosebis dasaxmareblad. mzardi urbanuli mosaxleobis kvebiTi moTxovnilebebi xels uwyobs swraf progress hidroponuri da aeroponuri kvebis produqtebis warmoebaSi, mWidrod kontrolirebad garemoSi, axali samuSao adgilebis Sesaqmnelad sasaTbure meurneobebSi. biologiisa da samganzomilebiani beWdvis kombinirebas iyeneben sinTezuri qsovilebis inJinrebi, gadanergvisTvis gamosadegi adamianis organoebis Sesaqmnelad. miuxedavad imisa, rom aRniSnuli sfero jer kidev Camoyalibebis stadiaSia, molodini aZlierebs realobas: kompiuteruli grafikis realur samyaroze zeddeba – SekveTa virtualuri modis dizainerebs, Seqmnan samkauli, tansacmeli da aqsesuarebi, romelTa moxmarebasac cifrulad SevZlebT. aizek azimovis robotebze klasikuri moTxrobebiT STagonebul Cems 16 wlis qaliSvils surs robofsiqologi gaxdes – teqnikosi, romelic gamoarkvevs, ratom iqcevian robotebi arasworad. `aseTi samuSao ar arsebobs~, – daiCivla misma skolis mrCevelma karierul sakiTxebSi. `marTalia, – upasuxa Cemma Svilma,ß – magram 2025 wels, albaT iqneba~. n


pirveli niu-iorkuli caTambjeni TbilisSi simartive da sinatife — vinsent vulfis mTavari xazebi

y

velaferi oTxi wlis win daiwyo, rodesac `Tbilisi gardensis~ proeqtSi CarTva SemomTavazes. maSin me saqarTveloSi, da kerZod TbilisSi pirvelad vimogzaure. mindoda adgilze menaxa rogor cxovrobdnen Tbiliselebi, rogori sacxovrebeli pirobebi hqondaT, ra SeiZleboda SegveTavazebina maTTis – is, rac iqneboda gansakuTrebuli da gansxvavebuli. Tbilisis daTvalierebisas me davinaxe SesaZleblobebi da SemoTavazeba miviRe. `Tbilisi gardensis~ proeqtis menejmentTan erTad dawvrilebiT gaviare yvela detali, proeqtis interierisa da eqsterieris arqiteqtura, dizaini da SevimuSaveT Cveni koncefcia – sinaTle da sivrce. es ori aspeqti Cveni proeqtis yvela detals gansazRvravs. Cven gavaerTianeT maradmwvane parkisa da haerovani caTambjenis idea da SevecadeT SenobebiT gadatvirTul qalaqSi Segveqmna adgili, sadac srulyofili cxovrebisTvis yvelanairi pirobebi iarsebebda. warmoidgineT, modixarT saRamos daRlili samsaxuridan da am dros Sin gxvdebaT myudro sivrce, sadac yoveldRiuri problemebi gaviwydebaT da sacxovrebeli pirobebi diskomforts ar giqmniT. am dros cxovreba gacilebiT mravalferovani da sasiamovno geCvenebaT. vfiqrob am ganwyobis CamoyalibebaSi gadamwyvet rols saxlis dizaini TamaSobs: ra ferisaa kedlebi, ra masaliTaa dafaruli iataki, ramdenad funqciuria samzareulo da ramdenad myudroa saZinebeli. `Tbilisi gardensi~ erTaderTi kompaniaa adgilobriv bazarze, romelmac dizains dauTmo yuradReba da aqcenti proeqtis rogorc Sida sivrcul mowyobaze, aseve gare eqsterierze gaamaxvila. proeqtis menejerebTan erTad Cven SevqmeniT Cveni xazi – saxli, sadac yvelaferi kargadaa! Ria pastelis ferebi, daxvewili garemo, umaRlesi xarisxis masala – yvelaferi es ukve `Tbilisi gardensis~ stilia. aq yvela detali didi xnis nafiqri da gaazrebulia, da Serwymulia erTmaneTs. daxvewili dizainis da mravalferovani funqciuri datvirTvis SerwymiT, Cven gvsurs SevcvaloT saxlis

aRqma. viyoT gansxvavebulebi, Tumca advilad aRsaqmeli da dadebiTad damuxtulni. zogadad Tbiliss arqiteqturis ramdenime talRa etyoba: Senobebisa da ubnebis nawili aRmosavluri, aziuri suliskveTebiTaa gamsWvaluli, mravladaa orientalisturi tipis Senobebi; meore talRaa ufro gviani arqiteqtura, romelic parizis, an romeliRac nebismieri evropuli qalaqis ganwyobas giqmnis. da aris mesame – Sereuli tipis, qaosuri mSeneblobebi Tbilisis sxvadasxva ubnebSi. vfiqrob, simwvane gakliaT, bunebasTan siaxlove. Cven ki es garemo SevqmeniT – es ar iqneba erTi maRali Senoba, romelic mraval sxvadasxva zomis Senobebis garemocvaSi iqneba Cakarguli, sadac sunTqva giWirs da sivrcis naklebobaa. `Tbilisi gardensi~ aqamde arsebuli Tu mSenebare sacxovrebeli kompleqsebisgan gansxvavebulia. misi Senobis sarTulebidan ulamazesi xedi gadaiSleba da amave dros mwvane safari – italieli dizainerebis mier gaSenebuli xeebis gansakuTrebuli jiSebi, simSvidis, jansaRi haeris, bunebasTan siaxlovis gancdas Seqmnis. `Tbilisi gardensis~ mcxovreblebs SeuZliaT icxovron qalaqis centrSi, qaosur garemoSi, amave dros bunebis mSvenierebiT datkbnen da sufTa haeriT isunTqon. 4 heqtari parki, romelic `Tbilisi gardenss~ akravs, amis srul garantias iZleva. `Tbilisi gardensi~ mxolod mravalsarTuliani, erTi Senoba araa. aq mTeli teritoria Caketilia da usafrTxo garemoa Seqmnili. gamoyofilia lobis sivrce SexvedrebisTvis, ivenTholi, terasa ki xmauriani wveulebis organizebisTvis saukeTeso adgilia; aq iqneba aseve relaqsaciis, gajansaRebisTvis da sxeulisTvis idealuri formis SesaZenad olimpiuri standartis sacurao auzi da savarjiSo darbazi. proeqti iTvaliswinebs sabavSvo baRis, miwisqveSa parkingis da damatebiTi saTavsoebis mowyobasac. pirvel binadrebs Cven 2018 wlis gazafxulze miviRebT, xolo proeqtis sruli dasrulebisTvis eqvsi weli dagvWirdeba. am proeqtze muSaobis paralelurad, me sxva proeqtebzec vmuSaobdi, maT Soris makaoSi, bostonsa Tu SvedeTSi, Tumca `Tbilisi gardensi~ CemTvis gansakuTrebuli proeqtia, romelmac Secvala ramdenime wlis win Cemi gegmebi da Tbiliss damakavSira. darwmunebuli var igi adgilobrivi mcxovreblebis gemovnebaSic Seitans cvlilebebs da maT gansxvavebulad cxovrebis moTxovnebs gauCens.

kubeli warmoSobis amerikeli interieris dizaineri vinsente vulfi msoflio masStabiT cnobili da wamyvani dizaineria. House Beautiful-ma igi yvelaze gavlenian amerikel dizainerTa aTeulSi Seiyvana, xolo Interior Design Magazine-ma saukeTesod aRiara. TviTnaswavli dizaineri 40 welia bazarze moRvaweobs da mis saxels ukavSirdeba araerTi cnobili sastumros, restornis Tu kerZo saxlis Sida interieri. vulfis stili gamorCeulia –daxvewili dizaini, naTeli ferebi da detalebisadmi gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba.


kalendari

2017

msoflio 2017

Cven mier SerCeuli movlenebi mTel msoflioSi

mobilur telefonebze roumingis gadasaxads auqmebs.

ianvari aTi weli gavida mas Semdeg, rac Apple-is damfuZnebelma stiv jobsma iPhone sazeimod waradgina. amerikis 45-e prezidenti, da 44-e piri, romelic am Tanamdebobas daikavebs (grover klivlendis ori calkeuli vada orjer aris daTvlili), movaleobis Sesrulebas Seudgeba. Asterix-isa da sxva komikuri personaJebis moyvarulebi safrangeTis angulemSi komiqsebis saerTaSoriso festivalze ikribebian. CinelebisTvis mamlis weliwadi iwyeba: mamlis weliwadSi dabadebul adamianebze amboben, rom isini uSualoni, komunikabelurni da punqtualurni arian.

ivlisi germania msoflios yvelaze didi ekonomikis mqone qveynebis liderebs hamburgSi, didi oceulis wliur samitze esalmeba. kanadaSi britaneTis CrdiloeT amerikis aqtis 150 wlisTavs aRniSnaven, romlis safuZvelzec sami britanuli kolonia gaerTianda, rogorc `erTi dominioni saxelwodebiT kanada~. `ras warmoadgens adamiani kldeebisa da mTebisTvis?~ – an jein ostinisTvis, romelic 200 wlis win gardaicvala.

agvisto kenielebi sayovelTao arCevnebSi xmas aZleven. 21 agvistos amerikelebs SeuZliaT mzis srul dabnelebas adevnon Tvali. Tebervali princesa daiana 20 wlis win gardaicvala. msoflio hijabis dRes mTeli msoflios qalebs irlandiaSi qalTa ragbis msoflio Cempionatze mouwodeben gamoscadon, Tu rogoria, ataro inglisi Tavis tituls icavs. Tavsaburavi. giganturi satelevizio auditoria amerikuli seqtemberi fexburTis Super Bowl LI-Si CaerTveba, romelic teqsasis Statis qalaqi ostini `Tavs ivarcxnis~ teqsasis Statis qalaq hiustonSi imarTeba. wverisa da ulvaSis msoflioSi Cempionatis iaponiis qalaqi saporo aziis zamTris TamaSebs samzadisSi, kategoriebiT `dali~, `garibaldi~ maspinZlobs. da mravali sxva. `wiTeli xaliCis~ gaSlis droa, radgan holiprinci Carlzi xsnis princ albert edvardis vudi akademiis jildoebs gadascems. rekords, 59 wlisa da 45 dRis Tavze, da brita-

marti fineTSi erTsqesianTa qorwinebis dakanoneba xdeba. honkongi Tavisi aRmasrulebeli xelisflebis pirvel pirs irCevs. holandielebi sayovelTao arCevnebSi xmas aZleven. mayurebeli binoklebs moimarjvebs, raTa msoflios yvelaze ZviradRirebul doRs – $10-milionian dubais msoflio Cempionats adevnos Tvali. los-anjelesis Dodger-is stadionze World Baseball Classic-is Cempionis wodebisTvis TamaSi imarTeba; turniri oTx weliwadSi erTxel, 16 eris monawileobiT tardeba. aprili amerikelebi pirvel msoflio oms ixseneben; 100 weli gadis mas Semdeg, rac 1917 wlis 6 aprils kongresma omSi amerikis monawileobas dauWira mxari. miliardamde adamiani dedamiwis dRes, msoflioSi udides saero dResaswauls aRniSnavs. britaneTSi sakmaod mcire raodenobiT adamiani zeimobs erovnul – Jelly Bean dRes. maisi safrangeTi orturiani kenWisyris procesSi Tavis prezidents irCevs. iranSi aseve imarTeba saprezidento arCevnebi. dasavleTis didi Svideulis liderebi siciliis qalaq taorminaSi ikribebian. italiaSi miemarTebian Tanamedrove xelovnebis moyvarulnic, sadac veneciis bienale ixsneba. kinos droa: igegmeba filmebis – `maSveli~ da `barbi~ pirveli nawilis kinoekranebze gamosvla. ivnisi evropis safexburTo sezoni uelsis qalaq kardifSi dagegmili uefas CempionTa ligis finaliT kulminacias aRwevs. msoflios yvelaze glamuruli iaxtebis Sejibri, amerikis Tasi, bermudaSi finiSisken miiswrafvis. evropelebi xaroben, radgan evrokavSiri

neTis istoriaSi yvelaze xandazmuli uelsis princi xdeba. germaniaSi, norvegiasa da axal zelandiaSi sayovelTao arCevnebi tardeba. oqtomberi samxreT afrikis respublikaSi, kalaharis udabnoSi, hakskinis mlaSobze, britanuli gundi Bloodhound 1997 wels damyarebuli msoflios saxmeleTo siCqaris rekordis – (763 m/sT (1,228 km/sT) moxsnas gegmavs. msoflios revolucionerebi erTiandebian, raTa xotba Seasxan Ce gevaras, romelic 50 wlis win gardaicvala. 500 weli gavida mas Semdeg, rac kidev erTma revoluciurma personam – martin luTerma, Tavisi 95 `Tezisi~ vitenbergis eklesiis kars miaWeda, riTac protestantul reformacias daudo saTave. noemberi azia-wynari okeanis 21 qveynis liderebi vietnamis danangis axalaSenebul saerTaSoriso terminalSi, azia-wynari okeanis qveynebis 29-e samitze dasaswrebad daeSvebian. rusebi garkveuli nostalgiiT gaixseneben 1917 wlis revolucias, romelmac bolSevikebi xelisuflebaSi moiyvana. kolumbiis olqis dedaqalaq vaSingtonSi, gamokveTilad antimarqsistuli bibliis muzeumis kari mnaxvelebisTvis dRedReze gaiReba. hokeis erovnuli liga, romelic 1917 wlis 26 noembers monrealSi, erT-erT oTaxSi daibada, daarsebidan as wlisTavs aRniSnavs. dekemberi samxreT korea xmas aZlevs axal prezidents. ekranebze gamodis `varskvlavuri omebis~ uaxlesi, rigiT merve filmi; mayurebelma kinoepopeis pirveli filmi 1977 wels ixila. Kippis! 6 dekembers fineTi damoukideblobis 100 wlisTavs aRniSnavs. adamianis gulis gadanergva pirvelad 50 wlis win, samxreT afrikis respublikaSi ganxorcielda. xolo pirveli teqsturi Setyobineba 25 wlis win gaigzavna – masSi ewera: `Sobas gilocavT~.

2016 wlis kalendris ilustraciis avtoria The Economist-is saredaqcio karikaturisti kevin (KAL) keloeri, romelmac gamoiyena karikaturebi www.foresightnews.co.uk-idan


msoflio 2017

kalendari

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AD: Atlas Global


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msoflio 2017 aseve am seqciaSi: migrantebs sulis moTqmasac ar aclian putini leninis winaaRmdeg ubralod, SesaZlebelia... germaniis maradi kancleri

martin luTeri – eklesiis gamxleCi angariSsworeba TurqeTSi espaneTis gasaWiri rencis fsoni maria alioxina: axali rusuli revolucia

evropa

brZola safrangeTisTvis sofi pederi, parizi

saprezidento saarCevno kampania RvarZliani gaxdeba

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makronis kandidatura marcxniv areulobas Seitans, xolo marjvniv gaRizianebas gamoiwvevs

gamokiTxvebis favoriti, romelsac qalbaton le penis damarcxebis yvelaze didi Sansi aqvs, yofili premier-ministri da respublikuri partiis prezidentobis kandidati, social-konservatori da liberaluri ekonomikis momxre fransua fiionia. is reformebis imeds Tavisi ambiciuri programiT aRZravs, romelic ekonomikis gadatvirTvas, profkavSirebis SezRudvas, SromiTi regulaciebis gadaweras, saxelmwifo aparatis Semcirebas da samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas iTvaliswinebs. magram es memarcxeneebs da sajaro seqtoris muSakebs aRaSfoTebs, romlebic dagmoben tetCerizmis frangul variants arCevnebamde, xolo misi gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi quCaSi gamovlen. qalbatoni le penis damarcxebisTvis mniSvnelovania, rom batonma fiionma „nacionaluri frontis“ amomrCevlebi mis ojaxur Rirebulebebze dafuZnebuli konservatizmiTa da `islamur totalitarizmze~ gafrTxilebebiT daibrunos; amasTan, man metismetad ar unda awyeninos memarcxeneebs, romlebmac SesaZloa TavSekaveba arCion, vidre misTvis xmis micema. sazRvargareT fiionis gaprezidenteba (romelic vladimir putinTan megobrobs), diplomatiur politikaSi cvlilebis signali iqneba. igi Seecdeba ruseTTan megobruli urTierTobebis ganaxlebas da siriaSi baSar al-asadis reJimTan `islamuri saxelmwifos~ winaaRmdeg strategiuli TanamSromlobis Camoyalibebas, rac franko-germanul kavSirebsa da evropis erTianobaSi cincxal daZabulobas Seitans. erTi saintereso axali figura, romelze dakvirvebac namdvilad Rors, batoni olandis ekonomikis yofili ministri emanuel makronia. is prezidentobisTvis ibrZolebs, magram – socialisturi partiis gareT da batoni olandis winaaRmdeg.

2017 mokled Gauloises blues: safrangeTSi ianvridan yvela brendis sigareti sada SefuTviT unda gaiyidos

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adamwyvet saarCevno weliwads SiSi da TviTanalizi safrangeTis Tanamdevi iqneba da ganxeTqilebis Semomtan identobis politikas wina planze wamoswevs. 23 aprils da 7 maiss orraundian saprezidento arCevnebSi amomrCeveli fransua olandis memkvidres airCevs, amis Semdeg ki ivnisSi xmas miscems axal parlaments. Tumca ekonomikis aRdgenisa da umuSevrobis donis Semcirebis aqtualur sakiTxebs daCrdilavs populisturi debatebi eklesiebis, meCeTebis, Tavsaburavebis, Roris xorcisgan momzadebuli kerZebisa da imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras niSnavs iyo frangi. vinaidan kandidatebi imigraciasTan, islamsa da terorizmTan dakavSirebul problemebs erTmaneTSi ureven, kampania RvarZliani gaxdeba. politikosi, romelsac debatebi nacionalistur ganzomilebaSi gadaaqvs, ultramemarjvene nacionaluri frontis (FN) lideri – marin le penia. mas pirveli raundis kenWisyraSi gamarjvebis yvelaze realuri Sansi aqvs, es ki imas niSnavs, rom kampania ZiriTadad imaze iqneba orientirebuli, Tu vin daupirispirdeba mas meore turSi. is ecdeba gaafarTovos Tavisi dasayrdeni da `mavne nivTierebebisgan gawmindos~ saarCevno platforma, amisTvis ki „nacionaluri frontisa“ da mis logosTan mimarTebis xazgasmis nacvlad aqcents brend `marinze~ gaamaxvilebs. igi sakuTar Tavs mTeli `xalxis~ kandidatad warmoadgens, magram sinamdvileSi qalbatoni le peni ganxeTqilebis Semomtani kamaTis subieqti iqneba da muslimebsa da migrantebs mentonidan kalemde Tavs daesxmeba. precedentis saxiT is breqsits gamoiyenebs da evrokavSiridan gasvlis, e.w. freqsitis referendums moiTxovs. nacionalistur ganwyobaze TamaSis le penis marjve unarma mis partias SesaZloa parlamentSi aTobiT adgili moutanos; es istoriuli Sedegia, romelic politikur balanss Secvlis. SesaZlebelia Tu ara, rom le penma prezidentoba moipovos? amerikis saprezidento arCevnebSi donald trampis gamarjvebis Semdeg SekiTxva gacilebiT naklebad absurdulad gveCveneba. rac unda didi sifrTxiliT iyos ganwyobili alternatiuli kandidatis mimarT, amomrCevelTa umetesoba meore turSi gegmavs dairazmos da nacionaluri frontis gamarjveba ar dauSvas. le penis gamarjveba saeWvo rCeba da mTel safrangeTsa da evropaSi Soks gamoiwvevs. amis miuxedavad, populisti politikosebi, romlebic eqosaviT imeoreben erTmaneTis naTqvams, gvarigeben, rom gularxeinad yofna arakeTilgonivrulia. mis kampanias didi yuradRebiT unda vadevnoT Tvali.

sofi pederi: parizis biuros xelmZRvaneli, The Economist


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evropa

problemebis zRva ema hogani

evropaSi ltolvilTa mozRvavebiT gamowveuli qaosi kidev ufro uaresi gaxdeba

e

vropis ltolvilTa dramaSi cota ram iyo prognozirebadi: 2015 wels siriaSi mimdinare omis fonze 1.3 milionma migrantma iTxova evrokavSirSi TavSesafari, ramac wina rekordebs gadaaWarba. winaswari varaudiT, im adamianTa ricxvi, vinc TurqeTsa da saberZneTs Soris egeosis zRvas kveTda, zafxulis miwurulisTvis unda Semcirebuliyo, magram raodenoba mkveTrad zrdas ganagrZobda. 2016 wlis martSi evrokavSirsa da TurqeTs Soris bolo momentSi miRweuli SeTanxmeba bevrisTvis siurprizi aRmoCnda. SeTanxmebis mixedviT, ltolvilebi ukan – TurqeTSi dabrundebodnen, sadac TavSesafris misaRebad maT gancxadebebs daamuSavebdnen. kidev ufro moulodnelad, pirvelad SeizRuda axalCamosulTa SemoSveba: Tu 2016 wlis TebervalSi saberZneTis sanapiroze gadmosxmulTa raodenoba daaxloebiT 55 000-s Seadgenda, agvistoSi ricxvi 3 400-mde Semcirda. 2017 wels im adamianTa ricxvi, romlebic evropisken gzis gakvlevas Seecdebian, 2015 an 2016 wlebis rekordul doneebs aRar miaRwevs; magram imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom kontinentze populisturi partiebis aRzeveba xdeba, TurqeTis xelisufleba ki sul ufro axirebulia, mogzauroba meti sirTuleebiT iqneba aRsavse. usafrTxo TavSesafris mosapoveblad meti ltolvili gariskavs da ufro saxifaTo, araprognozirebad marSrutebs airCevs, gzaze ki bevri maTgani gacilebiT

TurqeTi 911 km (566 mili) sigrZis sasazRvro kedlis mSeneblobas asrulebs, romlis mizani siriidan aralegaluri imigraciis SeCerebaa

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2017 mokled

msoflio 2017

mkacr mopyrobas waawydeba. upirvelesad, migrantebTan dakavSirebuli formaluri meqanizmebi gauaresdeba. evrokavSirsa da TurqeTs Soris arsebuli SeTanxmebis miuxedavad, 50 000-mde migranti saberZneTis banakebSi isev CarCenilia da TurqeTSi maTi dabrunebis procesi ar dawyebula. am banakebis umetesoba adamianebiT pirTamdea savse: seqtemberSi lesbosze gadatvirTuli nagebobidan aTasobiT ltolvili gaiqca mas Semdeg, rac areuloba daiwyo da banakSi xanZarma ifeTqa. zamTari Zalas ikrebs da migrantebi sul ufro TavzexelaRebulni xdebian. aqa-iq muSti-krivi atydeba, ltolvilebi SimSilobas mimarTaven; amasobaSi libiasa da italias Soris arsebul marSrutze sikvdilianoba sul ufro izrdeba. meorec: TurqeTis mTavrobasTan saqmis daWera bevrad garTuldeba. SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, TurqeTs misi zogierTi moqalaqis uvizo mimosvlis uzrunvelyofas dahpirdnen, im pirobiT, rom qveyana korufciasTan brZolis, biometriuli pasportebis gacemisa da misi farTo antiteroristuli kanonmdeblobis reformirebis TvalsazrisiT garkveul kriteriumebs daakmayofilebda. oqtomberSi es pirobebi jer kidev ar iyo Sesrulebuli – nawilobriv imitom, rom mTavroba 60 000 adamianis samarTlebrivi devniT iyo dakavebuli, romlebsac ivlisSi prezident rejep taip erdoRanis winaaRmdeg saxelmwifo gadatrialebis mowyobis mcdelobaSi dasdes brali. vizisgan gaTavisuflebis dagvianebam Turqebi aRaSfoTa, romlebic garigebis CaSliT daimuqrnen. Tu es moxdeba, maSin saberZneTma SesaZloa ltolvilebis banakebidan gaSveba daiwyos; isini (kontrabandistebis daxmarebiT) balkaneTis gavliT germaniisken aiReben gezs, rac

axlis Soki arapopularuli mimavali prezidentis xelaxla arCevis Sansi imdenad dabalia, rom olands SeuZlia ganze gadges da manuel valss – premier-ministrs, misces mis nacvlad kenWisyris saSualeba. rac Seexeba baton makronis kandidaturas, is marcxniv areulobas Seitans, xolo marjvniv gaRizianebas gamoiwvevs, radgan cdilobs orive mxridan gadmoibiros progresuli proevropuli amomrCeveli. am politikuri axalbedas Sansi, romelsac partiuli struqturebi Camouyalibebeli aqvs da bevri socialisti dascinis, Zalian umniSvneloa. Tumca safrangeTSi raRac axali swyuriaT da mxolod drogamoSvebiT, politikur kanonzomierebebs arad dagideven. es kampania teroris Savbnel fonze warimarTeba. safrangeTi mudmivad mzad iqneba, skolebSi terorizmTan dakavSirebuli regularuli wvrTnebi Catardeba, romlebic bavSvebs imdenadve Caunergavs gangaSis grZnobas, ramdenadac Tavdajerebulobas Sematebs. saubedurod, mosalodnelia Semdgomi teroristuli Tavdasxmebi. frangebs mouwevT iswavlon SiSiT cxovreba. qveyana ecdeba ukmayofilo umciresobaSi alagmos `jihadisken~ mowodeba. `deradikalizaciis~ Zalisxmeva warumateblad dasruldeba. safrangeTi

gzaSi Semdgom qaoss gamoiwvevs. mesame: evropis qveynebSi arsebuli Sida wnexi politikosebs aiZulebs Tavi Seikavon imis keTebaze, rac gasakeTebelia. magaliTad, devnilebis pirdapir TurqeTidan danarCen evropaSi gansaxlebisTvis aucilebelia bevrad meti muSaoba; amis uzrunvelsayofad ki saberZneTSi, italiasa da sxva qveynebSi Tarjimnebisa da TavSesafris mowyobis mosamsaxureTa gacilebiT meti raodenobaa saWiro. magram ori lideri – germaniis kancleri angela merkeli (romelic evropaSi ltolvilebis daxmarebis saWiroebas xazgasmiT aRniSnavs) da safrangeTis prezidenti fransua olandi saarCevno brZolebiT metismetad iqnebian dakavebulni, rom es problemebi sxvebis daxmarebis gareSe moagvaron. am daxmarebas ki isini arc unda moelodnen: aRmosavleT evropaSi mTavrobebi devnilebis miRebaze saerTod uars amboben, xolo SvedeTSi, holandiasa da italiaSi antiimigrantuli ganwyoba TandaTan matulobs. swori diplomatiuri zomebis miRebis SemTxvevaSi aseTi savalalo scenari SeiZleba Tavidan iqnas acilebuli. jerald knausis – evropuli stabilurobis iniciativis analitikosis TqmiT, imisaTvis, rom evrokavSir-TurqeTis SeTanxmeba qmediTi gaxdes, TurqeTi aRqmul unda iqnas, rogorc ltolvilTa dasabruneblad usafrTxo qveyana. da ufro metma evropulma qveyanam unda daiwyos pirdapir TurqeTidan devnilTa gansaxleba, rac SesaZlebels gaxdis, rom arapopularuli iZulebiTi gadaadgilebis sqemaze uari Tqvan. magram rogorc Cans, aRniSnulidan arcerTi 2017 wels ar moxdeba evrokavSirisa da im politikosTa samarcxvinod, Tavdapirvelad gulRiad rom Sexvdnen maT, vinc `kasris bombebs~ gamoeqca. n ema hogani: evropis korespondenti, The Economist

kvlavac teroristuli qselebis samizne darCeba, Tumca es qveyanas ver gadaaTqmevinebs, sazRvargareT, gansakuTrebiT afrikis sahelSi ebrZolos `jihadizms~. moaxerxeben Tu ara frangebi, daibrunon Tavisi sicocxlis xalisi? sulis simtkice teroristulma sisxlisRvram ukve gatexa, olandis prezidentobis Seusrulebelma dapirebebma ki daTrguna. miuxedavad amisa, safrangeTi msoflios kvlavac miscems saerTaSoriso donis mkvlevrebs, teqnologiur inJinrebsa da natifi gemovnebiT Sesrulebul ZviradRirebul nakeTobebs – iseve, rogorc moaxdens Senelebuli cxovrebisadmi daxvewili midrekilebis demonstrirebas; yovelive es Tavdajerebulobis sawindari unda iyos. misi regionuli qalaqebi, rogorebicaa monpelie, bordo da grenobli, yvavis maTi teqnologiuri habebiT da axladmowyobili safexmavlo centrebiT, romlebsac moelvare tramvais xazebi kveTs. 2017 weli, roca pompidus centri daarsebidan me-40 wlisTavs aRniSnavs, qveynisTvis SesaZloa iyos momenti, gaiTavisos progresulad moazrovne inovacia da esTetikuri gabeduleba. riski is gaxlavT, rom amis nacvlad politikuri konservatizmi da ganxeTqilebis Semomtani nacionalizmi frangebis TavSi eWvs kidev ufro gaaRrmavebs. n


msoflio 2017

leninis `SurisZieba~ arkadi ostrovski

vladimir putins ruseTis revoluciuri warsulis Tavis caristul ambiciebTan SeTavseba gauWirdeba

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917 wlis bolSevikuri revoluciis asi wlisTavi ruseTis prezidents – vladimir putins seriozul uxerxulobas Seuqmnis: erTi mxriv, kremlma imdeni sabWoTa simbolika da instituti aRadgina, rom is sabWoTa weswyobilebis dafuZnebis legendas ver ugulebelyofs; meore mxriv, putini revoluciebis mimarT mudmiv antipaTias gamoxatavs. gansakuTrebiT ar moswons, roca avtoritarul, imperiul reJimebs amxoben. metic, revoluciis diriJorze – vladimir ilias Ze leninze msoflio masStabiT gakeTebuli komentari, romelic axali biografiebis niaRvarSi umciresi sulac ar aris, mis Tanamedrove sexniasTan msgavsebebs aRZravs. 2017 wels imis molodinSi unda iyoT, rom batoni putini inteleqtualur gadatrialebas moaxdens da leninis antiimperialistur swrafvas imperiuli wesrigis aRdgenis piradi ambiciebiT `kvadratSi aiyvans~. leninis memkvidreobas, gviani sabWoTa epoqidan moyolebuli, Tavisi aRmavlobebi da dacemebi axasiaTebda. 1980-ian wlebSi mixeil gorbaCovma da misma mxardamWerebma, romelTagan mravali staliniseul wmendaSi moyolili Zveli bolSevikebis Svilebi iyvnen, leninur principebze dabrunebis lozungiT liberaluri reformebi ganaxorcieles (maT lenins adamianTan, romelmac Tavis qveyanaSi samoqalaqo omi da terori gaaCaRa, saerTo araferi hqonda). batonma gorbaCovma, sxva sabWoTa liderebis msgavsad, misi legitimuroba bolSevikuri saxelmwifos damfuZneblisgan miiRo. RmerTebis msgavsad, isini leninis mavzoleumSi gaivlidnen (miwisqveSeTi) da mwvervalze adiodnen (olimpo); iqidan ki Tvals adevnebdnen samxedro aRlumebsa da marSebs mokvdavebis monawileobiT, romlebsac maTi portretebi (xatebi) eWiraT xelSi. maTgan gansxvavebiT, boris elcini sabWoTa kavSiris daSlas xelmZRvanelobda da komunisturi reJimi uaryo, rogorc principisa da politikis sakiTxi. maSinac ki, rodesac misma popularobam iklo, komunisturi epoqis sajaro dagmobam elcinis xelaxali arCeva uzrunvelyo. magram batoni putini naklebad asxvavebs imperiul, sabWoTa da postsabWoTa ruseTs. `ra iyo sabWoTa kavSiri? – 2011 wels ikiTxa batonma putinma – es igive ruseTia, oRond gansxvavebuli saxelwodebiT~. igi eswrafvis Tavisi ocnebis xorcSesxmas – saxelmwifo Zalauflebis aRdgenas da ukrainasa da belarusze – sabWoTa kavSiris erT-erT ZiriTad Semadgenel nawilebze kontrolis SenarCunebas. amiT batonma putinma leninis ignorireba da stalinis reabilitacia moaxdina. putinisTvis maT Soris gansxvaveba ru-

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evropa seTis saxelmwifosa da misi imperiuli memkvidreobis mimarT maT damokidebulebaSia. istoriis putiniseul versiaSi, maSin roca lenini imperialisturi ruseTis winaaRmdeg brZolas xelmZRvanelobda da mis marTlmadideblur rwmenas uaryofda, stalini imperiis ideas daubrunda, rusuli nacionalizmis motrfiale iyo da eklesiasTan `arSiyobda~. stalinma qveynis resursebis konsolidireba moaxdina da patriotizmis gancda aRadgina; aman meore msoflio omSi sabWoTa kavSiris gamarjvebas Seuwyo xeli, rac dRes arsebuli saxelmwifos ZiriTad malegitimirebel movlenad gamoiyeneba (stalinis mier ruseTis glexobis, samRvdeloebisa da inteligenciis umowyalod gaJleta am narativSi gaTvaliswinebuli ar aris). miuxedavad amisa, batoni putini bolSevikur revolucias `simSvides ar urRvevs~, lenins ki Tavis mavzoleumSi tovebs, radgan Zvel komunistebSi ukmayofilebis gaRviveba da maTi xmebis dakargva ar surs. leninis istoriul Tayvaniscemasa da putinis mxridan nebismieri revoluciis miuReblobas Soris Seusabamobis dafarvis mizniT, kremli mavzoleums samxedro aRlumebis dros wiTeli armiis almebiT mosavs. magram revoluciis asi wlisTavi metismetad didi movlenaa, rom daimalos. 2016 wlis dasawyisSi samxreT ruseTis astraxanis regionidan erTma pedagogma putins hkiTxa, Tavisi studentebisTvis yvelaze ukeT rogor aexsna bolSevikuri revoluciis arsi: `Tqveni pozicia CvenTvis Zalian mniSvnelovania~. pasuxis gacemisas, batoni putinis sityvebiT, igi erT dros ara marto komunisturi partiis wevri, aramed saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis oficeric ki iyo, romelic `partiis farsa da xmals~ warmoadgenda. bevrisgan gansxvavebiT, man ganacxada, rom partiis wevrobis baraTi ar dauxevia: `me komunisturi da socialisturi idea momwonda da dResac momwons~. leninTan misi ZiriTadi `uTanxmoeba~ ukavSirdeboda leninis mier ruseTis organizebas, rogorc TviTgamorkvevis uflebis mqone eTnikuri respublikebis kavSirisa. putinis TqmiT, maTTvis sabWoTa kavSiridan gasvlis uflebis miniWebiT, leninma ruseTis saZirkvelSi `atomuri bombi Cado~. batoni putini Tavis Tavs aRiqvams, rogorc ruseTis istoriuli miwebis aRmdgens da axal `cars~. bolo xanebSi kremlSi gamarTul ceremoniaze vladimir Jirinovskim – veteranma politikosma, romelic flobs imis mixvedris SesaniSnav unars, Tu `saidan uberavs qari~, baton putins imperiuli ruseTis himni – `RmerTo, ixseni mefe~ waumRera. magram batoni putinis reJims, romelmac ruseTi 1990-iani wlebis federaciidan centralizebul saxelmwifod aqcia, `carebze~ metad aRar ZaluZs qveyanaSi arsebuli ekonomikuri da politikuri winaaRmdegobebis gadaWra. dRes ruseTi reformisTvis iseve momwifebulia, rogorc 1917 wels nikoloz I I -is dros iyo. putins imedi aqvs, rom sabWoTa da imperiuli warsulis `SeuRlebiT~ igi ruseTis imperiis birTvs SeinarCunebs da monarqiis xvedrs Tavidan aicilebs. Tumca ekonomikis stagnaciasa da putinis megalomaniis gamwvavebasTan erTad bolSevikuri revoluciis `aCrdilebi~ sul ufro daudgromelni xdebian. lenins `SeuZlia Tavs gaRimebis ufleba misces~. n

2017 mokled kievSi `evroviziis~ simReris konkursi imarTeba. ukrainas ramdenime rusi momRerali `Sav siaSi~ Sehyavs, rogorc erovnuli usafrTxoebisTvis safrTxis Semcveli; ruseTma SesaZloa RonisZiebas boikoti gamoucxados

arkadi ostrovski: ruseTis redaqtori, The Economist


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evropa

msoflio 2017

maradi kancleri andreas kluti, berlini

poziciaSeryeuli da dasustebuli angela merkeli, savaraudod, xelaxla mainc iqneba arCeuli

2017 mokled orhusi daniaSi da pafosi kviprosSi — evropis kulturuli dedaqalaqebia

The Economist

martin luTeri — eklesiis gamxleCi met steinglasi

luTeris romTan dapirispirebidan xuTi saukunis Semdeg evropas gaxleCa kidev erTxel emuqreba

p

rocesi, romlis saSualebiTac memebi elvis siswrafiT vrceldeba, me-16 saukunis Semdeg didad ar Secvlila. 1517 wlis 31 oqtombers martin luTerma – vitenbergis universitetis berma, 95 Tezisisgan Semdgari sia Camowera, sadac papis mier sanqcirebuli indulgenciebi gaaprotesta. maTi mizani wminda petres bazilikis mSeneblobisTvis saxsrebis Segroveba iyo. istoria, romlis mixedviT luTerma Tavisi Tezisebi vitenbergis cixis eklesiis karze miaWeda (rogorc zemoT aris gamosaxuli), SesaZloa apokrifuli iyos, magram Tanabari datvirTva hqonda mis mier maincis mTavarepiskopos albertisTvis aslis gagzavnas, romelic indulgenciebidan wils iRebda. amis Semdeg, mcire xanSi luTerisa da albertis momxreebi im epoqis cnobili socialuri mediaplatformis – pamfletebis gamoyenebiT komentarebis omSi

CaerTnen. rogorc yovelTvis, viTareba gamwvavda. papma luTers eresSi dasdo brali. luTerma paps antiqriste uwoda. germaneli glexebi da mTavrebi luTeris mxares gadavidnen, ris Sedegadac evropaSi kaTolikeebsa da protestantebs Soris sastiki omi gaCaRda. omi saukuneze metxans gagrZelda. axla, 500 wlis Semdeg, istoriaSi reformacias msubuqi anarekli aqvs. 2017 wels mTel germaniaSi dagegmilia samaxsovro RonisZiebebi. erTi nawili Serigebas aRniSnavs: 11 marts germaniis mTavari luTerani da kaTolike episkoposebi msaxurebas aRasruleben, romelic `mexsierebis gankurnebis process~ mieZRvneba. papma franciskem es procesi 2016 wels daZra luTeranul SvedeTSi vizitiT. zogierTi kaTolike sasuliero piri mainc aseTi ekumenuri Jestebis winaaRmdegia. bolos da bolos, luTerma maTi eklesia gaxliCa imis daJinebuli mtkicebiT, rom paps nebismier sxva qristianze metad xmis amoRebis ufleba ar hqonda. miuxedavad amisa, morwmune protestantebisa da kaTolikeebis umravlesoba dRes grZnobs, rom erT mxares imyofebian; maT

miaCniaT, rom im mcire raodenobiT evropelebs Soris arian, romlebsac odnav mainc ainteresebT qristianoba. evropis ZiriTad nawilSi mosaxleobis mxolod mesamedze naklebi miiCnevs, rom religias maT cxovrebaSi mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs. erT-erTi gamokvlevis mixedviT, aRmosavleT germania – luTeris samSoblo, SesaZloa msoflios yvelaze naklebad religiuri regionic ki iyos. dRes mxolod mcireoden sekularul evropels esmis eklesiis gaxleCis mizezebi an luTeris doqtrinis logika, rom xsnisken mxolod rwmenas da ara keTil saqmeebs mivyavarT. isini Zalze Sors arian im samyarosgan, sadac `keTili saqmeebi~ SesaZloa niSnavdes sakuTari danazogis gacemas imis sanacvlod, rom RmerTi Tqvens Soreul naTesavebs momaval cxovrebaSi tanjvisgan gaaTavisuflebs. aqedan gamomdinare, ramdenime wlis win evropelebs miaCndaT, rom religiaze Zaladobis etapi warsulSi datoves. rogorc Cans, es daskvna naadrevi aRmoCnda. Seuwynarebloba, korufcia da religiuri, ase vTqvaT, moZraobebi brundeba – da ara marto axlo aRmosavleTSi. droa meti ram gavigoT Cvens luTerze. n met steinglasi: evropis redaqtori, The Economist

s

andreas kluti: berlinis biuros xelmZRvaneli,

2

005 wels angela merkelma, germaniis kanclerad arCevamde ramdenime wlis win, erT-erT fotografs ganucxada, rom politikidan wasvlisTvis swori momentis povna hqonda gadawyvetili, raTa `naxevradmkvdari bexreki~ Cinovniki ar gamxdariyo. mas mxedvelobaSi hyavda sakuTari par­ tiis – „qristian-demokratiuli kavSiris“ (CDU) ori kancleri, romlebmac imaze metxans isargebles pirveli piris privilegiebiT, vidre sasurveli iqneboda. konrad adenaueri Zalauflebas 14 wlis manZilze ebRauWeboda, sanam 1963 wels dakavebul Tanamdebobas datovebda, helmut koli ki xelisuflebis saTaveSi 16 wlis ganmavlobaSi rCeboda, vidre 1998 wels partiis dafinansebis skandalis gamo gadadgoma ar mouwia. amis miuxedavad, merkeli albaT orives gautoldeba an gadauswrebs im pirobiT, Tu gadawyvetilebas miiRebs, 2017 wlis Semodgomaze daniSnul federalur arCevnebSi kvlav iyaros kenWi. es imitom, rom misi Sansi, meoTxe vadiT iqnas arCeuli, kvlavindeburad maRalia (germaniaSi vadaze SezRudvebi dawesebuli ar aris). diax, 2015 wels germaniaSi ltolvilTa miRebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mwvave uTanxmoebaa, magram mas Semdeg axalCamosulTa raodenobam mkveTrad iklo da marTvadi darCeba imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom TurqeTidan balkaneTamde sazRvrebi faqtobrivad Caiketa. vinaidan qveynis SigniT aqcenti ukve am ltolvilebis germaniaSi integrirebasa da teroristebisgan qveynis usafrTxod dacvaze inacvlebs, qalbatoni merkeli 2017 wels imis axsnaSi gaatarebs, rom am gamowvevasTan gamklaveba mas, da mx-

olod mas ZaluZs. magram bedis ironiiT, realur mizezs imisa, rom merkelis damarcxeba rTuli iqneba, germaniis partiul sistemaSi mimdinare SemaSfoTebeli procesebi warmoadgens, risTvisac mas xSirad adanaSauleben. aTwleulze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi Tavisi odesRac konservatiuli partia qalbaton merkels TandaTan marcxniv – socialur, ekonomikur da energetikis politikis relsebze gadahyavda. misi oponentebis mtkicebiT, amgvari midgomis Sedegad sivrce marjvniv populisturi axali partiisTvis gaTavisuflda, rogoricaa evroskeptikuri, antiimigraciuli da xSir SemTxvevaSi qsenofobiuri `alternativa germaniisTvis~ (AFD). 2017 wels `alternativa germaniisTvis~ sam regionul arCevnebSi Semdgom warmatebebs miaRwevs, xolo mogvianebiT pirvelad bundestagSic Seabijebs. arcerTi ZiriTadi partia AFD-s saTofezec ar gaekareba koaliciis Seqmnis sakiTxze molaparakebebSi. sanacvlod, bundestagSi mis Sesvlas is efeqti eqneba, rom sami memarcxene partiis – `social-demokratebis~, `mwvaneebisa~ da `postkomunisturi memarcxeneebis~ mier umravlesobis Camoyalibeba maTematikurad SeuZlebeli gaxdeba. es ki imas niSnavs, rom bevrad dasustebuli `qristian-demokratiuli kavSiri~, rogorc xuTi an eqvsi partiidan uZlieresi, mmarTvel koalicias Camoayalibebs. mas SeuZlia kidev erTxel `social-demokratebTan~ an `mwvaneebTan~ da liberal `Tavisufal demokratebTan~ gaerTiandes (Sedegi, romelsac qalbatoni merkeli isurvebda). nebismier SemTxvevaSi, yvela gzas iqiT mivyavarT, rom qalbatoni merkeli Tanamdebobaze darCeba. rac unda paradoqsulad JRerdes, erTaderTi safrTxe mas Tavisive partiis rigebidan emuqreba. meore msoflio omis Semdeg germanul politikaSi centristul-memarjvene banaks gansakuTrebuli SeTanxmeba hqonda: `qristian-demokratebis~ partia mTeli germaniis masStabiTaa Setanili biuletenebSi bavariis garda, sadac `qristian-demokratiuli~ kavSiris adgils `dobili partia~ – `qristian-social-


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evropa

msoflio 2017

`muxruWebis~ gareSe piotr zalevski, ankara

gadatrialebis Semdeg TurqeTis demokratiuli daRmasvla mxolod daCqardeba

T

urqeTis prezidentma – rejep taip erdoRanma, rogorc Camouqnelma, daufaravma islamistma politikosma, erTxel demokratia tramvais Seadara. `roca Tqveni gaCereba mova, – ironiulad aRniSna man, – Tqven CaxvalT~. batoni erdoRanis `tramvaim~ 2016 wlis ivlisis erT Rames putCis mcdelobis aRkveTisas 270 adamianis sicocxle Seiwira, axla ki, rac unda iyos misi daniSnulebis adgili, kisristexiT miqris. gadatrialebis monawile jariskacebis, maTTan erTad ki mis organizebaSi eWvmitanili islamur seqta `giulenis~ moZraobis wevrebis masobrivma dapatimrebam qurTi aqtivistebis, memarcxeneebisa da axali opoziciuri jgufebis winaaRmdeg sadamsjelo RonisZiebebs gauxsna gza. uflebadacviTi organizaciebis gancxadebiT, dakavebulebs awameben. mTavrobam sikvdiliT dasjis aRdgenis winadadebac ki wamoayena. 2017 wels Turqebi ufro didi ryevebisTvis emzadebian. batonma erdoRanma gamoacxada gegmebi, uari Tqvas TurqeTis saparlamento sistemaze konstituciis sasargeblod, romelic mas, praqtikulad, SeuzRudav aRmasrulebel Zalauflebas mianiWebs. SemoTavazebul cvlilebebs, savaraudod, gazafxulze referendumze gamoitanen; ukanaskneli sami wlis ganmavlobaSi Turqebs mexuTed mouwevT kenWisyris oTaxSi Sesvla. gadatrialebis mcdelobis Semdeg aRmasrulebeli saprezidento mmarTvelobis mimarT saxalxo mxardaWera stabilurad matulobs, magram avtoritarizmisken sul ufro metad midrekili batoni erdoRanis gamarjveba garantirebuli sulac ar aris. misi

agvistoSi ruseTSi, bereJnikebze koRoebis mexuTe yovelwliuri festivali tardeba. RonisZiebebSi Sedis konkursi `yvelaze gemrieli gogona~, sadac prizi gadaecema gogonas, romelic yvelaze met koRos nakbens Sekrebs

s

2017 mokled

qari misTvis xelsayrelad uberavs, jerjerobiT

warumatebloba SeiZleba niSnavdes kidev ufro met politikur qaoss, plus kidev erT sayovelTao arCevnebs. Tu sayovelTaod miRebul sibrZnes davujerebT, batoni erdoRani ugergilod ganxorcielebuli gadatrialebidan ufro mtkice da sakuTar TavSi darwmunebuli unda gamosuliyo. Tumca aseve SesaZlebelia, rom is Tavs ufro daucvelad grZnobs, moelis ra safrTxes Sin da sazRvargareT; mas SesaZloa axla ufro Zlier surdes jarze, biurokratiul aparatsa da missave `samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis partiaze~ `marwuxebis moWera~, vidre odesme. TurqeTSi arsebuli sagangebo mdgomareoba xelisuflebas saSualebas aZlevs marTos brZanebulebis safuZvelze, es ki mas mediisa da politikuri oponentebis mkacrad gakontrolebaSi exmareba. sanam sagangebo mdgomareoba ZalaSia, nebismieri saarCevno an referendumis kampania, didi albaTobiT, farsad gadaiqceva. sazRvargareT TurqeTis politika pragmatizmisa da negaciis nazavia. siriasTan mimarTebaSi, Seegua ra, rom baSar al-asadis Zalismieri gziT Camogdeba aRar moxerxdeba, igi reJimTan `Catexili xidebis~ aRdgenas Seecdeba. mis samxreT periferiaze `islamuri saxelmwifos~

uri kavSiri~ (CSU) ikavebs. es ori damoukidebeli subieqtia, magram arsebuli SeTanxmebis mixedviT federaluri arCevnebisTvis kampanias erTad atareben da bundestagSi erTian gunds ayalibeben. horst zeehofers – `qristian-socialuri kavSiris~ bossa da bavariis premiers, merkelTan axlo urTierToba akavSirebda; es ori erTmaneTs dResac araformalurad – `SenobiT~ mimarTavs. magram 2015 wlis 4 seqtembris istoriuli kviradRis Semdeg, rodesac qalbatonma merkelma humanitaruli Jestis saxiT gulTbilad miiRo ltolvilebi (romlebic maSin ungreTSi, rkinigzis sadgurSi savalalo mdgomareobaSi imyofebodnen), batoni zeehoferi qalbaton merkels daundoblad esxmis Tavs. is ltolvilTa raodenobis fiqsirebul limits moiTxovs da xSirad populistur ritorikas `alternativas germaniisTvis~ daesesxeba. SesaZloa man merkelis morig kampanias mxari aRar dauWiros, an mis winaaRmdeg sakuTari kandidatura wamoayenos im gaTvliT, rom merkelis Seupovroba bavariaSi zeehofers popularobas moutans,

winaaRmdeg sabrZolo moqmedebebis gaZlierebasTan erTad TurqeTi qveynis SigniT ganaxlebuli jihadisturi Tavdasxmebis safrTxis winaSe dadgeba. batonma erdoRanma, romelsac qurTistanis muSaTa partiis SeiaraRebuli frTis ganadgureba aqvs gadawyvetili, SesaZloa siriaSi am dajgufebis frTis winaaRmdeg axali fronti gaxsnas. aSS-sTan misi urTierToba didwilad feThula giulenis – pensilvaniaSi mcxovrebi sasuliero piris bedze iqneba damokidebuli, romelsac batoni erdoRani ivlisis gadatrialebis marTvaSi adanaSaulebs. giulenis momxreebis winaaRmdeg mtkicebulebebis dagrovebasTan erTad, maTi lideris eqstradiciisken mowodebebi ufro xmamaRali gaxdeba. maSinac ki, Tu aSS-is axali administracia TurqeTis interesebis mimarT ufro damyoli iqneba, process wlebi dasWirdeba. Tu batoni erdoRani gadawyvets, sikvdiliT dasjis proeqts xorci Seasxas, evropasTan urTierTobebSi krizisis Tavidan acileba Zalze garTuldeba. miuxedavad imisa, ra miznebis miRweva aqvs mas 2017-Si ganzraxuli, nu gveqneba imis molodini, rom batoni erdoRani `aqseleratoris saterfulidan~ fexs aiRebs. n piotr zalevski: TurqeTis korespondenti, The Economist

rac misi erTaderTi sazrunavia. TumcaRa, ganxeTqileba bundestagis arCevnebSi orive `dobil partias~ daazianebs. warmovidginoT, rom merkels SesaZloa bavariuli usaqcieloba yelSi amouvides, Tavisi gadawyvetileba gaaxsendes imis Sesaxeb, rom `naxevradmkvdari bexreki~ arasodes gamxdariyo, da Tanamdeboba datovos. es `politikur miwisZvras~ gamoiwvevs. magram ufro savaraudoa, rom merkeli darCes da brZola ganagrZos. erTia, rac mas jer kidev gansaxorcielebeli darCa. adenauerma dasavleTSi omis Semdgomi respublika ganamtkica; batonma kolma gaerTianebas miaRwia. qalbatoni merkeli dRemde mxolod krizisebis marTviT iyo cnobili – safinanso, evrozonis, ukrainisa da sxva adgilebis. germanias jer kidev ar gaucia pasuxi qalbatoni merkelis yvelaze mniSvnelovan gadawyvetilebaze, mieRo didi raodenobiT kulturulad ucxo xalxi. mas albaT kidev ramdenime weli surs, Sedegebi moimkos. n


evropa

msoflio 2017

espaneTis gasaWiri

rencis fsoni

maikl ridi, madridi

jon huperi, romi

rogorc iqna, qveyanas hyavs mTavroba

italiis bedi `bewvze hkidia~

2

017 wels espaneTs SeuZlia ufro meti politikuri sicxadis molodinSi iyos, Tumca ekonomikuri prognozebi arcTu sasikeToa. opoziciuri socialisturi partia lamis daiSala im gadawyvetilebis gamo, rom mariano raxois da mis „konservatiul saxalxo partias“ (PP) 2016 wlis oqtomberSi parlamentSi mxardaWera gamoucxada, riTac aTTvian gaurkvevlobas bolo mouRo. baton raxois 2011-2015 wlebSi absoluturi umravlesoba hqonda; axla is umciresobis mTavrobas uxelmZRvanelebs. misi pozicia ufro susti iqneba, vidre erTi SexedviT Cans. konstituciis Tanaxmad, espaneTis premier-ministri mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iqnas gadayenebuli, Tu opoziciuri partiebi alternatiuli liderisa da programis irgvliv gaerTiandebian. samagierod, batoni raxois meore mTavroba riskavs iyos Zalze mciredis gamkeTebeli. espaneTis aRdgenili demokratia or Zlier partias – socialistebsa da saxalxo partias daefuZna, romlebic koaliciuri partniorebis saxiT mudmivad zomier kataloniel da bask nacionalistebs mimarTavdnen. 2008-2009 wlebSi espaneTSi sabinao krizisis Semdeg situacia Seicvala. dReisaTvis tradiciuli partiebi kortess (parlaments) ultramemarcxene PodemosTan da liberalur Ciudadanos-Tan erTad iyofen. katalonielebs damoukideblobis mopoveba mtkiced aqvT gadawyvetili. batonma raxoim SeTanxmebas miaRwia, romlis mixedviTac Ciudadanos mis mTavrobas mxars dauWers (magram ar SeuerTdeba), sagadasaxado, Sromis bazrisa da pensiebis sakiTxebze mokrZalebuli reformebis sanacvlod. xolo garkveul problematikaze, rogoricaa korufciis aRmofxvris RonisZiebebi, Ciudadanos SesaZloa kortesSi socialistebTan da Podemos-Tan gaerTiandes. 2016 wlis ganmavlobaSi espaneTis ekonomikas Tavi gasaocrad kargad eWira, 3%-iani zrdis tempiT. 2017 wels is ufro Zlier `pirqars~ waawydeba da SeiZleba mxolod 2%-iT gaizardos (evrozonis bevr qveyanasTan SedarebiT mainc cudi ar aris). breqsiti mas ver daexmareba: britaneTi espaneTis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri partnioria. batoni raxoi fiskalur deficits ufro nela Seamcirebs, vidre evrokomisia isurvebda. da ra xdeba kataloniaSi? barselonis mTavrobam piroba dado, rom 2017 wlis seqtemberSi damoukideblobis Sesaxeb referendums Caatarebs. amgvari plebisciti ukanono iqneba. madridSi imedovneben, rom damoukideblobis talRa ukuiqceva. espaneTi `politikur mkurnalobas~ saWiroebs. socialistebSi es amocana SeiZleba xavier fernandess daekisros, romelmac mtkice pozicia aCvena, rogorc partiis moamage liderma. Podemos identobis krizisis winaSe dgas, cdilobs ra saprotesto moZraobis farglebs gascdes. baton raxois SeuZlia katalonielebs `zeTisxilis rto gauwodos~, finansebze ufro guluxvi garigebis saxiT, magram misgan amis gakeTebas nu moeliT. miuxedavad imisa, rom man xelisuflebaSi darCenis mizniT uaRresad Sromatevadi samuSao gaswia, batoni raxoi misi meSveobiT gasaocrad cotas gaakeTebs. n

2017 mokled maisSi NATO baltiispireTis qveynebSi 4 000-ian Semkavebel Zalebs ganaTavsebs

jon huperi: italiisa da vatikanis korespondenti,

The Economist

maikl ridi: Bello-s svetis avtori da ufrosi redaqtori, laTinuri amerika da espaneTi, The Economist

m

35

odi daviwyoT imiT, rac viciT: 2017 wels italiis maSvelebi kvlavac xmelTaSua zRvidan migrantebis amoyvaniT iqnebian dakavebulni, zogjer gmirobis fasadac ki. 2016 wlis gazafxulze balkaneTis marSrutis daxurvis Semdeg italia ZiriTadi qveyana gaxda, romlis gavliT migrantebi evrokavSirSi Sevlen. 2017 wels italiaSi damatebiT 150 000 adamianis Camosvlaa mosalodneli. da Tu warsuli gamocdilebiT vixelmZRvanelebT, kidev 3 000 mamakaci, qali da bavSvi daiRupeba qveyanaSi SeRwevis mcdelobisas. italieli ministrebi isev gaaprotesteben, rom migrantebis sakiTxis mogvareba martooden evrokavSiris pasuxismgebloba unda iyos. maTi pretenziebi didwilad `yru kedels~ waawydeba, Tumca evrokomisia italias nebas darTavs, misi xarjebis nawili ltolvilTa ganTavsebaze mimarTos da biujetis deficitis gamoTvlisas isini ar gaiTvaliswinos. italiis premier-ministri mateo renci Zalisxmevas ar iSurebs, rom evrozonis wevrebze dawesebuli ekonomikuri SezRudvebisgan Tavi daiZvrinos; Tu ekonomikis maxasiaTeblebi asatani iqneba da is zrdas moaxerxebs, es sakmarisi unda iyos imisaTvis, rom italiis saxelmwifo valis mSp-sTan Tanafardobam misi Tavzardamcemi donidan (133%) TandaTan kleba daiwyos. magram es sulac ar aris garantirebuli. 2016 wlis meore kvartalSi ekonomikis zrda SeCerda, xolo seqtemberSi mTavrobam 2017 wlisTvis zrdis prognozi 1.4%-dan 1%-mde Seamcira. es gaTvlac ki SeiZleba optimisturi aRmoCndes. da ara mxolod ekonomikuri faqtorebis gamo. CvenTvis ucnobia, Tu rogor ganviTardeba movlenebi, radgan `msoflio 2017 wels~ ukve dasabeWdad iyo gamzadebuli. 2016 wlis 4 dekembers italielebs referendumSi xma unda miecaT. savaraudod, igi sakonstitucio reformas ukavSirdeboda: senatis wevrebis raodenobisa da uflebamosilebebis Semcirebas, kanonmdeblobis efeqturobis gazrdasa da centraluri da regionuli xelisuflebis organoebs Soris pasuxismgeblobebis ganawilebas. masTan erTad SemoTavazebuli iyo axali saarCevno kanoni, romlis mixedviT administraciebs Tavisi vada srulad unda amoewuraT; mTlianobaSi reforma italiis ufro marTvad qveynad gadaqcevas isaxavda miznad, an batoni rencis kritikosebis mtkicebiT, saxelmwifod, romelic SeiZleba Zalian advilad gamxdariyo erTgvari demokratiuli diqtatura. mas Semdeg, rac premier-ministrma arakeTilgonivruli gancxadeba gaakeTa, rom warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi gadadgeboda, bevri italielisTvis xmis micema mTavrobis ndobis sakiTxad iqca. da vinaidan misma koaliciam ver moaxerxa ekonomikis fexze dayeneba, 2017 wlis moaxloebasTan erTad gaurkveveli rCeboda, iqneboda Tu ara hiperaqtiuri axalgazrda premieri qveynis saTaveSi. Tumca es sulac ar iyo yvelaze mniSvnelovani aspeqti kenWisyrisa, romelsac italiis samomavlo kursi unda ganesazRvra. `diax~ pasuxis SemTxvevaSi, italia 2017 wels daiwyebs SansiT, arastabiluri mmarTveloba da araefeqturi kanonmdebloba ukan moitovos. pasuxiT `ara~, is politikuri, da albaT ekonomikuri, areulobis damTrgunvelad nacnobi scenaris pirispir aRmoCndeba. n


36

evropa

msoflio 2017

2017 wlis ruseTis revolucia

C

ems pasportSi, `dabadebis adgilis~ grafaSi aRniSnulia ssrk – ararsebuli qveyana, me-20 saukunis sxvadasxva inteleqtualTa Seryeul ocnebaze odnav ufro meti. axla, roca 2017 weli axlovdeba da masTan erTad 100 wlisTavic im Zvrebidan, romlebmac Cems dabadebis qveyanas dasabami misces, revoluciaze ibadeba SekiTxvebi. `revoluciaze~ saubroben, rogorc proeqtze, magram es ar aris proeqti, romelic SeiZleba daiwyo da daasrulo, SemosazRvro vadebiT, TiTqosda istoriis saxelmZRvaneloSi. revolucia cxovrebaa, romelSic adamiani mudam arCevanis winaSe dgeba: imoqmedos Tu ganze gadges. nebismier saprotesto moZraobaSi dgeba sasowarkveTis momenti. yvela, vinc ki reJimis mier Tavsmoxveuli usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi ebmeba, acnobierebs, rom misi damxoba erTbaSad ar moxerxdeba. ase rom, erTi mxriv, me xSirad mesmis SekiTxva: `rodis SeiZleba velodoT morig revolucias?~; Tumca sapirispiro ganwyobasac vxvdebi: `Tqven verafers miaRwevT, msoflios ver SecvliT~. bevrma maTganma, vinc 2012 wels ruseTSi arsebuli reJimis winaaRmdeg protestis gamoxatvis mizniT quCaSi gavida, dReisTvis qveyana ukve datova. asobiT adamiani gisosebs miRma imyofeba. politikuri mkvlelobebi warsulis kuTvnilebad jer kidev ar qceula. 2017 wels vladimir putinis mediduri mmarTveloba, Tu puSkins davesesxebiT, warmoadgens `molxenas Wiris Jams~. adamianebi, romlebsac sazRvargareT vxvdebi, Cems qveyanas aRiqvamen, rogorc mkvlelobis manqanas, romlis saWesTanac prezidenti putinia. bavSvobaSi araerTxel vnaxe sabWoTa filmi `drakonis mokvla~ da roca ki saubari Seexeboda adamians, romelic Tavs garkveuli saxis liderad miiCnevda, Cemi fiqrebi am films ubrundeboda. sakmarisi ar aris drakons erTi Tavi moaWra – sxva Tavebi darCeba. magram rogor unda moaWra mas yvela Tavi? pasuxi Cemi rwmenaa, rom revolucia TiToeul CvenganSi mimdinare politikuri procesia: arCevani, imoqmedo da daZlio sakuTari SiSi, romelic Tavs iCens yovelTvis, roca moqmedebas iwyeb. me-20 saukunis gamocdilebam gvaswavla, rom ar unda velodoT lenins, radgan maSin is leninis revolucia gaxdeba. monarqis nebis Secvla erTi lideris nebiT. Cveni mteria SiSi da gulgriloba. swored esaa is, rac uSiSroebis samsaxurebs saSualebas aZlevs ibatonon uzarmazar qveyanaze, rogoricaa ruseTi, xelisuflebis saTaveSi ki dasvan patara, ruxi da usaxo jaSuSi – batoni putinis saxiT. rogor moxda, rom mxolod ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi Cemi qveyana mxolod baton putinTan asocirda? pasuxi martivi da cinikuria. es aris imiji, romelsac ruseTi Tavad qmnis. Sesabamisad, xelovanebis, aqtivistebisa da damoukidebeli mediisTvis saerTo sazomi SeiZleba iyos `alternatiuli samyaros aSeneba, romelsac oficialuri politika ayalibebs~.

am TvalsazrisiT, `rkinis farda~ me-20 saukunis politikur termins sulac ar warmoadgens, aramed igi undoblobis kedelia, romelsac TiToeuli Cvengani aSenebs, rodesac pasuxismgeblobis aRebasa da politikaSi monawileobaze uars ambobs. es aris `Cvensa~ da `maT~ Soris gamyofi kedeli. axali `rkinis farda~ SesaZloa mxolod aqtiuri adamianebisa da gaerTianebebis meSveobiT dairRves. upirvelesad, es imas niSnavs, rom Cven aRar unda gveSinodes, erTmaneTs SevxedoT da erTmaneTi gavicnoT. CvenTvis erTmaneTisadmi ndoba saSiSi aRar unda iyos, radgan mxolod ndoba SeiZleba gaxdes is safuZveli, romelic politikuri TvalTmaqcobis daZlevaSi dagvexmareba. rogor fiqrobT, ras gviwodebs erovnuli propaganda Cven, vinc putinis mTavrobas ar veTanxmebiT? Cven `mexuTe kolonas~ gviwodeben – 1930-iani wlebis samxedro termins. es niSnavs, rom mimdinareobs omi, magram es omi uxilavia da amitomacaa ase saxifaTo. `Cven Soris arsebuli mtrebi~ – swored es ewera Cveni fotoebis qveS erT-erT plakatze, romelic 2014 wlis gazafxulze xelisuflebam okupirebul yirimSi gamoakra. magram Cven `sxvebi~ Tu saxelmwifos mtrebi ar varT da, miuxedavad zogierTebis ritorikisa, ruseTi evropis mteric ar aris. da iseve, rogorc nebismier evropul qveyanas SeuZlia omi gamoacxados maT winaaRmdeg, visac `saSiSisa~ da `ucxos~ iarliys akravs, omi gamogvicxades Cvenc – dagvapatimres, raTa sazogadoeba Cveni moCvenebiTi safrTxisgan daecvaT. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, evropis migraciuli krizisi sxvebis mimarT daaxloebiT imave SiSSi, undoblobasa da gulgrilobaSi mdgomareobs. rogor SeiZleba `sxvad~ miiCnio is, vinc sazRvrebi gadakveTa da sicocxles riskavs, raTa imave RirebulebebiT icxovros, rogoriTac Tqven? adamianebis erTi jgufis danarCenebze upiratesobis idea mWidrod ukavSirdeba reJimis mier Zalauflebis gancdas da mis mier `normis~ dawesebas.

bolSevizmidan bolSivizmamde `Tqven mainc verafers miaRwevT, Tqven giJebi xarT~, – ase ambobs yvela, vinc Cvenze Zalauflebas iRebs. SesaZloa, namdvilad varT giJebi, magram `normis~ winaaRmdeg brZola – romelsac rusi mwerali vladimir sorokini gonivrulad adarebs ganavals da romliTac saxelmwifo morCil masebs yovel diliT `kvebavs~ – Cemi cxovrebis erT-erTi mamoZravebeli Zalaa. Tu dafiqrdebiT, mraval rames, rac saukunis win normad miiCneoda, axla `rasizms~ uwodeben. rac naxevari saukunis win normad miiCneoda, axla `totalitarizms~ uwodeben. Cvenzea damokidebuli, rogor aRweren SemdgomSi Cvens qmedebebs istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebSi. ramden Cvens Svils eqneba pasportis dabadebis adgilis grafaSi aRniSnuli ararsebuli qveyana? n

maria alioxina — politikuri aqtivisti da Pussy Riotis wevri, Tavis fiqrebs gviziarebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras niSnavs revolucia dRes

`rkinis farda~ sulac ar warmoadgens me-20 saukunis politikur termins, aramed is undoblobis `kedelia~, romelsac TiToeuli Cvengani aSenebs, rodesac pasuxismgeblobis aRebasa da politikaSi monawileobaze uars ambobs


37

msoflio 2017 amave seqciaSi: breqsitis barometri 42 opoziciis gareSe 43 matareblis asaki 43

britaneTi

saSinao WeSmaritebani 44 Brent-is dasasruli 45 iqneb imitom, rom londoneli var 46

lodini CamoSlis win jeremi klifi

britaneTi TandaTan gaacnobierebs mtkivneul simarTles mZime breqsitis Sesaxeb

S

2017 mokled axali kanonis Tanaxmad, TiTqmis 750 wlis manZilze pirvelad uelss sakuTari gadasaxadebis akrefis saSualeba eZleva

s

enobis dangrevas, Cveulebriv, xanmokle siCume uZRvis. dinamiti feTqdeba, rkinabetoni erTi-orjer Rrmad `amoioxrebs~ da odnav Setortmandeba, siwynaris kidev erTi-ori wami da, Semdeg mTeli Senoba `kvnesiT~ CamoiSleba. 2017 wels britaneTi ZiriTadad am sulier mdgomareobaSi gaatarebs. gazafxulze, parlamentis kurTxeviT, tereza mei evrokavSirTan gaformebuli xelSekrulebis 50-e muxls `aafeTqebs~ – nivTierebas, romlis ZaliTac evrokavSirSi gaerTianebuli qveyana klubSi wevrobas oficialurad wyvets. am `afeTqebis~ `guguni~ vestminsterSi yvelafers CaaxSobs, `mtvris korianteli~ ki saxelmwifo politikis TiTqmis yvela mimarTulebas dafaravs. da mainc, wlis bolosTvis, rogorc Sida, ise sagareo mizezebidan gamomdinare, qalbatoni meis miRwevebi am TvalsazrisiT umniSvnelo iqneba. raRa Tqma unda, axla britaneTi ucnob, arastabilur teritoriaze imyofeba. breqsitiT gamowveulma daZabulobam, rasac emateba mxolod 16-kaciani umravlesobiT muSaoba, SesaZlebelia mas vadamdel arCevnebze amomrCevlebisgan piradi mandatis mopoveba aiZulos, an misi premier-ministris savarZeli Seiwiros. drodadro SesaZloa mogveCvenos, rom weliwadi sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas Soris „mklavWidis gaxangrZlivebuli seriebia“. magram qalbatoni mei frTxilobs da imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom arc leiboristuli da arc britaneTis damoukideblobis partia saxarbielo mdgomareobaSi ar imyofeba, albaT win aRudgeba cdunebas, gamokiTxveb-

Si misi mzardi reitingiT isargeblos. es garemoeba mas marTlac unda daexmaros, rom mis partiaSi warmoqmnil moTminebis deficitsa da azrTa sxvadasxvaobaze kontroli SeinarCunos. roca qalbatoni mei 50-e muxls aamoqmedebs, is breqsitamde orwlian ukuaTvlas daiwyebs. pirveli ramdenime Tvis manZilze biurokratiuli `Caxvelebis~ mowmeni gavxdebiT (evrokomisia molaparakebebs gauZRveba, xolo evropis sabWo mas Tvals ar moacilebs). safrangeTis saprezidento arCevnebis wina periodSi, aprilsa da maisSi, wamyvani frangi politikosebi breqsitze mkacri toniT isaubreben; amiT isini marin le pens – memarjvene populists, daupirispirdebian, romelsac surs evrokavSiris datovebis Sesaxeb referendumi mis qveyanaSic gaimarTos. mcire xnis Semdgom germaniis politika seqtemberSi dagegmili saparlamento arCevnebis win sakuTar problemebs CauRrmavdeba; savaraudod, breqsitTan seriozul WidilSi is xelaxla mxolod noemberSi CaerTveba – mas Semdeg, rac berlinSi axali koalicia Camoyalibdeba. ueWvelia, rom mas Semdeg, rac qalbatoni mei `wiTel Rilaks~ TiTs daaWers, srul simSvides aRar unda velodoT. misi molaparakebebis strategiasTan dakavSirebuli TiToeuli detalis umciresi nawili axal brZolis velad iqceva. erT mxares iqnebian breqsitis momxre ministrebi, maT Soris, devid devisi – breqsitis mdivani; TemTa palatis konservatori wevrebi, magaliTad, iein dankan smiTi; dabolos: yvelaze xmauriani – Daily Mail-is msgavsi bulvaruli gazeTebi. eseni kavSirisgan uswrafesi da sruli gamoyofisTvis agresiulad ibrZoleben. meore mxares iqneba namdvili opozicia – girvanqa sterlingi. britaneTis mier erTiani bazris datovebis albaTobis zrdasTan erTad – romelic imigraciasTan mimarTebaSi misi ukompromiso poziciis Sedegia – qveynis ekonomikuri perspeqtivebi Semcirdeba. sterlingi sayrdenis povnas ecdeba, inflacia qveya-

jeremi klifi: bejetis mesvete, The Economist


38

britaneTi

breqsitis barometri jon piti

ris mixedviT SevafasoT, evrokavSirTan britaneTis `ganqorwineba~ `mZime~ iqneba Tu `msubuqi~

m

Teli 2017 wlis manZilze britaneTsa da danarCen evrokavSirSi damkvirveblebi simboluri niSnebis interpretaciiT dakavdebian, raTa gaarkvion, Tu raze miuTiTeben isini: mZime breqsitze, rac erTiani bazridan wasvlas niSnavs, Tu msubuqze, romlis pirobebSic bazarze Tavisufali daSveba SenarCunebuli iqneba. gTavazobT rva niSans, romlebsac Tvali unda vadevnoT. ekonomika. Tu zrda Senelda an qveyanaSi recesiis procesi daiwyo, balansi msubuqi breqsitisken gadaixreba, rac momaval ekonomikur zians minimumamde daiyvans. Tu zrdis maRali done SenarCunda, mZime breqsiti ufro mosalodnelia, radgan mosaxleoba daijerebs, rom mniSvnelovan zaralze yvela SiSismomgvreli gafrTxileba mcdari iyo. girvanqa da inflacia. Tu finansur bazrebze nerviuloba daiwyo, sterlingis kursi TandaTan daiwevs da inflacia Zalas moikrebs; britanelebs aRelveba Seipyrobs, rom breqsitma maT SesaZloa Semosavlebi daakargvinos, rac msubuqi versiis Sanss gaaZlierebs. Tu aRniSnulidan arcerTi moxda, es zrdis albaTobas imisa, rom britaneTi kars swrafad gaixuravs.

2017 mokled inglisi da uelsi homoseqsualizmis dekriminalizaciis 50 wlisTavs aRniSnaven

msoflio 2017

msxvili ucxoeli investorebi. rac ufro metad mianiSneben garkveuli subieqtebi, avtomobilebis mwarmoebeli zogierTi kompaniisa da bankis msgavsad, rom SeiZleba samomavlod investiciebi sxvagan gadaitanon, xelisufleba miT ufro metad Seecdeba erTian bazarSi darCenas. rac ufro metad SeinarCuneben investorebi britaneTisadmi erTgulebas, mZime breqsitis Sansi miT ufro maRalia. migraciis maCveneblebi. Tu evrokavSiridan neto-migracia maRali darCeba, ufro savaraudoa mZime breqsiti, romelic xazgasmiT moiTxovs mis gakontrolebas. Tu netomigracia mkveTrad daecema, msubuqi breqsitis Sansi moimatebs, radgan ekonomikuri problemebi met yuradRebas miipyrobs. brZola gavlenisTvis vestminsterSi. Tu breqsitis momxre ori mTavari ministri – devid devisi da laiam foqsi, procesze kontrols SeinarCunebs, mZime breqsitis Sansi moimatebs. Tu xazinis mmarTveli filip hemondi ufro mniSvnelovan rols iTamaSebs, maSin msubuqi breqsiti ufro savaraudoa. igive iTqmis, Tu parlamenti breqsitis pirobebis gansazRvraze met uflebebs moipovebs, vinaidan misi wevrebis umravlesoba evrokavSirSi darCenas mxars uWerda da erTian bazarSi yofna surT. brZola gavlenisTvis briuselSi. Tu molaparakebebi evrokomisiis xelSi iqneba, mZime breqsitis riski izrdeba, vinaidan mas erTian bazarze arsebul oTx TavisuflebasTan mimarTebaSi ufro mkacri pozicia

nas TandaTan zurgze mZime tvirTad daawveba, zrda evrozonis doneze dabla daecema da investiciebis tempi Seneldeba. biznesi xmas aRimaRlebs da erToblivad imoqmedebs proevropulad ganwyobil parlamentis wevrebTan, xazinasa (filip hemondis – saxazinos kanclerisa da finansTa ministris saxiT) da konservatiuli partiis `axladgamoCekil~ liberalur frTasTan (romelsac xelmZRvanelobs misi winamorbedi jorj osborni). am or armias Soris arsebuli daZabuloba moimatebs. zogierTi deputatis mxridan adgili eqneba mcdelobas, Tumca warmatebis SezRuduli xarisxiT, 50-e muxlze debatebi gamoiyenos molaparakebebSi qalbatoni meis poziciis Camoyalibebis mizniT. kidev erTi gadamwyveti orTabrZola zafxulSi gvelis, roca `didi gauqmebis aqtze~ kenWisyra gaimarTeba; es aqti oficialurad moaxdens im kanonmdeblobis anulirebas, romlis safuZvelzec 1973 wels britaneTi evropuli klubis wevri gaxda (masTan erTad ki evrokavSiris mTeli moqmedi kanonmdeblobac iqna britaneTis kanonmdeblobaSi integrirebuli). magram namdvili konfliqti wlis bolos daiwyeba. mas Semdeg, rac Semodgomaze molaparakeba Sesabamis kalapotSi Cadgeba, is or nawilad gaiyofa. pirveli, SedarebiT martivi, ganqorwinebis ZiriTad garigebas moicavs: process, romlis mixedviTac britaneTi da danarCeni evrokavSiri kavSiris institutebsa da aqamde saziaro `fulis tomrebs gaiyofen~; da romelic sazRvris gadakveTis procedurebs da migrant

uWiravs. Tu evropis sabWos (da erovnul mTavrobebs) meti uflebebi eqneba, msubuqi breqsitis Sansi izrdeba, radgan maT ukeT esmiT, ramdenad did politikur zemoqmedebas ganicdis maTi britaneli kolega. evropuli politika. 2017 wels sxva qveynebTan erTad arCevnebi imarTeba holandiaSi, safrangeTSi, germaniasa da (albaT) italiaSi. Tu arCevnebis Sedegad ufro mkacri xazis momxre da mkveTrad nacionalisturi mTavrobebi Camoyalibda, msubuq breqsitze molaparakeba garTuldeba. Tu didwilad dRevandeli liderebi iqnebian xelaxla arCeuli, saqme odnav gaioldeba. sazogadoebrivi azri. referendumi momentaluri fotoa. Tu britaneTis ekonomika, pirvelad bolo wlebis manZilze, uares maCveneblebs SemogvTavazebs, vidre evrozonaSi yofnisas, da Tu evrokavSiridan migrantebis raodenoba Semcirdeba, sazogadoebrivi azri SesaZloa Seicvalos. am SemTxvevaSi mosalodnelia msubuqi breqsiti, metic – gaZlierdeba meore referendumis Catarebis mowodebebi; es ki didi albaTobiT moaswavebs, rom breqsiti arasodes moxdeba. n jon piti: politikuri redaqtori, The Economist

mosaxleobasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs daaregulirebs. meore, ufro rTuli, or mxares Soris axal urTierTobebs Seexeba (romelic SesaZloa evrokavSirsa da kanadas Soris Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis msgavsi aqtiT dasruldes). magram naklebad savaraudoa, rom amas beWedi 2019 wlis dasawyisamde daesvas, ase rom, 2017 wlis bolodan britanelebi sul ufro mzard wnexs igrZnoben Sualeduri garigebis molodinSi, romelic breqsitsa da im axal, mudmiv SeTanxmebas Soris periods moicavs.

nisli la-manSis Tavze daaxloebiT am etapze molaparakebebi SesaZloa CixSi Sevides, radgan britaneTi droebiT SeTanxmebas moiTxovs, romelic mas sruli Tavisufali gadaadgilebis gareSe erTian bazarSi datovebs, xolo misi evropeli partniorebi erTguli darCebian Tavisi myari poziciisa imis Taobaze, rom evrokavSirTan ver Sedgeba imaze ukeTesi garigeba, vidre misi sruli wevrobaa. britaneTSi ukeT gaigeben evroparlamentis rols da qveyanasTan saboloo SeTanxmebaze mis mier dadebuli vetos mniSvnelobas. breqsitis formula – `muStis Zlieri moqneva~, romliTac britaneTi klubs datovebs – 2018 da 2019 wlebSi gaTamaSdeba. magram 2017 wlis bolosTvis, roca molaparakebebi ris vaivaglaxiT win wava, saaTis isrebi ki metismetad Cqara imoZravebs, britanelebi gaacnobiereben, rom maTi `muSti~ iseTi Zlieri ar aris, rogorc bevr maTgans odesRac miaCnda. n


opoziciis gareSe jeremi klifi

leiboristul partias TandaTan ararelevanturoba eufleba

l

eiboristuri partiisTvis 2017 weli 2016 wlis 24 seqtembers daiwyo, rodesac misma wevrebma da mxardamWerebma jeremi korbini liderad airCies. kenWisyram misi dausjeloba daadastura, Tumca mxolod jerjerobiT. `amofrqvevebi~ mainc moxdeba – antisemitizmTan da ukiduresad memarcxene jgufebis partiaSi Zalauflebis mosapoveblad infiltraciasTan dakavSirebuli skandalebi. maisSi dagegmil adgilobriv arCevnebze leiboristebi liverpulsa da manCesterSi axal `aglomeraciebis merebis~ postebs moipoveben, magram dasavleT midlendSi damarcxdebian; adgilebs sxvaganac dakargaven, gansakuTrebiT – SotlandiaSi. batoni korbinis bevri saparlamento oponenti mxolod sakuTar amomrCevlebze fokusirdeba imis SiSiT, rom axali sazRvrebis SemoRebis Semdeg (Sesworebuli winadadebebi 2017 wlis noemberSi ganxorcieldeba) savarZlebis gareSe ar aRmoCndnen.

matareblis asaki Carlz ridi

viqtorianuli periodis Semdeg britaneTis pirveli magistraluri rkinigzis mSenebloba iwyeba

e

rTi saukunis win britaneTi transportis sferoSi wamyvani saxelmwifo iyo. fisiT gapoxili gzebi, matarebeli da reaqtiuli TviTmfrinavi britaneTSi gamoigones, magram mas Semdeg is ukan moCanCalebs. politikosebi ver Camoyalibdnen, sad unda aegoT ZiriTadi infrastruqtura. swrafi tempiT ganviTarebad samxreT-aRmosavleTSi axali asafreni zolebi meore msoflio omis Semdeg ar auSenebiaT. britaneTis sarkinigzo xazebi danarCeni evropisas aTwleulebiT CamorCeba. lamanSis gvirabSi gamavali rkinigzis garda, qveyanas Cqarosnuli xazi jer kidev asagebi aqvs, xolo misi Caxergili gzebis SesakeTeblad da karg mdgomareobamde misayvanad minimum £12 miliardia ($14.8 miliardi) saWiro. 2017 wels britaneTi dawevas daiwyebs. pirvel etapze mSenebloba HS2-ze – londonisa da birmingemis damakavSirebel Cqarosnul rkinigzaze daiwyeba, romelic CrdiloeTiT gagrZeldeba. es 1890 wlis Semdeg qveynis pirveli axali magistraluri rkinigza iqneba. maSin, roca britaneTis magistralebze matareblebi ZiriTadad `qoSiniT~ dadian (mxolod 125 m/sT (200 km/sT)), HS2-ze matareblebi 250 km/ sT-ze meti siCqariT ivlian. magram mSeneblobis procesi neli da ZviradRirebuli

39

britaneTi

msoflio 2017

batoni korbini albaT TiTqmis sul ar gairjeba misi Crdilovani breqsitis mdivnis – ser keir starmeris dasaxmareblad, romelic londonis mer sadiq xanTan erTad Tavis statuss ganimtkicebs – masze imeds zomieri frTa amyarebs. amis nacvlad leiboristebis lideri Sida brZolebze koncentrirdeba: mis yvelaze radikalurad ganwyobil mokavSireebsa da axalgazrda, ufro daxvewil memarcxeneebs Soris, rogoricaa klaiv liuisi – biznesis Crdilovani mdivani; Unite-s – leiboristebis udides profkavSiris filialsa da korbinis mimarT ufro skeptikurad ganwyobil britaneTis erTian profkavSirs Soris; sxvadasxva dajgufebebs Soris arsebul dapirispirebaze, romelic leiboristuli partiis aRmasrulebeli komitetis funqciebs ukavSirdeba; amJamad igi cdilobs partiis wesebi gadaweros da wevrebs, romlebic misi Zalauflebis ZiriTad sayrdens warmoadgenen, meti xmis ufleba mianiWos. Sedegad erTpartiuli saxelmwifos msgavs warmonaqmns miviRebT. konservatiuli partiis memarcxene Sto – Sotlandiis nacionalistebi da liberal-demokratebi Seecdebian pasuxismgebloba tereza meis da mis mTavrobas daakisron. magram imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom mTavari opoziciuri partia introspeqtul `WmunvaSi~ imyofeba, amis gakeTeba gaZneldeba. es yvelaferi sabolood isev britaneTs azaralebs. n

iqneba. pirveli etapi, romelzec mxolod dasavleT midlendamde miRwevaa, gaTvaliswinebuli £28 miliardze meti eRireba da misi gaxsna dagegmilia 2026 wels. es mxolod erTi-erTia im infrastruqturuli proeqtebis nusxidan, romelTa ganxorcieleba britaneTis axal mTavrobas aqvs ganzraxuli. 2016 wels, garkveuli yoymanis Semdeg, tereza meim Hinkley Point-s – franguli teqnologiiT da Cinuri investiciebiT agebul £18-miliardian birTvul eleqtrosadgurs mwvane Suqi aunTo. 2016 wlis oqtomberSi man Heathrow-s gafarToebis proeqti sabolood daamtkica – miuxedavad imisa, rom parlamenti amas kenWs mxolod 2017 wlis zamTarSi uyris; amgvarad, 70 welze meti xani gaWianurda oficialuri gadawyvetilebis miReba imis Taobaze, Tu sad unda aegoT axali asafreni zoli samxreT-aRmosavleT inglisSi. muSaoba daiwyo temzis Tideway gvirabze – londonis qveS £4.2 miliardi Rirebulebis superkanalizaciaze. 2018 wels gaixsneba Elizabeth Line (an Crossrail) – £15-miliardiani miwisqveSa sarkinigzo xazi, romelic londonsa da mis satelit qalaqebSi 60 milis manZilze gadaiWimeba. uamravi sxva proeqti, romlebic jer kidev dagegmvis fazaSia, mTavrobis `saqaRaldeSi inaxeba~. londonis transportis saagento – dedaqalaqis uflebamosilebiT aRWurvili satranzito organo, seriozulad lobirebs Crossrail 2-s mSeneblobisTvis nebarTvisa da Tanxebis miRebas; es aris Elizabeth Line-is analogiuri masStabis axali miwisqveSa satransporto momsaxureba. sxva regionebsac swadiaT, rom am process ar CamorCnen. CrdiloeTis satransporto

jeremi klifi: bejetis mesvete, The Economist

saagentom wamoayena HS3-is – manCesterisa da lidsis damakavSirebeli Cqarosnuli rkinigzis gegmebi, romlis Rirebuleba £6 miliards Seadgens; Cafiqrebulia pikis olqSi 18 mili sigrZis sagzao gvirabis mSeneblobac. magram grandiozuli proeqtebis gansaxorcieleblad mTavrobis axalSeZenili enTuziazmi met fuls saWiroebs. 2010-dan 2016 wlamde transportis departamentis biujeti realur gamoangariSebaSi 13.4%-iT Semcirda, ramac samSeneblo da saremonto xarjebs mZime dartyma miayena. garkveuli Tanxebi kerZo seqtoridan wamova. wina mTavrobis gegmebis Tanaxmad, 2010-dan 2020 wlamde gaTvaliswinebuli iyo saxelmwifo investiciebis ganaxevreba. marTalia, Elizabeth Line-sa da HS2Tvis saxsrebis did nawils xazina gaiRebs, Tumca londonis superkanalizaciisa da Heathrow-s axali asafrenis zolis mSenebloba ZiriTadad kerZo dafinansebiT ganxorcieldeba. arsebobs imedi, rom breqsiti saxelmwifo xazinis resursebs dazogavs. evrokavSiris datovebis Sesaxeb gamarTuli referendumis Semdeg, infrastruqturuli proeqtebisTvis ufro meti xarjis gawevaze politikuri mxardaWera gaizarda. es xels Seuwyobs breqsitiT gamowveuli ekonomikuri dartymis Serbilebas da biZgs miscems grZelvadian zrdas. axalma kanclerma – filip hemondma, ukuagdo mTavrobis mizani, 2020 wlisTvis miaRwios aqtiur balanss. moklevadian perspeqtivaSi mainc breqsits, romelic imis miuxedavad, rom mravali britanuli biznesisTvis sazianoa, SeuZlia infrastruqturas biZgi misces. n Carlz ridi: industriis korespondenti,The Economist


40

britaneTi

ufro mokrZalebuli molodinebi mSp-s zrdis prognozi %

breqsitamde (2016 wlis maisis prognozebi)

breqsitis Semdeg (2016 wlis noembris prognozebi)

saSinao WeSmaritebani kalum uiliamsi

2017 wels evrokavSiridan britaneTis gasvliT gamowveuli SeSfoTeba ekonomikur zrdas dartymas miayenebs

2 2017 mokled zafxulidan jein ostini £10 kupiuraze Carlz darvins Caanacvlebs

kalum uiliamsi: britaneTis ekonomikis korespondenti, The Economist

017 wlis bolosTvis britaneTi jer kidev evrokavSirSi iqneba, magram mis yvelaze did savaWro partniorTan tradiciuli urTierTobebis Sewyvetis perspeqtiva ekonomikur zrdas SezRudavs. inglisis bankis bolo SefasebiT, 2017 wels ekonomika mxolod 1,4%-iT gaizrdeba, rac 2.3%-iT naklebia im maCvenebelze, romelsac is 2016 wlis ivnisis referendumamde erTi TviT adre prognozirebda (The Economist Intelligence Unit-is prognoziT, mSp 0,6%-iT gaizrdeba). srul ganakveTze momuSave britanelebis jamagiri, romlis Rirebuleba axla ukve 4%-iT naklebia, vidre 2008 wlamde iyo, SesaZloa kidev ufro Semcirdes, vinaidan susti girvanqa inflacias zrdisken ubiZgebs. samomxmareblo xarjebi britaneTis ekonomikis `Zravas~ warmoadgens, romelic mSp-s 60%-ze mets Seadgens. referendumis momdevno Tveebis ganmavlobaSi sacalo gayidvebis tempi jansaRi iyo; axali manqanis gaformebebis maCvenebelsac `Tavi kargad eWira~. 2017 wels es suraTi mkveTrad ar Seicvleba. zogierTebma safulis zedmetad gaxsnisgan SeiZleba Tavi ufro metad Seikavon, Tu maT breqsitTan dakavSirebuli molaparakebebis Sesaxeb sainformacio gamoSvebebis saTaurebi aRelvebT. magram, rogorc aRmoCnda, britaneTis amomrCevelTa umetesoba breqsitis mosurnea, ase rom, 2017 wels maT sayidlebze xalisiT unda iaron. Tumca ekonomistebis ZiriTadi nawili moelis, rom ekonomikuri vardna ZiriTadad sainvesticio xarjebis SemcirebiT iqneba gamowveuli. aravin icis, ra saxis aRmoCndeba evrokavSirTan britaneTis momavali savaWro urTierToba. magaliTad, avtomobilebis mwarmoeblebi SiSoben, rom britaneTSi maT mier warmoebuli nebismieri satransporto saSualebis evrokavSirSi SesvlisTvis male 10%-iani tarifis gadaxda mouwevT. bankebi SfoTaven, rom isini dakargaven SesaZleblobas, maTi momsaxureba evrokavSiris momxmarebels SesTavazon. aseTi gaurkvevlobis fonze biznesmenebi operaciebis gafarToebisgan Tavs Seikaveben. realuri viTareba imaze metyvelebs, rom referendumis Semdeg sainvesticio xarjebi marTlac daeca. es TavSekaveba gavlenas samuSao adgilebzec moax-

msoflio 2017 dens. xmis micemis Semdeg reklamirebuli dabalanazRaurebadi da sakontraqto poziciebis raodenoba gaizarda, radgan damsaqmeblebi cdiloben Tavisufali adgilebi Seavson ise, rom adamianebi samsaxurSi mudmiv safuZvelze ar miiRon. inglisis bankis varaudiT, 2017 wlis mesame kvartalSi umuSevroba 0.5 procentuli punqtiT ufro maRali iqneba, vidre es sxva SemTxvevaSi iqneboda. nu SeSindebiT, – gvamxneveben breqsitis momxreebi. vinaidan referendumis Semdeg girvanqam Tavisi Rirebulebis 15%-ze meti dakarga, britaneTis eqsportis moculoba moimatebs, – daJinebiT amtkiceben isini. mwarmoebeli kompaniebis bolodroindeli kvlevebi mowmobs, rom ucxoeli myidvelebi britaneTSi damzadebuli saqonlis mimarT met interess iCenen. amis miuxedavad, 2017 wels eqsportis bums ar unda movelodeT. britaneTis saboloo saeqsporto produqcia mniSvnelovanwilad importirebuli saqonlisgan Sedgeba: magaliTad, avtomobilebis mwarmoebeli kompaniebi mowyobilobebs ucxoeTSi iZenen kokpitze dasayeneblad. garda amisa, britanuli saeqsporto warmoeba ZiriTadad `arafasobriv~ faqtorebze konkurirebs, rogoricaa produqciis xarisxi, rac maT savaluto ryevebisadmi naklebad mgrZnobiares xdis. istoriuli gamocdileba damaimedebeli ar aris: 2008-2009 wlebSi sterlingi imave moculobiT daeca, magram wminda eqsporti odnav gaumjobesda. britaneTis ekonomika xazinas da inglisis banks daemyareba, raTa zrdis dadebiTi maCvenebeli SeinarCunos. referendumis Semdeg bankma sabaziso saprocento ganakveTi 0,5%-dan 0.25%-mde Seamcira da `makrogonivruli~ instrumentebi SeimuSava imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom dabali ganakveTebi realur ekonomikas gadascemoda. 2017 wels finansuri stabilurobisadmi arsebuli riskis gaTvaliswinebiT, inglisis banki uaryofiT saprocento ganakveTebs ar daadgens. magram Sansi imisa, rom saprocento ganakveTi gaizardos, mcirea, rac evrokavSirSi darCenis momxreTa gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi maRali albaTobiT iqneboda mosalodneli. im viTarebaSi, roca banki xelfexSekrulia, iniciativa mTavrobam unda gamoiCinos. kanclerma filip hemondma misi winamorbedis fiskaluri pozicia Searbila, rac zrdis temps odnav daaCqarebs. magram mas manevrirebisTvis sivrce SezRuduli aqvs. ekonomikis SenelebasTan erTad, misi safiqrali, rom sagadasaxado Semosavlebi ar dazaraldes, moimatebs. britaneTis biujetis deficiti mSp-s daaxloebiT 4%-s Seadgens; batoni hemondi ver dauSvebs, rom is mniSvnelovnad gaizardos.

eqsportis bums ar unda movelodeT

ar aris recesia, ar aris sadardebelic? Tu 2017 wels britaneTi recesias Tavs aaridebs, zogierTi analitikosi daiwyebs mtkicebas, rom breqsitis irgvliv arsebuli SeSfoTeba gadaWarbebuli iyo. aseTi msjeloba gaugebaria. centraluri bankis da mTavrobis Zalisxmeva, zrdas xeli Seuwyon, uSedegod ar Caivlis: ukiduresad rbili monetaruli politika sapensio fondebs zians ayenebs da mTavrobis zedmeti valic bolos da bolos unda daifaros. kidev ufro mniSvnelovania, rom referendumis win prognozebi yuradRebas ZiriTadad amaxvilebdnen imaze, Tu ra moxdeboda breqsitis SemTxvevaSi – rasac jer kidev wlebi gvaSorebs. britaneTis ekonomika 2017-Si ar CamoiSleba; magram es sulac ar niSnavs, rom breqsitisTvis xmis micema kargi idea iyo. n


msoflio 2017

Brent-is dasasruli

fasebi (savaraudod, 2017 wlamde am doneze darCeba) CrdiloeTis zRvis navTobis industriis momavals saeWvos gaxdis. bevr xandazmul sabados, romelsac henri triqsi, aberdini 2014 wlamde navTobze mkveTrad aweuli fasebis wyalobiT Tavi `koWlobiT gahqonda~, axla daanlegendaruli navTobsabados gariSebis momenti daudga. axlis povna kidev ufro rTulia. aberdinis universitetis biznesskolis `bolo amosunTqva~ navTobis ekonomikis profesori aleqsander kempi ambobs, rom teritoriaze axali aRmoCenebis saSualo adRac 2017 wlis maisSi msoflioSi erT-erTi moculoba 20 m bareli navTobis ekvivalentamde daeyvelaze didi gemi veragi CrdiloeTis zRvis ca, roca 1970-ian wlebSi es maCvenebeli 500 m-s SeadwylebSi, Sotlandiis port aberdinidan 320 genda. aseT mcire navTobsabadoebze Znelia fulis milis (500 km) daSorebiT navTobis WaburgamomuSaveba, Tu barelze fasi $50-s ar aRemateba. RilTan SeCerdeba, raTa Caataros yvelaze masStaplatformebis moxsna, industriis erT-erTi insaidburi gadatvirTvis operacia, rac ki odesme zRvaze eris TqmiT, menavTobisTvis `bolo wveTia~. `isini ganuxorcielebiaT. gemi Brent Delta platformis cxovrebas navTobis ZiebaSi atareben. dekomisia an24,000 tonian `gembans~ gadazidavs, sadac 1970 wlidan tiqristea~. moyolebuli, muSebi vertmfreniT gadahyavdaT, romShell-s garkveuli saboloo dabrkolebebis lebic aqve cxovrobdnen da muSaobdnen. platformas gadalaxva mouwevs, sanam procesi win wava. dekomihartlpulis portSi gadaitanen da iq jarTad aqcevsiis Sesaxeb misma gegmebma britaneTis mTavrobisgan en. cnobilia, rom nawrTobi menavTobeebi aseT SemTxsruli Tanxmoba unda miiRos; mas „mwvane Suqi unda vevebze tirian. aunTos“ osparis konvenciamac, romelic cdilobs es uaRresad mniSvnelovani movlenaa. Royal Dutch atlantis okeanis Crdilo-aRmosavleT nawilSi SeaShell-is Brent Delta msoflioSi erT-erT yvelaze did Ceros aqtivebis mocileba mas navTobsabadoze oTxi platSemdeg, rac 1995 wels Shell-is formidan erT-erTia (sxvebia mier Brent Spar-is Sesanaxi nageAlpha, Bravo da Charlie). mxolod bobis CaZirvis mcdeloba mar„Carli“ agrZelebs warmoebas. cxiT dasrulda. navTobkompania 1980-ian wlebSi, Tavis apogemiiCnevs, rom momxdaridan saTaaze, Shell dReSi Brent-is marnado daskvnebi gamoitana. Shell-i kis 500,000 barel nedl navacxadebs, rom Tavisi reputaciTobs qaCavda, rac britaneTis isTvis msgavsi zianis miyenebis Sinameurneobebis naxevris enerTavidan acilebis mizniT, yovgiiT momaragebisTvis sakmarisi lismomcvel molaparakebebSi iyo. saerTo jamSi, man xazinis iyo CarTuli iseT saqvelmo`skivrebi~ daaxloebiT £20 miliqmedo organizaciebTan, roardis ($24.6 miliardis) odenogoricaa Greenpeace, romelic bis sagadasaxado SemosavlebiT Brent Spar-is CaZirvas ewinaaRaavso. Shell-is platformebi, mdegeboda. Shell-i amtkicebs, romlebic simaRleSi eifelis rom sxva arCevani ar gaaCnia, vikoSks utoldebodnen, woniT ki dre miatovos balastiT savse Empire State Building-s, sainJinro sayrdenebi da fskerze ganlaxelovnebis Sedevrebs warmoadgebuli giganturi Sesanaxi Wagendnen; platformebi menavToburRilebi. isini imdenad didia, beebs ofSoruli teqnologiebis delta, moemzade `gadatvirTvisTvis~ rom gadaadgileba garemos ufro `gakveTilebs utarebdnen~, metad daazaralebs, vidre maTi adgilze datoveba, – romlebmac mTeli msoflio Semoiares. Brent-is Waamtkicebs Shell. burRilebisa da milsadenebis CaxlarTuli sistemis britaneTis navTobisa da gazis maregulirebeli saxeli msoflioSi yvelaze maRali gayidvebis mqone organo, romlis saTavo ofisi aberdinSi mdebareobs, nedl navTobs ewoda. cdilobs uzrunvelyos, rom Brent-is platformebis platformis moxsna Brent-is mier warmoebuli demontaJi zRvis fskerze arsebuli kritikuli mniSpirveli navTobis me-40 wlisTavze moxdeba – Sesvnelobis mqone milsadenebis qsels ar daazianebs da aniSnavi dRegrZelobaa imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom mitovebuli WaburRilebis `dominos efeqts~ dasadasawyisSi arsebuli varaudiT, navTobis maragi am bams ar daudebs, risTvisac CrdiloeTis zRvis sxva drois naxevarze Zlivs eyofoda. magram `sikvdinawilebia ganwiruli. mravali TvalsazrisiT, Brentlis zarebi~ msgavsi produqtiulobis mqone platis dasasruli imave xarisxiT warmoadgens sainJinro formebisTvisac `Semokravs~ xolme mTel msofliTavsatexs, ramdenadac misi dasawyisi. n oSi. CrdiloeTis zRvis Forties-isa da Brent-is navTobsabadoebi 1973 wlamde mcire xniT adre aRmoaCines, roca arabeTis navTobis embargom navTobze ubralod, SesaZlebelia… fasebi katastrofulad gazarda da biZgi misca axali Sotlandiis nacionaluri partia iRebs Sotlandiis aRmoCenebis Ziebas. axla ki meqsikis yureSi, bruneiSi, damoukideblobis Sesaxeb meore referendums, breqsitze malaiziasa da sxva adgilebSi im epoqis nayofieri gadamwyveti kenWisyrisas Tavis Sekavebis sanacvlod. ofSoruli platformebi maTi cxovrebis miwuruls yalibdeba axali centristuli partia, romelic cdilobs uaxlovdebian. platformebi Brent Delta-s demontaJis breqsitis momxre konservatiuli partiisa da radikalurad gamocdilebas `mibaZaven~. `Cven aq miRebul gakveTimemarcxene leiboristebis mier datovebuli politikuri lebs mTel msoflioSi gavavrcelebT", – ambobs abvakuumi Seavsos. erdinSi Shell-is dekomisiis proeqtis xelmZRvaneli glastonberis festivalze jguf Oasis-is gamosvliT noel alister houpi. da laiam galahers Soris urTierTmtroba wydeba da rvawldekomisia ormagi fsiqologiuri dartymaa, ian ganxeTqilebas wertili esmeba. radgan igi im dros emTxveva, roca navTobze dabali

s

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britaneTi

2017 mokled axali wesdeba amoqmedebas iwyebs. zedamxedveloba Ofcom-s — kavSirgabmulobis maregulirebel organos gadaecema; TanamSromlebis xelfasebi, romlebmac 2016 wels £150,000-ze ($185,000) meti gamoimuSaves, sajaro gaxdeba

henri triqsi: energetikisa da saqonlis redaqtori, The Economist


STADLER


თანამედროვე კომფორტული უსაფრთხო იმგზავრეთ შვეიცარული კომპანია „შტადლერის“ უმაღლესი ხარისხის ახალი მატარებლებით!

გისურვებთ ბედნიერ მგზავრობას! საქართველოს რკინიგზა

1331 www.railway.ge


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britaneTi

msoflio 2017

iqneb imitom, rom londoneli var

r

ogorc mxolod erTi muWa WeSmaritad globaluri qalaqebidan erT-erTis meri, me uSualo TviTmxilveli var imisa, rom globalizebul msoflioSi did qalaqebs kidev ufro didi roli ekisrebaT. londonidan niu-iorkamde, parizidan pekinamde, qalaqebi erTmaneTTan arian dakavSirebuli da globaluri ekonomikis, wamyvani biznesis, vaWrobisa da mewarmeobis `nervul sistemas~ qmnian. maTze investiciebisa da inovaciebis mniSvnelovani wili modis da yvela saqmianobis centrSi arian – mecnierebidan kulturamde. Tu me-19 saukune imperiebma gansazRvres, me-20 ki, erovnulma saxelmwifoebma, 21-e saukune qalaqebis aRzevebiT daamaxsovrdebaT – da socialur, ekonomikur da garemosdacviT sferoebSi miRweuli progresiT, romelsac swored maT Seuwyves xeli. qalaqebis dinamizmi mravali erovnuli mTavrobis sul ufro metad uunaro xasiaTisgan mkveTrad gansxvavdeba, romlebic Zalian xSirad leTargiul STabeWdilebas toveben. xSir SemTxvevaSi, erovnuli saxelmwifoebi cudad organizebulni aRmoCndnen, raTa Cveni droebis ekonomikur gamowvevebs gamklavebodnen. isini uZlurni Canan globalizaciis winaSec da saTanadod ver reagireben moqalaqeTa da didi biznesis saWiroebebze, romelsac Tvalis daxamxamebaSi SeuZlia sazRvargareT gadaadgileba. bevri erovnuli saxelmwifo metismetad centralizebuli gaxda saimisod, rom efeqturad marTos. politikis mimarTulebebi – iqneba es ekonomika, gansaxleba, transporti Tu energetika, erT Targze gamoWril saerTo erovnul midgomas sulac ar saWiroeben. im qveynebSi, sadac mTavroba zedmetad centralizebulia, erovnuli TvalsazrisiT umniSvnelovanesi gadawyvetilebebis misaRebad metismetad didi droa saWiro. qalaqebi ufro sxartia, sakuTari moqalaqeebis problemebi ukeT esmiT da maT saWiroebebze swrafad reagirebis unariT gamoirCevian. msoflioSi, sadac cvlilebebi swrafi tempiT da ulmoblad mimdinareobs, qalaqebi cifrul zians ukeT umklavdebian da teqnologiur Zvrebs sakuTar upiratesobad aqceven. aseve, qalaqebi ekonomikuri Sokis mimarT ufro mdgradia, radgan isini Zalebs swrafad ikreben. da did qalaqebSi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, londoni, Cven SevZeliT da yvelas davanaxeT, rom biznesisa da axali talantebisTvis qalaqis kari mudam Riaa – erovnuli warmomavlobis miuxedavad. Cveni didi qalaqebi Tanamedrove ekonomikas sul ufro metad aZleven biZgs; Cven im qalaqebisgan bevri ram unda viswavloT, romlebic saerTo gamowvevebis dasaZlevad erTad muSaoben. yvela sferoSi, maT Soris, ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebasa da axali infrastruqturis dafinansebaSi, haeris xarisxis gaumjobesebaSi, sufTa energiis wyaroebSi investiciebis mobilizebasa da bunebrivi garemos dacvaSi, qalaqebi win iWrebian da centralur mTavrobebs ukan itoveben. da msoflioSi, sadac sul ufro xSirad vxvdebiT erTmaneTis gverdigverd mcxovreb sxvadasxva erovnebis, aRmsareblobis, monacemebisa da erovnebis adamianebs, qalaqebi Cveni mravalferovnebisgan maqsimaluri sargeblis misaRebad axal gzebs kvalaven; isini xels

uwyoben sazogadoebis erTobas da socialur integracias. ufro mWidro TanamSromlobiT da saukeTeso praqtikis gaziarebiT Cvens qalaqebs mniSvnelovani progresis miRweva SeuZliaT Cven winaSe mdgari yvela aqtualuri sakiTxis mogvarebaSi. swored amitom, Tanamdebobis dakavebis Semdeg me prioritetis saxiT urTierTobebis damyareba daviwye sxva qalaqebTan, rogorebicaa: parizi, niu-iorki, monreali da Cikago. msurs ukeT gavigo, ra muSaobs da ra ara am did qalaqebSi, raTa londonis yvela mkvidris sakeTildReod SevZlo saukeTeso ideebis ganxorcieleba. magram Tu britaneTisa da msoflios sxva qalaqebs momaval aTwleulebSi sakuTari potencialis realizeba da ekonomikuri zrdisa da reformebisTvis biZgis micema aqvT ganzraxuli, maSin sakuTari bedi ufro metad unda akontrolon. amJamad londonis mTavroba dedaqalaqSi akrefili Tanxebis mxolod 7%-s akontrolebs, niu-iorkis 50%-Tan da honkongis 70%-Tan SedarebiT. londonisa da sxva didi qalaqebisTvis ufro meti avtonomiis miniWeba ara mxolod daexmareba Cveni SemoqmedebiTi unaris realizebas, aramed inovaciebsa da ekonomikur zrdasac Seuwyobs xels. 2017 wels da Semdgom, es ZiriTad globalur tendencias unda warmoadgendes. qalaqebma ufro meti kontroli unda miiRon Tanxebze, romlebic ixarjeba iseT mimarTulebebze, rogorebicaa: unarebi, gansaxleba, transporti, jandacva da ganaTleba. amerikis federaluri sistema aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi qalaqebsa da Statebs uflebebs uzrdida. es ekonomikuri zrdis xelSewyobisa da progresis waxalisebis TvalsazrisiT uaRresad warmatebuli praqtika aRmoCnda. londonis mosaxleobis raodenoba igivea, rac uelsisa da Sotlandiis erTad aRebuli, magram Cven dedaqalaqis marTvaze bevrad mcire kontroli da mniSvnelovani cvlilebebis gansaxorcieleblad naklebi berketi gvaqvs.

`qalaqebi sul ufro metad ayalibeben momavals, amitomac aucilebelia maT mier daxarjul fulze meti kontroli moipovon~, — amtkicebs londonis meri sadiq xani

kontrolis dabruneba

breqsitma qalaqebis xelSi meti kontrolis aRebis saWiroeba ufro aqtualuri gaxada. londoni Cveni erovnuli ekonomikis „Zravaa“ da Tu savsebiT marTebulia britaneTis mTavrobis mcdeloba, keTildReoba mTeli qveynis masStabiT gaavrcelos, man unda gaacnobieros, rom es ar aris TamaSi nulovani jamiT. britaneTi warmatebuli iqneba, roca warmatebuli iqneba londoni. Cvens dedaqalaqSi generirebuli simdidre yvelgan vrceldeba. amitomac britaneTis interesebSi Sedis, rom londons ufro didi uflebebi gadasces. mniSvnelovania, rom mTel msoflioSi erovnulma mTavrobebma globalizaciis mier motanili sikeTe maqsimalurad gazardon; magram Tu isini seriozulad arian dainteresebuli, rom am process CamorCenil adamianebs daxmareba gauwion, aucilebelia aRiaron wamyvani roli, romelsac qalaqebi TamaSoben 21-e saukuneSi ufro samarTliani da warmatebuli sazogadoebis CamoyalibebaSi. Cven gvWirdeba instrumentebi, raTa ekonomikur zrdas maqsimalurad SevuwyoT xeli da uzrunvelvyoT, rom is yvelasTvis iyos xelmisawvdomi. n

britaneTis interesebSi Sedis, rom londons ufro didi uflebebi gadasces


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msoflio 2017 amave seqciaSi: respublikelebi da kongresi 50 `tramponomika~ 51 ubralod, SesaZlebelia... 51 qalaqebi Statebis winaaRmdeg 52 rasebs Soris qorwineba 52

SeerTebuli Statebi

miwisZvra, saxelad `trampi~ devid reni, vaSingtoni, kolumbiis olqi

demagogis arCeviT gamowveuli Soki amerikasa da mTel msoflioSi povebs gamoZaxils

r

2017 mokled niu-iorki da ramdenime sxva didi qalaqi axal mers noemberSi airCevs

s

a ziani moitana 2016 wlis politikurma miwisZvrebma da ra Sedegebs unda velodoT momavalSi am ryevebisgan? amerikam 2017 wels unda Seafasos is Sedegebi, rac moyveba donald trampis prezidentad arCevas da am faqtisgan gamowveul Soks. im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu prezidenti trampi daiviwyebs da ar Seasrulebs mis mier gaJRerebul miuRebel dapirebebs, demagogi magnatis amerikis prezidentad arCeva, romlis biznesinteresebi mTeli msoflios masStabiTaa gafantuli, gamocdas mouwyobs yvela im wonasworobis princips da instituts, romelic aSS-is damfuZnebelma `mamebma~ Seqmnes. trampis epoqis dasawyisSi respublikur partiaSi myofi misi mxardamWerebi simSvidis SenarCunebisken mouwodeben yvelas. jer kidev saarCevno kampaniis mimdinareobisas isini avrcelebdnen gzavnils, rom trampi iqneboda topmenejeris stilis prezidenti, romelic mmarTvelobis yoveldRiur sakiTxebs Tavis TanamSromlebs miandobda. erT-erTi aseTi TanamSromelia konservatori viceprezidenti maik pensi, romelic manamde respublikeli kongresmeni da gubernatori iyo. trampis memarjvene mxardamWerebisTvis igi gaxlavT reiganis `yalibis~ gayidvebis menejeri, romelsac oratoruli niWi aqvs da daexmareba respublikelebs miaRwion warmatebas am populistur droSi. daiviwyeT trampis gamonaTqvamebi politikis Sesaxeb, – amboben isini. arsebul viTarebaSi, roca respublikelebi akontroleben kongress, umetes gubernators da Statis sakanomdeblo organos, arsebobs SesaniSnavi SesaZlebloba, rom qveyana swori mimarTulebiT wavides. Tu es xalxi marTalia, maSin prezidentis pirveli 100 dRe ukompromiso konservatoruli politikis gatarebiT iqneba aRsaniSnavi da

daiwyeba barak obamas programis Secvla. konservatorebs erTi suli aqvT, rodis gamoiyvans trampi amerikas parizis SeTanxmebidan klimatis cvlilebebis Sesaxeb, romelsac xeli 2016 wels moewera; gaauqmebs federalur regulaciebs, romlebic zRudavs eleqtroenergiis gamosamuSaveblad qvanaxSiris gamoyenebas; daamtkicebs axal milsadenebs da gaxsnis federalur miwebs bunebrivi wiaRiseulisa da energiis wyaroebis mosapoveblad. zogierTs isic ki surs, rom trampma omi gamoucxados sajaro seqtoris profkavSirebs da gaamartivos federaluri moxeleebis samsaxuridan gaTavisufleba. batoni trampis gancxadebebis Semdeg, rom igi aaSenebda kedels ukanono migrantebisgan amerikis dasacavad, mas mouwevs TvalsaCino nabijebis gadadgma sazRvris gaZlierebis mimarTulebiT. Tu kongresi am xarjebs ar daamtkicebs, maSin trampis mokavSireebi `yiJinas dascemen~ da kanonmdeblebs Seaxseneben, rom sazRvris usafrTxoebaze arasaTanado zrunva kongresis wevrebs SesaZloa arCevnebSi damarcxebad daujdeT. marTalia, ambiciuri saimigracio reforma kongresis mxardaWeras saWiroebs, magram aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas mainc aqvs sakmaod didi uflebamosileba, qveyanaSi ar SemouSvas is adamianebi, romlebic terorizmis safrTxes warmoadgenen. mosalodnelia, rom trampi ganaxorcielebs ufro meti ucxoelis deportacias (romlebic Tundac mcire darRvevisTvis iqnebian dapatimrebulni) da Secvlis obamasdroindel aRmasrulebel brZanebebs, romlebic icavda amerikasTan mWidro kavSiris mqone migrantebs deportaciisgan. kongresSi myofi respublikelebi Seecdebian daarwmunon batoni trampi, rom Seamciros biznesgadasaxadebi da sagadasaxado SeRavaTi misces im korporaciebs, romlebic amerikaSi Seitanen sazRvargareT miRebul Semosavals. `bobola~ respublikelebi aseve ecdebian SezRudon batoni trampis dapireba gadaxedos CrdiloeT amerikis, anu meqsikasa da kanadasTan Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebis (NAFTA) pirobebs. isini urCeven tramps, ar gaaCaRos didi savaWro omi da

devid reni: vaSingtonis biuros xelmZRvaneli da leqsingtonis mimomxilveli The Economist


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SeerTebuli Statebi

msoflio 2017

xaTabala gamarjvebulebisTvis jeims estili, vaSingtoni, kolumbiis olqi

respublikeli kongresmenebi nanoben donald trampisTvis micemul mxardaWeras

i

m respublikelTa didi nawili, romelic donald tramps uWerda mxars, miuxedavad misi uweso saqcielisa da gamonaTqvamebisa, TavianT gadawyvetilebas xsnida erTi ocnebiT: damTavrebuliyo mTavrobaSi gaxleCiloba, rac garkveulwilad maTive mcdelobis Sedegi gaxldaT da ramac obamas prezidentobas bevri problema Seuqmna. maT miiRes is, rac surdaT: kontroli kongresis orive palataze da respublikeli lideri TeTr saxlSi. amis miuxedavad, batoni trampis mxardamWerebs es ocneba 2017 wels koSmarad eqcevaT. maTi mxardaWera baton trampis mimarT dafuZnebuli iyo imedze, rom gaprezidentebis Semdeg igi „mwvane Suqs“ miscemda warmomadgenelTa palatis spikers – pol raians, gaetarebina dabali gadasaxadebis konservatoruli dRis wesrigi. batoni trampi araa dainteresebuli politikis detalebiT, rac gamoCnda saarCevno kampaniis periodSi, roca man ohaios gubernator jon keisiks viceprezidentoba da sagareo Tu saSinao politikaze pasuxismgebloba SesTavaza. baton raians mravali idea aqvs. trampis seriozuli politikuri platformis ararsebobis pirobebSi raianma arCevnebis win gamoaqveyna eqvspunqtiani gegma, romlis mixedviT so-

oqtomberSi SesaZlebeli iqneba yofili garemarbis — `o. jei~ simpsonis TavdebiT gaTavisufleba. am periodisTvis mas moxdili eqneba 11 weli 33-wliani sasjelidan SeiaraRebuli Zarcvisa da adamianis gatacebisTvis

s

2017 mokled

cialuri privilegiebis miReba rTuldeba, xolo kompaniebisTvis ufro advili xdeba garemos dabinZureba. am gegmam 2016 wlis konservatorTa politikis dRis wesrigi gansazRvra. baton tramps ezizReba batoni raiani, radgan am ukanasknelma mas zurgi aqcia arCevnebamde erTi TviT adre mas Semdeg, rac gavrcelda videomasala, sadac amerikis aw ukve prezidenti trabaxobda qalebTan seqsualuri xasiaTis urTierTobebiT. batoni raianis Zalaufleba Sesustda warmomadgenelTa palataSic, sadac antisamTavrobo memarjveneebis fraqcia `Tavisuflebis kreba~ ndobas ikrebs da emzadeba raianTan sabrZolvelad. batoni trampisa da `Tavisuflebis krebis~ mxridan damcirebis atanas, baton raians urCevnia datovos Tanamdeboba 2017 wels, Tu manamde ar gaaTavisufles. `Tavisuflebis kreba~ Seecdeba mis Secvlas Tavisi warmomadgenliT, Tumca vinc unda movides batoni raianis magivrad, dabrkolebebs gadaawydeba. senatSi arsebuli demokratebi gamoiyeneben saparlamento obstruqciis proceduras, raTa win aRudgnen socialuri daxmarebis sistemis Secvlas da `xelmisawvdomi daxmarebis aqtis~ gauqmebas. es ukanaskneli warmoadgens batoni obamas cnobil jandacvis reformas, romlis gauqmebis piroba batonma trampma dado. obamaseuli jandacvis sistema SesaZloa sxva gzebiT Seicvalos. batoni trampi bednieri iqneba, gaaCaRos brZola sakuTari partiis winaaRmdeg, romelsac igi populisturi qulebis

Caebas mxolod konkretul brZolebSi savaWro partniorebis mxridan darRvevebTan dakavSirebiT (magaliTad, meqsika da CineTi). Tu trampis mxardamWerebi cdebian, maSin maTi gmiri arc ise damjeri iqneba. kampaniis dros batonma trampma Riad daafiqsira simpaTia ruseTis prezident vladimir putinis mimarT da Seaqo saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis yofili oficris mier `mkacri kontroli sakuTar qveyanaze~. es reveransi Zlieri adamianebis mimarT da universaluri idealebis abuCad agdeba sagrZnobi iqneba sagareo politikaSi. mrCevlebi baton tramps ultrarealists uwodeben – adamians, romelsac sjera, rom msoflio saSineli, saxifaToa da zizRiT uyurebs ideas, rom amerikas aqvs wminda misia msoflioSi usafrTxoebis miRwevisa. batoni trampi SesaZloa Seecados ruseTTan „did garigebaze“ wasvlas, rac SeiZleba gamoixatos ukrainaSi SeWrisTvis aSS-is mier ruseTisTvis dawesebuli sanqciebis moxsnaSi. sanacvlod aSS miiRebs ruseTis mxardaWeras islamuri terorizmis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi.

donaldi gadawyvetilebas iRebs baton tramps daaxloebiT 4 000 politikur Tanamdebobaze hyavs dasaniSni xalxi. ovaluri ofisis gamgebels SeuZlia daniSnos gavleniani maregulirebeli organoebis, gamoZiebis federaluri biurosa da sadazvervo samsaxurebis xelmZRvaneli pirebi, aseve federaluri mosamarTleebi. man unda daniSnos uzenaesi sasamarTlos minimum erTi wevri. 2016 wlis

Casawerad lanZRavs da moixseniebs, rogorc mtrul, sust da viwro interesebis mqone organizaciad. magaliTad, Tu respublikelebi gamoiyeneben `Semorigebis~ saxeliT cnobil sabiujeto xerxs da SeZleben, rom maRali Semosavlis pirebisTvis sadasaxado SeRavaTebis kanonproeqti senats daamtkicebinon, axalma prezidentma SesaZloa mas veto daados. saarCevno kampaniis dros trampma Tqva, rom gazrdida gadasaxadebs mdidrebisTvis (samarTlianobisTvis unda aRiniSnos, rom man isic Tqva, mdidrebisTvis gadasaxadebs Sevamcirebo). sakuTari uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis gzad batoni trampi aRmasrulebel brZanebebs airCevs. magaliTad, man SeiZleba gamoiyenos Zalauflebis es forma imisTvis, raTa meqsikuri da Cinuri produqciis imports sadamsjelo tarifebi daados. es Tavis mxriv gamoiwvevs respublikeli kongresmenebis mxridan (romelTa umravlesoba Tavisufali vaWrobis momxrea) arakonservatori prezidentis winaaRmdeg moqmedebebs. trampis prezidentobis problemebis warmoCinebasTan erTad, respublikelebSi gaCndeba eleqtoratis risxvis SiSi 2018 wlis Sualeduri arCevnebis dros. es gamoiwvevs maTi mxridan kidev ufro met opoziciur moqmedebebs. respublikelebma gasaocari gamarjveba moipoves. Tumca es gamarjveba maT partias identobis, ndobisa da erTianobis didi nawilis dakargvad daujdeba. n jeims estili: vaSingtonis korespondenti, The Economist

TebervalSi igi trabaxobda, rom Secvlida kanonebs ciliswamebis gavrcelebisTvis pasuximgeblobis Sesaxeb, raTa ufro advili yofiliyo sainformacio saSualebebis winaaRmdeg sasamarTloSi brZola. man maSin isic ki Tqva, rom `vaSington posts~ da mis mflobel jef bezoss `amgvari problemebi Seeqmneboda~, Tu trampi qveynis saTaveSi movidoda. aRniSnuli kanonebi scdeba mis uflebamosilebas, magram prezidents mainc aqvs imxela gavlena, rom mtrebs cxovreba gaumwaros. magaliTad, mas SeuZlia nebismieri gadasaxadebis gadamxdelis sagadasaxado deklaraciis informacia moiTxovos, rac demagogis xelSi efeqturi iaraRia. sainformacio industrias sxva mizezebi aqvs eSinodes trampis prezidentobisa. im sainformacio saagentoebsac ki, romlebic cdiloben iyvnen miukerZoebeli, mouwevT trampis mier SerCeuli yoveli cudi kandidatisa da mis biznessaqmianobasTan dakavSirebul interesTa konfliqtis gaSuqeba, rac trampis mxardamWerebisgan mikerZoebulobis mZvinvare braldebebis safuZveli gaxdeba. Tu axali prezidenti iseTive uprincipo da SurismaZiebeli iqneba mTavrobaSi, rogorc biznesSi iyo, maSin kongresis wevrebsac mouwevT arCeva partiis mimarT erTgulebasa da aRmasrulebeli Stos zedamxedvelobis ganxorcielebas Soris. Tanamdebobis pirTa xSiri gadadgoma imis maniSnebeli iqneba, rom wonasworobis sistema zemoqmedebas ganicdis. namdvili `xuligani~ msoflios udidesi `xulignebis~ meTaurad airCies. amas aucileblad mohyveba Sedegebi. n


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SeerTebuli Statebi

msoflio 2017 jerjerobiT mSvidobaa dasaqmebis Sefardeba mosaxleobasTan 25-54 wlis

kerZo seqtorSi dasaqmebulebis saSualo saaTobrivi anazRaureba %

wyaro: federaluri sarezervo sistema

davabrunoT amerika ekonomikur krizisSi? henri qari, vaSingtoni, kolumbiis olqi

`tramponomikis~ siZliere da riskebi

d

onald trampis saarCevno kampania agebuli iyo iseT politikur iniciativebze, romlebic ekonomistebSi Jruantels iwvevda: savaWro barierebi, uzarmazari sagadasaxado Semcirebebi da masobrivi deportaciebi. Tu es ideebi ganxorcieldeba, didi albaTobiT aucileblad moxdeba ekonomikuri vardna. reitingebis saagento Moody’s-is mier gakeTebuli prognozis mixedviT, trampis prezidentobis dros Tavs iCens rigi problemebisa: muSaxelis nakleboba, produqtiulobis zrdis Seneleba da samTavrobo davalianebis zrda. yvelaferi es batoni trampis pirveli saprezidento vadis bolos ekonomikis Semcirebas gamoiwvevs. magram zustad aravin icis, ramdenad ganxorcieldeba aRniSnuli dRis wesrigi. axladarCeuli prezidenti ar gaxlavT politikis detalebSi CaZiebis fani. saarCevno kampaniis dros man samjer gamoacxada sagadasaxado gegma – Tumca miuxedavad amisa, es ukanaskneli mainc bundovanebiT moculi darCa. sakuTari fiskaluri politikis gasatareblad mas kongresis dasturis miReba mouwevs. sagadasaxado politika, romelic warmomadgenelTa palataSi myof respublikelebs surT, orjer nakleb xarjs moiTxovs, vidre batoni trampis iniciativebi. nebismieri gadasaxadis Semcireba unda iyos droebiTi da garkveuli drois Semdeg, magaliTad, aTi wlisTavze, gauqmdes. sxva SemTxvevaSi, am iniciativas senatSi myofi demokratebi dablokaven. rac Seexeba vaWrobas, regulaciebsa da imigracias, am sferoebSi prezidents meti Zalaufleba gaaCnia. gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo da SemaSfoTebelia am mxriv vaWrobis sfero. baton tramps SeuZlia aSS gamoiyvanos CrdiloeT amerikis Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebidan (NAFTA) kongresTan konsultaciis gareSe, sul raRac eqvsi Tvis winaswari Setyobinebis safuZvelze. swori samarTlebrivi manevrebis ganxorcielebiT, igi aseve, savaraudod, SeZlebs mis mier gacxadebuli saimporto tarifebis dawesebas: 45% CineTidan, xolo 35% meqsikidan Semomaval saqonelze. man ganmarta, rom es gancxadebebi misi mxridan savaWro muqaras warmoadgenda da miznad ukeTesi savaWro SeTanxmebebis miRwevas isaxavda. magram, rogorc erT-

erTi kvleviTi centris – petersonis institutis arcTu optimistur prognozSi vkiTxulobT, `roca oms gegmav, ar unda ifiqro, rom Seni mteri pirveli gasrolisTanave dagnebdeba~. trampis muqarebma SesaZloa daafrTxos investorebi da gamoiwvios ekonomikuri zrdis Seferxeba imis miuxedavad, Tu realurad ra nabijebs gadadgams igi. ufro Tavisufali savaluto politika daabalansebda am safrTxes ise, rogorc es britaneTSi moxda mas Semdeg, rac britanelma mosaxleobam evrokavSiris datovebas dauWira mxari. federalur sarezervo sistemas SeuZlia gadados 2017 wels dagegmili saprocento ganakveTebis zrda an sulac Seamciros isini. SiSi inflaciasTan dakavSirebiT SesaZloa ar gamarTldes: umuSevrobis done dabalia, xelfasebis zrda neli tempiT mimdinareobs da mravali adamiani, romelic umuSevari darCa ekonomikuri krizisis dros, jerac dausaqmebelia (ixileT grafiki). meore mxriv, Tu batoni trampi maleve Seamcirebs gadasaxadebs da dapirebisamebr gazrdis gzebis, aeroportebisa da sxva infrastruqturis ganviTarebis dafinansebas, SesaZloa saWiro gaxdes saprocento ganakveTebis gazrda, raTa inflaciis donem ar moimatos. es kargi iqneba batoni trampisTvis, romelic ganerida dabal saprocento ganakveTebs kampaniis dros da ganacxada, rom isini `ekonomikur buSts~ asazrdoebdnen. man federaluri sarezervo sistemis xelmZRvaneli – janet ielenic ki daadanaSaula politikuri miznebis gamo dabali saprocento ganakveTebis SenarCunebaSi (tramps ar SeuZlia qalbatoni ielenis gaTavisufleba 2018 wlis Tebervlamde, roca am ukanasknels oTxwliani samuSao vada gauva). gazrdili saprocento ganakveTebis nakli ufro Tavisufal fiskalur politikasTan erTad SeiZleba iyos gacilebiT Zlieri dolari, romelic daazaralebs amerikel mwarmoeblebs. es ironiulia batoni trampis ritorikis fonze. aseve, amerikis ekonomikis mier meti warmoeba gamoiwvevs savaWro deficitis gazrdas. orive es movlena gazrdis zemoqmedebas baton trampze, darCes sakuTari sityvis erTguli da Seasrulos proteqcionistuli dapirebebi. Tu igi amas gaakeTebs, ar gqondeT didi molodini. SesaZloa sawarmoo seqtorSi Seqmnilma samuSao adgilebma garkveulwilad Caanacvlos Cinuri importi, magram ar unda velodoT, rom qveyana awarmoebs da danarCen msoflios mihyidis iaf saqonels. garkveuli drois Semdeg realuri Semosavali ki ar moimatebs, aramed Semcirdeba, vinaidan produqtiuloba daecema. arasasiamovno simarTle is gaxlavT, rom amerikis ekonomikis bedi batoni trampis mier sakuTar azrovnebaSi naklovanebebis aRmoCenazea damokidebuli.n

2017 mokled ivanka trampi gamoscems morig wigns — `qalebi, romlebic muSaoben~. es iqneba misi meore wigni 2009 wlis bestseleris — `koziris banqos~ Semdeg

henri qari: aSS-is ekonomikis redaqtori, The Economist


AD: Georg


gia.Travel


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SeerTebuli Statebi

qalaqebi Statebis winaaRmdeg endriu mileri, atlanta

amerikis kulturuli omebis axali fronti sul ufro TvalSisacemi gaxdeba

T

u CavTvliT, rom donald trampis aRzeveba amerikis yvelaze didi politikuri Soki iyo 2016 wels, maSin SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom amis Semdegi erT-erTi yvelaze didi movlena gaxldaT transgenderuli sapirfareSoebis gamoyenebis sakiTxi. konfliqti aRniSnul Temaze gadaizarda iusticiis departamentsa da federalur sasamarTloebs Soris davaSi, Tumca igi realurad daiwyo qalaqebisa da Statebis Cinovnikebs Soris uTanxmoebiT. samxreTis, da aramarto samxreTis mravali Statis mmarTvelobis sistemaSi mimdinare cvlilebebi niSnavs imas, rom 2017 wels msgavsi konfliqti sxvaganac gavrceldeba. dava gamoiwvia CrdiloeT karolinis qalaq Sarlotis sakrebulos mier miRebulma dadgenilebam sapirfareSoebis etiketTan dakavSirebiT, romlis mixedviT transgenderebs miecaT ufleba esargeblaT rogorc mamakacebis, ise qalebis tualetiT. amas mohyva Statis kanomdebleblebis mxridan ukmayofileba

2017 mokled erovnuli arqivi gamoaqveynebs 3063 darCenil fails jon f. kenedis mkvlelobasTan dakavSirebiT

jon prido: aSS-is redaqtori, The Economist

da araerTi kanonproeqti, saCivari da boikoti, rac sayovelTaodaa cnobili. problemis realuri safuZveli ki demografia gaxlavT. finansuri da teqnologiuri seqtoris bumma, dabalma gadasaxadebma da kargma amindma ganapiroba is, rom SarlotSi mravali adamiani gadasaxlda amerikis sxva adgilebidan. aman gamoiwvia qalaqis gaaxalgazrdaveba da memarcxene ideologiis gaZliereba. aq arsebuli universitetebi aseve izidaven liberalebs. adgilobrivi turizmis industria tolerantulia. garda Sarlotisa, eTnikuri umciresobebis zrdasTan da gaxsnili gonebis mqone e.w. `milenialebis~ (gasuli saukunis 1980ian da 1990-ian wlebSi dabadebuli adamianebi) zrdasrul asakSi SesvlasTan erTad, liberaluri tendenciebi didwilad gansazRvraven mosaxleobis ganwyobas iseT qalaqebSi, rogorebicaa neSvili da memfisi. jorjiisa da CrdiloeT karolinis mosaxleobis daaxloebiT mesamedi dabadebulia `samxreTis~ gareT. dRevandeli dRisTvis soflisa da qalaqis gareubnebSi mcxovrebi adamianebi ganapirobeben imas, rom konservatori respublikelebi inarCuneben kontrols am Statebis sakanonmdeblo organoebze da samxreTis umetes sagubernatoroebze. zogierTebisTvis didi qalaqebis Wirveuli mcxovreblebisTvis `silis gartyma~ uaRresad sasiamovno da misasalmebelia. es ki daZabulobis zrdas iwvevs.

siyvarulo, Zalsa Sensa... jon prido

droa SevxedoT rasaTaSorisi qorwinebebis zrdis tendencias

T

msoflio 2017

u xarT 50 wels gadacilebuli amerikeli, maSin Tqven daibadeT qveyanaSi, romlis zogierT StatSi sxva rasis warmomadgenelze daqorwineba akrZaluli iyo. 2017-Si 50 weli gadis mas Semdeg, rac uzenaesma sasamarTlom miiRo gadawyvetileba saqmeze `lavingi virjiniis winaaRmdeg~, romliTac gauqmda zemoT aRniSnuli akrZalvebi. didad gasakviri ar iqneba, Tu amerikis cxovrebis araerT sferoSi – dawyebuli politikidan, dasaqmebidan da damTavrebuli uZravi qonebiT, momavalSic mravlad iqneba rasobrivi diskriminaciis faqtebi. kvleviT centr bruqingsis institutis mkvlevris – uiliam freis gamoTvliT, momaval wels axali qorwinebebis TiTqmis mexuTedi Sedgeba sxvadasxva rasis adamianTa Soris. azri, rom rasaTaSorisi qorwinebebi jansaRi sazogadoebis niSania, SedarebiT axali movlenaa. meoce saukunis pirveli naxevris ganmavlobaSi progresulad moazrovne evgenistebis didi nawili eTanxmeboda Zvelmodurad moazrovne rasistebs imaSi, rom kanSi melaninis sxvadasxva koncentraciis gamo, rasaTaSorisi kavSirebi ar dasruldeboda STamomavlobis SeqmniT. `yovlisSemZle RmerTma Seqmna TeTri,

zemoT naTqvami ar exeba mxolod sapirfareSoebs. qalaqebi da Statebi erTmaneTs minimaluri xelfasis gamo `eWidavebian~. magaliTad, alabamis Statis qalaq birmingems ar mieca ufleba, gaezarda minimaluri xelfasi. dapirispirebis Temebia aseve ukanono imigrantebisa da konfederaciis liderebis monumentebis bedi, saSiSi ZaRlebi, plastikuri CanTebi da navTobis mopoveba hidrogarRvevis meTodiT. awydebian ra urbanul Tavisufal azrovnebas, Statis kanonmdeblebi iviwyeben adgilobrivi avtonomiis mxardamWer argumentebs, romlebsac isini aqtiurad iyeneben xolme vaSingtonTan sapaeqrod. zogierTma Statma winaswar miiRo zomebi, raTa gasaqani ar mieces Wirveul qalaqelebs. amerikis kulturuli omebis es SeumCneveli fronti 2017 wels did xmaurs gamoiwvevs. axali mcdeloba qalaqebis mxridan, rom moxdes marixuanis dekriminalizacia, konfliqts kidev ufro gaaRvivebs. brZolis ori didi mizezi iqneba antidiskriminaciuli politika, romelSic ufro da ufro meti qalaqi Seecdeba gaaerTianos seqsualuri identurobis sakiTxi; da iaraRi, romlis gavrcelebis SezRudvasac Seecdebian qalaqis Cinovnikebi zogierTi Statis Cinovnikis sapirispirod. brZola TeTri saxlisTvis dasrulda, Tumca Statebis doneze brZolebi mxolod axla iwyeba. n endriu mileri: samxreTis korespondenti, The Economist

Savi, yviTeli, malaiziuri, wiTeli rasebi da isini sxvadasxva kontinentze ganaTavsa~, – werda mosamarTle leon bazili, roca mas ganaCeni gamohqonda riCard da mildred lavingis winaaRmdeg (saidanac am saqmem miiRo saxeli) virjiniis rasobrivi erTianobis aqtis mixedviT. `faqti, rom man rasebi daacalkeva, miuTiTebs imaze, rom mas ar surda rasebis erTmaneTTan Sereva~. lavingebis qorwinebidan xuT kviraSi maT saZinebelSi SeiWra policia da saxeSi CiraRdnebi mianaTa. imdroindeli presis mixedviT, baton lavings hkiTxes: `vin aris qali, romelTanac Sen gZinavs?~ misi pasuxi iyo: `Cemi coli~, ris gamo col-qmari cixeSi Casves. ganqorwinebis nacvlad, isini sacxovreblad kolumbiis olqSi gadavidnen. roca adamianis uflebebis damcvelma wyvilis ambavi moismina da dainaxa SesaZlebloba, gaeprotestebina Sereuli qorwinebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli kanonebi, batonma lavingma mas pirdapir uTxra: `uTxariT sasamarTlos – me miyvars Cemi meuRle da es aris ubralod usamarTloba, rom ar SemiZlia masTan erTad virjiniaSi cxovreba~. gelapis (Gallup) gamokiTxvis mixedviT, 50 wlis win qveynis mxolod 20% uWerda mxars SavkanianTa da TeTrkanianTa Soris qorwinebas. axla es ricxvi 90%ia. rasis Sesaxeb argumentebi amerikaSi orad iyofa: erTis mxardamWerTa azriT rasizmi Zveli istoriaa, xolo meoreni acxadeben, rom amerika ver gaeqceva sakuTar rasistul warsuls. lavingis didi brZolis Sedegad mogebuli saqmis 50 wlisTavi imis Sexsenebaa, rom orive Sexeduleba mcdaria. n


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msoflio 2017 amave seqciaSi: halifaqsis afeTqebis istoria `wiTeli ukandaxeva~ laTinur amerikaSi ubralod, SesaZlebelia... jastin triudo: virCevT gaxsnilobas

amerika

kanada eiforiaSi medelain droeni, otava

cxovreba TaflobisTvisa da dReobis Semdeg

a

dacviTi jgufebi da kanadelebi, romlebmac liberalebs dauWires mxari im pirobiT, rom ekologiurad ufro sufTa kanadaSi icxovrebdnen, vidre amas proenergetikuli konservatorebi sTavazobdnen. batoni triudo Seecdeba orive fraqciis damSvidebas. rTuli molaparakebebis Semdeg man gaafrTxila provinciebi, rom oqtomberSi unda miiRon (daaweson) fasebi naxSirze 2018 wlisTvis. ukmayofilo premierebi mainc SeZleben SeinarCunon axali Semosavali. aTidan Svidi provincia biujetis deficits ganicdis, ase rom federaluri Tanxebis garkveuli (mcire) ulufa ZviradRirebuli programebisTvis, magaliTad, jandacvisTvis, SeZlebs daadumos maTi protesti. garemosdamcvelebi, ukve ganawyenebulni dasavleT sanapirosken Txevadi bunebrivi airis milsadenis proeqtis damtkicebis gamo, aurzaurs atexen, Tu navTobsadeni dasturs miiRebs. baton triudos 2019 wlis momaval arCevnebamde mouwevs maTi simpaTiebis ukan dabruneba. wiaRiseuli sawvavis mwarmoeblebisTvis subsidiebis 3.3 miliardi kanaduri dolariT ($2.5) Sekvecis Taobaze winasaarCevo kampaniis dapirebis Sesruleba wlis kargi dasawyisi iqneba. premier-ministrs amosunTqvis saSualeba ar eqneba mTavrobis morigi, didi gamocdis win: gadawyvetilebis miReba, Tu ra Caanacvlebs fardobiTi umravlesobis saarCevno sistemas. batonma triudom piroba dado, rom 2015 wlis arCevnebi am sistemiT Catarebuli ukanaskneli arCevnebi iqneboda. mas Semdeg, rac 2016 wlis dekemberSi specialurma komitetma moismina angariSebi qveynis masStabiT, mTavrobam

2017 mokled bevri kargi Semobruneba: kanada ufaso Sesvlas sTavazobs damTvaliereblebs mis erovnuli parkebSi da asrulebs did gzas (biliks): 14.864 milis (23,921km) gzas mTeli qveynis gaswvriv

s

xaldaqorwinebuli wyvili igrZnobs cvlilebebs, rodesac kanadis liberaluri mTavroba jastin triudos xelmZRvanelobiT, mmarTvelobis meore weliwadSi Seabijebs. TaflobisTve didxans grZeldeboda – dawyebuli liberalebis gasaocari gamarjvebiT 2015 wlis oqtombris sayovelTao arCevnebSi. drodadro is eiforiuli iyo: magaliTisTvis, momRimari kanadelebis milionobiT selfi maTi axalgazrduli, qarizmatuli premier-ministris (perangSi da mis gareSe) gverdiT. rogorc axaldaqorwinebul wyvilebs sCveviaT, kanadelebma da liberalurma mTavrobam gasuli wlis umetesi nawili dauTmes bWobas, Tu rogor Secvlidnen isini qveyanas da mTel msoflios. 2017 realur cxovrebaSi dabrunebis weli iqneba. sajaro konsultaciebis talRa imis Taobaze, Tu rogor unda gaumjobesdes xmis micemis procesi, an rogor unda gadanawildes saerTaSoriso daxmareba, dasruldeba. mosalodnelia politikuri gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic yvelas ar moewoneba. batoni triudo, rogorc prezidenti, daupirispirdeba Tavis pirvel srulfasovan kriziss, Tu donald trampi ganaxorcielebs sakuTar muqaras da gaauqmebs savaWro garigebebs. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi kanadis yvelaze mniSvnelovani savaWro partnioria. 2015 wels eqsportma TiTqmis 77% Seadgina. `TaflobisTve~ SesaZloa damTavrdes, Tumca qveyanas erTi sasixarulo RonisZieba elodeba: 1-el ivliss kanadis Seqmnis 150 wlisTavia. kanadelebi izeimeben britaneTis parlamentis 1867 wlis aqtis safuZvelze kanadis dominionis Seqmnas. aqtma britaneTis CrdiloeT amerikis Sesaxeb Sekriba TviTmmarTveli koloniebi: ontario, kvebeki, niu bransuiki, nova skotia da misca maT werilobiTi konstitucia. sxva provinciebi da teritoriebi mogvianebiT SeuerTda – yvelaze gvian 1999 wels. nunavuti – kanadis konstitucia 1982 wlamde arsebobda mxolod britaneTis parlamentis aqtis saxiT, magram kanadelebi TavianTi qveynis daarsebis TariRad 1867 wels miiCneven. zafxulis dResaswaulebamde mTavrobas mniSvnelovani gadawyvetileba aqvs misaRebi: daamtkicos nedli navTobis milsadenis mSenebloba energoresursebiT mdidar provincia albertadan dasavleT sanapiroze, britaneTis kolumbiis port barnabiSi. energetikis erovnulma maregulirebelma daamtkica Trans Mountain milsadenis gagrZeleba garkveuli pirobebiT. amjerad ki, federalurma mTavrobam unda daamtkicos proeqti an daubrunos maregulirebels gadasaxedad. Tanxmobis garda, yvela sxva gadawyvetileba aRaSfoTebs albertas, romelic ebrZvis recesias da rekordul sabiujeto deficits, gamowveuls dabali fasebiT navTobze. magram proeqtis damtkicebis winaaRmdeg gamodian garemos-

medelain droeni: korespondenti kanadaSi, The Economist


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alaska airlines iwyebs sahaero mimosvlas losanjelesidan havanamde — pirvel uwyvet momsaxurebas kubidan amerikis dasavleT sanapiroze

s

2017 mokled

amerika

msoflio 2017

unda iCqaros 2017 wlis maisSi – mTavari saarCevno oficris mier dawesebul vadaSi, 2019 wlis arCevnebisTvis SeimuSaos axali kanoni. konservatorebi, romlebic oficialur opozicias warmoadgenen, daJinebiT moiTxoven nebismieri SemoTavazebuli cvlilebis Taobaze erovnuli referendumis gamarTvas. mTavrobam, britanuli breqsitis gaTvaliswinebiT, uari ganacxada. kanadelebs ver gadauwyvetiaT, saWiroa Tu ara cvlilebebi (mxolod 41%-s miaCnia, rom saWiroa) da romeli varianti airCion. `Sereuli saarCevno~ sistema – germaniasa da axal zelandiaSi moqmedi versia, upiratesobiT sargeblobs. savaraudod, mTavroba am variants airCevs – romelSic xalxi xmas rogorc calkeul kandidatebs, ise partiul siebs aZlevs, magram amisTvis mas seriozuli brZola mouwevs.

kanadis gansakuTrebuloba (unikaluroba) winasaarCevno dapirebebisTvis brZolasTan erTad, rogoricaa dabruneba saerTaSoriso samSvidobo operaciebSi da mkvidr mosaxleobasTan urTierTobebis dalageba, liberalebs mouwevT Tavisi meore biujetis warmodgena. maT ukve gaaxmovanes sami didi prioriteti. upirvelesad, gadasaxadebis Semcireba saSualo klasisTvis da maTi zrda mdidrebisTvis, anu maTTvis, romelTa Semosavali weliwadSi 200 000 kanadur dolarze metia. meore, ganaxlebuli da ufro guluxvi Semweoba bavSvebs. da mesame – pirveli tranSi 60 miliardi kanaduri dolaridan,

i­ nfrastruqturuli gegmebisTvis. es gamoiwvevs biujetis deficitis z ­ rdas 25,1 miliard dolaramde 2015 wels arsebuli ­1 miliardis sapirispirod. kanadis zomieri mTavrobis mTliani vali met gasaqans tovebs xarjebisTvis, Tumca kidev ufro aSorebs liberalebs dasaxuli miznisgan, sabolood daabalanson finansebi. dasavleTis mTavrobebs Soris kanadas ganyenebuli mdgomareoba uWiravs. qveyana imigraciis momxrea, rodesac sxvebi sazRvrebs ketaven (batoni triudo piradad daxvda siriel ltolvilebs torontos aeroportSi 2015 wels), globalizaciis erTgulia, rodesac sxvebi vaWrobis winaaRmdegni arian da finansuri stimulirebis momxrea, rodesac sxvebi upiratesobas SezRudvebs aniWeben. magram ramdenadac aseTi politika xels uwyobs ukeTes ekonomikur zrdas, imdenad Zneli iqneba misi SenarCuneba. 2015 wels zrda dune, 1,1% iyo da centraluri bankis gaTvlebiT, 2016 welsac imave doneze darCeba, xolo 2017-Si 2%-s miaRwevs. binaTmSeneblobis Cavardnam torontosa da vankuveris gadatvirTul bazrebze da mzardma globalurma proteqcionizmma ekonomika SeiZleba am dasaxul kurss aacdinos. es Tu moxdeba, baton triudos erT-erTi dapireba – marixuanis legalizeba, sasargeblo gamodgeba. is saSualebas miscems kanadelebs, Tu ekonomikurad welgamarTulebma ara, narkotikul simTvraleSi mainc daasrulon 2017 weli. n

halifaqsis afeTqebis istoria barbara beki

gakveTilebi warsulidan

2

gemi Seecada gverdi aevlo norvegiul xomald `imosTvis~, magram mTeli wyeba manevrebis Semdeg, ori gemi erTmaneTs dabal siCqareze Seejaxa. `monblani~ maSinve cecxlis alSi gaexva. xalxs warmodgenac ar hqonda, riTi iyo datvirTuli gemi da seirs uyurebda. oci wuTis Semdeg, dilis 9 saaTze, `monblani~ afeTqda da maSinve daiRupa, daSavda aTasobiT adamiani da gadaiTela TiTqmis yvelaferi ramdenime kilometris radiusze. afeTqebam gamoiwvia

017 wlis 6 dekembers, dilis 9 saaTsa da 5 wuTze, halifaqsSi, kanadis provincia nova skotias dedaqalaqSi, adgilobriv parkSi, gaimarTeba ceremonia, miZRvnili adamianis xelqmnili, msoflioSi yvelaze cnobili afeTqebis 100 wlisTavisadmi. yvela SefasebiT, rogoricaa ngrevis masStabi da msxverplis raodenoba, igi rekorduli iyo, vidre 1945 wels, rodesac atomuri dabombvis Semdeg pirisagan miwisa aRigava hirosima da nagasaki (romlis dizaini halifaqsis afeTqebis Seswavlis Sedegebze iyo dafuZnebuli). miuxedavad imisa, rom `kanaduri jojoxeTi~ aseve omis dros moxda, igi mxolod iribad iyo dakavSirebuli konfliqtTan. misi uSualo mizezi gaxda adamianis tragikuli Secdoma. pirveli msoflio omisdroindel halifaqss, romelsac msoflioSi erTerTi saukeTeso bunebrivi navsadgurebi gaaCnia, iyenebdnen rogorc bazas, sadac ikribeboda mokavSireTa didi kolonebi (badragebi) atlantikis gadaRma aRWurvilobisa da jarebis gadasazidad. 1917 wlis 6 dekembers, diliT franguli gemi – Tbomavali `monblani~, srulad datvirTuli Zlieri asafeTqebeli saSualebebiT, SeuerTda kolonas, romelic evropisken miemarTeboda. xalxmravali navsadguris viwro nawilSi udidesi afeTqeba

18 metri simaRlis cunami, rasac qaosi mohyva; cidan TeTri gavarvarebuli namsxvrevebi cvioda, qalaqs xanZari moedo. Sedegi: daaxloebiT 2000 gardacvlili da 9000 daSavebuli. 12 000-mde sacxovrebeli saxli mZimed dazianda, xolo 6000 adamiani usaxlkarod darCa. yvela fanjara Caimsxvra. miuxedavad saSinelebebisa, pasuxi iyo swrafi, kompetenturi da gamamxnevebeli. kargad organizebuli samaSvelo RonisZiebebi dauyovnebliv daiwyo. daxmareba male Camovida rogorc kanadis sxva raionebidan, ise amerikis SeerTebul Statebidan. gardacvlilTa amocnobas xeli Seuwyo sistemam, romelic SeimuSaves am SemTxvevamde xuTi wliT adre, rodesac halifaqsSi `titanikis~ katastrofis uamravi msxverpli gamoiriya. droebiTi sacxovrisis mSenebloba ramdenime kviris ganmavlobaSi daiwyo. sabolood, qalaqi aRadgines axali gegmiT da gaumjobesebuli ganlagebiT. navsadgurebis marTvis wesebi, sazRvao kanonebi da dagegmareba saavario situaciebis gaTvaliswinebiT gamkacrda, xolo samedicino miRwevebi, romlebic gamomuSavda msxverplTa mkurnalobis dros, gansakuTrebiT maTi, visac minis namsxvrevebisgan mxedveloba dauziandaT, farTod gaxda xelmisawvdomi. ase rom, rodesac zarebi asi wlisTavis aRsaniSnavad daiwyeben rekvas, es mxolod glovis zari ar iqneba – es saSinel ubedurebaze adamianis gamarjvebis triumfic iqneba. n barbara beki: specialuri reportaJebis redaqtori, The Economist


wiTlebi ukan ixeven maikl ridi

samxreT amerikam memarcxeneebs zurgi aqcia

m

emarcxeneTa xangrZlivi hegemonia samxreT amerikaSi dasrulda. amJamad mimdinare Semobruneba memarjvene-centristuli mimarTulebiT sxvadasxva gziT 2017 wels gaZlierdeba. memarcxene mTavrobebi, savaraudod, Seicvleba saprezidento arCevnebis dros Cilesa da ekvadorSi. venesuelis xangrZlivi agonia SesaZloa molaparakebebSi gadaizardos, rac Cavistas reJimis dasasrulis maniSnebeli iqneba. kolumbiis partizanulma armiam da kolumbiis revoluciurma SeiaraRebulma Zalebma – saxalxo armiam (FARC) SesaZloa daiwyos ganiaraReba da samoqalaqo politikur partiad gardaqmna.

guSindeli feri

politikuri klimatis cvlilebis erT-erTi mizezi iqneba didi sabirJo saqonlis `superciklis~ mier datovebuli ekonomikuri stagnacia. ekonomikuri Senelebis eqvswliani periodis Semdeg, 2017 wels laTinur amerikaSi, savaraudod, mokrZalebuli aRmavlobaa mosalodneli. regionis ekonomika, romelic mTlianobaSi 2016 wels daaxloebiT 1%-iT Semcirda, 2017 wels SesaZloa 2%-mde gaizardos. es zomieri aRorZineba damokidebulia braziliisa da argentinis recesiidan gamosvlaze. braziliaSi miSel temeri – gadayenebuli dilma rusefis memkvidre, Seecdeba gaataros sakmarisi fiskaluri reformebi, rac dabal saprocento ganakveTebs da ufro Zlieri aRmavlobis SesaZleblobas miscems. igi imedovnebs, rom Petrobras-is korufciuli skandali mis mTavrobas Cirqs ar moscxebs. korufciis braldebiT, yofili prezidentis – luis inasio lula da silvas sasamarTlo procesi hedlainebSi dominirebs. argentinis memarjvene-centristul prezidents – maurisio makris, oqtomberSi kongresis gadamwyveti, Sualeduri arCevnebi elis. Tu bedi gauRimebs da ekonomikuri informacia sakmaod kargi iqneba, maSin is politikur qulebs daigrovebs. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi misi mmarTvelobis bolo periodi mSfoTvare iqneba. miSel baCeles memarcxene mTavrobis mmarTvelobis oTxi uRimRamo wlis Semdeg, arCevnebi CileSi moklebuli iqneba siaxles. sebastian pinera – biznesmeni da yofili prezidenti centristul-memarjvene aliansidan albaT daamarcxebs 78 wlis ri-

53

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msoflio 2017

kardo lagoss – socialistsa da kidev erT yofil prezidents. TebervalSi, arCevnebze, ekvadori daemSvidobeba (Tumca ar gamoeTxoveba) rafael koreas – memarcxene populists, romelic aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi marTavda odesRac arastabilur qveyanas. navTobze damokidebuli ekonomikiT, recesiis pirobebSi, mis arCeul memkvidres – lenin morenis, mZime brZola moelis gilermo lasosTan – konservatiul bankirTan guaiakilidan, qveynis ganviTarebadi komerciuli centridan. jer kidev 2009 wels hondurasSi usisxlo gadatrialeba moxda memarcxene midrekilebis mqone liberalur prezident manuel selaias winadadebis winaaRmdeg, romelic xelaxali arCevnebis dasaSvebad sakonstitucio cvlilebebis SemoRebaze moqalaqeebTan konsultaciis winadadebiT gamodioda. axla, konservatori xuan orlando ernandesi cdilobs gaitanos es cvlileba. da miuxedavad imisa, rom qveyanaSi danaSauli da korufcia mZvinvarebs, batoni ernandesi, savaraudod, daamarcxebs baton selaias noembris arCevnebSi. saarCevno peripetiebs miRma yuradsaRebia, Tu ramdenad efeqturad gaumklavdebian regionis politikosebi im faqts, rom mzardi saSualo klasis molodins uwyvet progresze ekonomikuri stagnacia aferxebs. mosalodnelia quCis saprotesto aqciebi korufciisa da sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis gamo. ZiriTadi Tema laTinur amerikaSi demokratiis stabiluri ganviTarebaa. venesuela gamonakliss warmoadgens. nikolas maduro – arapopularuli prezidenti, Seecdeba ZaliT SeinarCunos xelisufleba. konstituciisa da xalxis nebis winaaRmdeg, man dabloka referendumi, romelsac SesaZloa mohyoloda maduros gadayeneba 2017 wlis arCevnebze. Sedegad, mosalodnelia Setakebebi quCebSi da SesaZlebelia cvlilebebi molaparakebebis safuZvelze – SeiaraRebuli Zalebisa da regionuli mTavrobebis CarTulobiT.

2017 mokled pirvelad, ianvarSi dakaris rali starts aiRebs asunsionidan (paragvai), sanam boliviasa da argentinaSi gaagrZelebs msvlelobas

gamomSvidobeba FARC-is SeiaraRebasTan? momavali weli, savaraudod, kargi iqneba kolumbielebisTvis – mTavrobam da FARC-is partizanebma SesaZloa daareguliron samSvidobo xelSekruleba, gaiTvaliswinon ra misi Cavardna plebiscitze xmaTa umniSvnelo raodenobiT. kargi iqneba, Tu 6 000 partizani da 10 000-mde SeiaraRebuli ganiaraRdeba. Tumca mSvidoba jer kidev efemerulia, Tuki xelisufleba ver daarwmunebs liderebs, aRiaron ufro mkacri sasjeli. or qveyanas garkveuli sirTuleebi Seeqmneba 20172018 wlebis gasayarze. raul kastros reJimi kubaSi Seecdeba `mozidos sadaveebi~ kastrosSemdgomi epoqis misadgomebTan. meqsikaSi enrike penia nietos xelisuflebas mouwevs gaumklavdes donald trampisgan momdinare safrTxes – gazardos tarifebi vaWrobasa da fulad gzavnilebze da Seamciros investiciebi. asea Tu ise, 2017 aCvenebs, rom marTva regionSi garTulda – rogorc memarcxene, ise memarjvene da centristuli administraciebisTvis. n ubralod, SesaZlebelia… merkosuri da evrokavSiri Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebas gaaformeben. iamaika aeroportebSi marixuanis gamcem jixurebs daamontaJebs. urugvai Tavisi energiis 100%-s ganaxlebadi wyaroebiT awarmoebs.

maikl ridi: Bello-s mesvete da ufrosi redaqtori; laTinuri amerika da espaneTi, The Economist


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msoflio 2017

ratom irCevs kanada gaxsnilobas

2

romelic miesalmeba axal ideebs, SemoqmedebiT 017 wels kanada qveynis Seqmnis 150 wlis azrovnebas da gansxvavebul kulturebsa da iubiles zeimobs. saukune-naxevris ganmaxalxs. vlobaSi erTi martivi dapireba asuldgmoicva msoflio, aseve niSnavs gaxsnilobas mulebda kanadis warmatebas: aq yvevaWrobisTvis. viciT, rom eqsportze dafuZneblas aqvs SesaZlebloba aSenos ukeTesi, ufro uli mrewvelobis pirobebSi xelfasebi 50%-iT warmatebuli cxovreba. maRalia, vidre arasaeqsporto mrewvelobisa. Taobebis ganmavlobaSi mSoblebi ase rom, urTierTobebis gaZliereba Cvens xuT hpirdebodnen Svilebs, rom Tu isini umniSvnelovanes savaWro partniorTan – iSromebdnen, karg ganaTlebas miiRebdnen da amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan, meqsikasTan, Tavs gamoiCendnen, warmateba garantirebuli CineTTan, iaponiasTan da evrokavSirTan, ara eqnebodaT. dRes Zalian bevri kanadeli mxolod Wkvianuri sagareo politikaa, aramed SiSobs, rom es aRar muSaobs. is, visac yvelaze Wkvianuri ekonomikaa kanadelebisTvis. Zlieri meti wvlili miuZRvis kanadis ekonomikis savaWro urTierTobebi met SesaZleblobebs aRmasvlaSi – saSualo fenas – meti Sroma uqmnis kanadel mSromelebs warmatebisa da ganesaWiroeba dapataravebuli gemrieli lukmis viTarebisTvis. mosapoveblad. amavdroulad, warmatebis bevri TvalsazrisiT, kanadis mzardi urTkibeze, safexurebs Soris manZili sul ufro ierTobebi CineTTan imis karg magaliTs warizrdeba. ukanaskneli ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi moadgens, Tu rogor asargeblebs saSualo klass ufro Ria da kooperirebuli midgoma. es SesaZlebloba mqonda Sevxvedrodi da momesmina urTierTobebi gacilebiT Zlieri da stabilukanadelebisTvis saqmianobis yvela sferodan – kididan kidemde. movusmine qalebsa da go- ri unda iyos, Tu gvsurs miviRoT sruli sargebeli kanaduri biznesisa da misi muSebisTvis gonebs, romlebic jer kidev awydebian uTanasxelmisawvdomi ekonomikuri SesaZleblobebiworobas samsaxurSi da Zaladobas Sin, mxolod dan. am mizniT, Cven veZebT gzebs, rom gavafarimitom, rom qalebi arian. Sevxvdi mSoblebs, visac surT, rom Svilebma sauniversiteto gana- TovoT ekonomikuri kavSirebi Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis meSveobiT da pirobas Tleba miiRon, magram SiSoben, rom ver SeZleben vdebT gavaormagoT ormxrivi savaWro urTamis uzrunvelyofas. movusmine axalgazrdebs, ierTobebi 2025 wlisTvis. es iniciativebi xels romlebic ver pouloben samuSaos, radgan ar Seuwyobs yvela Cveni moqalaqis keTildReobas aqvT muSaobis gamocdileba. marcxis SiSi ar aris uCveulo ram kanadaSi. – rogorc Cinelebis, ise kanadelebis. Sin Cven vagrZelebT infrastruqturaSi isCven vxedavT amas dRes, breqsitis mxardaWeratoriuli investiciebis ganxorcielebis kurss Si, gavrcelebul mowodebebSi globalizaciis – ara mxolod imitom, rom es warmoqmnis RirwinaaRmdeg nacionalizmis sasargeblod da im seul, kargad anazRaurebad samuSao adgilebs, adamianTa mxardaWeraSi, romlebic gvpirdebiaramed imitomac, rom viciT – rodesac adaan kedlebis aSenebas, maTi daqcevis nacvlad. mianebisTvis advilia samuSaos monaxva, maTi rodesac keTildReoba sayovelTao ar aris, produqcia bazarze advilad xvdeba an maTi adamianebi sul ufro mitovebulad grZnoben moxucebuli mSoblebi uzrunvelyofilni arian Tavs da iwyeben mcdari martivi gadawyvetileSesabamisi mzrunvelobiT. es ki sasargebloa bebis Zebnas. mTlianad ekonomikisTvis. am SeSfoTebis mizezs SesaZloa globaluri Cven aseve vaxorcielebT investirebas gaekonomikis daqveiTebul zrdaSi mivakvlioT. naTlebaSi – imgvarad, rom kanadelebis momavaganviTarebadi ekonomikebi, romlebic aqamde li Taoba flobdes aucilebel instrumentebs globalur zrdas uwyobda xels, Senelda. warmatebisTvis dRes da xval. Cven vaxorsaojaxo meurneobaTa valebi izrdeba, ojaxebi gaZarcvulad grZnoben Tavs. ekonomi- cielebT mniSvnelovan investiciebs sufTa tekas realuri zrda uWirs, rac kidev ufro arTu- qnologiebSi, raTa kanadis kompaniebi, muSebi da lebs Semosavlebis matebas da Rirseuli, kargad Temebi sargebels iRebdnen naxSirorJangis gamoyofis dabal maCveneblebze dafuZnebuli ekoanazRaurebadi samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas, rac nomikisgan. xandazmuli mosaxleobis saWiroease saWiroa saSualo klasis gaZlierebisa da gabebze ukeTesi reagirebisTvis, Cven vaZlierebT farToebisTvis. kanadis sapensio gegmas da darwmunebuli var, rom vinc keTilsindisierad muSaobda qveynis movicvaT msoflio liderebma, romelTac es esmiT, unda airCion: ekonomikis ganviTarebisTvis, Rirseul pensias imsaxurebs. gamoviyenebT am SfoTvas sakuTari politimudmivma progresma da mZlavrma ambiciam kuri miznebisTvis, Tu gadavdgamT konkretul Camoayaliba kanadis identoba da warmatebac, politikur nabijebs, romelic mimarTuli iqnebolo 150 wlis ganmavlobaSi. ba am SiSebis aRmosafxvrelad? kanadaSi Cveni Cven viciT, rom Zlieri, mravalferovani arCevania vaSenoT ekonomika, romelic muSaobs da stabiluri qveynebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, yvelasTvis da ara mxolod mdidari 1%-sTvis, da amas ar vakeTebT sakuTar naWuWSi Caketvis kanada, SemTxveviT ar aRmocendebian da momavalSi warmatebasac ver miaRweven Tavdadebuli gziT, an globaluri ekonomikisTvis zurgis SeqceviT; amis nacvlad, movicavT msoflios. Sromis gareSe. amitomaa, rom Cven virCevT imeds da ara SiSs, mravalferovnebas da ara daSoriviciT, rom Tu gvinda yvelas mivceT aRmasvlis Sorebas. n SesaZlebloba, unda viyoT Ria sazogadoeba,

jastin triudo, kanadis premierministri ganmartavs, ratom ar iketeba misi qveyana, rodesac globalizacia dartymis winaSea

Cven unda viyoT Ria sazogadoeba, romelic miesalmeba axal ideebs, SemoqmedebiT azrovnebas, gansxvavebul kulturebsa da xalxs


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msoflio 2017 aseve seqciaSi: najob razaki Zalauflebas inarCunebs hiroSi mikitani: kari gaaRe, iaponia! indoeTis aCqareba

azia

ubralod, SesaZlebelia .... samxreT koreis arCevnebi cai in veni: taivanis isev „vefxvad“ gadasaqcevad

asocirebis naxevari saukune 1967 w. agvisto

1984 w. ianvari

1985 w. ivlisi

1997 w. ivlisi

1999 w. aprili

bangkokSi aseanis dafuZneba maT mier:

1976 w. Tebervali ASEAN-is pirveli samiti baliSi, indonezia

1995 w. dekemberi

ASEAN-is wevrebi xels aweren samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis birTvuli iaraRisgan Tavisufali zonis Seqmnis xelSekrulebas

samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis qveynebis asociaciis (ASEAN) gza dominik zigleri

CineTis sijiute samxreT-aRmosavleT aziuri klubis erTianobis gamocdaa, magram ara kritikul zRvramde

1

fuZndeba ASEAN-is ekonomikuri Tanamegobroba, romelic erTiani bazris Seqmnas isaxavs miznad

xeli ewereba ASEAN-CineTis ­saqonliT Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebas

2005 w. dekemberi

samxreT aziis samitis pirvel Sexvedraa, romelic malaiziis kuala lumpurSi Sedga. ASEAN-is qveynebi, plus avstralia, CineTi, indoeTi, iaponia, axali zelandia da samxreT korea, mogvianebiT Sexvedras ruseTi da amerika uerTdebian

2007 w. noemberi

wevrebi ASEAN-is debulebas iReben

2017 w. marti

2008 w. noemberi

50 wlis aRsaniSnavi samiti filipinebSi `ASEAN-is gza~ tardeba oficialuri himni xdeba wyaro: asean

trampis mmarTvelobis pirobebSi saeWvod Cans da zogi wevri qveynis politika meryevia. tailandSi xunta, romelmac 2014 wels daamxo demokratiuli xelisufleba, Seecdeba xangrZlivi vadiT darCes saTaveSi. igi gahyveba `wiTelperanga~ demokratebs da maT, visac ar moswonT memkvidre princi vajira longkorni. igi oqtomberSi, mefe bhumipol adiliades gardacvalebis Semdeg taxtze unda avides. malaiziis premierministri najib razaki, finansur skandalSi gaexva da, savaraudod, Tanamdebobas 2018 wlis arCevnebamde datovebs, Tu ufro adre ara (ix. CanarTi momdevno gverdze). filipinebze (ASEAN-is Tavmjdomare 2017 wels) muxlCauxreli `jvarosnuli omi~ narkorealizatorebis winaaRmdeg, feTqebad prezident rodrigo dutertes meTaurobiT, sazogadoebis farTo fenebis CaTrevis saSiSroebas qmnis. am qveynebis pirquSi politika uSecdomod miuTiTebs Semdegze: ASEAN ar dardobs sakuTriv darRvevebis Sesaxeb. ASEAN-is gza xazs usvams integracias, wesrigs, moqalaqeobriobas mis wevrebs Soris da upirvelesad SeTanxmebaTa xelSeuxeblobas. es aris misi aRiarebuli konsensusi, romlis miRweva SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva reJimTa qcevaze Tvalis daxuWviT. nebismieri sxva midgoma ganxeTqilebas gamoiwvevs. rac Seexeba gadawyvetilebis miRebis process, aqac konsensusis wesi batonobs. es niSnavs moZraobas yvelaze neli monawilis tempiT. erTi mxriv, ASEAN-s SeuZlia ise, rogorc es aTi wlis win moxda – `evrostilis” integraciis gziT svla; meore mxriv, SeuZlia usasrulod elodos realur saerTo bazars. magram ASEAN-s namdvilad adardebs, CineTi Tu gadawyvets, rom tailandSi, malaiziasa da filipinebSi avtoritarizmisken gadaxra am qveynebs mowyvlads gaxdis CineTis pirferobis mimarT, rac klubs gaxleCiT emuqreba. sakiTxi samxreT CineTis zRvas exeba, sadac CineTis eqspansiuri pretenziebi bruneis, malaiziis,

2017 mokled yovelwliuri — filipinebisa da amerikis erToblivi samxedro wvrTnebi dagegmilia, magram SesaZloa gauqmdes, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT urTierTobebis gaciebas mas Semdeg, rac rodrigo duterte prezidenti gaxda

s

967 wlis agvistoSi xuTma qveyanam Camoayaliba samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis qveynebis asociacia anu ASEAN. indonezias, malaizias, filipinebs, singapurs da tailands cota ram hqondaT saerTo. marTlac, indonezia jer kidev cota xnis win gamoucxadebel oms awarmoebda malaiziis winaaRmdeg borneos junglebSi; singapuris malaziisgan mkveTri gamoyofisgan gamowveuli wyena jer kidev cocxali iyo. da mainc, erTma sasicocxlod mniSvnelovanma safrTxem gaaerTiana isini: es iyo sabWoTa kavSiris mxardaWeriT, komunizmis eqsportireba vietnamidan. 50 wlisTavze ASEAN-is wevrebis raodenoba gaormagda. sakuTriv vietnamis CaTvliT, gaerTianeba moicavs bruneis, kambojas, laoss, mianmars da mosaxleobis saerTo raodenobiT (625 mln) evrokavSirs aRemateba. aRsaniSnavia mzardi keTildReoba da saSualo klasis gaZliereba. magram Tavisi arsebobis saiubileo wels ASEAN axal, arsebiT gamowvevas upirispirdeba, romelic safrTxes uqmnis mis arsebobas. isini iZulebulni iqnebian airCion mxare, CineTis mzardi Zalis dapirispirebaSi aSS-is gavlenasTan. arsebobs mosazreba, rom es ASEAN-is daSlas gamoiwvevs. miuxedavad amisa, imedia, rom regionuli klubi gamosavals monaxavs da wels ufro Zlieri daasrulebs. vuwodoT amas ASEAN-is gza. 2017 wlis dasawyisi sasikeTod ar gamoiyureba. amerikis erTguleba regionisadmi prezident donald

2015 w. dekemberi

2004 w. noemberi

dominik zigleri: banianis mesvete The Economist


58

azia

WaRara kaci Zalauflebas inarCunebs jon fasmeni, singapuri

najib razaki gaZlebs, rac Zalian cudia malaiziisaTvis

w

msoflio 2017

pirveli: malaiziis opozicia sagonebelSia. wina or saerTo arCevnebSi samma partiam Seqmna araformaluri koalicia: `demokratiuli aqtiurobis partia~ (DAP), romelic malaizielebis mier xSirad aRiqmeba, rogorc qveynis eTnikur-Cinuri umciresobis interesebis gamtarebeli; `panmalaiziuri islamuri partia~ (PAS); da anvar ibrahimis mier daarsebuli `mravalerovnuli samarTlianobis saxalxo partia~ (PKR). anvar ibrahims, 1998 wels malaiziis gaerTianebuli nacionaluri organizaciidan (UMNO) wamosvlamde, vicepremierisa da finansTa ministris postebi ekava. koaliciis daSlis Semdeg, 2015 wels batoni anvari cixeSi dabrunda – xuTwliani sasjelis mosaxdelad, mamaTmavlobis absurdulad SeTxzuli braldebis gamo. PKR flobs mxolod 29 adgils 222dan parlamentis qveda palataSi; es albaT misi umaRlesi miRwevaa. xisti kursis momxreebma gamodevnes progresuli elementebi, romlebmac SemdgomSi Camoayalibes axali opoziciuri koalicia DAP da PKR-is SemadgenlobiT, magram erTia, rom maT ar hyavT qarizmatuli lideri, rogoric iyo batoni anvari. mahaTir mohamedma – yofilma premierministrma,

eliwadze metia, braldebebi korufciis Taobaze ar scildeba najib razakis – malaiziis premier-ministris, saxels. ucxoeli gamomZieblebi acxadeben, rom asobiT milioni dolari malaiziis ganviTarebis kompaniidan (1MDB), saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli ganviTarebis fondidan, raRac manqanebiT batoni najibis mier kontrolirebad angariSebze aisaxeba. najibi uaryofs umarTebulo qmedebas: ambobs, rom Tanxebis umetesi nawili saudis arabeTidan, dausaxelebeli wyarodan Semowirulobas warmoadgens. miuxedavad amisa, kvlevam, Tu sad wavida 1MDB-is fuli, globalurad mravali msxvili banki gamoavlina. maT Soris, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase-is filialebi da Sotlandiis samefo banki. miuxedavad imisa, rom braldebebi ar mcirdeba, batoni najibi Zalauflebas ufro metad ebRauWeba, vidre odesme. man SeZlo Tavi ucxouri maqinaciebis msxverplad warmoeCina (realuri mizezi, rom gamomZieblebi sazRvargareT aqtiuroben, maTi Sin faqtobrivi dablokvaa). miuxedavad imisa, rom batonma najibma sul sami wlis win moipova prezidentis savarZeli kidev xuTi wlis vadiT, bevri miiCnevs – ori ZiriTadi mizezis gamo, – rom is vadamdel saerTo arCevnebs daniSnavs 2017 wels. misi gamarjveba TiTqmis ueWvelia. aifare xeli cxvirze da mieci xma najibs?

axali zelandia 2017-2027 wlebSi gaSlis kivis aRdgenis gegmas, romlis mizania am erovnuli frinvelis ricxovnoba 100 000-mde gazardos

s

2017 mokled

filipinebisa da vietnamis interesebs ewinaaRmdegeba. CineTis teritoriulma pretenziebma seriozuli samarTlebrivi dartyma miiRo 2016 wels, rodesac saerTaSoriso sasamarTlom haagaSi daadgina, rom msgavsi qmedebebi dauSvebelia sazRvao samarTliT. CineTma ugulebelyo saerTaSoriso kanonmdebloba da aiZulebs ASEAN-is ufro sust wevrebs igive gaakeTon. Sedegad, ASEAN-s brZola mouxda konsensusis mosaZieblad. saqmes imanac ar uSvela, rom CineTma savaraudod `moaqcia“ batoni duterte. es misi qveyana iyo, romelmac haagis sasamarTlos mimarTa; miuxedavad amisa, maleve axalma prezidentma CineTi samezobloSi axal Zalad Seracxa, xolo amerika – filipinebis didi xnis mokavSire, augad moixsenia. ASEAN adre ukve imyofeboda am situaciaSi. 2012 wels, pnompenis samitze, CineTma mimarTa uzarmazar zemoqmedebas kambojaze – kvaziklient saxelmwifoze, raTa daebloka nebismieri kritika mis mimarT. Sedegad, ASEAN-is sagareo saqmeTa ministrebi pirvelad ver SeTanxmdnen yvelaze zomier erTobliv gancxadebaze. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom postsamitis komunike ASEAN konsensusis `sagareo~ formaa, diplomatebi acxadeben, rom es iyo sikvdils miaxloebuli gamocdileba, romlis gameorebac maT ar surT. ase rom, saiubileo weli iqneba. mcdeloba, gaerTiandnen axali, ufro mkacri konsensusis farglebSi,

romelic batoni najibis mentoridan mis yvelaze daundobel mtrad iqca, daiwyo sakuTari partiis Seqmna, magram mas SesaZloa gauWirdes miizidos is adamianebi, romlebic Tavis droze, ofisSi muSaobisas, gaanadgura. meore: yvela sikeTe, riTac batoni najibi yidulobda keTili nebis adamianebs malaiziis soflis mosaxleobas Soris, axla deficituria. dabali fasebi navTobze, xelsayreli sxva samxreTaRmosavleT aziuri saxemwifoebisTvis, azaralebs malaizias, romelic regionis erTaderTi neto-eqsportioria. fasebi kauCuksa da palmis zeTze – malaiziis kidev erT saeqsporto saqonelze, aseve daeca. zrdis tempi qveiTdeba. Tu batoni najibi apirebs moimkos saarCevno mosavali misi guluxvobisgan xazinis xarjze, es swrafad unda gaakeTos. zogi fiqrobs, rom kuluarebSi, UMNO agvarebs baton najibisTvis Rirseuli ukandaxevis gzas, 2017 wlis egzitpolebamde. SesaZlebelia, magram UMNO, savaraudod, gamarjvebs. ra Seicvleba, rodesac es moxdeba? samwuxarod, bevri araferi. qveynis ekonomikuri janmrTeloba didad aris damokidebuli misi nedleulisa da adgilobrivi warmoebis saqonlis moTxovnadobaze globaluri masStabiT. ganaTlebuli, saSualo klasis amomrCeveli SeiZleba dafiqrdes batoni najibis savaraudo korumpirebulobaze, xolo Cineli da indoeli amomrCeveli SeSfoTebulia mis mier rasobrivi daZabulobis gaRvivebiT da religiuri konservatizmis xelSewyobiT. magram Tu es saarCevno olqebi ver moaxerxeben partiis qveynis administraciuli dedaqalaqidan – putrajaiadan gamodevnas, isini veRar SeZleben ganaxorcielon Zlieri zemoqmedeba mas Semdeg, rac amomrCeveli maT mTavrobaSi daabrunebs. n jon fasmeni: samxreT aziis biuros ufrosi, The Economist

raTa ar dauSvan, rom CineTma Searyios ASEAN-is navi. amjerad is ar unda darCes pasiuri sagareo saqmeTa ministrebis amara; procesSi erovnuli liderebi CaerTvebian – dawyebuli li sie longidan – singapuris premier-ministridan. es qalaqi-saxelmwifo unda SeukavSirdes indonezias – ASEAN-is yvelaze did qveyanas, romelsac prezident joko vidodos xelmZRvanelobiT ucnaurad ar surs regionuli lideroba iTavos. batoni dutertec ki CixSi Seiyvans skeptikosebs iniciativasTan mierTebiT, imitom rom axali Cinuri mSenebloba sadavo rifebze 2017 wels sazRvars daudebs CineTTan „sasiyvarulo urTierTobebs“ (imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom filipinelebi yvelaze proamerikuli xalxia msoflioSi). rCeba mxolod hun seni – kambojis asakovani lideri. hun seni Sin banditia da Cinel megobrebs uflebas aZlevs, Zarcvon qveyana. Tumca igi mainc mgrZnobiarea pirferobisa da qaTinaurebis mimarT da pirad saubrebSi ASEAN-is sxva liderebs SeuZliaT uTxran, rom axla kargi momentia, raTa iTavos kavSiris gadarCena. ase rom, veliT 50 wlisTavTan dakavSirebul pompezur ceremonias da zeimebs. rac Seexeba samits, romelic amis Semdeg gaimarTeba, misi erToblivi komunike CineTs Tavisi sitlanqiT gaaocebs. Tumca, CineTma SesaZloa Caicinos da Seeguos mas, an gariskos aramegobrulad gamoiyurebodes. n


azia

msoflio 2017

59

kari gaaRe, iaponia

i

aponia sakuTari ZalebiT aiWra `ekonomikur stratosferoSi~ zusti warmoebis, msoflio klasis manqanebis gamoSvebis, samomxmareblo eleqtronikisa da navTobproduqtebis wyalobiT. 2017 wels da Semdgom, qveyana apirebs wardges, rogorc cifruli momsaxurebis zesaxelmwifo, romelic xels uwyobs turizms da wvdeba xelovnur inteleqts. did monacemTa bazebi, safuZvliani swavleba da gaziarebis ekonomika... yovelive amasTan erTad, niWier ucxoelTa mozidva. Cans perspeqtiuli niSnebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom Cemi samSoblo turistebis yuradRebiT sargeblobs, tokios caTambjenebidan kiotos taZrebamde, Cven ukve didi xania gvawuxebda miuwvdomeli, amoucnobi da ZviradRirebuli qveynis reputacia. ienis vardnisa da zogierTi savizo deregulaciis gamo, es aRqma icvleba. Cven axla mivesalmebiT axal, ZiriTadad azieli turistebis talRas. maTi raodenoba TiTqmis 50%-iT gaizarda bolo ori wlis ganmavlobaSi da 2016 wels 20 milions gadaaWarba. iaponiis axali ekonomikis asociacia (JANE), romlis warmomadgeneli direqtoric gaxlavarT, mouwodebs iaponias miznad daisaxos turistebis raodenoba 2030 wlisTvis 100 milionamde gazardos. zemoTqmuli moiTxovs axal gaxsnilobas internetSi. sabaziso doneze, Cven gvWirdeba mTargmnelobiTi gamoyenebiTi programebi, unaRdo angariSsworebis gaadvileba da Wi-Fi-s ufro advili wvdoma enobrivi barierebis gadalaxvis mizniT. ufro Rrma doneze, Cven unda visargebloT cifruli erToblivi inovaciebiT, rogoricaa Airbnb-tipis gansaxleba (gaqiraveba) da gaziarebis transportireba. gaziarebis transportireba ara mxolod turistebs moizidavs. es xels Seuwyobs kulturul urTierTobebs, gazrdis mobilurobas Cvens nakleb dasaxlebul soflis raionebSi da gazrdis mTlianad ekonomikas, daumatebs 3.8 trilion iens (36.7 miliardi dolari) mSp-s. gaziarebis transportireba aseve xels Seuwyobs moqnil samuSao grafiks, radgan TiTqmis yvelas SeuZlia imuSaos naxevar ganakveTze. binebis gaqiraveba aseve Zalian sasargebloa. sastumroebi tokiosa da osakaSi ukve Tavisi simZlavris 80-90%-iT funqcionirebs. bevri turisti, romelTac surT daeswron festivalebs hokaidoze, aomoriSi da mis farglebs gareT, aRmoaCens, rom ar aris sakmarisi binebi. axali regulaciebi minpakusaTvis (kerZo gansaxleba) ganxilvis stadiaSia, romelTac SeiZleba SezRudon mepatroneebi; ijariT, weliwadSi dReebis SezRuduli raodenobiT, gaaqiraon sakuTreba. Airbnb-tipis gansaxlebas praqtikulad dauyovnebliv SeuZlia Seavsos sicariele. TiTqmis 2 milioni sakuTrebaa mzad gaziarebisTvis. Tu es bazarze moxvda, 25 milioni ucxoeli stumari SeiZleba gansaxldes, rac gaaZlierebs ekonomikas daaxloebiT 10 trilioni ieniT weliwadSi. binebis farTo arCevaniT da advilad xelmisawvdomi transportiT waqezebuli turistebi SeZleben Seiswavlon qveynis ufro Soreuli regionebi da daagemovnon iaponuri tradiciuli samzareulo – kidev erTi gamouyenebeli iapon-

uri resursi. mrewvelobis sxva, axali dargebi aseve mimzidvelia. Cems kompania Rakuten-Tan erTad cota xnis win golfis moednebze gamovcadeT upiloto TviTmfrinavebi – moTamaSeebisTvis mindorze sakvebisa da teqnikis misawodeblad. momavalSi vgegmavT TviTmfrinavebis saSualebiT meCxrad dasaxlebuli raionebisa da maRalmTiani regionebis momaragebas da teqnikis transportirebas bunebriv katastrofebTan brZolisas. xelovnuri inteleqti prioritetuli unda gaxdes. Rakuten-i mas iyenebs onlainvaWrobis gamocdilebis personificirebisTvis. ganzraxuli gvaqvs, kompiuterebma adamianebis Carevis gareSe amoicnon momxmarebeli da SearCion produqtebi maTi moTxovnebis Sesabamisad – daexmaron rogorc Cveni maRaziebis mflobelebs, ise maT hiroSi mikitani klientebs. xelovnuri inteleqtis gamoyenebiT vimedovnebT iaponiis ganTqmuli `omotenasi~ — Rakuten-is stumarTmoyvareobis modelirebas – rodesac damfuZnebeli da maspinZeli amoicnobs da asrulebs stumrebis aRmasrulebeli moTxovnebs, vidre es ukanasknelni mas gamoTqvadireqtori, men. acxadebs, rom tokio SesaZlebelia aziis inovaciur kerad Tavisi ekonomikis gadaiqces. Cveni dedaqalaqi gamoirCeva SesanreinvestirebisTvis iSnavi infrastruqturiT da sainJinro niWisa da teqnikurad maxvilgonieri momxmareblis iaponias esaWiroeba saintereso kombinaciiT. imisTvis, rom Seiqmnas naklebi regulacia erTgvari `sawvavi energia~, romelic arsebobs da meti ucxoeli silikonis velze, Cven unda gavSaloT startapis specialisti stimulireba – gansakuTrebiT korporaciuli gadasaxadebis Semcirebis gziT. kidev erTi potenciuri Zala, romelic viTardeba, xelmisawvdomi samedicino momsaxurebaa. iaponiaSi SeiZleba Seiswavlon axali saavadmyofoebis mSeneblobis SesaZlebloba, romlebic moemsaxureba ararezident, ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebs. es orive gazrdis Cvens gaxsnilobas msofliosTvis da saSualebas mogvcems gavzardoT konkurentunarianoba samedicino turizmis industriaSi.

mSvidobiT, karCaketilobav! Ria, `internetdaxvewili~ da gamococxlebuli iaponia niSnavs Cven mier cvlilebebisadmi istoriuli winaaRmdegobis daZlevas Sin da gareT. iaponiis demografiuli problemebi kargadaa cnobili. Cven xeli unda SevuwyoT samuSao Zalis mobilurobas da moviwvioT gamocdili ucxoeli specialistebi. Zalian cota iaponeli Tu icvlis samuSao adgils da iRebs axal gamowvevebs. Zalian cotam Seiswavla kompiuteruli kodireba da inglisuri im doneze, romelic sasargebloa biznesisTvis. Rakuten-ma inglisuri Tavis oficialur enad gamoacxada. Cveni axali sainJinro kadrebis daaxloebiT 80% araiaponelia, rac daaxloebiT Cveni yvela TanamSromlis erTi mexuTedia da moicavs 60-ze met erovnebas. iaponia warmatebuli qveyanaa. Cveni socialuri sistema da ekonomika msoflioSi yvelaze ZlierTa Soris moiazreba. Cveni problema Zalian bevri regulaciaa. Tu movaxerxebT inovaciisTvis barierebis moSlas, darwmunebuli var, axali, kidev ufro warmatebuli da cifrulad moazrovne iaponia gaifurCqneba. n

Zalian cota iaponeli Tu icvlis samuSao adgils da iRebs axal gamowvevebs. Zalian cotam Seiswavla kompiuteruli kodireba da inglisuri im doneze, romelic sasargebloa biznesisTvis


GERGETI RISE RESIDENCE

ნიკა წიკლაური დეველოპერული კომპანია Cradle of Development-ის დამფუძნებელი მენეჯმენტ კომპანია Ginza Project-ის პარტნიორი საქართველოში

ჩვენი დიდი სურვილი იყო, შეგვექმნა ექსკლუზიური დეველოპერული პროექტი, როგორც ადგილმდებარეობითა და არქიტექტურით, (ავტორი Khmaladze Architects) ისე დამატებითი ფუნქციონალური მახასიათებლების თვალსაზრისით. სწორედ ამ ფაქტორების გათვალისწინებით შეირჩა პროექტის ადგილმდებარეობა, ამასთან ჩვენ შევქმენით საერთაშორისო მენეჯმენტ კომპანიის მიერ საცხოვრებელი კომპლექსის მართვის პრეცენდენტი საქართველოში. Ginza Project-ი ცნობილია თავისი უმაღლესი ხარისხის ნიშნით და მას ზედმიწევნით კარგად იცნობენ ევროპისა და ამერიკის ბევრ ქალაქში, სადაც კომპანია აქტიურად ახორციელებს რესტორნების, ბუტიკ სასტუმროებისა და საცხოვრებელი კომპლექსების მართვას. Ginza Project-მა მართვაში აიღო რამდენიმე ბუტიკური ტიპის სასტუმრო და რესტორანი თბილისსა და ბათუმში, ამასთანვე გეგმავს მთელი ქვეყნის მასშტაბით ბიზნესის განვითარებას.


ექსკლუზიური საცხოვრებელი სახლის კომპლექსი პროექტის უპირატესობები

•ეკოლოგიურად სუფთა გარემო და

განსაკუთრებული მიკრო კლიმატი;

•კლუბური საცხოვრებელი

სახლის ტიპი, სულ 5 საცხოვრებელი სართული და 20 ბინა, ყველა მათგანისგან იხსნება შთამბეჭდავი ხედები დედაქალაქის ისტორიულ ნაწილზე, ხოლო ჭერის სიმაღლე შეადგენს 3.7 მეტრს;

•უზარმაზარი ლობი 12 მეტრის სიმაღლის ატრიუმითა და ბუნებრივი კლდის კედლით;

•თანამედროვე ლანდშაფტის

დიზაინით კეთილმოწყობილი ეზო და სათამაშო მოედანი დედაქალაქის ულამაზესი ხედებით;

•24 საათიანი კონსიერჟისა

და უსაფრთხოების სამსახურის მომსახურება;

•მებაღის, ტექნიკოსის, ძიძის,

ვალეტ პარკინგის, კერძო და საერთო ფართების დასუფთავების, მანქანის სამრეცხაოსა და სხვა მომსახურებები;

•საკონფერენციო დარბაზი,

ART OF LIVING

ბიბლიოთეკა, ბიზნეს და კინო/ მედია ცენტრი და სხვა;

•ფიტნესი, ღია და დახურული

სავარჯიშო სივრცეები, საუნა;

•ღვინის მარანი; •საცხოვრებელი ტერასები სრულად მოპირკეთებული და გამწვანებული, თანამედროვე გარე გაგრილებისა და გათბობის სისტემებით;

www.facebook.com/GergetiResidence gergetirr@gmail.com +995 597 99 3333 გერგეთის გასასვლელი (ზაალ დუმბაძის) 7ა. მთაწმინდა. თბილისი.


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2017 mokled indoeTi da pakistani aRniSnaven britaneTis imperiisgan damoukideblobisa da erTmaneTisgan dacilebis 70 wlisTavs

azia

Zala cifrebSia maqs rodenbeki, niu deli

dReisTvis indoeTia giganturi amaCqarebeli, da ara CineTi

S

maqs rodenbeki: samxreT aziis biuros ufrosi, The Economist

eZlebs Tu ara mouqneli `induri spilo~ gadaaswros cadaWril `Cinur drakons~? idea ukve karga xania yuriT moTreuls waagavda. bolo oTxi aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi, CineTis mSp-s zrda yovelwliurad aRemateboda indoeTisas. amJamad CineTis ekonomika indoeTisaze xuTjer didia. savaWro balansi aziur gigantebs Soris STambeWdavia: indoeTis eqsporti CineTSi (ZiriTadad, nedleuli) importis (ZiriTadad, warmoebuli saqonlis) erT meeqvseds Tu Seadgens. Tumca movlenebi Semobrunebas iwyebs. bolo ori wlis ganmavlobaSi indoeTis ekonomikam mkveTrad gauswro CineTisas zrdaSi, da es 2017 welsac gagrZeldeba. misi mosaxleoba aseve ufro swrafad izrdeba. savaraudod, momdevno aTwleulSi indoelebi ufro metni iqnebian, vidre Cinelebi. da ramdenadac CineTis mosaxleobis asaki moimatebs, indoeTi isargeblebs demografiuli dividendebiT: kvlav izrdeba axalgazrda muSaxelis raodenoba, rodesac kmayofaze myofi mosaxleobis raodenoba mcirdeba. sxva parametrebiT CineTis gaswreba xangrZlivi da Sromatevadi procesi iqneba: indoeTma mxolod axla miaRwia wignierebis 70%-ian maCvenebels, rodesac CineTSi es jer kidev 1980 wels dafiqsirda, xolo erT sul mosaxleze Semosavlis imave dones – 2000-iani wlebis dasawyisSi. miuxedavad amisa, indoeTs impulsi aqvs, da 2017 wels gamoCndeba, rom qveyana SeZlebs am maCveneblis SenarCunebas da kidec daaCqarebs mis zrdas. indoeTi gacilebiT xmauriani da mokamaTe adgilia, vidre CineTi, uamravi mokinklave ekonomistiT. erTi ram, razec, rogorc wesi, Tanxmdebian, is gaxlavT, rom indoeTi amJamad `gemrieli lukmaa~. dabali fasebi navTobze da uxvi naleqi soflis meurneobis mSvid aRzevebas uwyobs xels, xolo inflaciisa da saprocento ganakveTebis Semcireba qalaqeli momxmareblisTvisaa mimzidveli. urjit pateli – indoeTis sarezervo bankis axlad daniSnuli gamgebeli, albaT gaagrZelebs dabali inflaciis strategias. narendra modis mTavroba albaT ver Seasrulebs swrafad Tavis winasaarCevno dapirebebs da myisierad ver gaaum-

msoflio 2017 jobesebs mdgomareobas, magram es ar warmoadgens seriozul gamowvevas perspeqtivaSi Semdegi zogadi arCevnebisTvis 2019 wels. kritikosebic ki aRiareben, rom Semcirda korufcia, gaumjobesda infrastruqtura da daiwyo perspeqtiuli reformebi. maTi jerjerobiT naklebad gamoxatuli gavlena ufro Zlierad 2017 wels gamoCndeba. didi xnis nanatri erTiani gadasaxadi saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze, anu gsm, romelic aprilSi amoqmeddeba, moSlis Sida barierebs komerciisTvis, daexmareba Statebisa da centraluri biujetebis dabalansebas da Seamcirebs xarjebs biznesisTvis (CineTma aseTi sagadasaxado sistema 1991 wels SemoiRo). sxva reformebi xels Seuwyoben axali moTamaSeebis Sesvlas finansur momsaxurebaSi, gamoacocxleben seqtors, romelSic xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi dominirebdnen dune, saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli firmebi. bevri aseTi startapiT imedia isargebleben samTavrobo programebi, rogoricaa aadhari – unikaluri saidentifikacio sistema, romelSic ukve registrirebulia miliardze meti mosaxlis biometriuli monacemebi. misi mizania RaribTa ufro efeqturi miznobrivi momsaxureba, arasabanko momsaxurebis sabankoze gadasvla da indoeTis didi, araformaluri seqtoris formalur ekonomikaSi integrireba. optimistebi saubroben naxtomisebr samrewvelo revoluciasa da monacemebiT marTvad epoqaSi Sebijebaze. garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi indoeTi umarTavi adgili da biznesis sakeTeblad rTuli qveyana iqneba – ara mxolod misi demokratiis gadaWarbebuli temperamentis gamo. indoeTSi uamravi urTierTgadamfaravi iurisdiqciaa – zedmeti enTuziazmiT savse biurokratebiT da uimedod CaxlarTuli sasamarTloebiT. misi saxelmwifo skolebi saSinelia, xolo umaRlesi ganaTleba, samwuxarod, ar pasuxobs bazris moTxovnilebebs. mas aqvs 15 oficialuri ena (plus 600-ze meti – nakleb gamoyenebadi) CineTis erTis sapirispirod. indoeTi Seejaxeba ganviTarebis xangrZliv mtkivneul Semotevebs, rac CineTmac ganicada. magaliTad, sagangaSo dabinZureba da adamianTa uzomo mozRvaveba, rodesac dausaqmebeli mosaxleoba soflebidan qalaqebisken daiZvreba. ase rom, iqneba uamravi `xafangi~, maT Soris – momaval wels. mwvave konkurencia moaxloebul arCevnebze ramdenime StatSi, maT Soris, utar pradeSSi, sadac 200 milioni adamiani cxovrobs. socialuri daZabuloba aseve gaizrdeba: sporaduli Setakebebi mTeli qveynis masStabiT, konkurentuli seqtebis, kastebis, eTnosebis da klasebis urTierTSejaxeba. aseve aqtiuri iqneba urTierTobebi indoeTis mezoblebTan, kerZod – mis `birTvul biZaSvil~ pakistanTan. iseve, rogorc wina premier-ministrebs, momavalSi zogierTma SeiZleba madloba gadauxados baton modis – ubralod, qveynis erTianobis SenarCunebisTvis. magram Tu misi mTavroba SeZlebs Seakavos qveynis Sida winaaRmdegobebi, SesaZlebelia 2017 wels indoeTi keTildReobisken mimaval gzaze vixiloT. da `drakonic~ cota ufro axlos gamoCndeba. n ubralod, SesaZlebelia… gadasaxlebuli yofili premier-ministri – taksin Sinavatra, politikaSi dabrundeba mas Semdeg, rac tailandis axali mefe korufciis braldebas mouxsnis. aRmosavleT timori SeuerTdeba ASEAN-s indoneziasTan urTierTobebis gaumjobesebis fonze. axali zelandiis nacionaluri partia uars ityvis meoTxe vadaze mas Semdeg, rac Sromis, populisturi axali zelandiis pirveli da `mwvaneTa~ partiebi Zalebs gaaerTianeben.


63

azia

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`Sinaurebi~ da ` ucxoebi~ `ozebis qveyanaSi~ robert milikeni sidnei

avstralia erovnul simbolos emSvidobeba

i

yo raRac simboluri, 1948 wels, rodesac avstraliaSi warmoebuli pirveli masobrivi manqana – holden FX sawarmoo xazidan Camovida. am faqtma axalgazrda qveyanas, sasoflosameurneo savargulebisa da farTo, Ria sivrceebs miRma, warmatebuli ekonomikuri momavlis rwmena Camouyaliba. Tumca es epoqa 2017 wels dasruldeba, rodesac `jeneral motorsi~ – holdenis mSobeli kompania, SeaCerebs `avstraliis sakuTari avtomobilis~ gamoSvebas. amis Semdeg, Ford-isa da Toyota-s gasvla qveynidan, daasrulebs manqanebis warmoebas avstraliaSi da gaaRvivebs faseulobaTa gadafasebisa da ekonomikuri identobis axali simbolos moZiebis process. malkolm turnbuli – premier-ministri, darwmunebulia: avstraliam globalizacia Tavis sasargeblod unda Semoabrunos da gaxdes `gonebamaxvili~ novatorebis eri. is apirebs startapebisa da mcire biznesis waxalisebas `didi ideebis bazarze gatanis~ mizniT. amis praqtikaSi ganxorcieleba ar iqneba advili – ekonomika, minimum, xels unda uwyobdes. avstraliam gauZlo CineTis moTxovniT agorebul sabirJo saqonlis talRas. dabali saprocento ganakveTi da savaluto kursis vardna xels Seuwyobs regulirebas. sabinao mSenebloba, gansakuTrebiT sidneisa da melburnSi, daaCqarebs qalaqebis zrdas. studentebi da turistebi aziis mzardi saSualo fenidan meti stimulirebis mizezi gaxdeba. amis wyalobiT, avstralia uwyveti ekonomikuri zrdis 26-e weliwadSi Seabijebs. miuxedavad amisa, centraluri banki CineTis – qveynis umsxvilesi savaWro partnioris perspeqtivas avstraliaSi `gaurkvevlobis ZiriTad wyarod~ ganixilavs. baton ternbulisTvis areulobis wyaro ufro adgilobrivi `produqti~ iqneba – avstraliis politikis danawevrebuloba. 2016 wels, xmaurian saerTo arCevnebSi, misma konservatiulma, liberal-erovnul-

pan gi muni kacia

bebruxana holdeni

ma koaliciurma mTavrobam umravlesoba qveda palataSi mxolod erT adgiliT moipova. mTavroba ar flobs umravlesobas senatSi: 20 damoukidebeli wevri da mcire partiebis warmomadgenlebi gansazRvraven mravali sakanonmdeblo wamowyebis beds zeda palataSi. baton ternbulis sakvanZo winadadeba, zrdis stimulireba kompaniebisTvis gadasaxadebis 30%-dan 25%mde Semcirebis xarjze, aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi SeiZleba katastrofad iqces. baton ternbuls surs, rom yvela jgufi `saRad moazrovne centrSi Seiyaros~, Tumca misi realuri problema iqneba memarjveneebi sakuTar partiaSi, romlebic arasodes gaiziareben mis progresul instinqtebs. daZabulobas gaaZlierebs kidev erTi simboluri cvlileba horizontze – referendumi mkvidri avstralieli mosaxleobis konstituciaSi asaxvis Taobaze. baton ternbuls imedi hqonda, rom kenWisyra 2017 wlis maisSi, wina referendumis 50-e wlisTavze moxdeboda. referendumi 90%-iani mxardaWeriT gavida da gaauqma akrZalva aborigenTa aRweraze. Tumca konservatorebs surT konstituciaSi Caidos mxolod simboluri aRiareba qveynis adgilobrivi mosaxleobisa, romelic 1901 wlis damfuZnebeli dokumentiT ignorirebulia. sxvebi moiTxoven xelSekrulebis gaformebas, romelSic aseve SeiZleba Caidos reparaciac (kompensacia, anazRaureba). axla, rodesac kenWisyra 2018 wlamde saeWvoa Catardes, momavali wlis amocana iqneba 1967 wlis didi konsensusis formulis moZieba. n

qalbaton pakis mmarTveloba ar iwvevs aRtacebas. is ukavSirdeba samxreT koreis yvelaze araefeqtian kanonmdeblobas; stefani staderi, seuli misma partiam – `senurim~, pirvelad 16 imedgacruebam da ­danawevrebam wlis ganmavlobaSi, dakarga xmaTa umravlesoba. SesaZloa prezidenti pan gi muni warmoSvas pakis partiis `minavlebuli~ imedebi kidev erT gamarjvebaze – liberodesac 2017 wlis dekemberSi alur banakSi arsebul ganxeTqilebazea samxreT korea saarCevno yuTebi- damyarebuli: mun je ini minjus partisken gaemarTeba, raTa airCios idan upirispirdeba an Cxol sus – proprezident pak kin-hes memkvidre, gramul magnats, romlis `varskvlavi~ zogierTs mexsierebaSi wamoutivtivdeba, 2012 wlis ugergilo saarCevno kampaniis rom 30 wlis win isini monawileobdnen de- Semdeg `daibinda~. `senuri~ uimedod cdilobs Seamzamokratiuli samxreT koreis formirebaSi. 1987 wels qveyanaSi, pirvelad aTwleulebis dos (Semoityuos) pan gi muni – gaero-s ganmavlobaSi, gaimarTa Tavisufali arCev- generaluri mdivani, raTa arCevnebSi win nebi. studenturi aqciebis monawileTa gaiZRolos. miuxedavad imisa, rom zogies Taoba, romelic cnobilia, rogorc erTis azriT batoni pani erT-erTi ua386-ianebi (miniSneba `intelis~ maSindel resia maT Soris, visac amis gakeTeba SeufarTod gavrcelebul mikroCipze), axla Zlia, samxreT koreaSi mas bevri gahyveba 50 wlisani arian da meryev amomrCevelTa ukan, vinaidan advilad moizidavs liberyvelaze did bloks warmoadgenen. miuxe- ali eleqtoratis xmebs. is warmoSobiT davad imisa, rom bevrma maTganma 2012 wels provincia CrdiloeT CxunCxonidanaa – xeli Seuwyo konservatiul qalbaton pa- qveynisTvis sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani kis arCevas, maTi xmebi axla vakanturia. regionidan, sadac amomrCevelTa xmebi

r

2017 mokled vanuatu umaspinZlebs wynari okeanis regionis rigiT meaTe miniTamaSebs — daaxloebiT 22 mcire erisTvis

robert milikeni: avstraliis korespondenti, The Economist

iseve efuZneba geografias, rogorc ideologias. batoni pan gi munis saqmianobas gaeroSi bevri afasebs, rogorc Suamavlisa da problemaTa gadaWris unaris mqone adamianis muSaobas – sayuradRebo Tvisebaa, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac birTvuli CrdiloeT korea sul ufro umarTavi xdeba. yvelaze seriozuli problemaa, Tu rogor moaxerxebs momavali prezidenti gamoixsnas samxreT koreis pensionerebi siRaribisgan, xolo axalgazrdebs aacilos umuSevroba – erTi meoTxedisTvis miuwvdomelia ganaTleba, kvalificireba an samuSao. am mxriv baton pans uflebamosileba aklia. imedgacruebuli axalgazrdebi (isini sakuTar qveyanas `jojoxeTurs~ uwodeben) saparlamento saarCevno siebSi SedarebiT didi raodenobiT arian warmodgenilni. maT mosazidad 72 wlis batonma panma uryevi (Zalze saintereso) argumentebi unda warmoadginos. magram Tu ase moxdeba, es iqneba momgebiani kombinacia – axalgazrdebisa da 386-ianebis xmebi.n stefani staderi: seulis biuros ufrosi, The Economist


64

azia

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taivanis isev „vefxvad“ gadasaqcevad

1

996 wels taivanSi gaimarTa qveynis istoriaSi pirveli saprezidento arCevnebi, romlebmac daadastura Cveni gadasvla srul demokratiaze. mTeli qveynis masStabiT igrZnoboda optimizmisa da cvlilebebis atmosfero. ekonomika Zlieri iyo, umuSevrobis done – dabali da izrdeboda saSualo klasis Semosavlebi. rogorc savaWro Suamavalma, uSualod davinaxe, rogor Zlevda taivani winaaRmdegobebs – rogorc adgilobriv, ise saerTaSoriso doneze, msoflio vaWrobis organizaciasTan mierTebis mizniT. taivani iyo `naTeli laqa~ `sibnelis okeaneSi~. Tumca, bolo dros, bevri taivanelisTvis naTeli gaurkvevel globalur atmosferoSi `gaicrica~. me axla Tavs ekonomikuri da politikuri gamowvevebis winaSe mdgar taivanis liderad vgrZnob. usafrTxoebisTvis neli zrda, mzardi uTanasworoba da axali muqara, gamowvevaa ekonomikuri da politikuri institutebisTvis mTeli msoflios masStabiT. taivanma, msoflios sxva qveynebis msgavsad, unda gansazRvros, rogor upasuxos am sirTuleebs. 2016 wels taivanis mosaxleobam Cems „demokratiul progresul partias“ (DPP) miznad ori amocana dausaxa: reforma da ganaxleba. Cven gvinda, rom taivani kidev erTxel daemsgavsos aziur vefxvs. Cemi gegmiT, 2017 wels taivani ganviTarebis axali modelis safuZvelze ekonomikis aRorZinebis pirobebSi, kvlav unda gaxdes ZiriTadi socialuri uzrunvelyofis sistemis organizatori. paralelurad Cven vmuSaobT politikuri institutebis reformirebaze, myari rwmeniT, rom ekonomikuri da socialuri gardaqmnebi mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli gamWvirvalobasa da Zlier demokratiul kulturasTan. taivanis socialuri uzrunvelyofis sistema gakotrebis pirasaa. Cemi sapensio reformis mizania, igi mdgradi iyos da gaizardos RaribTa mxardaWera. taivans aqvs gansxvavebuli sapensio programebi sxvadasxva profesiisTvis: usamarTlo praqtika, romelic aZlierebs socialur uTanasworobas. am sistemis Secvlas garkveuli Zalisxmeva dasWirdeba, magram DPP-s amis ganxorcielebis mkafio demokratiuli uflebamosileba aqvs. xarjebi sacxovrebelze taivanelebis Semosavlidan mkveTrad gaizarda samSeneblo bumis fonze. Cemi administracia 2024 wlisTvis gegmavs 200 000 erTeuli xelmisawvdomi socialuri sacxovrebliT uzrunvelyofas sajaro da kerZo sainvesticio gegmis mixedviT. taivanis asakovani mosaxleoba miiRebs axal sazogadoebriv centrebs. Cveni saerTo mizania sajaro resursebis gadanawileba da ufro samarTliani keTildReobis sistemis Seqmna. Cemi 2017 wlis ekonomikuri gegma mimarTulia mrewvelobis ganviTarebasa da stagnaciis daZlevaze. Cven safuZvels vuyriT ufro inkluziur ekonomikur models, romelic efuZneba inovaciebs, axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas da ideas, rom ekonomikuri zrdiT yvelam unda isargeblos da ara mxolod erTeulebma. Cven movizidavT taivanis Zlier mxareebs: mom-

wifebul samrewvelo klasters, samecniero-kvleviTi Tu sacdel-konstruqtoruli seqtoris SesaZleblobebs da moqnil mcire bizness. Wkviani investiciebis gziT, momavlis mrewvelobis ganviTarebis mizniT, mTavroba axdens sajaro, kerZo da globaluri resursebis integrirebas: `sagnebis interneti~, bioteqnologia, Wkviani manqanebi, mwvane energia da Tavdacva. es seqtorebi, Cveni dRevandeli samrewvelo simZlavreebis bunebrivi ganvrcoba, saSualebas miscems taivans momavlis globalur ekonomikaSi konkurentunariani gaxdes. Cven davxvewT sakuTar kapitalur bazars da finansur politikas ufro mimzidvels gavxdiT inovaciebze orientirebuli ucxouri investiciebisTvis. Cven aseve SevcvliT adamianuri resursebis gamoyenebas mewarmeebisa da teqnitaivanis kuri startapebis ufro Zlieri mxardaWeris prezidenti gziT. Cveni axali teqnologiebis ministri – 35 — cai in veni, wlis yofili hakeri, uzrunvelyofs pirdapir kavSirs maTsa da mTavrobas Soris. aseve gavaioreformebis leT regulaciebi ucxoeli specialistebisTdaCqarebas elis vis, ase rom, taivani SeZlebs gaxdes niWierTa regionuli `samWedlo~ ganviTarebadi mrewvelobisTvis.

biznesisTvis Ria am ekonomikuri gadasvlis dasasruleblad mTavrobam unda iTavos axali bazrebis gaxsna Cveni produqciisa da momsaxurebisTvis. Cven vaZlierebT urTierTkavSirebs ASEAN-Tan, samxreT aziasTan, avstraliasa da axal zelandiasTan Cveni `axali, samxreTze orientirebuli politikiT~. igi mimarTulia ganaTlebaze, soflis meurneobaze, kulturaze, turizmsa da sxva, adamianTa Soris urTierTobebze vaWrobasa da investiciebs miRma. Cven vcdilobT imis demonstrirebas, rom taivani mzad aris SeuerTdes mravalmxriv savaWro reJimebs: biurokratizmis SemcirebiT, inteleqtualur sakuTrebaze uflebis dacviT da investiciebis marTvis meqanizmis gamartivebiT. Cven SevecdebiT gawevrianebas wynari okeanis partniorobaSi, Tu es gaxdeba SesaZlebeli da roca gaxdeba. aseve vmuSaobT ormxriv SeTanxmebebze mniSvnelovan savaWro partniorebTan. es yvelaferi damokidebulia regionuli garemos stabilurobaze. Cven SevecdebiT gavmarToT dialogi yvela dainteresebul mxaresTan, maT Soris, CineTTan, raTa SevqmnaT garemo mSvidobisa da keTildReobisTvis azia-wynari okeanis regionSi. Cemi mizanmimarTuli politika emyareba Tanmimdevruli, prognozirebadi da mdgradi urTierTobebis Camoyalibebas arsebul konstituciur farglebSi. saboloo jamSi, Cems administracias Seafaseben reformirebisa da qveynis ganaxlebisken mimarTuli RonisZiebebis gatarebis unaris mixedviT. es gulisxmobs uamravi interesis – Taobebis, klasebisa da eTnosebis, ostatur dabalansebas gaurkvevel saerTaSoriso garemoSi. miuxedavad amisa, Cven Tavdajerebulad miviwevT win. gvjera, rom Cveni Znelad mopovebuli demokratia mobilizebulia qmedebisTvis. reforma da aRorZineba taivanSi Zalas moikrebs 2017 wels. n

Cveni axali teqnologiebis ministri — 35 wlis yofili hakeri, startapebsa da mTavrobas Soris pirdapir kavSirs uzrunvelyofs


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msoflio 2017 amave seqciaSi: ocwliani brZola 66 Zalian politikuri ekonomika 67

axali grZeli marSi 68 m mcire moTamaSeebi makaoSi 68 jin likuni: ganviTarebis aziuri gza 70

ZalTa Widili jon parkeri, pekini

pirvelobisTvis brZola komunisturi partiis rigebSi

2

017 wels politikuri brZola gamoavlens, daubrundeba Tu ara CineTi ekonomikuri reformebis, gaxsnilobisa da danarCen msofliosTan konstruqciuli urTierTobis gzas, Tu kidev ramdenime wels dauTmobs agresiulad nacionalistur, ekonomikurad wamgebian kurss. prognozebi arasaimedoa. brZola gansakuTrebiT mwvave iqneba oqtomberSi, CineTis komunisturi partiis kongresze, romelic xuT weliwadSi erTxel imarTeba. es aris yvelaze mniSvnelovani Sekreba qveynis politikur kalendarSi, imitom rom pirdapir an arapirdapir, niSnavs axali adamianebis, ZiriTadad mamakacebis, daniSvnas CineTis partiuli ierarqiis maRal eSelonebSi: 25-wevriani politbiuro, misi Svidwevriani mudmivmoqmedi komiteti (Sida kabineti) da 350-kaciani centraluri komiteti, gansaxierebuli elita. kongresi saukeTeso saSualebaa prezident si ZinpinisTvis, Tavisi kvali daatyos partias. gvardiis am mowesrigebuli (organizebuli) Secvlis mizania uzrunvelyos Zalauflebis stabiluri gadacema, mao Ze dunis meryevi, feTqebadi mmarTvelobisgan gansxvavebiT. magram momavali cvlilebebi Cveulebrivze masStaburi iqneba da prognozirebadi, inkrementuli cvlilebis nacvlad, gaurkvevlobis xelSemwyob ZalTa Widils moitans. batoni sis mxardamWerebi didi xania amtkiceben, rom rodesac met adamians amtkicebs sapasuxismgeblo Tanamdebobebze, igi SeZlebs sabazro Zalebs ekonomikaSi `gadamwyveti roli~ mianiWos, risi pirobac man 2013 wels dado da rasac aqamde ver miaRwia. es niSnavs konkurenciis damkvidrebas CineTis saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebul sawarmoebSi, maTi martivi dakreditebis Sewyvetas da ekonomikis valebze orientirebuli zrdis SeCerebas. magram maSinac ki, Tu

CineTi

es batoni sis namdvili survilia (rac Sorsaa realobisgan), am sakiTxebis gadaWra imaze mets moiTxovs, vidre partiis warmatebuli yrilobaa. prezidentma ukve daagrova nebismier wina liderze meti Zalaufleba. is partiuli bosia, mTavarsardali, erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos mdivani da mravali `patara wamyvani jgufis~ Tavmjdomare, romelic gavlenas axdens mTavrobis funqcionirebis yvela aspeqtze. miuxedavad amisa, misi Zalaufleba koncentrirebulia piramidis kenweroSi. qvemoT, „ferdebze“, misi gavlena sustdeba. CineTis 31 provinciis mxolod mcire nawils marTaven misi mokavSireebi da garkveuli gaTvliT, mis mxardamWerTa jgufi centraluri komitetis meaTedze naklebia. es imitom, rom komiteti dakompleqtebulia ara batoni sis, aramed misi winamorbedebis – hu Zintaos da Zian Zeminis mier, rodesac maT batoni si prezidentad airCies. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom sapensio asaks pativs scemen, politbiuros mudmivmoqmedi komitetis Svididan xuTi wevri gadadgeba, ris gamo mxolod batoni si, danamdvilebiT, da li keciani – premierministri, savaraudod, SeinarCuneben Tanamdebobebs. kidev eqvsi, politbiuros 18 wevridan, gadadgeba da mravali datovebs centralur komitets. rogorc wesi, 40-60 wevri tovebs komitets, rodesac isini aRweven dadgenil sapensio asaks – 65 wels. magram 92 vakansia 2017 wels didwilad imitomaa Tavisufali, rom wina raundebSi naklebi axalgazrdis winsvlas Seewyo xeli. moxeleTa nawili mainc Seicvleba, vinaidan dagegmili rotaciiT maTi jeric mova. Tumca amtkiceben, rom batoni si Seecdeba bevri Tavisi kandidatura daniSnos vakantur adgilebze, rac met areulobas gamoiwvevs partiis rigebSi.

2017 mokled qveynis pirvelma `sqai-Treinma~ daiwyo yoveldRiuri mgzavrebis samsaxuri da turistebis Tvalwarmtac adgilebze gadayvana

momavali cvlilebebi Cveulebrivze masStaburi iqneba

pekini da provinciebi gadamwyveti pirveli nabiji Zalas ikrebs: es kongresis delegatebisTvis daaxloebiT im 2300 adamianis SerCevaa, vinc xmas sxvadasxva partiul organoebSi

jon parkeri: pekinis biuros ufrosi, The Economist


66

msoflio 2017

CineTi

ocwliani brZola... kerolain karteri, honkongi

honkongs daZabuli arCevnebi elodeba

f

eierverkebis motrfiale iseTi qalaqisTvisac ki, rogoric honkongia, 2017 wlis 1-eli ivlisi gansakuTrebiT xmauriani iqneba. mTavrobas ori sazeimo RonisZieba aqvs Casatarebeli: teritoriis britaneTisgan CineTisTvis gadacemis 20 wlisTavi da momavali administraciis meTauris inauguracia. orive movlenas honkongelebi xmauriani saprotesto aqciebiT miesalmebian. si Zinpinis gamoCena CineTis prezidentis pirveli gamosvla iqneba mas Semdeg, rac misma winamorbedma xuTi wlis win fici daadebina lian Cen ins, rogorc administraciis meTaurs. igi aseve xelisuflebas nebismieri gansxvavebuli azris sastiki darbevis sababs miscems. 2017 wels, Cinuri mmarTvelobis oci wlis Semdeg, asimilacia, rogorc Cans, kidev ufro Sorsaa, vidre odesme. CineTis uprecedento Carevam honkongis kanonebSi 2016 wels warmoSva cota `erTi qveyana, honkongels Tu ori sistemis~ naadrevi surs namdvili daSlis saSiSroeba, anu damoukidebloba 50-wliani avtonomiisa, romelsac honkongs 1997-Si dahpirdnen. es wuxili momavalSi ufro da ufro gaizrdeba. CineTma kidev erTi Sansi gauSva, mieca honkongis mcxovreblebisTvis ufleba TviTon aerCiaT sakuTari liderebi. 2014 wels, universaluri saarCevno uflebis Cinurma versiam (amomrCevelT SeuZliaT airCion mxolod mTavrobis mier gadamowmebuli kandidatebis si-

dartyma demokratias

idan) asiaTasobiT adamiani gamoiyvana quCebSi. diskusiebi sakonstitucio reformis Sesaxeb Seferxda 2015 wels, ase rom, arCevnebi 2017 wels gaimarTeba imave gayalbebuli da moZulebuli sistemiT, rogorc adre. arCevnebma 2016 wlis seqtemberSi qalaqis sakanonmdeblo sabWoSi (Legco) axali tipis `lokalisturi~ politikosebi moiyvana, romlebic TviTgamorkvevas uWeren mxars. miuxedavad imisa, rom mogvianebiT zogi maTgani ver SeinarCunebs adgilebs, orive mTavroba, rogorc honkongSi, ise CineTSi, darwmundeba, rom es tendencia momavalSic SenarCundeba. antimaterikuli ganwyoba gamZafrdeba, zians miayenebs turizms da gaaZlierebs honkongisadmi mtrul damokidebulebas kontinenturi CineTis mediaSi. orive banaki rom daakmayofilos idealurad, honkongs unda hyavdes lideri, romelic popularulia Sin da amave dros pekinis morCilicaa. es moTxovnebi erTmaneTTan imdenad SeuTavsebelia, rom teritoria, savaraudod, ganixilavs mxolod am ukanasknels. vinc unda airCion

s

aZlevs. batoni si Tavad ar irCevs delegatebs. amas akeTeben provinciuli da sxva partiuli liderebi. magram is sxvadasxva gzebiT boWavs maT. magaliTad, xels uwyobs provinciebSi mokavSireebis sakvanZo Tanamdebobebze daniSvnas da amcirebs komunisturi axalgazrduli ligis mniSvnelobas – partiis filialisa, romelic warmoadgens gzas winsvlisTvis da Tavis droze akontrolebda centraluri komitetis did bloks. rogorc Cans, es yvelaferi gamoiwvevs ufro damyoli delegatebis SerCevas da batoni sis momxreebis raodenobis zrdas. es imis msgavsi iqneboda, aSS-is prezidents rom gamoetovebina saarCevno kampania da pirdapir daekompleqtebina amomrCevelTa kolegia, senati da kongresi. magram maSinac ki, Tu batoni si moaxerxebs mkveTrad gazardos Tavisi mxardaWera, es ar gamoiwvevs uciloblad ekonomikur reformas an naklebad na-

administraciis meTaurad, is moklebuli iqneba xalxis ndobas. 2017 wlis dasawyisSi 1200-kaciani komiteti, sadac dominireben propekinuri moRvaweebi, waradgenen kandidatebs honkongis umaRles poziciaze; 26 marts igive xalxi SearCevs gamarjvebuls. konkursis moCvenebiTobis SesanarCuneblad, demokratiis momxre kandidatebs monawileobis (magram ara gamarjvebis) uflebas miscemen. baton lians, savaraudod, survili aqvs kidev erTxel iyaros kenWi, magram kampanias, romelic lianis garda nebismieri sxva kandidatisTvis ganxorcieldeba, sxva ideebi aqvs. 2012 wels administraciis meTauris postze igi mcire upiratesobiT iqna arCeuli da 1200-dan mxolod 689 xma miiRo. SemdgomSi misi popularoba kidev ufro Sesustda. TviT CineTis mxardaWerac ganelda. misi mmarTvelobis periodSi qalaqSi gaZlierda antisamTavrobo gamosvlebi da arCeuli arian politikosebi, romelTac surT teritoriis materikuli CineTisgan distancireba. adamians gansakuTrebuli Tvisebebi unda hqondes, aseT umadur saqmes rom SeeWidos. lian Cen inis konkurentebi, savaraudod, ganixilaven regina ip lu sukiis kandidaturas, romelic ufro cnobilia usafrTxoebis warumatebeli kanoniT, romlis inspirirebam 2003 wels masobrivi saprotesto aqciebi gamoiwvia. aseve saxeldeba finansuri mdivani jon cag Cun va. misi da batoni sis xelis CamorTmeva didi oceulis samitze xanjouSi, ama wlis seqtemberSi, zogma xeldasxmad aRiqva. ramdenadac quCis saprotesto aqciebi ufro xmauriani da intensiuri xdeba, mTavroba Seecdeba daTrgunos gansxvavebuli azri – maT Soris, ufro mkacri usafrTxoebis kanonis gamoyenebiT. cota honkongels Tu surs CineTisgan sruli damoukidebloba, magram yvelas mouwevs aitanos pekinidan momavali sasjeli maT mimarT, visac es surs. n kerolain karteri: honkongis korespondenti, The Economist

cionalistur sagareo politikas. erTic saTqmelia: rom martivi araa liderma Secvalos mimarTuleba mmarTvelobis sul ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi. garda amisa, baton sis ar eqneba umravlesoba centralur komitetSi maSinac ki, Tuki igi moaxerxebs, vTqvaT, vakanturi Tanamdebobebis naxevarze Tavisi xalxi daniSnos. metic – centraluri Zalauflebisgan daSorebuli, saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli sawarmoebis mmarTvelebi an CineTis 2800 olqis partiuli mdivnebi – administrirebis yvelaze dabali done, Cveulebriv, sakuTari azriT moqmedeben. dabolos: batoni si ver SeZlebs gadalaxos cvlilebebisadmi winaaRmdegoba miuxedavad imisa, rom amdeni formaluri Zalaufleba ukve mis xelSia. is da sxva liderebi ver Tanxmdebian, ra uyon ekonomikas. batoni si ganavrcobs sakuTar Zalauflebas, magram ver moaxerxebs absoluturi gaxados igi. brZola reformebisTvis grZeldeba. n


Zalian politikuri ekonomika saimon rabinoviCi, Sanxai

67

CineTi

msoflio 2017 gaagrileT

procentuli zrda wina welTan SedarebiT saxelmwifo kompaniebis investiciebi mudmiv kapitalSi

mSvidi zedapiris qvemoT, CineTis zrdis modeli iZabeba asawyisisTvis, wyalgauvali prognozi: rac unda moxdes, 2017 wels CineTis ekonomika ukeTes starts miiRebs, vidre es iyo erTi wlis win. 2016 wlis pirvel savaWro dRes aqciebi 7%-iT daeca. momdevno kviras, rodesac investorebma mkveTrad daiwyes bazridan gasvla, iuanis kursi Seirya, ramac ekonomikaSi globaluri panika gamoiwvia. CineTma SesaZloa Tavidan aicilos msgavsi gulisamrevi starti 2017-Si, Tundac imitom, rom man ukve gamoitana mniSvnelovani daskvnebi warsuli gakveTilebidan. regulatorebi ukeT marTaven finansur bazrebs da aregulireben warmoqmnil problemebs. maT moipoves garkveuli ndoba, rac momdinareobs SesaZlo krizisis gakontrolebiT da misi CanacvlebiT stabiluri zrdis saxiT. 2017 wels CineTi aseve ukeTaa SeiaraRebuli ukiduresi finansuri stresis Tavidan asacileblad. rac bolo erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi SeSfoTebas iwvevda, isaa, rom centralurma bankma SeiZleba amowuros Tavisi savaluto rezervebi, rac iuanis mniSvnelovan devalvacias gamoiwvevs. magram kapitalis ufro mkacri kontrolisa da ufro moqnili savaluto reJimis meSveobiT, es ukiduresad mZime scenari warmoudgenelia. iuanis dasusteba momaval wels gagrZeldeba, Tumca CineTi SeinarCunebs sakuTar rezervebs daaxloebiT sami trilioni dolaris – sakmaod usafrTxo – farglebSi. da ramdenadac likvidurobis marTvis instrumentebi axla ukve amoqmedebulia, maregulirebeli mzad iqneba CaaxSos „xanZari“ sabanko sistemaSi. miuxedavad amisa, 2017 wels ikveTeba ramdenime saxifaTo momenti. bumi uZravi qonebis bazarze dasruldeba, ris Sedegadac ekonomika dakargavs Tavis yvelaze did mamoZravebel Zalas. fasebi, qveynis masStabiT, 2016 wels 15%-iT gaizarda (ixileT grafiki), ramac gamoiwvia aRmavloba mSeneblobaSi. magram xelisufleba acnobierebs, rom wlis bolomde fasebis zrda SesaZlebelia umarTavi gaxdes – gansakuTrebiT did qalaqebSi, da gamoiwvevs, ase vTqvaT, ganmuxruWebas. 2017 wels daiwyeba neli jaWvuri reaqcia: fasebi gaTavisufldeba, transaqciebi Seneldeba da ramdenime Tvis Semdeg mSenebloba CaifuSeba. rodesac warsulSi uZravi qonebis bazari Seirya, CineTma aqcenti infrastruqturaze gadaitana. imaves gakeTebas Seecdeba 2017 welsac, Tumca amjerad biZgi yvela am xarjebisgan susti iqneba, radgan investiciebis didi wili 2016 wels ukve daixarja rkinigzasa da sagzao samuSaoebze. vinaidan rogorc qonebis, ise infrastruqturis investireba Semcirdeba, es uciloblad gamoiwvevs mSp-s zrdis Sesustebas. savaraudod, CineTi kvlav daisaxavs miznad 6.5-7%-ian zrdas. magram gansxvavebiT 2016 wlisa, rodesac man sakmaod advilad miaRwia am dones, 2017 wels es ar moxdeba. neli zrda, TavisTavad, SeiZleba kargic iyos, vinaidan imaze miuTiTebs, rom mTavroba ufro xarisxzea orientirebuli, vidre raodenobriv zrdaze. Tumca or mniSvnelovan sferoSi reformebi Seferxdeba. pirveli: CineTi Seqmnis ufro met saxelmwifo gigants. centralizebulad marTuli,

d

CineTis uZravi qonebis bazari, 100 qalaqis fasebis indeqsi

wyaro: Wind-is informacia

saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli sawarmoebis raodenoba 2017 wels 100-mde Semcirdeba – maSin, rodesac mxolod aTi wlis win isini 150-ze meti iyo. es imitom ki ar xdeba, rom mTavroba Slis maT da yidis. amis nacvlad, igi aerTianebs naklebmomgebian kompaniebs, qmnis ufro did jgufebs, romlebic kidev ufro izolirebulia konkurenciisTvis. meore: valismieri finansirebis Semcirebis sakiTxi kvlav gaJRerdeba. CineTis saerTo vali mSp-sTan mimarTebaSi 250%-ze metad gaizarda, TiTqmis gaormagda bolo aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi. am masStabis zrda, rogorc wesi, mniSvnelovani Senelebis, Tu ara krizisis, winapirobaa. garkveuli periodiT, CineTi moaxerxebs gaumklavdes problemas. mTavroba daavalebs bankebs gamouyon kreditebi problemur kompaniebs da daaCqarebs valebis kapitalizacias, rac Seamsubuqebs maT tvirTs. magram es mxolod mcire xniT. valis `gora~ mSp-ze orjer swrafad gaizrdeba. saSiSi perspeqtiva ufro mZime tvirTad awveba ekonomikas, vidre odesme. komunisturi partiis xelSi CineTis ekonomika ukve didi xania politikuri proeqtia. es gansakuTrebiT gamarTldeba 2017 wels. prezidenti si Zinpini Semodgomaze kongresisTvis emzadeba, sadac sakuTari Zalauflebis ganmtkicebas gegmavs. rogorc zeda, ise qveda eSelonebis Tanamdebobis pirebma ician, rom maTi mTavari amocanaa SeinarCunon ekonomikuri stabiluroba. amgvarad, yvela niSani miuTiTebs, rom 2017 weli mSvidi, odnav Senelebuli ekonomikis weli iqneba. es saSualebas miscems baton sis, yrilobis Semdeg myarad igrZnos Tavi politikur scenaze. Tumca misi Tavdajerebuloba ver niRbavs bzarebs CineTis zrdis modelSi – kidev erTi martivi prognozi. n

2017 mokled poziciebi daTme, disnei! — Dalian Wanda xsnis mesame Tematur parks harbinSi. axali kurortebia navaraudevi cindaoSi 2018 wels da usiSi 2019 wels

ubralod, SesaZlebelia… seriozuli mRelvareba uiRurTa Soris sinZianSi aiZulebs xelisuflebas gaaTavisuflos ramdenime mniSvnelovani politikuri patimari. mTavroba gadaarCens problemur bankebs mas Semdeg, rac bumi sabinao mSeneblobis bazarze Sewydeba. Facebook-s, YouTube-s, Google-s da Twitter-s akrZalva ­moexsnebaT, Tumca garkveuli SezRudvebiT.

saimon rabinoviCi: aziis ekonomikuri redaqtori, The Economist


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2017 mokled `tiantun-1~ — kosmosuri laboratoria, dedamiwaze Camovarda eqvswliani eqspluataciis Semdeg

rozi blau: CineTis korespondenti, The Economist

msoflio 2017

CineTi

axali grZeli marSi rozi blau, pekini

sazRvargareT sul ufro meti Cineli studenti miemarTeba ineTis eqsporti droTa ganmavlobaSi meryeobas ganicdis, magram is, vinc ufro didi raodenobiT tovebs qveyanas, adamianebia. izrdeba Cineli studentebis talRa, romlebic sazRvargareT miemarTebian saswavleblad, da es zrda 2017 welsac gagrZeldeba – rodesac 700 000-ze meti axalgazrda miiRebs aseT gadawyvetilebas. maTi udidesi wili aSSSi gaemarTeba, sadac saerTaSoriso kontingentidan, yoveli mesame Cinelia. mxolod Cineli s ­tudentebis ricxvi amerikaSi 2017 wels, savaraudod, ­375 000-s miaRwevs, rac TiTqmis orjer metia, vidre 2011 wels, xolo 2020 wlisTvis daaxloebiT 450 000 iqneba. es Cineli studentebi ganaTlebis mzardi internacionalizaciis nawilia: 2015 wels 5 milioni studenti swavlobda sazRvargareT – anu samjer meti, vidre 1990 wels. maTgan yoveli meeqvse Cineli iyo. emigrantebis didi nawili miemgzavreba garkveuli formis umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebad (CineTis TiTqmis yvela saukeTeso axalgazrda mecnierma, xarisxi sazRvargareT miiRo), Tumca swrafad mzardi umciresoba qveyanas ufro adreul asakSi datovebs. 2005-2014 wlebSi amerikis umaRles skolebSi Cineli moswavleebis raodenoba gaizarda TiTqmis 60-jer – 40 000-mde. britaneTis saSualo skolebSi Cineli moswavleebis raodenoba ufro swrafad izrdeba, vidre sxva erovnebisa, rac aseve xels uwyobs erovnuli gamocdebis Sedegebis maCveneblis zrdas: Cineli moswav-

C

mcire moTamaSeebi makaoSi jeims iani

azartuli TamaSebi CineTis saSualo klasSi

leebi gamudmebiT aRweven erovnul saSualo doneze ufro maRal maCvenebels, vidre maspinZeli erebis warmomadgenlebi. aman warmoqmna saerTaSoriso moTxovnileba axalgazrda Cinur inteleqtze. avstraliaSi, sadac yoveli meoTxe, ucxoeli studentebis kontingentidan, Cinelia, gaamartives savizo ganacxadis miRebis wesi da axla studentebs uflebas aZleven ganacxadis Sevsebisas Cinuri ena gamoiyenon. kidev meti saganmanaTleblo dawesebuleba msoflio masStabiT iwyebs CinelTa mozidvas. odesRac mxolod yvelaze mdidars da uniWieress SeeZlo swavla ucxoeTSi. umetesobam wamyvan universitetebs mimarTa, ufro xSirad – aSS-Si. sazRvargareT mimavali studentebisa da mowveuli mkvlevrebis zomieri zrda 1980 wels, mZlavr nakadad iqca 1990 wels da swavla sazRvargareT amJamad eris masobrivi ambiciaa: erT-erTi gamokvlevis Tanaxmad, romelic Sanxais socialur mecnierebaTa akademiam Caatara, Cineli mSoblebis 57% cdilobs maTi pirmSo sazRvargareT gagzavnos saswavleblad, Tu amis saSualeba aqvT. bevri aseTi bavSvi emzadeba gasamgzavreblad da swavloben asobiT skolaSi saerTaSoriso programiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom zogierTi mainc gaemarTeba `suros ligis~ (Ivey League) skolebSi da maT saerTaSoriso ekvivalentebSi saswavleblad, umetesi pretendenti mimarTavs ufro dabali rangisa da nakleb prestiJul dawesebulebebs. moTxovna ar aris mxolod akademiuri. ganaTlebis saministros monacemebiT (da sxva araoficialuri gaTvlebiT), 4 milioni Cinelidan, romlebic sazRvargareT saswavleblad gaemgzavrnen 1978 wlis Semdeg, naxevari ukan ar dabrunebula. Sesabamisad, ucxouri kampusebidan studentebis ukan mozidva CineTisTvis axal klasobriv brZolas warmoadgens. n

meti fsoni makaos mTliani Semosavali saTamaSo biznesidan segmentebis mixedviT

VIP masobrivi bazari VIP, rogorc mTliani Semosavlis nawili %

T

avisi gafurCqvnis periodSi makaos azartuli TamaSebis industria Tavs iwonebda wliuri SemosavlebiT 45 miliardi dolaris farglebSi, rac Svidjer aRemateboda misi amerikeli konkurentis – las-vegasis Semosavlebs. magram aTwleulis STambeWdavi zrda CamoiSala, rogorc samorines koWebis dasta 2014-2015 wlebSi. CineTis gansakuTrebiT msxvili moTamaSeebi, romelTa wvlili industriis Semosavlebis TiTqmis naxevars Seadgenda, miimalnen, Sewyvites fulis flangva, prezident si Zinpinis arakanonieri Semosavlebis winaaRmdeg gamarTuli kampaniis Semdeg. samorinis magnatebi axla cdiloben daazRvion fsonebi. isini mimarTaven materikuli masobrivi turizmis bazars, romelic makaos yovelwliuri – 30-milioniani momnaxvelebis mesameds Seadgens. maTi mzardi gavlena am ukanasknelT sasurvel klientebad aqcevs CineTis erTaderT regionSi, sadac azartuli

*Sefaseba †prognozi wyaroebi: makaos saTamaSo industriis inspeqciisa da koordinaciis biuro; CLSA; Deutsche Bank

TamaSebi legaluria. orma, samorineebTan SeTavsebulma savaWro megacentrma (`vinpalasi~ – stiv vinis mier daarsebuli, da Seldon adelsonis `pariziani~, romlebic 2016 wlis meore naxevarSi gaixsna) saTamaSo magidebis umetesoba masobrivi bazrisTvis gansazRvra. samorine `kotaiSi~, romelic 2017 wlis pirvel naxevarSi gaixsneba, yvela saTamaSo magidas profesionali moTamaSeebisTvis moawyobs. Sedegad, savaraudoa bedis Semobruneba. ukve 2016 wlis agvistoSi saTamaSo Semosavlebi, wina welTan SedarebiT, 1%-iT gaizarda, pirveli mateba – 27 Tvis ganmavlobaSi. CLSA-is – honkongSi dafuZnebuli sabrokero kompaniis gaTvliT, msx-

vili saTamaSo Semosavlebis dabrunebas 2017 wels elodebian, 7%-ian mogebas 2016 welTan SedarebiT. es mcire moTamaSeebis mzardi kategoriis wyalobiT moxdeba, romelTa mcire, magram ufro xSiri fsonebi xels Seuwyobs VIP-segmentSi garRvevis amovsebas. am cvlilebebis wyalobiT, 2017 wels saTamaSo Semosavlebi masobrivi bazridan pirvelad Seadgens saerTo Semosavlebis 50%-ze mets (ixileT grafiki). makaos samorineebis muSaobaSi ori savalalo wlis Semdeg isini gaaormageben fsonebs CineTis mzardi saSualo klasis xarjze. n jeims iani: saredaqcio TanaSemwe, `msoflio 2017 wels~


CineTi

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ganviTarebis aziuri gza

g

lobalizacia me-20 saukunis ganmsazRvreli maxasiaTebelia, romelmac gamoiwvia CarTuli qveynebis macxovrebelTa cxovrebis sxvadasxva xarisxiT gaumjobeseba. Tumca advili ekonomikuri miRwevebi axla ukanaa, xolo maTi SenarCuneba da Semdgomi integracia, romelic globalizaciis Tanmdevia, ufro met gamowvevas aRZravs, vidre amas bevri eloda. globaluri ekonomikuri riski izrdeba, kapitali dabali riskis grZelvadiani aqtivebisken miiswrafvis da am doneze SeCerebis tendencias amJRavnebs. analogiurad, adamianuri kapitali (resursi), ukeTesi Sansis ZiebaSi, mzardi tempiT gaedineba sazRvrebs miRma, rasac aCqarebs geopolitikuri arastabiluroba da msoflio masStabiT simdidris araTanabari ganawileba. amasTan erTad, globaluri zrdis stagnaciis kvaldakval, meti qveyana iketeba, uaryofs globalistur politikas nacionalisturis sasargeblod. qveynebs SigniT, rogorc wesi, iziareben Zireul Sexedulebebs. magram globalizaciam moitana sxvadasxva kulturis, Rirebulebisa da rwmenis imgvari urTierTSexeba, rac adre SeuZlebeli iyo. axali Rirebulebebi SeiZleba aRqmuli iyos, rogorc safrTxe erTeuli cxovrebiseuli gzisTvis. SeZleben Tu ara axalmosulebi integrirebas, gansazRvravs, safrTxe mxolod savaraudoa Tu realuri xdeba. 2017 wels mravali qveyana, savaraudod, gzajvaredinze aRmoCndeba. Semdegi nabiji nebismieri mimarTulebiT – meti an naklebi globalizaciisken – sariskod gamoiyureba. ismis SekiTxva: Tu globalizacia gansazRvravs me-20 saukunes, ra gansazRvravs maSin 21-es? me davfiqrdi am SekiTxvaze, radgan es Cvens strategias exeba. rogorc axalma organizaciam – aziis infrastruqturis sainvesticio bankma (aiib) unda SeimuSaos gza regionuli da globaluri integraciisTvis da Cveni wevri qveynebis farTomasStabiani ekonomikuri da socialuri sargeblisTvis – ise, rom aravin darCes ukan. globalizacia jer kidev sargebels moutans yvela qveyanas, romelic amaSi moyva, da es ufro samarTlianad unda gakeTdes. saerTaSoriso savaWro SeTanxmebebis wesebi reformirebas moiTxovs. igive SeiZleba iTqvas gaZlierebuli urTierTkavSirebis sargeblis Sesaxeb. es integraciis deficitia da ara zedmeti integracia, romelic problemebs uqmnis im qveynebsa da seqtorebs, romlebic karga xania CamoSordnen process. Semobruneba 180 gradusiT ar aris varianti. winsvla swori midgomiT erTaderTi gamosavalia. swori midgomis adaptireba, upirvelesad, niSnavs, rom unda vaRiaroT – garemoebebi gansxvavdeba ganviTarebadi msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSi. ganviTarebisTvis gansakuTrebuli, axali midgomebia saWiro. es aris gamowveva, romlis winaSe mravalmxrivi ganviTarebis bankebi (MDBs) da ormxrivi donorebi aRmoCndebian marginalizebul qveynebSi muSaobisas. miuxedavad amisa, cota vinmes Tu epareba

eWvi, rom investireba infrastruqturaSi ganviTarebis mniSvnelovani saSualebaa. CineTi da sxva ganviTarebadi bazrebi aziaSi ganviTarebisTvis infrastruqturaSi investirebis efeqturobas adastureben. mas Semdeg, rac CineTis gaxsnis epoqa daiwyo, 800 milionze metma adamianma daaRwia Tavi siRaribes – metwilad, infrastruqturaSi investirebis safuZvelze, farTo ekonomikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis Sedegad. swored es gamocdilebaa, romelmac SesaZloa xeli Seuwyos aziis infrastruqturis sainvesticio banks da apovninos Tavisi niSi mravalmxrivi ganviTarebis bankebis ojaxSi. Cven obieqturni viqnebiT sakuTar ZalisxmevaSi, moviZioT ganviTarebis axali koncefciebi, raTa davakmayofiloT TiToeuli qveynis moTxovnilebebi. Cven CavuyriT safuZvels axal midgomas infrastruqturaSi – iseve, rogorc sxva produqtiul seqtorSi investirebis nulovani wertilidan dawyebas. maSin, rodesac infrastruqtura zrdis efeqturobas da biZgs aZlevs ganviTarebas, igi aseve zogadad xels uwyobs sazogadoebas. aqedan gamomdinare, imisaTvis, rom xeli SevuwyoT realur inkluziur zrdas, romelic SeZlebs ekonomikis gardaqmnas da samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas, aseve unda gvaxsovdes, ra sargebels iReben sxva samrewvelo seqtorebi infrastruqturidan, sxvadasxva gzebiT. ar aris sakmarisi, gqondes axali uflebamosileba, rogorc axali institucia; Cven aseve unda uzrunvelvyoT inovaciuri midgomebi 21-e saukunis problemebis gadasaWrelad. Cveni mizania viyoT xarjefeqturi, swrafi garemosdacviTi da socialuri standartebisTvis zianis miyenebis gareSe, da prioriteti mivaniWoT mWidro TanamSromlobas. aziis infrastruqturis sainvesticio banki ukve mWidrod TanamSromlobs sxva mravalmxrivi ganviTarebis bankebTan, rogorebicaa msoflio banki da aziis ganviTarebis banki. magram aseve mniSvnelovania sakuTari ganviTarebis programebis Seqmna da msesxebel qveynebSi, Tavis mxriv, `Semxvedri-Sesyidvebis~ xelSewyoba.

jin likuni — aziis infrastruqturis sainvesticio bankis prezidenti ganmartavs, Tu ratom Seuwyobs xels misi axali institucia inovaciasa da TanamSromlobas

ramdenime damatebiTi moTxovna am mxriv, zedmeti pirobiToba kontrproduqtiuli iqneba. ganviTarebis programebi da proeqtebi, rasakvirvelia, unda Seesabamebodes garkveul standartebs, magram gonivruli makroekonomikuri politika da garemos dacva msesxebel qveyanaSi nebayoflobiT unda iyos miRebuli da ara Tavsmoxveuli. bolo aTwleulebis gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom saukeTeso Sedegebi TanamSromlobiT miiRweva. aziis infrastruqturis sainvesticio banki dafuZnda im rwmeniT, rom es samyaro ukeTesi gaxdeba, rodesac Cven ukeT gaverTiandebiT. ase rom, modi, vaSenoT warsuli warmatebebis safuZvelze, mravalferovan lokalur pirobebTan maTi adaptirebis gziT. amgvarad, Cven SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom 21-e saukunes gansazRvravs saerTo keTildReoba da gamoyenebuli SesaZleblobebi. n

gonivruli politika nebayoflobiT unda iyos aRqmuli da ara Tavsmoxveuli


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aseve seqciaSi: yvelaferi metismetad feTqebadia 72 gaicaniT Cirani 73 ubralod, SesaZlebelia 73

roca `islamuri saxelmwifo~ warsuls Cabardeba kristofer lokvudi

2017-Si `islamuri saxelmwifo~ damarcxdeba. ra moxdeba amis Semdeg?

2017 mokled `hamasi~ misi politikuri lideris — haled maSaalis gadadgomis Semdeg arCevnebs marTavs

t

eroristebis Sesaxeb prognozebi xSir SemTxvevaSi mcdaria, magram sul ufro meti safuZveli gvaqvs vivaraudoT, rom 2017 wels yvelaze daundobeli jihadisturi reJimi, rac ki istorias axsovs, TviTwodebuli `islamuri saxelmwifos xalifati~ (IS) ganadgurdeba adgilobrivi Zalebisa da saerTaSoriso koaliciis ZalisxmeviT, romelSic aSS-is xelmZRvanelobiT 60-mde qveyanaa gaerTianebuli. barak obamam piroba dado, rom amas 2014 wlis seqtemberSi gaakeTebda – `islamuri saxelmwifos~ mier erayis sididiT meore qalaq mosulis aRebidan sami Tvis Semdeg, ramac mTeli msoflio SokSi Caagdo; am saqmis bolomde miyvana misi memkvidris – donald trampis erT-erT winasaarCevno valdebulebas warmoadgens. 2016 wlis noembrisTvis `islamuri saxelmwifo~ TiTqmis mTeli erayidan gamoaZeves, sadac garkveuli periodi mas qveynis teritoriis mesamedze meti ekava da ukve baRdadis gareubnebTan iyo misuli. mxolod mosuli da ramdenime patara qalaqi rCeboda xalifatis xelSi. 17 oqtombers 5 000 amerikelisgan Semdgari specialuri daniSnulebis Zalebisa da saerTaSoriso sahaero mxardaWeriT daiwyo mosulis aRebis operacia, romelSic 7000-mde erayeli samxedro da didi raodenobiT araregularuli jari monawileobda; mosalodneli iyo gamarjvebis swrafad mopoveba. Setevis droisTvis `islamuri saxelmwifos~ meTaurTa umravlesoba amerikelebis mier ganxorcielebuli sahaero dartymebis Sedegad iyo mokluli, xolo misi mebrZolebis didi nawili – gaqceuli. arsebuli informaciiT, misi lideri – abu baqr al-baRdadi mosulis gareT imaleboda. noemberSi man Tavis Zalebs brZolaSi sikvdilisken mouwoda. siriaSi `islamuri saxelmwifo~ mis mier dakavebuli teritoriis mniSvnelovani nawilidan ukve gandevnes, romelic qveynis aRmosavleTiT, udabnoSi, qalaq raqaSi da mis irgvliv aris mimwyvdeuli. noembris

amerikis monawileobis sakiTxi kvlav gadauWrelia

kristofer lokvudi: axlo aRmosavleTisa da afrikis redaqtori, The Economist

dasawyisSi, amerikis mier mxardaWerilma qurTulma Zalebma qalaqze Seteva miitanes. SeiZleba TiTqmis darwmunebiT iTqvas, rom qurTi mebrZolebis, suniti miliciisa da amerikuli da rusuli mZime sacecxle saSualebebis kombinacia 2017-Si sasurvel mizans miaRwevs. Tumca, es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom erayi da siria terorizmis senisgan gaTavisufldeba. `islamuri saxelmwifo~ – subieqti, romelic teritoriebis kontrols eswrafvoda, ganadgurdeba. magram bevri eqstremisti, romelic misi saxeliT ibrZoda, gadarCeba – zustad iseve, rogorc 2007-2008 wlebSi amerikis mier `al-qaidas~ ganadgurebis Semdeg gadarCa. gamowveva is gaxlavT, rom SeizRudos ziani, romlis miyenebac maT ZaluZT. uares SemTxvevaSi, `al-qaidas~ anarqiuli droebis msgavsi ram SeiZleba dabrundes. rogorc Cans, gardauvalia, rom sirias omisa da teroris aCrdili kvlavac ar moasvenebs. magram saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, eraySi mainc SeiZleba daiwyos normalur qveynad Camoyalibebis procesi. aq SeiniSneba sagangaSo signalebi, magram damaimedebeli niSnebic saxezea. premier-ministr haider al-svediSis mTavrobam ukve miiRo kanoni decentralizaciis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmad araerTi samTavrobo funqcia, da maTTan erTad fulic, provinciebs gadaecema. 2017 wels es qveynis centrSi sam provincias sunituri umravlesobiT garkveul uflebamosilebebs mianiWebs. aris imedi, rom es nabiji garkveulwilad daacxrobs ukmayofilebis grZnobas, romelsac erayeli sunitebi jer kidev ganicdian; isini xom sadam huseinis periodSi marTavdnen qveyanas, sadac umciresobas warmoadgenen. ufro problemuria sakiTxi, ra unda uyon Siitur SeiaraRebul formirebebs, romelTa ricxvi swrafad gaizarda mas Semdeg, rac 2014 wels `islamuri saxelmwifos~ mebrZolebma mTel qveyanas aboboqrebuli talRebiviT gadauares. roca maTi amocana Sesruldeba, am adamianebiT unda daakompleqton regularuli armia, an miscen samuSao adgilebi. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, qveyanaSi 100,000-ze meti mZimed SeiaraRebuli Siitis saxifaTo yofna sunitebs devnis ganc-


axlo aRmosavleTi

msoflio 2017 s

das gaumZafrebs. 300-mde didi da mcire SeiaraRebuli formirebis daSla ioli ar iqneba. amasTan, bevri formireba iranis mier aris aRWurvili da ufro misi miTiTebebiT moqmedebs, vidre baRdadSi arsebuli xelisuflebisa. mesame Tavsatexs warmoadgens gaTavisuflebuli mosulis da mimdebare nineviis provinciis kontroli (ix. CanarTi). Siitebs da qurTebs, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT iezidebze, Turqmenebsa da qristianebze, aseve gauCndebaT pretenzia qveynis am mravalferovani, magram didwilad suniti arabebiT dasaxlebuli nawilis marTvaze. dabolos: amerikis monawileobis sakiTxi k­vlav

yvelaferi metismetad feTqebadia nikolas pelemi

gaseirneba regionis cxel wertilebSi

a

xlo aRmosavleTis istoriaSi 1917 mSfoTvare weli iyo. erTi saukunis win dasavleTis saxelmwifoebma osmaleTis imperia palestinidan, siriidan, erayidan da iemenidan gamoaZeves da regioni tomebs da religiur dajgufebebs Caabares (maTi meurveobis qveS), romlebic manamde stambolis mmarTvelobis qveS SedarebiT harmoniaSi Tanaarsebobdnen. im droidan miwis ama Tu im nawilis dauflebis mizniT gaCaRebuli omebi dRemde mZvinvarebs. Tu 2017 wels axlo aRmosavleTSi Tundac erTi ram aris garkveuli, es isaa, rom mis seqtarianul cxel wertilebSi arsebuli daZabuloba mougvarebeli darCeba. yvelaze sastiki iqneba `islamuri saxelmwifos~ (IS) upiratesad teritoriuli Zalidan saerTaSoriso partizanul moZraobad gadaqceva. dasavleTis mier warmoebuli dabombvebisa da adgilobrivi SeiaraRebuli jgufebis mier Seviwroebuli misi mebrZolebi SeiZleba mTel regionSi da mis farglebs gareTac mimoifanton da ganaxlebuli suli STaberon `Soreul mterTan~ brZolis `al-qaidas~ Tavdapirvel globalistur strategias. Tavad regionSi maT mier datovebuli vakuumi miwisTvis axali brZolebis Jins `aabrialebs~. 2017 wels erayis jari Seecdeba CrdiloeTidan `islamuri saxelmwifos~ ukandaxeva Seakavos, Tumca imavdroulad mis winaSe dgas umZimesi amocana, alagmos qveyanaSi arsebuli uricxvi SeiaraRebuli formirebis miswrafebebi gavlenis sferoebis mosapoveblad. qurTebis feSmerga, romelic qristianebis, Sabakisa da iezidebis patronaJze acxadebs pretenzias, SeiZleba erbilidan daeSvas da mimdebare nineviis vakesa da mis uxvSemosavlian navTob-

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gadauWrelia. Tu erays raime Sansi kidev unda hqondes, maSin aucilebelia, rom sakmaod didi amerikuli kontingenti qveyanaSi darCes; SesaZloa, prezident tramps sxva ideebi aqvs. 2017 wels siria bevrad Rrma problemad darCeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom xalifatis bolo bastionebi daecema, qveynis mniSvnelovani nawili kvlavindeburad omis zona iqneba. baSar al-asadi mis sanapiro sangarSi iqneba gamagrebuli da ruseTis mxardaWeris wyalobiT amboxebulTa mxridan damxobis safrTxe ar daemuqreba; magram is aseve uunaro iqneba, qveynis ZiriTad nawilze aRadginos kontroli. iq nangrevebs Soris jihadizmi ayvavdeba. n

sabadoebze Tavisi pretenziebi ganacxados. ukontrolo feSmergam SesaZloa aseve CrdiloeTiT, tigrosis gayolebiT erayis sididiT meore qalaq mosulisken aiRos gezi masze Zalauflebis dasamyareblad; maT didi albaTobiT Siitur SeiaraRebul formirebebTan mouwevT Setakeba. gamoricxuli ar aris, rom uxsovari droidan dayofil sunitebis arabul tomebs sakuTari anklavis Seqmnis ltolva gauCndeT, magram ibrZoleben ufro metisTvis, vidre erTi mbrZaneblis meoris winaaRmdeg waqezebaa. siriis xuTwliani samoqalaqo omi, romelsac dasasruli ar uCans, meeqvse – kidev ufro momqancvel weliwadSi gadava. regionis saxelmwifoebi gaiziareben msoflios qveynebis gegmebs, romlebic ukavSirdeba momavals prezident baSar al-asadis gareSe. dedaqalaq damaskos garSemo meamboxe sunitebis jgufebi baton asads erTimeoris miyolebiT danebdebian. sunituri SeiaraRebuli jgufebi ukan, periferiebisken daixeven, iordaniisa da TurqeTis sazRvrebTan. orive qveyana, romelTa mTavar sazrunavs devnilTa masobrivi nakadebis (maT Soris – globaluri dRis wesrigis mqone `jihadistebis~) SeCereba warmoadgens, Seecdeba maT buferad gamoyenebas. rac ufro dauaxlovdebian isini israelis Zalebs, miT ufro Zlieri iqneba batoni asadis mokavSireebis – iranisa da `hezbolas~ survili, CaerTos TamaSSi suniti islamisturi SeiaraRebuli formirebebis „ringze“, israelis mier okupirebuli golanis maRlobebis garSemo. rogorc israels, ise `hezbolas~ miaCniaT, rom maT Soris 2006 wels gaCaRebuli omi jer ar dasrulebula; am mxriv dapirispirebis perspeqtiva, amjerad ukve siriis miwaze, realurad gveCveneba. analogiurad, TurqeTis armia CrdiloeT siriaSi aSS-is mxardaWeriT Camoyalibebul qurTul Zalebs ganixilavs qurTi nacionalistebis danamatad, romlebsac is TurqeTSi ebrZvis, da SeiZleba misi mxridan mkveTr qmedebebs ZaladobiT upasuxos. gagrZeleba omisa, romelSic arabuli samyaros ori, uRaribesi da umdidresi qveyana – iemeni da saudis arabeTia CarTuli, arcerTi mxaris interesSi ar Sedis, magram is SeiZleba ar dacxres,

radgan misi SeCerebis formula jer ar aris napovni. iemenis CrdiloeTi da samxreTi erTmaneTs kidev ufro daSordeba. samxreT-aRmosavleTSi `al-qaidas~ wvdomis arealma SesaZloa kargad gakvaluli kontrabandis marSrutebi moicvas da omanSi SeaRwios, iemenis mezoblebis mcdelobis miuxedavad, rom is rogorme Seakavos. sparseTis yuris qveynebSi, iemenSi maT mier warmoebul omze gaweuli xarjebis wyalobiT, biujetis deficiti TandaTan izrdeba; igive iTqmis iranzec, magram aq deficitis erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizezia aSS-is winaaRmdegoba, misces mas globalur finansur sistemebSi CarTvis saSualeba. es saxelmwifoebi gamZafrebuli urTierTkritikiT Seecdebian Sida problemebidan mosaxleobis yuradRebis gadatanas. 2017 wlis maisSi dagegmili iranis saprezidento arCevnebis kampania, romelSic xisti ideologebi prezident hasan rohanis pragmatizms upirispirdebian, kompromisis perspeqtivebs Seamcirebs. saudis arabeTisa da iranis qiSpoba regionis sunitur-Siitur dayofas kidev ufro gaaRrmavebs, magram sabednierod, regionSi maT sakmarisad hyavT mokavSireebi, romelTa meSveobiTac or gigants SeuZlia gavlenisTvis erTmaneTs ise Seebas, rom pirdapir omi ar gaaCaRon.

kidev erTi `denTis kasri~ albaT yvelaze naklebad savaraudo cxeli wertili swored isaa, sadac ramdenime wlis win problemebis gaCena yvelaze metad iqneboda mosalodneli. 2017 wels britaneTis balfuris deklaraciis asi wlisTavi aRiniSneba, romelic ebraelebs palestinaSi mSobliur miwaze dabrunebas hpirdeboda; momaval wels aseve naxevari saukune Sesruldeba mas Semdeg, rac israelma aRmosavleT ierusalimi, dasavleT sanapiro da Raza daipyro da mTel palestinas daeufla. odesRac regionuli areulobebis katalizatori – israel-palestinis konfliqti TandaTan dRis wesrigis boloSi inacvlebs. rogorc Cans, ubralod Zalze bevri sxva ufro mwvave dapirispirebaa, romelTa mogvarebazec gadaudebeli zrunvaa saWiro. n nikolas pelemi: axlo aRmosavleTis korespondenti, The Economist


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gaicaniT Cirani pratiba Teikeri

irans SeuZlia CineTis modeliT ­ixelmZRvanelos da regionSi wamyvan ekonomikur Zalad gadaiqces

1

2017 mokled

990 wlis CineTze waikiTxeT 2017 wlis irani. saerTaSoriso izolaciidan iranis gamosvlam samewarmeo dinamizmis suli aaRorZina, romelic am ers xangrZlivi drois manZilze axasiaTebda. maTTvis, vinc CineTs Tvals adevnebs, iranis zrdis mamoZravebeli Zala nacnobia: investiciebi mrewvelobaSi. arsebobs didi riski, rom prezidentma donald trampma, romelic iranis birTvul programaze SeTanxmebas akritikebda, saqme gaafuWos. iranelebs imedi eqnebaT, rom is evropel mokavSireebTan uTanxmoebas ar moisurvebs.

meqaSi msoflios udidesi sastumro ixsneba. $3.5 miliardiani AbrajKudai 10,000 saZinebeli oTaxiT, 70 restorniTa da vertmfrenis oTxi asafreni moedniT daikvexnis

pratiba Teikeri: gamocemis direqtori, axlo aRmosavleTi da afrika, The Economist Intelligence Unit

Tu SeTanxmeba ZalaSi darCeba, irani SesaZleblobebs uxvad SemogvTavazebs. saavtomobilo industria msoflioSi me-18 adgilzea. qveyanaSi 50-ze meti farmacevtuli produqtebis mwarmoebeli kompania moqmedebs, romelTa didi nawilic Teiranis safondo birJis siaSia Seyvanili. iuneskos msoflio memkvidreobis 21 Zeglis wyalobiT turizms ayvavebis potenciali aqvs. sakvebisa da xaliCebis industria ukve saerTaSoriso donezea konkurentunariani. amas daumateT Zvel (evropaSi) da axal (aziaSi) megobrebTan savaWro kavSirebis gafarToeba, da swrafi ekonomikuri modernizacia Znelad warmosadgeni ar iqneba. CineTi uzarmazar demografiul dividendze dayrdnobiT gaizarda. irani analogiurad xelsayrel mdgomareobaSia: misi mosaxleobis 60%-is asaki 30 wels ar aRemateba. SromiTi resursebis amgvari siuxve, zogadad, ekonomikis aRdgenis samomavlo procesSi uzrunvelyofs xelfasebis zrdas, gansakuTrebiT Tu mis paralelurad SromiT saqmianobaSi qalTa monawileobis xarisxic matulobs. seriozuli problemaa iranidan `tvinebis~ gadineba: daaxloebiT oTxidan erTi umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone iraneli sazRvargareT cxovrobs; am procesis SeCereba aseve xels Seuwyobs produqtiulobis zrdas. CineTis `silikonis drakonis~ swrafma zrdam adgilobriv kompaniebs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, Alibaba,

msoflio 2017 Sida bazarze dominirebis saSualeba misca. Teiranis axalgazrda, urbanizebuli da teqnologiebSi kargad garkveuli mosaxleoba ukve saqmdeba mzardi raodenobiT startapebSi. Digikala – Amazon-is adgilobrivi ekvivalenti, SesaniSnavi magaliTia. 2007 wels Seqmnili kompania Tavdapirvelad fokusirebas eleqtronikaze amaxvilebda, magram SemdgomSi misma saqmianobam diversifikacia ganicada da axla ukve samomxmareblo saqonlis farTo asortimentis gayidviTac aris dakavebuli. mas Semdeg, rac 2001 wels msoflio vaWrobis organizaciaSi gawevrianda, CineTi globalur saeqsporto warmoebaSi swrafad dawinaurda. amiT man aziis sxva eqsportiorebs sabazro wili waarTva, magram imavdroulad is mezobeli saxelmwifoebidan komponentebis da saTadarigo nawilebis umsxviles importiorad iqca. msgavsi ram iranis SemTxvevaSic aris SesaZlebeli, Tu is axlo aRmosavleTis, kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis qveynebisTvis sawarmoo baza da savaWro centri gaxdeba. es rom realobad iqces, aucilebelia misi arasrulfasovani da arasakmarisad dafinansebuli satransporto infrastruqturis Zireuli gadaxaliseba. mTavroba evropuli da aziuri kompaniebis cxvirwin `kontraqtebs afrialebs~, romlebSic investorTa wilobrivi monawileobacaa gaTvaliswinebuli. indoeTi CabaharSi $500 milionis Rirebulebis Rrmawyliani portis mSeneblobaze daTanxmda. savaraudod, CineTic mxars dauWers am tipis investiciebs, rac `erTi sartyeli, erTi gza~ iniciativaSi iranis monawileobis damsaxurebaa. CineTis komunisturi partia Tavis droze Seecada ekonomikuri politikis or mimarTulebas Soris epova `oqros Sualedi~: es iyo, erTi mxriv, kerZo seqtorisTvis ganviTarebis saSualebis micema da, meore mxriv, saxelmwifos mier ekonomikis `marTvis simaRleebze~ kontrolis SenarCuneba. ucxoel investorebs miesalmebodnen, magram ekonomikis garkveuli Sreebi maTTvis daxuruli rCeboda; garda amisa, erTobliv sawarmoebSi maT mxolod umcrosi partniorebis saxiT SeuZliaT investireba. iranis reformator prezidents – hasan rohanis, romelsac 2017 wels xelmeored arCevis imedi aqvs, aseve mouwevs balansis gamonaxva; man investorebs unda SesTavazos bazrisadmi megobruli midgoma da imavdroulad daakmayofilos mkacri religiuri jgufebis interesebi. proteqcionistuli ganwyoba dominanturi iqneba, radgan Zlevamosili elita ekonomikis mniSvnelovan seqtorebze marwuxebis modunebis winaaRmdegia. bolo aTwleulebSi CineTis mier miRweuli Zalian swrafi progresi cxadyofs, rom saxelmwifo sakuTrebaze dafuZnebuli avtoritaruli politikuri sistemisa da ekonomikis pirobebSi Semosavlebis swrafi zrda SesaZlebelia. 2017 wels kompaniebi, romlebmac CineTis bazarze warmatebiT `Sescures~, brZnulad moiqcevian, Tu iranSi arsebul sul ufro mzard analogiur pirobebze gaamaxvileben yuradRebas. n ubralod, SesaZlebelia… masobrivi saprotesto aqciebi egviptis prezident abdelfatah al sisis xelisuflebidan wasvlas aiZulebs. amerikis kinoakademiis jildo saukeTeso ucxouri filmisaTvis `qviSis qariSxals~ – israelis mier `oskarze~ wardgenil pirvel films gadaecema, romelSic dialogebi mTlianad arabul enaze mimdinareobs. gaeros SuamavlobiT, dasavleT saharaSi marokosgan damoukideblobis Sesaxeb referendumi iniSneba.


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afrika

aseve seqciaSi: uCveulo politika keniaSi ubralod, SesaZlebelia ivon Caka Caka: CamoecaleT gogonebs gzidan

wyevlisgan Tavis daxsna jonaTan rozentali, rutongo, ruanda

sabirJo saqonelze fasebis xangrZlivad vardna afrikisTvis SesaZloa ufro sasikeTo aRmoCndes, vidre saziano

r

uandis dedaqalaq kigalis Soriaxlos mdebare rutongos kalis maRarosTan, gzis ganapiras, xeebis CrdilSi Tavi mouyria qalTa jgufs, romlebic CaquCebiT didi zomis qvebs mcire nawilebad aqucmaceben, gverdiT ki maTi bavSvebi TamaSoben. aseT mtverSi muSaoba, Cveulebriv, mZime Sromad miiCneva, Tumca aq es saarsebo saSualebis mopovebis gzaaa. qvis RorRs samSeneblo kompaniebi yiduloben da misgan damzadebuli betoniT kigalis Tavze aRmarTul caTambjenebs ageben. erTi dRis damRleli muSaobiT SeiZleba ramdenime dolari gamoimuSaoT. mezobel xeobaSi adgilobrivi soflebis mkvidri mamakacebi damsxvreul madans niCbebiT iReben da wyalsadinarSi yrian, Semdgom ki wylis nakadiT qvebs acileben; damqancveli Sromis Sedegad miiReba kalaSemcveli kasiteritis mbzinvare koncentrati, romelsac isini gadasamuSaveblad yidian. am maRaroSi, sadac formalurad 3000-mde adamiania dasaqmebuli, kidev 1500 samuSao adgilis Seqmna iyo gaTvaliswinebuli bevrad ukeTesi anazRaurebiT da gacilebiT ufro usafrTxo pirobebiT (rom aRaraferi vTqvaT garemosTvis ufro sasikeTo efeqtze), vidre xreSis damzadeba an madnis kustaruli wesiT mopovebaa. magram 2011 wlis Semdeg kalis fasis TiTqmis ganaxevrebam rutongos mflobelebi aiZula gadaedoT Tanamedrove SaxtebSi investirebisa da kasiteritis misaRebad axali gadamamuSavebeli mowyobilobebis agebis mizniT Tanxebis moZiebis gegmebi. amis nacvlad igi gadarCenisTvis ibrZoda – SezRuduli moculobiT warmoebis pirobebSi da investirebis mtkivneulad neli tempiT. rutongos mZime droeba afrikis mravali qveynis ekonomikis erTgvar sarked iqca mas Semdeg, rac sabirJo saqonlis fasebis didi aRmasvla, romelic aTwleulze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi regionuli ekonomikis zrdas biZgs aZlevda, 2014 wels depresiiT Seicvala. yvelaze mZime dartyma navTobis eqsportiorebma miiRes, maT Soris – nigeriam da angolam, sadac blanti nivTierebis gayidvebi saxelmwifo da saeqsporto Semosavlebis 90%-s Seadgenda. sxva qveynebisTvis, rogoricaa spilenZis mwarmoebeli zambia, an gana, romelsac mohyavs kakao da moipovebs oqros, gasuli wlebi aseve rTuli aRmoCnda. saharis samxreTis afrikis qveynebSi fasebis dacemam regionis vaWrobis pirobebis 16%-iani vardna (eqsportis fasis Tanafardoba importis fasTan) gamoiwvia. am qveynebma Seamcires xarjebi, ramac maTi ekonomikuri zrda gaanaxevra. 2016 wels nigeria recesiaSi Sevida, samxreT afrikis respublikam ki analogiuri xvedri gaWirvebiT aicila Tavidan. orive qveyanaSi ekonomikuri zrda mosaxleobis zrdis temps CamorCa, ris Sedegadac aq mosaxleoba

saSualod ufro gaRaribda. afro-pesimistebisTvis es krizisi TvalsaCino demonstraciaa imisa, rom kontinenti momwyvdeulia bumisa da momdevno depresiis resursebis `karuselSi~ (resource-fuelled rollercoaster), rac mis ekonomikas asustebs, kvalificirebul axalgazrdebs emigraciisken ubiZgebs da demokratias Zirs uTxris, radgan sasowarkveTil adamianebs gadatrialebebisa da ajanyebebis mxardaWeris stimuli uCndebaT. da mainc, arsebobs imedis safuZveli, rom 2017 wels afrikis araerTi qveyana realur nabijebs gadadgams, raTa `resursebis wyevlidan~ Tavi daixsnas. dasawyisisTvis sabirJo saqonelze fasebis vardnas yvela qveyana Tanabrad ar dauzianebia. zogierTi maTgani, rogorebicaa kenia da uganda, awarmoebs saWiro raodenobiT sawvavis imports da maT xels aZlevT navTobis dabali fasebi: savaraudod, maTi ekonomikis zrdis tempi 2017 wels moimatebs. realurad, 17 qveyana, romlebzec afrikis mosaxleobis daaxloebiT meoTxedi modis, iafi energiis gamo krizisisgan wminda sargebels miiRebs. maTi swrafad mzardi ekonomika, romelTa ZiriTadi nawilic weliwadSi 5-10%-iT izrdeba, inovaciebiT sazrdoobs; siaxleebi moicavs mobilur fuls, kerZo skolebs, sadac bavSvebs TveSi $6-iT nakleb fasad aswavlian, da iaf mzis batareebs, romlebic soflebis macxovreblebs sakmarisi eleqtroenergiiT uzrunvelyofs imisaTvis, rom kviraSi mxolod ramdenime dol-

jonaTan rozentali: afrikis redaqtori, The Economist

oqro (aSS dolari/trois uncia)

kakao (centi/girvanqa)

gadamuSavebuli kala (aSS dolari/girvanqa) gadamuSavebuli spilenZi (centi/girvanqa)

resursebis karuseli sabirJo saqonlis indeqsi 2008=100

nedli navTobi (brenti: aSS dolari/bareli)

*Sefaseba †prognozi wyaroebi: The Economist Intelligence Unit


74

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uCveulo politika deniel noulsi, nairobi

keniis arCevnebisTvis strategia icvleba

S

msoflio 2017

sgan gansxvavebiT, rodesac maT komfortulad gaimarjves, wyvils amjerad aqvs Tanamdebobrivi upiratesobebic da warmatebis momtani fulic, Tumca maTi strategia axalia. 2013 wels keniatam da rutom tomebs Soris arsebuli dayofiT isargebles, – amtkicebs nik Cismani oqsfordis universitetidan. imavdroulad, sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlom (ICC) orive liders 2007 wlis arCevnebis wina periodSi Zaladobis provocirebis braldeba wauyena. maT es garemoeba arCevnebSi upiratesobis mosapoveblad gamoiyenes: iTamaSes SiSze, rom garesamyaro kikuiusa (baton keniatas tomi) da kalenjinze (baton rutos tomi) SurisZiebas gegmavda. amjerad es strategia aRar gaamarTlebs, Tumca tomobrivi erTguleba kvlavac Zlieria. mas Semdeg, rac mowmeebi gauCinardnen an uaryves Tavisi Cveneba, 2014 wels batoni keniatas mimarT wayenebuli braldebebi SeCerda; xolo batoni rutos mimarT aRZruli sisxlis samarTlebrivi saqme 2016 wels daixura. sanacvlod, wyvili xalxs saerToerovnuli erTgulebisken mouwodebs. maTi partia, saxelwodebiT `iubile~, seqtemberSi daarsda, suahilis enaze Se-

esaZloa, Tu ar CavTvliT inglisur fexburTs, ar arsebobs Tema, romelic kenielebs politikaze metad aqvT akviatebuli. agvistoSi diskusia kulminacias miaRwevs, radgan qveyanaSi sayovelTao arCevnebi imarTeba – saprezidento, saparlamento da adgilobrivi xelisuflebis mTeli rigi poziciebis dasakaveblad. bevri autsaideri imeds ZiriTadad imaze amyarebs, rom xmis micemis procesi SedarebiT samarTlianad da Zaladobis gareSe warimarTeba, 2007 wels Catarebuli arCevnebisgan gansxvavebiT, rodesac SetakebebSi 1200-mde adamiani daiRupa. Tumca, akviatebuli CvevebiT Sepyrobili kenielebi ukve imis Sesaxeb saubroben, Tu ra mniSvneloba eqneba Sedegebs 2022 wels dagegmili Semdegi arCevnebisTvis. saprezidento postze xelaxali arCevisTvis ibrZvis uhuru keniata, romelic pirvelad 2013 wels iqna arCeuli, mis TanamebrZolTan – viceprezident uiliam rutosTan erTad; arsebobs eWvi, rom isini aliansSi imyofebian keniaSi arsebul tomobriv dajgufebebTan, rac naklebad damajerebelia. maTi metoqe, savaraudod, raila odinga, veterani opoziciuri politikosi iqneba, romelic prezidentis postisTvis 1997, 2007 da 2013 wlebSi iyrida kenWs; misi aliansi – `koalicia reformebisa da demokratiisaTvis~, qveyanaSi yvelaze didi arasamTavrobo partiaa. naklebad mosalodnelia, rom keniata da ruto damarcxdebian. wina arCevnebi- erTobis Zala

2017 mokled kenia mimoqcevaSi uSvebs axal banknotebs da monetebs, raTa Seasrulos 2010 wlis konstituciis moTxovna, romelic erovnul valutaze portretebis gamosaxvas krZalavs

arad uyuron televizors da datenon telefonebi. afrikis mraval kuTxeSi ganaxlebadi energia dRes ufro swrafad viTardeba, vidre wiaRiseulze dafuZnebuli energiis wyaroebi, rac afrikas Sanss aZlevs, Zalian swrafad gadavides sufTa energiaze da gaTavisufldes gazisa da naxSiris fasebis kaprizebisgan. magaliTad, keniaSi 2017 wels dasruldeba afrikis udidesi qaris eleqtrosadguris mSenebloba, romelic qveynis eleqtroenergiis 18%-s gamoimuSavebs.

axla mainc nu ahyvebiT cdunebas wyevlisgan Tavis daxsnis TvalsazrisiT Tanabrad mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri Zvrebi mimdinareobs afrikis navTobis umsxviles eqsportior zogierT qveyanaSi. nigeria xangrZlivi periodis manZilze TiTqmis yvelafris imports awarmoebda – brinjidan pomidvramde, radgan is ukonkurenciod maRali gacvliTi kursis gamo ver axerxebda sakuTari navTobis simdidris realizebas; mas Semdeg, rac xelisuflebam valutis kurss dawevis saSualeba misca, is xels uwyobs fermebSi, gadamamuSavebel qarxnebsa da infrastruqturaSi investiciebis ganxorcielebas, raTa sasof-

qmnili sloganiT, rac niSnavs: `yvelani erTad~. partiis mizania, ori lideris Temebis farglebs gareT mxardamWerTa wre gaafarTovos. erT-erTi Sefaruli amocana ki is gaxlavT, rom batoni odinga, romelic yvelaze Zlieri mxardaWeriT sakuTari tomis – luos mxridan sargeblobs, erTi calkeuli jgufis kandidatad warmoaCinos. garda amisa, bevri kenieli eWvobs, rom Cafiqrebulia gacilebiT didi mizani – baton rutos, romelsac xangrZlivi drois manZilze sastik traibalistad aRiqvamdnen, ufro vrceli gasaqani mieces. farTod gavrcelebuli azriT, mas surs 2022 wels mmarTvelobis sadaveebi gadaibaros, rodesac batoni keniata dakavebul Tanamdebobas datovebs; am miznis misaRwevad mas Tavisi garemocvis gareT mokavSireebis Zebna mouwevs. am SiSs Tavad baton keniatas banakSic iziareben. marTalia, 2007 wlis Semdeg orive maTgani sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos braldebuli aRmoCnda, magram im arCevnebSi batoni ruto baton keniatas konkurenti iyo da sulac ar aris aucilebeli, es ori politikosi erTmaneTs endobodes. arCevnebi, savaraudod, gaimarTeba maSinve, rogorc ki kuluarebs miRma memkvidreobisTvis brZola dasruldeba. magram Tavad xmis micemis procesi mSvidi da prognozirebadi iqneba. keniaSi investorebi Svebas igrZnoben: 2007 wlis sisxlisRvris gameorebis SiSi ekonomikas azianebs (Tumca mas aranakleb vnebs mTavrobis mier gaweuli uzarmazari xarjebi). marTlac, zambiisa da gabonis ZaladobiT daRdasmuli arCevnebidan erTi wlis Semdeg, keniis arCevnebs optimisturi TvaliTac ki SeiZleba SevxedoT. magram, samwuxarod, Zaladobis Tavidan acilebam SesaZloa mxolod gadaavados Zaladoba. n deniel noulsi: afrikis korespondenti, The Economist

lo-sameurneo produqcia bazarze droulad moxvdes da ar gafuWdes. am RonisZiebebis Sedegad nigeriis sursaTis importi ukve ganaxevrda da naturaluri meurneobiT dakavebuli milionobiT fermeris saqmianoba TandaTan komerciul xasiaTs iZens. yovelive amis miuxedavad, `resursebis wyevlisgan~ Tavis daxsna ioli ar aris. 2017 wlis Sua xanebSi kenia navTobis eqsports daiwyebs. aseve cnobili gaxdeba, ganaxorcielebs Tu ara Anadarko – amerikuli kompania, $15-miliardian investicias mozambikis sanapiroze, bolo aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi aRmoCenili erT-erTi udidesi gazis sabados asamoqmedeblad. ganas ekonomikuri zrdis maCvenebeli gaormagdeba mas Semdeg, rac am qveyanaSi navTobisa da gazis warmoeba sruli datvirTviT amuSavdeba. Tumca es mTavrobebi dganan cdunebis winaSe, daeyrdnon wiaRiseuli sawvavidan miRebul Semosavlebs da gadadon aucilebeli reformebi, rac maT ekonomikas ufro gaxsnils da konkurentunarians gaxdis. ase rom, zogierTi qveyana 2017 wels gamoiyenebs, raTa Seamsubuqos sabirJo saqonelze sakuTari damokidebuleba, sxvebi ki cdunebas ver gaeqcevian. n


afrika

msoflio 2017

CamoecaleT gogonebs gzidan

a

dvili ar aris, iyo gogona, gansakuTrebiT – afrikaSi. es uSualo gamocdilebidan vici: rogorc axalgazrda qalma da samxreT afrikis istoriis mRelvare droebis TviTmxilvelma, arsebuli SesaZleblobebiT visargeble da xorci Sevasxi Cems ocnebebs, Semeqmna musika da myoloda ojaxi. me vamayob imiT, risi miRwevac SevZeli, magram, samwuxarod, mTel afrikaSi uamrav gogonas vxvdebi, visac is Sansi ar gaaCnia, rac me. maT dasaxmareblad saWiro ar aris rTuli ram movimoqmedoT: mxolod gzidan unda CamovecaloT. Zalian bevri gogona fundamentur uflebebze wvdomisas kvlavac dabrkolebebs awydeba. Tu msoflioSi marTlac arsebobs survili imisa, rom miRweul iqnas usafrTxoebisa da keTildReobis sferoebSi gaeros mdgradi ganviTarebis miznebi (sdgs), axalgazrda qalebis talantebiTa da energiiT unda visargebloT, amisTvis ki, upirvelesad, maT winaSe aRmarTuli barierebi unda moixsnas. Cemi azriT, sami sfero gansakuTrebiT momwifebulia cvlilebisTvis: ganaTleba, jandacva da sanitaria. cvlilebebi 2017 wels unda daiwyos. pirveli prioriteti ganaTlebaa. bavSvobaSi brZola miwevda imisaTvis, rom ganaTleba sakuTar enaze mimeRo. mas Semdeg bevri ram gaumjobesda. mTel msoflioSi ufro meti gogona swavlobs skolebSi, vidre odesme. magram dawyebiTi ganaTlebis kuTxiT mniSvnelovani miRwevebis miuxedavad, saSualo skolasa da universitetSi gacilebiT naklebi raodenobiT gogona iricxeba, vidre biWi. saharis samxreTiT mdebare afrikaSi saSualo ganaTlebis mxriv Tanafardoba Seadgens 86 gogonas 100 biWze. ra aris amis mizezi? saswavlo procesSi CarTvisas gogonebis winaSe xSirad iseTi barierebi aRimarTeba, romlebTanac biWebs iSviaTad uwevT gamklaveba. iseT adgilebSi, rogoricaa gvinea da nigeri, yvelaze mdidar biWebs minimum samjer meti Sansi aqvT, iaron skolaSi, vidre Rarib gogonebs. socialuri da kulturuli normebi, rogoricaa naadrevi qorwineba da orsuloba, aseve vaJebis mimarT mSoblebis mikerZoebuli damokidebuleba, gogonebs xSirad aiZulebT miatovon swavla. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis socialurma institutebma da genderis indeqsma daadgines, rom qveynebSi, sadac zogadad qalTa mimarT diskriminaciis done ufro maRalia, ganviTarebis maCveneblebi SedarebiT dabalia. maT Sorisaa ganaTlebac. amis miuxedavad Cven viciT, rogor davangrioT es barierebi: sxva sakiTxebTan erTad saWiroa gavaumjobesoT saskolo infrastruqtura, xeli SevuwyoT genderulad mgrZnobiare saswavlo programebis danergvas, xelmisawvdomi gavxadoT skolaSi swavlis Rirebuleba da bolo movuRoT bavSvTa qorwinebas. momavali weli umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi bevr siaxles gvimzadebs. maT Sorisaa nigeriis qalaq sagbamaSi afrikis universitetis gaxsna, umaRlesi ganaTlebis regionuli virtualuri institutis daarseba da samxreT afrikis respublikaSi swavlis safasuris SemcirebisTvis axali brZolebi. modi, aseTive didi Zalisxmeva yvelgan mivmarToT, yvela gogonasTvis sabazo ganaTlebis uzrunvelyofis xelSewyobaze. meore prioritetia janmrTeloba. infeqciuri daavadebebi, rogoricaa aiv/Sidsi, tuberkulozi da malaria, da kvebis ukmarisobasTan dakavSirebuli pirobebi, ufro metad zemoq-

medeben gogonebsa da axalgazrda qalebze – rogorc dazaralebulebze, aseve rogorc sxvebze mzrunvelebze. es skolaSi siaruls an muSaobas maTTvis gacilebiT problemurs xdis. msofliom uzarmazar progress miaRwia aiv/Sidsis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi, magram saSualo da dabalSemosavlian qveynebSi is qalebisTvis erT-erT yvelaze momakvdinebel infeqciur daavadebad rCeba. afrikaSi srulwlovanTa Soris axali infeqciebis 25% 15-24 wlis asakis qalebze modis. iseTi organizaciebi, rogoricaa Sidsis, tuberkulozisa da malariis winaaRmdeg brZolis globaluri fondi, mxars uWeren programebs, romlebSic gaTvaliswinebulia qalTa saWiroebebi; aucilebelia imave kuTxiT erovnul da adgilobriv doneze reagireba. mdgradi ganviTarebis miznebSi asaxulia is, rom arasakmarisi kvebis faruli epidemia Zirs uTxris qalTa keTildReobis yvela aspeqts, avadmyofobisadmi ufro midrekils xdis, asustebs maT mier mSobiarobis gadatanis unars da seriozulad zemoqmedebs maTi Svilebis janmrTelobaze. magram Cven ver movaxerxeT arasakmarisi kvebis aRmofxvraSi investireba. Cven enTuziazmiT unda davuWiroT mxari `moxsenebas globaluri nutriciis Sesaxeb~, – saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis meqanizms, romelic adgens reproduqciuli asakis qalebSi anemiis Sesamcireblad aucilebeli miznobrivi maCveneblebis CarCos da maT Sesasruleblad saWiro RonisZiebebsac afinansebs.

mankieri wris dasruleba

dabolos: mesame prioritetia sanitaria. savaraudod, 2.4 miliardi adamiani saTanado sanitariuli pirobebis gareSe cxovrobs. saharis samxreTiT mdebare mTel regionSi es axalgazrda qalebs yoveldRiurad uzarmazar dabrkolebebs uqmnis. skolaSi adekvaturi saSualebebis ararseboba xSirad aiZulebs gogonebs Raribi ojaxebidan, menstruaciis dros yovelTviurad gaacdinon gakveTilebi. es zrdis saswavlo programidan maTi CamorCenisa da sabolood skolis mitovebis albaTobas. Tavis gatanis mizniT maT sul ufro xSirad uwevT iZulebiT sqesobriv kavSirebSi Cabma. ufro didia gaTxovebis an axalgazrda asakSi bavSvebis yolis albaToba, rac garTulebebis risks zrdis. mcirdeba maTi dasaqmebis perspeqtivebi da, Sesabamisad, izrdeba aiv-iT inficirebis riski; aseve albaToba imisa, rom maTi Svilebic siRaribeSi gaizrdebian. sanitaruli pirobebis gaumjobesebaSi investiciebis naklebobiT biWebic zaraldebian, magram gamowvevebi, romlebsac es garemoeba gogonebs uqmnis, ufro xangrZlivi uaryofiTi efeqtis mqonea. saerTaSoriso donorebs da arasamTavrobo organizaciebs bevrad metis gakeTeba SeuZliaT, magram 2017 wels saharis samxreTiT, maT Soris, keniaSi, ruandasa da kongos demokratiul respublikaSi, dagegmili 12 saparlamento da saprezidento arCevnebis gaTvaliswinebiT, politikosebs aqvT SesaZlebloba da pasuxismgebloba, gogonebis ganviTarebis winaSe mdgom am barierebze gaamaxvilon yuradReba. garkveuli dabrkolebebi, romelTa gadalaxva me miwevda, ukve warsuls Cabarda. miuxedavad amisa, dRevandelobis axalgazrda qalTa winaSe, romlebsac swyuriaT hqondeT Sansi, rom ukeTesi msoflio aaSenon, jer kidev aRmarTulia uTanasworobis barierebi. modi, nu SevukvecavT maT frTebs da mivceT aRmasvlis saSualeba. n

msofliom unda daangrios barierebi, romlebic gogonebs warmatebis miRwevis gzaze eRobeba, — acxadebs ivon Caka Caka — momRerali da damfuZnebeli fondisa Princess of Africa Foundation

viciT, rogor davangrioT es barierebi: gavaumjobesoT saskolo infrastruqtura, xeli SevuwyoT genderulad mgrZnobiare saswavlo programebis danergvas, skolaSi swavlis Rirebuleba xelmisawvdomi gavxadoT da bolo movuRoT bavSvTa qorwinebas

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aseve seqciaSi: gasuli wlebis gaumarTlebeli varaudebi antiglobalistebis aRzeveba ubralod, SesaZlebelia... saetapo mniSvnelobis monacemebi moqnili damokidebuleba genderis

mimarT SvedeTis `H dRis~ gakveTilebi damaintrigebeli TariRebi da iubileebi jorj kluni da jon prendergasti: gadaketeT naRdi fulis wyaro, SeaCereT konfliqti

birTvuli iaraRis gavrcelebis daweuli barieri 2017 mokled

meTiu simondsi

gaeros axali generaluri mdivani antonio guteresi xuTwliani vadiT iwyebs muSaobas

droa, kvlav daviwyoT bombze nerviuloba

meTiu simondsi: Tavdacvis rubrikis redaqtori, The Economist

s

abednierod, jer isev Sors varT imisgan, rom 1945 wlis Semdeg pirvelad, `sibrazis morevSi~ birTvuli iaraRi gamoiyenon. Tumca 2017 wels amis albaTobis sruli ugulebelyofa aRar gamova. mware simarTle isaa, rom birTvuli iaraRis safrTxe axla ufro didia, vidre odesme civi omis dasrulebis Semdeg. dRevandel dRes riskebi geopolitikuri mcdari gaTvlebisa Tu moulodnelad gamoCenili aqtorebis mxridan – saxelmwifoebi iqneba es Tu teroristebi, meoce saukunis bolo periodis sirTuleebs aWarbebs. teroris civiomiseuli balansisTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo riskis Tavidan acilebis maRali done orive mxridan. kubis saraketo krizisisa da cru gangaSis ramdenime talRis gamovlis Semdeg, rasac kinaRam ucabedi armagedoni mohyva, potenciuri birTvuli krizisebisa da ubeduri SemTxvevebis marTvis procedurebi sakmaod efeqtur usafrTxo qselad Camoyalibda. mis nawilad SegviZlia ganvixiloT pirdapiri kavSiris cnobili `cxeli xazi~ vaSingtonsa da moskovs Soris. dRes es qseli aRar funqcionirebs. civi omis dasrulebis Semdeg usafrTxoebis protokolebi saWirod aRar miiCnies, Tumca vladimir putinis ruseTsa da dasavleTs Soris sul ufro metad antagonisturi urTierTobis fonze protokolebis usargeblobis gadawyvetileba naadrevad, metic – usafuZvlod mSvidad gamoiyureba. bolo wlebSi ruseTi Zalian mtkiced cdilobs dawios zRvari, rac moicavs garemoebebs, romlis drosac mas SeeZleba birTvuli iaraRiT daemuqros an sulac gamoiyenos birTvuli iaraRi. ruseTisTvis zesaxelmwifos statusis aRdgenisken swrafvisas putinma gamoamJRavna, rom riskze wasvlasac ar moerideba. 2014 wels yirimis aneqsia da aRmosavleT ukrainaSi SeniRbulad SeWra kargi magaliTi iyo imis dasanaxad, Tu razea igi wamsvleli imis

dasacavad, rasac ruseTis sasicocxlo interesebad miiCnevs. garda amisa, putinsa da qveynis sagareo politikis gunds akviatebuli SiSi aqvT, rom dasavleTsa da gansakuTrebiT amerikas ruseTis damorCileba surT. amas erTvis winaaRmdegobrivi rwmena imisa, rom mTavari konfrontaciis dros gadamwyveti sityva mainc ruseTze (da putinze) iqneba. bolo periodSi putinma yvela SesaZlebloba gamoiyena msofliosTvis imis Sesaxseneblad, rom ruseTs TviTonve aqvs sakmarisi birTvuli resursi amerikis gasanadgureblad da rom garkveuli garemoebebis SemTxvevaSi man es arsenali SesaZloa gamoiyenos. oficialurad, qveynis birTvuli doqtrinis mixedviT, ruseTi birTvul iaraRs gamoiyenebs mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu masze xorcieldeba Tavdasxma arabirTvuli iaraRiT, rac saxelmwifos ganadgurebiT emuqreba. am garemoebis kidev ufro cbieri versia amJamad miRebul politikas warmoadgens. konfrontaciaSi, sadac ruseTi miiCnevda, rom sasworze misi sasicocxlo interesebi devs, mas SesaZloa moexdina mdgomareobis `eskalacia Semdgomi de-eskalaciisTvis~. mTeli azri is gaxlavT, rom ruseTi gamoiyenebda mcire taqtikur birTvul iaraRs mtris jarebis winaaRmdeg da amiT imis demonstrirebas moaxdenda, rom gamarjvebis mosapoveblad ufro didi birTvuli iaraRis gamoyenebasac ar moerideboda. Teoriulad, dasavleTis demokratiuli qveynebis liderebi, romlebic riskis mimarT Zalze naklebad tolerantulebi arian, aiZulebdnen Tavisi qveynis xelmZRvanelobas, rom ukan daexiaT. am konteqstSi ruseTis mier estoneTis, latviisa da litvis – NATO-s wevri qveynebis Seviwroeba, romlebic ruseTs esazRvrebian da romelTa mosaxleobis didi nawili rusulenovania, sworedac rom muqaras waagavs. baltiispireTis qveynebis sazRvrebTan axlos ruseTis samxedro xomaldebi sacdel sahaero Tavdasxmebs, kiberTavdasxmebs axorcieleben, SesaSineblad gamiznul samxedro wvrTnebs atareben, politikur diversiebs awyoben da gamudmebul propagandas ewevian rusuli satelevizio sivrcidan. ukrainisgan


saerTaSoriso

msoflio 2017

fardaaxdili deniel franklini

gasuli wlis gaumarTlebeli varaudebi

k

onspiraciis Teoriis mimdevrebi akvirdebodnen Jurnalis `msoflio 2016 wels~ ydas, romelzec personebis kolaJi iyo gamosaxuli. onlainganxilvebSi maT misi `daSifruli mniSvnelobisa da kabaluri simbolizmis~ interpretacia gaakeTes da isic ki dauSves, rom Cven viwinaswarmetyveleT Sokismomgvreli srola floridis Statis qalaq orlandos geiklubSi 2016 wlis ivnisSi. es yovelive eyrdnoba warmodgenas, rom `ekonomists~ momavalSi `sarkmeli aqvs gaWrili~. netav marTlac ase iyos. Jurnalis ydas bevri ram unda gaeTvaliswinebina da qalebi (angela merkeli, hilari klintoni, janet ieleni) win da centralur adgilas moeTavsebina. amiT xazs gausvamda, rom isini wlis mravali didi gadawyvetilebis epicentrSi moeqceodnen. warsulSi Tu gavixedavT, Jurnalis ydas ori mniSvnelovani persona aklia – erTi qalia da erTic kaci. qali, romelic ydaze warmodgenili ar aris, tereza meia – britaneTis amJamindeli premierministri. britanuli politikis Cveneuli analizis mixedviT, 2016 wlis bolos devid qemerons Wiqa wiTeli Rvino unda aewia Ceqersis rezidenciaSi, da rogorc mis ramdenime winamorbeds, politi-

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kur landSaftze Tavisi mtbrivi azris SorsmWvretel kice pozicia daefiqsirebina. gamokiTxvebs, romlebSic realurad ki qemeroni gadadRrma politikuri ukmayoga evrokavSiridan gamosvlis fileba ikveTeboda: `politi(breqsitis) referendumSi kuri konteqsti, romelsac damarcxebis Semdeg. marTalia dabali ndoba axasiaTebs, vambobdiT, rom brZolis bedi waagavs stresis qveS myof mis xelSi iyo; vafrTxilebfiziologiur garemos, sadiT, rom Tu zedmetad miendac invaziuri saxeobebi doboda negatiur kampanias, xaroben~. iarsebebda imisi riski, rom Cveni varaudebis didi `saukeTeso mimarTulebebi~ nawili gamarTlda. marTali maTTvis daeTmo, visac evro- sad aris donaldi? viyaviT, roca velodiT, rom kavSiris datoveba surda. Tumca Semcirdeboda SiSi CineTis gvegona, rom britanelebi, mcire upirate- gardauvali kraxis Sesaxeb; rom axali didi sobiT mainc, xmas evrokavSirSi darCenas bazrebidan indoeTs eqneboda yvelaze miscemdnen. swrafi zrda; rom obligaciebis ukugeba is kaci ki, romelic ydaze warmodge- gansakuTrebulad dabal zRvarze darCenili ar aris, donald trampia. Cven ver boda. Cven viwinaswarmetyveleT, rom barak SevZeliT, gvewinaswarmetyvela mis mier obamas reitingebi kidev ufro gaizrderespublikuri partiis saTaveSi moqce- boda. es asec moxda. aseve viwinaswarmeva da triumfaluri gamarjveba hilari tyveleT, rom arCevnebSi sadiq xani gaimarklintonze. Cven gvegona, rom respubli- jvebda da londonis meri gaxdeboda. esec kuri partia sabolood `iseT kandidats asrulda. Cven aRvniSneT, rom virtualuri airCevda, romelic misaRebi iqneboda didi realoba wlis yvelaze popularuli tedonorebisa da partiis Zalauflebiani qnologiuri tendencia iqneboda. amavdroulad Cven saTanadod ver brokerebisTvis, magaliTad, floridis senator marko rubios msgavs kandidats~. SevafaseT amboxebis talRa politikaSi. miuxedavad amisa, amomrCevelTa bra- gvegona, rom dilma rusefi SeinarCunebda ziani da antiglobalisturi ganwyoba braziliis prezidentis posts, Tumca is `gverdiT CaaCoCes~. Cven ver ganvWvriteT moulodneli ar yofila. Jurnalis Sesapopulisti diego dutertes gamarjveba val nawilSi warmodgenilma liderma xazi filipinebis saprezidento arCevnebSi. is gausva liberaluri internacionalizmis pirebi ki, vinc Cvens ydaze warmodgenilni mzard safrTxeebs. mowveulma avtorma ar arian, am wlis Sesaxeb bevr rameze me– dag milerma gloubsqenidan, amerikis tyveleben. n saarCevno sezonze `SejanjRareba~ iwinaswarmetyvela. igi eyrdnoboda sazogadoe- deniel franklini: redaqtori, The World in 2017

gansxvavebiT, baltiispireTis qveynebi moskovisTvis gansakuTrebul strategiul interess ar warmoadgens, Tumca kremls araferi mianiWebda imaze did sixaruls, vidre am qveynebis gamoyeneba NATO-s mexuTe muxlis araefeqturobis dasamtkiceblad. mexuTe muxli NATOs wevr qveynebs avaldebulebs, rom Tavdasxma romeliRac maTganze ise miiRon, rogorc Tavdasxma yvelaze. `kremlis binadris~ mcdari gaTvlebis diapazoni, rasac SeiZleba birTvuli dapirispireba mohyves, sagrZnoblad gaizarda arCevnebSi donald trampis gamarjvebis Semdeg. ivlisSi trampma NATO „SeaJrJola“, roca eWvi gamoTqva imasTan dakavSirebiT, surda Tu ara baltiispireTis qveynebis dacva ruseTis agresiisgan.

Jami gamocdebisa CrdiloeT korea sxva saxis birTvul safrTxes warmoadgens. 2016 wlis dasawyisSi man meoTxe birTvuli cda Caatara. mas Semdeg uprecedento tempiT uSvebs sacdel raketebs, risi kulminacia agvistoSi (ramdenime warumatebeli cdis Semdeg) wyalqveSa navidan warmatebiT gaSvebuli balistikuri raketaa. aseve mexuTe da yvelaze didi birTvuli cda seqtemberSi, rac amavdroulad imis dasturicaa, rom samxreT koreas qobinis dapataraveba imdenad SeuZlia, rom raketas moargos. iaponia da aSS Relaven, rom CrdiloeT koreis xelSi sul ufro meti saxis raketaa. Tumca amaze metad sanerviulo axla is unda iyos, rom CrdiloeT korea SesaZloa samxreTis mezobelze Tavdasxmas gegmavdes, Tanac iseT Tavdasxmas, romelic maRali donis antisaraketo sistemis garRvevas SeZlebs. eqspertebs birTvul sakiTxebSi miaCniaT, rom CrdiloeT koream birTvuli sabrZolo qobinebi Sesa-

Zloa Zalian mokle manZilze gasaSveb sistemebze daayenos, rac didi raodenobiT aqvs. Tuki igi raketebis ramdenime wyebas erTdroulad gaisvris, sadac ZiriTadad arabirTvuli da SigadaSig birTvulqobiniani raketebi iqneba, mezobeli qveynis saraketo Tavdacvis sistemam SeiZleba, Tivis zvinSi nemsebis msgavsad, isini ver aRmoaCinos. Tumca es taqtika rom efeqturi iyos, brZaneba da kontroli frontis wina xazidan unda ganxorcieldes. es ki zrdis imis SesaZleblobas, rom daZabulobis Jams, roca reJims Zalian SeeSindeba `sasikvdilo dartymis~, birTvuli iaraRis gamoyenebis zRvari imdenad dabla daiwevs, rom erTi Tavqariani sardalic sakmarisi iqneba am brZanebis gasacemad. CrdiloeT koreis axalgazrda diqtatori – kim Cen ini, SesaZloa racionaluri da frTxili iyos, Tumca araerTi mtkicebulebaa, rac sapirispiros adasturebs. dabolos: miuxedavad imisa, rom birTvuli iaraRi jer arcerT teroristul dajgufebas ar Caugdia xelSi, msoflios birTvuli masalis maragis 0.01 procentis moparvac sakmarisi iqneboda imis gamosawvevad, rasac harvardis belfordis centri `globalur katastrofas~ uwodebs. msoflio istoriaSi jer arcerT teroristul danayofs ar hqonia imxela finansuri resursi da teqnikuri SesaZleblobebi, rac Tundac axlos miva `islamur saxelmwifosTan~. radganac 2017 wels `islamuri saxelmwifo~ gaagrZelebs teritoriis dakargvas ZalebisTvis, romlebsac dasavleTi zurgs umagrebs, gaizrdeba maTi motivacia, rom STambeWdavad gamanadgurebeli nabiji gadadgan. maTi warmatebis Sansi Zalian mcirea, Tumca sakmarisi imisTvis, rom dasavleTis dazvervisa da uSiSroebis samsaxurebs koSmarad eqces imaze fiqri, Tu visi imedi gvaqvs maT SesaCereblad. n

2017 mokled dopingis sawinaaRmdego msoflio saagentom sxva nivTierebebTan erTad nikomorfini, gata inhibitorebi da molidustati akrZala


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antiglobalistebis aRzeveba gideon raxmani

Tavisufali vaWroba safrTxis winaSea

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msoflio 2017

saerTaSoriso

008 wels dawyebuli globaluri finansuri krizisis Semdeg pesimistebi globalizaciis sawinaaRmdego mniSvnelovan reaqcias winaswarmetyvelebdnen. aqamde maTi winaswarmetyveleba metwilad ar marTldeboda. Tumca, 2017 wels Tavisufali vaWrobisa da saerTaSoriso kapitalizmis sawinaaRmdego ganwyobis pirquSi prognozebi SesaZloa sabolood axdes. nacionalizmi da misi tyupiscali – proteqcionizmi, popularobas iZens. maT dasavleTis populisti politikosebis didi jgufi aZlevs biZgs. 2016 wels es tendencia donald trampma wamoiwyo dapirebiT, rom aSS-s yvelaferze win daayenebda; aseve muqariT, rom amerikis mowinave savaWro partniorebs, gansakuTrebiT aziis qveynebidan, did tarifebs dauwesebda. trampis fenomenis sapasuxod da amerikis memarcxeneTa proteqcionizmis talRis gamo, hilari klintonma Tavi valdebulad igrZno, gamosuliyo transwynarokeanuri partniorobis (TTP) winaaRmdeg. erT dros igi didi enTuziazmiT uWerda mxars am giganturi masStabis savaWro SeTanxmebas. Tavisi prezidentobis bolo kvirebis ganmavlobaSi barak obamam SesaZloa scados transwynarokeanuri partniorobis gatana dasamtkiceblad. Tumca 2017 wels am SeTanxmebis amoqmedeba mainc Soreul perspeqtivad moCans. transwynarokeanuri SeTanxmebis sirTuleebi emTxveva transatlantikuri savaWro da sainvesticio partniorobis (TTIP) SeTanxmebis sirTuleebs – esaa ufro naklebad koncentrirebuli Zalisxmeva evrokavSirsa da amerikas Soris axali farTomasStabiani savaWro garigebis gasaformeblad. am SemTxvevaSi uaryofiTi reaqcia ZiriTadad evropeli politikosebisgan modis. antiglobalistebi atlantis okeanis orive mxares ikreben Zalebs. evropaSic da amerikaSic centristi politikosebis bunebrivi midrekileba globalizaciis rwmenis SenarCuneba da saerTaSoriso vaWrobisa da investiciebis mxardaWeraa. Tumca centristebs Tavs esxmian memarjveneebi da memarcxeneebi. nacionalisturi memarjvene frTisTvis, romelsac, magaliTad, safrangeTis „nacionaluri frontis“ lideri marin le peni warmoadgens, saerTaSoriso savaWro garigebebi imis magaliTia, Tu rogor Ralatobs globalizebuli elita sakuTari qveynis mimarT meti mijaWvulobis mqone adamianis interesebs. ukiduresi memarcxeneebic msgavs gancxadebebs akeTeben, Tumca – sxva sityvebiT, da xazs usvamen gadasaxadebisTvis Tavis amridebeli mravalerovani kompaniebis siaveebs, rogorebicaa Uber da Apple. is, Tu rogor gaxda aqamde bundovani abreviaturebi TTP (transwynarokeanuri partnioroba) da TTIP (transatlantikuri savaWro da sainvesticio partnioroba) amerikisa da evrokavSiris yoveldRiuri politikuri cxovrebis nawili, mxolod adasturebs antiglobalisturi Zalebis siZlieres. 2017 wels am mxriv uaryofiTi reaqciebi gaizrdeba, radganac safrangeTSi, germaniasa da niderlandebSi arCevnebia dagegmili. politikosebis ZiriTadma nawilma ukve

daiwyo evropaSi arsebul axal ganwyobasTan adaptacia. germaniis social-demokratTa liderma sigmar imitom, rom gabrielma TTIP `mkvdar organizmad~ gamoacxada, safgaero ambobs ase, rangeTis prezidentma fransua olandma ki Tqva, rom 2017 saerTaSoriso amJamindeli formiT es SeTanxmeba misTvis miuRebewelia mdgradi lia. turizmisa da marTlac, globalizaciis mimarT uaryofiTi ganviTarebisTvis damokidebuleba axla iseTi intensiuria, rom 2017 wlis mTavari SekiTxva is ki ar iqneba, gaaformeben Tu ara did savaWro xelSekrulebebs, rogoricaa TTIP da TTP, aramed is, SeZleben Tu ara antiglobalistebi saerTaSoriso vaWrobisa da investiciebis xelSemwyobi ukve dadgenili wesebis gauqmebas. arsebobs mtkicebulebebi, rom es ukanaskneli mcire masStabiT amJamadac xorcieldeba.

2017 mokled

saiT uberavs vaWrobis sawinaaRmdego qari

gideon raxmani: sagareo sakiTxebis ufrosi mimomxilveli, Financial Times

saerTaSoriso kvleviTma jgufma Global Trade Alert daafiqsira, rom bolo 2 wlis ganmavlobaSi msoflios umsxvilesi ekonomikis mqone qveynebis klubSi, didi oceulis saxelmwifoebSi gaizarda miRebuli proteqcionistuli zomebis raodenoba. ZiriTad qveynebSi 2016 wlis Sua periodamde 350 proteqcionistuli zomis miReba aRiniSna. am cvlilebebs axal ambebSi didi aJiotaJi ar mohyolia. isini ufro regulaciebis doneze ganxorcielda an antidempingur procedurebs exeboda. amisgan gansxvavebiT, 2017 wels globalizaciuri wyobis sayrdenebis winaaRmdeg ufro meti maRali donis Zvraa mosalodneli. es gansakuTrebiT exeba Crdiloamerikuli Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebas (NAFTA), romelzec axlad arCeulma prezidentma trampma piroba dado, rom pirobebs Tavidan SeaTanxmebda an sulac aRar SeuerTdeboda am SeTanxmebas. trampis kampaniam gamokveTa adamianTa da saqonlis moZraobisTvis fizikuri barierebis Seqmnis popularoba aSS-sa da mis samxreTel mezobels – NAFTA-s wevr meqsikas Soris. amavdroulad, evropaSi britaneTis gasvlam evrokavSiridan wamoiwyo procesi, romelic TiTqmis namdvilad daarRvevs evrokavSiris erTiani bazris mTlianobas. 2017 wels britaneTis mTavroba daiwyebs evrokavSiridan gamosvlis formalur process. imis mixedviT, Tu rogor warimarTeba molaparakebebi, aman SesaZloa seriozuli axali barierebi Seqmnas biznesisa da migraciis sferoebSi. britaneTma garkveviT daafiqsira, rom apirebs evrokavSirsa da gaerTianebul samefos Soris xalxis Tavisufali gadaadgilebis SeCerebas. isic ki savsebiT mosalodnelia, rom britanelebs kvlav dasWirdeT vizebi evropaSi samuSaod. Tavis mxriv, evrokavSiri mtkiced dgas poziciaze, rom moqalaqeTa Tavisufali gadaadgileba ganuyofelia kapitalis, momsaxurebisa da saqonlis moZraobisgan. Tu britaneTi uars ityvis samuSao Zalis Tavisufal gadaadgilebaze, mas aseve mouwevs evropis erTiani bazridan gasvla. am SemTxvevaSi es gavlenas moaxdens finansur kompaniebze, romlebic evropis masStabiT londonidan muSaoben. yvelaze cud SemTxvevaSi amas SesaZloa mohyves tarifebis daweseba saqonlis moZraobaze britaneTsa da evrokavSirs Soris. nebismieri aseTi nabiji Zalian xelSemSleli iqneboda vaWrobisTvis. aseve, uaryofiT signals gaugzavnis mTel msoflios da imis demonstrirebas moaxdens, rom Tavisufali vaWrobis yvelaze kargad awyobili SeTanxmebebic ki SeiZleba dairRves antiglobalistebis aRzevebis Sedegad. n


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saetapo mniSvnelobis monacemebi jeims tozeri

2017 wlis potenciuri gardatexis momentebi evrokavSiri ubralod ki ar kargavs Tavis erT-erT msxvil wevrs, aramed msoflioSi misi ekonomikuri wona mcirdeba: 2017 wels, pirvelad istoriaSi, aziis ganviTarebadi ekonomikis qveynebis gamoSveba evrokavSirisas orjer gadaaWarbebs (diagrama 1). aziis qveynebi upiratesobas sicocxlis xangrZlivobis maCveneblebSic SeinarCuneben, Tumca singapurma SesaZloa gauswros iaponias 60 wels gadacilebuli adamianebis darCenili sicocxlis wlebis raodenobiT (diagrama 2). Sua aziasa da afrikaSi janmrTelobis sferos muSakebs poliomielitis aRmofxvris imedi aqvT. nigeriaSi, pakistansa da avRaneTSi virusi jer kidev aqtiuria, magram daavadebis SemTxvevebi nulamde davida (diagrama 3). agresiuli saprezidento maraTonis Semdeg amerikelebi SeiZleba daqanculad grZnobdnen Tavs, Tumca imaze dasvenebulebi iqnebian, vidre odesme. srulwlovanebma male SesaZloa ZilisTvis meti drois daTmoba SeZlon, vidre muSaobisTvis, WamisTvis da saxlis yoveldRiuri saqmisTvis (diagrama 4). SeTqmulebis Teoretikosebi mouTmenlad daelodebian oqtombers, roca jon f. kenedis mkvlelobis bolo samTavrobo Canawerebis gamoqveynebaa dagegmili. li harvi osvaldma prezidenti mokla, magram ratom mokla jek rubim Tavad osvaldi? sxva vinmem xom ar esrola kenedis cnobili balaxiani borcvidan? amasTan dakavSirebiT internetSi saZiebo moTxovnebis mkveTr zrdas elodeT (diagrama 5).

zomas mniSvneloba aqvs evrokavSiri Tu ganviTarebadi azia* evrokavSiris gamoSvebas plus ganviTarebad aziasTan SedarebiT, %

evrokavSiris ekonomika ganviTarebadi aziis ekonomikaze didia

evrokavSiris ekonomika ganviTarebadi aziis ekonomikaze mcirea

evrokavSiris ekonomika ganviTarebadi aziis ekonomikis naxevarze naklebia

*iaponiis, singapuris, avstraliis, axali zelandiisa da samxreT koreis garda †mSp-s msyidvelobiTi unaris paritetiT wyaro: saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi

jeims tozeri: monacemebis analitikosi, The Economist

sicocxlis xangrZlivobis zrda

ganuleba

60 wlis asakSi darCenili sicocxlis wlebi

poliomielitis aRricxuli SemTxvevebi

iaponia safrangeTi

singapuri

singapurelebi ufro didxans cocxloben?

wyaro: msoflio jandacvis organizacia

dasvenebulebi

wyaro: msoflio jandacvis organizacia

cnobismoyvareobis piki

jon f. kenedisTan dakavSirebuli Zieba Google-Si

muSaoba Tu Zili? muSaobisTvis, swavlisTvis, WamisTvis, saxlis saqmisTvis daTmobili saaTebi dRis ganmavlobaSi da ZilSi gatarebuli saaTebi; 15 welze meti asakis amerikelebi

wliuri saZiebo moTxovna, jon f. kenedisTan dakavSirebuli saZiebo moTxovnebis jami 2013 wels = 100 2017 w. oqtomberi,

muSaoba

jon f. kenedi

Zili

sawolSi ufro meti dro, vidre samsaxurSi?

wyaro: Sromis statistikis biuro

jon f. kenedis mkvlelobis Canawerebis gamoqveyneba

li harvi osvaldi jek rubi balaxiani borcvi wyaro: Google


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msoflio 2017

saerTaSoriso

airCie da nu daakonkreteb adam smiti

msoflio genderis mimarT moqnilma damokidebulebam moicva

2

017 wels jemi Supe SesaZloa pirveli amerikeli gaxdes, vinc miiRebs pasports, romelSic misi sqesi miTiTebuli ar iqneba. Mx Supe (jaris yofili serJanti mimarTvis am formas amjobinebs manamde miRebul mis, mister an misis formebs) apirebs, rom saxelmwifo departaments uCivlos, Tuki is mesame variants ar dauSvebs. `amas metwilad moZvelebuli kompiuteruli sistemebi aferxebs~, – ambobs Mx Supe. `sabuTebSi Cveulebriv mxolod ori ujraa mocemuli~. 2016 wels Mx Supe oregonis Statis sasamarTloSi mivida, rom garkveuli sabuTebi Seevso ise, rogorc sqesis Secvlis operaciis Semdeg Seefereba adamians. imis nacvlad, rom ori ujridan erT-erTi moeniSna, Mx Supem Cawera `arabinaruli~ (am identobas asaxeleben adamianebi, romlebic grZnoben, rom sakuTari fiziologiis miuxedavad, `kacisa~ da `qalis~ kategoriebis nazavs warmoadgenen). Mx Supe gaxda pirveli amerikeli, romelmac sakuTari genderi iuridiulad Secvala da gaxda `arabinaruli~.

erTi pirovneba, ori suli

naklebad damkvidrebul genderul identobebs amerikaSi xangrZlivi istoria aqvT. federaluri sasamarTloebis aSenebamde TaobebiT adre, 130-ze meti amerikeli aborigeni erebi aRiarebdnen `orsulian~ adamianebs, romlebsac mamakacebis maxasiaTeblebic hqondaT da qalebisac. sxvadasxva tomSi isini sxvadasxva rols asrulebdnen, magram umetesad Tanasworad aRiqmebodnen. anTropologi aRwers ve’vas, me-19 saukunis zunis tomis warmomadgenels, romelic `mamakacur, msajulisa da religiur funqciebsac~ asrulebda da `qalur movaleobebsac~, magaliTad – sarecxis darecxvas. bevri `orsuliani~ adamiani dResac cocxalia; sxva sazogadoebebSi mesame sqesis adamianebi misaRebni arian. magaliTad, meqsikaSi `muqsi~ an tailandSi `katoi~ an `qalabiWa~. CrdiloeT evropis qveynebi, rogoricaa SvedeTi (1972 wels) da niderlandebi (1985 wels), pirvelebi iyvnen, romlebmac moqalaqeebs iuridiulad genderis Secvlis nebarTva misces. Tumca xelisufleba am moTxovnis ganmcxadeblebs sTxovda `daemtkicebinaT~, rom maT mier dasaxelebuli genderis Sesabamisi cxovrebiT cxovrobdnen garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi da fizikuradac Secvliliyvnen, maT Soris – sterilizacia gaekeTebinaT. sxeulze yuradRebis gamaxvileba cxadyofs, rom saxelmwifoebs sqesi da genderi xSirad erevaT. `sqesi~ adamianis anatomias exeba, `genderi~ ki imis erTobliobaa, Tu rad grZnobs adamiani Tavs da rogor

savali zolebis Secvla adam robertsi

ra unda iswavlos msofliom SvedeTis mier ganxorcielebuli cvlilebisgan

2017 mokled pekini maspinZlobs bambukisa da rotangis palmis saerTaSoriso qselis kongress, romelic am mdgradi masalebis metad gamoyenebis waxalisebas cdilobs

adam robertsi: evropis biznesis korespondenti, The Economist

n

axevari saukunis win, kvira dRes, diliT adre SvedeTis avtomobilistebma ostaturi manevri Caatares. 1967 wlis 3 seqtemberi e.w. H dRe iyo – Hoegertrafik-is (`marjvena savali zoliT moZraobis~) dRe. me-18 saukunis Sua periodidan, britaneTis msgavsad, es qveyana transportis gadaadgilebaSi marcxena saval zols iyenebda, Tumca es 1950-iani wlebisTvis ukve miuRebeli da mouxerxebeli gaxda. skandinavieli mezoblebi marjvena savali nawilis adeptebi iyvnen da sazRvris gadakveTisas amis gamo sirTuleebi iqmneboda. amomrCevlebs ar moewonaT mimarTulebis Secvlis idea. maTma 83-ma procentma uaryofiTi pozicia daafiqsira 1955 wlis referendumSi. Tumca politikosebi yovelTvis valdebulad ar grZnoben Tavs, plebiscitis Sedegebi gaiTvaliswinon. 1963 wels parlamentma daavala komisias, momzadebuliyo mimarTulebis cvlilebisTvis. 1967 wlisTvis yvelaze gavrcelebuli popsimRerebi, stikerebi, devizebi da specialuri sacvlebic ki axsenebda Svedebs, rom marjvniv unda gaexviaT. yvelaferma saaTis meqanizmiviT imuSava: dilis 5 saaTamde arcerT manqanas ar mieca gadaadgilebis ufleba, Semdeg ki yvelam Secvala savali nawili. xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebma 360 aTasi sagzao niSani Secvales erT RameSi. keniam da pakistanma rva aTasi Camowerili Sveduri avtobusi miiRes, romlebsac karebi marcxena mxares hqonda. kvlevebma aCvena, rom avariebis raodenoba H dRis Semdeg maSinve Semcirda.

warmoadgens. 2015 wlis Semdeg irlandia ubralod sTxovs adamianebs (transgender Tu sxva individebs), sabuTebze miuTiTon, Tu romel genders miakuTvneben sakuTar Tavs. 2015 wels maltaSi da 2012 wels argentinaSi Sesabamisi kanonebis miRebis Semdeg adamianebs, Mx Supes msgavsad, SeuZliaT ganacxadon, rom isini arc mamakacebi arian da arc qalebi. britaneTis mTavrobam SesaZloa msgavsi kanoni 2017 wels miiRos. 2014 wels indoeTSi Catarebulma aRweram daaregistrira 490 aTasi `hijra~ anu adamiani, romelsac dabadebisas umetesad biWad aRiqvamen anatomiuri Taviseburebis gamo, magram romelic ufro qalurad iqceva. Tumca indoeTi `transgenderis~ gansazRvraSi sirTuleebs awydeba. es termini dasavleTSi ufro farTod gamoiyeneba. kanonmdeblebis winaSe arsebuli kanonproeqti transgender adamianebs arc mamakacebad gansazRvravs da arc qalebad da arTmevs imis uflebas, rom TviTidentifikacia moaxdinon. aqtivistebi gaagrZeleben brZolas imisTvis, rom Statebma cnon maTi ufleba, Tavi ise aRweron, rogorc surT da daamtkicon, rom im niSnebSi, rac adamianebs gamoarCevs, genderi ufro susti identifikatoria, vidre, magaliTad, simaRle an Tvalis feri. didi albaTobiT Mx Supe-s msgavsad bevri moiqceva. n adam smiti: sazogadoebis redaqtoris moadgile, The Economist

amisgan garkveuli gakveTilebis miReba naxevari saukunis Semdegac SeiZleba. erTi gakveTili gamovlenil preferenciebs exeba, an imas, Tu ramdenad kargad SeuZlia xalxs imis warmodgena, rom raime rutinuli Seicvalos. Svedebi mniSvnelovnad ewinaaRmdegebodnen avtomobilebis marTvis axali Cvevebis gamomuSavebis ideas, Tumca mxrebis erTi aCeCva iyo sakmarisi; maT Secvlili realoba swrafad miiRes. meore gakveTili: sxva qveynebma aseve pragmatulad gaarTves amas Tavi. islandia marjvena mimarTulebaze 1968 wels gadavida. mas mihyva gana da nigeria 1970-iani wlebis dasawyisSi. samoa 2009 wels marcxena mimarTulebaze gadaerTo, mis maxloblad myofi avstraliis msgavsad. msoflioSi, romelic sul ufro pataravdeba, kidev rogori saxis H dReebi an harmonizaciis Cvevebia aucilebeli? yvelam, visac erTxel mainc mouwia sazRvargareT leptopis an telefonis datena, kargad icis, ra sisulelea msoflioSi minimum 15 odnav gansxvavebuli tipis sarWisa da Canglis arseboba. igive exeba sxvadasxva tipis sazomebs – modi, yvela SevTanxmdeT metrikul sazomebze. xalxi axla saerTaSoriso saitebidan iwers receptebs da sazRvargareT regularulad yidulobs fexsacmelsa Tu kabebs. ratom unda iwvalon mzareulebma imis damaxsovrebaze, Tu rogor gamoTvalon unciebi, gramebi, naxevari Wiqebi da meoTxedi kaTxebi? an ratom unda cdilobdnen myidvelebi imis garkvevas, Tu maTTvis nacnobi ra zoma gamodis sazRvargareTuli zomebi? ufro meti msgavseba sicocxlis gadarCenas SeZlebda. gWirdebaT policia? malaviSi akrifeT 997, gabonSi ki – 1730; indoeTSi 100, pakistanSi 15, CineTSi 110, amerikaSi 911, britaneTSi 999. kidev kargi, rom evrokavSirSi – harmonizaciis did mxardamWerSi, erTi da igive nomeria: 112, romelic yvelgan muSaobs, britaneTSic ki, jer kidev. n


cxovrebis erTi weli lourens bleri

2017 wlis iubileebis gzamkvlevi eqspertisgan

2

017 wels ori mniSvnelovani istoriuli TariRis iubile miipyrobs sayovelTao yuradRebas: ruseTis oqtombris revoluciis 100 wlisTavi da martin luTeris mier misi 95 Tezisis gavrcelebis 500 wlisTavi, ramac reformacias daudo dasabami. orive movlenas didi wvlili miuZRvis Tanamedrove msoflios CamoyalibebaSi (orive maTganisa da dRevandelobisTvis maTi mniSvnelobis ganmarteba mocemulia am JurnalSi sxva adgilas). cota metad CaRrmaveba sxva damaintrigebel iubileebsac aRmoaCens – 1000 weli druzebis religiis Seqmnidan, 600 weli londonSi quCis ganaTebis pirveli aRricxuli gamoyenebidan, 60 weli pirveli gasrolili frisbidan; aseve dasvams SekiTxvebs, Tu ra axsovs msoflios da ratom. 2017 wlis retrospeqtul dakvirvebas SesaZloa umetesad politikuri xasiaTi hqondes. anglofonebs gaaxarebs henri mexuTis gadawyvetilebis eqvsasi wlisTavis aRniSvna, romliTac man inglisuri mTavrobis enad aRadgina. Sedegad, maT arasodes mouwiaT frangulad laparaki. hastingsis brZolis 950 wlisTavis msgavsad, romelic 2016 wlis oqtomberSi aRiniSna, breqsitis (evrokavSiridan britaneTis gamoyofis) momxreebi xazs gausvamen inglisis mSobliuri enisa da uZvelesi privilegiebis kontrasts kontinentur nepotizmTan. britaneTis evrokavSirSi darCenis momxreebi ki Riad ar daeTanxmebian aseT tendenciur rakurss. movlenebi axsovT an aviwydebaT imis mixedviT, Tu ramdenad didi Rirebuleba aqvT. patriotebi da liberalebi, romlebmac izeimes 1215 wels Tavisuflebis didi qartiis miRebidan 800 wlis iubile, albaT yuradRebis miRma datoveben 1217 wlis lambetis xelSekrulebis 800 wlisTavs (romelmac daasrula maSin dawyebuli omi, roca imave proto-demokratiulma baronebma safrangeTis mefes qveyanaSi SemoWra sTxoves). ramdenime saiubileo TariRi sagareo politikis mimomxilvelebisa da analitikosebisTvis macduri paralelebis sababi gaxdeba. xuTasi weli dasavleT evropis, kerZod ki, portugalieli fernao pires de andrades pirveli diplomatiuri misiidan minis CineTSi waaxalisebs ganxilvebs CineTis aRzevebisa da geopolitikis sadaveebTan myofebis Sesaxeb; CineTis iniciativa `erTi sartyeli – erTi gza~ male daakavSirebs ekonomikebs pekinidan lisabonamde. maT, visac vladimir putinis mefuri revanSizmis eSinia, SesaZloa 1717 wlis `mdumare seimi~ (parlamenti) gaixsenon, roca petre didis jariskacebma daaSines polonur-litvuri Tanamegobroba, ris Sedegadac SeaCeres armia da ruseTis de faqto proteqtoratad gadaiqcnen. SeiZleba barak obamasac istoriaze eWira Tvali, roca 2016 wlis oqtomberSi gaauqma turistebisTvis dawesebuli SezRudva Sin dabrunebisas kuburi sigarebis wamoRebis raodenobaze. es Zalian drouli iyo, radganac 2017 wels kuburi sigariT vaWrobaze kanonmdeblobis miRebidan 200 weli gadis (an SeiZleba mimaval prezidents am dros ubralod damsaxurebuli kohiba warmoedgina). garda amisa, 1817 wels

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saerTaSoriso

msoflio 2017

jariskacebis daZonZilma jgufma xose de san martinis meTaurobiT andebi gadakveTa argentinis mxridan Ciles gasaTavisufleblad – 200 wliT adre or qveyanas Soris axali gvirabis aSenebisgan, romelze muSaobac 2017 wels unda daiwyos. ufro miviwyebuli moRvaweebis iubileebi umetesad aRniSvnis gareSe Caivlis. germania specialur monetas gamouSvebs imis aRsaniSnavad, rom 200 wlis win karl draisma pirveli velosipedi gaatara. Tumca es pirovneba, yovelgvari dafasebis gareSe, siRaribeSi gardaicvala mas Semdeg, rac misi `sarbeni manqana~ saterfulebis gareSe mxolod zrdilobis gamo miiRes. iqneb hamburgis Tanamedrove hipsterebs moundeT misi `dendis cxenisTvis~ kidev erTi Sansis micema. nerzboro, CrdiloeT iorkSirSi, 2017 wels jon `brma jek~ metkalfis dabadebidan 300 wels aRniSnavs. man daZlia siRaribe, gaWirveba da gaxda mevioline, mogzauri, jariskaci, safosto etlis mflobeli da CrdiloeT inglisSi 300-kilometriani magistralis mSenebeli – cnobili `jeki-yovlisSemZle~. idiomebis xsenebaze: msaxiobi da scenaristi devid gariki aseve 300 wlis win daibada. amboben, rom igi imdenad iyo garTuli riCard mesamis rolis pioneruli, naturalisturi SesrulebiT, rom verc ki SeamCnia, rogor moitexa TeZo. erTi ucnauri Teoriis mixedviT, aqedan wamovida inglisurSi dramatuli gamoTqma: `fexi moitexe~ (break a leg), gamomsvlelebisTvis warmatebis sasurveblad. istoriis bevri qali

2017 mokled 50 weli gavida mas Semdeg, rac kaliforniis universitetis fsiqologiis profesori jeims bedfordi pirveli adamiani gaxda, romelic kriogenulad gayines

moicaleT karlze dasafiqreblad

gmiri usaxeloa: ruseTis Tebervlis revoluciis dros, romlis 100 wlisTavic 2017 welsaa, aTasobiT qali gamovida quCaSi puris, mSvidobisa da Tanaswori politikuri uflebebis moTxovniT da gadamwyveti roli iTamaSa mefis damxobaSi (am dros lenini jer kidev SveicariaSi iyo gatrunuli).

es iyo dRevandel dRes, 50 wlis win 2017 wels zogi (bundovnad) gaixsenebs 50 wlis winandel `siyvarulis zafxuls~ da `biTlzebis~ `serJant peperis martosuli gulebis klubis bendis~ gamosvlas. albomisa, romelic bevri adamianis da bevri ramis musikalur fonad iqca. Tumca albaT urigo ar iqneboda, rom maT yuradReba ufro metad gaemaxvilebinaT pol makartnisa da jon lenonis SemTxveviT Sexvedraze eklesiaSi vultonSi, liverpulSi, sadac lenonis skifl bendi `qvorimeni~ ukravda. SemTxveviT Sexvedrebs SesaZloa iseTive iubileebi ar mohyves, rogoric did movlenebs, Tumca xSirad isini aranakleb mniSvnelovania. n

lourens bleri: redaqtoris moadgile, The World in 2017


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saerTaSoriso

gadaketeT naRdi fulis wyaro, SeaCereT konfliqti

m

soflios uaxles qveyanaSi – samxreT sudanSi, 2017 wels SeiZleboda pirveli arCevnebi Catarebuliyo. sanacvlod ki qveyanaSi konfliqtis morigi weli daiwyeba. aTwleulebis manZilze mimdinare cikluri konfliqtis bolodroindel fazas Sedegad aTobiT aTasi daRupuli, SimSilis zRvarze myofi xuTi milioni adamiani da milioni ltolvili mohyva. amis SeCereba ufro Wkvianur globalur moqmedebas, gansakuTrebiT dasavluri bankebis CarTulobas, SeuZlia. mniSvnelovania adgilobrivi konteqsti: saxelmwifos kontroli ZalauflebisTvis momakvdinebeli brZolis mTavari jildoa. ZiriTadad, eTnikur an istoriul kuTvnilebaze dafuZnebuli jgufebi Zaladobrivad ibrZvian ZalauflebisTvis. erovnuli biujetis Zarcva, bunebrivi resursebis eqspluatacia da saxelmwifo kontraqtebis manipulacia gamdidrebis uzarmazar SesaZleblobebs qmnis. omis mTavari mizezi swored es Sejibria, sadac yvelaferi gamarjvebuls ergeba. mas Semdeg, rac prezidentma salva kiirma 2013 wels Tanamdebobidan gaaTavisufla viceprezidenti riik maCari, sul ramdenime TveSi maTi banakebi erTmaneTis winaaRmdeg omSi Caeba. mSvidobiani SeTanxmebis Sedegad, 2016 wels riik maCari samxreT sudanis dedaqalaq iubaSi dabrunda. Tumca, am or banaks Soris ganxeTqileba maleve ganaxlda, ramac qveyana kidev ufro Rrmad CaiTria konfliqtSi. mimdinare Zaladobas erTmaneTTan ukiduresi korufciiT dakavSirebuli glovisa da sixarbis kombinacia amoZravebs. samxreT sudani SesaZloa zRaprulad mdidari qveyana yofiliyo. mas bunebrivi resursebis, maT Soris – navTobisa da oqros, didi maragi aqvs. Tumca es ocneba, romelsac 2011 wels damoukideblobis miRwevisas samxreT sudanelebi mZafrad grZnobdnen, namdvil koSmarad iqca. navTobiT miRebuli miliardobiT dolari ukvalod gaqra. Tuki es `lpoba~, saxelmwifos konkurentuli Zarcva ar Sewydeba, Zaladobis dasrulebis Sansi Zalian mcirea. amas adasturebs Cveni axali sagamoZiebo iniciativis – The Sentry, angariSi. 2017 wlis amocana omis finansuri mamoZraveblebis dadgena da Zaladobrivi kleptokratiuli sistemis daSlis dawyebaa. xSirad igi reJimis cvlilebis moTxovnaSi eSlebaT, magram realurad sistemis cvlilebaa saWiro. es reforma grZelvadiani mSvidobis winapirobaa samxreT sudanSi da sxva saxelmwifoebSi, sadac ukanono finansuri nakadebi sisxlian konfliqtebs iwvevs.

dartyma `mtkivneul adgilas~ amJamad samxreT sudanSi arsebuli qaosis mimarT gamoxmaureba araefeqturia. saerTaSoriso aRSfoTebis xmauri da mZvinvareba arafers niSnavs sisastikis mesveurTaTvis, radganac amas araferi mohyveba. Cven daviTvaleT 65 SemTxveva omis 2013 wels dawyebuli talRis Semdeg, roca msoflios maRali Tanamdebobis pirebi daemuqrnen samxreT sudanis liderebs, rom maTi qmedeba uSedegod ar Caivlida, magram veraferi gaakeTes. samxreT sudaneli generlebi da politikosebi umetesad arafrad agdeben adamianis uflebaTa angariSebs da presrelizebs, rom-

lebic gmobs maT qmedebebs; gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos protests, samSvidobo jarebis ganlagebas, iaraRze embargos muqaras da saSualo rangis oficialuri pirebis sanqciebs, romlebsac araferi mohyveba. arcerTi aseTi gamoxmaureba Tu qmedeba ar cvlis omis monawile mxareebis gegmebsa da gaTvlebs, radgan mizanSi maT mtkivneul mxareebs ar iRebs. ufro efeqturi midgoma gulisxmobs omis sardlebisa da maTi ucxoeli mokavSireebis, maT Soris, biznesebisa da iaraRiT movaWreebis, avadmoxveWili qonebis gamoZiebas, radganac swored esaa maTi yvelaze susti wertili. terorizmis, birTvuli iaraRis gavrcelebis, organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis gamocdileba Wkuis saswavlebelia. igi moicavs fulis gaTeTrebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli zomebis kombinacias omis sardlebisa da maTi Tanamzraxvelebis qonebis gayinvasTan. am yvelafers bankebis mxridan mtkice aRsruleba sWirdeba. yvelaze warmatebul SemTxvevebSi samizne Tanamdebobis pirebi finansuri sistemidan iblokebian, rac realur saerTaSoriso berkets qmnis. es martivia: mihyeviT omis sardlebis jibes, bankrotad aqcieT isini, vinc saarCevno biuletens tyvias amjobinebs da gaCndeba stimuli mSvidobisTvis da ara omisTvis, gamWvirvalobisTvis da ara korufciisTvis. es is gakveTilia, romelic sajaro politikis Semqmnelebma SeiZleba gamoiyenon ara mxolod samxreT sudanSi, aramed mis farglebs gareT, gansakuTrebiT – masobrivi Zaladobisa da sisastikis Tavidan asacileblad. uTvalavi samxreTsudaneli Jurnalisti, adamianis uflebaTa gamomZiebeli, korufciasTan mebrZoli aqtivisti, mTavrobis reformatori da humanitari sakuTar sicocxles safrTxeSi agdebs sistemis Sesacvlelad. Zalian mniSvnelovania maTi muSaobis globalurad gaSuqeba, rasac globaluri humanitaruli – `avroras jildos~ mxardaWeriT vakeTebT. omis sardlebze saerTaSoriso zewolis ganxorcieleba brZolis vels ufro Tanaswors gaxdida samoqalaqo sazogadoebis am damcvelTaTvis. momdevno wels bevri SesaZlebloba iqneba imisTvis, rom sityva saqmed iqces. G20 (msoflios didi oceuli) uaxlesi antikorufciuli gegmis ganxorcielebas daiwyebs. gaeros misia, romelsac samxreT sudanze faqtebis dadgena evaleba, sakuTar angariSs martSi waradgens. didi xnis metoqeebs – kiirsa da maCars, bolo Sansi eqnebaT, rom qveyana ufskrulidan gamoabrunon an ganze gadgnen da sxvebs dauTmon asparezi, vinc areulobiT naklebad iqneba dainteresebuli. msofliom unda daangrios omis ekonomikis sayrdeni boZebi da gadaketos konfliqtis mamoZravebeli finansuri nakadebi. dasavlelma gadasaxadebis gadamxdelebma da saqvelmoqmedo donorebma miliardobiT dolari Seswires samSvidobo da humanitarul daxmarebas, Tumca xelisufleba iSviaTad amaxvilebda yuradRebas Jletis mTavar mamoZravebelze. sanam brZolas konfliqtsa da korufcias Soris arsebul kavSirebs ar gamovucxadebT, mSvidoba mxolod Soreul ocnebad darCeba. n

`korufciis daZleva gadamwyveti faqtoria mSvidobisTvis samxreT sudanSi da mis farglebs gareT~, — acxadeben jorj kluni da jon prendergasti — The Sentry-s TanadamfuZneblebi

es martivia: mihyeviT omis sardlebis jibes


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msoflio 2017

Fourteen on '17: sem altmani startapebi 85 saianda mohuCiva socialuri aqtivoba 86 isaak ernandesi xelovneba da sazogadoeba 86 deizi ridli mravalferovneba kinematografiaSi 87 hani al-mulia samganzomilebiani fotografia 87 amani al-qaTasbeqi brendebis brZola 88 leticia gaska xelovnuri inteleqti da biznesmarcxebi 88 amanda koleta sporti da politika 89 Tor garneti gonieri marTva 90 joSua vongi CineTis gavlena 91 luiza o'nili niuansirebuli feminizmi 91 Tomasa del riali momavlis musika 92 boian slati teqnikuri progresi da planeta 92

sem altmani: Y Combinator-is prezidenti, da Open AI-is TanaTavmjdomare

momavlis Seneba

san-francisko

momdevno saukune saocrebebiT savse unda iyos. Cven, savaraudod, SevqmniT xelovnur inteleqts, romelic aRemateba adamianis SesaZleblobebs. Cven albaT ganvaviTarebT inJinerul biologias, SevqmniT sicocxlis axal formebs; Cven SevZlebT aRmovfxvraT daavadebebis umravlesoba. energetikuli Rirebuleba erTi rigiT daecema; Cven gavcdebiT dedamiwas da gzas gavikvlevT kosmosSi. saukune Tvalis daxamxamebaa kacobriobis istoriaSi da maradisoba adamianis warmodgenaSi. iqneba didi da rTuli gadasvlebi, romlebic ar aris risks moklebuli. 2017 wels unda daviwyoT fiqri, rogor mivaRwioT am warmoudgenel momavals. Y Combinator-Si Cven vafinansebT inovaciebs. startapebi SesaniSnavi saSualebaa axali teqnologiebis ganviTarebisTvis, amitom vcdilobT rac SeiZleba bevrs davexmaroT. jerjerobiT es 1300-ze meti startapia, saerTo RirebulebiT 75 miliard dolarze meti. me vfiqrob, rom 2017 ukeTesi iqneba, vidre odesme. meti adamiani iwyebs kompaniebis Seqmnas, ideebi umjobesdeba da problemebis mogvareba ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba. Cven aseve vafinansebT fundamentur kvlevebs – yvela axali idea ver (da arc) unda dainergos startapebis saSualebiT. amgvarad, es moicavs Openai-s (arakomerciul kvleviT kompanias, xelovnuri, adamianis donis inteleqtis usafrTxo sistemebis ganviTarebisTvis) – kvlevebs ZiriTadi Semosavlis, axali qalaqebisa da ganaTlebis perspeqtivebis dargSi. Cveni Zalisxmeva, ra Tqma unda, imis Zalian mcire nawilia, rac unda gavwioT, rogorc adamianebma. unda gaverkveT, rogor vmarToT sakuTari resursebi, raTa gadavWraT umniSvnelovanesi problemebi da momavali yvelasTvis warmatebuli gavxadoT. es SesaZloa Soreul perspeqtivad warmogvidges da aTwleulebi dasWirdes mis miRwevas. magram teqnologia eqsponencialurad viTardeba. me optimisturad var ganwyobili da TvalsaCino progress ufro swrafad mivaRwevT, vidre gvgonia.

winaswarmetyveli Taoba

axalgazrda mxatvrebi, aqtivistebi, mewarmeebi da gamomgoneblebi Zerwaven momavals axali da Zlevamosili meTodebiT. yvela 1985 wlis Semdeg daibada. gTavazobT maT prognozebs 2017 wlisTvis da Semdgomi periodisTvis


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msoflio 2017

winaswarmetyveli Taoba

saianda mohuCiva: blogeri da studenti

londoni

tvitsTormi modis Cemi prognoziT, 2017 socialuri panafrikanistebis weli iqneba – aqtivistebisa, romlebic iyeneben internets da socialur medias sazRvrebs gareSe TanamSromlobisTvis, raTa daupirispirdnen da daamarcxon kidec warumatebeli politika da reJimebi. 2016 wels Cven vnaxeT onlainmoZraobebis uprecedento zrda, mcdeloba, daemarcxebinaT represiuli sistemebi, daemowmebinaT adamianis uflebebis darRvevis faqtebi da gaevrcelebinaT informacia im sakiTxebis Sesaxeb, romlebic Cveulebrivi afrikelis cnobierebaze axdens gavlenas. es procesi 2017 wels mniSvnelovnad gaZlierdeba ramdenime mizezis gamo. samxreT afrikis #honorarebis Semcirebis moZraoba aRmocenda 2015-2016 wlebSi – mas Semdeg, rac universitetebma da mTavrobebma gailaSqres swavlis didi safasuris winaaRmdeg. 2017 wels, rodesac es cvlilebebi amoqmeddeba, samxreTafrikelebs SesaZlebloba miecemaT gamoiyenon yvela xelmisawvdomi onlaininstrumenti, raTa SeebrZolon policiur sisastikes da ganaTlebisgan gariyvas (ganaTlebis xelmiuwvdomobas). zimbabveSi 2016 wels #thisflag-ma mouwoda adamianebs gaerTianebuliyvnen 92 wlis `ukvdavi prezidentis~ – robert mugabes korumpirebuli da kleptokratiuli reJimis winaRmdeg. 2018 wlis dasawyisSi dagegmili saprezidento arCevnebis gamo, 2017 wlis umetesi dro daeTmoba brZolas xelisuflebasa da opoziciur partiebSi. onlainaqtivistebs gadamwyveti roli eniWebaT orive jgufis angariSgebis gakontrolebaze. mraval afrikul qveyanaSi Catardeba arCevnebi 2017 wels da vinaidan teqnologiebi viTardeba, 2017 wels yovel mesame afrikels eqneba smartfoni; zogierTi yvelaze optimisturi SefasebiT, rogorc arasodes, es arCevnebi iqneba orientirebuli axalgazrda da teqnikurad gaTviTcnobierebul amomrCevelze. botsvanaSi socialuri media saSualebas aZlevs sxva mxriv konservatiul sazogadoebas, daafiqsiron sakuTari azri genderuli politikisa da wylis mimdinare krizisis Taobaze. bevri afrikeli sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mimarTavs socialur qselebs politikuri aqtivobisTvis. am moZraobebis gaerTianeba mxolod drois sakiTxia. uazrod maRali swavlis safasuri, korufcia, qmeduunaro ucxouri Careva da warumatebeli sajaro servisebi axalgazrda afrikelTa wyromas imsaxurebs. dRemde, regionuli biurokratia, rogoricaa afrikis kavSiri, ver marTavs am sayovelTao ukmayofilebas, ver axorcielebs cvlilebebs. dadga dro naklebformaluri da metad socialuri xerxebisTvis saerTo gadawyvetilebebis misagnebad. socialuri panafrikanizmi pasuxia. rodesac momitingeebi mTeli kontinentis masStabiT kidev ufro did Zaladobas awydebian, axalgazrda afrikelebisTvis naTeli xdeba, rom aRar SeiZleba sakuTar mTavrobebze dayrdnoba. gadarCena Tu gvinda, sakuTar Tavs Cvenve unda mivxedoT. 2017 wels onlainmoZraobebi gaerTiandeba da Zalas moikreben resursebis, strategiisa da Tanadgomis gaziarebis safuZvelze.

isaak ernandesi: inglisis nacionaluri baletis wamyvani mocekvave

aiova siTi

cekva gadasarCenad 2017 wels xelovnebis winaSe didi gamowvevebi isaxeba da, amave dros, xelsayreli momenticaa gadavxedoT SemoqmedebiTi Zalisxmevis socialur mniSvnelobas. xelovneba saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva kulturaTa Soris urTierTqmedebis safuZvels warmoadgenda. ramdenadac msoflio axal, daSoriSorebis eraSi Sedis, aucilebelia vaRiaroT, rom xelovneba SesaZloa Seufasebeli instrumenti gaxdes socialuri integraciisa da pirovnuli ganviTarebisTvis. breqsitma gaurkvevlobis atmosfero warmoSva. momavlis yvelaze didi SekiTxvebi exeba Tavisufal gadaadgilebas niWieri SemoqmedebisTvis, evrokavSiris kulturis dafinansebaze xelmisawvdomobas da sazRvrebs Soris TanamSromlobas kulturis politikis dargSi. am sakiTxebs SeuZlia Secvalos Cveni kulturuli cxovreba – rogorc britaneTis, ise mTeli kontinentis masStabiT. globaluri masStabiT kidev erT mTavar sakiTxs unda mivaqcioT yuradReba – maRali xarisxis ufaso saxelovnebo ganaTlebis naklebobas. Cven unda movZebnoT gza, raTa uzrunvelvyoT SemoqmedebiTi swavlebis universaluri xelmisawvdomoba, rogorc adamianis fundamenturi ufleba, gansakuTrebiT bavSvebisa da mozardebisTvis. me mamoZravebs am koleqtiuri marcxebis gamosworebis aucilebloba da socialuri mniSvnelobis proeqtebis Seqmnisa da xelSewyobis pasuxismgeblobis Segneba. Tu SemoqmedebiTi adamianebi seriozulad davfiqrdebiT imaze, ras moutans danarCenebs Cveni namuSevrebi, es ufro pragmatul da erTobliv momavalTan migviyvans. msoflio swrafad icvleba. sxvadasxva SemoqmedebiT sferoSi aucilebelia erToblivi muSaoba, raTa Seiqmnas garemo Cveni SemoqmedebiTi potencialis misaRwevad. am mizniT, momavalSi xelovnebis ufro farTo, eqsponencialuri teqnologiuri cvlilebebi ukiduresad mniSvnelovani gaxdeba. teqnologiebma Secvala msoflios xedvisa da masTan urTierTqmedebis gzebi. es ukve axdens gavlenas xelovnebaze da mxatvruli Semoqmedebis axali ganzomilebisken miviwevT. me dostoevskis veTanxmebi. vbedav da mjera, rom erT dRes, mxatvruli silamaze gadaarCens msoflios.


85

msoflio 2017

los-anjelesi

ganaTeba, kamera, moqmedebis dro kinoxelovnebaSi qalTa rolis Sesaxeb adrec bevri diskusia gamarTula da miuxedavad imisa, rom aSkaraa industrias kidev aqvs genderuli Tanasworobisa da mravalferovnebis problema, Zalze bednieri var, rom Cemi gamocdileba Zalian gansxvavebulia. rasac vamCnev, esaa qalTa nakleboba teqnikur rolebSi gadasaReb moedanze. miuxedavad imisa, rom gadasaReb moedanze, kameris miRma, kostiumebis, grimis da stilistur departamentebSi vxedavT niWieri mamakacebisa da qalebis mSvenier nazavs, iseT sferoSi, rogoricaa kerZod, kinematografia, qalTa warmomadgenloba Zalian SezRudulia. faqtobrivad, 2015 wels reitinguli 100 filmidan mxolod 3%-ia qali kinooperatori. rogorc axalgazrda qalma, romelic iwyebda kinokarieras, vici iRbliani viyavi, axla rom am saqmiT var dakavebuli. bedniereba mxvda wilad brwyinvale qalebis garemocvaSi vyofiliyavi – rogorc pirovnulad, ise profesiulad; privilegia mqonda vyofiliyavi im procesis nawili, romelic agrZelebs sqesobrivi da rasobrivi barierebis ngrevas kameris winaSe. brZola genderuli TanasworobisTvis gaafTrda, magram yvelaferi TandaTanobiT icvleba. uolt disneis kompaniam, magaliTisTvis, wamoiwyo ramdenime didi wamaxalisebeli kampania, Tanasworobisa da mravalferovnebis xelSesawyobad kameris miRma. britanuli kinoinstituti grantebiTa da saswavlo sqemebiT xels uwyobs axalgazrda, mravalferovan talantebs. damoukidebeli kompaniebi qmnian sakuTar programebs industriaSi mravalferovnebis ganviTarebisTvis. vimedovneb, rom 2017 wels im axalgazrda qalebs, romlebic erTxel ukve gadaarwmunes (am dromde), e.w. `mamakacuri~ poziciebi daekavebinaT, saSualeba miecemaT moemzadon da miiRon profesiuli daxelovneba am rolebisTvis.

hani al-moulia: fotografi da studenti

saskaCevani

erTi weli CarCoebis gareSe 360°-ian kamerasTan Sewyvilebuli virtualuri realoba (VR) 2017 wels yvelaze mniSvnelovani tendencia iqneba mediasa da ganaTlebaSi, romelic xedvis sruliad axal gzas gvTavazobs. es movlenebi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania CemTvis, rogorc fotoJurnalistisa da siriidan yofili ltolvilisTvis. dRes bevri adamiani trabaxobs maRali xarisxis kamerebiT, magram ras ityviT kameraze, romelsac SeuZlia Tqven garSemo yvelaferi moicvas TiTis mxolod erTi daWeriT? marTlacda, 360°-iani kamerebi, romlebsac adre iyenebdnen mxolod ZviradRirebuli da rTuli proeqtebisTvis, rogoricaa, magaliTad, Google Street View, sul ufro popularuli xdeba simartivisa da simZlavris gamo. aqtivistebsa da artistebs izidavT SesaZlebloba Seinaxon uamravi mkafio gamosaxuleba, rogorc tradiciuli fotografiis dros, magram aseve Canergon videomowyobiloba moqmedebis epicentrSi virtualuri realobis mowyobilobebis (vr headset) meSveobiT. zogierT moyvaruls, romelTac moswonT mogonebebis dafiqsireba an socialur mediaSi ganTavseba, 360°-iani kamera saSualebas aZlevs daafiqsiron da daimaxsovron yvelaferi maT garSemo sivrcisa da drois nebismier wertilSi. iseve, rogorc es moxda cifruli kamerebis SemTxvevaSi, 360°-ian kamerebze gadarTva bevri profesionali fotografisTvis gamowveva iqneba. maRalma fasma, rogorc minimum dasawyisSi, unda Seakavos bevri moyvarulis Tavgamodeba. Zalian cotaa teqnikuri kompaniebi, romlebsac SeuZliaT SemogTavazon mowyobilobebi, sadac SegiZliaT SeinaxoT 360°-iani kamerebiT gadaRebuli failebi da yvelas dasWirdeba profesiuli daxmareba saukeTeso Sedegis misaRwevad. magram warmoidgineT, rogor SeiZleba Secvalon am saxis fotoebma da videoebma msoflio, romelSic Cven vcxovrobT. magaliTad, imedi maqvs, rom davbrundebi banakSi, sadac vcxovrobdi da gadaviReb virtualur films. minda vimuSao devnilebTan da yvela kuTxidan davanaxo msoflios, rogoria banakSi cxovreba. am procesSi Cven SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT nakleb TvalsaCino, magram Zalian mniSvnelovani saWiroebebi, romlebic investirebas moiTxovs – ara mxolod sakvebi, wyali da TavSesafari, aramed ganaTleba da gadamzadeba. am `gaufiltravma~ Tvalsazrisma, romelic uSualod devnilebisgan momdinareobs, Ses- a Zloa ubiZgos bevr adamians meti interesi gamoiCinos maTi mdgomareobisadmi, gansakuTrebiT, Tu Cven SevZlebT gaeroSi, niu-iorkSi, ekranze vaCvenoT Cveni proeqti. mtkiced mjera, rom es axali mediateqnologiebi Semoqmedebisa da Jurnalistebis interess gaacxovelebs. me wamoviwye sakuTari proeqti, Sevaswavlo fotografia maT, visac ganaTlebaze ar miuwvdeba xeli, gansakuTrebiT ltolvilebs. Cemi mizania, mivce maT saSualeba Seavson fuWi dReebi ukeTesi cxovrebis imediT. virtualur realobas da 360°-ian kamerebs aqvs potenciali, tanjvisa da Zaladobis suraTebiT gajerebul msoflios gauCndes ufro Zlieri SegrZneba imisa, rasac vxedavT. 360°-iani kamerebis wyalobiT, SevZloT SevityoT ltolvilTa krizisis Sesaxeb 365-jer weliwadSi.

winaswarmetyveli Taoba

deizi ridli: msaxiobi


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msoflio 2017

winaswarmetyveli Taoba

amani al-haTabehi: muslimgirl.com-is damfuZnebeli

niu-iorki

brendebis omi ukeTesobisken Tu uaresobisken, 2017 iqneba weliwadi, rodesac mravalferovneba sasaqonlo mniSvnelobas SeiZens. socialur mediaSi sazogadoebrivi aqtivobis `amofrqvevam~ Black Lives Matter moZraobasa da ltolvilTa krizisTan dakavSirebiT ukve warmoSva axali formis rasobrivi kapitalizmi. brendebi da biznesi, romelTac imedi hqondaT dakarguli `gamoRviZebuli~ Taobis (da sabanko balansebis) yuradReba mieqciaT, miiswrafvian warmoaCinon sakuTari inkluziuroba. Spotify kurirebs sakuTar Black Lives Matter-is pleilists, xolo Facebook da Google maT solidarobas warmoaCenen. kosmetikuri kompaniebi, rogoricaa L'Oréal-i, ugzavnian produqcias da finansurad uWeren mxars ltolvilebs evropasa da axlo aRmosavleTSi. 2015 wels iseTi brendebi, rogoricaa Ben & Jerry da American Airlines, Cqarobdnen gamoemJRavnebinaT mxardaWera uzenaesi sasamarTlosTvis erTsqesianTa qorwinebis legalizaciasTan dakavSirebiT. brendebsa da kompaniebs Zlieri SesaZlebloba aqvT xeli Seuwyon mravalferovnebas. magram vSiSob, bevri zedapirul doneze darCeba, raTa daamSvidon sakuTari sindisi. es iqneba ara marto marcxi srulad gamoiyenon sakuTari gavlena, aramed riskic, kidev ufro gaamZafron marginalizacia. axla, rodesac Cven ase advilad aRar wamovegebiT brendul aqtivobas, 2017 iqneba weli, rodesac davusvamT rTul SekiTxvebs mravalferovan `produqts~, romelsac kompaniebi Cvenze asaReben. romeli brendebi zrdian realurad umciresobebis warmomadgenlobas maT topmenejerTa Soris, maT niusrumebSi, maTi modis xazebSi? romeli maTgani aZlevs realur saSualebas marginalizebul adamianebs gamoTqvan azri da miiRon monawileoba? brendebi ukve Tavs arideben visime mxare daiWiron polarizebuli politikuri klimatis fonze. rodesac 2016 wels donald tramp umcrosma ltolvilebi `skiTlss~ Seadara, „riglim“ – produqtis mwarmoebelma, mxolod uniaTo pasuxi gasca mediis gamokiTxvas: `skiTlsi~ tkbileulia, ltolvilebi – adamianebi. Cven ar gvgonia, es Sesaferisi analogia iyos~, – da komentarebisgan Tavi Seikava SiSiT, rom amas `arasworad aRiqvamdnen, rogorc marketings~. sabednierod, Cven ar unda davelodoT bizness, Cveni saqme akeTos. Tu zomier warmomadgenlobebs mravalferovneba akliaT, socialuri mediis inovaciuri gamoyeneba gamokveTs alternatiul onlainsivrces umciresobebisTvis. internets aqvs demokratizebuli media, romelic xalxs SezRuduli resursebiT, magram klaviSebiT TiTebqveS, msxvili korporaciebis winaaRmdeg brZolis Sanss aZlevs. 2017 wels sazogadoeba daajildoebs kompaniebs, romlebic mets gaiReben, vidre mravalferovnebis mxolod sityvieri mxardaWeraa da gamoamzeureben maT, vinc amas ar akeTebs.

leticia gaska: Failure Institute-is aRmasrulebeli direqtori da Fuckup Nights-is TanadamfuZnebeli

mexiko

xelovnuri inteleqtis `galileo-momenti~ 2017 wels xelovnuri inteleqti gansazRvravs kvleviTi da akademiuri wreebis SesaZleblobebs. zogierTi pesimistis varaudiT, axlo momavalSi adamianebs Wkviani manqanebi Secvlian. magram me vfiqrob, rom xelovnuri inteleqti bevr samuSaos ukeTess da ufro inovaciurs gaxdis. xelovnuri inteleqtis Semotana akademiuri kvlevis samyaroSi, magaliTad, imis msgavsi iqneba, Tu rogor radikalurad Secvala 1609 wels galileis mier astronomiuli teleskopis Seqmnam kosmologiis Seswavla. Failure Institute-isTvis (Fuckup Nights-is moZraobis kvleviTi ganStoeba) xelovnuri inteleqtis gamoyeneba daaCqarebs da ufro kompleqsur doneze mogvcems saSualebas SeviswavloT, ratom ganicdis marcxs biznesi da ver xorcieldeba ideebi. bunebrivi enobrivi procesingi da xelovnuri inteleqti saSualebas mogvcems davekiTxoT sasargeblo robots, ra Sansi aqvs X bizness y samezobloSi marcxi ganicados. male SevZlebT SevqmnaT ruka, romelic gviCvenebs, realur droSi sad ixureba firmebi mTel msoflioSi da ratom. manqanuri codna dagvexmareba TiTqmis momentalurad gadaviyvanoT 200-ze meti SemTxveva biznesis marcxis Sesaxeb, romelsac yovelTve vRebulobT mTeli msofliodan, monacemebsa da tendenciebSi. am informaciiT SevZlebT davexmaroT mTavrobebs, kerZo seqtorsa da akademiur wreebs, ufro informirebuli gadawyvetilebebi da dadgenilebebi miiRon. monacemebis raodenoba msoflio masStabiT ormagdeba yovel or weliwadSi da maTi Senaxvis Rirebuleba daaxloebiT maCvenebliT ecema. informaciis am simravles xelovnuri inteleqtis kiTxva-pasuxis sizuste sruliad axal doneze ahyavs. magaliTad, warmoidgineT, rom muSaobT garemos kvleviT centrSi. monacemebis simravlisa da xelovnuri inteleqtis epoqaSi Tqven maleve geqnebaT sistema, romelic SeZlebs aiTvisos msoflioSi gamoqveynebuli yvela naSromi mdgradobaze, ganaxorcielos maTi sistematizacia da mzad iyos upasuxos nebismier SekiTxvas amis Taobaze. xelovnur inteleqts ukve SeuZlia `ifiqros~ da upasuxos SekiTxvebs. sul male is uprecedento instrumenti gaxdeba, romelic zrdis adamianis inteleqts da Cveni, rogorc saxeobis, ganviTarebis, SimSilis aRmofxvris, daavadebebisgan gankurnebis da Cveni planetis ekologi-


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msoflio 2017

amanda koleta: saredaqcio TanaSemwe The World 2017-Si

londoni

mZarcveluri TamaSebi `me amanda gaxlavarT da dainteresebuli var angariSgebiT sportis politikasa da mmarTvelobaSi~. idumali saxeebi mimzeren 2013 wels, saSualo skolis damTavrebis Cemi pirveli dRidan. magram ori wlis Semdeg Sveicariis policiis TanamSromlebi gamTeniisas sastumroSi SeiWrnen, maleve dabrundnen da `fifas~ maRali rangis moxeleebi unomro sapatrulo manqanebSi Cayares. mogvianebiT ruseTSi saxelmwifos mier dafinansebuli dopingsqemis SemaZrwunebelma detalebma mniSvnelovani intriga Seitana rios olimpiadaSi. sporti isea politizebuli, rogorc arasodes. 2017 wels ra moxdeba saTamaSo moedans miRma, ufro saintereso iqneba, vidre is, rac moedanze moxdeba. sportuli mmarTveli organoebi didi xnis ganmavlobaSi TavgamodebiT icavdnen sportis avtonomias – mis izolirebas mTavrobis mxridan Carevisgan. Tumca aman uzrunvelyo safarveli yvela saxis saeWvo saqmeebisTvis. balansis damyareba TviTregulirebasa da sajaro meTvalyureobas Soris 2017 wlis gadamwyveti gamowveva iqneba. olimpiuri TamaSebi ar iqneba, magram saerTaSoriso olimpiur komitets (sok) uamravi ram eqneba gadasawyveti. misi sagangebo, msoflio antidopinguri konferencia marTlacda sagangebo unda iyos am senis aRmosafxvrelad. seqtemberSi gamocxaddeba 2024 wlis TamaSebis maspinZeli – los-anjelesi, budapeSti an parizi. vinaidan sportuli megamovlenebi sul ufro xSirad xdeba araliberaluri reJimebis asparezi, fsons budapeStze deben. analogiurad, TurqmeneTis 2017 wlis aziis Sida da sabrZolo xelovnebis TamaSebisTvis mzadeba 10 000 Senobis dangrevas da 50 000 adamianis gamosaxlebas gulisxmobs. qveynis prezidenti ukve cdilobs sargebeli naxos misi savaraudo sportuli unaridan – is, gawafuli mxedari, cota xnis win ukve daajildoes saxelwodebiT `saxalxo cxenebis seleqcioneri~ da qveynis dedaqalaqSi giganturi mxedris Zegli daudges. iuridiuli gadawyvetilebebi nakleb STambeWdavi, magram ufro TamaSis wesebis Semcvleli iqneba. nacionaluri hokeis ligis (NHL) da erovnuli safexburTo ligis moTamaSeebis sarCeli (savaraudod, travmebTan dakavSirebuli) gzas gaikvlevs amerikis sasamarTloebSi. korufciaSi eWvmitanili `fifas~ moxeleebis sasamarTlo procesi noemberSi daiwyeba. evrokomisia gadawyvets, ramdenad kanonieria `fifas~ transferebis sistema. mZleosnobis federaciebis saerTaSoriso asociacia imedovnebs aRadginos sakamaTo debuleba, romelic 2015 wlamde ukrZalavda qalebs testosteronis bunebrivad maRali doniT, SejibrebebSi monawileobas. 2017 wlis dasawyisSi nacionaluri hokeis liga gadawyvets, miiReben Tu ara misi hokeistebi monawileobas 2018 wlis zamTris olimpiur TamaSebSi samxreT koreis qalaq fiongCanSi. ligam da saerTaSoriso olimpiurma komitetma unda gadawyviton, vin gadaixdis moTamaSeebis mgzavrobisa da dazRvevis xarjebs. NHL-s arasodes moswonda sezonis grafikis Secvla olimpiur TamaSebze morgebis mizniT da arc ligis komisars – gari betmens moswons kompromisze wasvla. `ara~ iqneboda seriozuli Sexseneba, rom sportis zedamxedvelebi ZiriTadad mdidari, TeTri mamakacebi arian, romlebic eZeben metad gamdidrebis gzebs – xSirad fexburTelebisa da gulSematkivrebis xarjze. 2017 wels globalurma ajanyebam politikuri elitis winaaRmdeg SesaZloa meti Rirseuli samizne gamoavlinos sportis samyaroSi.

Sivon zilisi: Bloomberg Beta-s partniori da damfuZnebeli wevri, san-francisko

san-francisko

SeviyvaroT robotebi xelovnurma inteleqtma (AI) frTebi gaSala: `teslas~ TviTmavali manqanebidan dawyebuli, Google-is DeepMind-iT gagrZelebuli, romelmac daamarcxa msoflio Cempioni go-Si (ufro rTuli samagido TamaSi, vidre Wadrakia), da IBM-is Watson-iT damTavrebuli, romelic daavadebebis diagnostirebas axdens. programuli uzrunvelyofa moqmedebs dawerili instruqciebis miRma, rTuli da xSirad subieqturi gadawyvetilebebis miRebis mizniT. 2017 wels sazogadoeba iseTive ndobiT moekideba manqanebs, rogorc Cveulebriv adamianebs vendobiT. xelovnuri inteleqti warmoqmnis im tipis araprognozirebadobas, romelic ar arsebobs tradiciul programul uzrunvelyofaSi. kompleqsuri amocanebis gadaWrisas Zalze rTulia

winaswarmetyveli Taoba

uri katastrofisgan gadarCenis saSualebas gvaZlevs. magram, rogorc nebismieri instrumentis, xelovnuri inteleqtis gamoyeneba aseve SeiZleba boroti miznebisTvis, rogoricaa: terorizmi, jaSuSoba da omi. 2017 wels moqalaqeebi moviTxovT, rom politikosebi meti seriozulobiT miudgnen adamianebis monacemebis damuSavebasa da gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi gamoyenebuli algoriTmebis gamWvirvalobas. iseve, rogorc galileos aRmoCenebis SemTxvevaSi, axal brZolebs veliT xelisuflebasa da sazogadoebas Soris imis Taobaze, Tu ramdenad farTod unda iyos gaziarebuli am axali samecniero garRvevisgan miRebuli xedva da sargebeli.


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msoflio 2017

winaswarmetyveli Taoba

Seadgino wesebi, romlebic yvela SemTxveviTobas gaiTvaliswineben. amis nacvlad, AI-sistemebi swavloben gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT. gadawyvetilebebi, romlebsac isini iReben, viTardeba droTa ganmavlobaSi (rogorc Google-is Zebnis Sedegebi) da xSirad SeuZlebelia adamianma zustad axsnas, saidan miiRo xelovnurma inteleqtma arsebuli Sedegi: rogorc oTxi wlis bavSvi, ise AI-gamosaxulebis gamaanalizebeli programa uSecdomod gamoicnobs ZaRls fotoze, magram vercerTi getyviT, saidan icis, rom marTalia. araprognozirebadoba STambeWdavia, rodesac saqme katisa da ZaRlis fotoebis garCevas exeba. gamowveva maSin Cndeba, rodesac xelovnuri inteleqti rekomendacias iZleva erTi tipis operaciis upiratesobis Taobaze meoresTan SedarebiT, an marTavs manqanas sruli siswrafiT xalxmraval gzatkecilze. Tu xelovnuri inteleqti SeiZleba araprognozirebadi iyos, saerTod, ratom unda vendoT mas? am programebiT miRebuli sargebeli Zalze Rirebulia, misi ignorireba rom SeiZlebodes. 2015 wels TiTqmis 5 miliardi dolaris kerZo investiciebi Sevida AI-kompaniebSi, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT Sida kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis kompaniebze, rogorebicaa Microsoft, Amazon, Facebook, Google, Bloomberg (romlis venCuruli kapitalis fondis partniori gaxlavarT) da Uber. xelovnuri inteleqti ara mxolod dagvexmareba gadavarCinoT adamianTa sicocxle gzebze da saavadmyofoebSi, aramed aseve xels Segviwyobs biznesSi ukeTesi gadawyvetilebebi miviRoT. biznesliderebi ukve endobian adamianebs miiRon gadawyvetilebebi am bazrebze – miuxedavad imisa, rom es adamianebi, aseve, zogjer araprognozirebadni da Seuvalni arian. sazogadoeba daiwyebs `manqanebisadmi ndobis~ formirebas imave gziT. Tumca xelovnur inteleqtSi brma rwmenis nacvlad, sazogadoeba mis SesaZleblobebs Seafasebs droTa ganmavlobaSi da TandaTanobiT miscems moqmedebis met Tavisuflebas (iseve, rogorc ufrosebi afaseben axal TanamSromels). TviTmavali manqanebi gaivlian marTvis skolebis ekvivalentur `trenaJs~ da misi dasrulebis Semdeg miiReben marTvis nebarTvas; kompiuteruli radiologebi staJioris funqcias Seasruleben, iswavlian eqspertebisgan da met pasuxismgeblobas moipoveben, rodesac ufro zust diagnostirebas SeZleben. am sistemebis Semqmnelebi eTikis normebis damkvidrebasac Seecdebian. AI-sistemebi dauSveben Secdomebs – iseve, rogorc adamianebi, da sazogadoebas mouwevs gadawyvitos, rodis apation da rodis dasajon. magram rodesac xelovnuri inteleqti daiwyebs ukeTesi gadawyvetilebebis miRebas, vidre adamianebi iReben, igi moipovebs maT ndobas da gaifurCqneba.

Tor garneti: deteqtivi, ufrosi inspeqtori, `metropolitan policia~ da `policia axla~, TanadamfuZnebeli

londoni

konservatiuli azrovneba „policiis efeqturobis gamocda, – ganacxada ser robert kanma, 1829 wels metropolitan policiis damfuZnebelma, – esaa danaSaulisa da uwesrigobis ararseboba da ara policiuri aqtiurobis xiluli gamoxatuleba~. magram 2017 wels, ramdenadac adamianebis warmodgena usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb formirdeba ufro socialuri mediis mier mowodebuli masalebiTa da SegrZnebebiT, vidre faqtebiT, sazogadoebis ndoba policiis mimarT warmatebis sul ufro mkafio sazomi gaxdeba. magram rogor vmarToT warmatebulad adamianTa mier policiis aRqma? pasuxi, Cemi azriT, Cveni sakuTari aRqmis marTvaa – dawyebuli piradi SegrZnebebidan. gadaumowmebeli qvecnobieri winaswarganwyoba kompensirdeba TemebSi muSaobiT, sadac arsebobs rasa-siRaribisa da siRaribe-danaSaulis bmuli. Cveni swrafad moazrovne tvini, SesaZloa gasagebi mizezebis gamo, magram arasworad, gaaerTianebs amas rasa-danaSaulis bmulSi. es aris yvelaze didi safrTxe, romelsac vawydebiT moxeleebsa da moqalaqeebs Soris myari TanagrZnobis, urTierTkavSirisa da ndobis damyarebis saqmeSi. meore – unda vakontroloT Cveni instituciuri instinqtebi: Cveni liderze orientirebuli kultura Tavdayira unda davayenoT. xelmZRvanelobis `ubrZane da akontrole~ stili SesaZloa gadamwyveti iyos krizisis dros, magram is marcxs ganicdis, rodesac aucilebelia radikaluri inovacia da uwyveti gaumjobeseba ufro da ufro rTuli usafrTxoebis riskebisa da danaSaulis safrTxeebis samarTavad. `lideri, rogorc gmiri~ stilis Secvla `gundebis gundis~ midgomiT, rogorc es gaiTavisa bevrma aramomgebianma warmoebam, rTuli iqneba, magram gadamwyveti warmatebisTvis. mesame – Cven unda vakontroloT sakuTari profesiuli uaryofiTi winaswarganwyoba. ukeTesia ufro didi biujetebi da meti policielebi? Tu isini warmoadgenen saxsrebs da resursebs, romlebic waarTves fsiqikuri janmrTelobisa da ganaTlebis saWiroebebs, ra problemebis prevencia iqneboda upirvelesad? aris Tu ara modeli `samuSao cxovrebisTvis~ – saukeTeso? uzrunvelyofs igi codnis, gamocdilebisa da motivaciis Sesaferis nazavs Tanamedrove msoflioSi? programebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, `policia axla~ (Seiqmna `jer aswavle~, maswavlebelTa gadamzadebis sqemis mixedviT) SeZlebs imis demonstrirebas, rom ufro moqnilma Semodineba-gadinebis marSrutebma SeiZleba realuri sargebeli moutanon rogorc mosaxleobas, ise profesias. Tu samive kriteriums davakmayofilebT, darwmunebuli var, rom SevZlebT sazogadoebas siamayis grZnoba CavunergoT da SesaZloa mivaRwioT im maRal standartebs, romlebic TviT pilma daawesa.


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msoflio 2017

honkongi

rTuli CineTi me gavizarde honkongis CineTisTvis gadacemis Semdgom periodSi, romlis ganmavlobaSic CineTi didi Zala gaxda. aq me Tavi mivuZRveni demokratiul moZraobas; davinaxe, rogor SefuTa CineTis komunisturi partiis erTpartiulma diqtaturam misi avtokratiuli ideologia `CineTis ocnebad~; rogor arRvevs universalur faseulobebs da axSobs uTanxmoebas sakuTari Zalisa da simdidris gamoyenebiT. misi saqcieli namdvilad guls miciebs. axalgazrdobisas mTavrobam miTxra, rom `erTi qveyana, ori sistema~ warmoadgens honkongis keTildReobisa da stabilurobis garantias. mxolod mogvianebiT mivxvdi, rom honkongis `kontinentalizacia~ ufro seriozuli ramaa: tradiciuli Cinuri ieroglifebi da kantonuri dialeqti Seicvala gamartivebuli simboloebiT da putunxuaTi (standartuli mandarinuliT); presisa da Tavyrilobebis Tavisufleba Selaxulia; CineTi ereva biznesisa da sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi. yvelaze cudi is aris, rom pekini agrZelebs Cinur-britanuli erToblivi deklaraciis xelyofas. misi ganmeorebiTi uari, dapirebisamebr, mianiWos honkongis mosaxleobas namdvili, sayovelTao Tavisufleba, gaxda `qolgis moZraobis~ 79-dRiani quCis masobrivi saprotesto aqciebis mizezi 2014 wels. dRes honkongi aRar aris honkongi. es mxolod saxelia. SeiZleba ifiqroT, rom CineTis komunistur partias TqvenTan araferi esaqmeba, da rom mxolod uSualod CineTis mmarTvelobis qveS myofma adamianebma unda idardon amaze. magram rodesac adamianis uflebaTa damcvelebs taivanidan aukrZales honkongSi Sesvla, an rodesac SvedeTis moqalaqe, romelic CineTis komunisturi partiis kritikis Semcvel wignebs yidda, gaitaces da CineTSi sakanSi gamoamwyvdies, an me ukanonod damakaves 12 saaTiT bangkokis aeroportSi Camofrenisas da Semdeg honkongSi damabrunes. yvela es incidenti, sul mcire, asaxavs CineTis zedmet aqtiurobas sakuTar sazRvrebs miRma, mis gavrcobas samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi da mTel msoflioSi. CineTis gavlenis gaTvaliswinebiT, me vwuxvar momavalze. Cveulebriv, Cemnairi axalgazrdebi, romlebic ibrZvian demokratiisTvis, veRar sargebloben ZiriTadi fizikuri usafrTxoebiT. Rirebulebebi, ase rom vafasebT, rogoricaa: adamianis uflebebi, Tavisufleba da kanonis uzenaesoba, TandaTan qreba mTel msoflioSi CineTis mTavrobis Carevis Sedegad.

luiza o’nili: `provokaciis~ avtori (riverrani) dublini

dublini

feminizmi, miuxedavad yvelafrisa rogorc romanebis avtori axalgazrdobisTvis, Cemze gamudmebiT axdens STabeWdilebas mozardebis unari miudgnen feminizms niuansebSi. me mjera, rom niuansebis es SegrZneba swored isaa, rac gamoarCevs feminizmis Semdeg talRas da Cemi prognoziT, es kidev ufro gaZlierdeba 2017 wels da mogvianebiT. niuansirebuli feministebi SesaZloa gabezrebulni iyvnen imiT, Cveulebriv, rogor asaxaven qalTa sxeulebs da mainc, amave dros, esmiT seqspozitiurobis Rirebuleba da safrTxe sxva qalebis seqsualobis marTvis mcdelobaSi. maT esmiT, rom musikaluri videoebi, sadac qalebs iyeneben rogorc damxmare elements (foni), gansxvavdeba imaTgan, sadac feradkaniani qalebi, rogorebic arian bionse, riana da niki minaJi, aRadgenen sakuTar seqsualur Zlierebas da rogor ganamtkicebs es ukanaskneli, xangrZlivi istoriis ganmavlobaSi, sazogadoebis mier Savi qalis sxeulis hiperseqsualizacias. niuansirebul feministebs SesaZloa aSfoTebdeT, rom seqsmuSaoba miekuTvneba kulturas, sadac miRebulia, rom qali SeiZleba `iyidebodes~. aseve mjera, rom seqsmuSakebi imsaxureben dacvas da muSaobis ukeTes pirobebs. SesaZlebelia maT gulze ar exatebodeT abortis idea, magram gaafTrebiT daicvan qalis ufleba, airCios. isini ar fiqroben, rom qalebi, romlebic plastikur qirurgias mimarTaven, `Ralatoben~ qalTa modgmas – maT ufro ainteresebT imsjelon diskriminaciul kulturaze, romlis farglebSi qalebi iZulebulni arian mudam axalgazrdulad gamoiyurebodnen. isini ar akritikeben qalebs, romlebic selfis iReben, ar miaCniaT isini qarafSutebad. piriqiT – ganixilaven ideas, rom selfi SeiZleba sakuTari Tavisadmi siyvaruls ganasaxierebdes gamanadgurebeli socialuri moTxovnebis fonze, romlebic TiTqosda sakuTari Tavis siZulvils STagvagoneben. maT ician, rom ar arsebobs `swori~ gza, iyo feministi an Tundac, ubralod, qali. niuansirebuli feminizmi inkluziuria. is yvela qalis, yvela rasis da religiisTvisaa. is transgenderi adamianebisTvisaa, mamakacebisTvisaa, tradiciuli orientaciis adamianebisTvis, geebisTvis da yvelasTvis, maT Soris.

winaswarmetyveli Taoba

joSua vongi: aqtivisti da Demosistō-s generaluri mdivani


90

msoflio 2017

winaswarmetyveli Taoba

tomasa del reali: musikosi, ikike

Cile

momavlis melodia musikis wera gansakuTrebuli dagegmvis gareSe daviwye. ikikeSi – Cems mSobliur qalaqSi, regei Zalian popularulia da Cemi musika am konteqstis eqoa. Tavisufal dros, Cveulebriv, vmReri da simReras viwer leptopze, romelic cota xnis win SeviZine. me avtvirTe videoebi socialur qselebSi. xalxs moewona, ramac mibiZga es ufro profesiulad mekeTebina. Cemi musika im xalxs ekuTvnis, romelmac warmomSva. me Cveulebrivi gogona var, kargi ideebiT, megobrebiT, leptopiTa da WiFi-T. teqnika mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs JReradobis adaptaciaSi, axlis SeqmnaSi da gvamaragebs platformebiT maTi gavrcelebisTvis. kulturebis Sereva virusiviTaa, romlis SeCereba SeuZlebelia. gavlenebi da kavSirebi sazRvrebs miRma dRes musikis Seqmnas cvlian. Cemze didi gavlena moaxdines didma musikosebma, romlebsac onlainqselebSi wavawydi da romlebic damoukideblad mividnen imave musikalur gancdebamde – adamianebi, romlebic musikas Zaldautaneblad qmnidnen, da imave teqnologiebs flobdnen. Semsruleblebi, rogorebic arian biWebi pxxr gvng-dan (espaneTi) pirveli adamianebi iyvnen, visTanac me vTanamSromlobdi, iseve rogorc prodiuserebi: naafi (meqsika), deltatroni (peru), Ciko sonido (los-anjelesi) da boris kastro (Cile); me mexmarebodnen popularuli dijeebi: rip roza pistola (meqsika), Rip TXNY (Cile), riobamba (niu-iorki) da sxvebi. RonisZiebebis Catarebis farTebi da moednebi, rogorebicaa Hiedrah (argentina), Traición (meqsika), Versus (perus), Perreo 69 (espaneTi) da mravali sxva – yvela maTganma mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdina axal laTinoJReradobaze mTel msoflioSi da yvela gagvaerTiana mis garSemo. Janris farglebSi mravali variacia arsebobs. swored axla, adamianebi saubroben #neopereoze, rogorc regeis Seqmnisa da aRqmis (mosmenis) axal stilze. magram regei daibada didi xnis win da bgera mudmivad ganicdis cvlilebas da evolucias. regeim icis, rogor unda gardaiqmnas da adaptirdes, gaxdes laTinuri amerikis popmusika da SesTavazos axalgazrdebs ufro mkafio msoflmxedveloba. Zveli stilis popmusikis fantaziebi siyvarulisa da gulgatexilobis Sesaxeb gzas uTmobs raRac ufro araoficialurs – energiiT, zeimiTa da cxovrebiseuli moraliT damuxtul msjelobebs. es SegrZnebebi vrceldeba da sul ufro xmamaRla ismis msoflioSi. mjera, rom 2017 wels regeis aRar ganixilaven, rogorc subkulturas da igi moipovebs damoukidebeli Janris legitimacias.

boian slati: Ocean Cleanup-is aRmasrulebeli direqtori da damfuZnebeli

delfti, holandia

zRvis cvlileba teqnologia cvlilebebis yvelaze Zlieri mamoZravebeli faqtoria. is Cveni adamianuri SesaZleblobebis gamaZlierebelia. maSin, rodesac yvela sxva mamoZravebeli faqtori efuZneba sazogadoebis arsebuli `saSeni blokebis~ ubralo gadaadgilebas, teqnologiuri inovaciebi qmnis sruliad axals, afarToebs Cveni problemebis gadaWris instrumentariums. teqnologiebis wyalobiT, bolo ramdenime aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi SesaniSnav progress mivaRwieT bevr sferoSi. maT Soris – jandacvis, ganaTlebisa da materialuri keTildReobis sferoebSi. bedis ironiiT, swored am miRwevebis `gverdiTi movlenebia~, romlebic axla Cveni drois udides gamowvevebs warmoSobs. kerZod, saqme garemos degradacias exeba. maS, ratom ar gamoviyenoT teqnologiis Zala am gamowvevis mimarT da aRvadginoT bunebrivi balansi? didi problemebi did gadawyvetilebebs moiTxovs. Tumca, amJamad, rogorc Cans, uaryofiTi winaswarganwyoba arsebobs dabali riskis/dabali mogebis proeqtebis mimarT, radgan Cven, rogorc wesi, gadaWarbebulad vafasebT marcxis Sedegebs. arcTu ise didi xnis win maRali riskis proeqtebi normas warmoadgenda. Zalauneburad, mexsierebaSi amotivtivdeba 1960-iani da 1970-iani wlebi – dro, rodesac ambiciuri wamowyebebi, rogoricaa `apolo~ (originaluri kosmosuri proeqti) da proeqti `mohol~ (sadac aSS cdilobda gaeburRa dedamiwis qerqi) Cveulebrivi movlenebi iyo. unda aRiniSnos, rom bevri aseTi proeqti nawilobriv civi omis dros geopolitikuri metoqeobis produqts warmoadgenda. mjera, rom axla iwyeba teqnologiuri ambiciebis msgavsi periodi, magram – kerZo seqtorSi. am dros, saerTo mteri Cvenive Tavia an, ufro sworad – meTodebi, romelTa meSveobiT Cven uprecedento ziani mivayeneT dedamiwas misi resursebis kvlevis mcdelobisas. transportis axali saxeobebi da energiis generirebisa da Senaxvis inovaciuri meTodebi teqnologiuri Semoqmedebis am axali talRis mxolod ramdenime magaliTia. Cemi prognoziT, es tendencia mxolod gaZlierdeba. okeanis gawmendis pirveli, plastikuri narCenebis Segrovebis sistemis amuSaveba ki dagegmilia wynar okeaneSi 2017 wels. moxaruli var, monawileoba miviRo am proeqtSi.


91

msoflio 2017

msoflio ricxvebSi qveynebi evropa avstria 94 belgia 94 bulgareTi 94 xorvatia 94 CexeTis respublika 94 dania 94 estoneTi 94 fineTi 94 safrangeTi 94 germania 94 saberZneTi 95

ungreTi 95 irlandia 95 italia 95 latvia 95 litva 95 holandia 95 norvegia 95 poloneTi 95 rumineTi 95 ruseTi 96 slovakeTi 96 slovenia 96 espaneTi 96

SvedeTi 96 Sveicaria 96 TurqeTi 96 ukraina 96 didi britaneTi 96 azia avstralia 97 bangladeSi 97 CineTi 97 honkongi 97 indoeTi 97 indonezia 97

qveyana

CrdiloeT amerika kanada 99 meqsika 99 SeerTebuli Statebi 99 laTinuri amerika argentina 99 bolivia 99 brazilia 99 Cile 99 kolumbia 99 kuba 100

ekvadori 100 peru 100 urugvai 100 venesuela 100

irani 101 erayi 101 israeli 101 iordania 101 kenia 101 libani 101 libia 101 maroko 101 nigeria 101 saudis arabeTi 101 samxreT afrika 101 siria 101 zimbabve 101

axlo aRmosavleTi da afrika alJiri 100 angola 100 kameruni 100 egvipte 100 eTiopia 100

aba, gaarkvieT msoflios mSp-s zrda* 2017 %

yvelaze swrafad mzardi qveynebi pozicia

iaponia 97 yazaxeTi 97 malaizia 97 axali zelandia 98 pakistani 98 filipinebi 98 singapuri 98 samxreT korea 98 Sri-lanka 98 taivani 98 tailandi 98 uzbekeTi 98 vietnami 98

mSp zrda, %

1 2

iemeni mianma (birma)

9.0 8.6

3

kot-d’ivuari

8.3

4

monRoleTi

7.8

5

laosi

7.6

6

gana

7.5

6

indoeTi

7.5

8

kamboja

7.2

9

butani

6.8

9

jibuti

6.8

msoflios udidesi ekonomikidan 2017 wels mxolod indoeTi Tu SeaRwevs yvelaze swrafad mzardi qveynebis aTeulSi. siis saTaveSi iemeni moeqca, romelic regionulma hibridulma omma `daaCoqa~ da romelsac zrdis daCqarebis kargi potenciali aqvs, Tuki 2017 wels mSvidoba damyardeba. mianma politikuri da ekonomikuri gaxsnilobiT isargeblebs, rac samoqalaqo da samxedro xelisufalTa morigebiT gaxda SesaZlebeli, xolo kot-d’ivuaris politikuri stabiluroba ucxour investiciebs waaxalisebs. monRoleTs wiaRiseulis eqsportze fasebis zrda SeeSveleba, iseve rogorc laoss, romelic damatebiT stimuls infrastruqturaSi investirebiTac miiRebs. jibuti aseve ixeirebs infrastruqturis ganaxlebis procesiT, rac sazRvao da or sahaero ports moicavs. ganas SemTxvevaSi zrdas ukve dasrulebis etapze myofi, amjerad sanavTobo sferoSi ganxorcielebuli investiciebi uzrunvelyofs. kambojis ekonomikas win sainvesticio proeqtebisa da eqsportze fasebis zrdis nazavi waswevs. hidroenergetikaSi investireba solidur zrdas moutans butans, Tumca es zrda orniSna ricxviT ar gamoisaxeba, rogorc amas mTavroba prognozirebda. 2017 wlis prognozi, Tu sxvagvarad araa miTiTebuli. inflacia: saSualo wliuri maCvenebeli. mSp dolarebSi gaangariSebulia 2017 wlis ­dolaris gacvliTi kursis prognozis mixedviT (mSp msyidvelobiTi unaris paritetis (mup) mixedviT naCvenebia frCxilebSi). yvela ricxvi gamartivebulia damrgvalebis gziT. london@eiu.com wyaro: Economist Intelligence Unit, The Economist

das. evropa

aRm. evropa

1.1

Cr. amerika

2.3

1.9

iaponia

axloaRm./ Cr. afrika

0.4

2.8

azia (iap. avst. da ax. zeland. gamoklebiT)

laT. amerika

5.2

1.7 samx. afrika

3.0

*mimdinare savaluto kursiT

minoruli ganwyoba nuls qvemoT saprocento ganakveTis gamo aTwliani saxazino obligaciebis ukugeba % aSS

didi britaneTi

germania

iaponia

Sveicaria

wyaro: saxelmwifoTa mTavrobebi, The Economist Intelligence Unit

3.0

avstralazia

Semcirebuli vaWroba msoflio vaWroba, trilioni aSS dolari eqsporti, fob

importi, cif

wyaro: saxelmwifoTa mTavrobebi, The Economist Intelligence Unit


92

qveynebi msoflio ricxvebSi

msoflio 2017

evropa: minoruli ganwyoba breqsitis gamo britaneTis vaWroba 2015 wels, miliardi aSS dolari brit.eqsp.

brit.imp.

dakompleqtebisTvis, mxars uWers ra biznesis xelSewyobisa da konservatiul fiskalur politikas. mZlavr germanul bazarze mibmuli ekonomika winsvlas gaagrZelebs, rasac saavtomobilo industriis ganviTarebis maRali tempic SeeSveleba.

dania mSp zrda: mSp erT sulze: aSS

a

mani

ger

Ti

Cine

a

i ebi eTi and and irl erl nid

rang

saf

gia

Ti

ane

bel

esp

a

li

ita

1.4% 53,321 $ (mup: 49,170 $)

inflacia:

1.4 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %):

-1.8

wyaro: saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis vaWrobis direqtorati; mxolod saqonlis eqsporti da importi

mosaxleoba:

evropa

liberaluri partiis umciresobis mTavrobas parlamentSi 179-dan mxolod 34 adgili uWiravs da SesaZloa 2017 wels xelisuflebaSi veRarc darCes, vinaidan evroskeptikuri daniis saxalxo partiam (DF), romelsac imigraciiT mosaxleobis gaRizianeba umagrebs zurgs, is SesaZloa marTvas Camoacilos. vadamdeli arCevnebiT yvelaze did sargebels social-demokratebi miiReben, Tumca isini saxalxo partiasTan unda morigdnen. imdenad, ramdenadac sakuTari politikuri dRis wesrigis ganxorcielebas SeZlebs, mTavrobis Zalisxmeva sabiujeto deficitis Semcirebisken iqneba mimarTuli. zrda daCqardeba, Tumca kvlavac neli iqneba. Tvali adevneT: gadanawileba. TavSesafris maZiebelTa Semweobis Semcireba mTavrobas 2020 wlamde miliard daniur kronas dauzogavs (148 milioni aSS dolari), rasac sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis dasafinanseblad gamoiyeneben.

mSp zrda:

1.0% 45,280 $ (mup: 51,170 $)

inflacia:

1.8 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-1.3 8.6 milioni

avstriis memarjvene-centristuli saxalxo partiisa da memarcxene social-demokratiuli partiis aliansi, wesiT, xelisuflebaSi vadis gasvlamde unda darCes, magram politikuri kinklaobiT, mzardi umuSevrobiTa da migrantTa nakadebiT gaRizianebuli amomrCevelis simpaTia ukiduresi memarjvene `Tavisuflebis partiisken~ (FPÖ) gadaixreba. arCevnebi 2018 welsaa dagegmili, magram SesaZloa ufro adrec Catardes. ekonomikuri zrdis tempi CamorCeba germaniisas, romelzec avstria uSualodaa damokidebuli. Tvali adevneT: `civi~ medlebi. martSi avstria msoflio zamTris TamaSebis specialur olimpiadas umaspinZlebs, romelic 110 qveynis 3000 inteleqtualurad unarSezRudul aTlets mouyris Tavs.

belgia mSp zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.1 % 41,065 $ (mup: 46,2160 $)

inflacia:

1.9 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-2.4 11.4 milioni

konsensusi sabazro ekonomikis xelSemwyob reformebTan dakavSirebiT memarjvene-centristul koaliciur mTavrobas ucvlelad SeinarCunebs. politika saxelmwifo finansebis gaumjobesebaze, konkurentulobis zrdasa da uSiSroebis samsaxurebis saqmianobis ramdenimewliani Cavardnis Semdeg kontrteroristuli saqmianobis gaZlierebaze iqneba orientirebuli. daZabuloba frankofonebsa da flandriulad molaparakeTa Soris kvlavac Zlieri iqneba, Tumca saxelmwifo erTianobas SeinarCunebs.

bulgareTi mSp zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.2% 7,284 $ (mup: 19,660 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

5.7 milioni

safrangeTi mSp zrda:

avstria mSp erT sulze:

marjvene `finelebis~ partiam erTgvarad Searbila Tavisi ritorikis toni mas Semdeg, rac 2015 wels samTavrobo koalicias SeuerTda. mis mxardamWerTa imedgacrueba SesaZloa gaxleCisa da Semdgom administraciis marcxis mizezi gaxdes. 2017 wlis aprilis municipaluri arCevnebi eleqtoratis ganwyobis kargi sazomi iqneba. dune zrda evropaSi da rusuli sanqciebi isedac mokrZalebul zrdas Seanelebs.

1.7% -1.0 7.0 milioni

qveyana 2017 wels kampaniur ganwyobaze Sexvdeba, radganac martSi an aprilSi vadamdeli arCevnebi Catardeba, risi mizezic 2016 wlis bolos saprezidento arCevnebze mTavrobis kandidatis marcxi, da Sesabamisad, premier-ministr boiko borisovis gadadgoma gaxda. misi memarjvene-centristuli Zala – `moqalaqeebi bulgareTis evropuli ganviTarebisaTvis~, savaraudod, axal mandats miiRebs, TumcaRa SeCerdeba misi politikuri dRis wesrigis winsvla, romliTac saxelmwifo samsaxuris efeqtianobis amaRleba da zrdis daCqareba iyo ganzraxuli.

xorvatia mSp zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.2% 11,684 $ (mup: 24,400 $)

inflacia:

0.7 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-2.1 4.2 milioni

xorvatiis demokratiuli kavSiris lideri – andrei plekoviCi 2016 wlis bolos sayovelTao arCevnebis Sedegad axali memarjvenecentristuli koaliciis mTavrobis premier-ministri gaxda. axali mTavroba winaze bevrad stabiluri Cans, metad akeTebs fokuss ekonomikur politikaze da ar avlens memarjvene nacionalisturi dRis wesrigis ganxorcielebis survils. mokrZalebul zrdas momxmarebelTa pozitiuri ganwyoba gaumagrebs zurgs, Tumca ekonomika 2007-2008 wlebis piks qvemoT darCeba.

CexeTi mSp zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.5% 18, 624 $ (mup: 35,650 a$)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

1.7 % -0.5 10.6 milioni

erTgvarad centristuli didi koalicia, romelic xelisuflebaSi 2013 wlidan rCeba da misi Semadgeneli nawilebi 2017 wlis oqtomberSi dagegmil saparlamento arCevnebSi pirvelobisTvis ibrZoleben. biznesmen andrei babisis marTuli centristuli partia ANO, umciresi ori umTavresi koaliciuri partiidan, gamokiTxvebSi liderobs da karg poziciaze imyofeba Semdegi administraciis

estoneTi mSp zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.6 % 18,763 $ (mup: 30,310 $)

inflacia:

2.3 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-0.1 1.3 milioni

qveyana 2017 wels axali mTavrobiT daiwyebs, romlis mosvla arsebuli administraciis mier 2016 wlis ndobis votumis dakargvas mohyva. axali mTavroba, romelsac, savaraudod, iuri ratasis centristuli partia daakompleqtebs, Ria ekonomikisa da prodasavlur politikas gaatarebs. ruseTis mier evrokavSiris sasoflosameurneo eqsportze dawesebuli sapasuxo sanqciebi ekonomikas azianebs, Tumca zrda kvlavac soliduri iqneba. Tvali adevneT: morigeoba. estoneTi 2017 wlis meore naxevarSi evrokavSiris prezidentis gardamaval pozicias daikavebs da britaneTis mier gaTavisuflebul adgils Seavsebs.

fineTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

0.9 % 42,497 $ (mup:42,810 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

1.0 % -2.5 5.5 milioni

evroskeptikosma, ukiduresma me-

mSp erT sulze:

1.1 % 38,032 $ (mup: 43,270 $)

inflacia:

1.0 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-3.0 64.9 milioni

opoziciuri `respublikelebi~, savaraudod, yofili premier-ministris – alen Jupes xelmZRvanelobiT, momdevno mTavrobas aprilis saprezidento arCevnebis Semdeg daakompleqteben, Tumca yofil prezidents – nikola sarkozis Seswevs Zala, oponenti praimerebSi daazaralos. xelisuflebaSi myofi socialisturi partia metad arapopularulia da, amave dros, partiis marcxena frTasac aRizianebs xelisuflebaSi yofnis Sua periodSi politikuri poziciis marjvniv gadaxris gamo. ukiduresi memarjvene „nacionaluri fronti“, romlis poziciebs terorizmi, breqsiti da imigracia gaamyarebs, karg Sedegebs daafiqsirebs, Tumca orraundian arCevnebSi saboloo gamarjvebas ver SeZlebs. breqsitis pirdapiri da arapirdapiri efeqtebi ekonomikas SeboWavs. Tvali adevneT: centraluri scena. ekonomikis yofili ministri – emanuel makroni prezidentobisTvis mis mierve axladCamoyalibebuli centristuli moZraoba En marche!-is lideris rangSi warmarTavs, Tumca ver gaimarjvebs.

germania mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.3 % 42,281 $(mup: 49,950 a$)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

1.3 % 0.5 82.5 milioni

angela merkeli kancleris posts meoTxedac SeinarCunebs, araugvianes oqtomberSi daniSnul arCevnebSi gamarjvebis Semdeg – miuxedavad imisa, rom mis reputacias seriozuli daRi daasva arapopularulma Ria saimigracio politikam. is kidev erT did koalicias umeTaurebs, Tumca parlamentSi ufro naklebi adgiliT. misi umTavresi sazrunavi britaneTis gasvlis Semdeg evrokavSiris SenarCuneba da, amave dros breqsitis ganxorcielebisas mkacri pirobebis dacva iqneba, kavSiris datovebis mosurneTa SesaSineblad. qveynis SigniT sabazro ekonomikis wamaxalisebel struqturul reformebs memarcxeneebi SeewinaaRmdegebian. ekonomikuri zrda gadaaWarbebs saSualo evro-


msoflio ricxvebSi qveynebi

msoflio 2017 pul maCvenebels, Tumca 2016 wlis doneze dabali iqneba.

saberZneTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.5 % 18,063 $ (mup: 27,690) $

inflacia:

0.9 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-3.3 10.9 milioni

`siriza/damoukidebeli berZnebis~ koaliciuri mTavroba parlamentSi cicqna umciresobas flobs, romelsac, savaraudod, evropul institutebTan SeTanxmebuli arapopularuli antikrizisuli zomebis ganxorcielebis dawyeba gaaqrobs, rasac axali arCevnebi mohyveba. amiT memarjvene-centristuli axali demokratiis partia ixeirebs. ekonomikuri vardnis SeCerebis Semdeg, nelTbili gamococxlebac ki Soreuli perspeqtivaa da saberZneTi SesaZloa evros zonidan imaze ufro swrafad gamovides, vidre britaneTis evrokavSiridan gasvla dokumenturad dadasturebuli gaxdeba.

ungreTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.4 % 12,755 $ (mup: 27,800 $)

inflacia:

1.7 %

biujetis balansi:

(mSp-s %): -2.7

mosaxleoba:

9.8 milioni

xelisuflebaSi meore vadiT myofi, konservatiuli `fideSis~ partiis mier marTuli koaliciuri mTavroba Seecdeba politikis gatarebas, romelic sul ufro metad ixreba marjvniv konkurenti memarjvene Jobbik-is (`ukeTesi ungreTisTvis~) Setevebis mosagerieblad. es evrokavSiris institutebisa da ucxouri biznesebis antagonizms gamoiwvevs, Tumca sabiujeto deficitis Semcirebisa da saxelmwifo valis moTokvis koncentrirebuli RonisZiebebi kritikosebs erTgvarad gaaneitralebs. ekonomikuri zrda daCqardeba mas Semdeg, rac 2018 wlis aprilis saparlamento arCevnebisTvis samzadisSi mTavroba gadasaxadebs Sekvecs da xarjebs gazrdis. zrda evropis normas gadaaWarbebs, Tumca mis 2014-2015 wlis Sedegebze dabali iqneba. Tvali adevneT: festivali. ungreTi 2017 wlis ivnisSi EuroHand-s – xelis daavadebaTa Terapiisa da qirurgiisadmi miZRvnil RonisZiebas umaspinZlebs.

irlandia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.0 % 62,717 $ (mup: $ 70,130)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s%): mosaxleoba:

0.9 % -0.8 4.7 milioni

`fine-gelis~ mier marTuli umciresobis samTavrobo koalicia aramyaria, rac gamowveulia mosaxleobis gadaRliT mkacri ekonomiis RonisZiebebis gamo,

romlebmac finansuri kraxis Semdgom ekonomikuri gamococxleba uzrunvelyves. opoziciuri `fiana feili~ daarRvevs usityvo zavs koaliciur mTavrobasTan (rac am ukanasknels funqcionirebis saSualebas aZlevs), Tuki aRmoCndeba, rom igi gamokiTxvebSi liderobs, rac 2017 wels vadamdel arCevnebs SesaZlebels gaxdis. breqsiti gaarTulebs urTierTobebs CrdiloeT irlandiasTan, romelic didi britaneTis nawilia da daazianebs ekonomikas. ekonomikisa da biznesis zrda, romelic irlandiis kreatiuli korporaciuli sagadasaxado politikiT sazrdoobda, bolo wlebis fantastikuri zrdis Semdeg Seneldeba.

italia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

0.9 % 30,616 $ (mup: 38,450$)

inflacia:

saprocento ganakveTebi waadgeba. zrda neli, Tumca soliduri iqneba.

litva mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.8 % 15,785 $ (mup: 31,030 $)

inflacia:

1.4 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s procenti): mosaxleoba:

2.8 milioni

niderlandebi

0.5 % (mSp-s %): -2.3

mSp-s zrda:

mosaxleoba:

59.8 milioni

mSp erT sulze:

1.0 % 45,005 $ (mup: 51,350 $)

inflacia:

mateo rencis, rogorc premierministris, momavali, damokidebulia mis mier SemoTavazebuli saetapo sakanonmdeblo reformis paketze, romelic sazogadoebis samsjavroze 2016 wlis bolos wardgeba. mas mosaxleoba referendumze, savaraudod, mcire upiratesobiT moiwonebs. referendumis Sedegebi vadamdeli arCevnebis daniSvnis mizezi gaxdeba. dadebiTi pasuxi rencis demokratiuli partiis poziciebs gaaZlierebs, xolo uaris SemTxvevaSi mas Tanamdebobis datoveba mouwevs. politikuri gaurkvevloba, finansuri sistemis sisuste da breqsitis SesaZlo zegavlena ekonomikur zrdas Seanelebs.

latvia mSs-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.8 % 14,656 $ (mup: 19,750 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-0.9

2016 wlis oqtombris arCevnebma litvis glexTa da `mwvaneTa~ kavSiri moulodnelad kvlav qveynis udides partiad aqcia. koaliciur molaparakebaTa Sedegebis miuxedavad, Ria ekonomikisa da prodasavluri kursis mxardaWera kvlav gagrZeldeba. ruseTTan sazRvris mqone evrokavSiris sxva qveynebis msgavsad, Tavdacva da gazis miwodebis diversifikacia prioritetebad darCeba. mzardi investiciebiT gamagrebuli ekonomikuri zrda daCqardeba.

biujetis balansi:

1.3 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-1.0 17.1 milioni

2017 wlis martis sayovelTao arCevnebi samTavrobo cvlilebas moitans centristuli `didi koaliciis~ poziciebis populisturi memarcxene da memarjvene partiebisTvis daTmobiT. ukiduresi memarjvene Tavisuflebis partia warmatebas miaRwevs, Tumca mza partniorebis naxva gauWirdeba, riTac gaWianurdeba arCevnebis Semdgomi koaliciebis Camoyalibeba, risi Sedegic susti da fragmentuli mTavroba iqneba. ekonomikuri aRdgena stabilurad mimdinareobs da politikur gaurkvevlobasac gauZlebs. Tvali adevneT: es moxdeba. TebervalSi gasamarTi FITC amsterdamis RonisZiebaze `inovaciebis, dizainisa da maT Soris yvela sasiamovno Temas~ ganixilaven (oficialuri programis Tanaxmad).

1.7 % -1.2 1.9 milioni

premier-ministr maris kuCinskisis mier marTuli memarjvenecentristuli koalicia gaatarebs mkafiod proevropul, fiskalurad konservatiul politikas. urTierTobebi ruseTTan daZabuli darCeba am ukanasknelis mier yirimis aneqsiis Semdeg. umTavresi amocanebi ruseTis ekonomikaze damokidebulebis Semcireba da NATO-sTan kavSirebis ganmtkiceba iqneba. saSinao moxmarebas sapensio reforma da aradeklarirebuli ekonomika waaxalisebs. Tvali adevneT: centri simyares inarCunebs. parlamentis umsxvilesi damoukidebeli politikuri jgufi kvlavac eTnikurad rusuli `harmoniuli centris~ partia iqneba, Tumca, amavdroulad, mas ZalauflebasTan eTnikurad latviuri umravlesoba ar miuSvebs.

norvegia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.5 % 75,513 $ (mup: 65,370 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

93

2.2 % 3.7 5.2 milioni

umciresobis memarjvene-centristuli mTavroba, romelic xelisuflebaSi pirvelad myofi konservatorebisa da antiimigraciuli Zalebis koaliciaa, 2017 wlis bolos dagegmili arCevnebis mcire upiratesobis mqone favoritia. igi ekonomikurma sirTuleebma da imigraciasTan dakavSirebulma Sida dapirispirebebma daasusta, Tumca opoziciuri memarcxene-centristuli bloki gamokiTxvebSi ukeTesi SedegebiT ver daikvexnis. navTobsa da gazze dabali fasebi, romlebic norvegiis eqsportis or mesameds Seadgens, ekonomikas Seaferxebs, Tumca mas dabali saerTaSoriso

poloneTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.9 % 12,139 $ (mup: 28,610 $)

inflacia:

1.6 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s procenti): mosaxleoba:

-3.3

38.3 milioni

`kanonisa da samarTlianobis partiis~ marTuli mTavroba, romelsac nominalurad premierministri beata Sidlo meTaurobs, TumcaRa romlis realuri marTvis sadaveebi partiis Tavmjdomares – iaroslav kaCinskis upyria, kidev ufro SezRudavs liberalur politikur garemos, romelic komunizmis kolafsis Semdeg Camoyalibda da sasamarTloebis, uSiSroebisa da mediis poziciebs Seutevs. mTavrobis konfliqti evrokavSiris partniorebTan da eleqtoratis did nawilTan ufro gamwvavdeba. amiT ganpirobebuli daZabuloba da mudmivi ekonomikuri problemebi SesaZloa mTavrobis naadrevi cvlilebis mizezi gaxdes, Tumca ara 2017 wels.

portugalia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.3 % 19,581 $ (mup: 30,580 $)

inflacia:

1.5 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-2.3 10.5 milioni

marTalia, premier-ministr antonio kostas socialisturi partiis mTavroba parlamentSi sami memarcxene partiis mxardaWeriT sargeblobs, magram mas postkrizisuli mkacri ekonomiis politikis gauqmebis valdebulebis Sesruleba mainc gauWirdeba, rasac dabali ekonomikuri zrda da evrokavSiris sabiujeto deficitis regulaciebi ganapirobebs. miuxedavad amisa, socialisturi partia ufro popularulia, vidre memarjvene-centristuli opozicia da misi damokidebuleba saparlamento mokavSireebze ormxrivi xasiaTisaa, rac vadamdeli arCevnebis albaTobas minimumamde amcirebs. ekonomikuri zrda odnav aCqardeba. Tvali adevneT: daelodeT. politikuri speqtris marcxena flangidan momdinare ekonomiis politikis Semsubuqebis wnexis miuxedavad, mTavroba sapensio asaks ianvarSi erTi TviT aswevs da 66 welsa da sam Tves gautolebs.

rumineTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.4 % 10,335 $ (mup: 24,780 $)

inflacia:

2.2 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s%): mosaxleoba:

-3.2 19.2 milioni

2015 wels sazogadoebis protestis Sedegad gadayenebul,


94

qveynebi msoflio ricxvebSi

mTavrobis Semcvlel droebiT xelisuflebas 2016 wlis arCevnebis Semdeg misi farTo, magram susti koaliciiT Canacvleba unda mohyoloda, rac amomrCevlis ukmayofilebis amsaxvelia. saxelmwifo biurokratia gaberilia da mokrZalebuli reformebis gatarebisgan ukandaxeva ufro gaberavs biujetis deficits, TumcaRa Sedegad miRebuli moxmarebis zrda evrokavSiris sxva qveynebis zrdis maCveneblebis gadaswrebis saSualebas iZleva.

0.7 % 10,119 $ (mup: 25,320 $)

inflacia:

5.7 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-2.2 146.4 milioni

vladimir putinis avtoritaruli, antidasavluri reJimi xelisuflebaSi yofnis me-18 wels sisustis niSnebis gareSe Sexvdeba. sazogadoebrivi protesti mcirdeba, xolo 2017 wels, orwliani klebis Semdeg, ekonomikis umciresi gamococxleba cotas Tu daajerebs, rom kargi droeba brundeba. miuxedavad amisa, saxelmwifo organoebis centralizebuli kontroli da batoni putinis piradi popularoba imas niSnavs, rom reJimi gaZlebs. cxovrebis standartebi izaralebs, radganac resursebi reJimis SenarCunebas xmardeba. evrokavSiris sanqciebi, romlebic ruseTis ukrainaSi agresias mohyva, 2017 wlis ianvridan gaxangrZlivdeba, xolo ruseTis kontrsanqciebi ZalaSi darCeba. Tvali adevneT: dacarieleba. sarezervo fondi, romelic erTerTia rTuli periodis siZneleTa gadasatanad Seqmnili ori sabiujeto meqanizmidan, 2017 wels dacarieldeba, rac saxelmwifo xarjebis kidev ufro Semcirebas ganapirobebs.

slovakeTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.7 % 16,502 $ (mup: 31,660 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

slovenia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.0 % 20,820 $ (mup: 33,490 $)

inflacia:

0.8%

mosaxleoba:

mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

vakuumi. Tu premier-ministri robert fiko gadadgeba mas Semdeg, rac 2017 wlis ianvarSi slovakeTs evrokavSiris prezidentobis vada amoewureba, Sedegad, miRebuli politikuri vakuumi SesaZloa mTavrobis gadadgomis mizezic gaxdes.

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %):

ruseTi

1.1 % -1.9 5.4 milioni

aramyari memarjvene-memarcxene koaliciuri mTavroba, romelsac memarcxene-centristuli `social-demokratiuli mimarTulebis partia~ udgas saTaveSi, fokuss ganaTlebisa da jandacvis, aseve korufciasTan brZolaze SeinarCunebs, Tumca progresi, gansakuTrebiT ki bolo sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, neli iqneba. ekonomika ucxour moTxovnaze damokidebulebidan ufro stabiluri moxmarebis modelze gadainacvlebs, Tumca rTuli demografiuli da breqsitis mier gauaresebuli sagareo pirobebi ekonomikur zrdasac daetyoba. Tvali adevneT: Zalauflebis

msoflio 2017

-1.1 2.1 milioni

ekonomika ase Tu ise win miiwevs da 2017 wels mTavroba bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi pirvelad isargeblebs fiskaluri TavisuflebiT – mas Semdeg, rac Tavs daaRwevs evrokavSiris Warbi deficitis proceduras 2016 wlis SuaSi. amave dros, memarcxene-centristuli koaliciis partiebs Soris da SigniT uTanxmoeba sufevs da umravlesobis miuxedavad, SesaZlebelia mTavrobas xelisuflebis daTmoba mouxdes. sakmaod mokrZalebuli privatizaciis programa gansakuTrebiT mwvave dapirispirebis mizezia da nela ganxorcieldeba.

espaneTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.0 % 27,311 $ (mup: 37,950 $)

inflacia:

1.7 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-3.7 46.1 milioni

memarjvene-centristuli saxalxo partiis Tavmjdomarem – mariano raxoim rogorc iqna fici dado, rogorc umciresobis mTavrobis premierma 2016 wlis bolos – mas Semdeg, rac mTavarma opoziciurma socialisturma partiam mTavrobis damtkicebis debatebSi xmis micemidan Tavis Sekaveba arCia. batoni raxoi, romelic 2015 wlis gaurkveveli Sedegebis Semdeg droebiT administracias edga saTaveSi, savaraudod, Tavis vadas ver daasrulebs da gamarTuli samTavrobo programis miRebis Sansi mcirea. miuxedavad amisa, ekonomikas ukve ganxorcielebuli reformebi waadgeba da igi sirTuleebs gauZlebs. Tvali adevneT: sabiujeto ryevebi. espaneTi SesaZloa evrokavSirma gakicxos, Tuki ver moaxerxebs aCvenos progresi 2018 wels maqsimum 3%-iani sabiujeto deficitis uzrunvelsayofad gadadgmuli nabijebiT.

SvedeTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.5 % 51,542 $ (mup: 49,100 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

0.9 % -0.3 10.1 milioni

umciresobis mTavroba, romelic social-demokratulma partiam

da `mwvaneTa~ partiam daakompleqtes, mowyvladia opoziciuri aliansisadmi, romlis pasiurobaze misi saparlamento poziciebia damokidebuli. vadamdeli arCevnebi mosalodneli ar aris, rac albaT ufro met xmas moupovebda memarjvene `SvedeTis demokratTa~ (SD) partias, es ki „anaTemaa“ ufro zomieri partiebisTvis. sazogadoebis gaRizianeba imigraciiT, rac am partiis popularobis safuZvelia, kvlavac mwvave iqneba ufro mkacri politikisa da saimigracio servisebze xarjebis zrdis miuxedavad. breqsiti Seamcirebs sagareo moTxovnas, magram saSinao moTxovna ekonomikas `amoyvinTvis~ saSualebas miscems.

Sveicaria mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.5 % 80,883 $ (mup: 65,650 $)

inflacia:

0.5 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

0.2 8.2 milioni

2014 wlis referendumiT, xelisuflebaSi myofi, oTxi partiisgan Semdgari koalicia valdebulia SezRudos imigracia 2017 wlis Tebervlamde, rac savaraudod, daarRvevs SeTanxmebas evrokavSirTan Tavisufal gadaadgilebasTan dakavSirebiT. parlamentis qveda palatis mier 2016 wlis bolos miRebulma `msubuqi~ ganxorcielebis RonisZiebebma evrokavSirTan morigeba unda uzrunvelyos. konsensusis meSveobiT politikuri gadawyvetilebebis miReba imas niSnavs, rom ekonomikis marTva naklebad dramatuli iqneba. nebismieri reforma biznesciklis ganmavlobaSi biujetis dabalansebisken iqneba mimarTuli.

samxedro strategiis ganxorcieleba gauWirdeba.

ukraina mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze: inflacia:

mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.3 % 9,821 $ (mup: 21,800 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

7.2 % -2.0 77.9 milioni

2016 wlis marcxiani samxedro gadatrialebis mcdelobam ganamtkica rejeb taip erdoRanis mier marTuli zomierad islamisturi `samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis partiis~ mTavrobis sazogadoebrivi mxardaWera. aman aseve reJimis oponentTa wmendis SesaZleblobac Seqmna. gadatrialebis mcdelobis konteqstSi, batoni erdoRani gaaoTxmagebs saxelmwifo kontrolis centralizaciis mcdelobas, rac misi didi xnis ambiciaa. Tu opoziciasTan sakonstitucio cvlilebaze SeTanxmebis miRweva SeuZlebeli gaxdeba, man SeiZleba vadamdeli saparlamento arCevnebi daniSnos. Tvali adevneT: SeTxelebuli rigebi. qveynis umaRlesi oficrobis daaxloebiT mesamedi, gadatrialebis mcdelobis Semdgom wmendas gadayva, ris gamo TurqeTs qveynis SigniT da gareT rTuli

9.8 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-3.5 42.4 milioni

ruseTis mier yirimis aneqsiiT SeWirvebul da qveynis aRmosavleTiT ruseTis mxardaWeril separatistebTan mwvave dapirispirebaSi myof mTavrobas administraciul da ekonomikur reformebSi garRvevis miRweva gauWirda, Tumca Rrma recesiidan gamosvla 2017 wels mainc daiwyeba. ekonomikuri stabiluroba alyaSemortymuli mTavrobis mxardaWeras uzrunvelyofs, Tumca oligarqiuli interesebis amoZirkvas mTeli Taoba dasWirdeba. SesaZlebelia vadamdeli arCevnebic, radganac xelisufleba ekonomikuri gaumjobesebiT miRebuli dividendebis dabevebas cdilobs. Tvali adevneT: `xmadabali simRera~. ukraina `evroviziis~ 62-e sasimRero festivals umaspinZlebs, mas Semdeg rac misma momReralma jamalam 2016 wlis konkursi moigo simReriT, romelSic yirimSi ruseTis agresiiT gamowveuli mwuxarebaa gamoxatuli.

didi britaneTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

0.6 % 37,317 $ (mup: 43,812 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

TurqeTi

2.6 % 1,989 $ (mup: 8,690 $)

2.8 % -4.5 65.3 milioni

momdevno ramdenime wlis politikur konteqsts britaneTis mier evrokavSiris datovebis Sesaxeb miRebuli gadawyvetileba da danarCen msofliosTan axali urTierTobebis Camoyalibebis saWiroeba Seqmnis. gadawyvetilebiT ar dadgenila evrokavSiris datovebis pirobebi, magram britaneTi imedovnebs SeinarCunos evropis erTian bazarze SeRwevis xarisxi da, amave dros, SezRudos adamianTa gadaadgileba. breqsitis negatiuri Sedegebis dadgomis kvalobaze ekonomikas stimulireba dasWirdeba. vinaidan centraluri bankis instrumentebi TiTqmis amowurulia, tvirTi fiskalur politikaze gadainacvlebs. Tvali adevneT: optimaluri varianti. breqsitis kompromisuli aRsruleba mosaxleobis mier ratifikacias moiTxovs – axali referendumis an arCevnebis gziT. ukompromiso `gamsvlelebi~ Tavs motyuebulad igrZnoben.


msoflio ricxvebSi qveynebi

msoflio 2017 azia: formis SenarCuneba mimdinare angariSis balansi, mSp-s %

reformis SesaZleblobebi mcirea, Tumca mosaxleobis protesti biznescxovrebas Seaferxebs. ekonomika uxeiro 2016 welTan SedarebiT aCqardeba, magram kontinentur CineTSi Seneleba da globaluri vaWrobis Semcireba zrdas Seamcirebs.

azia da avstralazia didi CineTi

indoeTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

7.5 % 1,772 $ (mup: 7,110 $)

inflacia:

5.1 %

biujetis balansi:

(mSp-s %): -3.6

mosaxleoba:

azia avstralia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

CineTi 2.9 %

51,459 $ (mup: 48,880 $)

inflacia:

2.2 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %):

-1.8

mosaxleoba:

24.6 milioni

liberalur-nacionaluri koalicia meore vadiT xelisuflebaSi 2016 wlis Sua periodis arCevnebiT movida, Tumca qveda palataSi misi umravlesoba erT kacamde Semcirda. namdvili problemebi zeda palataSi Seiqmneba, sadac mTavrobas xisti poziciebis mqone damoukidebeli parlamentarebis loialobac sWirdeba. 2016 wlis arCevnebi calkeul kanonproeqtebTan dakavSirebiT palataTa Soris uTanxmoebas mohyva. parlamentis fragmentaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, amis gamoricxva namdvilad ar SeiZleba. ekonomika politikas `CamoiferTxavs~ samTamadno industriaSi investiciebis pirveli nayofis gamoCenisa da samomxmareblo xarjebis zrdis kvalobaze.

bangladeSi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

6.4 % 1,480 $ (mup: 3,810)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp -s %): mosaxleoba:

5.8 % -5.3 166.2 milioni

`avamis ligis~ mTavroba sakanonmdeblo TavisuflebiT sargeblobs mas Semdeg, rac mTavarma opoziciurma – `bangladeSis nacionalisturma partiam~ ukanasknel arCevnebs boikoti gamoucxada. politikuri oponireba quCaSia gadanacvlebuli, Tumca is gaficvebisa da demonstraciebis formas iRebs, rac zRudavs biznesis enTuziazms. amis miuxedavad, ekonomika swrafad izrdeba mTavrobis mier kerZo investiciebis waxalisebis kvalobaze. moxmareba ixeirebs imiT, rom aRiniSneba progresi gaeros mdgradi ganviTarebis miznebis miRwevis gzaze.

mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

6.0 % 8,438 $ (mup: 17,050 $)

inflacia:

2.1 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-4.2 1.37 miliardi

ekonomikuri zrda Seneldeba saeqsporto dargebSi investirebis modelidan moxmarebisTvis xarjvis modelze gadasvlis kvalobaze, TumcaRa am transformaciis uzrunvelmyofi politikuri da ekonomikuri reformebi am process fexs ver uwyobs. gamowvevebia kreditebiT gaberili aqtivebis buStebis `CafuSvis,~ samuSao Zalis axal seqtorebSi gadanacvlebisa da misi unar-Cvevebis gaumjobesebis, aseve politikur da socialur landSaftSi pluralizmis Setanis mimarTulebebi. yvela am reformas CineTis komunisturi partiis Zalauflebis SenarCunebis prioriteti swonis. sazRvargareT gaizrdeba daZabuloba teritoriul da ekonomikur gavlenasTan dakavSirebiT, mTavrobis mier Zalis demonstrirebis kvalobaze. Tvali adevneT: gadanacvlebani pekinSi. partiis Tavmjdomare si Zinpini centralizebul da personalizebul Zalauflebis struqturas aSenebs. politbiuroSi dagegmili morigi gadanacvlebani garkveul sicxades Seitans imaSi, Tu rogor moxdeba es.

honkongi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.9 % 44,391 $ (mup:59,860 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

2.2 % 0.5 7.4 milioni

saarCevno sistema ise funqcionirebs, rom demokratiisa da damoukideblobis momxreni sakanonmdeblo sabWoSi saTanadod warmodgenilni ar arian, Tumca isini sul ufro met mxardamWers iZenen, vinaidan kontinenturi CineTis mier daniSnuli aRmasrulebeli – lian Cenini metismetad arapopularulia. vinaidan pekinis mTavrobas berketebis umetesoba upyria, politikuri

1.34 miliardi

indoeTi xangrZlivi ekonomikuri zrdiT sargeblobs, rasac erTgvar Crdils ayenebs imis gacnobiereba, rom ufro Zlieri investirebisa da ukeTesi infrastruqturis pirobebSi Sedegebi ufro STambeWdavi iqneboda. problemis nawili isaa, rom koaliciuri mTavroba, romelSic premier-ministr narendra modis indoeTis saxalxo partia dominirebs, zeda palataSi umravlesobas ver flobs, rac mas ekonomikuri programis ganxorcielebis saSualebas uspobs. reforma mainc wava win da saerToerovnuli brunvis gadasaxadi ZalaSi 2017 wels Seva. gakotrebis kanonmdebloba xelaxla muSavdeba, Tumca mTavrobis fokusi, xelisuflebaSi meore vadiT yofnis dasasruls, arCevnebis xelaxla mogebaze gadainacvlebs.

indonezia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

5.3 % 4,225 $ (mup: 12,530 $)

inflacia:

4.1 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-2.0 260.6 milioni

dune dasawyisis Semdeg, prezident joko vidodos administracia sabazro ekonomikis wamaxalisebeli farTomasStabiani reformebis gatarebas agrZelebs, rac msxvili infrastruqturuli proeqtebis gamartivebul da biznesis licenzirebis swraf damtkicebasac moicavs. miuxedavad amisa, msxvili investiciebi biurokratiisa da ganxorcielebis dagvianebis tyveobaSia, rac gadauWrel problemad darCeba. korufciis kulturis aRmofxvris mandati mxolod faratina qaRaldia. ekonomikas aRmasvlaSi infrastruqturuli investiciebi, sabirJo saqonelze fasebis vardnis Semdeg mrewvelobis mxardaWera da ucxouri investiciebis mozidva daexmareba.

iaponia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

0.4 % 39,083 $ (mup: 39,280 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

0.4 % -7.0 126.0 milioni

sakanonmdeblo organos orive palatis ori mesamedis mflobeli

95

samTavrobo partia xelisuflebaSi yofnis darCenili vadis umetes nawilSi konstituciis gamartivebis aucileblobis dasabuTebas ecdeba, TumcaRa sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis ratifikacia aucilebeli referendumis SedegebiT moxdeba. premier-ministr sinZo abes koaliciuri mTavrobis gamyarebuli poziciebis miuxedavad, ekonomikuri reformebi stimuls dakargavs. `abenomikis~ saxeliT cnobili monetaruli, fiskaluri da struqturuli reformebis paketis ganxorcieleba gagrZeldeba, Tumca gamiznuli zrdis miRweva kvlavac garTuldeba.

yazaxeTi mSp-s zrda:

1.5 %

mSp erT sulze:

7,739 $ (mup: 25,030 $)

inflacia:

6.4 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s%): mosaxleoba:

-2.2 18.1 milioni

sabWoTa eris dasasrulidan xelisuflebaSi myofi lideri – nursulTan nazarbaevi stabilurobas patronaJisa da dRegrZelobis kombinaciiT uzrunvelyofs. seriozuli opoziciisa da Zalauflebis gadacemis mkafio procesis ararsebobis pirobebSi, stabiluroba 76 wlis lideris pirovnul TvisebebSia da misi wasvlis Semdeg garantirebuli sulac araa. sanavTobo Semosavlebis mkveTrma klebam da dasustebulma valutam saSinao moTxovna Seamcira, ris gamo reformebi (privatizaciis CaTvliT) droSi gadaiwevs da upiratesoba samuSao adgilebisa da Semosavlebis SenarCunebas mieniWeba. Tvali adevneT: eqimis gasamrjelo. damsaqmeblebi ivlisSi savaldebulo jandacvis dazRvevis Senatanebis ganxorcielebas iwyeben.

malaizia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

4.5 % 10,136 $ (mup: 29,560 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

2.3 % -3.1 31.2 milioni

mmarTveli barisanis nacionaluri koaliciis (BN) xelisuflebaSi yofnis vada 2018 wlis bolomde ar mTavrdeba, magram SesaZloa man arCevnebi 2017 wlis Sua periodSi daniSnos. misi lideri, premierministri najib razakia. wnexis qveSaa saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli firmebis aramiznobrivad gamoyenebis braldebaTa gamo. misi moadgile – ahmad zahid hamidi SesaZloa lideri gaxdes mas Semdeg, rac barisanis nacionaluri koalicia arCevnebSi gaimarjvebs. susti opoziciis fonze, mTavroba gaagrZelebs reformebs malaiziis maRalSemosavlian qveynad gadasaqcevad, magram navTobze dabali fasebi amas xels SeuSlis. ekonomika gaizrdeba, Tumca ufro


96

qveynebi msoflio ricxvebSi

nela, vidre aTwleulis dasawyisSi. Tvali adevneT: damoukideblobis TamaSebi. agvistoSi dedaqalaqi kuala lumpuri samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis TamaSebs umaspinZlebs, rac qveynis damoukideblobis 60 wlisTavs daemTxveva.

ax.zelandia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.3 % 39,134 $ (mup: 38,880 $)

inflacia:

1.4 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

1.2 4,8 milioni

memarjvene-centristuli nacionaluri partiis mTavroba premier-ministr jon qeis meTaurobiT mesame vadas CaamTavrebs da noemberSi dagegmil arCevnebze meoTxe vadiT arCevis sruli Sansi eqneba qeis popularobisa da opoziciis sisustis gaTvaliswinebiT. politikis prioriteti fiskaluri balansis aRdgena, qveynis Ria ekonomikis saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi integraciis gaRrmaveba da socialur Semweobaze damokidebulTa Sromis bazarze dabruneba iqneba. rogorc Cans, rZis produqtebis fasebma ukve amoiwia `fskeridan~, magram 20132014 wlebis maRal maCvenebelze qvemoT darCeba. Tvali adevneT: valis `Weri~. dabalma saprocento ganakveTebma uZravi qonebis `buSti~ Seqmna, ris `dafuSvasac~ mTavroba ecdeba, vinaidan is wamlavs politikur garemos.

pakistani mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

5.1 % 1,571 $ (mup: 5,600 $)

inflacia:

5.2 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-4.8 196.7 milioni

mmarTveli `pakistanis muslimTa liga~ (Nawaz) parlamentis qveda palataSi komfortul umravlesobas flobs, magram agresiul oponirebas awydeba da mowyvladia favoritizmis braldebebis mimarT qveynis oTx provinciaSi, Tumca infrastruqturis ganaxlebasa da CineTTan savaWro kavSirebis ganmtkicebas eswrafvis. mTavroba naklebad efeqturi aRmoCnda centrisgan mowyvetil olqebSi usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis saqmeSi, xolo sajaro sferoSi ukve aqtiurad Careuli armia gavlenas saerTaSoriso urTierTobebzec ganavrcobs. Tvali adevneT: ukusvla afeTqebis gamo. SesaZlebelia urbanul centrebze teroristuli Setevebis intensivobis zrda, Tuki progresi dafiqsirdeba pakistanis TalibTa SedarebiT zomier jgufebTan molaparakebis dawyebis mimarTulebiT.

filipinebi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

6.3 % 3,164 $ (mup: 8,350 $)

inflacia:

msoflio 2017 2.9 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s%): mosaxleoba:

-1.3 103.8 milioni

ekonomika winmswrebi tempiT zrdis xangrZlivi periodiT sargeblobas, xolo 2016 wlis Sua periodSi arCeul prezident rodrigo dutertes mTavroba mZlavri votumiT isargeblebs da erTguli darCeba politikisa, romelsac aqamde Sedegebi mohqonda – maT Soris, infrastruqturis gaumjobesebisa da kerZo investiciebis mozidvis mimarTulebiT. prezidentis antikriminaluri `draivi~, romelic qveynis samxreTiT mdebare qalaq davaos merobisas gamoiwrTo, daasustebs saxelmwifo institutebsa da kanonis uzenaesobas da SesaZloa ekonomikis aRdgenasac gadaeRobos.

singapuri mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.7 % 52,322 $ (mup: 88,810 $)

inflacia:

0.8 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

0.8 5.8 milioni

`xalxis moqmedebis partiam~ 2015 wlis aCevnebSi mxardaWeris mudmivi Semcirebis tendencia SeaCera. igi ganaxorcielebs politikas, romelic misi popularobis aRdgenas isaxavs miznad, kerZod ki, socialur sacxovrisSi investirebas, jandacvasa da sajaro transports. aseve prioritetulia qveynis, rogorc msoflio vaWrobis habis, statusis saporto infrastruqturis gafarToebis meSveobiT ganmtkiceba. `scenis~ ukan partia Zalauflebis gadacemis gegmaze imuSavebs, rac premier-ministr li sien lungis janmrTelobasTan dakavSirebuli SeSfoTebiTaa gamowveuli. Semcirebuli globaluri vaWrobiT Seqmnili ekonomikuri Seferxebebi daZleuli iqneba. Tvali adevneT: pirveli nabijebi. mTavrobas balansireba mouwevs imigraciisadmi sayovelTao gaRizianebasa da ucxouri muSaxelis mozidvis saWiroebas Soris, vinaidan Sobadobis done mosaxleobis matebisTvis aucilebelze qvemoT rCeba.

samx. korea mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.6 % 27,830 $ (mup: 37,800 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

1.5 % -0.8 50.7 milioni

prezidenti park guen hie 2017 wlis arCevnebis vadis gasvlis gamo mxolod nominaluri figura iqneba da misi konservatiuli – `saenuris~ partia yuradRebas memkvidre kandidatis SerCevisken gadaitans. ase rom, partia, romelmac ekonomikis liberalizaciis piroba dado da ver Seasrula, wuwuniT Cava politikuri scenidan. globaluri vaWrobis SemcirebiT

daRdasmuli ekonomika saSinao moTxovnis gasazrdelad da zrdis wasaxaliseblad fiskalur stimuls unda miendos.

Sri-lanka mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

5.1 % 3,995 $ (mup: 12,820 $)

inflacia:

4.2 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-4.7 22.0 milioni

`erovnuli erTobis~ mTavroba, romelic ori metoqisgan – `gaerTianebuli nacionaluri partiisa~ da `Sri-lankas Tavisuflebis partiisgan~ Sedgeba, mokrZalebul progress miaRwevs tamili separatistebis damarcxebis Semdeg wamowyebuli reformis programis ganxorcielebaSi, romelic saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis mxardaWeriT Seiqmna. umTavresi gamowveva axali konstituciis Seqmnisa da damtkicebis procesSi partiuli fraqciebis Tanxmobis uzrunvelyofa iqneba. ekonomika arsebuli `mSvidobis dividendiT~ isargeblebs, xolo cxovrebis standartebis amaRlebisken mimarTuli RonisZiebebi solidur zrdas moitans.

taivani mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.7 % 22,235 $ (mup: 49,630 $)

inflacia:

1.6 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-0.6 23.5 milioni

`demokratiuli progresuli partiis~ mTavroba 2016 wlis arCevnebiT movida xelisuflebaSi da akontrolebs rogorc aRmasrulebel da sakanonmdeblo Stos, aseve karg poziciaSia rTuli politikuri dRis wesrigis gansaxorcieleblad. saSinao frontze, es koncentrirebulia specialuri ekonomikuri zonebis Seqmnis meSveobiT strategiuli dargebis ganviTarebaze da axalgazrda Taobis cxovrebis standartebis gaumjobesebaze. CineTTan urTierTobaSi arsebuli Cixuri mdgomareoba, amasTanave, srutis orive mxares saqmiani TanamSromlobis perspeqtivebs avnebs. ekonomikuri zrda STambeWdavi ar iqneba, magram 2016 wlisas ajobebs. Tvali adevneT: aTasi wvrilmani. seqtemberSi `taibeiSi~ sainformacio teqnologiis msoflio kongresi Catardeba.

tailandi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.0 % 6,070 $ (mup: 18,050 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

0.7 % -2.8 67.7 milioni

jari ufliswul vajiralongornis taxtze asvlis process uzrunvelyofs, romelsac taxti dekemberSi unda daekavebina. armiis gegmebi, xelisufleba arCeuli

administraciisTvis gadaebarebina, gadaideba, vinaidan xunta ufro metad stabilurobazea koncentrirebuli. armiis mier daniSnuli administracia Seqmnili grZelvadiani ekonomikuri ganviTarebis gegmis ganxorcielebas daiwyebs. ekonomikuri zrda saSualo, Tumca stabiluri iqneba. Tvali adevneT: naklebad mefuri. ufliswul maha vajiralongornis eqscentrikulobam eWvi gaaCina imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ramdenad Seswevs mas Zala mamis adgili daikavos, magram generlebs ufro metad SeaSfoTebT misi simpaTia moZraoba `wiTeli perangis~ mimarT, romelic samxedroebma Zalauflebas 2014 wlis gadatrialebiT Camoaciles.

uzbekeTi mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

4.4 % 2,161 $ (mup: 6,480 $)

inflacia:

12.5 %

biujetis balansi:

(mSp-s %): 0.1

mosaxleoba:

32.3 milioni

politikur sistemas didi gamocda eloda 2016 wlis seqtemberSi prezident islam qarimovis insultisgan gardacvalebis Semdeg. moqmed prezidentad daniSnulma premier-ministrma SavkaT mirzioevma 2016 wlis dekembris bolos daniSnuli saprezidento arCevnebi (romelic sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara saxelmwifos mier marTuli da yovelgvar saerTaSoriso standarts acilebuli RonisZieba), didi upiratesobiT moigo. axali administraciidan arsebiTi politikuri cvlilebebi mosalodneli ar aris. 2017 wlis zrdis perspeqtivebi saTuoa, vinaidan regionulma krizisma SezRuda sagareo moTxovna da fuladi transferebi, xolo sabirJo saqonelze fasebi dabalia.

vietnami mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

6.6 % 2, 245 $ (mup: 6,780 $)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s%): mosaxleoba:

3.4 % -4.3 95.4 milioni

erTpartiul mmarTvelobas didi gamocda namdvilad ar elis, magram korufciuli interesebi da ideologiuri gansxvavebani Sidapartiuli arastabilurobis wyaroa. izrdeba sazogadoebrivi protestic, gansakuTrebiT samxreT CineTis zRvaSi CineTis qmedebaTa gamo. mTavrobam `bewvis xidze unda gaiaros~: erTi mxriv, daakmayofilos sazogadoebrivi moTxovna CineTisTvis mkacri pasuxis gacemiT da, amave dros, am ukanasknelTan komerciuli kavSirebis SenarCunebiT. amasTanave, man profkavSirebi unda Camoayalibos da transwynarokeanuri savaWro garigebis moTxovna daakmayofilos, Tumca mSromelebisTvis didi Zalauflebis micemasac unda ufrTxodes. ekonomikis Tavbrudamxvevi zrda xangrZlivi Cans.


msoflio ricxvebSi qveynebi

msoflio 2017 CrdiloeT amerika: reinvestireba mTliani investicia mudmiv kapitalSi, realuri cvlileba %

laTinuri amerika: Semobruneba

meqsika aSS kanada

mSp-s zrda %

CrdiloeT amerika kanada mSp-s zrda:

2.2 %

mSp erT sulze:

$ 45,667 (mup: $ 46,850)

inflacia:

2.0 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-3.1 36.6 milioni

premier-ministri jastin trudo da misi `liberaluri partia~ sakanonmdeblo organoSi komfortul umravlesobas gamoiyeneben instituciuri da ekonomikuri reformebis gasagrZeleblad, romelTa mizani saSualo fenisa da aborigeni mosaxleobis mxardaWeraa – iseve, rogorc satransporto infrastruqturis gaumjobeseba da sacxovreblis xelmisawvdomoba. es ukanaskneli gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania safrTxis Semcveli uZravi qonebis `buStis~ `CasafuSad~. am yvelafris fasi mzard sabiujeto deficitSi aisaxeba. sazRvargareT prioritetuli iqneba amerikis axal prezidentTan urTierTobis dalageba. Tvali adevneT: saarCevno reforma. liberalebs 2019 wlisTvis saarCevno sistemis Secvla surT, magram amisTvis maisSi Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobis miReba dasWirdebaT.

meqsika mSp-s zrda:

2.5 %

mSp erT sulze: inflacia:

$8,598 (mup: $18,270)

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

3.4 % -2.6 130.2 milioni

prezidenti enrike penia nieto struqturuli reformebis srulad gansaxorcieleblad muxlCauxrelad imuSavebs. es energetikis, ganaTlebisa da telekomis struqturuli reformebis gegmebia, romlebic misi vadis pirvel naxevarSi damtkicda, TumcaRa nietos mTavroba susti mxardaWeriT sargeblobs. batoni penia nietos politikur problemebs saSualoze dabali ekonomikuri zrdis tempi daamZimebs – iseve, rogorc siRaribis zrda da Semcirebuli sanavTobo SemosavlebiT ganpirobebuli sabiujeto SezRudvebi. kvlavac adgili eqneba institucionalizebul korufciasTan

laTinuri amerika

brZolasa da usafrTxoebis gamowvevebs. narkokartelebTan omis procesSi izrdeba mkvlelobaTa, aseve policiis mier dakavebulTa wamebisa da ganaCenis gareSe usafrTxoebis ZalTa mier eWvmitanilTa mkvlelobis ricxvi, rac sazogadoebis mZafr ukmayofilebas iwvevs prezidentis mimarT, romelmac amdeni dapireba gasca, magram ver Seasrula. Tvali adevneT: pasion morena. andres manuel lopes obradori – veterani politikosi, romelic saprezidento arCevnebSi orjer damarcxda, antiistebliSmentis banqos gaaTamaSebs radikaluri memarcxene „morenas~ moZraobis lideris rangSi.

amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi mSp-s zrda:

2.3 %

mSp erT sulze: inflacia:

97

$59,391 (mup: $59, 390)

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

2.1 % -3.2 326.5 milioni

araTanabari Semosavlebi da saSualo fenis problemebi saarCevno kampaniis umTavresi sakiTxebi iyo, TumcaRa amerikelebi, da maTi yvelaze Raribi nawilic ki, Semosavlis bolodroindeli, sakmaod STambeWdavi zrdiT isargebleben. damsaqmeblebi 2011 wlidan Seqmnil 11 milion samuSao adgils 2017 wels kidev 2 milions miamateben, riTac samuSao Zalas `gariyulTa~ didi kontingenti daubrundeba. es ganwyobebs gaaumjobesebs, magram kompaniebi, romelTac sakmarisi investiciebi ar daubandebiaT, axali prezidentisa da kongresis direqtivebs daelodebian. orpartiuli konsensusis erT-erTi sfero SesaZloa infrastruqturuli xarjebi gaxdes, rac amerikis farRalala gzebis, xidebisa da portebis ganaxlebisTvisaa saWiro. es gazrdis produqtiulobas, romelic sakmaod dabal doneze rCeboda.

argentina mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.8 % $13,229 (mup: $22,470)

inflacia:

21.6 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-4.9 44.0 milioni

kristina fernandes kirxnerisgan memkvidreobiT miRebul ekonomikur disproporciebTan brZola sirTuleebs qmnis da amomrCevelTa moTminebas gamocdis, magram prezidenti mauricio makri politikas kvlavac gaagrZelebs opoziciuri Zalis garkveuli mxardaWeris fonze. mTavroba reformis temps Seasworebs amomrCevelTa dakargvis Tavidan asacileblad, rasac axali sayovelTao jandacvis sistemac daexmareba. 2016 wlis vardnis Semdeg ekonomika gaizrdeba.

bolivia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.9 % $3,499 (mup: $7,550)

inflacia:

4.6 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-4.0 11.1 milioni

memarcxene prezidenti evo moralesi Tavisi zedized mesame vadis SuawelSi politikis ganxorcielebaSi arsebiTi TavisuflebiT sargeblobs susti da gaxleCili opoziciis wyalobiT, Tumca mTavrobis saqmianobiT ukmayofilo socialuri jgufebi quCis protests mimarTaven. bunebrivi gazis eqsporti Zlier zrdas ganapirobebda, xolo aRmavali fasebi 2017 wels mas kidev ufro met biZgs miscems. mTavrobam aseve Seavso qveynis saerTaSoriso rezervebi, rac mas namdvilad waeSveleba, Tuki mimdinare angariSis deficiti ar Semcirda.

brazilia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.0 % $9,523 (mup: $15,620)

inflacia:

5.5 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-6.9 207.7 milioni

2016 wels impiCmentis Sedegad dilma rusefis Tanamdebobidan

wasvlis Semdeg, prezidentobis fici miSel temerma dado, romelic am postze rusefis saprezidento vadis damTavrebamde – 2018 wlamde darCeba. is sabazro ekonomikis xelSemwyob politikas gaatarebs rusefis administraciis dros gaCenili disproporciebis aRmosafxvrelad da mdgradi ekonomikuri zrdis dasabruneblad. seriozuli vardnis Semdeg, 2016 wels ekonomika odnav gaizrdeba biznesisa da samomxmareblo ndobis dabrunebis kvalobaze.

Cile mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.1 % $14,038 (mup: $23,580)

inflacia:

3.3 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba: 1

-2.0 8.3 milioni

prezidenti miSel baSele dabali ndobiT sargeblobs, magram opozicia qaosSia da prezidentis Nueva Mayoría koaliciam 2017 wlis arCevnebi mesame vadiTac unda moigos, xolo kandidatad yofili prezidenti rikardo lagosi warmogvidgeba. dune ekonomika, rac Ciledan eqsportirebul sabirJo saqonelze dabalma fasebmac ganapiroba, politikis prioritetebis, magaliTad, gaumjobesebuli sapensio sistemisa da jandacvis reformis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobas Seamcirebs, magram qalbatoni baSele mainc imoqmedebs.

kolumbia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.7 % $6,311 (mup: $14,750)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

3.5% -2.8 49.1 milioni

kolumbiis revoluciur SeiaraRebul ZalebTan (FARC) molaparakebis bedi, romliTac 50-wlian samxedro konfliqts bolo unda moReboda da romlis pirobebi mosaxleobis umniSvnelo umciresobam 2016 wlis bolos gamarTul plebiscitze uaryo, burusiTaa moculi. prezidenti xuan manuel santosi SeTanxmebis ganaxlebuli pirobebis CamoyalibebiTa da plebiscitze


98

qveynebi msoflio ricxvebSi

xelmeored gasatanad gairjeba, Tumca, savaraudod, mtrul dapirispirebas adgili aRar eqneba. marTalia, grZelvadian periodSi ekonomika ixeirebs, magram 2017 wels gauWirdeba sabirJo saqonelze fasebis vardniT gamowveuli Semosavlebis klebis uaryofiTi Sedegebis daZleva.

msoflio 2017

ris gamo 2018 wlis arCevnebs igi nominalur poziciaSi miaRwevs. ekonomika gamococxldeba mas Semdeg, rac brazilia da argentina problemebs ukan moitoveben.

mSp erT sulze:

4.2 % $6,779 (mup: $12,370)

inflacia:

3.1 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.0 % $8,518 (mup: $13,220)

inflacia:

4.8 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-4.0 11.2 milioni

revoluciis evolucia yvelaze frTxili iqneba 1959-ianelTa Taobis mier xelisuflebis gadacemis mzadebis kvalobaze. pirveli vice-prezidenti –migel dias kanali, raul kastros yvelaze sarwmuno memkvidred gamoiyureba, Tumca ara 2018 wlamde. liberaluri reformebi TandaTan popularobas moipovebs, xolo kerZo seqtori sul ufro met wvlils Seitans ekonomikaSi. 2017 wels amerikis biznesinteresi da turistTa nakadi venesueladan Semosuli Tanxebis klebis efeqts Searbilebs.

ekvadori

mosaxleoba:

memarjvene-centristuli Peruanos por el Kambio-s mTavroba prezident pedro pablo kaCinskis meTaurobiT kongresSi umciresobaSia da kanonebis misaRebad mtruli opoziciis keTilganwyobazea damokidebuli. miuxedavad amisa, farTo konsensusi waexmareba liberalur ekonomikur politikas, romelmac mZlavri zrdis xangrZlivi periodi moitana. sabirJo saqonlis bumis dasasrulma problemebi Seqmna, magram ganaxlebuli warmoeba da infrastruqturaSi investirebis intensiuri programis ganxorcieleba zrdas 2017 welsac SeinarCunebs.

urugvai mSp erT sulze:

mSp erT sulze:

-1.3 % $6,413 (mup: $11,620)

inflacia:

1.4 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %):

-2.5 31.8 milioni

mSp-s zrda:

mSp-s zrda:

1.1 % $15,620 (mup: $22,010)

inflacia:

8.6 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-3.2 3.4 milioni

-2.9

Alianza PAÍS-is mTavroba gaxleCili opoziciis sisustiT sargeblobs da TebervalSi daniSnul arCevnebSi meore vadiT moipovebs Zalauflebas. rafael korea, romelic 2007 wlidan ikavebs prezidentis Tanamdebobas, morig administracias mxolod im SemTxvevaSi uxelmZRvanelebs, Tuki konstituciuri akrZalva moixsneba, Tumca nebismier SemTxvevaSi SeinarCunebs politikur gavlenas. mosalodnelia protestic – mTavrobis mier xarjebis Sekvecisa da morigi recesiis kvalobaze.

prezidenti tabare vaskesi sakuTar – Frente Amplio partiaSi ukiduresi memarcxene fraqciebis mZafr winaaRmdegobas awydeba, rac saparlamento umravlesobis aSkara upiratesobebs aqarwylebs. amitomac, mas ganaTlebisa da fiskaluri reformis dRis wesrigis cxovrebaSi gatareba gauWirdeba. sanacvlod, gadasaxadebisa da komunaluri momsaxurebis safasuris zrda SemaSfoTebeli sabiujeto deficitis Sesavsebad iqneba gamoyenebuli. argentinisa da braziliis dune gamococxleba zrdas 2016 wlis doneze maRla aswevs, rac didi namdvilad ar iqneba.

paragvai

venesuela

mosaxleoba:

15.9 milioni

mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.6 % $4,320 (mup: $9,810)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

3.4 % -1.5 6.8 milioni

prezident orasio kartess, agresiuli opoziciis mogeriebis garda, sakuTari – Partido Colorado-s amboxebuli frTis daSoSminebac uwevs, ris gamo administraciul reformasa da infrastruqturaSi investirebis politikur dRis wesrigs bevri dabrkoleba eRobeba. partiuli disidentebi mTavar opoziciur ZalasTan erTad Seecdebian dablokon baton kartesis mcdeloba, gaauqmos konstituciuri akrZalva meore vadiT arCevaze,

mTavrobis biujetis balansi, mSp-s %

peru mSp-s zrda:

kuba

axlo aRmosavleTi: sabiujeto afeTqeba

mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

-7.3 % $24,643 (mup:$12,620)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

484.3 % -20.2 31.3 milioni

savaraudod, prezidenti nikolas maduro xelisuflebaSi vadis amowurvamde – 2018 wlamde ver darCeba, Tumca misi xelisuflebis dacemis forma gegmazomieri iqneba Tu Zaladobrivi, mxolod mas Semdeg gaxdeba cnobili, rac qveynis qaosSi CaZirvis procesi 2017 wels aCqardeba. moxmarebac da investiciebic swrafad mcirdeba, radganac uxv saxelmwifo dotaciebze damokidebuli ekonomika warmoebis xarjebze bevrad qvemoT dacemuli navTobis fasebis gamo ryevas ganicdis. lideris cvlilebis SemTxvevaSic ki, ekonomikis gamococxleba 2018 welze adre mosalodneli ar aris.

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axlo aRmosavleTi da afrika alJiri mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.7 % $4,047 (mup: $15,080)

inflacia:

7.3 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-12.1 41. 7 milioni

ofisSi 1999 wlidan myofi abdelaziz buteflikas prezidentobas mxolod erTi safrTxe – sakuTari simdidre, emuqreba. memkvidris Zieba politikuri elitis yuradRebas gafantavs, vidre Sejibris dro uSualod ar dadgeba. agresiuli islamizmi daucvel sazRvrebs SigniT da gareT kidev erTi damatebiTi riskia. reJimis mxardamWeri Zalebi maisSi saparlamento arCevnebs moigeben da maTze dayrdnoba qaRaldebze beWdis dasartymelad SeiZleba.

angola mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.0 % $3,591 (mup: $7,430)

inflacia:

16.6 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-3.9 26.7 milioni

1979 wlidan prezidenti Joze eduardu duS santuSi MPLA-s partias agvistos arCevnebSi gauZRveba, magram 2018 wels Tanamdebobis datovebis piroba dado. Tu es ase moxdeba, Zalauflebas is mainc SeinarCunebs. vinaidan navTobze dabali fasebi saSualo fenis interesTa dasakmayofileblad aucilebel saxelmwifo xarjebs SezRudavs, Zalas moikrebs protestic, romelic kidev ufro did daRs daatyobs isedac sust biznesgaremos, TumcaRa reJims ver daemuqreba.

kameruni mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

4.6 % $1,302 (mup: $3,390)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

3.0 % -5.3 24.5 milioni

prezidenti pol biia Zalauflebis gadacemaze iqneba koncentrirebuli, vinaidan 85 wlis asakSi, 2018 wels Tanamdebobis datovebisTvis moemzadeba. Zalauflebas kvlavac Rassemblement Démocratique du

Peuple Camerounais SeinarCunebs, romelic ZiriTad institutebze dominirebs. mTavroba vals aiRebs infrastruqturasa da soflis meurneobaSi investirebisTvis dabali sanavTobo fasebis negatiuri Sedegebis gadasafarad da ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelsayofad.

egvipte mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

4.8 % $2,658 (mup: $11,520)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

15.1 % -9.9 95.3 milioni

amjobinebs ra avtoritarul mmarTvelobas pluralizms, prezident abdel fatah al sisis mTavrobas mzardi saxalxo ukmayofilebisa da dune ekonomikis marTva mouwevs. navTobze dabali fasebi sparseTis yuris sponsori saxelmwifoebis guluxvobas gamocdis da mTavrobas sxvaganac gaaxedebs. organizebuli opoziciis ararseboba, raSic rogorc islamuri fraqciebi, ise liberaluri centric moiazreba, reJims Zalauflebis SenarCunebaSi daexmareba.

eTiopia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze: inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

5.1% $595 (mup: $1,750) 7.9 % -3.5 104.3 milioni

2016 wels soflis meurneoba gvalvam daazarala, riTac Seamcira 12 wlis manZilze dafiqsirebuli Tavbrudamxvevi zrda, magram aCqareba mainc mosalodnelia seqtoris aRdgenis kvalobaze. mTavrobis fokusi infrastruqturuli problemebis moxsnasa da industriuli klasterebis Camoyalibebaze, stabilur, winmswreb zrdas moitans, Tumca es mainc CamorCeba Tavdapirvel ambiciur prognozebs. mmarTveli `eTiopiis xalxis revoluciuri demokratiuli fronti~ Zalauflebas SeinarCunebs da marginalizebuli eTnikuri jgufebidan oponentebs moigeriebs. Tvali adevneT: maRali donis magidasTan. pirveli ianvridan eTiopia


msoflio ricxvebSi qveynebi

msoflio 2017 ori wlis ganmavlobaSi gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos aramudmivi wevris statusiT isargeblebs.

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

irani mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

5.4 % $6,144 (mup: $19,520)

inflacia:

9.0 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-1.2 81.0 milioni

maisSi daniSnul arCevnebSi prezidenti hasan ruhani meored gaimarjvebs, rasac dasavleTTan gaformebuli politikuri da birTvuli SeTanxmeba waadgeba. moxsnili sanqciebisa da navTobze kvlavac dabali fasebis pirobebSi, mTavroba aqcents ucxouri investiciebisa da codnis mozidvaze gaamaxvilebs, gamoSvebis rac SeiZleba swrafad gasazrdelad. ekonomika amas da navTobze fasebis matebas swrafi zrdiT upasuxebs.

-6.5 7.9 milioni

mefe abdala I mokrZalebuli politikuri reformis gatarebis winapirobas Seqmnis, rac sakmarisi iqneba misi xelisuflebis SesanarCuneblad. amas efeqturi uSiSroebis aparati gaumagrebs zurgs. saxelmwifo dasavleli da sparseTis yuris mokavSireebis finansuri daxmarebiT isargeblebs. mTavroba biznesgaremosa da devnilebiT `gaberili~ muSaxelis rigebis dasaqmebis perspeqtivebis gaumjobesebas ecdeba. Tvali adevneT: energetikuli TamaSebi. ruseTis birTvuli saagento – Rosatom, iordaniaSi ori aTasmegavatiani birTvuli eleqtrosadguris mSeneblobis teqnikur-ekonomikur dasabuTebas 2017 wlis Sua periodSi daasrulebs.

brZolas gaeros mier aRiarebul tripoliSi ganTavsebul `erovnuli Tanxmobis~ mTavrobasa da TviTgamocxadebul paralelur administracias Soris, qveynis aRmosavleTiT mdebare strategiul aqtivebze kontrolisTvis, bolo ar uCans. sasicocxlo sanavTobo infrastruqturis nawilebze kontrolisTvis brZola orive mxares ukargavs stabilur Semosavals, xolo qveyanas – myar ekonomikur bazas. Tu dapirispirebiT gamofituli ori mxare 2017 wels morigebas Seecdeba, yuradReba qveynis danawevrebul teritoriebze kontrolis damyarebisa da `islamuri saxelmwifos~ qmedebaTa alagmvisken gadainacvlebs.

maroko mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.3 % $3,060 (mup: $8,460)

inflacia:

kenia

2.4 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

mSp-s zrda:

erayi

mSp erT sulze:

5.9% $1,546 (mup: $3,400)

inflacia: mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

4.0 % $5,283 (mup: $15,400)

inflacia:

5.5 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

mosaxleoba:

-1.1 38.4 milioni

premier-ministr haider al abadis mTavroba qurTebis ZalebTan imuSavebs `islamuri saxelmwifos~ Sesaviwroeblad, Tumca imave qurTebTan uTanxmoeba eqneba qurTuli sabadoebidan navTobis eqsportTan dakavSirebiT. mTavrobas, romelSic Siitebi dominireben, religiur dajgufebebTan Tavisi problemebic eyofa qveynis masStabiT. magram status kvo 2018 wlis arCevnebamde SenarCundeba. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis programis `qolgis qveS~ myife ekonomika gaizrdeba.

agvistoSi arCevnebi axali wesiT Catardeba, rac Zaladobis risks Seamcirebs. prezidenti uhuru keniata meore vadisTvis ibrZolebs, zurgs gaimagrebs axlad Seqmnili Jubilee Party-s mxardaWeriT da SeebrZoleba koalicias reformebisa da demokratiisTvis, romelsac saTaveSi yofili premier-ministri – raila odinga udgas saTaveSi. erovnul politikur scenas mTlianad saarCevno kampania daikavebs, magram bolodroindeli reformebis Sedegebi ekonomikas win waswevs.

libani mSp-s zrda:

israeli

mSp erT sulze:

1.9 % $7,891 (mup: $14,900)

inflacia: mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

3.7 % $38,127 (mup: $38,080)

inflacia:

-2.3 8.7 milioni

premier-ministr beniamin neTaniahus memarjvene koaliciuri mTavroba susti da arastabiluria, Tumca 2017 wels xelisuflebaSi yofnis vadas CaamTavrebs ara mxolod opoziciis sisustis gamo. vinaidan israel-palestinis konfliqti sxva regionulma konfliqtebma daCrdila, israeli dros ixelTebs Tavisi aliansebis restruqturizaciisTvis, rac saudis arabeTTan saerTo metoqis – iranis winaaRmdeg darazmvasac gulisxmobs. ekonomikuri zrda fiskalur deficits stabilur doneze SeinarCunebs.

iordania

mosaxleoba:

mSp erT sulze: inflacia:

-9.1 6.3 milioni

libanis moqiSpe fraqciebis dasabalanseblad Seqmnili politikuri struqturebi regionSi ZalTa balansis cvlilebiTa da siriis konfliqtiT gaivlis gamocdas. 2013 wlidan gadadebuli arCevnebi, romelic axla maisisTvisaa dagegmili, morigi aramyari koaliciis SeqmniT dasruldeba, romelic gayofili iqneba religiuri kuTvnilebis mixedviT (Tuki is mainc Sedgeba). centraluri banki ekonomikuri politikis mTavar gamtareblad darCeba, Tumca zomebi, romlebsac parlamentis mxardaWera sWirdeba, ar gatardeba.

libia mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

mSp-s zrda:

2.2 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %):

1.1 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-7.0 48.5 milioni

2.9 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %):

2.4 % $4,648 (mup: $10,320) 3.0%

-3.7 % $3,208 (mup: $14,740)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-3.8 35.2 milioni

15.3 % -22.1 6.2 milioni

abdelila benkiranes mTavroba 2011 wlis ganaxlebuli konstituciiT miRebuli mandatis wyalobiT politikur reformebs gaatarebs, TumcaRa mefe muhamed VI kvlavac SeinarCunebs udides Zalauflebas. ekonomikuri politika investiciebs waaxalisebs saeqsporto samrewvelo seqtorSi, xolo soflis meurneoba 2016 wlis gvalvis Semdeg gamococxldeba.

damokidebulebis Semcirebisken iqneba mimarTuli, magram samefo ojaxis Zalauflebas SeinarCunebs. mzardi, Tumca kvlavac dabali fasebi navTobze, saxelmwifo finansebs isev wnexSi moaqcevs.

samx. afrika mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.4 % $5,430 (mup: $13,860)

inflacia:

5.6 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi dominantur poziciaSi myofi afrikis nacionaluri kongresi 2016 wels municipalur arCevnebSi miRebuli `Wrilobebis mkurnalobiT~ dakavdeba da 2019 wels sayovelTao arCevnebSi opoziciis seriozuli gamowvevis mosagerieblad moemzadeba. amasobaSi, xelisuflebam disciplina unda SeinarCunos – rogorc fiskaluri, ise monetaruli politikis gatarebisas inflaciis Sesakaveblad da qveynis sainvesticio reitingis SesanarCuneblad, wamyvan saerTaSoriso kapitalis bazrebze.

siria mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

-2.1 % $1,114 (mup: $4,170)

inflacia: mosaxleoba:

mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

2.2 % $1,865 (mup: $6,000)

inflacia:

15.4 %

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

-2.1 191.8 milioni

sanavTobo seqtoris zrdas araxelsayreli kanonmdebloba da nigeris deltaSi separatistuli moZraoba SeuSlis xels, xolo eTnikuri da religiuri dapirispirebani qveynis CrdiloeTSi boko haramis islamur ajanyebasTan erTad arastabilurobis SegrZnebas gaaZliereben. ekonomika win gadadgams nabijs 2016 wlis recesiis damTavrebis Semdeg, roca navTobis fasebi odnav aiwevs da saqmiani garemoc met-naklebad gaumjobesdeba.

mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze:

1.7 % $23,883 (mup: $56,440)

inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

4.1 % -7.9 31.9 milioni

mefe salman abdul aziz al saudi sul ufro meti funqciebis delegirebas moaxdens Tavis Svilze – ufliswul muhamad bin salman al saudze. princi muhamedi farTomasStabian reformebs ganaxorcielebs, romlebic grZelvadiani ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofisa da navTobis eqsportze

61.0 % -9.8 16.1 milioni

siriis damangreveli konfliqti, romelic prezident baSar al asadis mxardamWerTa da misi Canacvlebis msurvel aTiode samxedro dajgufebas Soris mimdinareobs, kvlavac mwvaved gagrZeldeba. gareSe Zalebis SesaZleblobebi, konfliqti dasasrulisken waiyvanon, SezRudulia. saSineli konfliqtisgan Tavis dasaRwevad da usafrTxoebis saZebnelad qveyanas kidev ufro meti devnili datovebs.

zimbabve mSp-s zrda: mSp erT sulze: inflacia: biujetis balansi (mSp-s %): mosaxleoba:

saudis arabeTi

-3.1 55.4 milioni

biujetis balansi (mSp-s %):

nigeria

99

4.5 % $925 (mup: $1,790) 3.3 % -3.9 16.3 milioni

92 wlis robert mugabes Sesustebul muWSi gamomwyvdeuli politikuri cxovrebis gaTavisuflebas qveynis mosaxleoba moTminebiT daelodeba, roca buneba Tavis saqmes izams. maSinac ki, mkafio gardamavali periodis gegmis ararsebobis pirobebSi, stabilurobis perspeqtivebi saTuoa. 2017 wels ekonomika gvalviT gamowveul recesias daaRwevs Tavs, TumcaRa kvlavac daubrundeba saSualoze dabali zrdis traeqtorias.


AD: Radio Energy 104.7


101

msoflio 2017

msoflio ricxvebSi industria saavtomobilo industria 103 Tavdacvisa da aerokosmosuri industria 103 energetika 104 garTobis industria 104

finansuri momsaxureba 104 sursaTi da soflis meurneoba 104 jandacva 105 sainformacio ­teqnologiebis

aTi biznestendencia 2017 wels

1. aSS gazrdis saprocento ganakveTebs

erTjeradad 25 erTeuliT. valebSi Cavardnili amerikeli fiqlis navTobis mompoveblebi mainc SeZleben dakarguli mdgomareobis dabrunebas.

2. sabirJo saqonelze damokidebul

qveynebSi Semcirdeba sacalo vaWroba: braziliis 2%-iani zrdis prognozi SesaniSnavad gamoiyureba venesuelis 25%-ian vardnasTan SedarebiT.

3. ganviTarebadi qveynebis kompaniebi `frTebs gaSlian~. samxreT afrikis Pick n Pay gaxsnis maRazias nigeriaSi, sadac gayidvebis 3%-iani zrdaa mosalodneli.

biznesgaremo centraluri bankebi kvlavac SeinarCuneben dabal saprocento ganakveTebs da biZgs miscemen msoflio ekonomikur zrdas. amis miuxedavad, iafi krediti raRac momentSi aRar moitans sargebels da msoflio zrda 3.3%-s ar ascdeba (realur gamosaxulebaSi, msyidvelobiTi unaris paritetiT). bevri ram bindiT iqneba moculi. es gansakuTrebiT gamoikveTeba evrokavSirSi, sadac egzistencialuri sakiTxebi ­mwvaved dgas. atlantisa da wynari okeanebis savaWro paqtebi, romelTa Sesaxeb saubari didi xania mimdinareobs, uimedo wamowyebebs emsgavseba. Tavisufali vaWrobis mowinaaRmdege populistebis prognozebis miuxedavad, msoflio vaWroba 2017 wels gamococxldeba da 3%-iT gaizrdeba. ganviTarebadi bazrebi jamurad 4.6%-iT gaizrdeba, rac sakmaod jansaRi maCvenebelia da uswrebs 2016 wlis 4%-ian zrdas.

Tu sxvagvarad araa miTiTebuli, mocemuli cifrebi warmoadgens 2017 wlis prognozebs. msoflios jamuri monacemebi efuZneba 60 qveynis maCveneblebs, romlebic msoflio mSp-s 95%-ze mets Seadgens. london@eiu.com wyaro: Economist Intelligence Unit

5. globaluri

kavSirgabmuloba. msoflio kompaniebis mesamedze mets eqneba internetinfrastruqtura – internet of things 2017 wels.

aRWurviloba 105 kompiuteruli programebi da momsaxureba 105 media 105 liTonebi da wiaRiseulis

6. saraketo sistemebiT vaWroba

iaraRiT vaWrobis yvelaze mzard nawils warmoadgens, romelic 2017 wels 5%-iT gaizrdeba. kompania Lockheed Martin agresiul CrdiloeT koreas unda umadlodes im SekveTebisTvis, romelic man samxreT koreas miawoda.

4. gazrdili moTxovna

navTobis fasebs $54/ barelamde awevs, Tumca es araa sakmarisi saudis arabeTis jandacvis xarjebis dasafarad. aRniSnuli xarjebi mTliani Sida produqtis 5%-mde Semcirdeba, rac msoflio saSualo maCveneblis naxevaria.

saavtomobilo industria

braldebebi, gamoZieba da sasamarTlo davebi: skandali, romelic exeba germaneli mwarmoeblis – Volkswagen-is mier gamonabolqvebis monacemebis gayalbebas, 2017 welsac gagrZeldeba. imis fonze, rom Sidawvis Zraviani avtomobilebis mimarT kritikuli damokidebuleba izrdeba, avtomobilebis mwarmoeblebi gazrdian investiciebs eletronul manqanebSi. am mxriv lideri gaxlavT kompania Tesla, romlis naqebi sedanis mesame models SeuZlia erTi damuxtviT gaiaros 350 km (217 mili). Tu kompania daaCqarebs warmoebas, aRniSnuli avtomobili gasayidad 2017 wlis bolos gamoCndeba. eleqtromobilebis bazari jer pataraa, magram swrafi tempiT izrdeba. 2017 wels samgzavro manqanebze moTxovna 3%-iT gaizrdeba; moTxovna eleqtro da hibridul avtomobilebze ki 15jer swrafad moimatebs. axali teqnologiebis ganviTareba mianiSnebs imaze, rom momavali eleqtronuli manqanebisaa. arsebuli avtomwarmoeblebi an unda SeewinaaRmdegon eleqtromobilebis mwarmoeblebs, an SeuerTdnen maT. kompania Apple-is CarPlay da kompania Google-is Android Auto mxolod axla iwyeben TavianTi potencialis gamovlenas. axali teqnologiebis danergvis

7. im fonze, roca

CineTSi moTxovna mcirdeba, indoeTis bazari avtomwarmoeblebis sul ufro met yuradRebas miipyrobs. indoeTSi yovel 1000 mosaxleze mxolod 21 manqana modis, rac gayidvebisTvis SesaniSnav potencials qmnis.

mopoveba 106 sacalo vaWroba 106 telekomi 106 mogzauroba da turizmi 106

8. ganviTarebad qveynebSi mosaxleobis mateba, Semosavlis zrda da ekonomikuri krizisidan gamosvla (magaliTad, ruseTi) gazrdis soflis meurneobis produqtebis fasebs, Tumca es mateba 2%-s ar ascdeba.

9. CineTis kinogayidvebi gaaswrebs aSSis gayidvebs da $10.3 miliard dolars miaRwevs, rac msoflioSi yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli iqneba.

10. ganviTarebad samyaroSi swraf kavSirgabmulobaze moTxovnis zrdis fonze, mobiluri telefonebis abonentTa raodenoba msoflioSi 6.1 miliards miaRwevs. fiqsirebuli satelefono kavSirgabmuloba ki piriqiT – sul ufro naklebad popularuli gaxdeba.

mizniT, Volkswagen-i israelis kompania Gett-Tan iTanamSromlebs, xolo General Motors-i amerikul kompania Lyft-Tan, romelic $500 milionad SeiZina. TviTmavali manqanebi sul ufro aqtualuri gaxdeba, miuxedavad usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebuli SiSebisa. kompaniebi Uber da Volvo $300-milioniani erToblivi proeqtis farglebSi Seqmnian TviTmaval manqanebs. sacdeli warmoeba ukve 2017 wlis dasawyisTvisaa dagegmili. 2017 wels Uber SesaZloa sajaro saaqcio sazogadoebad gadaiqces – iseve, rogorc misi konkurenti Didi Chuxing, romelmac Uber-s CineTSi ajoba. Google-ma aseve daiwyo TviTmaval (umZRolo) avtomobilebze muSaoba (es ZiriTadad eleqtromanqanebia). misi msgavsi Cinuri kompania Baidu aseve iwyebs TviTmarTvadi eleqtromanqanis Seqmnaze muSaobas, romelic Cheryis mier warmoebuli avtomobilis bazaze Seiqmneba. amerikaSi manqanebis bumis SemcirebasTan erTad, manqanebis registraciebis raodenoba 2%-ze naklebiT gaizrdeba. ZiriTadi mateba gazrdil konkurenciasTan erTad mosalodnelia ganviTarebad qveynebSi. yvelaze mniSvnelovani bazari am mxriv CineTia, sadac adgilobrivi mwarmoeblebi `kbilebiT ibruneben~ bazris wils, Tumca avtomobilebis bazris zrdas Seanelebs sagadasaxado SeRavaTis damTavreba. indoeTis avtomobilebis bazari aseve izrdeba. aq 2017 wels mosalodnelia Toyota-sa da Fiat Chrysler-is mier investiciebis ganxorcieleba. amasobaSi, samxreTkoreeli mwarmoebeli Hyundai 2017 wels daasrulebs Tavis 4-wlian gegmas da 22 axal, ufro maRali klasis models gamouSvebs evropaSi.

yvela avtomwarmoebels, iqneba es tradiciuli Tu axali moTamaSe, mouwevs adgilobriv bazrebze morgeba da mowodebis jaWvis xarjebis kontroli. Tvali adevneT: eleqtroficirebuli satvirTo manqanebi. samgzavro avtomobilebSi miRweuli gaumjobesebuli teqnologiebi, komforti, marTva da garemosTvis naklebi zianis miyeneba gadainacvlebs satvirTo manqanebsa da avtobusebSi. 2017 wlis dasawyisSi Tesla SemogvTavazebs eleqtroavtobusebisa da satvirTo manqanebis pirvel versiebs. amasobaSi ki, Uberma SeiZina kaliforniuli startapi Ottomotto, romelic TviTmaval satvirTo manqanebs awarmoebs. avtoindustriis veterani Daimler emzadeba sakuTari avtonomiuri satvirTo manqanebis warmoebisTvis 2017-2018 wlebSi. Cadebuli investiciebi mogebis motanas daiwyebs: 2017 wels komerciuli avtomobilebis gayidvebi swrafad – daaxloebiT 6%-iT gaizrdeba.

Tavdacva

iafi sawvavi TviTmfrinavebis mwarmoeblebisTvis kargicaa da cudic. iaf kreditTan erTad igi zrdis aviakompaniebis mogebas da moTxovnas TviTmfrinavebze. Tumca, amave dros, igi amcirebs moTxovnas sawvavis ekonomiuri


102

industria msoflio ricxvebSi

moxmarebis mqone modelebze, romlebsac TviTmfrinavebis mwarmoeblebi aqtiurad uweven reklamas. reitingebis saagento Moody’s varaudobs, rom 2017 wels moxdeba 7%-iT meti TviTmfrinavebis miwodeba bazrisTvis. aziis axalgazrda aviakompaniebi upiratesobas aniWeben did da viwro tanis mqone TviTmfrinavebs. kargi ambebi aqvs kompania Airbus-s: mas ganaxlebuli modelze A320 neo 50%-iT meti SekveTa aqvs, vidre mis konkurent Boeing-s sakuTar 737 MAX-ze, romlis warmoeba 2017 wels unda dasruldes. ganiertaniani A330 neo Boeing-is 787-ze iafi Rirs da 2017 wlis bolos gamoCndeba bazarze. yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT, evropeli TviTmfrinavebis mwarmoeblis globaluri bazris wili TiTqmis gautoldeba misi amerikeli konkurentis wils. ekonomiis gawevis mkacri zomebis Sedegebi jer isev sagrZnobia, Tumca globaluri samxedro xarjebi zrdas daubrunda. es garkveulwilad amerikis orwliani sabiujeto SeTanxmebis Sedegia. Moody’s varaudobs, rom usafrTxoebis arasaimedo prognozis gaTvaliswinebiT, msoflios Tavdacvis xarjebi 4%iT gaizrdeba. safrTxe moicavs terorizms, ruseTis avantiurul moqmedebebs, axlo aRmosavleTSi – mimdinare aurzaursa da CrdiloeT koreis gamoxdomebs. es yvelaferi xels aZlevs iaraRis mwarmoeblebs: saraketo Tavdasxmisa da Tavdacvis sistemebze moTxovna iaraRis vaWrobis yvelaze mniSvnelovani nawilia da wliurad 5%-iT izrdeba.

energetika

iafi navTobi navTobmompovebel kompaniebs aiZulebs mkveTrad Seamciron investiciebi. amis miuxedavad, navTobis mopoveba msoflioSi kvlavac gaizrdeba 2017 wels, vinaidan OPEC-is wevri qveynebi ar asruleben SeTanxmebas navTobis mopovebis SezRudvis Sesaxeb. mopovebis kvotebis darRveva miRebuli praqtikaa am jgufis wevri qveynebisTvis. irani, romelsac moexsna sanqciebi, zrdis navTobis mopovebas, raTa konkurencia gauwios metoqe saudis arabeTs, romelic Tavis mxriv, uprecedentod didi raodenobis navTobs – dReSi 10 milion barelze mets moipovebs. kartelis mier navTobis mopovebis umowyalo tempi (Semcirebuli fasebis miuxedavad) ayovnebs amerikis fiqlis navTobis revolucias, magram 2017 weli moaswavebs cvlilebas amerikeli fiqlis navTobis mompoveblebisT-

vis, romelTa warmoebis maCveneblebi stabiluri gaxdeba. gzebze meti manqana da ganviTarebadi qveynebis ekonomikuri gamococxleba niSnavs imas, rom navTobze moTxovna gaaswrebs mowodebas pirvelad 2013 wlis Semdeg. bareli navTobis fasi mexuTediT gaizrdeba da 2017 wels $54-s miaRwevs. istoriulad, Txevadi bunebrivi airis (LNG) fasebi mibmulia navTobis fasebze xangrZlivvadian kontraqtebSi. 2017 wels es kavSiri Sesustdeba. mosalodnelia Txevadi bunebrivi airis ufro efeqtiani bazari, sadac spotfasebs eqneba gadamwyveti roli. myidvelebs met siTamames Sematebs bunebrivi airis gaTxevadebis uzarmazari simZlavreebis Seqmna, rogoricaa Chevron-is giganturi gorgonis baza avstraliaSi da Sabine Pass da Cove Point aSS-Si. iaponiaSi Txevad bunebriv airze moTxovna Semcirdeba. es ganpirobebulia 2011 wlis miwisZvris Semdeg daxuruli birTvuli reaqtorebis gaaqtiurebiTa da energoefeqtianobis zrdiT. msoflioSi energiis moxmareba 2%-iT gaizrdeba. globaluri moTxovna qvanaxSirze Semcirdeba. Sesabamisad, SeCerdeba am nedleulze bolo periodis fasis matebis dinamika. indoeTSi qvanaxSiris moxmareba swrafi tempiT izrdeba, xolo CineTma, rogorc Cans, qvanaxSiris moxmarebis piks miaRwia da 2017 wels am nedleulis ufro nakleb raodenobas moixmars. garemos dacvisken mimarTuli programebi – magaliTad, CineTis gancxadeba, rom daiwyebs erovnuli naxSirorJangiT vaWrobis sistemas – xels Seuwyobs energiis ganaxlebadi wyaroebidan mopovebis gazrdas. Tvali adevneT: Pemex-is problemebi. 2016 wlis ivlisSi meqsikis Petróleos Mexicanos-ma wageba naxa zedized me-15 kvartalSi. warmoeba mcirdeba; sapensio davalianeba erovnuli mSp-s TiTqmis meaTeds Seadgens. problemebi aCqarebs zogierTi rTuli gadawyvetilebis miRebas. kompanias bolos da bolos mouwevs ucxoeli partniorebis CarTva biznesSi. pirveli proeqti, romelic ucxour kapitaldabandebas saWiroebs, gaxlavT aSS-is sazRvris siaxloves mdebare trionis Rrma wylis sabado, romlis gaxsna $11-miliardian investicias saWiroebs.

garTobis industria

kinosTan dakavSirebuli siaxleebi ZiriTadad CineTs exeba. PwC-is mixedviT, 2017 wels CineTSi kinobileTebis gayidvebidan miRebuli Semo-

msoflio 2017 savali $10.3 miliards miaRwevs da aSS-is maCvenebels gauswrebs. es msoflio kinobileTebis gayidvebis 8% iqneba. CineTSi kinoTeatrebis raodenoba ver akmayofilebs Cinel kinomoyvarulTa madas. Sesabamisad, kinoTeatrebis ricxvi swrafi tempiT izrdeba. CineTSi dReSi 15 kinoTeatrs aSeneben. amis miuxedavad, holivuduri studiebi srulad ver miiReben Semosavals, Tu CineTma ar gaauqma ucxouri filmebis Cvenebaze arsebuli kvotebi. Tumca es naklebad savaraudoa proteqcionistuli instinqtebisa da ucxouri cxovrebis Cvenebis mimarT cenzuris SiSebis gamo. supergmirebi holivudis mTavar produqtad darCeba: noemberSi Warner Bros-is `samarTlianobis liga~ gaaerTianebs DC Comicsebis mravalricxovan uiRblo gmirebs. samecniero fantastikis sferoSi maRali konkurencia iqneba. `varskvlavuri omebis~ merve epizodiT, romelic dekemberSi gamovida, Disney Seecdeba gaaumjobesos wina filmis – `Zala iRviZebs~ mier Semotanili $2 -miliardiani Semosavali. studiebi da tradiciuli telekompaniebi konkurencias ganicdian internetvideoebisa da strimingis momwodeblebisgan. am mxriv lideri Netflix imedovnebs, rom 2017 wels stabilurad momgebiani gaxdeba. Tumca gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom abonentTa zrda neldeba. filmebis mflobelebi Seecdebian sakuTari strimingis arxebis Seqmnas. Netflix-s konkurentuli safrTxeebi elis Amazonisa da Hulu-sgan, romlebic 2017 wlidan cocxali telemauwyeblobis internetiT Cvenebis dawyebas gegmaven.

finansuri momsaxureba

mTeli 2017 weli aqvT imisTvis, raTa moergon evrokavSiris regulaciebs (MiFID II) da Sesabamisi cvlilebebi danergon. rac Seexeba londonis siTis, britaneTis evrokavSiridan gamosvla bevri ramis irgvliv gaurkvevlobas iwvevs, maT Soris, imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ramdenad unda daemorCilos britaneTi evrokavSiris wesebs. minimaluri saprocento ganakveTebi umetes finansur kompanias mZime tvirTad daawveba da Seamcirebs bankebis saprocento marJebs. sesxebis zrda mxolod mcirediT gaizrdeba mdidari qveynebis umravlesobaSi, romlebic dabali ekonomikuri zrdis tempiT xasiaTdebian. ganviTarebad qveynebSi, sadac saprocento ganakveTebi da marJebi ufro maRalia da mosaxleobis raodenobac ufro swrafad izrdeba, sesxebis moculoba orniSna cifruli maCvenebliT gaizrdeba. aseTi qveynebia, magaliTad, indonezia (17%), vietnami (15%) da filipinebi (11%). anabrebis moculoba CineTSi $30 trilions miaRwevs, rac TiTqmis orjer metia, vidre aSS-Si, xolo sesxebis moculoba 10%-iT gaizrdeba, rac gamowveulia 2017 wlis dasawyisSi mosalodneli saprocento ganakveTebis SemcirebiT. reformebis gatarebis fonze SedarebiT mcire beneficiarebi SeebrZolebian did bankebs, rogoricaa ICBC, romelic msoflioSi udidesia aqtivebis mixedviT. Tvali adevneT: teqnofobebidan teqnofilebamde. bankirebs eSiniaT finansuri teqnologiebis, magram ecdebian maT saTavisod gamoyenebas. Blockchain – tranzaqciebis cifruli reestri, gaxlavT `finansur-teqnologiuri~ firmebis gamowveva veterani finansuri kompaniebis mimarT. am sistemis fanebi aRniSnaven, rom mas aqvs potenciali Seamciros damxmare ofisis xarjebi. Tu Blockchain imuSavebs, am sferos didi moTamaSeebi Seecdebian igi sakuTar moTxovnebs moargon. msoflio ekonomikuri forumi varaudobs, rom bankebis 80% 2017 wels am sistemiT isargeblebs.

sursaTi da fermeruli meurneobebi 2017 wels rekorduli raodenobis adamiani miiRebs SesaZleblobas Seinaxos, isesxos da daabandos fuli. finansuri momsaxurebebi vrceldeba da sesxis saerTo moculoba $100 trilions gascdeba. aucileblad iqneba banki an sainvesticio kompania, romelic gakotrdeba, Tumca nerviulobis wlebis Semdeg finansurma sistemebma stabiluroba daibruna. amis miuxedavad, finansebis titanebisTvis ar iqneba ioli mogebis miRebis gzebis moZieba. amis mizezebi SesaZloa iyos msoflios mdidari qveynebis ekonomikuri sisusteebi, Semcirebuli saprocento ganakveTebi da SemzRudveli regulaciebi. 2017 wlidan aSS bankebisTvis ufro mkacr wesebs SemoiRebs likviduri saxsrebis qonasTan dakavSirebiT. evropel kreditorebs

2015-2016 wlebSi uamindobam Sewyvita arnaxuli mosavlebis seria, romelic soflis meurneobis produqtebze dabali fasebis SenarCunebas uwyobda xels. amindis fenomenma, saxelad El Niño mraval regionSi dabali mosavlianoba gamoiwvia. magaliTad, dazaralda palmis xeebi da kakaos warmoeba. am cud SedegebSi mniSvnelovani gamonaklisia simindi, romlis plantaciebis farTobi amerikaSi TiTqmis rekordul


msoflio 2017 maCvenebels aRwevs. zogierTi kulturis SemTxvevaSi, 2017 wels ukeTesi mosavalia mosalodneli, xolo sxva SemTxvevebSi – uaresi. didi maragebis gamo, EIU-s soflis meurneobis produqciis fasebis indeqsi neli tempiT gaizrdeba (2%-ze naklebiT). mzardi moTxovna ganviTarebad qveynebSi gamoiwvevs fasebis matebas; mosaxleobis zrda, gazrdili Semosavlebi da gemovnebis cvlileba Tavis saqmes gaakeTebs. braziliasa da ruseTSi krizisis dasruleba msoflio ekonomikis gajansaRebas Seuwyobs xels, Tumca ukrainis konfliqtis gamo dawesebuli sanqciebis sapasuxod, ruseTma 2017 welzec gaavrcela evropidan sakvebi produqtebis importze akrZalva. sayuradReboa, rom 2017 wels evrokavSiri gazrdis Saqris warmoebis kvotebs imis fonze, rom fasma Saqarze 10%-iT moimata. evropa, romelic erT dros Saqris erT-erTi mTavari mwarmoebeli iyo, daibrunebs Zvel `sitkbos~ da ufro meti Saqris eqsports ganaxorcielebs, vidre imports. franguli kooperativi Tereos, romelic 12,000 fermerisgan Sedgeba, 2017 wels Saqris Warxlis warmoebas 20%-iT gazrdis. afrikisa da karibis zRvis Rarib qveynebs, romlebic Saqris eqsports axdenen, mouwevT gayidvis axali bazrebis moZieba. argentinaSi, prezident mauricio makris iniciativiT, 2015 wlis bolos gauqmda eqsportis gadasaxadi xorbalze, simindsa da mzesumziraze. amis Sedegi iqneba 2016-2017 wlebSi argentinis xorblis warmoebis 25%-iani zrda. Tvali adevneT: Teavana CineTSi. Starbucks, romelic nacionalisturi motivebis fonze CineTidan TiTqmis gamoaZeves, iwyebs Cais gayidvas. igi aziis 16 qveyanaSi aamoqmedebs Tavisi brendis – Teavana-s bizness. maT Soris udidesia CineTis Cais bazari, romelic 63 miliard iuans ($9.4 miliardi) udris da yavis bazarze aTjer didia, Bloomberg-is mixedviT.

jandacva

5%-ze metad daiwevs (SedarebisTvis: msoflioSi saSualo maCvenebeli 10.5%-ia). samxreT afrikis susti fiskaluri mdgomareoba jandacvis xarjebs imave doneze SeinarCunebs. aziis is qveynebi (romlebic jandacvis sayovelTao sistemebs aviTareben), rogoricaa indoeTi da filipinebi, CineTSi jandacvis xarjvis Semcirebas daabalanseben. indoeTsa da filipinebSi jandacvis xarjva 7%-iT izrdeba, pakistanSi 9%-iT, xolo indoneziaSi – 11%-iT – maSin, roca CineTSi es maCvenebeli mxolod 4%-ia. jandacvis sferos axali xarjebis 30 procenti aziaze mova. dasavleT evropis ekonomikuri gajansaRebis niSnebi jandacvis momsaxurebaSi met Tavisuflebas Semoitans. samedicino momsaxurebaze evrokavSiris wesebis gamkacreba niSnavs met biurokratias, Tumca im skandalebis Semdeg, romlebic agorda menj-barZayis uxarisxo operaciebTan da mkerdis implantTan dakavSirebiT, aRniSnulma cvlilebebma ukeT unda daicvas pacientebi. axali problema SesaZloa warmoiSvas Rerovani ujredebis gamoucdeli da araregulirebadi mkurnalobis meTodebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic amerikaSi metad popularulia. `xelmisawvdomi jandacvis aqtis~ mixedviT,amerikis jandacvis xarjva 4%-iT gaizrdeba, Tumca aseve gaizrdeba sistemaSi arsebuli bzarebi. janmrTelobis dazRvevis momwodebeli kompaniebis mogeba safrTxis winaSe dadgeba, rac dazRvevis gaZvirebas gamoiwvevs. Tu kanonmdeblebi sadazRvevo kompaniebs gamouval mdgomareobaSi Caayeneben, am ukanasknelebs SesaZloa daekargoT obamas jandacvis sistemaSi monawileobis miRebis survili. msoflio masStabiT farmacevtuli kompaniebi didi zemoqmedebis qveS aRmoCndebian, rom daamtkicon TavianTi Rirebuleba da Seamciron xarjebi; magram es xels ar SeuSlis wamlebis gayidvebis 5%-iT zrdas, rac garkveulwilad ganpirobebuli iqneba inovaciuri mkurnalobis meTodebiT da wamlebis mcire raodenobaze patentis vadis gasvliT. sainformacio teqnologiebis aRWurviloba

arasasiamovno Semcirebis Semdeg, xarjva jandacvis sferoSi zrdas ubrundeba da 2017 wels globalurad 4%-iT gaizrdeba. ufro detaluri prognozi adgilobriv ekonomikur pirobebzea damokidebuli. jandacvis bazrebi axlo aRmosavleTsa da afrikaSi dakargavs brwyinvalebas. iseTi qveyana, rogoricaa, magaliTad, saudis arabeTi, Seamcirebs jandacvis uxv biujets, romelic navTobis bumis dros iyo SemuSavebuli. aq xarjebi jandacvis sferoze mSp-s

kompiuteruli teqnika SesaZloa uSno das, xolo kompiuteruli programebi – popularul das SevadaroT. sakonsultacio firma Gartner ambobs, rom gayiduli kompiuteruli teqnikis raodenoba, dawyebuli personaluri kompiuterebidan da damTavre-

msoflio ricxvebSi industria buli mobiluri telefonebiT, kvlavac gaizrdeba 2017 wels, Tumca es zrda umniSvnelo iqneba. kvleviT institut Forrester-is mixedviT, 2017 wels kerZo seqtori da mTavroba kompiuterul teqnikaze 5%-iT mets daxarjavs. es ganpirobebuli iqneba personaluri kompiuterebis axali saoperacio sistema Windows 10iTa da e.w. tabletebis gayidviT. am ukanasknelebs mimtanebi da sasadiloebis maspinZlebi iyeneben SekveTebis miRebisas. tradiciuli mexsierebisa da serverebis Semqmnelebi dazaraldebian qlaud-kompiuteruli teqnologiebisgan. taivanuri kompaniebi – Quanta da Mitac-i, aseve Cinuri Sugon-i da Lenovo im upiratesobiT isargebleben, rom isini aziaSi mdebareoben – iq, sadac axali moTxovnis `gulia~. manqanebi ufro met davalebebs Seasruleben da sxva mowyobilobebTan met komunikacias daamyareben: telekomunikaciebis kompania Vodafone-is mixedviT, sawarmoTa 37% ganaxorcielebs internetproeqts internet of things 2017 wels. amgvari saocrebebis mxardamWerebi CineTis qarxnebs potenciur bazrad moiazreben – iqidan gamomdinare, rom Cinuri sawarmoebi erToblivad msoflioSi mxolod 28-e adgilze dganan avtomatizaciis kuTxiT.

103

ori yvelaze warmatebuli nawili iqneba. Forrester-is mixedviT, am ukanasknelidan miRebuli Semosavali 23%-iT gaizrdeba. aravin ise swrafad ar aiTvisebs `programa, rogorc serviss~, rogorc aplikaciebis Semqmnelebi: bazris es jer kidev mcire nawili 2017 wels mTeli 50%-iT gaizrdeba. aplikaciebis intensiuri ganviTarebis safuZvelze, programebze gaweuli xarjebi 7%-iT gaizrdeba da $640 miliards miaRwevs. amaze odnav naklebi Tanxa daixarjeba konsultaciebze da sistemebis integrirebaze. Tvali adevneT: Huawei da isev Huawei. msoflios sididiT mesame smartfonebis Cineli mwarmoebeli kvlavac gaagrZelebs `qlaudis~ dasavleli mefeebis Seviwroebas. Huawei ukve awvdis `qlaudis~ momsaxurebebs CineTSi da arsebobs molodini, rom igi weliwadSi $1 miliards an mets daxarjavs kvlevasa da ganviTarebaze, raTa gaxdes wamyvani msoflio moTamaSe monacemTa bazebis programebisa da kompiuteruli teqnikis sferoSi.

media

kompiuteruli programireba da momsaxureba

gaumjobesebuli msoflio biznesgaremo gamoiwvevs `biznes teqnologiebze~ gaweuli xarjebis 9%-ian zrdas. aq igulisxmeba momxmarebelTan urTierTobis programebi, qolcentrebi da miwodebis jaWvis marTva. CineTis IT da komunikaciebis bazari, marTalia, yuradRebas imsaxurebs, magram mxolod meore iqneba msoflioSi da didad CamorCeba amerikisas. xsenebulTan dakavSirebuli ori tendencia, wesiT, sarfian saqmed gadaiqceva. inJineriis titanebi sakuTar Tavs axal imijs Seuqmnian da Industry 4.0 da internet of things programebis eras moergebian; teqgigantebi `qlaudisa~ da masTan dakavSirebuli servisebis gamavrceleblebad iqcevian. General Electric-isa da Microsoft-is aliansi srulad amuSavdeba 2017 wlis meore kvartalSi da Sedegad GE sakuTar programas Predix-s Microsoft-is `qlaud~-servisis Azure-s bazaze gauSvebs. Microsoft-s surs daewios Amazon-s, romelic am dargis upirobo lideria. `qlaud~-platformebis miwodeba da `qlaudze~ dafuZnebuli sxvadasxva `programa, rogorc servisis~ aplikaciebi IT-biznesis

telegenuri movlenebiT daxunZluli wlis Semdeg, romlis drosac Catarda olimpiuri TamaSebi da amerikis saprezidento arCevnebi, globaluri sakonsultacio firma Magna Global 2017 wels sareklamo Semosavlebis Semcirebul zrdas varaudobs (3%). televizia gaxlavT is arxi, sadac yvelaze meti sareklamo fuli trialebs da am mxriv aSS-is telereklamis bazari centraluri asparezia, Tumca xdeba cvlilebebi. satelevizio reklamebidan miRebuli Semosavlis zrda sul ufro metad fiqsirdeba iseT bazrebze, rogoricaa indoeTi da brazilia. amasobaSi, PwC-is mixedviT, mTliani internetreklamis Semosavali 11%-iT gaizrdeba. `2017 wels internetreklamaze daxarjuli fuli mTliani sareklamo xarjvis TiTqmis 40%-s miaRwevs, rac telereklamaze daxarjul dolarebze metia~, – ambobs Magna. cota vinmes Tu epareba eWvi, rom internetreklamaze daxarjuli fulis umetesi nawili Facebookisa da Google-is jibeSi midis. rogorc samewarmeo kapitalis firma Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers ambobs, amerikaSi mTeli internetreklamis Semosavlebis sami meoTxedi am or kompaniaze modis. 2017 wels erTi mesamediT gaizrdeba mobilur telefonebze videoreklamebidan miRebuli Semosavali. am tendenciebis fonze beWdviT gamomcemlobebs uWirT mogebis


104

industria msoflio ricxvebSi

naxva. gazeTebis vebgverdebidan miRebuli sareklamo Semosavali beWdviTi reklamidan miRebuli Semosavlis mxolod erTi mexuTedi iqneba da ar gaizrdeba im tempiT, rom beWdviTi gamocemebis popularobis vardna daabalansos. gazeTebis mTliani sareklamo Semosavali 3%-iT Semcirdeba, xolo tiraJi TiTqmis ucvleli darCeba. Jurnalebis mdgomareoba TiTqmis aseTive savalaloa.

sakmarisi imisTvis, rom fasebi mniSvnelovnad gaizardos; oqro SeinarCunebs brwyinvalebas; bevr qveyanaSi arsebuli dabali saprocento ganakveTebi miizidavs Tanxebs oqroze dafuZnebul savaWro fondebSi.

telekomi

sacalo vaWroba

liTonebi da wiaRiseulis mopoveba

wlebis ganmavlobaSi fasebi bunebriv resursebze ecemoda, rac uaryofiTad aisaxeboda wiaRiseulis mompovebel firmebze. sabednierod, bevri maTgani 2017 wels ukeTes mdgomareobaSi Sexvdeba. CineTis mzardi moTxovniT gamowveuli axal-axali maRaroebis Seqmna Secvala xarjebis maqsimalurad Semcirebam: magaliTad, foladisa da aluminis mwarmoeblebi amcireben operaciebis masStabs. am sferoSi umsxvilesma firmam – BHP Billiton-ma sarekordo zarali naxa, Tumca 2017 wlis ivnisisTvis varaudobs mwarmoeblurobis $2.2 miliardiT zrdas. gaumjobesebuli ekonomika 2017 wels wiaRiseulis mompoveblebs nedleulze gazrdili fasiT daajildoebs. EIU industriuli nedleulis fasebis indeqsi TiTqmis 8%-iT gaizrdeba. am ukeTesobis miuxedavad, liTonis fasebi imaze naklebi iqneba, vidre bumis wlebSi. CineTis moTxovna nedleulze ar daubrundeba im niSnuls, romelzec ramdenime wlis win iyo. moTxovnaSi Seqmnili vakuumis mxolod nawils Seavsebs samxreTaRmosavleT aziidan da indoeTidan momdinare moTxovna. aviRoT foladi. CineTSi, romelic foladis umsxvilesi mwarmoebeli da momxmarebelia, foladis mopoveba 1%-ze naklebiT Semcirdeba – imitom, rom arsebobs Warbi sawarmoo simZlavre: CineTi awarmoebs TiTqmis 25%-iT met folads, vidre sWirdeba. dasavleTis qveynebis foladis mwarmoeblebi sixaruliT Sexvdebian evrokavSirisa da amerikis mier CineTidan momdinare zogierT saeqsporto saqonelze dawesebul axal tarifebs. foladze fasebi 4.5%-iT gaizrdeba. TuTia iqneba erTaderTi ZiriTadi liToni, romlis fasi 2011 wlis fass gadaaWarbebs da 2017 wels saSualod 25%-iT moimatebs. amis mizezi ZiriTadad avtomwarmoeblebia. naklebad naTeli suraTia spilenZisa da aluminisTvis: xarjebis Sekveca da mzardi moTxovna ar iqneba

msoflio 2017

tradiciuli sacalo da samomxmareblo saqonliT movaWre gigantebi seriozul konkurencias ganicdian internetfirmebisgan da ganviTarebadi bazrebis moTamaSeebisgan (rogoricaa, magaliTad, CineTis Alibaba). Amazon-Tan konkurentunarianobis SesanarCuneblad Walmart-i 2016-2017 wlebSi $2 miliardis investicias ganaxorcielebs sasursaTo momsaxurebebSi, sawyobebsa da mobilur aplikaciaSi. msoflios umsxvilesi sacalo movaWre aseve imuSavebs eleqtronul komerciul bazarTan – Jet-Tan Serwymaze. sacalo vaWrobis moculoba 2017 wels msoflio masStabiT 3%-iT gaizrdeba. dabali zrdis mizezi gaurkveveli politikuri da ekonomikuri situaciaa, romelic Seamcirebs samomxmareblo moTxovnas. ganviTarebadi bazrebi ver gaamarTleben maTze gacemul avansebs. sacalo vaWrobis moculoba ruseTSi didad ar gaizrdeba 2017 wels evrokavSirTan ormxrivi sanqciebis pirobebSi (Tumca bolodroindel krizisul viTarebasTan SedarebiT gaumjobesdeba). miuxedavad amisa, McDonald’s ganagrZobs ruseTSi gafarToebas da 2017 wlidan apirebs kartofili `fris~ dasamzadeblad rusuli kartofilis gamoyenebas. braziliaSi sacalo vaWrobis zrda 2%-sac ver miaRwevs; venesuelaSi gayidvebi 25%-iT Semcirdeba. im pirobebSi, roca TviT didi CineTis sacalo vaWrobis zrda mxolod 6% iqneba (rac CineTis standartebiT cotaa), ufro da ufro meti kompania indoeTs miapyrobs mzeras, sadac sacalo vaWroba 7%-iT unda gaizardos. IKEA 2017 wlis bolos gegmavs iq Tavisi biznesis gaxsnas. mosalodnelia xarjebis kidev ufro Semcireba da sinergiebi kompaniebis mier sxva kompaniebis SeZenis xarjze. samomxmareblo xarjva sursaTze, sasmelsa da Tambaqoze 5%-iT gaizrdeba. ludsaxarSebisTvis rTuli iqneba SABMiller-isa da Anheuser-Busch InBev-is SeerTebasTan gamklaveba. axal firmas msoflio ludis gayidvebis 30% da mogebis 50% eqneba. igi aTasobiT samuSao adgils gaauqmebs, Tumca maregulireblebis saameblad moiSorebs $6 miliardis evropul aqtivebs.

Tavisi dasaxelebis miuxedavad, fiqsirebuli telekomunikaciebi swraf cvlilebebs ganicdis. 2017 wlisTvis fiqsirebuli xazis kavSirgabmuloba meoTxedze metiT Semcirdeba 2010 wlis Semdeg da misi abonentebis raodenoba msoflio masStabiT 630 milions miaRwevs, maSin roca mobiluri kavSirgabmulobis abonentTa ricxvi 4.3 miliardidan 6.4 miliardamde gaizrdeba. internetmomxmareblebis ricxvi 3 miliards gadaaWarbebs. momavali ganviTarebad qveynebSi mobiluri kavSirgabmulobis ganviTarebaSia. operatorebi am bazars yuradRebiT daakvirdebian da SeiZenen mobiluri sixSiris licenziebs, raTa maRalteqnologiuri meoTxe Taobis (4G) mobiluri kavSirgabmulobis servisi da xangrZlivvadiani evoluciis (LTE) qselebi SesTavazon momxmarebels. samxreT-aRmosavleT aziasa da aRmosavleT evropaSi farToxazovani da mobiluri kavSirgabmulobis zrda didwilad iaffasian 3G smartfonebis meSveobiT ganxorcieldeba. Tumca iseTi qveynebi, rogoricaa meqsika da samxreT afrika, auqcionebze gayidian 4G sixSiris licenziebs. amerikaSi usadeno 600 megaherc diapazonze ganacxadebis miReba 2017 welsac gagrZeldeba. am diapazons aqamde mxolod satelevizio arxebi iyenebdnen. T-Mobile, romelic erT-erTi mTavari moTamaSea, gaafTrebul safaso brZolas awarmoebs, Tumca mosalodnelia, rom Seicvlis fokuss da yuradRebas infrastruqturaSi investiciebis ganxorcielebaze gaamaxvilebs. axali sixSireebis speqtris danergva operatorebs did investiciebs ganaxorcielebinebs. indoeTSi 2017 wels SesaZloa meore auqcioni Catardes, sadac darCenili 4G talRebi iafad gaiyideba. amis miuxedavad, induri giganti – Reliance Industries varaudobs, rom indoelTa 90%-s 2017 wlisTvis wvdoma eqneba 4G servisze. CineTSi, romelic smartfonebis msoflios umsxviles bazars warmoadgens, China Mobile imedovnebs, rom 2017 wels naxevar miliardze meti 4G abonenti eyoleba. smartfonebis liderebi – Apple da Samsung uryevad gaagrZeleben svlas. gaauqmebs Apple-is iPhone 8 mTavar (home) Rilaks kididan kidemde ekranis sanacvlod? Samsung-s surs ukan moitovos problemuri Galaxy 7 smartfonebi da warmatebas Galaxy S8-iT miaRwios. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Cineli konkurentebi swrafad

miiweven win. Tu Oppo SeinarCunebs warmoebis amJamindel, 60%-ian zrdas, 2017 wlisTvis SesaZloa daewios msoflios sididiT mesame smartfonebis mwarmoebels – Huawei-s da weliwadSi 100 milion telefonze meti awarmoos. Semdegi mizania 5G. oficialuri standartebis SemuSavebas wlebi dasWirdeba, Tumca SvedeTis Ericsson ambobs, rom mas SeTanxmebebi aqvs gaformebuli telekomunikaciebis 26 kompaniasTan 5G teqnologiis danergvis Sesaxeb da rom 2017 wlisTvis mzad iqneba amis komponentebi. samxreT koreis SK Telecom apirebs sacdeli 5G momsaxurebis dawyebas Nokia-sTan erTad Seqmnili teqnologiis gamoyenebiT, romelsac SeuZlia wamSi 19.1 gigabiti siCqaris ganviTareba, rac niSnavs filmis sul ramdenime wamSi CamotvirTvas.

mogzauroba da turizmi

turizmis xarjva 2017 wels 4%iT gaizrdeba da $5 trilions gadaaWarbebs. sawvavis dabali fasebi aviakompaniebis muSaobas Seuwyobs xels. konkurencia gaizrdeba – gansakuTrebiT aziaSi, sadac Global Business Travel Association-sa da sakonsultacio firma Carlson Wagonlit Travel-is monacemebiT, aviabileTebis fasi 1%-iT Semcirdeba. konkurencia gansakuTrebiT cxarea samxreTaRmosavleT aziis dabalfasian aviakompaniebs Soris. am regionSi iseTi kompaniebi, rogoricaa VietJet, swrafad izrdebian. Bloombergis mixedviT, CineTis sam umsxviles saxelmwifo aviaxazebs kviraSi 100 pilotis ayvana daWirdebaT mzardi moTxovnis dasakmayofileblad. superekonomiuri TviTmfrinavebis Semosvla axal asparezs xsnis ultraxangrZlivi frenebisTvis. Qantas imedovnebs, rom 2017 wlidan londonsa da perts Soris pirdapir frenebs daiwyebs (14,500 km manZilze). Tu ramdenad momgebiania amgvari xangrZlivi frenebis Sesruleba, amas dro gviCvenebs. 2017 wels, gansakuTrebiT evropaSi, aviakompaniebs mouwevT terorizmze fiqri: statistikurad ­usafrTxoebis riski minimaluria, Tumca terorizmis risks SeuZlia uamravi mgzavris dafrTxoba. mewarmeebi cdiloben kosmosis komerciulad gamoyenebas. didi simboluri miRweva iqneba, Tu amerikis Moon Express an israelis SpacelL miaRwevs mTvares 31 dekembramde da amiT ajobebs Google-is Lunar XPRIZE-s.


105

msoflio 2017 amave seqciaSi: Zveli bosebi kvlavac marTaven TiTqmis srulyofili TanaSemweebi saubari Tqvens macivarTan foladis daRmasvla ubralod, SesaZlebelia... qalebi marTvis sadaveebs euflebian

IKEA indoeTSi Sedis saudis arabeTis didi pirveladi sajaro SeTavazeba TviTmavali manqanebi gzaze gadian CineTis dabali klasis menejmentis skolebi martin soreli: grZelvadiani xedviT

biznesi

kompaniebis SerwymaTa da SesyidvaTa talRebi Standard Oil amerikis Ford Motors navTobgadaCompany muSavebis 90%-ian Rouge Steel-s wils eufleba eufleba

Vodafone Procter &Gamble International Tele- Kolbert Kravis yidulobs yidulobs phone $ Telegraph Roberts iZens RJR Nabisco-s Mannesmann-s Gillette-s yidulobs Avis Rent-a-Car da Sheraton Hotels-s

AT&T ganacxads akeTebs Time Warner-is SesaZenad

wyaro: CAIA; BCG; Martin Lipton; the ekonomist

veTxovebiT warsuls patrik fulisi, niu-iorki

garigebaTa uzarmazari batalia dasasruls uaxlovdeba

g

asuli saukune naxevris ganmavlobaSi dasavluri samyaro kompaniaTa Serwymisa da Sesyidvebis Svidi didi talRis momswre Seiqna (ix. diagrama zemoT). me-19 saukunis bolos, pirveli aseTi talRis mimdinareobisas kompaniebi foladis, navTobis, rkinigzisa da samomxmareblo saqonlis warmoebis erovnuli gigantebis Sesaqmnelad gaerTiandnen da es procesi wiTeli xis tyeebidan golfstrimamde gadaiWima. 1908-iani wlebisTvis modur kostiumebSi gamowyobili Seubralebeli treiderebi, romlebic lanCisTvisac ver iclidnen, sakmarisad gawafulni iyvnen imisaTvis, rom `sanagvis obligaciebiT~ kompaniaTa agresiuli Sesyidvebi ganexorcielebinaT. 2017 wels masStabur garigebaTa bolo talRac, rogorc iqna, miileva. upretenzio bankirebi da menejerebi xelebs gaasavsaveben da dakargul anazRaurebasa da bonusebze wuwuns mohyvebian, xolo marifaTianebi Seecdebian warmoidginon, Tu rogori SeiZleba iyos garigebebis keTebis merve talRa, romlis piksac 2020-iani wlebis dasawyisisTvis elian. garigebaTa dRevandeli `jaxi~ 2012 wels daiwyo da dRemde gacxadebul tranzaqciaTa jamuri moculoba ukve 18 trilion dolars aWarbebs (ix. diagrama qvemoT). am saqmis specialistebma Sesabamisi reagireba moaxdines finansuri krizisis Semdgomi, dabali ekonomikuri zrdis, iafi fulisa da frTxili strategiebis realobaze. isini xarjebis radikalurad Sekvecas, sabazro wilebis zrdasa da sagadasaxado garigebaTa Rirebuleba – miliardi aSS dolari

davalianebis Semcirebas cdiloben. amerikuli firmebi am saqmianobis naxevars Seadgenen. Serwymebi, romlebic moicavs Dow Chemical-sa da DuPont-s, aseve Kraft-sa da Heinz-s, savaraudod, wliuri 100 miliardi dolaris Rirebulebis xarjebis dazogvas moitans. jandacvis industria `inversiebiT~ Sepyrobili xdeba, rac amerikuli firmebis mier evropuli kompaniebis dauflebas, maTi adgilmdebareobis cvlasa da sagadasaxado valdebulebebis Semcirebas moicavs. saerTaSoriso garigebebi globaluri monopoliebis Seqmnas isaxaven miznad. Anheuser-Busch InBev-is mier 120 miliard dolarad SABMiller-is Sesyidva ludis warmoebis gigants Seqmnis, romelzedac msoflioSi daleuli ludis boTlebis mesamedi mova. SerwymaTa da SesyidvaTa meSvide talRa 2017 wels dasruldeba, romelic sami mizeziTaa ganpirobebuli: pirveli – adgili eqneba antimonopoliuri regulaciebis aRmavlobas, swored ise, rogorc me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi. sul ufro da ufro meti analitikuri kvleva amtkicebs, rom dabali zrdis mizezi SesaZloa konkurenciis nakleboba iyos. aSS-Si ukve dablokes ramdenime garigeba, xolo AT&T-s mier Time Warner-is SesyidvisTvis 109 miliardi dolaris gadaxdis ganacxadis `blokbasteri~ axali prezidentis antimonopoliuri SemarTebis sazomi gaxdeba. meore: garigebebs populizmi gaarTulebs. calkeul SemTxvevebSi. mtruli damokidebuleba Ria iqneba. ase magaliTad, britaneTis axali premier-ministri tereza mei acxadebs, rom ucxouri firmebis mier adgilobrivi firmebis agresiuli Sesyidvis mcdelobebs dablokavs. sxva SemTxvevebSi es damokidebuleba

globalur SerwymaTa da SesyidvaTa ricxvi – 2002-2016

gamocxadebul garigebaTa ricxvi

*`ekonomistis~ Sefaseba. wyaro: Bloomberg

2017 mokled GlaxoSmithKline-is ufros aRmasrulebel direqtorad ema uolmsli iniSneba, romelic msoflios 25 udidesi kompaniis aRmasrulebelTa Soris pirveli qali xdeba

patrik fulisi: niu-iorkis biuros xelmZRvaneli, The Economist


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msoflio 2017

biznesi

mklavic uWris da gonebac endriu palmeri

2017 wels asakovani ­biznesmenebi saqmianobaze­ ­mtkice kontrols SeinarCuneben

m

didari samyaro berdeba. igive exeba mis biznesliderebsac. amerikuli sameTvalyureo sabWoebis mesamedma pensiaze gasvlis asakad wevrTaTvis minimum 75 weli daadgina, rogorc amas direqtorTa rekrutirebis firma Spencer Stuart iuwyeba. 2005 wels firmebis mxolod 8%-Si Tu elodnen direqtorTa aseTi xangrZlivi vadiT saqmianobas. S&P 500-is firmebis or mexuTedSi direqtorTa sabWos wevrTa saSualo asaki 64 an ufro metia, aTi wlis winandel 18%Tan SedarebiT. movlenebis amgvari ganviTareba am liderTa mniSvnelovan nawils samuSaoze kidev 20 wliT datovebs, Tuki amerikis korporaciuli samyaros yvelaze cnobil liderebs gavixsenebT. silikonis velis energiiT savse revolucionerebisadmi gankuTvnili yuradRebis miuxedavad, 2017 wels xnier menejerTa saqmianoba ufro xiluli iqneba. asaki fulis marTvaSi dabrkoleba namdvilad araa. xangrZliv perspeqtivebze orientirebuli uoren bafeti, romelic 2017 wels 87-is gaxdeba, sakmaod mxned grZnobs Tavs. wlis pirvel dRes batoni bafetis holding Berkshire Hathaway-s

*ganmarteba: dabereba SesaZloa SeCerdes an gagrZeldes.

Norwegian Air axal reiss qmnis da korkidan bostonamde gadafrenis safasurad sul raRac 52 girvanqas (64 aSS dolari) awesebs

s

2017 mokled

ra saerTo aqvs amasTan asaks?

TanaTavmjdomare Carli mangeri 93 wlis gaxdeba. kidev erTi miliarderi – ti boon pikensti, maisSi 89 sanTels Caaqrobs. agvistoSi jorj sorosi 87 wlis gaxdeba, xolo karl aikani 81 wlis Seiqneba. mxcovani xalxi ara mxolod finansebSi grZnobs Tavs kargad. 2017 wels samorineebis magnati – Seldon andersoni 84-e iubiles izeimebs. mediamagnati ruper merdoki (ix. meuRle jeri holTan erTad) 86 wels Seasrulebs. 85 wlis asakSi berni eklstouni, savaraudod, sarbolo turnir `formula 1~-Si wamyvan poziciebs SeinarCunebs, miuxedavad imisa, rom sportis am saxeobaze kontroli nel-nela momdevno Taobis warmomadgenelze – amerikel magnat jon melounze gadadis, romelic martSi 76 wlisa gaxdeba. amerikis axali prezidentic aCvenebs pensionerTa Zalas. investorebs aseT dRegrZelobasTan dakavSirebiT Sereuli grZnobebi daeuflebaT. Berkshire Hathaway-is mraval aq-

axal teqnokratiul dabrokolebebSi gamovlindeba. amerikis xazina `inversiebis~ SeCerebas cdilobs, xolo evrokavSiri korporaciuli gadasaxadebiT manipulaciebis mcdelobas axSobs. mesame: globalizaciis ukandaxevis gamo, investorebi bevrad frTxilad miudgebian garigebebis gziT planetaruli masStabis mravalerovnuli firmebis Seqmnis amocanebs – miT ufro, am ukanasknelTa arcTu damakmayofilebeli Sedegebis gamo. amerikis mravalerovnuli kompaniebis kapitalukugeba 2008 wlis 12%-dan sadReiso 8%-mde Semcirda. gasuli aTwleulis teqnologiebis varskvlavi firmebi globalur korporaciebad uol stritis jadoqrebis dauxmareblad iqcnen. Google, Apple da Facebook, romlebic msoflios udidesi firmebis xuTeulSi Sedian, gayidvebis umetes wils ucxoeTSi axorcieleben, Tumca sxva qveynebSi msxvilmasStabiani garigebebi ar daudiaT.

rvis nawilebi 2017 wels SesyidvaTa Zveli talRis milevis fonze, axali bumis konturebi ufro mkafiod gamoikveTeba. momdevno aTwleulSi calkeuli swrafad mzardi mravalerovnuli firmis Sedegebis `erozia~ moxdeba. iseTi finansuri firmebi, rogorebic AIG, ING da Royal Bank of Scotland-ia, ukve nawilobriv daSales. rigSi SesaZloa sxva industriebic Cadgnen. General Motors da Ford TavianTi gamoSvebis 92%-s CrdiloeT amerikaSi awarmoeben, rac niSnavs, rom maTi sazRvargareTis

cioners ar surs batoni bafetis zurgis xilva, magram bevri ukve Relavs imaze, ra moxdeba misi da batoni mangeris wasvlis Semdeg – memkvidris gamoZebnis sakiTxi didad sayuradReboa maSin, roca bosi 80-s gadaabijebs. kidev erTi problema moxuci bosis metismetad xangrZlivi meTaurobaa. 2016 wels gamarTul sasamarTlo davaSi, magaliTad, mediafirma Viacom-is aqciaTa sakontrolo paketis 93 wlis mflobel samner redstounis mentaluri kompetencia daundobeli braldebis obieqti gaxda. kidev erTi xandazmuli magnati – donald stirlingi 2014 wels misi meuRlis mier aRZruli saqmis ganxilvisas gonebrivad unarSezRuduli aRmoCnda. axla, roca bosebs asaki iseve aRar aclis energias, rogorc adre, aseTi SeTxvevebi kidev ufro gaxSirdeba. n endriu palmeri: biznesis sakiTxebis redaqtori, The Economist

operaciebi kompaniis Rirebulebas amcirebs. aqamde investorebi eguebodnen aseT uniaTobas, magram maTi moTminebis fiala TandaTanobiT aivseba. momavalze orientirebuli bankirebi evropisken mimaval `TviTmfrinavs Seaxtebian~. Tu kontinenti breqsitTan dakavSirebul problemebs Tavs daaRwevs da kidev erT savaluto kriziss ascdeba, gaCndeba didi wnexi iqaur firmebze maTgan regionuli Cempionebis Sesaqmnelad. kontinentis kompaniebma msoflios yvela regionSi safondo birJaze kotirebuli 500 kompaniis medianuri mogebis mixedviT, gasul aTwleulSi globaluri biznesis topreestrSi adgilebi dakarges da zomiT amerikulebs 40%-iT CamorCebian. dabolos: sazRvargareT firmebis Sesyidvis didi talRa CineTidan wamova. Cinelma myidvelebma ukve SeiZines italiuri safexburTo klubebi, Sveicariuli samrewvelo sawarmoebi da amerikuli sosisebis mwarmoeblebi. garda amisa, Zalian didia Cineli investorebisa da meanabreTaTvis sakuTari bazridan ucxoeTSi diversifikaciis stimuli. ra Tqma unda, sxva qveynebisa da kompaniebis gamocdileba aCvenebs, rom firmebis Sesyidvis gziT ucxoeTSi eqspansia sust wertilebsac Seicavs. magram, amave dros, garigebaSi CarTul pirebs istoriis gakveTilebisTvis rom daeTmoT yuradReba, gasul 150 weliwadSi firmebis SerwymaTa da agresiul SesyidvaTa oriode talRa Tu dafiqsirdeboda. n


daqiravebuli daxmareba aleqsandra suiCi, san-francisko

virtualuri piradi TanaSemwe ufro Wkviani gaxdeba da ufro meti adamianis pirad cxovrebaSi SeiWreba

a

servisebi. telefoni Sin arsebuli xelsawyoebidan mxolod erTi iqneba, romelsac momxmareblis saWiroebebis codna, monacemTa Segroveba da amocanebis Sesruleba SeeZleba. mcire zomis spikeri – Amazon-is Echo, romelic personaluri TanaSemwis teqnologias efuZneba, erT-erTi servisTagania, romelsac Suqis Caqroba-anTeba da Sexsenebebi SeeZleba. amas bevriT arc Google-is Google Home-ad wodebuli da sxva ramdenime produqti CamorCeba, romlebic bazarze 2017 wels gamoCndeba. swored ise, rogorc adamianebma Tavidan Google-is saZiebo sistemaSi martivi moTxovnebis gakeTebis Seswavlis Semdeg gadainacvles rTul moTxovnebze, igive moxdeba personaluri TanaSemweebis meSveobiT, romlebic fexs auwyoben am moTxovnas, – acxadebs joS elmani venCuruli kapitalis firma Greylock Partners-idan. ukve momxmareblebze iqneba damokidebuli, moisurveben Tu ara isini personalur asistentebTan saubars, Tu maT nabeWdi teqstis saxiT mimarTaven. bevrni laparaks virtualur mdivnebTan komunikaciis martiv gzad miiCneven, rogorc es realur cxovrebaSia (ix. CanarTi momdevno gverdze). amave dros, beWdvac da teqstis akrefac kontaqtis erT-erTi umTavresi saSualeba gaxdeba imis kvalobaze, rom smartfonebi

kidev ufro Wkvianebi gaxdebian da mobilur ekosistemaSi gacilebiT mniSvnelovan rols iTamaSeben. aplikaciaTa uamravi versiis SerCevaSi navigaciisas drois dakargvis sanacvlod momxmareblebi TavianT mdivnebs daeyrdnobian, rogorc navigaciis umTavres saSualebas. es imas niSnavs, rom aplikaciebi, romlebsac virtualuri TanaSemweebis Semqmnel kompaniebTan komerciuli kavSiri ar gaaCniaT, riskaven usargebloni gaxdnen.

2017 mokled BlackBerry telefonebis warmoebas wyvets da sanacvlod programirebis warmoebasa da usafrTxoebaze amaxvilebs aqcents

xalxi, visac ar sWirdeba xalxi Wkviani agentebis aRmasvla mraval industrias Seexeba. Seicvleba samomxmareblo servisi. virtualuri asistentebi gadadebuli frenebisa da dakarguli bargis gamo momxmarebelTa dausrulebel buzRuns Tavis Tavze aiReben. jandacva aseve transformirdeba: virtualuri personaluri TanaSemweebi Seagroveben informacias eqimebisTvis vizitebis win an avadmyof momxmareblebs daavadebis simptomebis Sesaxeb detalur informacias miawvdian da urCeven, sad iSovon wamali.

s

rc ise didi xnis win san-franciskoSi startapis damfuZnebeli evropidan Camosul stumarTan Sexvedris organizebisas Sexvedris dros aTeuli eleqtronuli werilis mimoweriT azustebda. evropeli damfuZneblis pirad asistent klarasTan Rvinis boTliT xelSi cxaddeboda, riTac SexvedraTa gadatvirTul grafikSi adgilis gamonaxvisTvis madlierebis gamoxatvas cdilobda. `klara~ amave saxelwodebis startapis programuli momsaxurebaa, romelic eleqtronuli fostis meSveobiT Sexvedris TariRsa da dros adgens. igi xelovnuri inteleqtiTa da adamianis cotaodeni zedamxedvelobiT funqcionirebs. cota xnis Semdeg mas adamianTa daxmareba saerTod ar dasWirdeba. ianvarSi aTi weli Sesruldeba mas Semdeg, rac stiv jobsma Apple-is iPhone bazarze gamoitana da smartfonebis revolucias daudo saTave. momavali weli smartfonebisTvis kidev erTi saetapo weli gaxdeba da aRniSnavs sawyis wertils imaSi, Tu ramdenad Rrmad da martivad moxdeba adamianTa urTierToba maT personalur mowyobilobebTan xelovnuri inteleqtis meSveobiT. programuli uzrunvelyofiT momuSave mdivnebi, rogorc maT `Wkvian agentebs~ uwodeben, ukve gamoCndnen bazarze. male isini yoveldRiurobaSi ufro metad SemoiWrebian da gacilebiT daxvewilebi gaxdebian. virtualuri personaluri TanaSemweebi orgvari saxis iqneba. iseTi servisebi, rogorebicaa „klara“ da misi konkurenti X.AI, mxolod specifikur davalebebs Seasruleben, magaliTad: elfostis meSveobiT Sexvedrebis dagegmva, rac momxmareblis dros zogavs. sxvebi ufro farTo speqtris servisebis mowodebas Seecdebian da daakmayofileben TavianTi mflobelebis survilebs, miiRon konkretuli informacia da mousminon ama Tu im musikas. programebi TavianT bosebs da maT gemovnebas ise kargad unda icnobdnen, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi maTi momsaxureba unda mouaxlovdes imas, rasac am ukanasknelTa cocxali asistentebi akeTeben. arsebobs ramdenime mizezi gvjerodes, rom 2017 weli garRvevis weli iqneba personaluri TanaSemweebisTvis. erTi isaa, rom es teqnologia yvela didi teqnologiuri kompaniisTvis, maT Soris Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Samsung da aseve startapebis mTeli jarisTvis prioriteti iqneba. maT momxmarebelTa erTgulebis mopoveba da maT cxovrebaSi adgilis ufro myarad damkvidreba surT. garda amisa, aRtacebis wlebis Semdeg, kompaniebi xelovnuri inteleqtis mimarTulebiT realur nabijebs dgamen. es ara mxolod gazrdis virtualur TanaSemweTa akuratulobas, aramed gaafarToebs maT unar-Cvevebs martivi amocanebis, magaliTad axlomdebare restornebis Zebnis miRmac. dabolos: xelsawyoebi, romlebSic SesaZlebelia personaluri asistentis teqnologiis CatvirTva, ukve yoveldRiurobis nawilia, vinaidan momxmareblebi maT sul ufro komfortulad iyeneben. es kompaniebs damatebiT stimuls Seuqmnis gaaumjobeson

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2017 mokled Microsoft uSvebs Xbox Project Scorpio-s — pults, romelic virtualuri realobis teqnologiis bazaze muSaobs. amave dros, Nintendo axal mistikur xelsawyos — NX-s uSvebs

TumcaRa, 2017 wels udidesi cvlileba komerciaSi moxdeba: momsaxurebisa da saqonlis Sesyidvisas momxmarebelTa sul ufro meti raodenoba daeyrdnoba Wkvian agentebs. isini am TanaSemweebs TviTmfrinavisa da kinoTeatris bileTebis Sesasyidad, aseve Uber-iT gadaadgilebisas da sursaTis misaRebad gamoiyeneben. imis kvalobaze, rom ufro gaxSirdeba msgavsi virtualuri agentebis meSveobiT saqonlis SeZenis praqtika, daibadeba bevri axali CaxlarTuli SekiTxva, romelsac pasuxi unda gaeces. magaliTad, davrToT Tu ara Wkvian agents neba gaaziaros informacia Tavisi momxmareblis gadaadgilebis grafiksa Tu gegmebze gareSe pirebTan servisebis, magaliTad, avtomanqanis momsaxurebis dasajavSnad? ukve gaCnda araerTi problema monacemTa kvalis gamo, romlebsac mobiluri aparatebi toveben, da romelTac momxmareblis fraivesis komprometireba SeuZliaT. mas Semdeg, rac virtualuri asistentebi gacilebiT mets gaigeben TavianT bosebze, ufro meti mniSvneloba mieniWeba

vicnob am xmas ludvig zigele

Tqveni xelsawyoebis marTvaSi saubari beWdvas konkurencias gauwevs

S

egiyvardebaT odesme Tqveni Termostati? TviT filmis `misi~ naxvis Semdeg, romelSic mTavari gmiri simpaTiur personalur kompiuterTan imedisgamacruebel urTierTobas iwyebs, es SekiTxva ucnaurad mogeCvenebaT. amis erTi mizezi swrafad ganviTarebadi xelovnuri inteleqtia, romelic cifrul TanaSemweebs amoZravebs. aseve mniSvnelovania isic, rom TavianTi xelsawyoebis marTvaSi xmis gamoyenebis teqnologiebic ixveweba. es imdenad swrafad xdeba, rom SesaZloa 2017 wels am tipis interfeisi Cveulebrivi gaxdes. xmis kontrolis sistemebi ukve karga xania arsebobs. magaliTad, manqanebis sanavigacio sistemebisTvis instruqciis misacemad, Tumca brZanebaTa ricxvi, romlis aRqmac maT SeuZliaT, SezRudulia da programebs kiTxva-pasuxis meSveobiT mZRolTan urTierToba ar SeuZliaT. cifruli TanaSemweebi, magaliTad, Microsoft-is Cortana da Apple-is Siri, romlebic 2010-iani wlebis dasawyisSi gamoCnda, bevrad gaumjobesebulia. TumcaRa, teqnologia pasuxis gacemis droisa da aRqmis TvalsazrisiT mxolod axla xdeba imdenad gamarTuli, rom misi farTod miReba SesaZlebelia. `mas Semdeg, rac saubris aRqmis sizuste 95%-dan 99%-mde aiwevs, Cven yvelani maT TiTqmis mudmivad gamoviyenebT~, – acxadebs endriu engi, didi Cinuri saZiebo sistema Baidu-s ufrosi mecnieri. am kompaniam didi investiciebi daabanda mocemul teqnologiaSi, vinaidan beWdvisas uamravi

msoflio 2017 SekiTxvas, vin flobs ama Tu im monacemebs. gaCndeba SekiTxvebi gayofili erTgulebis Sesaxeb. Tu virtualur agents TviTmfrinavis bileTis SeZena an sastumros dajavSna daevaleba, evaleba mas Tu ara amis yvelaze dabal fasSi gakeTeba, Tu saqmes im firmasTan daiWers, romelsac komerciuli urTierierToba aqvs virtualuri TanaSemwis Semqmnel firmasTan? realuri piradi TanaSemwis upiratesoba isaa, rom zogadad naTelia, vin visze muSaobs. Tu kompiuteruli programa arCevans momxmareblis finansuri interesis sawinaaRmdegod akeTebs, maSin igi undoblobas gamoiwvevs. rogorc Sedegi, programuli mdivnebi TavianTi arsebobis pirvelive wels did winaaRmdegobebs Seqmnian mTeli msoflios mosaxleobis piradi cxovrebisa da saxlebSi SeWris kvalobaze. SesaZloa, isini sakmaod Wkvianebi iyvnen, dainaxon amis SesaZlebloba da am problemebis Sesarbileblad TavianTi momxmareblebisTvis ramdenime boTli Rvinoc SeukveTon. n

Cinuri simbolos gamoyeneba did problemebs ukavSirdeba. eleqtronuli komerciis konglomeratis – Amazon-is mier damzadebuli Echo momavalSi bazarze gamosasvleli teqnologiebis miniSnebas iZleva. 180 dolaris Rirebulebis es Wkviani spikeri momxmareblebs saSualebas aZlevs daukran musika, CarTon sinaTle, gamoiZaxon taqsi da, ra Tqma unda, SeukveTon saqoneli Amazon-Si, da es yvelaferi xmovani brZanebebis meSveobiT. aseTma maxasiaTeblebma Echo moulodnel hitad aqcia: Amazon-ma 2016 wels am mowyobilobis 3 milioni egzemplari gayida da 2017 wels am ricxvis gasammagebas imedovnebs. rac Echo-s da mis uzrunvelmyof teqnologia Alexa-s ase popularuls xdis, isaa, rom isini Zalian advili mosaxmaria. mflobelebs xelsawyoebis aqtivacia mxolod parolis TqmiT SeuZliaT, roca oTaxSi imyofebian. maT ar uwevT ierarqiul meniuSi navigacia da sityvebis Seyvana (es didi gaumjobesebaa, vinaidan adamianebs wuTSi 150 sityvis Tqma, magram mxolod 40 sityvis beWdva SeuZliaT). amasTan, sistemam icis, Tu sad imyofeba igi da ra SesyidvaTa sia aqvs ukve gacemuli, rac interaqcias bevrad amartivebs.

frTxilad, kedlebs yurebi aqvT vidre adamianebi aseT xelsawyoebs TavianTi saxlebis ganuyofel nawilad aqceven, orjer unda dafiqrdnen: ramdenadac Zalian efeqturia, imdenad did risks Seicavs fraivesis TvalsazrisiT, radganad isini sxva araferia, Tu ara Zalian mgrZnobiare internetTan SeerTebuli mikrofonebi. Tuki teqnologiis axali istoria raimeze migvaniSnebs, didi xani ar gava, vidre hakerebi, jaSuSebi da virtualuri Semawuxeblebi maTTan misasvlel gzas monaxaven. n ludvig zigele: teqnologiis korespondenti, The Economist


SeSlili liTonis warmoebaze foladis pirveladi warmoeba msoflio

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msoflio 2017 foladis fasebi aSS dolari/tona (marjvena Skala)

CineTi

milioni tona

*Free on board. evrokavSiris eqsporti, gragnili

dnobis wertili Carlz ridi

ganviTarebul msoflioSi foladCamomsxmeli qarxnebis daxurva da samuSao adgilebis dakargva gaxSirdeba

i

afi plastikisa da mikroCipebis samyaroSic ki, msoflio ekonomikisTvis foladis mniSvneloba eWvs ar iwvevs. msoflioSi yovelwliurad 1.6 miliardi tona, 900 miliardi dolaris Rirebulebis foladi warmoebs. gemebiT dawyebuli, caTambjenebis, manqanebisa da sacxobebis CaTvliT, foladi yoveldRiuri cxovrebis mniSvnelovani nawilia. foladCamomsxmelebi sirTuleebs 2007-2008 wlebis finansuri krizisis Semdeg grZnoben. 2011 wlidan dRemde foladze fasebi TiTqmis ori mesamediT daeca, ris mizezadac Semcirebuli globaluri moTxovna da CineTis eqsporti iqca, romelic amJamad msoflio gamoSvebis naxevars uzrunvelyofs. 2016 wels fasebi ise daeca, rom industria TiTqmis mTlianad moiSala. britaneli mefoladeebis meeqvsedma samuSao dakarga da aprilSi amerikis udidesma foladis mwarmoebelma US Steel-ma dasaqmebulTa meoTxedi gaaTavisufla. axla, roca globaluri maragebi dabalia, industriis bosebi da mefoladeebi imedovneben, rom 2017 weli mogebasa da fasebs daabrunebs. es optimizmi naadrevia. Cinuri Warbwarmoebis SeCerebis niSnebis ararsebobis pirobebSi, saqme SeiZleba sxva produqtebsac gaurTuldeT.

es marTlac metismetia umTavresi problema Warbi simZlavreebia. msoflios foladCamomsxmeli qarxnebis wliuri warmadoba 2.4 miliardi tonaa, maSin roca moTxovna amis or mesameds Seadgens. sakonsultacio firma EY-s bolodroindeli analizis mixedviT, Warbi simZlavris daaxloebiT naxevari, anu weliwadSi 300-400 milioni tonis mwarmoebeli qarxnebi unda daixuros, raTa industriam mdgradi mogeba aCvenos. amave dros, araefeqturi qarxnebis daxurvis wnexi umetesad dasavleTSi SeigrZnoba. 2016 wels CineTis mTavrobam warmoebis 150 milioni toniT Semcirebis piroba dado momdevno 5 weliwadSi, Tumca jerjerobiT amis Sesrulebis niSnebi ar Cans. regionul xelisuflebas, romelic qveynis qarxnebis umetesobis subsidirebas eweva, ar surs maTi daxurva da

*Sefaseba

prognozi

wyaro: Economist Intelligence Unit

umuSevarTa rigebis zrda. rogorc Sedegi, 2016 wlis rva TveSi CineTis warmoeba 0.1%-iT Tu Semcirda, sxva qveynebma, magaliTad, italiam da belgiam gamowvevas sxvagvarad upasuxes da Riaobis magivrad saSinao industrias subsidiebi dauweses. es kidev ufro gazrdis Warbwarmoebas da Seamcirebs fasebs. kembrijis universitetis julian elvudis kvlevis mixedviT, am Warbi simZlavreebis gamoyeneba foladis sadnobad arasodes iqneba saWiro, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu globaluri moTxovna gaizrdeba. qveynebis ganviTarebis kvalobaze, isini agroveben foladis Senobebsa da gemebs yovelwliurad da TiTqmis arasodes saWiroeben 12 tonaze met folads erT sul mosaxleze. samSeneblo proeqtebisTvis axali nadnobi foladis Sesyidvis nacvlad, romelsac axali madnis mopoveba dasWirdeboda, xelaxla damuSavebuli foladi dangreuli Senobebidan da gemsaSenebidan SeiZleba iqnas gamoyenebuli. batoni elvudis azriT, momavali moTxovna foladze SesaZloa mTlianad am gziT dakmayofildes. rkinis madnidan foladis misaRebad msoflios dRevandelze meti simZlavre aRarasodes dasWirdeba. simZlavre, romelic momaval gardaqmnebs gadaurCeba, aseve ufro nakleb muSaxels moiTxovs imave raodenobis foladis sawarmoeblad. aSS-Si foladis industria Sromis mwarmoeblurobas daaxloebiT yovel 20 weliwadSi aormagebs. roboteqnikaSi progresma aseve gza gauxsna avtomatizebul foladis qarxnebs, romelic TiTqmis saerTod ar moiTxovs dasaqmebulebs. Tata Steel-is samxreT uelsis port telbotSi mdebare saglinavi saamqro, 1952 wels gaxsnis Semdeg 100 kacs asaqmebda, magram robotizebuli amweebisa da kompiuteruli kontrolis meSveobiT sul raRac 12-ze naklebi adamiani mas 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi amuSavebs. `gadasarCenad evropisa da amerikis mefoladeebs maRalteqnologiuri foladis gamoSveba dasWirdebaT manqanebisTvis, TviTmfrinavebisa da rkinigzisTvis, romelic kvlavac premiumfasebs xsnis~, – acxadebs msoflios foladis asociaciis Tavmjdomare da evropis mcirericxovani warmatebuli foladsasxmeli firmebidan erT-erTis – Voestalpine-is bosi volfgang ederi. misi erT-erTi konkurenti – ArcelorMittal msoflioSi udidesia, Tumca 2015 wels 8 miliardi aSS dolari izarala. firma imedovnebs, rom SeZlebs mdgomareobis Semobrunebas msubuqi foladis axali saxeobebis warmoebis dawyebiT 2017 wels. Tuki industria warsulSi ufro met warmoebaze iyo orientirebuli, sanacvlod amieridan amocana ukeTesi xarisxi iqneba. n

2017 mokled Amazon aSS-Si pirvel sasursaTo maRaziebis qsels xsnis, romelic mxolod misi onlainsursaTis gayidvis momxmareblebisTvis iqneba xelmisawvdomi

Carlz ridi: industriis korespondenti, The Economist


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qalebi marTvis sadaveebs euflebian lusi qelauei

Zalauflebis gadanacvleba marTvis oTaxSi

m

omavali weli korporaciul samyaroSi dakavebul qalTaTvis yvelaze niSandoblivi iqneba 1934 wlis Semdeg, roca leti peit uaiThedi Coca-Cola-s sameTvalyureo sabWos wevri da, amgvarad, umsxvilesi amerikuli korporaciis erT-erTi pirveli direqtori qali gaxda. amis Semdeg qalebma korporaciaTa sameTvalyureo sabWoebSi did warmatebebs miaRwies, Tumca maTi warmateba aRmasrulebeli direqtorebis ierarqiaSi ukiduresad neli iyo. asze meti weli gavida mas Semdeg, rac 1906 wels axalgazrda leti ojaxis 80 Camomsxmeli qarxnis marTvas Seudga. im droidan moyolebuli, menejerul Tanamdebobebze momuSave qalTa ricxvi kvlavac Zalian mcirea. 2017 wels unda elodoT, rom kompaniebi qmediT nabijebs gadadgamen gavlenian Tanamdebobebze qalTa dasasaqmeblad. gasuli ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi isini qaosurad axorcielebdnen sxvadasxva programas, romelTac qalTa dawinaurebisTvis unda Seewyo xeli. Seiqmna moqnili samuSao gegmebi, mentorobis sqemebi, Tavdajerebulobis gazrdis kursebi, privilegiebis miniWebis iniciativebi da yvela maTi nazavic ki. miuxedavad amisa, Sedegi mainc ar Canda. mraval industriaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki finansur seqtorSi, xuTi menejeridan maqsimum erTia qali, rac gacilebiT ukeTesi maCvenebelia, vidre 20 wlis win. dReidan es ufro Tanmimdevruli xdeba. arCevani SeCerdeba raodenobriv samizneebze da menejerul Tanamdebobebze qalebis kvotebiT ganawilebaze. is, rac waxalisebis gziT nela viTardeboda, swrafad ganxorcieldeba brZanebis meSveobiT. damsaqmeblebi gamoaqveyneben mkacr miznobriv maCveneblebs da gaasajaroeben Sesabamis Sedegebsac. momdevno sami, xuTi da aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi kompaniebi erTmaneTs Seecilebian gaxdnen liderebi qalebis warmatebis xelSemwyobi yvelaze daxvewili sqemebis ganxorcielebaSi. amis gakeTebas kompaniebs ori ram aiZulebs – sxva nacadi saSualebebiT progresis CavardniT gamowveul imedgacruebas Tu ar CavTvliT: pirvelia evropul qveynebSi axla ukve SeiaraRebaSi myofi korporaciul mmarTvelTa sabWoebis kvotirebis warmatebuli sistema. ufro iribad, msoflios ramden-

ime wamyvani qveynis meTauris poziciaSi qalebis danaxva korporaciul sameTvalyureo sabWoebs kidev ufro mamakacurad warmoaCens. sazogadoebrivi azris simZime sul ufro metad daawveba yvelas, vinc aseT programas ewinaaRmdegeba. 2016 wels kevin robertsi iZulebuli gaxda Saatchi & Saatchi-s meTauris posti daetovebina mas Semdeg, rac Jurnalists uTxra, rom sareklamo biznesSi muSaobisas qalebisTvis seqsizmis problema ukve aRar arsebobda. am faqtiT moxda imis demonstrireba, Tu rogor SeiZleba sul raRac wamebSi daasrulos amgvarma sityvebma kariera da aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi rudunebiT naSenebi personaluri brendi. mamakacebi amas rveulSi CainiSnaven

da Tavis Tavs gawvrTnian imaSi, araTu rogor ar Tqvan, aramed arc ki gaifiqron msgavsi ram. amis sanacvlod, yvela daijerebs gadawyvetilebis mimRebis poziciaze meti qalis yolis imperativs – miuxedavad imisa, asea maT SemTxvevaSi Tu ara. 2017 wels mamakacTaTvis yvelaze moduri saqcieli iqneba panelSi dajdomisgan Tavis Sekaveba, Tuki masSi minimum erTi qali ar aris. mTlianad mamakacebiT dakompleqtebuli sameTvalyureo sabWos marTva cudi reputaciis garantia gaxdeba. miznobrivi maCveneblebis Sesasruleblad kompaniebs qalebis ierarqi-

aSi waweva mouwevT, imis sanacvlod, rom isini wamaxalisebeli sqemebiT daaintereson. es imas niSnavs, rom qalebi, Tavdajerebulobis an survilis arqonis gamo, did Tanamdebobas ar eswrafvodnen. amis misaRwevad isini ukeT iqnebian SeiaraRebulni. aseTi qalebis marTvis pirobebSi kompaniebSi gabatonebuli marTvis stili cvlas daiwyebs. gasuli ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi bevri winaswarmetyvelebda agresiuli alfa-mamruli marTvis stilis Secvlas, Tumca es ase ar moxda. calkeul SemTxvevaSi maRal Tanamdebobebze qalebis daniSvnam situacia saerTod ver Secvala, vinaidan warmatebas isini aRwevdnen, vinc mtrul garemoSi Tavis gamoCenas axerxebda.

axali ufrosi gogonebi qali aRmasruleblebis Semdegi Taoba – isini, vinc ierarqiaSi maRla ainacvleben, gansxvavebulad marTvas daiwyebs. konsensusze ufro metad dafuZnebuli, emociurad gacilebiT inteligenturi marTva Cveulebad iqceva. am ufro naklebad yoyloCina samyaroSi didebisken swrafva da Tavis gamoCena imaze naklebad popularuli iqneba, vidre adre. heroikuli ufrosi aRmasrulebeli oficeri gverdiT gaiwevs. axali ganwyoba saswauls moaxdens mmarTvelTa asakis SecvlasTan dakavSirebiT. sakmarisi raodenobiT qalTa daniSvna mmarTvel Tanamdebobebze niSnavs imas, rom samuSao adgilebs unda daubrundnen dedebi, romlebmac profesiuli asparezi miatoves an dawinaurdnen isini, romlebmac Svilebis gazrdis gamo ukana rigebSi gadainacvles. qalTa am Taobas, romelic 50 an meti wlisaa, Sin grilze Tevzis Sesawvavad darCena aRar mouwevs da sakuTar Tavs kolejis damTavrebis Semdeg pirvelad aRmoaCens mamakacebTan konkurenciaSi. cvlileba xarjebis gareSe ar xdeba. mamakacebis uferuli jgufi cvlilebebiT waagebs. isini bednierebi ar iqnebian, magram amas versad gaaprotesteben, mamakacTa tualetebis garda. TumcaRa, savaraudod, male maT am TavSesafarsac waarTmeven. paraleluri tendenciis nawili, romlis mizania ar Seilaxos transgender personalTa uflebebi, uniseqs (genderulad neitraluri) tualetebia. calkeul universitetebSi ukve damkvidrebuli es cvlileba 2017 wels korporaciebSic gavrceldeba. maT damkvidrebasTan erTad samuSao adgilas sqesTa damaSoriSorebeli ukanaskneli fizikuri barieric moiSleba. es kargi iqneba TanasworobisTvis, TumcaRa aseve xarjiani gamodgeba. elodeT Worebis zrdas. n lusi qelauei: mesvete, Financial Times


indoeTis `fuTis~ gasaxsnelad stenli pignali, mumbai

indoeTSi liberalizaciis Sedegebi SeSfoTeba da dasiebuli TiTebic iqneba

S

henri triqsi

saudis arabeTi ­uZvirfasesi aqtivis gayidvasTan ­dakavSirebiT gadawyvetilebas miiRebs

b

rZaneba zemodan xmamaRali da gasagebia. saudis arabeTis ufliswulis moadgile muhamed bin salmanis survilia msoflios udidesi da yvelaze ZviradRirebuli sanavTobo kompania Saudi Aramco pirveladi sajaro SeTavazebis meSveobiT saerTaSoriso investorTaTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxados savaraudod, 2018 wels. 2017 wels am didi movlenis `preludia~ iseve damaintrigebeli iqneba, rogorc Tavad pirveladi sajaro SeTavazeba. Aramco-s elita yvelanairad SeewinaaRmdegeba kompaniis irgvliv arsebuli saidumloebis `sudaris Semoxsnas~. samefo ojaxis sxva wevrebi win aRudgebian yvelanair saSiSroebas xeli SeeSalos maT jibeebSi sanavTobo Semosavlebis dagrovebas. princi muhamedi winsvlas gaagrZelebs, xolo pirveladi sajaro Sefasebis sidide da buneba aCvenebs imas, Tu realurad ra Zalauflebas flobs igi. zogierTebi fiqroben, rom is ver moaxerxebs sakuTari survilis ganxor-

ekonomikisa da aseve imis gamoxatulebaa, rom aq saSualo fena yalibdeba, romelsac moswons Billy-s Taroebi da venuri skamebi. 2020 wlisTvis, savaraudod, sacalo vaWrobis brunva indoeTSi 1.2 trilion dolars miaRwevs da 5 weliwadSi TiTqmis orjer gaizrdeba – TavianT kvlevaSi iuwyebian indoeTis industriis konfederacia da Boston Consulting Group. mTavroba ucxouri investiciebisadmi gaxsnilobas xmamaRla afiqsirebs, TumcaRa sacalo vaWroba swored is sferoa, sadac induri proteqcionistuli sentimenti batonobs. ucxouri brendebi, romlebic TavianT maRaziebSi erTze met brends yidian, praqtikulad akrZalulia, riTac daculia wvril maRaziaTa mTeli legionebi, romlebsac maTTan konkurencia gauWirdebodaT. erTi brendiT movaWre maRaziis gaxsnaze nebarTvis miReba SedarebiT iolia, Tumca am SemTxvevaSic ki, mravali ucxouri firma adgilobrivTan erToblivi sawarmos Camoyalibebas arCevs, vinaidan am SemTxvevaSi metia Sansi mas ise moepyron, rogorc adgilobriv maRaziebs (magaliTad, Marks and Spencer indoeTis umdidres adamians – mukeS ambanis Seuamxanagda). indoeTSi IKEA-s bosi – iuvencio maecu acxadebs, rom saxelmwifo moxeleebi investiciebis mosazidad gzidan Camoecalnen. is imedovnebs, rom `inspeqtirebis~ kulturidan `TviTSemowmebis~ praqtikaze gadasvla, riTac biznesi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebis dacvas Tavad gaaxerxebs, maRaziaTa qselis yoveldRiur marTvas gaaadvilebs. IKEA-s kidev erTi dabrkolebis gadalaxva mouwevs – momdevno 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi mis mier gayiduli saqonlis, sul mcire, 30% indoeTis SigniT unda iyos warmoebuli. es misaRebia IKEA-sTvis, romelsac saerTaSoriso operaciebisTvis indoeTSi produqciis warmoebis didi gamocdileba aqvs, Tumca sxva firmebi aseTi iRblianebi da moqnilebi ar arian.

cielebas gayidos kompaniis 5%-iani wili da am gziT 100-150 miliardi dolari moipovos, rac Tavis mxriv, msoflios yvela drois udidesi pirveladi sajaro SeTavazeba iqneba. Rirebulebis jaWvis zeda rgolSi ganlagebuli aqtivebis (Zieba da mopoveba) gayidva damoukidebeli auditoris mier Sefasebuli rezervebis gamoqveynebas moiTxovs, rasac samefo mravali aTwleulia ewinaaRmdegeba. investorebs, romlebic fulis Cadebas iseT kompaniaSi ganizraxaven, romlis Semosavlebzec saxelmwifo TiTqmis mTlianadaa damokidebuli, cxadia safuZvliani SiSi eqnebaT, rom saxelmwifo momavali Semosavlebis mTlianad dauflebis survils gamoTqvams. maT SeaSfoTebT imis SesaZlebloba, rom saudis arabeTi Aramco-s kvlavac gamoiyenebs navTobis eqsportiori qveynebis organizaciis (OPEC) politikis instrumentad, iseve rogorc warsulSi – maSinac ki, roca es umciresi wilis mqone mepatroneTa interesebs ewinaaRmdegeba. es yvelaferi maT madas Seumcirebs da gayidva imaze nakleb Semosavals moitans, vidre princi muhamedi imedovnebs. metic – saudis arabeTi SiSobs, rom maTi rezervebis dasaufleblad mosalodnelia saCivrebi saerTaSoriso sasamarTloebSi, im SemTxvevaSi Tuki kompania ucxoeTis birJebze ganTavsdeba. am dabrkolebaTa gamo stiven hertogi (londonis ekonomikis skolidan) fiqrobs, rom pirveladi sajaro SeTavazeba Rirebulebis jaWvis qveda rgolis aqtivebiT (marketingi da distribucia) an sxva

s

abaT-kviris dilebi Senobidan gasasvlelis Ziebas, xolo SuadReebi imis garkvevas dasWirdeba, Tu rogor `jdeba~ A nawili Sesabamis B RreCoSi – indoelebs bevri ramis naxva mouwevT 2017 wels. amJamad qveyanaSi IKEA-s pirveli maRaziis mSenebloba mimdinareobs, romelic qveynis samxreTSi mdebare qalaq haidarabadis momxmareblebs kars wlis bolos gauRebs. gegmebis pirvelad warmodgenidan da maTi Taroze Semodebidan aTi wlis Tavze (induri kanonebi ucxouri firmebis maRaziebis gaxsnas zRudavda), Sveduri maRaziebis qselis bazarze Semosvla indoeTSi liberalizaciis momxre Zalebis gamarjvebis erTgvari simbolocaa. is, Tu ramdenad swrafad Semovlen qveynis bazarze sxva ucxouri brendebic, imis sazomi iqneba, Tu ramdenad Ria xdeba indoeTi narendra modis administraciis qveS. IKEA pirveli ucxouri sacalo movaWre Seiqna, romelmac Tanxmoba miiRo gaexsna maRaziebi indoeTSi 2012 wlis liberalizaciis kampaniis Semdeg. indoeTis centralur da Statebis biurokratiis labirinTebSi gzis gakvleva ioli sulac ar iyo, Tumca IKEA fiqrobs, rom man namdvilad moaxerxa „yinulis daZvra“. axla igi 2025 wlisTvis 25 maRaziis gaxsnas gegmavs, rac metia vidre britaneTsa Tu SvedeTSi – mis saSinao bazarze. es yvelaferi indoeTis, rogorc swrafad mzardis,

„saburvelis Semoxsna~

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biznesi

msoflio 2017

stenli pignali: samxreT aziis biznesisa da finansebis korespondenti, The Economist

periferiuli aqtivebiT Semoifargleba. `saudis arabeTis sanavTobo teqnokratia princ muhamedis mowinaaRmdeged ar moiazreba, Tumca misi idea yvelas sZuls. kompania Zalian kargad muSaobs da misi `naWuWidan amoyvana~ SesaZloa kontrproduqtiuli aRmoCndes~, – acxadebs igi. miuxedavad amisa, princi muhamedi gegmavs Aramco-s aqtivebis nawilobrivi privatizacia imis saCveneblad gamoiyenos, rom samefo gardaiqmneba da naklebad surs iyos navTobze damokidebuli. aseT SemTxvevaSi, ukandaxeva misi ambiciuri gegmebis marcxad aRiqmeba. mas pirveladi sajaro SeTavazebiT miRebuli Semosavlebi sainvesticio fondis Sesaqmnelad sWirdeba, riTac saudis arabeTis investiciebis arasanavTobo aqtivebSi diversifikacia gaxdeba SesaZlebeli. Tuki rezervebis auditi metismetad mgrZnobiare sakiTxia, princi muhamedi uzrunvelyofs imasac, rom rezervebi Aramco-s balansis gareT aRmoCndeba. 2017 wlisTvis erTi ram cxadia: sainvesticio bankirebi erTmaneTs zurgze gadaabijeben imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom pirveladi sajaro SeTavazeba erT-erTi yvelaze sarfiani gaxdes istoriaSi. isini Seecdebian daarwmunon ufliswulis moadgile sifrTxile `fanjridan gaisrolos~ da kompania mTlianad gayidos. Aramco-s teqnokratebi dahranidan sapirispiros wynarad urCeven. n henri triqsi: energetikis redaqtori, The Economist


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2017 mokled Otto – Uber-is mflobelobaSi myofi gadazidvis servisi TviTmavali avtomobilebiT gadaadgilebas daiwyebs. garkveuli CarTuloba adamianisa mainc saWiroa. magaliTad, manqanis gzaze da gzidan gasayvanad

SeZleben ki warmatebis miRwevas sxvebi iq, sadac IKEA win gaiWra? indoeTSi Amazon-i did investiciebs axorcielebs – miuxedavad imisa, rom kanonebi mas sakuTari sacavebidan miwodebas ukrZalavs (es firma ZiriTadad myidvelebisa da gamyidvelebis dakavSirebas uzrunvelyofs). Tavisi maRaziebis gaxsnas indoeTSi Adidas-i 2017 wels gegmavs, Tumca ar eqneba ufleba maTSi Tavisi Reebok-is brendis gayidvisa. Walmart iZulebulia mxolod naRd fulze movaWre wvrili, farTo sazogadoebisTvis daxurul qsels dasjerdes. Apple-is idea, gaexsna sakuTari maRaziebi, miwodebis dabrkolebas gadaawyda, vinaidan amJamad Tundac warmoebis umniSvnelo nawilis indoeTidan miReba SeuZlebel amocanad Cans. ufro zogadad, gasul wlebSi ganxorcielebulma reformebma saerTaSoriso bizness, sul mcire, indoeTis SesaZleblobebis gacnobisken ubiZga da daafiqra – Rirs Tu ara msoflios sididiT meore qveyanaSi fulis Cadeba. bevri seqtori, romelic induri firmebisTvis iyo dabevebuli, gaixsna ucxoelebisTvis, vinc mzadaa wvrili SriftiT naweri regulaciebis tomebs daemorCilos. aprilisTvis erTiani `saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gadasaxadi~ Secvlis Statebis individualur gadasaxadebs, romlebic qveynis SigniT biznesis warmoebisas mZafr Tavistkivils iwvevda. rogorc Sedegebi, gaizarda ucxouri investiciebi, TumcaRa ara didi raodenobiT samuSao adgilebis Semqmnel mrewvelobaSi, romlis promociisTvis batoni modi yvelaze metad gaisarja. bazarze Semosvlamde mravali kompania akvirdeba, Tu ras gaaxerxeben IKEA da sxvebi. Tuki indoeTSi saqmis keTeba dasakeci garderobis gamarTvaze rTuli ar iqneba, am qveyanaSi biznesis dawyebas sxva firmebic moindomeben. n

msubuqad mrbolebi saimon raiti

rigiT mZRolebs avtonomiuri manqanebis pirvelad marTvis Sansi miecemaT

m

saimon raiti: industriis redaqtori, The Economist

anqanis buferma SesaZloa gzis mimdebared avtonomiuri Volvo XC90 SeniSnos. sensorebi da kamerebi daadgenen, rom es im 100 sagareubno avtomobilis parkis warmomadgenelia, romelic Volvo-s mSobliur qalaq geteborgis momxmareblebs urigdebaT imis dasadgenad, Tu rogor miiRebs xalxi umZRolo avtomobilebs. moqmedebaSi manqanis naxva yvelas SeeZleba. eqsperimentisTvis gankuTvnili qalaqis erT-erT magistrals adamianebis mier marTuli manqanebi Cauqroleben, Volvo ki jiutad dauTmobs yuradRebas siCqaris zRvris SenarCunebas. Tumca, mZRolis savarZelSi mjdomi Svedi, romelsac eleqtronuli fostis gacnobisa da bavSvebisTvis yuradRebis misaqcevad kisris mobrunebis Tavisufleba eqneba, SesaZloa arad dagidevdeT imas, rom mgzavroba ramdenime wuTiT metxans grZeldeba. Volvo gegmavs msgavsi sididis parkebis ganTavsebas londonsa da CineTis ramdenime qalaqSi. marTalia, Google da msgavsi teqnologiuri da avtomwarmoebeli firmebi upiloto manqanebs ukve karga xania gamocdian sazogadoebrivi sargeblobis gzebze, magram aseTi avtomobilis gasaRebi jer aravisTvis gadauciaT. Tumca Volvo mzadaa gaigos, rogori reaqcia eqnebaT rigiT mZRolebs avtonomiur marTvasa da problemebze, rac yovelive amas axlavs. magaliTad, rogor daibrunon kontroli, roca marTvis avtonomiuri faza dasruldeba. isini, vinc imedovneben, rom daniSnulebis adgils

msoflio 2017

miayrdeniT zurgi, modundiT da isiamovneT mgzavrobiT

navigaciis sistemaSi daafiqsireben da CaTvlemen, vinaidan danarCenze Volvo izrunebs, Zalian cdebian. XC90 avtonomiurad, raSic Seneleba, aCqareba da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi zolebs Soris moZraoba igulisxmeba, geteborgSi amisTvis gankuTvnil mxolod ramdenime oTxzolian magistralze imoZravebs. mgzavrobis danarCen nawilze adamianis CarTuloba iqneba saWiro. Tu avtonomiuri reJimiT moZraobisas manqanas dabrkolebebi Sexvdeba, magaliTad, sagzao samuSaoebi, romelsac manqana damoukideblad ver gaarTmevs Tavs, mZRols kontrolis ganaxleba dasWirdeba. aseTi cvlileba sakmaod problemuria. mZRols, romelic mTlianadaa CaZiruli sxva saqmianobaSi, sakmao momzadeba dasWirdeba ortoniani liTonis mqrolav cxovelze usafrTxo kontrolis dasamyareblad. am mosazrebiT, es sistema namdvilad ver CaiTvleba did progresad mZRolis damxmare teqnologiebTan SedarebiT. es ki ukve xelmisawvdomia mravali ZviradRirebuli avtomobilis SemTxvevaSi, romelsac avtomaturad damuxruWeba da aCqareba SeuZlia. TumcaRa, es ukanaskneli mZRolisgan saWis kontrolsa da gzaze Tvalis mudmiv devnebas moiTxovs. es problema xsnis `robotaqsis~ mimarT mzard interess. eseni gaxlavT manqanebi samarTavi saWisa da saterfulebis gareSe, romlebsac qalaqis gadatvirTul gzebze gadaadgileba SeuZliaT. ZviradRirebuli adamianuri komponentis gamokleba am manqanebs aSkarad aniWebs mimzidvelobas, biznesis kuTxiT. Ford-i acxadebs, rom igi masobrivi bazris versias 2021 wlisTvis daamzadebs. umZRolo gadaadgilebis giganti enTuziasti Uber-i Tavis serviss pitsburgSi Fordis salonisa da Tavisi programirebis kombinaciiT gegmavs. singapuri qalaqis garkveul nawils Renaults-sa da Mitsubishi-s adaptirebul robotaqsebs dauTmobs. GM umZRolo mgzavrobis kidev erT moTamaSes – Lyft-s analogiuri gegmebiT Seuamxanagdeba. teqnologiuri firmebi da avtomobilebis mwarmoeblebic muSaoben avtonomiur manqanebze biznesisa da siamovnebisTvis, maTi umetesoba ki momdevno xuTi wlis manZilze miRweulis demonstrirebas imedovnebs. amgvarad, rbola mimdinareobs, Tumca dabrkolebebic bevria. sirTuleebi TiTqmis yovel kviras Cndeba. magaliTad, Sveduri kanoni manqanas gaCerebas sTxovs, Tuki sagzao policieli xels awevs. marTalia Volvo-s sensorebs SeuZliaT xelis amocnoba, magram isini ver daadgenen vis ekuTvnis es xeli – policiels Tu avtomobilis gamtacebels. gadasaxvevebi rTuli sakiTxia – gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca qveynebs erTmaneTisgan odnav gansxvavebuli SuqniSnebis sistemebi aqvT. amgvarad, ucnobia, nebadarTuli iqneba Tu ara aqseleraciis mateba, romelic daZlevs siCqaris limits, magram umZRolo manqanas xifaTs gaaridebs. siCqaris limitis dacva umZRolo manqanis kidev erTi `muxruWia~. n


srulyofa varjiSis gziT vijai vaiTisvarani, Sanxai

CineTSi mCqefare biznesideebi daibadeba

C

ineTSi 1917 wels menejmentis pirveli kursi Sanxais fudanis universitetSi SemoiRes. im droisTvis CineTis aRmosavleTi msoflios erT-erT yvelaze globalizebul komerciul centrad miiCneoda, sadac mewarmeoba iyo ayvavebuli. TumcaRa omma da maoizmma Cinuri ganaTlebis sistema ganadgurebuli datova. mas Semdeg, rac kapitalizmi aikrZala, menejmentis swavlebas azri aRar hqonda. 1990-iani wlebis Semdeg, anu mas mere, rac CineTSi menejmentis ganaTleba dabrunda, mravals gauCnda fantazia sarfian bazarze, sadac milionobiT adamians moamzadebdnen. realurad, CineTSi yovelwliurad mxolod 50 000 adamiani amTavrebs universitets biznesis administrirebis magistris xarisxiT, rac amerikis maCveneblis naxevarze naklebia. metic – miuxedavad imisa, rom qveynis kontinentur nawilSi biznesskolebis swavlebis xarisxi gaumjobesda, umetesobas kvlavac aklia akademiuri ambicia. den sio pinis reformebis Semdeg CineTSi sabazro ekonomikis dabrunebam mravali momWirne inovatori warmoSva telekomunikaciebis aRWurvilobis globaluri lideris – Huawei-sa da sayofacxovrebo eleqtronikis mwarmoebel Haier-is saxiT. `miuxedavad amisa, es saocari fenomeni CineTSi seriozuli akademiuri kvlevis sagani unda gaxdes~, – aRniSnavs lu siongveni – fudanis universitetis menejmentis skolis dekani. `dRevandeli kvleva, – ambobs igi, – mxolod ucxouri codnis CineTis realobasTan morgebaze da ara inovaciur muSaobazea orientirebuli~. amave dros, CineTis menejmentis Sesaxeb akademiuri kvlevis meti wili qveynis gareT warmoebs. es movlena nawilobriv fulis naklebobiT aixsneba. sian bini – pekinis Cen kongis biznesskolis dekani, dabejiTebiT aRniSnavs, rom CineTis biznesskolebma kvlevaSi didi fuli unda Cadon maTi msoflios saukeTeso publikaciebSi gamosaqveyneblad. `Tu Cven amas ar gavakeTebT, mudmivad aslis gadamRebis rolSi davrCebiT~, – acxadebs igi. amave dros, bevri Cinuri universiteti menejmentis skolebs `mewvel Zroxebad~ aRiqvams, saidanac wamosuli fuliT sxva departamentebis subsidireba unda xdebodes. kidev erTi problema lokalurobaa. dasavluri marTvis ganaTleba sazRvrebs ar cnobs da mravali Cinuri kompania gadaiqca globalurad, magram biznesskolaTa umetesoba sakuTari qveynis gareT ar iyureba. klasebSi swavleba TiTqmis mTlianad Cinur enaze mimdinareobs – miuxedavad imisa, rom inglisuri globaluri biznesis enis statusiT sargeblobs.

vis sWirdeba biznesskolebi? kargi siaxle isaa, rom Cineli mewarmeebi xelaxla igoneben bizness – miuxedavad imisa, rom misi eqspertebi procesebs CamorCebian. sacalo vaWrobiT dawyebuli, `Wkviani mrewvelobiT~ damTavrebuli, kerZo seqtoris warmomadgenlebi menejeruli inovaciebis, biznesmodelebisa da momxmarebelTa momsaxurebis globalur liderebad gvevlinebian. globaluri eleqtronuli komerciis lideri Alibaba gadaxdis sistemebSi droebiTi angariSis gamoyenebis teqnologiis pioneri gaxda, rac eWvian Cinel momxmareblebs onlainmovaWreTa ndobisken ubiZgebs. Tencent-is mier Seqmnili onlainsaTamaSo biznesi WeChat

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gzavnilebisa da gadaxdebis msoflioSi yvelaze dawinaurebuli platformaa. silikonis velis favoritebs, magaliTad, Facebook Messenger-sa da WhatsApp-s misi liderobisTvis fexis awyoba uWirT. Cinuri firmebis inovaciebi kidev ufro Sors midis: edvard ce Cinuri sakonsultacio firma Gao Fengidan acxadebs, rom amJamad Cinuri kompaniebi uaryofen dasavluri biznesis kredos ZiriTadi kompetenciis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmadac firmebi mxolod TavianTi umTavresi saqmianobis irgvliv unda iyvnen koncentrirebulni. sanacvlod, dawinaurebuli adgilobrivi firmebi gzas ikvalaven iseTi mimarTulebiT, romelsac pirobiTad `mravaljeradi naxtomi~ SeiZleba ewodos. Wanxiang-ma warmatebas miaRwia manqanis nawilebis gamoSvebis gziT. amis Semdeg igi eleqtroavtomobilebis warmoebaze gadaerTo, amJamad ki internetfinansebSi axdens investirebas. Baidu-m internetZebnis meqanizmad daiwyo saqmianoba, Semdeg `onlain-oflain~ aplikaciebis gamoSvebiT dakavda, xolo axla xelovnur inteleqtSi abandebs fuls da avtonomiuri manqanebis gamoSvebiTaa dakavebuli. mravali sxva Cinuri komania `xteba~ erTi seqtoridan meoreSi. batoni ce darwmunebulia, rom es araa mxolod `imperiis Seqmnis~ uazro mcdeloba. CineTi msoflios zrdis, uzarmazari bazrisa da swrafi teqnologiuri ganviTarebis unikalur kombinacias sTavazobs, romelic warmodgenilia moqnili firmebiT da mzadaa

2017 mokled Amazon-is damfuZneblis — jef bezosis mier dafuZnebuli aerokosmosuri firma Blue Origin orbitalur sivrceSi pirvel pilotirebul gafrenas ganaxorcielebs

`mravaljeradi xtomebis~ Cempionebi

gamoiyenos yvela SesaZlebloba, moipovos masiuri mogeba uzarmazar axal bazrebze gadarTviT. `mravaljeradi naxtomis warmatebuli praqtikis damkvidreba bolo 30 wlis manZilze globaluri menejmentis yvelaze didi movlenaa da misi STagonebis wyaro CineTia~, – acxadebs batoni ce. jou lini – Sanxais jiatonis universitetis biznesskolis dekani, skeptikur ganwyobazea. igi acxadebs, rom naqebi firmebi, Xiaomi-s darad (romelic erT dros smartfonis mwarmoebeli da enTuziasti `mravaljeradi mxtomeli~ iyo), umeteswilad dabal fasebsa da xmaurian marketings eyrdnobian da, amgvarad, aramyari biznesmodelebi aqvT. is aseve fiqrobs, rom bevri ram, rac Cinur bizness miewereba, magaliTad, Baidu-s madisaRmZvreli axali investiciebi, saxelmwifos daxmarebis gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneboda. dava aCvenebs, rom globaluri ararelevanturobis aTwleulebis Semdeg CineTi guldagul yuradRebas miipyrobs. legendaruli amerikeli menejmentmoazrovne piter drakeri fiqrobda, rom momavalSi didi menejeruli ideebi CineTis `SemoqmedebiT qvabSi daduRdeboda~. kontinentur CineTSi menejmentis formaluri ganaTlebis dawyebidan asi wlisTavi namdvilad aRsaniSnavi movlenaa, TumcaRa, rogorc Cans, didi gurus nawinaswarmetyvelebi inovaciebi xarjebis optimizaciaze CineTis `dageSili~ biznesidan ufro metad wamova, vidre misi menejmentskolebis auditoriebidan. n

vijai vaiTisvarani: CineTis redaqtori da Sanxais biuros ufrosi, The Economist


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grZelvadiani xedviT

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orporaciuli amerikis Sedegebi naklebad STambeWdavia. yovel SemTxvevaSi, erT mniSvnelovan sazomTan dakavSirebiT. 2016 wlis ivnisamde eqvsi kvartlidan xuTSi S&P 500-is kompaniebis aqciaTa gamosyidvisa da dividendebis Rirebulebam gaunawilebeli mogebis Rirebulebas gadaaWarba. 2009 wlis 60%-Tan SedarebiT, dividendebisa da gamosyidvaTa fardoba uCveulod gaizarda da 100%-s gadaaWarba 2015 wlis dasawyisSi, xolo 2016 wlis pirvel kvartalSi fantastikur 131%-s miaRwia. Tuki warmoidgenT, rom S&P 500 erTi kompaniaa, gamova, rom am kompaniam zrda 2015 wlidan Sewyvita da 2016 wlis pirvel sam TveSi TiTqmis mesamediT Semcirda. marTalia, FTSE 100 sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT gaemarTa, magram masSic msgavsi tendencia SeiniSneba. dividendis fardobam wminda mogebasTan 2011 wlis 40%-dan 2016 wels 70%-s gadaWarba. am konteqstSi gasakviri araa, rom korporaciuli investiciebis mSp-sTan fardoba klebas ganagrZobs. biznesebi TavianT operaciebSi investirebas aqcionerebisTvis Tanxebis dabrunebas amjobineben. amave dros, sainvesticio naRdi fulis deficiti ar arsebobs. msoflioSi kompaniebis balansebze arsebuli naRdi fuli 7 trilion aSS dolars aWarbebs da es korporaciuli inercia 2017 wels da Semdegac, savaraudod ,kidev gagrZeldeba. ratom ar surT firmebs xarjva? Lehman Brothers-is kolafsma da Semdgomma movlenebma korporaciul fsiqikas didi daRi daaCnia. aman fundamenturad Secvala aRmasrulebel oficerTa mTeli Taobis damokidebuleba riskTan. gasuli rva weli dabali inflaciis, fasebis dabali stimulebisa da dabali zrdis epoqa iyo. sirTuleebi yvela SesaZlo mimarTulebidan modioda – teqnologiuri startapebiT dawyebuli, aqtivisti investorebis CaTvliT da nulovani baziT biujetirebis mesveurTa CaTvliT. aSS-Si aRmasrulebeli oficris Tanamdebobaze yofnis saSualo vada 6-7 welia. amas ufrosi finansuri oficris 5-6 da ufrosi marketingis oficris sul raRac 2-3 weli emateba. amave dros, geopolitikuri riskebic TvalsaCinoa da `ruxi gedebis~ (cnobili ucnobebis) mTeli gundia horizontze, rac Tavdajerebulobas amcirebs. amaSi moiazreba populizmis globaluri aRzeveba, rasac instituciebisa da korporaciebis udidesi undoblobac axlavs. gadauWreli konfliqtebi ukrainasa da axlo aRmosavleTSi, migrantTa krizisi, terorizmi, didi ekonomikebis, maT Soris, braziliisa da CineTis ganviTarebis Seneleba, amerikisa da evropis fiskaluri deficitis problemebi da raodenobrivi Serbilebis politikisa da dabali saprocento ganakveTebis gardauvali Sebruneba biznesliderebs aseve mZime fiqrs aRuZravs. bizness namdvilad ar sWirdeboda kidev erTi mizezi investiciebis gadasadebad an gasauqmeblad, roca breqsiti moxda. misi Sedegebi srulad mxolod ramdenime wlis Semdeg gamoCndeba. `ganqorwineba~ aTwleulis udides

nawils waiRebs. savaraudod, misi Sedegi britaneTis, evropisa da albaT globaluri zrdis Seneleba iqneba. da es yovelive maSin, roca potenciuri damoukideblobis `dominos~ TamaSi jerac ar dawyebula da ganaxlebulia Sotlandiis mier britaneTis datovebis Sesaxeb saubari, aseve evrokavSiris potenciuri dezintegracia. wnexis `koqteili~ xangrZlivvadian strategiul gaTvlas namdvilad ar exmareba da finansuri sferos muSakTa gadaWarbebuli Caciklva kvartalur Sedegebze saqmes namdvilad ar waadgeba. erT-erTi gamokiTxvis Sedegebis mixedviT, aRmasrulebel direqtorTa TiTqmis 80% aRiarebs, rom `miiRebs zomebs kvartaluri mogebis gasazrdelad, Tundac grZelvadiani momgebianobis sazianod~. aseT garemoSi Sesyidvebisa da finansebis departamentebi (da ara zrdis uzrunvelmyofi marketingis kvlevisa da sacdel-sakonstruqtoro samuSaoTa departamentebi) Zalauflebas floben. sameTvalyureo sabWoebSi riskis Tavidan acileba da msoflios korporaciaTa moklevadiani xedvebi dominirebs. aseTi ganwyoba savsebiT gasagebia, Tumca sruliad mcdaric. gaTvlili riskis aReba investiciebis saxiT im nebismieri biznesis sicocxlis wyaroa, visac grZelvadiani warmateba surs. es gansakuTrebiT samarTliania brendebSi, rogorc kompaniebis yvelaze Zvirfas aqtivebSi investirebis ganxilvisas. Tu bolo aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi msoflios aT yvelaze ZviradRirebul brends (Millward Brown-is yovelwliuri BrandZ-is kvlevis mixedviT) aqciaTa portfelis saxiT ganvixilavT, aRmoCndeba, rom aseTi investicia S&P500-is indeqss TiTqmis 75%-iT da MSCI WORLD indeqss 400%-ze metiT ajobebs.

`riskis Tavidan arideba korporaciul samyaros asustebs~, — acxadebs ser martin soreli — WPP-is damfuZnebeli da ufrosi aRmasrulebeli oficeri

pirvelyofili instinqtebis ZiebaSi 2017 wels kompaniebis dramatul gardaqmnas ar veli, magram aris Sansi, rom ukeTesobisken cvlilebis mowmeni SeviqnebiT. Zalmosili institutebi, BlackRock-is, Legal & General-isa da britaneTis mTavrobis CaTvliT, gansxvavebuli midgomis warmoCenas cdiloben. midgomisa, romelic zrdaSi investirebas efuZneba da ara xarjebis Sekvecas kvartaluri prognozebis Sesasruleblad. grZelvadian periodze kapitalis fokusirebad wodebuli, McKinsey-sa da kanadis sapensio gegmis sainvesticio sabWos 2013 wlis iniciativa 2017 wels Zalas moikrebs. ivlisSi misi pirveli ufrosi aRmasrulebeli oficeri dainiSna, romelic gauZRveba sabWos globalur arasamTavrobo organizaciad gardaqmnis process. organizacia ki, Tavis mxriv, biznessa da investiciebSi grZelvadiani midgomebis waxalisebiT dakavdeba. amis msgavsi proeqtebi SesaZloa pirveli nabiji aRmoCndes im pirvelyofili instinqtebis xelaxla aRmosaCenad, romelTa naklebobac ase mwvaved igrZnoba krizisis Semdgom periodSi. msoflio ekonomikis grZelvadiani sijansaRe amazea damokidebuli. n

bizness namdvilad ar sWirdeboda kidev erTi mizezi investiciebis gadasadebad an gasauqmeblad maSin, roca breqsiti moxda


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msoflio 2017 amave seqciaSi: blokCeini realuri xdeba gamWvirvaloba fraivesis sapirispirod ubralod, SesaZlebelia.... breqsiti da qalaqi

kapitalis nakadebi da migracia areul-dareuli ekonomika rei dalio: miniSnebebi investorTaTvis

finansebi

bazrebi politikosTa wyalobis imedad filip kogani

investorebs cali Tvali centralur bankebze, meore ki politikaze unda eWiroT

2

magram dasaqmebulebs raRa? aSS-is korporaciuli mogeba gadasaxadebis Semdeg, rogorc mSp-s %

recesia wyaro: sent luisis federaluri sarezervo banki

2017 mokled EURIBOR-is sabazo saprocento ganakveTis manipulirebaSi braldebuli eqvsi treideris sasamarTlo londonSi seqtemberSi daiwyeba

s

017 wels investorTaTvis erT-erTi umTavresi problema kvlavac politikuri gaurkvevloba iqneba. maT unda gaiTvaliswinon amerikis axali administraciis `xuSturebi~ da is, Tu ra zegavlenas moaxdens breqsiti bazrebze. britaneTs gadawyvetili aqvs martSi aamoqmedos 50-e muxli, romelic evrokavSiris datovebis meqanizms aregulirebs. amis Semdeg SesaZlebelia molaparakebaTa dawyeba, magram process gaarTulebs safrangeTis prezidentis april-maisisa da, savaraudod, germaniis seqtembris saparlamento arCevnebi. safrangeTSi marin le penisa da germaniis memarjvene AFD (`alternativa germaniisTvis~) partiis SesaZlo warmateba am orive qveyanaSi politikas marjvniv waanacvlebs da ufro nacionalistur da naklebad saTanamSromlo ganwyobas Seqmnis. SekiTxva isaa, Tu ramdenad aisaxeba es ganwyobileba praqtikul politikaze, waawydebian Tu ara investorebi kapitalis nakadebze kontrolsa da maRal gadasaxadebs, Tu orives erTad. bazrebi gadaitanen, Tuki transwynarokeanuri partniorobisa da transatlantikuri vaWrobisa da sainvesticio partniorobis SeTanxmebebi ar ganxorcieldeba. eseni kapitalis gadaadgilebisa da vaWrobis ganviTarebas emsaxureba. amave dros, bazrebs didi SiSis gadatana mouwevT, Tu aSS-is momavali prezidenti donald trampi qveyanas arsebul savaWro SeTanxmebebs daatovebinebs. centraluri bankebi aseve investorTa fokusSi darCeba – ara mxolod imitom, rom batoni trampi federaluri sarezervo sistemis saqmianobis gadaxedvas apirebs. marTalia, am ukanasknelma gaamkacra mon-

etaruli politika, magram amas `SeCereba-ganaxlebis~ reJimSi akeTebs, rac bazrebze did dabneulobas iwvevs. jerjerobiT arc federaluri sarezervo sistemisTvis da arc bazrebisTvisaa cnobili, ramdenad CamorCeba finansuri krizisis Semdgomi aSS-is grZelvadiani ekonomikuri zrdis tempi krizisamdel analogs. amis codna mniSvnelovania, vinaidan swored am gziT dgindeba ekonomikuri zrdis tempi, romelic inflaciur wnexs Seqmnis da monetaruli politikis gamkacrebas moiTxovs. danarCen msoflioSi mimdinare procesebze dakvirvebis Semdeg (evros zona, iaponia, britaneTi), ekonomistebi miiCneven, rom centralur bankebs msubuqi monetaruli politikis SenarCuneba dasWirdebaT. argumenti, rom ekonomikebi mavne zegavlenas ganicdian, raSic iaponiisa da evropis konteqstSi egreT wodebuli `sekularuli stagnaciis~ argumenti, sadac gauaresebuli demografiuli mdgomareobiTa da mdore produqtiulobis zrdiT ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvis miyenebuli Seuqcevadi ziani moiazreba, ufro damajerebelia, vidre aSS-is SemTxvevaSi. es kidev ufro zrdis imis albaTobas, rom istoriulad dabali saprocento ganakveTebi da obligaciebze uaryofiTi ukugeba garkveuli droiT mainc SenarCundeba. ukugebis dabali maCveneblebi nawilobriv imiTacaa ganpirobebuli, rom sapensio fondebi da sadazRvevo kompaniebi aseTi fasiani qaRaldebis `iZulebiTi Semsyidvelebis~ rolSi gvevlinebian, vinaidan maTTvis dawesebulebuli maregulirebeli moTxovnebis gamo, maT TavianTi valdebulebebis sapirwoned swored aseTi aqtivebi unda iqonion. amis sapirispirod, sxva tipis fondebis menejerebi SesaZloa darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom aqciebi aqtivTa is erTaderTi klasia, romelsac sakmarisi mogebis uzrunvelyofa SeuZlia, rac arsebiTad egreT wodebuli

filip kogani: `amerikuli Wadris~ mesvete, The Economist


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finansebi

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jaWvuri reaqcia endriu palmeri

blokCeiniT aRtacebis realobad gadasaqcevad

g

ana arsebobs problema, romlis gadawyveta blokCeinSi ar Zevs? kriptovaluta bitkoinis am sayrdenma teqnologiam bolo ori wlis manZilze bankebis, biznesis, investorTa da regulatorTa xmamaRali qeba daimsaxura. magram 2017 is weli iqneba, roca blokCeinis SesaZleblobebs realur samyaroSi saTanadod gamocdian. upirvelesad, modi blokCeinis raobis reziumireba vcadoT. blokCeini `ganawilebuli mTavari rveulia~ da warmoadgens tranzaqciebis iseT onlainaRricxvas, romelic gaziarebuli da auTentificirebulia kriptografiuli nabijebis seriebis meSveobiT. Tu es mosawyenad geCvenebaT, namdvilad SecdiT. sando reestrs gaaCnia potenciali, gamoricxos TaRliToba aqtivis realuri mflobelis gadamowmebiT – iqneba es kriptovalutis grova, Tu miwis nakveTi. amas xarjebis Semcirebis uzarmazari potenciali aqvs. raRa azri eqneba droisa da fulis xarjvas, mesakuTreTa veeberTela monacemTa bazebis meSveobiT gadamowmebas, maSin roca es programis erT sajaro versias SeuZlia? imis gamo, rom mas SesaZloa Casmuli instruqciebi hqondes, blokCeini kars uRebs `Wkvian kontraqtebs~, romelTa ganxorcieleba avtomaturad SeiZleba `asokirkita~ adamianebis Caurevlad. aman aRtaceba bevrs mohgvara. warmoidgineT klinikuri samedicino cdebi, romelTa Sedegebi blokCeinis meSveobiT SegviZlia SevinaxoT, ise rom farmacev-

tul kompaniebs aRar SeeZlebaT maTze SerCeviTi da subieqturi angariSgeba. aseve blokCeinze damyarebuli xmis micemis sistemebi, romlebic dazRveulia saarCevno gayalbebisgan, an eleqtronuli komerciuli tranzaqciebi, romlebic daprogramebulia momxmareblis mier anazRaurebis gacemaze mxolod mas Semdeg, rac paketi daniSnulebas dadasturebuli miaRwevs. 2017 wels mTavrobebi am axali teqnologiebiT frTxil eqsperimentirebas gaagrZeleben. avstralia da ruseTi amuSaveben gegmebs am programis saarCevno sistemebSi gamosacdelad. britaneTSi gadaxedaven winaaRmdegobriv sapilote programas, romelic blokCeins gadaricxvebisTvis socialuri dax-

s

`ualternativo arCevanis~ midgomaa. amerikuli aqciebis reputacias didi gamocda indoeTis elis, vinaidan gaaCnia imas, Tu rogor aRdgeba mogesafosto bebis dinamika 2016 wlis susti startis Semdeg, roca gadaxdebis banki S&P 500 kompaniebis meore kvartlis mogeba daaxloeseqtemberSi biT 3.6%-iT Semcirda wina wlis imave periodTan SemTeli qveynis darebiT, xolo mesame kvartlisTvis misi kidev 1%-iT masStabiT 650 Semcireba ivaraudeba. klebis nawili, erTi mxriv, navfilialiTa da 5000 bankomatiT Tobze fasebis didi vardniT aixsneba, ramac energebiznesoperaciebs tikuli gigantebis mogebaze imoqmeda, xolo, meore daiwyebs mxriv – Zlieri dolariT, ramac mravalerovnuli kompaniebis ucxoeTSi arsebuli aqtivebis mogebis dolaris ekvivalenti Rirebuleba Seamcira. 2017 wels SesaZloa es faqtorebi gaifantos, Tumca bevri ram imazea damokidebuli, Tu ramdenad swrafad aswevs saprocento ganakveTebs federaluri sarezervo sistema.

2017 mokled

mogebis politika mogeba mniSvnelovania sxva Rrma azriTac: rogorc mSp-s wili, igi Zalian swrafad aRdga 2009 wlis recesiis Semdeg da kvlav maRal niSnulze rCeba istoriuli TvalsazrisiT (ix. diagrama wina gverdze). es nawilobriv xsnis imas, Tu ratom iyo aqciaTa bazrebis Sedegebi aseTi STambeWdavi 2008-2009 wlebis Semdgomi dune ekonomikuri zrdis miuxedavad (da zrdis mZime

marebis beneficiarTaTvis iyenebs da Semdeg adgens, Tu raze daxarjes maT saxelmwifosgan miRebuli fuli. miuxedavad amisa, realuri moqmedeba mainc safinanso servisebSia mosalodneli. sakonsultacio kompania Oliver Wyman aRniSnavs, rom bankebi wliurad 200 miliards xarjaven mxolod sainformacio teqnologiebze da TavianTi kapitalis bazrebis biznesservisebis anazRaurebaze. seqtorSi, romelsac valdebulebebis dafarva uWirs, blokCeini SesaZloa msuye danazogebis wyaro aRmoCndes. msoflio ekonomikuri forumis ukanaskneli angariSis mixedviT, 2017 wels bankebis 80% blokCeinTan dakavSirebuli proeqtebis ganxorcielebas daiwyebs. zogi ukve sakmaod dawinaurebulia. udidesi blokCeinis konsorciumi r3 cev, romlis wevrebi JPMorgan Chase da Citigroup arian, qmnian platformas, romelsac momdevno wels finansuri tranzaqciebi daefuZneba. iaponuri bankebi amerikul startap Ripple-Tan TanamSromloben reestris Seqmnaze, romlebic gadaricxvebs daamuSavebs, 2017 wels gasaSvebad. didi bankebis kidev erTi klasteri, romelic UBS da Deutsche Bank-s moicavs, gamalebiT muSaobs kriptomonetaze, romelic maT Soris tranzaqciebis ufro swrafad damuSavebaze imuSavebs da romlis gadacvla centralur bankebSi arsebul fizikur valutazec SeiZleba. bankis saoperacio ganyofileba sulac araa is adgili, sadac momavals unda vWvretdeT, Tumca blokCeinis industriuli gamoyenebis sacdeli sadguri swored finansebia. Tu 2017 weli met-naklebad kargad Caivlis, aRfrTovaneba reestris Taobaze odnav naklebad utopiuri gamoCndeba. n endriu palmeri: biznesurTierTobaTa redaqtori, The Economist

prognozis fonze, rasac obligaciebis dabali ukugeba moaswavebs). magram investorTaTvis maRali wilis Sedegi mSp-Si momuSaveTa dabali wilia, radganac kompaniebma saxelfaso xarjebi dabal niSnulze SeinarCunes. swored amitom, realuri xelfasebis xelSesaxebi zrdis ararseboba ganviTarebul samyaroSi arsebuli politikuri ukmayofilebis erT-erTi mTavari mizezia. es imas miuTiTebs, rom investorebi SesaZloa xelfexSekruli aRmoCndnen. iseTi zrda realuri xelfasebisa, rac politikur riskebs Seamcirebda, aucileblad unda aisaxos mogebaze da aqedan gamomdinare aqciebis fasebze. ra Tqma unda, wris kvadraturis amocanis gadaWra SesaZlebelia iseT samyaroSi, sadac ekonomikuri zrda krizisis winandel niSnuls ubrundeba, xolo xelfasebi da mogeba amis paralelurad izrdeba. magram aseTi scenaris gamarTlebis SemTxvevaSi, centralur bankebs monetaruli stimulirebis paketebis gauqmeba mouwevT, rac Tavis mxriv, safondo bazrebis Rirebulebis Sefasebebsac daasvams daRs. Sedegad, 2017 is morigi weli iqneba, roca fasiani qaRaldebis bazrebis Sedegebi „waiforxilebs“. cudi ambebis ararsebobis pirobebSi, investorebs aqciaTa Sesyidvis cduneba mudam uCndebaT. cudi ambebi politikuri riskebis saxiT, daRmavali mogeba da monetaruli politikis cvlilebebi SesaZloa sulac ar iyos Sors. n


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metismeti sinaTle? meTiu valensia

gamwvavdeba dava imaze, uTxris Tu ara Zirs finansur danaSaulTan brZola fraivesis koncefcias

S

esaZloa sinaTle yvelaze kargi dezinfeqtantia, magram personalur finansebSi mis SeRwevas namdvilad unda edos raime zRvari. ratom unda icodes karis mezobelma Tqveni sabanko angariSi, an is, Tu ras inaxavT Tqveni SvilebisTvis? 2017 wels gamwvavdeba kamaTi imaze, Tu sad unda gaivlos Sesabamisi zRvari, radganac Zalas ikrebs gamWvirvalobis iniciativebi, romelTa mizani gadasaxadis dammalavTa da mudmiv finansur problemebSi myofTa gamovlenaa. gaxSirdeba Civili saxelmwifos mier uflebamosilebis gadametebaze, ise rogorc SeSfoTeba imaze, rom SesaZloa finansuri monacemebi maT xelSi aRmoCndes, vinc amiT borotad isargeblebs. globaluri safinanso krizisis Semdeg saxelmwifoTa mTavrobebma mosaxleobis gaRizianebas mkacri safinanso politikiT da im mosazrebas, rom mdidrebi fuls araferSi ixdidnen, finansuri saidumloebis targetirebiT upasuxes. process saTaveSi aSS Caudga, sadac miiRes kanoni ucxouri finansuri kompaniebis mier TavianTi klientebis Sesaxeb informaciis savaldebulo deklarirebis Sesaxeb, risi Seusrulebloba mkacri jarimebiT isjeba. 100-ze meti qveyana SeuerTda egreT wodebul angariSgebis saerTo standarts (crs), romelic 2017 wlidan maTgan angariSis mflobel ucxoelebze informaciis regularul da sistematur gacvlas moiTxovs. maCanCala bahamis kunZulebi da arabTa gaerTianebuli saamiroebi iZulebulni gaxdebian droTa ganmavlobaSi sxvebs daewion. amave dros, izrdeba SeSfoTeba imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom mTavrobebma `qanqaras~ Zalian Sors gadaxris saSualeba misces, rac usafrTxoebiT iyo motivirebuli, amiT ki fraivesis legitimuri ufleba Seilaxa. angariSgebis saerTo standarti amerikuli modelis aslia, Tumca ufro Sors midis, moiTxovs ra ara mxolod sagadasaxado miznebisTvis relevanturi, aramed sxva informaciis gacvlasac. am midgomam, romelic saWiroze gacilebiT Rrmad SeiWra safinanso seqtoris funqcionirebis meqanizmSi, calkeuli eqspertebis antagonizmi gamoiwvia. isini samarTlianad svamen kiTxvas, Tu ratomaa mTavroba damrRvevi, roca personaluri smartfonebidan moiTxovs informacias, da keTili gmiri maSin, roca personalur finansur urTierTobebSi ereva? marTalia, telefonebis gamoyeneba dasabegri mogebis damalvisTvis yovelTvis ver gamodgeba, magram maTi gamoyeneba mravalgvari Crdilovani saqmianobisTvis Tavisuflad SeiZleba. male, savaraudod, crs sasamarTlo davis obieqtic gaxdeba. gamoricxuli araa, davam evropis sasamarTloSi gadainacvlos, vinaidan oponentebi miiCneven, rom monacemTa gacvlis standarti ewinaaRmdegeba adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-8 muxls, romelic nebadarTulad kerZo pirTa cxovrebaSi Carevas mxolod SesaZlo darRvevis proporciulad miiCnevs.

vaWroba sibneleSi amasTan dakavSirebuli problema monacemTa usafrTxoebaa. imis kvalobaze, rac sagadasaxado uwyebebi ufro met monacems mimocvlian, sul ufro izrdeba

gaauqmeT isini, Torem giCivlebT!

gacvlili personaluri informaciis hakerobis riski egreT wodebuli `Savi qselis~ gafarToebis gamo. Tu bankebs monacemebis dacva uWirT, ise rogorc es swift qselebidan Cans, risi imedi SeiZleba hqondeT dafinansebis naklebobiT SeWirvebul da komprometirebisTvis mowyvlad saxelmwifo saagentoebs? zog qveyanaSi sagadasaxado saagentoebis dasaqmebulebs SesaZloa monacemebis gayidvis cduneba gauCndeT, an SesaZlebelia maTma bosebma sensitiuri informacia zemdgom saxelmwifo struqturebs gadascen, rasac SesaZloa korufciis sawinaaRmdego saqmianobaSi CarTuli an saqvelmoqmedo fondebis mier dafinansebuli lgbt uflebaTa damcvelebis Seviwroeba moyves (es ukanasknelni SesaZloa `finansuri institutebis~ kategoriaSi moxvdnen, crs-is mixedviT). samarTlebrivi dava aqac mosalodnelia. informaciis masobrivi gacvlis mowinaaRmdegeebs monacemTa damcveli struqturebi umagreben zurgs, romlebmac aseve gamoxates TavianTi SeSfoTeba. evrokomisiis mier Seqmnilma eqspertTa jgufma, romelsac crsganxorcielebaze dakvirveba evaleboda, daaskvna, rom mniSvnelovanwilad es im evropul regulacias hgavs, romelic evropis sasamarTlom ukanonod gamoacxada. `savaraudod, es monacemTa gaJonvis udidesi SemTxvevaa edvard snoudenis Semdeg~, – acxadebs erTi-erTi fondis menejeri. gamoricxuli araa sxva dapirispirebanic. erTi mxriv, sagadasaxado TaRliTobaze koncentrirebuli, xolo, meore mxriv, tlanqi meqanizmebiT isedac Raribi qveynebis moqalaqeTa mier simdidris dagrovebis uneburad xelSemSleli saxelmwifoebi kompaniaTa mflobelebis sajaro reestrebis Seqmnis SesaZleblobas ganixilaven. magaliTad, britaneTma es ukve gaakeTa. dava sabolood gadaWrili araa. oponentebi miiCneven, rom Ria reestrebze dayrdnobam, rac msgavsi servisebis `korporaciuli momsaxurebis momwodeblebis~ fasian momsaxurebas Caanacvlebs, saqme SeiZleba gaafuWos kidec, Tuki reestrebis monacemebis saTanado monitoringi ar ganxorcieldeba, xolo cru deklaraciebisTvis sakmarisad mkacri sajarimo sanqciebi ar dawesdeba. sabolood, sadavo kvlavac bevri rCeba. svla ufro meti safinanso Riaobisken mzardi sajaro mxardaWeriT sargeblobs, radganac maqinatorebTan brZolis efeqtur saSualebad miiCneva. miuxedavad amisa, garkveuli wreebi SeSfoTebulni arian, rom fundamenturi uflebebi da piradi usafrTxoeba ormxriv cecxlSi eqceva. momdevno wels gamoCndeba, Tu ramdenad SeZleben isini TavianTi xma ufro ukeT gaagonon sazogadoebas maTTan SedarebiT, romlebic TeTrsayeloian TaRliTTa mxilebas iTxoven. n

2017 mokled martSi CineTSi onlain benqingisa da sesxebis maregulirebeli ufro mkacri kanonmdebloba Sedis ZalaSi

meTiu valensia: specialuri davalebebis redaqtori, The Economist


118

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breqsiti da qalaqi laionel barberi

londonis finansuri industria Tavis istoriaSi udides `ganqorwinebas~ egueba

2017 mokled inglisis banki britanuli bankebisTvis damatebiT strestests atarebs, kerZod — orwlian `sakvlev scenars~ wliur `ciklur scenarTan~ erTad

laionel barberi: redaqtori, Financial Times

a

m garigebis precedenti ar arsebobs. evrokavSirs sakmaod bevri qveyana, ufro zustad – 28 SeuerTda, Tumca gasvla aravis uTxovia. 2016 wels premierma qemeronma zereled miiCnia, rom britaneli xalxi status kvos erTguli darCeboda da breqsitis sagangebo mdgomareobis gegmis SemuSavebiT Tavi ar Seuwuxebia. 2017 wels londonis siti amis Sedegebs gvariani SeSfoTebiT elis. TviT yvelaze Wkvian winaswarmetyvels ar ZaluZs `ganqorwinebis~ zusti pirobebisa da britaneTis gasvlis TariRis winaswarmetyveleba. `utexi optimistebi~ miiCneven, rom es arasodes moxdeba, TumcaRa 2017 weli am saqmeSi cotaoden sicxades mainc Seitans, roca tereza meis mTavroba evrokavSiris SeTanxmebis 50-e muxls moixmobs da britaneTis ganzraxvas, datovos evrokavSiri, formalurad gaaxmovanebs. man piroba dado, rom amas martis bolos gaakeTebs. 50-e muxlis Sesrulebis procesis dawyeba daSoriSorebis orwliani molaparakebis ciklis `wamzomsac~ CarTavs. mTavroba iseT sakiTxebze daiwyebs muSaobas, rogoricaa: erTiani bazris wvdoma, gadaadgilebis Tavisuflebis principi da evropis sasamarTlos uzenaesoba. 2016 wels saimigracio SiSebma biznesis interesebi daTrguna. 2017 wels situacia odnav gansxvavebuli iqneba. kanonSemoqmedsa da kanonmorCils Soris dapirispireba mkafio gaxdeba. `siti~ `ganqorwinebis~ pirobebSi sicxadis Setanas moiTxovs, xolo qalbatoni mei moqnilobis SenarCunebas ecdeba. erTi Tvali mas april-maisis safrangeTis saprezidento arCevnebze eqneba mipyrobili. ukiduresi memarjvene – marin le penis gamarjveba mosalodneli ar aris, Tumca Tu mainc moxdeba, es ukve `freqsitis~ da evrokavSiris SesaZlo dasasrulis signalic gaxdeba. `siti~ ekosistemaa, sadac veeba sabiTumo bankebi (JPMorgan Chase, HSBC, Goldman Sachs, Barclays and Standard Chartered) iseT `yvelafrismWamelebTan~ Tanaarseboben, rogorebic mzRvevelebi – Aviva, Prudential da Legal & General arian. aqtivebis menejerebi – `SeuzRudavi~ kerZo kapitalis firmebi da hej fondebi aseve `maraqaSi arian~ da maTze buRaltrebis, advokatebisa da sagadasaxado konsultantebis yvela juris aTaseulebi muSaoben. TiToeuli maTgani kargad dafiqrdeba, iaqtiuros Tu ara 2017 wels. isini daakvirdebian, gadaixreba Tu ara breqsitis molaparakebebi urTierTobaTa sruli

msoflio 2017 gawyvetisken (mokle, swrafi, Tumca sarisko gamosavali), pirobebis megobrulad `gadawyobisken~ Tu agresiuli ganqorwinebisken (qaosuri da Zalian ZviradRirebuli). `rac ufro axlos xarT realur ekonomikasTan, miT metad gexebaT breqsiti. rac ufro metad TamaSobT finansur TamaSebs, ufro naklebad gadardebT igi~, – acxadebs `sitiSi~ moqmedi erT-erTi kompaniis aRmasrulebeli oficeri, romelic breqsitis momzadebaSia CarTuli. amasTan erTad, es SedarebiT mcire, aRmavlobis gzaze mdgom firmebs, magaliTad – Virgin Money-s da Metro Bank-s aseve naklebad Seexeba – imdenad, ramdenadac am ukanasknelTa absoluturi zrda didi ver iqneba. 2017 wels enaSi adgils sami axali sityva daimkvidrebs: `ekvivalenturoba~, `pasportizacia~ da `tranzicia~. sabiTumo bankebi, romlebic sesxebs gascemen, uzrunvelyofen valis dafinansebas, vaWroben obligaciebiTa da aqciebiT da depozitebs iReben, evrokavSiris wesebiT mkacrad regulirdebian. isini Seecdebian SeinarCunon TavianTi pasportizaciis uflebebi evrokavSiris iurisdiqciebSi an moipovon raime ekvivalenturi. rogorc minimum, isini gardamavali periodis miRebas moiTxoven – imisTvis, rom 2019-2021 wlebis periodSi klientebTan miRweuli SeTanxmebebi iuridiuli TvalsazrisiT aralegitimuri ar aRmoCndes. calkeuli firmebi, romlebic SiSoben, rom erTian bazarze maTi wvdoma riskis winaSea, status kvos CaeWidebian. evrokavSiridan gasvlis koleqtiur enTuziazms aravin elis (adamianebs kvlavac moswonT `magar~ londonSi cxovreba – qiris maRali fasis fonzec ki). amis miuxedavad, biznesebis mniSvnelovani nawili sxva adgilebs dauwyebs Zebnas, magaliTad – dublins, luqsemburgs, amsterdamsa da parizs, rogorc danarCen dinamikur qalaqebs.

bon Jur, barnie 2017 wels asparezze nacnobi galuri saxe gamoCndeba. samTo-saTxilamuro sportis trfiali da odesRac `sitis~ saqmianobis kontroliori Sida bazrisa da servisebis komisioneris rangSi, briuselidan axali funqciiT dabrundeba – rogorc evrokavSiris mTavari momlaparakebeli breqsitis sakiTxebSi. magidis sapirispiro mxares misi kolega momlaparakebeli – `xuligani~ devid devisi iqneba, romelsac bankebis siyvaruls veravin daswamebs. igi molaparakebebs kabinetis ofisis zedamxedvelobiT warmarTavs. momdevno wels garRvevaTa mcire da wvrilmani kinklaobis did ricxvs elodeT. SeTanxmebuli garigebis miRweva ukiduresad garTuldeba. `siti~ riskavs dakargos evropis kliringis saxlis upiratesoba, Tumca evropisTvis SeiZleba ofSorul iuanad iqces. sabolood, londonis safinanso aqtivoba nel-nela SeizRudeba, Tumca es isedac xdeboda finansuri kraxis Semdgomi regulaciebisa da dabali saprocento ganakveTebis gamo. `es ufro metad nel akupunqturas daemsgavseba~, – acxadebs erT-erTi bizneslideri. bevrs gaakvirvebs `sitis~ survili, SeinarCunos evrokavSiris kanonmdebloba, romelsac odesRac zedmetad pedanturad miiCnevda. magaliTad, iseTs, rogoricaa MIFID II (finansuri bazrebis regulaciebi) da Solvency II (dazRvevis regulaciebi). es axlos iqneba britaneTis evrokavSiris asocirebul wevrobis uflebebTan, rac calkeul teqnokratebs warmoudgeniaT, Tuki, ra Tqma unda, mTavrobis pozicia ar gamkacrdeba da `SiSvel gasvlas~ ar moiTxovs. arc britaneTsa da arc `sitis~ evrokavSirisgan iseTi pirobebis miRebis imedi ar unda hqondeT, rac wevrobisas hqondaT. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT poziciebi erTiania briuselSi, parizsa da berlinSi. Tu volteris gamonaTqvamis perifrazs moviSveliebT, breqsitis safasuri sakmarisad maRali unda iyos imisTvis, rom momavalSi sxvebs aseTive ganzraxvaze xeli aaRebinos. n


msoflio 2017

dividendebi an katastrofa

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romelic aSS-Si ukve warmoadgines da romlebiTac SemoTavazebulia korporaciebis saqmianobis sazRvargareT gatapiter bler henri, niu-iorki nis SezRudva – maSin, roca amis nacvlad saWiroa srulfasovani sagadasaxado ratomaa saWiro ganviTarebuli ekonomikebidan ganviTarebad reformis ganxorcieleba. sadamsjelo qveynebSi kapitalis nakadebis mdgradi zrda kanonmdeblobis miReba firmebis winaaRmdeg, romlebsac kapitalis yvelaze sarlobaluri finansuri krizisis ganviTarebad qveynebSi kapitalis Sefianad dasabandeblad misi sazRvargareT mier gamowveuli daRmasvlis tanis moculoba 1980-iani wlebis Semgatana surT, xels SeuSlis ganviTarebad dekadis Semdeg, 2016 wels gan- deg ukiduresad dabal niSnulzea, maSin qveynebSi qarxnebis mSeneblobis dafinanviTarebad qveynebSi kapitalis roca e.w. mesame msoflios liderebi Riad sebas, agebasa da movla-patronobas. Sedinebis zrda aRiniSna. es kargi amba- ukrZalavdnen investirebas ararezidenganviTarebadi qveynebisken kapivia. kapitalis nakadebis zrda, Tuki mas tebs TavianT qveyanaSi. sami aTwleulis talis moZraobas sxva dabrkolemdgradi xasiaTi eqneba, uaRresad saWiro ganmavlobaSi, kapitalisa da saqonlis Tabac eRobeba – amerikis federaluri iqneba investiciebze ufro maRali uku- visufalma nakadebma gazarda cxovrebis sarezervo sistemis Tavmjdomare janet gebis momTxovni ganviTarebuli qveynebi- standartebi da Seamcira Semosavlebis ielenma saprocento ganakveTis gazrdis sTvis – iseve, rogorc ganviTarebadi uTanabroba qveynebs Soris. Tumca dRes ganzraxva gaaJRera. ekonomikaSi fulis qveynebisTvis, romelTac samuSao adg- qveynebs SigniT mzardma uTanasworobam `inieqciebis~ TandaTanobiTi Semcirebis ilebi sWirdebaT. samwuxarod, popu- globalur bazrebSi integrirebis sawi2013 wlis programa imas gulisxmobs, lizmisa da nacionalizmis axali nazavi naaRmdego sentimentebi gaaCina. rom amerikaSi saprocento ganakveTebis Seicavs safrTxes daakargvinos zrda SezRudavs ganviTarebad qveymsoflios im SesaZleblobiT SenebSi fulis nakadebis gadanacvlebas. wveTi okeaneSi qmnili upiratesoba, rac ganvigarda amisa, aseTi kapitalis nakadis kapitalis mTliani nakadi Tarebad qveynebSi samuSao asakis aRdgenis mowinaaRmdege ideologiuri ganviTarebad qveynebSi, mosaxleobis ricxovnobis zrdas, Zalebi gacilebiT Zlieria, vidre fedrogorc mSp-s % xolo mdidar qveynebSi Semcirebas eraluri sarezervo sistema. ukavSirdeba. 25 ganviTarebadi ekonomika migrantTa krizisi evropaSi da 2017 wels yvela qveyanaSi saamerikis saarCevno ritorika – farmuSao Zalas TiToeul TveSi 1.1 TomasStabiani imigraciisadmi mtruli milioni adamiani SeuerTdeba. sadamokidebuleba gamovlinda rogorc haris samxreTis afrika samuSao mosaxleobaSi, ise politikosebis mxriZalis ricxovnobis yvelaze swraf dan. aseTi politikuri klimatis pizrdas gamocdis, Tumca ekonomirobebSi, danazogebis ganviTarebuli kurad da geopolitikurad mniSqveynidan Rarib qveynebSi mimarTvis vnelovani aziisa da axlo aRmosavxelSewyobaze laparaks didi azri ar leTis calkeuli qveynebic didad aqvs. ar CamorCebian am tendencias. miuxedavad amisa, mdidarma qveyes mimarTuleba jer mxolod nebma unda gaacnobieron ormxrivi Zalas ikrebs. 2013 wlisTvis gansargebeli iseTi politikisa, romelic viTarebadi qveynebis ekonomikebi ganviTarebuli qveynebidan ganviTayovel TveSi TavianT samuSao Zalas rebad bazrebze kapitalis droul da 1.7 adamians Semateben. TvalsaCinoemdgrad dabandebas uzrunvelyofs bisTvis, 1978-2011 wlebSi CineTSi (magaliTad, aqciebSi fulis dabandeyovel TveSi samuSao Zalas mxolod bis ufro metad waxaliseba, vidre 1.1 milioni adamiani emateboda. sxva obligaciebisa). alternativa kidev sityvebiT rom iTqvas, ganviTarebad ufro didi saimigracio wnexia, vinaidqveynebs masis dasaqmebisTvis Cine- *moicavs CineTs wyaro: saerTaSoriso safinanso instituti (IIF) an milionobiT axalgazrda adamiani, Tze orjer swrafi tempiT mouwevT gansakuTrebiT axalgazrda mamakacebi axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmna, maSin roca imis kvalobaze, rom amerikis SeerTeegviptidan, nigeriidan, pakistanidan da CineTis ekonomikuri zrda istoriaSi erT- buli Statebi gaxda ufro gaxleCili filipinebidan SeuerTdebian samuSao ZaerTi yvelaze eqstraordinarulia. saarCevno wels, roca arcerTi mTavari las dasaqmebis Rirseuli perspeqtivis mrewveloba da stabiluri kapitalis kandidati ar uWerda mxars Tavisufal gareSe da Seecdebian gaaRwion ganviTarenakadebi, romlebic mis dasafinanse- vaWrobas, xolo evrokavSiris Semakavbul qveynebSi samuSaos saZebnelad – robladaa saWiro, gadawyvets, moitans de- Sirebeli bma breqsitis Semdeg ufro susgorc legalurad, ise sxva gzebiTac. mografiuli cvlilebebi dividendebs ti gaxda, globalizaciiT gaRizianebam da 2017 wlidan saWiroa politikisa ganviTarebad samyaroSi, Tu isini misadmi winaaRmdegobam 2016 wels upreceda Sexedulebebis Secvla. amis gareSe katastrofiT dasruldeba. stagnaciaSi dento maCvenebels miaRwia da Senelebis ganviTarebadi qveynebisken kapitalis myofi mdidari qveynebis ufro meti da- niSnebs ar avlens. TviT saerTaSoriso dinebis ganaxleba sakmarisi ar iqneba sanazogebis mimarTva Raribi qveynebis savaluto fondic ki, romelic globalinvesticio saWiroebebisa (ara mxolod produqtiul investiciebSi aamaRlebs uri bazrebisa da kapitalis Tavisufali infrastruqturaSi) da Raribi qveynebis globalur zrdas da amonagebs sapensio gadaadgilebis Seupovari damcveli iyo, samuSao asakis moqalaqeTa ricxovnobis danazogebze ganviTarebuli qveynebis calkeul SemTxvevebSi kapitalis kon`afeTqebis~ Sedegad dasaqmebis moTxovnis asakiani mosaxleobisTvis. trolis mxardamWerad mogvevlina, ramac dasakmayofileblad – iseve, rogorc macalsaxad kidev ufro gaamZafra arsebuTze damokidebul ganviTarebul qveynebSi li ukugdeba globalizaciisa. SeewinaaRmdegeT axla, stagnaciis Sedegebis uvnebelsayofad. n Tavisufal vaWrobasa da migraciaze inaneT mogvianebiT amave dros, arsebobs riski, rom es or- Setevis garda, 2017 weli msoflio masSta- piter bler henri: niu-iorkis universitetis sternis mxrivad sasargeblo procesi ar Sedgeba. biT kapitalis SezRudvasac moitans. am biznesskolis dekani, avtori wignisa `Semobruneba: gakveTili miuxedavad bolodroindeli zrdisa, wels xSirad vixilavT iseT winadadebebs, mesame msofliosTvis pirveli msoflios zrdisgan~ (Basic Books).

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daxieT saxelmZRvanelo jon o’ salivani

dabali ekonomikuri zrdis samyaroSi tradiciuli daSvebebi globaluri ekonomikis Sesaxeb Zalas dakargavs

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lidan wlamde ekonomikur mecnierebaSi garkveuli movlenebi sakmaod prognozirebadad unda meordebodes. xelfasebis SezRudva germaniaSi erTi aseTi movlenaa, xolo argentinis siRaribe – meore. sagadasaxado agentebis simkacre aseve ueWvelia – rogorc Tavad gadasaxadebi (an sikvdili). miuxedavad amisa, 2017 is weli iqneba, romelSic mravali ekonomikuri mosazreba amoyiravdeba. gansakuTrebiT saintereso am TvalsazrisiT sami tendenciaa: upirvelesad, uaryofiTi saprocento ganakveTebis `mcocavi~ efeqtebi dasavleT evropasa da iaponiaSi ekonomikuri agentebis yofaqcevaze ucnaur gavlenas iqoniebs. upirveles yovlisa, es gadasaxadebis akrefaze aisaxeba. meore – umkacresi momWirneobiT cnobili iseTi qveynebi, rogoric, magaliTad, germaniaa, fulis ufro Tavisuflad xarjvas daiwyeben. mesame – ucnauri tendencia is iqneba, rom iseTi arastabiluri qveynebi, rogoric magaliTad, argentinaa, mSp-s yvelaze Zlier zrdas aCveneben. daviwyoT uaryofiTi saprocento ganakveTebiT, rac ucnauri, Tumca arcTu axali movlenaa. pirvelad, 2014 wels evropis centralurma bankma ganakveTi komerciuli bankebis depozitebze -0.1%-mde Seamcira da mas Semdeg am process Tanmimdevrulad agrZelebda. imis nacvlad, rom evropis centraluri bankis angariSze ganTavsebul erTdRian depozitebze mcire sargebeli miiRon, komerciuli bankebi Tavad uxdian evropis centralur banks am `privilegiis~ safasurs. TeoriaSi komerciul bankebs TavianTi depozitebis naRd fulze gadacvla da am gziT uaryofiTi s ­ aprocento ganakveTebis Tavidan acileba SeuZliaT, Tumca praqtikaSi naRdi fulis Senaxva da gadaadgileba Zviria da bankebi safasuris gadaxdas eguebian. sacalo klientebi maT uaryofiTi saprocento ganakveTebidan daicves imis SiSiT, rom sxva SemTxvevaSi es ukanasknelni TavianT depozitebs naRd fulad aqcevdnen. miuxedavad amisa, TavianTi xarjebis nawili maT msxvili depozitebis mqone korporaciul klientebs gadaakisres. amis gakeTeba maT imitom SeuZliaT, rom Rirebulebis Senaxvis sxva usafrTxo saSualebebi, magaliTad, saxelmwifo obligaciebi (da sxva korporaciuli obligaciebic) uaryofiT saprocento ganakveTs iZlevian. jon o’ salivani: `ekonomiksis~ redaqtori, The Economist

areul-dareuli droeba vinaidan firmebi naRdi fulis flobisTvis safasuris gadaxdis Tavidan acilebas eswrafvian, gamovlinde-

msoflio 2017 baucnauri yofaqcevis kidev ufro meti magaliTi. kompaniebi sakuTari sagadasaxado valdebulebebis rac SeiZleba swrafad deklarirebas daeSurebian. supermarketebi momwodeblebs saqonlis sawyobebis datovebamde da ara Cabarebidan ramdenime Tvis Tavze gadauxdian. rac ufro xangrZlivi droiT SenarCundeba uaryofiTi saprocento ganakveTebi, miT ufro xSirad mimarTaven bankebi eqsperimentebs negatiuri saprocento ganakveTebiT depozitebis miRebis gziT. wvrili meanabreebi aseT SemTxvevaSi winaswar gadaxdis yvelanair SesaZlo formas mimarTaven – sasaCuqre vauCerebs, xangrZlivvadian xelmowerebs, transportirebis baraTebs – oRondac bankSi naRdi fulis Senaxvas aaridon Tavi. 2017 wlis meore ucnauroba dazogvis maRali kulturis mqone qveynebSi, kerZod – germaniaSi iqneba saZiebeli. 2016 wels misi mimdinare angariSis balansi, rogorc saerTaSoriso vaWrobis poziciis uzogadesi sazomi, mSp-s 8%-s Seadgenda. balansis aseTi gadametebis mqone qveyanaSi, rogorc wesi, valutis kursis awevas unda hqonoda adgili, rac waaxalisebda imports da Seaferxebda eqsports. TumcaRa, germania SezRudulia savaluto kavSiriT, romelSic saeqsporto bazrebze ufro naklebad konkurentunariani qveynebic Sedian da amgvarad, evros traeqtoriaze espaneTis, italiisa Tu sxva wevri qveynebis zegavlenac aisaxeba. amgvarad, koreqcia sxva – xelfasebis ufro gamalebuli zrdiT, kreditis miRebis gamartivebiTa da uZravi qonebis gacilebiT swrafi inflaciis gziT moxdeba. es ukve TvalnaTelia germaniaSi: umuSevroba 4%mde daeca. samuSao Zalis bazris SemWidroebis kvalobaze, 2017 wels izrdeba xelfasebis Semdgomi zrdis morigi raundis dadgomis albaToba. federalurma mTavrobam ukve ganacxada, rom ianvarSi saaTobriv minimalur xelfass 8.84 evromde (9.72 aSS dolari) aswevs, rac gazrdis samomxmareblo xarjebs. mTavrobam fiskaluri politikis gamkacrebis pirobac dado, Tumca saarCevno wels aseTi pirobis Sesruleba savaldebulo ar iqneba. yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT, germaniaSi xelfasebisa da samomxmareblo xarjebis zrdis perspeqtiva 1990-iani wlebis Semdeg yvelaze aSkaradaa gamokveTili. 2017 wlis kidev erTi sakvirveli tendencia mSp-s moulodnelad swrafi zrda iqneba im qveynebSi, romlebic ufro metad susti makroekonomikuri politikiT arian cnobili. erT-erTi aseTi qveyana argentinaa. 2015 wlis dekembridan mauricio makris axalma administraciam valuta `Tavisufali curvis~ reJimSi gadaiyvana, gaauqma kapitalis kontroli, saeqsporto gadasaxadi da miaRwia kreditorebTan valebis gadavadebis SeTanxmebas. am RonisZiebebisTvis garkveuli safasuris gadaxda saWiro mainc gaxda. inflacia gaizarda savaluto kursis gacilebiT realistur niSnulze koreqtirebis Semdeg, xolo amiT gamowveulma realuri Semosavlebis Semcirebam ekonomika recesiaSi Caagdo. miuxedavad amisa, Tu argentina arsebul kurss SeinarCunebs, inflacia 2017 wels unda Semcirdes, xolo ekonomikuri zrda ganaxldes. recesias Tavs ruseTis ekonomikac daaRwevs. misi valuta iafia, 2015 wlis 15%-iani pikidan inflacia 6%-mde Semcirda da kidev daecema da, rac mTavaria – ruseTi reformebs SeumCnevlad axorcielebs. 2011 wlis 123-e adgilidan msoflio bankis biznesis keTebis simartivis indeqsSi man 51-e adgilze ainacvla. Tvali adevneT pakistanis, rumineTis, amJamad recesiaSi myofi nigeriisa da SesaZloa egviptis gamaognebel ekonomikur zrdas, romelmac sul axlaxan ganaxorciela valutis devalvacia. am qveynebs kargi ekonomikuri politika arc axlo da arc Soreul warsulSi axasiaTebdaT, magram 2017 areul-dareuli weli iqneba. n


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ukan, momavalSi

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s ar aris normaluri biznescikli. momavalSi fuladi politika gacilebiT naklebad efeqturi gaxdeba. investiciebze ukugeba Zalian dabali iqneba. es ukve farTod gavrcelebuli xedvebia, Tumca ratomaa es simarTle, jerac gaugebaria. me maqvs martivi Sabloni ekonomikuri manqanis muSaobis Sesafaseblad, romelic erTgvar sicxades Seitans problemaSi. igi sami nawilisgan Sedgeba: pirveli – yvela ekonomikas sami umTavresi Zala amoZravebs: 1. produqtiuloba; 2. saSualod, 5-10-wliani moklevadiani sakredito da biznesciklebi; 3. grZelvadiani, 50-75-wliani sakredito cikli. adamianTa umravlesobas sworad ar esmis grZelvadiani sakredito ciklis buneba, vinaidan am ukanasknelze dakvirveba iSviaTadaa SesaZlebeli, TumcaRa es yvelaze mniSvnelovani faqtoria maT Soris, rac dRes arsebul mdgomareobas gansazRvravs. meore – bazari sami ZiriTadi wonasworobis wertilisken miiswrafvis: 1. valis zrda unda eTanxmebodes im Semosavlebis zrdas, romlebic am valis momsaxurebisTvis gamoiyeneba; 2. ekonomikaSi arsebuli saprocento ganakveTebi da inflacia ar SeiZleba Zalian maRali an dabali iyos xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi; 3. aqciebze mosalodneli ukugeba unda aRematebodes obligaciebis mosalodnel ukugebas, romelic, Tavis mxriv, naRd fulze ukugebas Sesabamisi riskpremiis sididiT unda Warbobdes. aseTi riskpremiebis gareSe kapitalis gadaadgilebis sistema gamarTuli ver iqneba da ekonomikuri ganviTareba SeCerdeba. momdevno wlebSi kapitalis bazrebis funqcionirebis meqanizmi wina wlebze uaresad imuSavebs, vinaidan saprocento ganakveTebis ufro metad daweva SeuZlebelia, xolo sxva investiciebze riskpremia ukve dabalia. adamianTa umravlesobas aqamde aseTi gamocdileba ar hqonia da ar esmis, Tu rogor gamoiwvevs es dabal ukugebas, ufro met valis monetizacias da rogor Seiqmneba gamouvali situacia fuladi politikisTvis. mesame – zemoT xsenebuli sami wonasworobis wertilis misaRwevad politikis gamtareblebs ori berketi aqvT: 1. fuladi politika da 2. fiskaluri politika. imis gamo, rom fuladi politika sul ufro naklebad qmediTi xdeba, am ori instrumentis koordinireba metad mniSvnelovania. TumcaRa, msoflioSi dRes mimdinare saxelmwifo politikis fragmentaciis procesi efeqtiani koordinirebis perspeqtivebs metad arTulebs.

grZelvadiani da moklevadiani ciklebi miuxedavad imisa, rom zemoT aRwerili garemoebebi Cvens cxovrebaSi aqamde ar yofila, dokumentur istoriaSi isini mravladaa aRwerili. aseTi periodebis ganmavlobaSi centralur bankebs valis monetizacia sWirdebaT, rasac akeTeben kidec, xolo pirobebi sul ufro sarisko xdeba. ras gveubneba Cemi Sabloni momavalze? zogadad, produqtiuloba dabalia, roca biznesciklebi TavianTi Sua wertilis siaxlovesaa, xolo grZelvadiani sakredito ciklebi TavianT `iafi fulis gamouvali politikis~ bolo fazas uaxlovdeba. vidre fuladi politika sruliad araefeqturi gaxdeba, grZelvadiani sakredito

ciklisgan mxolod SezRuduli resursis miReba SeiZleba da bevri qveyana ukve uaxlovdeba am wertils. iaponia amasTan yvelaze axlosaa, evropa – masze erTi nabijiT ukan, aSS evropaze erTi-ori nabijiT ukanaa, xolo CineTi amerikaze sulac ramdenime nabijiT ukan imyofeba. ufro meti qveynis ekonomikebisTvis cikluri zegavlena TiTqmis wonasworobis wertilzea da valis zrdis tempi marTvadia. 2007 wlisgan ganxvavebiT, roca Cemi Sabloni miuTiTebda, rom `buStis~ etapze vimyofebodiT da krizisi gveloda, uaxloes momavalSi aseT ucabed kriziss ver vxedav. samagierod, vxedav xangrZlivi, TandaTan ufro mwvave formis mimRebi finansuri SekumSvis dasawyiss. am movlenas ganapirobebs rogorc Semosavlebsa da investiciebze ukugebis neli zrda, ise is faqti, rom isini sakmarisi ar iqneba kreditis didi moculobebisa da sapensio Tu jandacvis valdebulebebis momsaxurebisTvis. aq monetaruli da fiskaluri politika bevrs verafers gaawyobs. droTa ganmavlobaSi fulis nakadebis moZraoba aqtivTa sxvadasxva klass Soris ufro saintereso gaxdeba. arsebuli saprocento ganakveTebiT centraluri bankebis mier valebis gamosyidvis gaTvaliswinebiT, isini uaxloes momavalSi sakuTar SezRudvebs gadaawydebian, razec uari unda Tqvan valis monetizaciis gasagrZeleblad. es ufro sarisko aqtivebis Sesyidvas niSnavs, rac am aqtivTa fasebs gazrdis, xolo momaval ukugebas Seamcirebs. obligaciebis bazari amJamad sariskoa da kidev ufro sarisko gaxdeba. investorebs iSviaTad uwevT iseT bazrebze funqcionireba, romlebic ase aSkarad imyofeba dabalansebul fasze maRla da ase axlosaa mkafiod dadgenil bunebriv zRvrebTan, vinaidan obligaciebze realuri ukugeba ar SeiZleba mudmivad uaryofiTi iyos da garkveul niSnuls mniSvnelovnad CamorCes. obligaciebi Zalian cudi aqtivi iqneba, vinaidan centraluri bankebi maTken ufro meti fulis mimarTvas Seecdebian, xolo depozitorebi am fulis sxvagan ganTavsebas gadawyveten. axla, roca sarisko aqtivebis mTeli speqtris Rirebuleba obligaciebTan da naRd fulTan SedarebiT mimzidvelad gamoiyureba, isini iafi sulac araa maTi riskebis gaTvaliswinebiT. ukugeba dabalia, xolo volatiloba – maRali. rac meti xalxi iyidis maT, miT ufro gauaresdeba anazRaurebis riskTan fardoba. es Seqmnis risks, rom depozitorebi Tavs aarideben finansur aqtivebs da resursebs oqroSi, an simdidris msgavs arafinansur aqtivebSi gadatanas moisurveben – miT ufro, socialuri da politikuri daZabulobis zrdis kvaldakval. maTTvis, vin analogiuri periodebis SeswavliTaa dainteresebuli, rekomendacias vuwev gadaxedon 1935-1945 wlebis periods, romelic 1929-1932 wlebis safondo birJisa da ekonomikis kraxs mohyva. garda amisa, im kraxis Semdegac gatarda raodenobrivi Serbilebis masStaburi politika, ramac aqciebis fasisa da ekonomikuri aqtivobis Semobruneba gamoiwvia da romlis Sedegi 1935 wels swored `iafi fulis gamouvali politika~ gaxda. es is ukanaskneli epizodia, roca fundamenturi ekonomikuri parametrebis konfiguracia farTo gagebiT dRevandelis msgavsi iyo. n

rei dalio — Bridgewater Associates-is damfuZnebeli, ganmartavs, ratom Seicavs 1930-iani wlebis gamocdileba miniSnebas imaze, Tu ra elis ekonomikas momavalSi

miuxedavad imisa, rom aseTi garemoebebi Cvens cxovrebaSi aqamde ar yofila, dokumentur istoriaSi msgavsi ram mravladaa aRwerili


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mecniereba da teqnologiebi amave seqciaSi: genuri Terapiis revolucia 127 damibeWdeT saxli 128 ras gvaswavlian frinvelebi 128 kompiuterebi fsiqiatrebi xdebian 129

supersimetriis ZiebaSi 130 imdeni planeta da ise cota saxli 131 ubralod, SesaZlebelia... 131 iuri milneri: mecnierebis popularizacia 132

medicina personalizebuli xdeba nataSa loderi

moemzadeT Tqvenze morgebuli mkurnalobisTvis

2017 mokled britaneTi asrulebs xuTwlian proeqts, romelic iSviaTi daavadebebis mqone pacientebisa da maTi ojaxis wevrebis 100 aTasi genomis safuZvlis mimdevrobas daafiqsirebs

nataSa loderi: jandacvis korespondenti, The Economist

2

015 wels barak obamam gamoacxada, rom amerikis mTavroba asobiT milioni dolaris investicias Cadebs `zusti medicinis iniciativaSi~. miuxedavad imisa, rom eqimebi da mecnierebi aRfrTovanebiT Sexvdnen am SorsmWvretel programas, SeiZleba pacientebis gagebac, visac ukvirs, rom Tanamedrove medicina ganviTarebul mecnierebasTan erTad jer kidev ar aris zusti. problema isaa, rom adamianebi iseTive individualuri da gansxvavebuli arian, rogorc maTi TiTis anabeWdebi. zogjer am gasaocar variacias mniSvneloba ar aqvs da wamlebi, romlebsac eqimebi niSnaven, magaliTad, antibiotikebi, tkivilgamayuCeblebi da statinebi, kargad moqmedebs. sxva SemTxvevebSi SeiZleba am variaciaze iyos damokidebuli daavadebis mkurnalobis warmateba Tu warumatebloba da saxifaTo, zogjer fataluri gverdiTi efeqtis ganviTarebac. zusti (igive `personalizebuli~) medicina swored aseTi tipis adamianuri variaciis mogvarebas apirebs daavadebebis ufro efeqturad mkurnalobisTvis. variaciisa, romelic SesaZloa Tandayolili genetikuri gansxvavebebidan an ujredebs SigniT nivTierebaTa cvlis Taviseburebebidan modiodes. miuxedavad imisa, rom obamas iniciativa jer sawyis etapzea, ukve aris garkveuli progresi da ufro metis molodini. personalizebul medicinas ukve aqvs didi gavlena onkologiaze. bolo dros simsivnes naklebad uyureben, rogorc konkretuli organoebis daavadebas. axla eqimebi mis klasificirebas molekuluri meqanizmebis mixedviT akeTeben, rasac calkeuli genebis mutacia iwvevs. Sesabamisad, wamlebi, romlebic, magaliTad, koloreqtaluri simsivnisTvis Seqmnes, SesaZloa sxeulis sul sxva nawilisTvis gamodges sasargeblo. mag-

aliTad, mkerdisTvis. es yovelive ki imas niSnavs, rom genetikuri da molekuluri informacia didi siswrafiT xdeba aucilebeli simsivnis monitoringisa da mkurnalobisTvis. ukve sakmaod xSiria simsivnis biofsiaze genetikuri testebis Catareba. yovelTviurad izrdeba aseTi testebis moculoba da raodenoba – iseve, rogorc codna maTi Sedegebisa da potenciuri gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, erT axal tests SeuZlia imis dadgena, Tu rodisaa usafrTxo mkerdis kibos diagnozis mqone qalebisTvis qimioTerapiis mZime procesis gamotoveba. testi akvirdeba im genebis aqtivobas, romlebic simsivnis zrdasa da gavrcelebas akontroleben da SeuZlia gamoavlinon pacientebi, romlebsac simsivnis ganmeorebis dabali riski aqvT. Sesabamisad, qimioTerapiisgan mcire sargebels miiReben. dnm-is testebi, rogoricaa onkotipi DX da MammaPrint, ganviTarebis maRal etaps warmoadgenen. maTi daxmarebiT eqimebs SeuZliaT mkurnalobis SerCeva. bolodroindelma cdam daadastura, rom xuTidan erTi pacientis SemTxvevaSi, romelsac maRali kategoriis simsivne aqvs, dnm-is testebma gamoavlina Terapia, romelmac Seanela simsivnis ganviTareba. amis msgavsad, axla savsebiT mosalodnelia, rom genetikuri testi daexmareba prostatis simsivnis mqone pacientebs, daadginon rodisaa daavadeba dnm-is aRmdgeni genis mutaciiT gamowveuli, ra SemTxvevaSic sxvanairi tipis wamlis gamoyeneba ufro efeqturi iqneba. personalizebuli medicina aseve perspeqtiulad gamoiyureba imis gadawyvetaSi, Tu visTvis iqneba sasargeblo axali, Zlieri, magram ZviradRirebuli imunoonkologiuri wamlebi, romlebic mxolod pacientebis garkveul nawilze moqmedebs. bevri kompania muSaobs `Txevad biofsiaze~ – sisxlis analizze, romlis mizania monitoringi, Tu rogor reagirebs simsivne mkurnalobaze. Cveulebrivi biofsiisgan gansxvavebiT, SesaZlebelia misi xSiri gakeTeba pacientisTvis yovelgvari zianis miyenebis gareSe. vinaidan araerTi kompania, rogorebic arian


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geni-aluri mkurnaloba nataSa loderi

rogorc iqna, genuri Terapiis xana dgeba

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ri wlis win, 38 wlis asakSi arturma mxedveloba dakarga. konsultantma, romelic parizSi saqmianobs, aRmoaCina, rom Tvalis baduris ujredebis nevrodegeneraciuli daavadeba hqonda, rac mxedvelobis srul da samudamo dakargvas iwvevs. leberis optikuri neiropaTia iSviaTi genetikuri darRvevaa. Tumca, arturs gaumarTla – misma eqimma moaxerxa arturis Cawera mkurnalobis axali meTodis – genuri Terapiis sacdel jgufSi, romelzec aseve parizSi mdebare GenSight Biologics muSaobs. igi am sacdeli jgufis me-15 pacienti iyo. genuri Terapia axali ar aris. 1990-ian wlebSi bevri adamiani didi enTuziazmiT ekideboda mis potencials, ganekurna gansakuTrebiT mZimed daavadebuli bavSvebi, romlebic mZime genetikuri darRvevebiT daibadnen da ar hqondaT qmediTi imunuri sistema. erT-erTi aseTi daavadeba iyo egreT wodebuli `buStis biWi~. saxelwodeba iqidan modis, rom am daavadebis mqone adamianebi iZulebulni iyvnen, daxurul sterilur sivrceSi ecxovraT, rom Tavi aeridebinaT infeqciebisTvis, romelic SesaZloa maTTvis momakvdinebeli yofiliyo. ZiriTadi idea gaxldaT TiToeul maTganSi genetikuri xarvezis gasworeba ndm-is swori aslis SeyvaniT, xSirad – virusis gziT. adreuli imedis miuxedavad, samuSao procesi Seferxda moulodneli gverdiTi efeqtebisa da sacdel jgufSi axalgazrda kacis

revolucia momwifebis procesSi

sikvdilis gamo. mas Semdeg genuri Terapiis usafrTxoeba da efeqturoba mniSvnelovnad gaizarda. milanis San Raffaele Telethon Institute-is eqimebma daamtkices, rom genur Terapias grZelvadiani mkurnalobis SeTavazeba SeuZlia iSviaTi imunuri darRvevis – ADA-SCID-is winaaRmdeg (es daavadeba xSirad misi arsebobis pirvelive wels fataluria). britanul farmakologiur firma GlaxoSmithKline-sTan SeTanxmebis wyalobiT, mkurnalobis es forma 2016 wels bazarze gamoCnda. bioteqnologiur firmas Spark Therapeutics, imedi aqvs, rom pirveli amerikuli kompania gaxdeba, romelic 2017 wels genuri TerapiiT mkurnalobis nebarTvas miiRebs. saeWvo aRar aris, rom horizontze revolucia Cans. Datamonitor Healthcare-is

mTeli rigi nebarTvebi axlovdeba

Foundation Medicine, Qiagen, Genomic Health da Myriad Genetics – muSaobs Txevadi biofsiis Seqmnaze, pacientebi momdevno erT an or weliwadSi SeZleben klinikebSi maT naxvas. wamlebis Seqmnis procesic ufro personalizebuli xdeba. mkvlevrebi interesiTa da sixaruliT xvdebian CAR-T wamlebis axal Taobas. simsivnis mqone pacientebisgan iReben T-ujredebs (specialur imunur ujredebs) da specialurad Seqmnil virusian axal genebTan erTad kvlav unergaven pacientebs. axlad Canergili T-ujredebi pacientis simsivneze ikideben fexs. es Zalian personalizebuli da efeqturi mkurnalobis meTodia, Tumca riskebic axlavs. bioteqnologiuri kompania Kite Pharma imedovnebs, rom 2017 wels bazarze gamoitans wamals KTE-C10, romelic refraqtoruli, agresiuli, hojkinis limfomisgan gansxvavebuli variaciebisgan samkurnalod gamoiyeneba. medicinas grZeli gza aqvs gasavleli iqamde, sanam simsivnis genetikuri baza srulad amoixsneba. genomuri variaciebis nawilis mniSvneloba, romelTa gamovlenac xdeba, bolomde Seswavlili ar aris. zogi genetikuri testi iseT variacias daafiqsirebs, romlis ganmartebasac eqimebi ver SeZleben. miuxedavad

analitikosebis TqmiT, muSaobis procesSi myofi genuri Terapiis raodenoba 2012 wlis Semdeg gaormagda. aTasobiT mkurnalobis forma klinikuri testirebis reJimSia. maT Soris daaxloebiT 100 – saboloo fazaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom warmateba garantirebuli ar aris, maTi mzardi raodenoba, vinc `gvirabis bolos sinaTles xedavs~, imeds gvaZlevs, rom momdevno erTi an ori wlis ganmavlobaSi nebarTvebis mTeli wyeba gamoCndeba. arturs erTi nemsi dasWirda imisTvis, rom gamojanmrTelebis gzas dadgomoda. igi yoveldRiurad ukeT xdeba. axla ukve cotaTi kiTxvac SeuZlia, ferebsac xedavs, gzaze gadasvlac gamosdis, bankomatis gamoyenebac da kompiuteriT sargeblobac. igi aRfrTovanebulia mkurnalobis am formiT, miuxedavad imisa, rom ar icis, ramdenad kargad gaxdeba amis Sedegad. `ra Tqma unda, es Cemi momavalia~, – ambobs is. es bevri sxva adamianisTvisac asea. n

amisa, imis SesaZlebloba, rom simsivnis dasadgenad sisxlis analizi gaikeTo, SesaZlebels xdis simsivnis gamoaSkaravebas, vidre simptomebi gamovlindeba da ara mxolod arsebuli simsivnis kontrols mkurnalobis Secvlisa da morgebisTvis. dnm-is safuZvlis mimdevrobis aparatebis yvelaze didma mwarmoebelma –Illumina-m aseTi testebis SesamuSaveblad kompania Camoayaliba, saxelad Grail. `ultraRrma mimdevrobis~ gamoyenebiT nimuSis dnm-is aTobiT aTasjer wakiTxviT igi imedovnebs rTulad SesamCnevi signalebis daWeras, romlebic SesaZloa simsivnis fragmentis sisxlSi moZraobidan modiodes. aTeulobiT wlis Semdeg istorikosebi, savaraudod, ukan moixedaven da 2017-s dainaxaven, rogorc zusti medicinis ayvavebis wels. kvleviTi firma HIMSS Analytics-is mixedviT, dRes amerikaSi jandacvis momwodeblebis 29 procenti iyenebs mas. erT dResac zust medicinas yvela eqimi gamoiyenebs, radganac es midgoma onkologiis farglebs gareT miiwevs. magaliTad, nevrologia iRvwis cvlilebisken daavadebaTa tipebidan, romlebic msgavsi simptomebis klasterebzea damyarebuli iseTi tipebisken, genetikur da molekulur cvlilebebs rom efuZneba. sabolood, medicina mTlianad zusti gaxdeba. n

2017 mokled liTonis cilindri, romelic kilogramis masas gansazRvravs (inaxeba parizis sacavSi), gamoTvlebma Caanacvla


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damibeWdeT saxli pol markili

samganzomilebiani beWdva farTo masStabebs iZens

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zard metropolis dubaiSi uamravi samSeneblo obieqtidan erTia gamorCeuli, romelsac bedisweris uCveulo grZnoba dahyveba. es Senoba emiratis `momavlis muzeumSi~ aRimarTeba, romlis gaxsna 2018 wlisTvis igegmeba. futuristuli Temis farglebSi, Senobis nawilebi inovaciuri gziT – samganzomilebiani printeriT momzaddeba. samganzomilebiani printeriT raRacebis damzadeba Zalian swrafad krefs temps. yovelwliurad milionobiT xelovnur kbils amzadeben Sreobrivi sinTezis sxvadasxva procesiT, rasac samganzomilebiani printerebi iyeneben. samkaulebi, uamravi plastmasisa da reaq-

tiuli Zravis nawilic ki ibeWdeba. axla Senobebis jeria. giganturi samganzomilebiani printerebi iwyeben ufro didi zomis struqturebis Seqmnas. printerebi, rogorc wesi, Sedgeba msxvili sayrdenisgan, romelzec maRali, robotulad kontrolirebadi sabeWdi Tavia damagrebuli. am sabeWdi Tavidan gamoidevneba konkretuli formis cementisa da sxva masalebis nazavi, romelic odnav tortis kremis morTulobas waagavs; mimdevrobiT awyobs fenebs erTmaneTze, rom saWiro forma miiRos. es saSualebas iZleva, rom Senobis seqciebi qarxanaSi daibeWdos da Semdeg obieqtze aiwyos, an mTeli Senoba adgilze daibeWdos. ucxoelma da adgilobrivma kontraqtorebma orive teqnikis kombinacia gamoiyenes imisTvis, rom dubais muzeumis figuruli saofise Senobebi daebeWdaT. isini ukve moixmareba. Senobis danarCeni nawili aiwyoba rogorc Cveulebrivi mSeneblobis meTodebis gamoyenebiT, ise samganzomilebiani beWdviT. da es yvelaferi

ar aris. „dubaim ambiciuri mizani daisaxa, rom 2030 wlisTvis axali Senobebis 25% samganzomilebiani printerebiT iyos warmoebuli“, – ambobs noa rafordi, saxelmwifo saagentos `dubais momavlis fondi~ warmomadgeneli. misi TqmiT, es daaCqarebs mSeneblobis process da Seamcirebs muSaxelisa da masalis Rirebulebas. msoflio masStabiT sxvadasxva jgufi muSaobs Senobebis dabeWdvis gansxvavebul gzebze. Cinurma kompaniam Winsun Seqmna rigi struqturebisa – patara korpusidan dawyebuli, sajaro tualetiT damTavrebuli, betonis, xelovnuri qvisa da sxva masalebis beWdviT. arqiteqtorTa saerTaSoriso firma Skidmore, Owings & Merrill muSaobs tenesis Oak Ridge-is erovnul laboratoriasTan erTad dabali energomoxmarebis Senobebis samganzomilebian beWdvaze. garda amisa, amsterdamSi moqmedebs gegma, rom daibeWdos tradiciuli garegnobis arxis saxli, romelsac sagamofeno centrad gamoiyeneben. italiurma jgufma, saxelad WASP aawyo 12 metri simaRlis samganzomilebiani printeri imisTvis, rom aaSenos mTeli sofeli boloniis aRmosavleTiT, masa lombardaSi. idea is gaxlavT, rom sofeli teqnologiuri centri gaxdeba da warmoaCens, Tu rogor SeiZleba samganzomilebiani beWdvis teqnologiebis gamoyeneba dabalxarjiani Senobebis asaSeneblad mdgradi masalebiT. WASP ramdenime ideaze muSaobs, maT Soris, uZvelesi samSeneblo masalis – alizis gamoyenebaze, romelic miwisa da organuli masalisgan mzaddeba. am SemTxvevaSi printeridan iZerweba Tixisa da Calis nazavi. WASP varaudobs, rom orma adamianma SeiZleba igive meTodi gamoiyenos erTi danadgariT, raTa swrafad da iafad aaSenos martivi, magram komfortuli TavSesafrebi. Tu es SesaZlebelia, maSin axali da Zveli teqnologiebis nazavi daexmareboda msoflios grZelvadiani omebisa da bunebrivi katastrofebis Sedegebis mogvarebaSi. n pol markili: inovaciebis redaqtori, The Economist

2017 mokled evropis kosmosuri saagento orbitaze qaris monitoringis inovaciur satelits – Aeolus-s da egzoplanetebze monitoringis zonds – CHEOPS-s gauSvebs

elan andersoni

erTnair saxeobebs erTad daakvirdebian

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017 wels daiwyeba ambiciuri proeqti, romelic kosmosidan daakvirdeba didi Tu patara cxovelis moZraobasa da qcevas msoflios nebismier adgilas, sadac unda gadaadgildebodnen isini. ivnisSi ruseTis raketa saerTaSoriso kosmosur sadgurze miitans sxvadasxva saxis mgrZnobiare TefSantenebs. dedamiwis garSemo dabal orbitaze moZraobis dros antena SeZlebs susti radiosignalebis gaSifvras. signalebs Zalian patara sameTvalyureo samagrebi gamoscems, romlebic iseTi msubuqi iqneba, rom gadamfreni mgalobeli Citebic usafrTxod atareben. Tu yvelaferi kargad iqneba, ori wlis ganmavlobaSi 20 aTas cxovels miamagreben sameTvalyureo samagrs. Semdeg ki, momavalSi, kidev asobiT aTas cxovels – gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca samagrebi iseTi

msubuqi gaxdeba, rom msxvili mfrinavi mwerebic ki, magaliTad, kaliebi, SeZleben mis tarebas. martin vikelski – germaniis qalaq radolfcelSi mdebare ornitologiis maqs plankis institutis direqtori, `ikarusis~ (ICARUS – saerTaSoriso TanamSromloba cxovelebis gamosakvlevad kosmosis gamoyenebiT) proeqts `transformaciis wertilad~ aRiqvams, sadac `cxovelebi gvawvdian codnas Cveni samyaros Sesaxeb~. miliardobiT cxoveli, yvelanairi – didi Tu patara, mudmivad moZraobs garemos sapasuxod, romelsac grZnobis bevri organoTi SeigrZnoben. Tu cxovelebis qcevaze Tvalyuris devnebas SeZlebs, `ikarusi~ mkvlevrebs miawvdis cocxali msoflio qselis informacias planetis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. amasTan, xalxi ufro metad daafasebs sakuTar cxovrebas. profesori vikelski swrafi teqnologiuri cvlilebis talRas marTavs. mzaddeba arnaxulad msubuqi sensorebi, rom cxovelebze dakvirveba da maTi qcevis Cawera moxdes. albatrosebma atares sensorebi miuwvdomeli zRvebis Tavze, sadac meteorologebi iSviaTad bedaven gasvlas da gzad qaris moZraobis

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elan andersoni: mecnierebis Jurnalisti da avtori

frTebis interneti


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roca robotebi Sens tkivils grZnoben meT kaplani

kompiuterebi fsiqiatrebis asistentebi gaxdebian

a www.redbilledquelea.net

s

2017 mokled iaponiaSi gaSendeba ferma, romelSic TiTqmis mTlianad robotebi imuSaveben

meT kaplani: mecnierebis korespondenti, The Economist

Cveni prognozirebis gamowveva vulocavT jon kims – analitikos-konsultants Cikagodan, romelmac gaimarjva `msoflio 2016 wels~ prognozirebis gamowvevaSi. es gamowveva organizebuli iyo Good Judgement-Tan TanamSromlobiT. gamowveva, romelic monawileebs prognozis gakeTebas sTxovda politikur, biznes da ekonomikur movlenebTan dakavSirebiT, 2015 wlis noembridan 2016 wlis ivlisamde grZeldeboda. jon kimi namdvili superprognozis gamkeTebeli gamodga. man breqsitis Sedegebi da donald trampis mier respublikelebis prezidentobis kandidatad gaxdoma ivarauda. Tavis warmatebas jon kimi ukavSirebs axali ambebis xarbad gacnobas sxvadasxva wyarodan, sxvadasxva mxaris mimarT mikerZoebuli wyarodan, ramac saSualeba misca `garkveuli empaTia gamoemuSavebina sakiTxis orive mxaris mimarT~. SegiZliaT superprognozebis gakeTeba? gadaamowmeT es. miiReT monawileoba `msoflio 2017 wels~ gamowvevaSi, romelic 2016 wlis noembridan 2017 wlis oqtombramde gaimarTeba Semdeg vebgverdze: gjopen.com/economist

s

tipebi daafiqsires. zRvis spiloebma zurgiT atares instrumentebi antarqtikis okeanis yinulovan wyalSi aTasobiT Rrma CayvinTvis dros da gamoavlines, rom yinulis dnobis Sedegad miRebuli mtknari wyali okeaneebis dinebas cvlis. aTasobiT ZuZumwovari cxovelisTvis Tvalyuris devnebam cxadyo, rom bevrad met cxovels klaven monadireebi da motoristebi, vidre mtaceblebi. am yvelafris miuxedavad, profesorma vikelskim aTi weli moandoma mecnierTa darwmunebas, rom SesaZlebelia uzarmazari naxtomis gakeTeba da kosmosSi dafuZnebuli globaluri sameTvalyureo platformis mowyoba. germanuli da rusuli kosmosuri saagentoebis wyalobiT 2017 wels mas eqneba Tavisi xedvis damtkicebis Sansi. monacemTa axali centri germaniaSi biologebs gauadvilebs globalur proeqtze wvdomas. bevri ramaa, risi gamovlenac `ikaruss~ SeuZlia. adamianebi iSviaTad xedaven cxovelTa cxovrebis fragmentebze mets: manqanis mZRolebi gzaze Tvals mokraven xarirems alaskis tundris gaswvriv; bartyi gafrindeba da mas mere veravin xedavs. yvelaze maRali donis biologebic ki, romlebic velze muSaoben, veluri arsebebis cxovrebis mxolod epizodebs naxuloben. bevr individze dakvirvebiT, imis dadgeniT, Tu sad midian, rogor urTierToben sxvebTan, romeli cocxlobs da romeli kvdeba, `ikaruss~ cxovelTa cxovrebis axleburi xedvis mocema SeuZlia. es sakonservacio Zalisxmevasac daexmareboda, radganac ucnobia, Tu sad migrirebs bevri saxeoba. `ikaruss~ SeuZlia globaluri garemos Sesaxeb seriozul SekiTxvebs upasuxos. bolo 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi, sul mcire, 421 milioni mgalobeli frinveli gauCinarda evropidan. konkretulad ra moxda, sad da ras eubneba es mecnierebas cvalebad msoflioze? globaluri jandacvis xelisufalni CaeWidebodnen im frinvelebisTvis Tvalyuris devnebis Sanss, romlebsac gripi gadaaqvT da, amrigad, erTi nabijiT gauswrebdnen potenciur epidemiebs. fermerebs moundebodaT imis gageba, Tu saiT miemarTeba kaliebis gundi, aseve moundebodaT wiTelniskarta kilis gundis adgilsamyofelis codna. am Citebs SeuZliaT iseT Sekrul gundad gamoCena, rom cas abneleben da afrikul mindvrebs anadgureben. cxovelTa moZraobis wesis Secvla SeiZleba moaxloebuli vulkanuri amofrqvevis an miwisZvris indikatori gaxdes. sadazRvevo industria amiT namdvilad daintrigdeba. cxovelebTan laparaki jer kidev sabavSvo wignebisa da kinos realobaSi rCeba. Tumca, Tuki `ikarusis~ ambicia, rom miayurados `cxovelTa globaluri koleqtivis meeqvse grZnobas~, ganxorcieldeba, cxovelebi Zalian did informacias mogvawvdidnen. es ki Zalian moxerxebuli miRweva iqneboda. n

izek azimovi, artur s. klarki, jin rodenberi da maTi futuristi Tanamoazreebi moelodnen, rom erT dRes robotebi mniSvnelovan rols Seasrulebdnen medicinis sferoSi. namdvilad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom iseTi kompleqsuri sistemebi, rogoricaa gulis qirurgi azimovis `segregacionerSi~ da saswrafo samedicino holograma rodenberis `star trek: voiaJerSi~ 2017 wels realobad ver iqceva. Tumca momdevno wels xelovnuri inteleqti fsiqiatriuli hospitalebis gaumjobesebas SeZlebs. didi xania, rac es garRveva mzaddeba. aT welze ufro meti xnis win mkvlevrebma kompiuterebSi adamianTa socialuri interaqciis amsaxveli videoebis CatvirTva daiwyes imisTvis, rom manqanebs gaeanalizebinaT failebi da SeeswavlaT saxis calkeuli gamometyvelebis mniSvneloba. aseTi tipis adreuli proeqti, romelsac samxreT kaliforniis universitetis kreatiuli teqnologiis institutis warmomadgenlebi, luis-filipe morensi da jonaTan graTCi xelmZRvanelobdnen, unda daxmareboda kompiuterebs imaSi, rom ganesxvavebinaT Tavis dakvra, romelic niSnavda – `mesmis, rasac ambob~ da Tavis dakvra, romelic gulisxmobda – `geTanxmebi~. Tavdapirvelad maTi ganzraxva iyo, rom am teqnologiis daxmarebiT ekranis avatarebTan da robotebTan urTierToba ufro uSualo da sasiamovno gaexadaT. Tumca es teqnologia sxva rameSi ufro sasargeblo gamodga. morensi, romelic axla karnegi melon universitetSi muSaobs, graTCi da maTi kolega stefan Sereri, aseve kreatiuli teqnologiis institutidan, daostatdnen kompiuteruli sistemebisTvis imis swavlebaSi, Tu rogor gaaanalizon fsiqiatriuli daavadebis mqone adamianebis saxis gamometyveleba da xmebi imisTvis, rom manqanebma aseTi daavadebebis amocnobaSi daxmareba SeZlon. bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi mkvlevrebi bevrs muSaobdnen amerikis Tavdacvis departamentTan, rom SeeqmnaT sistemebi, romlebic


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mecniereba da teqnologiebi

gaaanalizebda samxedro samsaxuridan dabrunebuli jariskacebis saxeebsa da xmebs da SeamCnevda, hqondaT Tu ara maT posttravmuli aSliloba. bolo wlis ganmavlobaSi morensi TanamSromlobs gundTan, romelsac saTaveSi masaCusetsis maklinis hospitalis fsiqiatri – jastin beikeri udgas. isini 2017 mokled cdiloben, rom kompiuters, romelTanac oTaxSi mdgari videokamera da mikrofonia mierTebuli, aswavproeqti lon, Tu rogor amoicnos bipolaruli aSlilobisa da `arqtikdem~ mTeli arqtikis Sizofreniis niSnebi. Sereri msgavs sistemaze muSaobs pirvel satelitur san-franciskos veteranTa samedicino centrSi. jersamganzomilebian jerobiT kompiuterebs lomis wili miuZRviT am prorukas aqveynebs eqtebSi da warmatebiT swavloben, Tumca male jeri fsiqiatrebze midgeba. pacientTa qcevis niuansebi eqimebs saSualebas aZlevs, dasvan diagnozi da daakvirdnen mentalur daavadebebs. Tumca mxolod eqspertebis adamianur gansjaze dayrdnoba Zviri jdeba, misi efeqtianobis

mSvidobiT, susi? jefri qari

2017 wels supersimetriis idea an realobad iqceva, an gaqreba

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ecnierebis didi tragedia mSvenieri hipoTezis maxinji faqtis mier mokvlaa~, – Tqva Tomas haqslim. Tumca esaa swored samecniero meTodi. Tu buneba naTel mtkicebulebas iZleva, rom hipoTeza mcdaria, maSin unda miatovo igi an, sul mcire, misi modificireba scado. fsiqologiurad es udavod arakomfortulia maTTvis, visac Sesamowmebeli hipoTezis siswore ainteresebs. yovel SemTxvevaSi, am dros yvelaferi gasagebia. ra xdeba sapirispiro SemTxvevaSi? – roca buneba ver ewinaaRmdegeba hipoTezas, magram jiutad uars ambobs mis mxardasaWerad raime faqtebis warmodgenaze? maSin aravin icis, ra etapzea. swored es SemTxveva ergeba Zalian swrafad gadamwyvet hipoTezas fizikaSi – supersimetrias an susis, rogorc megobrebi uwodeben. susi cdilobs fizikis TeoriaSi bevri eulad darCenili daboloeba erTmaneTs daakavSiros imiT, rom yvela cnobil fundamentur nawilaks – sagnisa da energiis – SeurCios `supersimetriuli~

supersimetriis ZiebaSi

monitoringi rTulia da xSirad Sedegad pacientis araTanmimdevruli mkurnaloba mohyveba. obieqturi sazomebis uzarmazari saWiroeba arsebobs. morensisa da Sereris kompiuterebi swored am nawilSi gegmaven didi gavlenis moxdenas. sistemebisTvis gamoxedvisa da metyvelebis Taviseburebis (ritmi, toni, xmis simaRle da sxva aspeqtebi) Strixebis gaanalizebisa da Caweris swavlebiT, romelic adamianis Tvalisa da yurisTvis rTuli dasaTvlelia, isini qmnian sazomebs, romlebsac fsiqiatrebi gamoiyeneben – zustad iseve, rogorc sxva sferos eqimebi iyeneben sisxlis wnevis, pulsisa da sunTqvis sixSiris monacemebs. robotebi ar Caanacvleben fsiqiatrebs, rogorc gulis qirurgebi Caanacvles azimovis naSromSi, Tumca momdevno wlis ganmavlobaSi isini prototipis statuss daTmoben da Rirebul mokavSireebad iqcevian yvelaze damangreveli mentaluri daavadebebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. n

partniori nawilaki an supernawilaki. es sufTa da eleganturia, Tumca jer kidev araa gamyarebuli raime realuri faqtiT. 2017 ki iseTi weli Cans, roca es Teoria an dadasturdeba, an gabaTildeba. supersimetriis idea axali araa. misi Tanamedrove forma 1971 wliT TariRdeba Tumca bolo dromde gansakuTrebulad aravin dardobda imaze, rom supernawilakebma ver SeZles nawilakebis gamaZliereblebad gamodgoma, radganac susi-s winaswarmetyvelebiT, isini ufro mZimeni iqnebian, vidre maTi msgavsi partniorebi, amitomac maT Sesaqmnelad meti energiaa saWiro. is, Tu ramdenad meti energia, damokidebulia imaze, susi-s romel versias irCevT. sakmaris versiebze iTqva, rom maTTvis saWiroa `bevrad meti~, imas Tu ar CavTvliT, rom garSemo arsebul danadgarebs maTi Seqmna ar SeeZlo. Tumca, es Seicvala Jenevis gareubanSi mdebare didi adronis kolaideris – evropis nawilakebis fizikis laboratoriis bolodroindeli gaumjobesebiT. es danadgari xelaxla gaixsna 2015 wels da amJamad sakmaod Zlieria imisTvis, rom supernawilakebma, romlebic susi-s yvela martivi da pirdapiri versiis mier iyo SemoTavazebuli, ganacxadon sakuTari arsebobis Sesaxeb. es ar momxdara. 2016 wels ambebis koriantelic ki, romelic acxadebda, rom didma adronis kolaiderma axali

nawilaki aRmoaCina da mcdari aRmoCnda, ar ambobda imas, rom savaraudo aRmoCena supernawilaki iyo. Semdgom konferenciaze kopenhagenSi supernawilakebis aryofna formalurad aRiares, rogorc xandazmulobisTvis pativsacemi tradicia Teoriul fizikaSi. mecnierTa jgufma, romelmac sanaZleo dado, rom 2016 wlis ivnisamde supernawilakebi aRmoCenili iqneboda, damsaxurebulad dauTmo prizi skeptikosebis jgufs, romlebic sanaZleos meore pirobas uWerdnen mxars. sanaZleos jildo... boTli koniaki iyo. Tu am sanaZleos miuxedavad, 2017 wels supernawilakebi gamoCndeba, yvela sixaruliT Sexvdeba amas da fizika Tavis kalapots daubrundeba, aseT idumal movlenebs ki bneli materiiT axsnis (samyaros Semadgeneli nawili, romlis SemCnevac mxolod misi gravitaciuli efeqtiT SeiZleba da romelic SesaZloa supernawilakebisgan Sedgebodes). da aris Tu ara bunebis sxvadasxva Zala, Tavisi Rrma arsiT, erTi da imave ramis aspeqti? Tumca, Tu supernawilakebi ar gamoCndeba, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, saWiro gaxdeba susi-s sicocxlis uzrunvelyofa, misi aparatze SeerTeba. am Teoriis modificirebuli versiebic arsebobs, romlebic saSualebas miscems mas, cota xans kidev SeinarCunos sicocxle. erTi maTgani, magaliTad, amtkicebs, rom cnobili nawilakebis mxolod naxevars aqvs Sesabamisi supernawilakebi da rom isini amJamad moxerxebulad imyofebian didi adronis kolaideris wvdomis miRma. Tumca aseT sicrues sasowarkveTis suni asdis da SesamCnevad kontrastulia im triumfalurobasTan, romelic Teoriul fizikas axlda 2013 wels, roca didi xniT adre navaraudevi higsis bozonis nawilaki aRmoaCines. xSirad imis Tqma ufro rTulia, rodis ganadgurda Teoria, vidre imisa, Tu rodis daibada igi. Tumca, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu supernawilakebi sakuTari Tavis gamomzeurebas sabolood ar gadawyveten, istoriis wignebi daeTanxmeba imas, rom 2017 susi-s mzis Casvenebis TariRia. n jefri qari: mecnierebis redaqtori, The Economist


msoflio 2017

planetebi, yvelgan planetebi tim krosi

dedamiwasTan axlos ukve cnobilia planeta, romelzec SesaZlebelia sicocxle. amgvari planetebis ricxvi gaizrdeba.

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werali fantastebi mravali wlis manZilze igonebdnen ucxo planetebs. faqti, rom sxva mzeebs unda axldeT sakuTari planetebi, warmoadgenda sakmaris mizezs imisaTvis, rom amis Sesaxeb momxdariyo spekulireba. Tumca mecnierebas mouwia 1992 wlamde mocda, raTa dadasturebuliyo amgvari planetebis arseboba. am wels ori aseTi planeta dafiqsirda pulsar psr b1257+12-is irgvliv. amas mohyva aRmoCenebis mTeli seria. dRes aRmoCenebis raodenoba kidev ufro didia. dedamiwaze damontaJebuli teleskopebisa da orbitaze myofi satelitebis (gansakuTrebiT ki 2009 wels gaSvebul satelit Kepler-is) daxmarebiT ukve aRmoCenilia 3500-ze meti amgvari samyaro. realoba mxatvrul filmebSi naCvenebi suraTisgan gansxvavebulia – dedamiwis msgavsi planetebis ricxvi mcirea. mravali planeta, iupiteris msgavsad, gazis gigantebs warmoadgens, romelTa miziduloba maspinZel varskvlavze aiolebs maT SemCnevas. sxva planetebi brunaven Camqrali, an piriqiT – superkaSkaSa varskvlavebis irgvliv. maTi umetesoba sicocxlisTvis zedmetad cxeli an zedmetad civia da TiTqmis yvela aseTi planeta Cvengan Zalian Sorsaa. Kepler, romelmac am planetebis didi umetesoba aRmoaCina, uyurebs kosmosis nawils, romelsac ciuri sferos daaxloebiT 1/400 ukavia. 2017 wlidan es Seicvleba. dekemberSi Kepler-is Semcvleli sateliti, saxelad tess (tranzituli egzoplanetebis dakvirvebis sateliti) orbitaze gaeSveba. igi Seqmnilia imisaTvis, rom daakvirdes mTel cas da moiZios iseTi egzoplanetebi, romlebic adamianebisTvis yvelaze sainteresoa. aseTebia dedamiwasaviT patara da kldovani planetebi, romlebic CvenTan SedarebiT axlos mdebareobs. orwliani sicocxlis manZilze tess moaxdens asobiT aTasi axlomdebare varskvlavis skanirebas da daakvirdeba maT sikaSkaSeSi arsebul laqebs. Keplerma imdeni statistikuri informacia Seagrova imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad xSirad gvxvdeba galaqtikaSi planetebi, rom astronomebs SuZliaT gamoTvla tessis mier dedamiwis msgavsi planetebis aRmoCenis Ses-

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axeb. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom dedamiwis galaqtikuri samezoblo sivrce saSualoa, axalma satelitma unda SeZlos jamSi daaxloebiT 3 000 planetis dafiqsireba. aqedan 500-mde planetas dedamiwaze orjer meti radiumis Semcveloba eqneba, albaT ramdenime aTeuli SesaZloa moZraobdes `sasicocxlo zonis~ orbitaze da, savaraudod, hqondes Txevadi wyali zedapirze. Kepler-is mier aRmoCenili planetebi dedamiwidan Zalian Sors aris da mecnierebisTvis SeuZlebelia maT Sesaxeb bevri informaciis moZieba. risi dadgenac xerxdeba, es aris maTi daaxloebiTi zoma da orbitis sigrZe. amisgan gansxvavebiT, tess-is mier aRmoCenili planetebi bevrad axlo iqneba dedamiwisgan da Sesabamisad maT Sesaxeb meti informaciis miReba iqneba SesaZlebeli. axali Taobis giganturi teleskopebi, maT Soris, evropuli Zalian didi teleskopi, romelsac amJamad CileSi ageben, aseve jeims vebis kosmosuri teleskopi, romelic Hubble-s Caanacvlebs da 2018 wels iqneba mzad, xels Seuwyobs mecnierebs meti informaciis miRebaSi. planetebis atmosferoebSi gatarebul varskvlavur sinaTleze dakvirvebiT, mecnierebi imedovneben ucxo planetebis haeris qimiuri Semadgenlobis Seswavlas. isini Seecdebian iseTi qimiuri elementebis arsebobis povnas, rogoricaa Tavisufali Jangbadi da meTanis didi odenoba, romlebic SesaZloa mianiSnebdnen sicocxlis arsebobas. Tu es planetebi sakmarisad axlo iqneba, astronomebma SesaZloa maTi suraTebis pirdapir gadaRebac SeZlon. gulmodgine kompiuteruli modelirebis meSveobiT, albaT iseTi geografiuli detalebis dadgenac moxdeba, rogoricaa planetis zedapiris proporciuli Semadgenloba Txevad da myar nawilebs Soris. aRniSnuli teqnologiis winaswari cdebi, sadac Soreuli satelitebidan dedamiwis suraTebis gadaReba xdeba, imedismomcemia. mTavari SekiTxva gaxlavT, Tu SeZlebs adamiani erT mSvenier dRes axlomdebare egzoplanetidan nimuSebis aRebas. 2016 wlis agvistoSi mecnierebma sazogadoebas amcnes dedamiwis msgavsi planetis aRmoCena, romelic Proxima Centauri-s orbitaze moZraobda. 4.25 sinaTlis wlis manZilze es aris mzisgan yvelaze axlo mdebare varskvlavi. rusi miliarderi da fizikosi – iuri milneri (ixileT Semdegi statia) ukve muSaobs britanel Teoriul fizikos stiven houkingTan gegmaze, romlis mixedviTac lazeriT moZravi Zalian patara kosmosuri zondi Seiqmneba. igi am distancias daaxloebiT 20 weliwadSi dafaravs. aravin icis, warmatebiT dasruldeba Tu ara maTi proeqti, Tumca amasobaSi tess-ma unda SeZlos maTTvis samizne planetebis siis micema. samecniero fantastika odnav ufro realuri xdeba. n

2017 mokled kosmosuri xomaldi Cassini daasrulebs saturnis 13-wlian orbitalur Semofrenas. es iqneba pirveli amgvari frena, romlis Semdegac xomaldi saturnis Sida rgolebs gaivlis da mis zedapirze danarcxebiT daasrulebs mogzaurobas

tim krosi: mecnierebis korespondenti, The Economist


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mecniereba da teqnologiebi

msoflio 2017

mecniereba yvelasia

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inimum 4 000 welia, rac adamianebi cdiloben momavlis gamocnobas. magram Cveni cda ZiriTadad fuWia. is, rac winaswarmetyvelebad saRdeboda, iyo varaudi, fantazia an momavlis Wvretis sxva mcdeloba. am drois manZilze adamianma momavlis gamocnobis mxolod erT sando gzas miakvlia – es aris samecniero meTodi. mecnierebi dakavebulni arian ara mxolod dedamiwis, aramed mTeli samyaros 2017 wlis momavlis gamocnobiT. sad aRmovaCenT axal galaqtikas? rogor ganviTardeba es ujredi? maTi zogierTi winaswarmetyveleba ara mxolod 2017 wels, aramed samudamod darCeba. kosmologebi aTobiT miliardi wlis Semdeg momavalze fiqroben. TviT kvanturi velis Teoriam, romelic ambobs, rom nawilakebis qcevis winaswar gansazRvra SeuZlebelia, SeZlo miliardSi 10 nawilakis sizustiT prognozebis gakeTeba. adamianebs, romlebic mecnierebaSi ar varT Caxedulni, naklebi kvalifikacia gvaqvs momavlis prognozirebisTvis, Tumca Cven mainc SegviZlia garkveuli prognozireba: pirveli is, rom momaval wels samecniero kvleva axal aRmoCenebsa da garRvevebs gaakeTebs; meore is, rom umravlesoba amas verc ki SeamCnevs. Tu amis dajereba rTulia, modi, vcadoT (arc ise samecniero) eqsperimenti. qvemoT CamoTvlilia am aTwleulSi gakeTebuli yvelaze didi aRmoCenebis sia:

2010: adamianebi arian hibridebi gaqvavebuli neandertalelebis genomis analizma aCvena, rom mravali Cvenganis geni Seicavs ori saxeobis gens, rac adasturebs am ori saxeobis Sejvarebas.

2011: dedamiwebi yvelganaa mecnierebma aRmoaCines pirveli dedamiwis zomis planeta, romelic mzis msgavsi varskvlavis irgvliv moZraobs. axali monacemebis analizma aCvena, rom arsebobs miliardobiT planeta mxolod Cvens galaqtikaSi, romelzec sicocxlisTvis xelsayreli pirobebia.

2012: higsis nawilaki arsebobs higs bozoni aRmoCenilia, rac xsnis imas, Tu ratom aqvT sagnebs wona.

2013: SesaZlebelia genebis xelaxla Seqmna mecnierebma gamoigones genis Secvlis teqnologia CRISPR, romelsac dnm-ze Cveni kontrolis sferoSi revoluciis moxdenis, STamomavlobiTi daavadebebis mkurnalobisa da daberebis prevenciis potenciali aqvs.

2014: mogonebebis Secvla nevrologebi Slian, aRadgenen da cvlian mogonebebs virTxis tvinis genetikurad modificirebul ujredebze feradi sinaTlis sxivebis minaTebiT.

2015: gravitaciuli talRebi arsebobs aRmoCenilia drois sivrcis simrudeebi, romlebic Seiqmna Savi xvrelis SejaxebiT miliardi wlis win, riTac dasturdeba ainStainis winaswarmetyveleba.

2016: dedamiwas hyavs mezobeli astronomebma aRmoaCines potenciurad si-

cocxlis mqone dedamiwis zomis planeta mzesTan yvelaze axlomdebare varskvlavis irgvliv. CamoTvlili aRmoCenebidan ramdenma miaRwia sazogadoebis Segnebas? bevrs unda moesmina higsis bozonis aRmoCenis Sesaxeb axali ambavi 2012 wlis 4 ivliss. SedarebisTvis, koreuli popsingli Gangham Style am aRmoCenidan 11 dRis Semdeg gamovida. YouTube-ze higsis bozonis Sesaxeb yvelaze popularulma videom 2 milioni naxva miiRo, maSin roca Gangham Style 2 miliardze metma adamianma naxa. erTma ubralo, magram advilad dasamaxsovrebelma melodiam ufro metad moicva Cveni goneba, vidre umniSvnelovanesma aRmoCenam fundamenturi realobis Sesaxeb. adamianur doneze es niWis dakargvas niSnavs. ramdeni niWieri adamiani verasodes aRmoaCens sakuTar niWs iqidan gamomdinare, rom isini mecnierebas ar eziarebian? praqtikul doneze es niSnavs SesaZleblobis xelidan gaSvebas. es anelebs inovaciis danergvis temps, rac ekonomikuri zrdis safuZvelia da Cveni erTaderTi xangrZlivvadiani imedia iseTi egzistencialuri safrTxeebis winaaRmdeg, rogoricaa epidemiebi da asteroidebi. ufro fundamentur doneze es TviT sicocxlis dakargvas niSnavs. Cven – adamianebi, atomebis dineba varT, romelic varskvlavebSi Seiqmna. magram, savaraudod, samyaroSi Cveni atomebi imgvarad Seiqmna, rom SegviZlia vimsjeloT, ra aris samyaro, ras warmoadgens atomebi da ras niSnavs Semecneba. Cven SegviZlia SekiTxvebis dasma, hipoTezebis wamoyeneba, codna. SegviZlia momavlis ganWvreta. gvaqvs valdebuleba Cveni Tavis mimarT da kosmosis mimarT, rom Cveni niWi srulad gamoviyenoT.

„cnobismoyvareoba dagveweva“, — ambobs investori, mecnieriqvelmoqmedi da Breakthrough Initiatives-is damfuZnebeli iuri milneri

codnis samyaro Tumca SesaZloa Cven irgvliv arsebuli niSnebi fokusis cvlilebaze metyvelebdes. yvelaze imedismomcemi codnis demokratizacia gaxlavT. dRes mecnierebaSi zogadi ganaTlebis miReba `vikipediiTac~ ki SeiZleba. ufro Rrma codnas adamiani YouTube-ze SeiZens. samecniero disciplinebi, maT Soris, fizikis didi nawili, aqveynebs axal kvlevebs internetSi. monacemebis Riaoba niSnavs imas, rom nebismiers SeuZlia miiRos daumuSavebeli samecniero masala. `qraudsorsingi~, anu farTo sazogadoebis CarTva sxvadasxva sakiTxebis gadaWraSi cvlis mecnierebis ganviTarebis kurss. amgvari platformebis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia umaRlesi donis maTematikosebis Tu sxva mecnierTa TanamSromloba da axali aRmoCenebis gakeTeba. amasobaSi mecnierebi acnobiereben, rom maTi saqmis mTavari nawilia ideebisa da emociis komunikacia sazogadoebaze. im pirobebSi, roca codnaze wvdoma sayovelTao xasiaTs iZens, SesaZloa kidev ufro didi ganviTareba am sferoSi. amgvarad, marTalia, umetes Cvengans ar SeuZlia momavlis ganWvreta, magram imedi gvaqvs, rom momaval wels vixilavT codnis kulturis aRmocenebas, sadac ufro meti Cvengani Caebmeba imis ZiebaSi, risTvisac davibadeT – ZiebaSi codnisTvis. n

Cven gvaqvs valdebuleba sakuTari Tavisa da kosmosis mimarT, rom Cveni niWi srulad gamoviyenoT


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msoflio 2017 amave seqciaSi: virtualuri Txroba sakiTxavi wignebi somalis wignebis gamofena-gayidva mowiweba iv sen loranisadmi

Zveli Temebi, axali satelevizio Souebi ubralod, SesaZlebelia siuzan voicicki: ras ucqers momavlis msoflio

kompendiumebi jein morisi

evropis xelovnebis zafxulSi sami didi gamofena adamians mediumad gamoiyenebs

a

frikaSi, aziasa da axlo aRmosavleTSi aris mTeli rigi Tanamedrove xelovnebis muzeumebi; 2017 wels iq antarqtikuli bienalec ki gaimarTeba, magram sami mniSvnelovani gamofena yuradRebas ukan – evropisken miipyrobs: veneciis bienale, Documenta saberZneTsa da germaniaSi da Skulptur Projekte Münster. erToblivad, es sami gamofena 2017 wels, aTwleulSi erTxel dadgmul mxatvrul blokbasterad aqcevs. 1895 wels daarsebuli veneciis bienale uZvelesi da udidesia. igi maisSi gaixsneba da masze or vrcel darbazSi 150 mxatvris namuSevrebi iqneba gamofenili. erovnul pavilionebSi 90-mde qveyana warmodgenebs gamarTavs, xolo mTel qalaqSi kidev 50-mde sxva gamofena Catardeba. Documenta yovel xuT weliwadSi erTxel imarTeba. 2017 wels valebSi Cavardnili saberZneTis mimarT solidarobis niSnad, is jer aTenSi aprilSi gaixsneba, xolo Semdeg, ivnisSi, mis Cveul adgilas – kaselSi gadainacvlebs. Documenta 1955 wels daarsda da dRes kuratorebis yvelaze sayvareli movlenaa msoflioSi. bolo RonisZiebaze, romelic 2012 wels gaimarTa, 200-ze meti mxatvris namuSevrebi iyo warmodgenili; Documenta aseve moicavda konferenciebs, publikaciebsa da riggareSe ivenTebs. ivnisSi dagegmilia Skulptur Projekte Münster – monumenturi namuSevrebis mimoxilvis mexuTe gamoSveba, romelic yovel aT weliwadSi erTxel tardeba; Suasaukuneebis germanul qalaqs `walekaven~ adamianebi, romlebsac amoZravebT Tanamedrove mowyobilobebis sakuTari TvaliT xilvis Zlieri survili. samive movlenis Rirebuleba erTad €100 milions ($110) Seadgens da maTze 2 milionze meti adamianis daswrebas moelian; koleqcionerebi, kuratorebi da

kultura

muzeumis direqtorebi ukve gegmaven erTi gamofenidan meoreze vizitebs. yovelwliuri komerciuli movlenebi, rogoricaa Art Basel honkongsa da SveicariaSi da mediis siuxviT gamorCeuli auqcionebi niuiorkSi, SesaZloa erTi SexedviT naklebad mniSvnelovan ivenTebad mogeCvenoT. bolos `didi sameuli~ 2007 wels daemTxva. ai veiveim xelovnebis nimuSebis saxiT CineTidan kaselSi 1001 adamiani Camoiyvana. umetesobas manamde ucxoeTSi gamgzavrebis SesaZlebloba arasodes hqonia. man TiToeul maTgans Cemodani, tansacmeli, Ramis gasaTevi adgili da mokrZalebuli jamagiri misca. maT Tavisuflad SeeZloT qalaqSi xetiali da sakuTari survilisamebr adgilobrivebTan urTierToba. `zRapari~, romelic €3.1 milioni dajda, Documentaze naCvenebi erT-erTi yvelaze ZviradRirebuli namuSevari iyo. efemeruli da performansuli warmodgena globalur uTanasworobebs Seexeboda da igi Seiqmna xelovanis mier, romlis qveyanac xelovnebis meinstrimSi is-is iyo Sedioda. aman batoni ai globalur personad aqcia. ukve naTelia, rom 2017 wels evropis `xelovnebis zafxulSi~ performansi, sxeuli da monawileoba kvlavac RirsSesaniSnav adgils daikaveben. `cifrul epoqaSi, sadac sxeuli monacemebamdea dayvanili da bitebSia kvlavwarmoebuli, fizikuri sxeulis realoba ar SeiZleba ignorirebuli iyos~, – ambobs adam szimCiki – Documenta-s samxatvro direqtori. miunsterSi Turqi xelovani aise erkmeni `uxilav~ safexmavlo xids aagebs, romelic qalaqis navsadgurze ramdenime santimetriT qvemoT aris CaZiruli. Seiqmneba STabeWdileba, rom fexSiSveli adamianebi wyalze ivlian; adamianebis gareSe namuSevari qreba. kristin maseli – veneciis 57-e bienales direqtori ambobs, rom performansiT gaJRenTilia Viva Arte Viva – misi centraluri Sou. Tormeti Tematuri ganyofileba, romelic `xelovanis Sinagani samyarodan usasrulosa da maradiulSi~ gadadis, mayurebels `poetur” mogzaurobaSi waiyvans. yovel SabaTs auditorias saSualeba miecema lanCi xelovanebTan erTad miirTvan da xelovneba maTTan erTad ganixilon.

2017 mokled oqtombridan niu-iorkis Guggenheim-is muzeumi, 1989 wlis Semdeg, rodesac qveyanam msoflios Tavisi ekonomika gauxsna, pirvelad maspinZlobs Tanamedrove Cinuri xelovnebis saetapo gamofenas

jein morisi: mesvete, The Art Newspaper


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Txrobis droa leo mirani, amsterdami

virtualuri realoba dasabams Txrobis axal formebs miscems

a

msterdamis centraluri sadguridan aRmosavleTiT, xuTi wuTis savalze SexvdebiT kinoTeatrs, romelic yvela sxva kinoTeatrisgan gansxvavebulia. auditoriis wevrebi gafantulad sxedan mbrunav skamebze. mayurebelTaTvis gankuTvnili sivrce – ori patara oTaxi 25 adgiliT – dRis SuqiTaa ganaTebuli, romelic sarkis minis didi fanjrebidan iRvreba. gamvlelebis mzera droebiT Cerdeba, Tumca auditorias araferi awuxebs; isini Samsung Gear virtualuri realobis kompleqtis saSualebiT yovelgvar xmaursa da sinaTles arian mowyvetilni. TiToeuli adamiani sakuTar samyaroSi imyofeba. virtualuri realobis kinoTeatri martSi gaixsna da aq kviraSi xuTjer rva 30-wuTiani Sou imarTeba. es TviTkmari biznesia, misi bosis – jip samhudis TqmiT, romelmac misi kinoauditoriisTvis mokle virtualuri realobis filmebi moamzada. baton samhudisTvis mayureblebis mozidva problemas ar warmoadgens; gamowveva kontentis moZiebaa. kinoTeatrSi dasaqmebulia srul ganakveTze momuSave ori adamiani, romelTa funqciebi msoflioSi mogzauroba da axali virtualuri realobis gamocdilebis Ziebaa. maTi amocana male gaioldeba. Tu 2016 virtualuri realobis TamaSebis weli iyo PlayStation virtualuri realobisa da Pokemon-is gamosvlis wyalobiT, romlebmac milionebis yuradReba daipyres, 2017 virtualuri realobis ambebis Txrobis weli iqneba. holivudis studiebi virtualur realobaSi fuls uxvad abandeben. 2017 wels tribekas kinofestivalze virtualuri realobis filmebs jildoebisTvis brZolis saSualeba miecemaT. Tencent-ma – TamaSebisa da teqsturi Setyobinebebis

2017 mokled elena feranes neapolitanuri romanebi londonis scenaze idgmeba

Cinurma gigantma, virtualuri realobis filmebi gamouSva. sxva msxvili Cinuri kompaniebi am process yuradRebiT adevneben Tvals. gazafxulze Ghost in the Shell-is gamosvliT, kinoindustriis es mimarTuleba meinstrimSi moxvdeba; es aris iaponuri sakulto anime seriebis holivuduri versia, romelSic virtualuri realoba narativis ZiriTad nawils warmoadgens. batoni samhudis molodiniT, 2017 wels `kinematografiuli virtualuri realoba Semdeg doneze gadava~. Tumca dRemde gaurkveveli rCeba, zustad ra iqneba es. rodesac kino gamoigones, pirveli kinematografistebi an Cveulebriv speqtakls dgamdnen (matarebeli, romelic kinoekranisken moemarTeba), an Teatralur Cveulebebs imeorebdnen, rac didi doziT yvirilsa da melodramas moicavda. pirveli satelevizio Souebi arsebiTad dasuraTebuli radio iyo. kadrebis swrafi cvla modaSi 1950-iani wlebis Semdeg Semovida. did da mcire ekranebze ambebis Txrobis ena mxolod droisa da eqsperimentebis saSualebiT ganviTarda. axla virtualuri realobisTvis axali gramatikis wignia saWiro. pirveli wesebis SemuSaveba ukve mimdinareobs; am procesSi albaT yvelaze mniSvnelovani faqtori mayureblis rolia. 2014 wels Facebook-is mier $2 miliardad SeZenilma Oculus-ma Seqmna Story Studio, romelic originalur filmebs awarmoebs. Story Studio-s xelmZRvanel

Documenta warmoadgens politikuri represiebis erTobliv kritikas. argentineli marta minuini kaselis moedanze 100 000 akrZaluli publikaciisgan akropolisis uzarmazar asls aagebs. mayurebels SesTavazeben, gaiRon wignebi da samuSaos bolos monawileoba miiRon jerjerobiT gaurkvevel saqmianobaSi. xelovnebis am dargs e.w. `aTaswleulis Taobas~ Soris mzardi auditoria hyavs, romlebsac, rogorc wesi, gamocdilebis dagroveba ufro ainteresebT, vidre nivTebisa. hans ulrix obristi – SveicariaSi dabadebuli londonis Serpentine Galleries samxatvro direqtori, 1989 wlis Semdeg dabadebuli 7000 axalgazrda xelovanis saqmianobas adevnebda Tvals; es aris pirveli Taoba, romelic berlinis kedlis dangrevis Semdeg da internetiT gaizarda. misi TqmiT, virtualuri kavSiris irgvliv organizebul msofli-

saSka unselds miaCnia, rom virtualuri realobis mayurebeli TeatrTan ufro axlos imyofeba, vidre kinosTan an TamaSebTan. `auditoria maqsimalurad CarTulia da monawileobs, magram ar ZaluZs Secvalos an Tavad marTos ambavi~, – ambobs igi. `Teatric iZleva virtualuri realobis filmebis keTebis gakveTilebs~, – ambobs batoni samhudi. msaxiobebi rolSi unda iyvnen mTeli gadaRebis manZilze – ara marto maSin, roca kadrSi arian; auditoria yvelganaa. dadgma da gaSveba aseTive zusti unda iyos. garda amisa, bevrad didi dro midis warmoebisTvis momzadebaze, vidre faqtobriv Sesrulebaze. TandaTanobiT, cdisa da gameorebis procesis meSveobiT, garkveuli wesebi oqrosi gaxdeba, magram pirveli nabijia filmebis mayureblis samsjavroze gamotana; dae, swored maT gadawyviton, ra muSaobs da ra ara. dagegmilia amsterdamSi arsebulis msgavsi sxva kinoTeatrebis gaxsnac, romelic adamianebs, Sesabamis mowyobilobebs rom ar floben, saSualebas miscems ganicadon virtualuri realoba. `Cveni tvini mainc ise fiqrobs, rogorc filmSia, – ambobs batoni unseldi, – garkveuli droa saWiro imisaTvis, rom Cveni Tavi amisgan ganvacalkevoT~. 2017 wels es gancalkeveba (virtualur) realobad qcevas daiwyebs. n leo mirani: axali ambebis redaqtori, The Economist

oSi `cocxali gamocdilebis, realuri sxeulis mimarT bevrad didi interesi arsebobs da, masTan erTad, SiSic, rom onlainsamyaro Cvenive, sakuTari algoriTmiT gakontrolebuli midrekilebebis `filtris buStSi~ gvamwyvdevs~. olafur eliasoni – daniel-islandieli xelovani, 2003 wels Tate Modern-ze adamianebs mouwodebda, misi `amindis proeqti~ TavSeyris adgilad eqciaT. 2010 wels niu-iorkSi Tanamedrove xelovnebis muzeumi uzarmazari raodenobiT adamians Zlivs umklavdeboda, romlebic rigSi saaTobiT idgnen imis sayureblad, Tu rogor ijda marina abramoviCi uSfoTvelad magidasTan (gadaRebulia, wina gverdze). 2017 wels kontinenturi evropis jeria, miiRos (albaT Zlier saWiro) performansis, monawileobis da TanagrZnobis doza. n


wignebis winaswari gayidva megi fergiusoni

2017 wels wasakiTxi wignebis sia

i

storiis moyvarulebs momdevno 12 Tvis ganmavlobaSi uxvad eqnebaT sazrdo, romelsac SeuZliaT daewafon. 2012 wels norman devisma dedamiwis irgvliv mogzauroba wamoiwyo. wignSi `samSoblo~, romelsac aprilSi Allen Lane gamoscems, avtori mis mier nanax adgilebsa da iq aRmoCenil istoriaze mogviTxrobs. seqtemberSi gamodis en eplbaumis `SimSiloba~ (aseve Allen Lane), romelic ukrainaSi 1930-iani wlebis SimSilobaze mogviTxrobs. imave TveSi evolucionirebs a.n. uilsonis (John Murray) `darvini~, sadac warmodgenilia axali xedva didi bunebismetyvelis Sesaxeb. moaxlovda bolSevikuri ajanyebis asi wlisTavi da, masTan erTad, mravali wigni ixilavs dRis sinaTles, romelTa Sorisaa: `oqtomberi: ruseTis revoluciis ambavi~ (Verso) Caina mievilis avtorobiT, romelic ufro fantastikuri nawarmoebebiTaa cnobili. memuarebis mxriv es uxvmosavliani weli iqneba – dawyebuli amerikel novelist riCard fordis wigniT (Ecco/Harper Collins) `maT Soris~; baton fordis mogonebebs misi mSoblebis cxovrebis prizmidan gavecnobiT. Semdeg modis irlandieli mwerlis – ruT ficmorisis `me vipove Cemi tomi~ (Chatto & Windus); xelovan ai veiveis mogonebebi (gazafxulze gamodis) mkiTxvelisTvis SesaZloa Sokismomgvreli aRmoCndes. romanebs Soris, romlebsac Tvali yuradRebiT unda vadevnoT, aris pol osteris `4 3 2 1~ (Faber & Faber)

da nil muxerjis `Tavisuflebis mdgomareoba~ (Chatto); am ukanasknelSi indoeTSi arsebuli realobis fonze ganxilulia migraciis Tema. martSi gamodis `dasavleTis scenidan gasvla~ (Riverhead/Hamish Hamilton), romelic `uxaliso fundamentalistis~ avtorma – mohsin hamidma Seqmna. gasakviri ar aris, rom msoflios konfliqtebi da maTi Sedegebi gzas beletristikaSic ikvleven. jeison donaldi mis meore romanSi `dalila~ (Jonathan Cape), glagzoSi TavSesafris maZieblebTan muSaobis gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT, institucionalizebuli britanuli sisastikis Sesaxeb gviambobs; kristofer hemptonma wignis mixedviT scenari dawera da filmis reJisori iqneba. yofil jariskac braian van ritis `naSTebi~ (Vintage) eraySi amerikeli jariskaci qalisa da jihadistis urTierTobas mimoixilavs. ivlisSi gvelodeba `prezidentis baRebi~ (MacLehose), muhsin al ramlis epikuri romani, romlis siuJetic sadam huseinis eraySi viTardeba da arabulidan luk lifgrenma Targmna. 2015 wels frankfurtis wignis bazrobaze erT-erTi yvelaze gamorCeuli wigni iyo j.p. delanis `gogona uwin~. 32 qveynis mTelma rigma gamomcemlobebma misi gamocemis ufleba SeiZines, xolo filmis gadaRebis uflebis mosapoveblad msoflios 150-mde kinostudia ibrZoda (moigo Universal-ma). am nawarmoebs ise warmoadgenen, rogorc momaval `gogonas matarebelze~. 2016 wlis amerikis arCevnebis siuJeti ufro ucnauri iyo, vidre gamonagoni, da misgan wignebis didZal mosavals unda velodoT. martSi satirikosi p.J. o’rurki mis sagangebo naSroms: `jandabas, es rogorRa moxda?~ (Atlantic) SemogvTavazebs. arCevnebis win man ganmarta, Tu ratom surda hilari klintonisTvis mieca xma: `is rigiT meore yvelaze uaresi ram aris, rac Cvens qveyanas SeiZleba daemarTos. me mas vuWer mxars~. n

somalilendis `malamo~ konrad haine, hargeisa

wignebis gamofena-gayidva `frTebs Slis~

d

edaqalaqi qveynisa, romelic saerTaSoriso doneze aRiarebuli ar aris da Sida areulobebis Sedegad miwasTan gasworebuli somalis nawils oficialurad warmoadgens, afrikis erT-erTi yvelaze gamorCeuli kulturuli RonisZiebis moulodneli maspinZelia. 22-27 ivliss somalilendSi hargeisas meaTe saerTaSoriso wignis gamofena-gayidva gaimarTeba – literaturis, musikis, cekvisa da debatebis festivali, romelic 2008 wels daiwyo, rogorc mcire masStabis RonisZieba, da TandaTan mniSvnelovan kulturul movlenad iqca 2016 wels 10 000 adamianis monawileobiT. masze ucxoel stumrebTan erTad warmodgenili iqnebian somaleli mwerlebi, mxatvrebi da akademiuri wreebis warmomadgenlebi. Seumdgari saxelmwifos fonze gamofena-gayidvis aseTi dRegrZeloba gasakviria, iseve rogorc Tavad somalilendisa, romelmac 1991 wels siad bares diqtaturis damxobis Semdeg somalisgan damoukidebloba gamoacxada. im droidan somalilendSi demokratiuli saxelmwi-

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fos mSeneblobis procesi etapobrivad mimdinareobs; momdevno saprezidento arCevnebi, savaraudod, 2017 wlis pirvel naxevarSi gaimarTeba. wignis gamofenis warmateba niSnavs qalaqis aRorZinebas, romelic festivalis damfuZneblis – jama muse jamas TqmiT, odesRac `somalis kulturul keras~ warmoadgenda, sanam 1988 wels bares bombdamSenebi mas miwasTan gaasworebdnen. igi aseve ixsenebs riCard bartonis – me-19 saukunis britaneli mkvlevris sityvebs, romelmac somalis `poetebis eri~ uwoda. organizatorebs aqvT ambicia, rom 2017 wels gamofenis gavlena kidev ufro gafarTovdes, gansakuTrebiT – afrikaSi. misi Temaa `dakavSirebadoba~: `somalilendis msofliosTvis da msoflios somalilendisTvis gacnoba~. samxreT afrikis respublika, kontinentis ekonomikuri Zrava, `stumar qveyanas~ warmoadgens. literaturis dargidan stumrebs Soris SeiZleba iyos joni stainbergi, romlis wignSic `keTili imedis kaci~ (2014) dokumentirebulia somaleli migrantebis yofa keiptaunSi; agreTve, nurudin fara – samxreT afrikis respublikaSi mcxovrebi somaleli novelisti. savaraudod, gamofenaze aseve vixilavT haadravis – poets, romelic adgilo-

2017 mokled Scribner aprilSi frensis skot fitcjeraldis ukanasknel gamouqveynebel moTxrobebs uSvebs

megi fergiusoni: Tavisufali korespondenti

brivTa Soris rok-varskvlavis statusiT sargeblobs da zogjer `somalis Seqspiradac~ moixsenieben. mwvave regionuli dapirispirebis miuxedavad, gamofena-gayidvam ukve msgavsi RonisZiebebis Catarebis survili mezobeli puntlandis provinciis dedaqalaqSi – garovesa da somalis dedaqalaq mogadiSoSic gaaCina. 2017 wels batoni jama gegmavs monawileoba miiRos gaxsniTi RonisZiebis organizebaSi malaviSi, romelic warsulSi stumar qveyanas warmoadgenda. igi bednieria Tavisi inteleqtualuri sakuTreba sxvebsac gauziaros: `idea ocneba iyo, ase rom, ratom ar unda viyo bednieri?!~ gamofena-gayidvaze kritikuli kuTxiT ganixilaven afrikis am kuTxeSi arsebul Sexedulebebs: jgufuri diskusiebi, savaraudod, iseT sakiTxebs SeeWideba, rogoricaa seqsualoba da qalis roli regionSi, sadac islamisturi SeiaraRebuli formireba `al-Sababis~ yofna sagrZnobia. es sarisko saqmea (2008 wels hargeisaSi TviTmkvlelma teroristebma ganaxorcieles afeTqebebi, romlebic msxverpliT dasrulda), adgili hqonda muqarebsac; magram batoni jama am debatebs karg gamocdilebas uwodebs. 2017 wels igi moelis, rom sazRvrebi `albaT ufro metad gafarTovdeba, vidre odesme. adamianebi wignebis gamofena-gayidvasTan erTad izrdebian~.n konrad haine: Tavisufali korespondenti


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iv sen loranis memkvidreoba sofi pederi, parizi

ori axali muzeumi legendarul modis dizainers pativs miagebs

y

ofili modis saxlis zeda sarTulze, kondicirebul sacavSi siyvaruliT inaxeba iv sen loranis mier maRali modis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad Seqmnili 5000 kaba, qurTuki, kostiumi da palto, romlebic qaRaldSia Sexveuli da mtvrisgan dacul kabinebSia moTavsebuli. mravali maTgani modis legendas ekuTvnis: 1965 wels SemoRebuli minikaba Mondrian; le Smoking, 1966 wlis tuqsedos Sarval-kostiumi, romelmac daarRvia qalebis Cacmis kodeqsi; 1940-ian wlebze skandaluri xedva 1971-dan; pikasos, matisis an van gogis mier STagonebuli faqizad moqarguli nivTebi. 2017 wlis Semodgomaze damTva-

liereblebs am nivTebis mudmivi koleqciis xilvis saSualeba pirvelad miecemaT, rodesac gaixsneba sakulto frangi dizainerisadmi miZRvnili ori axali muzeumi. erT-erTi maTgania parizSi Avenue Marceau-ze mdebare ganaxlebuli tansacmlis atelie, sadac sen lorani TiTqmis 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi Tavis dizainis studiaSi muSaobda. stumrebs aq sxvadasxva nivTi imave mdgomareobaSi daxvdebaT, rogorc dizainerma datova: samuSao magida, sadac igi fusfusebda, da eskizebis gasakravi dafa; ixilaven eskizebs, Targebsa da samosels misi 81 koleqciidan. meore muzeumi maraqeSSi, Jardin Majorelle-is maxloblad gaixsneba, romelic sen loranisa da misi partnioris – pier berJes mier iqna aRdgenili; am qalaqs isini Tavis meore saxls uwodebdnen. es Senoba ori axalgazrda frangi arqiteqtoris – olivie martisa da karl furnies Semoqmedebis nayofia, romlebic marokoSi Tavisi minimalisturi namuSevrebiT arian cnobilni. SenobaSi kulturuli centri da mudmivi retrospeqtiuli koleqcia ganTavsdeba. parizSi arsebuli iv sen loranis arqivebidan muzeumSi asobiT

deJa viu televizia reiCel loidi

familaroba siRrmes SesZens, magram masTan erTad zizRsac aRZravs

s 2017 mokled pulitceris premia 100 wlis xdeba. warsulSi gamarjvebulebs Soris iyvnen robert frosti, New York Times-s TanamSromlebi da jois qerol outsi

reiCel loidi: redaqtoris TanaSemwe, wignebi da xelovneba, The Economist

aukuneebis manZilze istoriebs axal sicocxles STaberavdnen. Seqspirma Coseris poema `troilusi da kriseida~ piesad gadaakeTa. `mefe lomi~ `hamletis~ SesamCnev kvals atarebs. Jan risma Tavis `ukidegano sargasos zRvaSi~ (1966) antuanet kosveis, `jein earSi~ ki baton roCesteris abuCad agdebuli colis istoria ganavrco. es naSromebi gvibiZgebs gavaanalizoT originaluri siuJeti: ra gamorCa da ratom? ratom grZeldeba misi Temebi? satelevizio qselebic Zvel istoriebSi axal Sinaarss sul ufro xSirad pouloben: 2017 wels ixilavT Souebis premieras, romlebic efuZneba `romeo da julietas~, `ozis jadoqars~, `ens mwvane saxuravebidan~, `rapuncels~, `borcvebis mobinadreebs~, dc Comics Universe-s da `varskvlavur gzas~; es mxolod mcire CamonaTvalia. teleproduqciis Semqmnelebi imedovneben, rom arsebuli ambis axal xedvas SemogvTavazeben. NBC-s `zurmuxtis qalaqi~ mayurebels Seaxsenebs, rom `ozis msgavsi adgili ar arsebobs~. ABC-s seriali `kvlavac varskvlavTa mier gadakveTili~ kidev erTxel iwyeba montegebisa da kapuletebis kinklaobiT `axalgazrda SeyvarebulTa tragikuli xvedris gariJraJze~. NBC-s kidev erTi Sou – `motacebuli~, liam nisonis monawileobiT gadaRebuli filmebis winaistorias warmoadgens; is gamoikvlevs, Tu rogor SeiZina braian milsma `Zalze specifikuri da uaRresad saSiSi unarebis nakrebi~. xSir SemTxvevaSi es gamWriaxi nabijia. `uZlurni~, romelsac aseve NBC gvTavazobs, saSualebas gvaZlevs sadazRvevo brokerTa cxovrebaSi supergmirebis samyarodan CavixedoT; es teleseriali Janris gamasxaravebis mcdelobaa. Netflix SorsmWvretelurad moiqca da

tansacmeli, aqsesuari, eskizi da fotomasala gaigzavneba. proeqtebis sulisCamdgmelia batoni berJe, romelic amJamad 86 wlisaa. is Fondation Pierre Berge-Yves Saint Laurents xelmZRvanelobs, romelic koleqciis mflobelia. proeqtebi nawilobriv 2009 wels, sen loranis sikvdilidan erTi wlis Semdeg, wyvilis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli €374 milionis ($411 milioni) Rirebulebis xelovnebis koleqciis gayidvidan Semosuli saxsrebiT dafinansdeba. `sen lorans Tavidanve yvelafris Senaxva surda~, – ambobs batoni berJe, romlis magidis ukan 1972 wels endi uorholis mier Sesrulebuli dizaineris portretia Camokidebuli. `me yovelTvis vambobdi, rom am nivTebisTvis raime unda mogvexerxebina~. parizi bunebrivi arCevani iyo; maraqeSma `ivs feris Sesaxeb bevri ram aswavla~. baton berJes azriT, maRali moda sen loranTan erTad mokvda. dRevandeli modis saxlebi mxolod `fuli da marketingia~. sen lorani, romelmac qalebs Cveulebebis darRvevis stimuli misca, batoni berJes TqmiT, iyo `didTagan ukanaskneli~. n sofi pederi: parizis biuros xelmZRvaneli, The Economist

Lemony Snicket-is `samwuxaro movlenaTa Tanmimdevrobas~ mokida xeli. wignebis fanebi, romlebic 2004 wels filmis adaptaciiT imedgacruebulni darCnen, aRtacebulni arian: filmSi sami wigni 107 wuTSi Catenes, axla ki TiToeuli wigni orsaaTian satelevizio epizodebs miiRebs. aq xasiaTebis Seqmnis, dekoraciebis dadgmisa da detalebze yuradRebis gamaxvilebisTvis ufro didi gasaqani iqneba. nil patrik harisi, romelic aramzada grafi olafis rols TamaSobs, ambobs, rom damatebiTi saeTero dro `masalis bevrad muq ferebSi warmoCenis~ saSualebas iZleva. Tumca sxva SemTxvevebSi istoriebis axleburad gakeTeba, rogorc Cans, fulis Sovnaze gaTvlili sizarmacea. `ubis wignakis~ rimeiki (CW-qseli) Tvals miadevnebs `noes da alis romantikul mogzaurobas maTi ayvavilebuli urTierTobis CanasaxSive~, rac originalis gadamRerebaa. arsebuli varaudiT, filmis Semosavali (msoflioSi $115 milionze meti) da misi erTguli fanebis mTeli armia mis finansur warmatebas uzrunvelyofda. analogiurad, naklebad arsebobs saWiroeba imisa, rom Netflix-ma 2013 wels gadaRebuli `TovlsaRebi~ – samxreTkoreuli inglisurenovani filmi serialebad aqcios. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom qveynis SigniT es meaTe yvelaze Semosavliani filmia, warmoudgenel nabijad gveCveneba misi axali samxreTkoreuli auditoriis yuradRebis mipyroba (iq saitma strimingi 2016 wlis ianvarSi daiwyo). Fox-ma, romelic `cixidan gaqcevis~ ganaxlebas gegmavs msaxiobebis originaluri SemadgenlobiT, mayureblisgan unda moiTxovos, rom usafuZvlod gverdze gadados Tavisi urwmunoeba: 2009 wels filmi centraluri personaJis sikvdiliT dasrulda. Tu axal xmebs an perspeqtivebs ver daamateben, qselebma Zveli masalis adaptaciisgan Tavi unda Seikavon. es ara marto auditoriis imedgacruebas iwvevs (Rotten Tomatoes – onlainmimoxilvis agregatori 2016 wlis seqtemberSi eTerSi gasul Fox-is `sasikvdilo iaraRs~ `mosawyen ambad~ moixseniebs), is aseve debs usafrTxo fsonebs da ara inovaciur, uCveulo scenarebs. sawyeni iqneba, Tu Semdegi `mZime danaSauli~ `bafi – vampirTa mmusvrelis~ gadamRerebul versiasTan damarcxdeba. n


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m

cire xnis win sastumros oTaxSi, Cemi Svilebis TandaswrebiT sareklamo samsaxurebis xelmZRvaneli pirebis winaSe sityviT gamosvlamde repeticias gavdiodi. gamosvlaSi detalurad iyo ganmartebuli onlainvideos gaCenis Semdeg televiziis rolis cvlilebis Sesaxeb Cemi xedva. me vamtkicebdi, rom televizia im msoflios centrSi iyo, romelSic me gavizarde, magram dRevandel msoflioSi onlainvideom mas `Zalaufleba~ waarTva. gamosvlis dasrulebis Semdeg Cems Svilebs, romlebic mismendnen, azri vkiTxe. `namdvilad ar vici, deda~, – miTxra Cemma vaJma, – `televizors ar vuyureb~. SesaZloa zogierTebma Znelad daijeron, magram axalgazrda Taobebi Tavs aRweven televiziis mZlavr `klanWebs~, romlebSic mas Cven vyavdiT momwyvdeuli. Nielsen-is monacemebis mixedviT, gasuli xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi drois moculoba, romelsac 25-34 wlis asakis adamianebi tradiciuli televiziis cqeras uTmobdnen, 25.6%-iT daeca. ufro axalgazrda, e.w. `aTaswleulis TaobisTvis~ klebis maCvenebeli kidev ufro mkveTria – 37.9%. swored es SeiZleba iyos mizezi imisa, Tu ratom CaWra 2016 wlis meore kvartalSi amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 834.000 adamianma sakuTari sakabelo arxebi, riTac axali rekordi damyarda. strimingplatformebis moTxovnisamebr, xolo mobiluri mowyobilobebis televizoris nacvlad gamoyenebis gamo, satelevizio auditoria mcirdeba; adamianebi videos ufro metad aTvaliereben, vidre odesme – mediasakonsultacio kompania Activate-is monacemebiT, 2016 wels es dro eqvs saaTze mets Seadgenda, 2011 wlis xuT saaTTan SedarebiT. faqtobrivad, amerikelebi Tavisufal saaTebs ZiriTadad videosTvis Tvalis midevnebaSi atareben, rasac drois TvalsazrisiT mxolod muSaoba da Zili aRemateba. es urTierTdakavSirebuli tendenciebi – tradiciuli satelevizio auditoriis Semcireba da videos gazrdili moxmareba – or niuansze metyvelebs. upirvelesad, mayurebels gamokveTilad surs ufro meti moqniloba im mxriv, Tu rogor moixmars kontents. televiziis biznesmodeli SezRudulobas efuZneboda: kontenti konkretuli arxebiT da drois intervalebiT SezRuduli da geografiul sazRvrebSi moqceuli iyo. kontenti, romelze wvdoma garTulebulia, SeiZleba daviwyebiT dasruldes. mayureblisTvis kontentiT sargeblobis gaioleba – moTxovnisamebr da nebismier mowyobilobaze, SezRuduli SeferxebebiT – ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre odesme. meore: mayurebels aseve surs airCios, Tu ras ucqiros. mas surs yvela saxis, nebismieri sigrZisa da formatis kontentis naxva, romelic cxovrebis yvelanairi wesis mqone da msoflios yvela kuTxeSi mcxovrebi adamianebis mier aris Seqmnili. es aSkara gaxda, rodesac 2015 wels Jurnal Variety-s mier Catarebul kvlevaSi amerikel Tineijerebs hkiTxes, Tu vin warmoadgenda maT sayvarel saxeebs. pirvel aTeulSi rva filmis varskvlavi an musikosi ki ar iyo, aramed YouTubeelebi. mas Semdeg Catarebulma analogiurma kvlevebma msgavsi Sedegebi aCvena britaneTSi, braziliasa da fineTSi. YouTube am varskvlavebs axali mediaekonomikis aSenebaSi exmareba, sadac TiToeuli Semoq-

medi sakuTar mediakompanias warmoadgens. isini tradiciuli mediis `karibWis mcvelebisgan~ eTerSi gamosaCenad nebarTvas ar iTxoven; isini qmnian kontents da Tavis auditorias pirdapir uziareben. da isini ara mxolod Cndebian TavianT videoebSi, aramed aseve axorcieleben maT prodiusirebas, reJisuras, redaqtirebas da marketings. marTalia, bevrma maTganma Tavis saZinebelSi gadaRebiT daiwyo, magram biznesis zrdasTan erTad afarToeben warmoebas da saqmeSi rTaven redaqtorebs, scenaristebsa da sxva specialistebs. garkveul SemTxvevebSi maTi saqmianoba diversifikacias ganicdis da moicavs wignebis weras, saqonlis gayidvas da turizms. es momavlis mediakompaniebia.

radgan amas televiziiT ver ixilavT

isini qmnian kontentsac, romelsac televiziiT verasodes ixilavT. gamomdinare iqidan, rom aqvT globalur auditoriaze wvdoma, SeuZliaT iseT kategoriebs Seexon, romlebic sxva SemTxvevaSi sicocxlisunariani ar iqneboda. iogas arxma SesaZloa aSS-Si televiziiT sakmarisi raodenobiT mayurebeli ver Seagrovos, magram mis onlainreJimSi msoflioSi iogas milionobiT enTuziastis mozidva ioladaa SesaZlebeli. onlainvideos moTxovnaze orientirebuli xasiaTi aseve iseTi kategoriebis popularobis zrdas ganapirobebs, rogoricaa instruqciebi (how-to) da saganmanaTleblo kontenti. rodesac Cems Svils maTematikis gamocda aqvs, is tyuilad ver daelodeba satelevizio Sous, romelic trigonometrias ganixilavs – onlainreJimSi mas SekiTxvebze pasuxebis naxva myisierad SeuZlia. faqtobrivad, milionobiT adamiani onlainvideos imisTvis iyenebs, rom axali ram iswavlos. Tqven SeiZleba YouTube warmogidgeniaT, rogorc adgili, sadac uSveben katebze videos, magram saganmanaTleblo kontentis ZiebaTa ricxvi sazrian cxovelebze gadaRebuli videoebis Ziebis ricxvs samjer aRemateba. adamianebi ecnobian mraval siaxles, arkveven rogor SeakeTon saojaxo teqnika, euflebian axal unarebs. 2016 wlis olimpiuri vercxlis medalosani Subis tyorcnaSi kenieli julius iego gaxda, romelic YouTube-s videoebze Tvalis midevnebiT tyorcnis xelovnebas TviTon daeufla. mayureblebis mier gamogzavnili signalebi naTelia: isini ufro moqnili, globaluri da socialuri cqeris gamocdilebis miRebas eswrafvian. 2017 wels da Semdgom am survilebs didi gavlena eqneba axalgazrda auditoriaze. magaliTad, Tu politikosi xarT da gsurT, rom Tqvenma gzavnilma `aTaswleulis TaobaTa~ Soris povos gamoZaxili, cifruli mediiT unda isargebloT. albaT swored amitomac, barak obamam saxelmwifos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb misi saboloo moxsenebis Semdeg pirveli interviu ara CNN-s, aramed sam YouTube-els misca: destin sendlins, SwooZie-s da ingrid nilsens. aSkaraa, rom mediaSi didi cvlilebis dro dadga, magram es aseve didi SesaZleblobis momentic gaxlavT. axali teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT mayurebels unda mivceT is, rasac eZeben – meti arCevani imisa, Tu rogor ucqiron da meti varianti, Tu ras ucqiron; amiT axal xmebs gavaZlierebT da axal adamianebs mTel msoflioSi mivwvdebiT. n

meti moqniloba da farTo arCevani gardaqmnis msoflioSi arsebul Cvevebs naxvisa, — prognozirebs siuzan voicicki, — YouTube-is aRmasrulebeli direqtori

saganmanaTleblo kontentis ZiebaTa ricxvi sazrian cxovelebze gadaRebuli videoebis Ziebis ricxvs samjer aRemateba.


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teqstis sintaqsur/leqsikur erTianobas~ (yvelas gasaxarad). utrextis sadoqtoro programis studentma daiTvala prezidentis pauzebi 9.21-wuTiani intervius dros da aRricxa pauzen vroi is Semavsebeli 106 `e~ da 18 `hm~ bgera. jorj buSma imave xangrZlivobis sityvis warmoTqmisas aseTi Semavsebeli bgerebis misi prezidentobis saxasiaTo niSani mxolod naxevari gamoiyena; Tumca, roca buSi yovndeboda, mas idiotad aRiqvamdnen, xolo roca barak obama akeTebda pau008 wels, roca barak obamam arCevnebSi gaimarjva, dRis zebs, es mas oratorobaSi eTvleboda. studentma daaskvna, wesrigSi idga gadawyvetilebebis swrafad da gambedarom batoni obama Tavis pauzebs avsebda TiTqmis SeumCneveli vad miReba. `diax, Cven SegviZlia~, – aseTi iyo misi saabgerebiT, rac tovebda saubarze kontrolis gancdas, xolo rCevno kampaniis slogani, romelsac obama saqmianad da batoni buSis pauzebi tovebda iseT STabeWdilebas, TiTqos mas konkretulad gadascemda amomrCevels. dRevandeli gadasaxesaTqmeli daaviwyda. didan aSS-is aw ukve yofili prezidentis msmenelebs albaT eqspertebs Soris aseve cxare kamaTi gaimarTa imis Sesaxeb, meti yuradRebiT unda moesminaT misTvis da SeemCniaT, rom siTu ras niSnavda es pauzebi. batoni obamas mxardamWerebisTvis tyvebs `diax~ da `Cven SegviZlia~ Soris iyo mikrointervali da es iyo sibrZnis, sifrTxilisa da windaxedulobis niSani. es miigrZnoboda odnav SesamCnevi gaubedaoba. rogorc drom aCvena, aniSnebda imaze, rom ase mosaubre adamiani ar iyo ficxi da ar barak obamas mier saubrisas pauzebis gakeTeba misi prezidenCaebmeboda saerTaSoriso avantiurebSi libiaSi, ukrainasa Tu tobis saxasiaTo niSani gaxda. siriaSi. igi warmoadgenda ufro gaazrebul amerikas misi emopauzebis dros prezidentis nikapi iWmuxneboda, xan amayad ciuri winamorbedisgan gansxvavebiT, romelmac avRaneTsa da zemoT iweoda da xanac seriozulobis niSnad dabla iyo daxrieraySi omi daiwyo. obamas sagareo politikis ori yvelaze didi li. azris gamoTqmis dros obama Tavs jer miRweva – birTvuli SeTanxmeba iranTan marjvniv miatrialebda, Semdeg zemoT da urTierTobis damyareba kubasTan, gaxawevda, bolos ki marcxniv moatrialebda ldaT xangrZlivi da Sromatevadi diploda eleganturad daasrulebda sityvas. am matiis Sedegi. mesame miRweva – osama moZraobis dros misi mxrebi ar iZvroda. bin ladenis sikvdili, mianiSnebda imaze, pauzis dros msmenelni elodnen sityvis rom obamas SeeZlo yofiliyo mtkice da mSvid da swraf ganaxlebas. gabeduli, Tu amas moisurvebda. aSS-is obamas cnobili pauzebis sia sakmaod gorozi samxedro Zala mas isedac mrisxdidia. 2009 wels sainauguracio sityvis ane instruments aZlevda. amitomac igi warmoTqmisas misi yvelaze amaRelvebeli irCevda `rbilad saubars~, ufro sworad winandadeba aT pauzas Seicavda: ki – irCevda sakmarisi simaRliT saubars Tu dRes kidev arsebobs iseTi xalxi, / da Semdeg pauzis gakeTebas, rac tovebda visac eWvi epareba, / rom amerika gaxlavT sruli kontrolis STabeWdilebas. adgili, / sadac yvelaferia SesaZlebeli, saSinao frontzec obama mSvidad / vinc fiqrobs, / rom Cveni winaprebis da Tanmimdevrulad atarebda rTul da ocnebebi / dRes aRaraa cocxali, / visac masStabur politikas, romelic moicavda saTuod miaCnia / Cveni demokratiis sijandacvis reformas, haeris gasufTaveZliere, / dRevandeli saRamo aris pasuxi bas, finansur regulaciebs. roca obamas yvela maT SekiTxvaze. mimarT mtrulad ganwyobili kongresi minaweri fotoze: mTavari mepauze CarlstonSi – samxreT karolinis oponirebas uwevda mis iniciativebs, igi StatSi, gamarTuli xsovnis ceremoniisas, romelic eZRvneamas simSvidiT pasuxobda. saSineli masobrivi mkvlelobebis boda 2015 wels SavkanianTa eklesiis cxra wevris mkvlelobas, serias obamam upasuxa gamosvlebiT, romlebSic namdvili emoobamam kidev erTi cnobili pauza gaakeTa. man erT momentSi axciiT gamowveuli pauzebi eria; Tumca amanac ki ver daarwmuna sena sityvebi – `gasaocari mowyaleba~, romlis Semdegac gaakongresi, rom saWiro iyo iaraRze kontrolis daweseba. am keTa 13-wamiani pauza da sityva simReriT gaagrZela. es iyo kuTxiT obamam gaakeTa rac SeeZlo da Semdeg gaerida am saqmes. e.w. `cocxali dumili~, romelic ase Zlier uyvarT samxreTel igi ar Caeba kapitoliumis binZur kinklaobaSi da rodenis mqadageblebs. 2012 wlis ivnisSi, roca igi gamodioda sityviT `moazrovnis~ msgavsad didsulovani da Rrma dumili arCia. axali saimigracio politikis Sesaxeb, obamam imxela pauza obamas oponentebi mis pauzebs sxva datvirTvas aZlevdnen. gaakeTa, rom ukmexma Jurnalistma, romelsac egona, rom premaTi azriT, es iyo adamiani, romelsac faqtobrivad ar SeeZlo zidentma sityva daasrula, CaCra da kiTxvis dasma moaswro. hqonoda myari azri, an Tu SeeZlo, saqme bolomde mainc ver mikomikosma stiven kolberma daicva Jurnalisti da aRniSna, hyavda. prezidentad gaxdomisas man dado piroba, rom daxurrom xSirad SeuZlebeli iyo imis mixvedra, prezidentma sityva avda guantanamos yuris cixes, Tumca rva wlis Semdegac es cixe daasrula, Tu ara. obamas pauzebi imdenad iyo gamjdari mis isev funqcionirebda. mas Tveebi dasWirda imis gadasawyvetad, gancxadebebSi, rom batonma kolberma am movlenas `potus ingamoeyvana Tu ara amerikuli samxedro Zalebi avRaneTidan da teraptusi~ uwoda (SeniSvna: es sityvebis TamaSia. POTUS iSiTu gamoiyvanda, ra kontingenti daetovebina. mas hqonda surfreba, rogorc `amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis prezidenti~, vili, rom migrantebis SvilebisTvis moqalaqeoba mieca, Tumca xolo interruptus aris interrupt-idan (`SeSla~, `Sewyvetineba~) Semdeg amaze uari Tqva. man dagmo baSar al-asadis mier qimiuri nawarmoebi gariTmuli sityva. anu `potus interaptus~ niSnavs iaraRebis gamoyeneba, Tumca Semdeg am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT `prezidents, romelsac sityvas awyvetineben~). arc ise xisti pozicia daikava. mTavarsardlis mZime roli misTvis aSkarad wameba iyo. rogorc `hamletSi~ vkiTxulobT, bevri `intermisia~ Sesrulebulia fiqri asustebs bunebriv gambedaobas, xolo ganzraxvebi, romobamas saubriT mecnierebic dainteresdnen. maT daadgines, lebic unda ganxorcieldes, SesaZloa uSedego aRmoCndes an rom gaprezidentebis Semdeg batoni obama ufro nela sausaerTodac aRar aRsruldes. ase xdeboda obamas SemTxvevaSic. brobda. Tu saarCevno kampaniis dros igi wuTSi 180-190 sitySedegi gaxldaT prezidentoba, romelic xasiaTdeboda vas warmoTqvamda, arCevis Semdeg amaze gacilebiT naklebs mzardi gaubedaobiT. es Seicvleba! aucileblad./ SesaZloa./ ambobda. lingvistikis samma Turqma profesorma daicva disalbaT./ xval./ Semdeg kviras./ 2016 wlis bolos./ da amasobaSi ertacia barak obamas mier windebulebis win da Semdeg pauzedroc amoiwura. n bis gakeTebis Sesaxeb; windebulebis Semdeg gakeTebuli pauen vroi: `nekrologebis~ redaqtori, The Economist zebi ufro xangrZlivi iyo, Tumca batoni obama `inarCunebda

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saqarTvelo seqcia momzadebulia `jorjia Tudei jgufis“ mier

GEORGIA TODAY

rogori iqneba 2017 weli? es SekiTxva, dRes, ise rogorc arasdros, aqtualuria rTuli globaluri procesebis gamo, romelTa prognozirebas veravin bedavs! Tumca, am gamowvevas britanuli The Economist Cveuli gambedaobiT pasuxobs da yvelaze kompetenturi prognozebis krebuls - `msoflio 2017~ milionobiT erTgul mkiTxvels Tavazobs, romelTa Soris qarTveli mkiTxvelic iqneba! vfiqrobT, `msoflio 2017~, saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc mTel msoflioSi, yvela profesionalis samagido gamocema gaxdeba. es aris Jurnali maTTvis, visTvisac mniSvnelovania kargad icnobdes msoflioSi arsebul tendenciebs saerTaSoriso politikasa Tu biznesSi, da globalur konteqstSi xedavdes saqarTvelos ganviTarebis perspeqtivas. qarTveli mkiTxvelisTvis gansakuTrebiT saintereso, statiebis avtorTa ampluaSi qarTveli politikosebisa da biznesmenebis xilva iqneba. vfiqrobT, am mxriv mediis, mTavrobisa da biznesis TanamSromlobis saintereso precedenti SevqmeniT. `jorjia Tudei jgufis~ misia, codnis menejmenti da codnis gavrcelebaa. aseTi proeqtebis ganxorcielebiT, vcdilobT mediis rolis danaxvas ara mxolod axali ambebis warmoebaSi, momxdari faqtebisa da movlenebis aRweraSi, aramed analitikuri masalebis momzadebasa da gavrcelebaSi, analitikuri mediis ganviTarebis mxardaWeraSi. gvjera, rom 2017 pozitiuri cvlilebebis da swrafi ganviTarebis weli iqneba, roca sazogadoeba SeZlebs konsolidacias saerTo miznis — saqarTvelos evropul, demokratiul, ganviTarebuli ekonomikis mqone saxelmwifod Camoyalibebis garSemo.

giorgi SaraSiZe gamomcemeli da generaluri menejeri `jorjia Tudei jgufi~

136 giorgi margvelaSvili

148 goCa mezvriSvili

155 giorgi CogovaZe

138 giorgi kvirikaSvili

150 ian keli

156 vaxtang bucxrikiZe

140 dimitri qumsiSvili

151 ianoS hermani

158 levan CikvaiZe

142 giorgi gaxaria

152 jastin makkenzi smiti

159 merab lominaZe

144 aleqsandre jejelava

153 nils skoti

160 lado jobava

146 gigla agulaSvili

154 mamuka baxtaZe

162 dimitri gozaliSvili


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msoflio da saqarTvelo 2017 wels

giorgi margvelaSvili

2 giorgi margvelaSvili: saqarTvelos prezidenti

016 iyo saarCevno weli saqarTveloSi. Sedegad saqarTvelos hyavs ganaxlebuli mmarTveli politikuri gundi, romelmac xalxis maRali ndobis safuZvelze moipova sakonstitucio umravlesoba saqarTvelos parlamentSi. msgavsi mdgomareoba qveynis sakanonmdeblo organoSi warmoadgens SesaZleblobas da amavdroulad Seicavs safrTxes. safrTxes imisa, rom centralizebulad konsolidirebuli Zalaufleba erTi, romeliRac partiis xelSi qmnis risks dialogis gareSe, gansxvavebuli azris ignorirebis gziT saxelmwifo marTvisa. da meore mxriv, es aris SesaZlebloba swrafi da efeqturi reformebis gansaxorcieleblad. gansakuTrebiT imis fonze, rom saqarTvelos geografiuli mdebareoba qveyanas aniWebs bunebriv satranzito rols. didia

potenciali, saqarTvelo uaxloes momavalSi iqces logistikur habad. am mizniT, saqarTvelo axorcielebs da aqtiurad monawileobs sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso proeqtSi, rogorebicaa: • anakliis Rrmawylovani portis mSenebloba; • baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis rkinigzis mSenebloba; • aRmosavleT-dasavleT (centraluri aziaevrokavSiri) strategiuli satranzito magistralis reabilitacia; • sparseTis yure-Savi zRvis satranzito koridori; • abreSumis gzis sarkinigzo magistrali, da sxva. aRniSnuli proeqtebi Seqmnis mogzaurobis, saerTaSoriso tranzitisa da vaWrobis SesaZleblobebs evropasa da azias, axlo aRmosavleTsa da evropas Soris, da am yvelaferSi saqarTvelos akisria gadamwyveti roli. es gazrdis saqarTvelos, rogorc strategiuli partnioris, mniSvnelobas regionSi da


msoflio 2017

gaaZlierebs Cveni qveynis ganviTarebis potencials. Sesabamisad, mmarTveli gundisTvis didia pasuxismgebloba imisa, Tu ramdenad samarTlianad warmarTavs erovnul procesebs. am mxriv, 2017 weli aris udidesi gamowveva qarTuli demokratiisTvis da mmarTveli politikuri ZalisTvis. vfiqrob arsebiTad mniSvnelovania is RonisZiebebi, romlebsac qveynis mTavroba axorcielebs, raTa adgilobrivi da ucxouri biznes subieqtebisTvis uzrunvelyos axali SesaZleblobebis stimulireba. • programa `awarmoe saqarTveloSi~, romlis mizania kerZo seqtoris konkurentunarianobis zrda da mewarmeobis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba. • `mewarmeobis ganviTarebis saagento~, romelic did Zalisxmevas axmars ukve arsebuli mewarmeebis mxardaWeras – rogorc sakonsultacio, aseve finansuri TvalsazrisiT. • `saqarTvelos inovaciebisa da teqnologiebis saagento~ – mimarTulia siaxleTa danergvis, teqnologiuri inovaciebis maqsimaluri waxalisebisken. • `start-ap jorjia~ – es konkretuli programa ki damwyeb mewarmeebs uwevs daxmarebas yvela saWiro mimarTulebiT. investiciebTan mimarTebaSi aRsaniSnavia `sapartnioro fondi~ 1,4 miliardi dolaris finansuri resursiT da `Tanainvestirebis fondi~ 6 miliardi aSS dolaris biujetiT. Cemi SexedulebiT, mocemuli realoba swored rom unda iyos SesaZlebloba mmarTveli partiisTvis gadawyvitos erovnuli masStabis problemebi, rac Cvens sazogadoebas awuxebs. aq gamovyofdi umuSevrobis sakiTxs, romelic praqtikulad yvela socialur gamokiTxvaSi saxeldeba, rogorc nomer pirveli problema. aranaklebi sirTulis matarebelia gaufasurebuli erovnuli valuta da aucilebeli saWiroebiT gazrdili aqcizis gadasaxadi navTobze, ramac zegavlena moaxdina fasebis stabilurobaze. faqtia, rom 2016 wlis qveynis ekonomikuri zrda dagegmilze naklebia. realobaa isic, rom mcire da saSualo biznesi ver viTardeba saTanadod da Zalian mcire wili uWiravs Cveni qveynis ekonomikaSi, rac principSi sabazro, Tavisufali ekonomikis pirobebSi sworedac rom aris samuSao adgilebis Semqmneli da ZiriTadi damsaqmebeli. mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba gaxlavT garanti ekonomikuri stabilurobisa nebismier demokratiul qveyanaSi. mTavrobis ekonomikuri gundi, romelsac maRali kvalifikacia, kompetencia aqvs, ekonomikis mimarTulebiT mniSvnelovan reformebs axorcielebs. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia mogebis gadasaxadis reforma (e.w. estonuri modelis danergva), sesxebis galarebis programa, romelic saWiroebs met dinamikurobas, gaaqtiurebas.

saqarTvelo 2017

aqve davZen, rom saWiroa ufro gabeduli, Tamami nabijebis gadadgma, raTa Cveni sazogadoebis socialuri keTildReoba uzrunvelyofili iyos. me, Cemi mxriv, maqvs imedi da molodini imisa, rom dRevandeli ekonomikuri gundi ar daiSurebs Zalisxmevas mosaxleobis socialuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebisTvis. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos 2017 wels dagegmili RonisZieba, CineTTan Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis amoqmedebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelsac moyveba eqsportis zrda. swored amitom kidev ufro mniSvnelovania adgilobrivi warmoebis xelSewyoba, ra mizansac emsaxureba Cem mier wamowyebuli kampania `moiTxove qarTuli~. aRniSnuli mimarTulia qarTuli produqciis popularizaciisken, radgan samamulo produqtze moTxovnis zrda uzrunvelyofs miwodebis stimulirebas, anu adgilobrivi warmoebis gafarToebas, meti samuSao adgilis Seqmnas, erovnuli valutis gaZlierebas da saboloo jamSi – Cveni

saWiroa ufro gabeduli, Tamami nabijebis gadadgma, raTa Cveni sazogadoebis socialuri keTildReoba uzrunvelyofili iyos qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebas. mocemul realobaSi aqtualuri sakiTxia sakonstitucio cvlilebebze muSaobis procesi. am fonze, mniSvnelovania parlamentis mier SemuSavdes xelisuflebis ZalTa gadanawilebis imdagvari modeli, romelic ar dauSvebs erTi romeliRac saxelisuflebo Stos xelSi gadamwyveti Zalauflebis koncentrirebas. principulad mniSvnelovania, rom araTu dasustdes, aramed kidev ufro gaZlierdes xelisuflebis ganStoebaTa Soris kontrolisa da balansis meqanizmi. mjera, rom es aris qveynis demokratiuli ganviTarebis erTaderTi garanti. dabolos: saqarTvelom miiRo maRali donis aRiareba evropis qveynebidan vizaliberalizaciis dadasturebiT. es did upiratesobasTan erTad didi pasuxismgeblobaa, romelic Cven gvakisrebs valdebulebas etapobrivad davnergoT da gavaZlieroT is Rirebulebebi, romlebic evrokavSiris fundamentur Rirebulebebs warmoadgens – adamianis Tavisufleba, demokratia, kanonis uzenaesoba. saqarTvelom araerTxel daadastura saerTaSoriso asparezze, rom is saimedo partnioria; da rom saqarTvelos sagareo politika efuZneba myar, dasavlur faseulobebs da uryev sazogadoebriv nebas. es Zalisxmeva kvlavac unda gagrZeldes da gaZlierdes. n

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2017 — masStaburi reformebisa da axali SesaZleblobebis weli

giorgi kvirikaSvili

2 giorgi kvirikaSvili: saqarTvelos premier-ministri

017 weli saqarTvelosTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani siaxliT daiwyo – evroparlamentma miiRo politikuri gadawyvetileba uvizo mimosvlasTan dakavSirebiT, rac didi wingadadgmuli nabijia Cveni qveynis evropasTan daaxloebis gzaze. evropis qveynebSi Cveni moqalaqeebis uvizo mimosvlasTan erTad, es aris evropasTan mWidro urTierTobebi, meti keTildReoba, meti demokratia, axali SesaZleblobebi, es aris evrokavSiris bazari biznesmenebisTvis, meti warmateba Cveni qveynis swrafi ganviTarebis gzaze, rac sasicocxlod mniSvnelovania saqarTvelosTvis. swored wels Sedis aqtiur fazaSi Cveni mTavrobis mier SemuSavebuli 4-punqtiani gegmis ganxorcieleba, rac umniSvnelovanesi iqneba saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvis. es gegma uzrunve-

lyofs ekonomikis swraf zrdasa da ganviTarebas, rasac Sedegad moyveba samuSao adgilebis Seqmna da mosaxleobis keTildReobis amaRleba. amave dros es iqneba didi gamowvevebis welic, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT yovelive imas, rac xdeba Cven garSemo regionSi. am viTarebaSi kidev ufro aqtualuri xdeba saqarTveloze sagareo faqtorebis negatiuri zegavlenis Semcireba, rac Zlieri ekonomikiTa da swrafi ekonomikuri zrdiT miiRweva – swored amazea orientirebuli Cveni reformebis dRis wesrigi. Cven gavagrZelebT da kidev ufro efeqtians gavxdiT Cveni mTavrobis mier SemuSavebul saxelmwifo mxardaWeris programebs. es programebi ramdenime wlis win daviwyeT finansebze xelmisawvdomobis problemis mosagvareblad, romlebic wlebis ganmavlobaSi bizness awuxebda. Tumca, mas Semdeg programebi kidev ufro gafarTovda, gacilebiT meti segmenti moicva da axali komponentebi SeiZina. erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi mimarTuleba am mxriv startapebis dafinanseba gaxlavT, rac aqamde ar arsebobda. zogadad, Cveni mizania qveyanaSi samewarmeo suliskveTebis gaRviveba da inovaciuri mewarmeobis ganviTareba, gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdebs Soris, agreTve samewarmeo aqtivobis gaZliereba saqarTvelos regionebSi, rac ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mniSvnelovani winapirobaa. swored amisTvis SemuSavda Sesabamisi axali komponentebi ukve arsebuli programebisTvis da aseve amoqmedda sruliad axali programebi. es midgoma kidev ufro aqtiurad gagrZeldeba – Rirebul ideas waxalisebis Sesabamis instruments davaxvedrebT. wels viwyebT uprecedento masStabis infrastruqturul proeqtebs. Cveni mizania qveynis sabaziso infrastruqturis mSeneblobisa da ganviTarebis daCqareba, rac xels Seuwyobs ara mxolod qveynis savaWro, satranzito da turistuli potencialis maqsimalurad aTvisebas, aramed Seamcirebs uTanasworobas ekonomikuri ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT sxvadasxva regions Soris. es aseve uzrunvelyofs qveynis regionebSi ekonomikuri saqmianobis gaaqtiurebas da miscems iq mcxovreb mosaxleobas Tanabar SesaZleblobebs, gaumjobesebul wvdomas ganaTlebaze, jandacvasa da sxva momsaxurebebze. regionebis mosaxleobas unda hqondes yvela is sikeTe, romelic qalaqebSia. moxdeba qveynis satranzito SesaZleblobebis maqsimalurad aTviseba da aRmosavleTis dakavSireba dasavleTTan, xolo CrdiloeTisa – samxreTTan. mTeli saqarTvelos masStabiT Seiqmneba regionebis damakavSirebeli satransporto qseli da es gzebi gaxdeba qveynis xerxemali, gaZlierdeba regionebi da


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msoflio rukaze gaizrdeba saqarTvelos mniSvneloba. yovelive es iqneba qveynis stabilurobis, swrafi ganviTarebis, ekonomikuri da socialuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebisa da Cveni moqalaqeebis keTildReobis qvakuTxedi. xorcieldeba sayovelTao internetizaciis programa, romlis Sedegad maRalsiCqariani iafi interneti xelmisawvdomi gaxdeba damatebiT 800 aTasi kacisTvis da praqtikulad ar dagvrCeba saqarTveloSi arcerTi wertili, sadac xalxs ar eqneba internetTan wvdoma. Cven mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi gavatareT fiskaluri politikis kuTxiT. ganvaxorcieleT mogebis gadasaxadis reforma, romelic iTvaliswinebs mxolod ganawilebuli mogebis dabegvras. amave dros gavzardeT aqcizis gadasaxadi. aRniSnuli cvlilebiT Cven miviReT ufro zrdisadmi megobruli (growth friendly) sagadasaxado sistema. ganxorcielebulma RonisZiebebma saSualeba mogvca praqtikulad gaormagebuli kapitaluri investiciebis fonze SegvenarCunebina da gagveZlierebina fiskaluri seqtoris mdgradoba. 2017 wlidan axali SesaZleblobebi gaixsneba qarTuli eqsportisTvis. 2016 wels Cven gavaformeT Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmeba evropis Tavisufali vaWrobis asociaciasTan (EFTA) da davasruleT molaparakebebi CineTTan, riTac saqarTvelos eqsportiorebs umniSvnelovanes bazrebze damatebiT gaexsnaT wvdoma. garda amisa, 2017 wels gagrZeldeba molaparakebebi honkongTan da TurqeTTan Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebis gafarToebaze. es Cvens eqsportiorebs saSualebas miscems liberaluri reJimiT Sevidnen msoflio bazris 1/3-ze. 2017 wels Cven aqtiurad vimuSavebT agreTve saeqsporto SesaZleblobebis gasaZliereblad, raTa Cvenma eqsportiorebma SeZlon arsebuli potencialis maqsimalurad aTviseba. am mimarTulebiTac Sesabamisi RonisZiebebi gvaqvs dagegmili. garda amisa, vinaidan investiciebis mozidva Cveni ekonomikuri politikis erT-erTi prioritetia, mTavroba imuSavebs qveynis sainvesticio mimzidvelobis kidev ufro gaZlierebisTvis da ukve Semosuli investorebis xelSewyobisTvis. am mxriv dagegmilia saxelmwifo servisebis mniSvnelovani gaumjobeseba. Cven viwyebT iseT masStabur reformas, rogoricaa sapensio reforma. sapensio reformis mizania Seqmnas pirobebi imisaTvis, rom momavalSi sapensio asakis moqalaqeebs hqondeT Rirseuli pensia. reforma mniSvnelovania danazogebis stimulirebisa da grZelvadiani dafinansebis instrumentebis uzrunvelyofisTvisac, ramac xeli unda Seuwyos qveynis ekonomikur winsvlas. reforma momavali wlidan daiwyeba da ganxorcieldeba saukeTeso saerTaSoriso praqtikis Sesabamisad. mTavrobis 4-punqtiani gegmis umniSvnelovanesi komponentia ganaTlebis reforma. es reforma saSualebas mogvcems miviRoT iseTi adamianuri kapitali, romelsac eqneba sakuTari SesaZleblobebis reali-

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zebis resursi da unari imisa, rom maqsimaluri monawileoba miiRos qveynis ganviTarebaSi. profesiuli ganaTlebis sistemaSi Cven vapirebT dualuri, anu samuSaoze dafuZnebuli swavlebis midgomis danergvas, da es moxdeba sajaro-kerZo partniorobis gziT. kvalificiuri kadrebis mosamzadeblad saswavlebeli da damsaqmebeli erToblivad ganaxorcieleben saswavlo programebs. umaRlesi ganaTleba daefuZneba ekonomikis saWiroebebsa da moTxovnebs – imisaTvis, rom minimumamde Semcirdes umaRlesdamTavrebul umuSevarTa ricxvi. saTanado infrastruqturis Seqmna, inovaciebis, gamogonebebisa da kvlevebis xelSewyoba, agreTve Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo bazis srulyofa, saSualebas mogvcems realurad SevqmnaT codnaze dafuZnebuli ekonomika – anu, rogorc axla uwodeben, codnis ekonomika.

swrafi ekonomikuri zrda saqarTvelos mTavrobis umTavresi amocanaa da mTavrobis 4-punqtiani gegmis ganxorcieleba swored am mimarTulebazea orientirebuli mTavrobis 4-punqtiani gegmis kidev erTi da aseve Zalian mniSvnelovani komponentia sajaro mmarTvelobis reforma, romlis mizania mmarTvelobis efeqtianobis gazrda ufro swrafi ekonomikuri zrdisTvis. swored efeqturi sajaro mmarTvelobis gansaxorcieleblad Seiqmna `biznes saxlis~ proeqti. es aris saxelmwifosa da biznesis TanamSromlobis sruliad axali xedva, rac gulisxmobs rogorc fizikuri, ise eleqtronuli sivrcis ganviTarebas, sadac biznes seqtoris warmomadgenlebs saSualeba eqnebaT, erT sivrceSi – rogorc erT SenobaSi, aseve erT eleqtronul portalze, erTi fanjris principiT, miiRon 600-ze meti servisi, romelic am etapze 60-ze meti sajaro struqturis mier miewodebaT. dabolos: kidev erTxel minda xazi gavusva, rom swrafi ekonomikuri zrda saqarTvelos mTavrobis umTavresi amocanaa da mTavrobis 4-punqtiani gegmis ganxorcieleba swored am mimarTulebazea orientirebuli. amave dros, Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom zrda iyos inkluziuri da Cvenma TiToeulma moqalaqem sakuTar Tavze igrZnos ekonomikuri ganviTarebiT motanili sikeTe. Cven gvjera, rom mxolod es gza aqcevs saqarTvelos Tanamedrove, ganviTarebul da saerTaSoriso standartis infrastruqturis mqone qveynad – Tavisi adamianuri resursiT, romelic Sromis bazarzea morgebuli; agreTve usafrTxo da stabiluri biznesgaremoTi da efeqtiani saxelmwifo mmarTvelobiT. swored es gaxlavT is gza, romelic ganapirobebs ufro swraf ganviTarebas da Tvisebrivad axal etapze gadaiyvans qveyanas. n

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finansTa saministro, rogorc reformatori da biznesgaremos xelSemwyobi uwyeba

dimitri qumsiSvili

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dimitri qumsiSvili: saqarTvelos finansTa ministri

016 wlis bolos saqarTvelos parlamentSi, rogorc axladdaniSnulma finansTa ministrma, Cemi pirveli biujetis proeqti gavitane. pirveli SekiTxva, romelzec pasuxis gacema momiwia, is iyo, Tu rogor aisaxa 2017 wlis biujetSi mTavrobis axali ekonomikuri politika da ras Secvlis igi saqarTvelos sazogadoebisTvis. Cveni samTavrobo programis slogania – `Tavisufleba, swrafi ganviTareba, keTildReoba~. misi SesrulebiT uzrunvelyofili iqneba mosaxleobis socialuri dacva da qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTareba. amdenad, reformebis 4-punqtiani samoqmedo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli RonisZiebebisa da dasaxuli Sedegebis misaRwevad mniSvnelovania arsebuli fiskaluri resursebis maqsimalurad efeqtiani gamoyeneba. 2017 wlis biujeti qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis garantia. is mniSvnelovania ara mxolod moklevadian periodSi, rogoric aris erTi konkretuli weli, aramed safuZvelia zogadad qveynis ganviTarebisTvis. es aris dokumenti, romelmac TiToeuli Cveni moqalaqis keTildReoba da stabilurad cxovreba unda uzrunvelyos. Tumca gamowveva Zalian didia, mTavari Semaferxebeli faqtorebi ki egzogenuri, romlis Sedegebis gasaneitralebladac Cven efeqtur da miznobriv programas vaxorcielebT. 2017 wlis biujeti 4-procentian ekonomikur realur zrdaze gvaqvs dagegmili. amgvarad fiqrobs aseve bevri saerTaSoriso safinanso organizacia.

maTi optimisturi prognozis safuZvelia sagadasaxado da struqturuli reformebi, romlebsac 2017 wlidan vaxorcielebT. 2014 wlis meore naxevridan Cvens regionSi mniSvnelovnad Semcirda ekonomikuri zrdis tempi. ekonomikuri zrdiT saqarTvelo marTalia lideria regionSi, magram aRniSnuli zrdis tempi mainc ar aris damakmayofilebeli. Cven gvWirdeba radikaluri cvlilebebi, romlebic mniSvnelovnad gazrdis ekonomikas, da rac aucilebelia Cveni mosaxleobis dasaqmebisTvis, maTi Semosavlebisa da keTildReobis zrdisTvis. ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvis ki mniSvnelovania ufro meti investicia. am miznis misaRwevad Cven, erTi mxriv, daviwyeT regionSi absoluturad revoluciuri mogebis gadasaxadis reforma, meore mxriv ki, mniSvnelovnad gavzardeT infrastruqturuli proeqtebis sabiujeto dafinanseba. orive mimarTulebam unda uzrunvelyos ekonomikuri zrdis tempis daCqareba, axali investiciebis ganxorcieleba da axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmna. 2017 wlidan, mimdinare reformebi myar safuZvels Seqmnis Cvens qveyanaSi biznesis swrafi ganviTarebisa da gaZlierebisTvis, biznesis mxardaWerisa da stimulirebis mimarTulebiT. mxolod mogebis gadasaxadis reforma, Cveni prognoziT bizness ganviTarebisTvis mniSvnelovan finansur resurss dautovebs – kompaniebs gauCndebaT Tanxa reinvestirebisa da biznesis gafarToebisTvis. mxolod am reformis Sedegad, saqarTvelos ekonomikis zrda, daaxloebiT 1,5 procentiT daCqardeba. aseve Seiqmneba aTasobiT axali samuSao adgili; ekonomikaSi gaizrdeba produqtiuloba; moimatebs biznesSi arsebuli aqtivebis likviduroba da biznesis krizisisadmi mdgradoba; Semcirdeba gare finansuri SezRudvebi; Camoyalibdeba kidev ufro mimzidveli klimati biznesis dawyebisa da warmoebis kuTxiT; gamartivdeba sagadasaxado aRricxva da administrireba. arsebuli gegmis Sesabamisad, 2017 wels mTavrobis zoma (mimdinare xarjebi mSp-sTan) Semcirdeba 26,5%-dan 25,3 %-mde, xolo 2020 wlisTvis 21,4% iqneba. aRniSnuli moculobiTi Semcireba nominalur gamoxatulebaSi niSnavs, rom Cven 2017-2020 wlebSi 5 mlrd larze met Tanxas davzogavT. mTavrobis zomis Semcirebis xarjze yovelwliurad gavzrdiT Cvens danazogebs. kerZod, mTavrobis danazogebi 2016 wels arsebuli 2,5%-idan mSp-s 4%-mde gaizrdeba, xolo 2020 wlisTvis mSp-s 6,8%-s miaRwevs. gazrdili danazogebi mTlianad iqneba mimarTuli infrastruqturuli proeqtebis dafinansebaze da am mizniT gamoyofili Tanxebis wili mSp-sTan mimarTebaSi, 2016 wels, arsebuli 7,2%-


msoflio 2017

idan 2020 wlisTvis 9,4 %-mde gaizrdeba. saqarTvelo dRes erT-erTi yvelaze mowinave qveyanaa sagadasaxado politikis mimarTulebiT. Cveni xelisuflebis pirobebSi, mniSvnelovani nabijebi gadaidga stabiluri da gamWvirvale sagadasaxado garemos Seqmnis mizniT. ganxorcielda mTeli rigi sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebisa, romlis safuZvelze Seiqmna gadamxdelTaTvis ufro moqnili sagadasaxado reJimi, sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobaSi Sevida arsebiTi cvlilebebi liberalizaciis mimarTulebiT. Tumca saWiroa reformebis gagrZeleba. Cven sazogadoebas SevTavazeT saxelmwifosa da biznesis TanamSromlobis sruliad ganaxlebuli xedva, axali platforma, romelic uzrunvelyofs efeqtian sazogadoebriv monitorings, kerZo seqtoris met CarTulobas mmarTvelobisa da gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi. mmarTvelobiTi reformis farglebSi, wels daiwyeba `biznessaxlis~ mSenebloba. `biznessaxli~ – es aris biznessa da saxelmwifos Soris urTierTobis gansxvavebuli modeli, romelic biznesisTvis yvela mniSvnelovani servisis erTian sivrceSi, erTian eleqtronul platformaze miwodebas iTvaliswinebs. am modeliT, yvela saxelmwifo uwyeba bizness erTi fanjris principiT moemsaxureba. Cven vgegmavT onlainmomsaxurebis daxvewasa da gaumjobesebas, axali distanciuri servisebis damatebas. CvenTvis sasicocxlod mniSvnelovania biznesisTvis saWiro gadawyvetilebebi swrafad iyos miRebuli, raTa kerZo seqtors maqsimalurad daezogos dro da finansuri resursebi. yovelive es saqarTveloSi biznesis keTebas kidev ufro gaamartivebs. es pozitiuri tendencia bolo wlebSi dadebiTad aisaxa msoflio bankis cnobil da tradiciul reitingze. amJamad me yuradRebas mis erT-erT komponentze – vaWrobaze gavamaxvileb, romlis ganviTarebasac udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba. swored am komponentze aisaxeba sabaJos gamarTuli muSaoba. msoflio bankis bolo angariSiT Doing Business 2017 saqarTvelos reitingi indikatorSi `vaWroba sazRvrebs Soris~ gaumjobesda 8 poziciiT da 62-e adgilidan 54-e adgilze gadmoinacvla, xolo saqarTvelos sareitingo qula 4.6 punqtiT gaumjobesda da Seadgina 85.15 qula. aRsaniSnavia, rom evropisa da aziis regionSi saqarTvelo me-17 poziciaze imyofeba da win uswrebs iseT qveynebs, rogorebicaa xorvatia, rumineTi, litva, bulgareTi, latvia, makedonia. Doing Business 2017-is reitingSi saqarTvelos poziciis gaumjobeseba indikatorSi `vaWroba sazRvrebs miRma~ saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier ganxorcielebuli reformis Sedegia – eleqtronuli damuSavebis sistemis gaumjobesebiT SesaZlebeli gaxda eqsportisa da importis dokumentebis ufro swrafi wardgena. aseve dainerga winaswari eleqtronuli dokumentebis wardgenis SesaZlebloba. rodesac saerTaSoriso vaWrobaze vsaubrobT, erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovania informaciis avtomatizebuli gacvla, raSic mniSvnelovani nabijebi gvaqvs gadadgmuli Cvens megobar qveynebTan. es SesaZleblobas miscems Cvens saxelmwifoebs, erTi mxriv, ukeT ganaxorcielon sazRvarze moZravi saqonlisa

saqarTvelo 2017

da tvirTis administrireba, meore mxriv ki es Seamcirebs kerZo seqtoris danaxarjebs vaWrobaSi. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri politikis erT-erTi prioritetuli mimarTulebaa satranzito funqciis ganviTareba. saqarTveloze gamavali e.w. samxreTkavkasiuri derefani, dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis bazrebis damakavSirebeli umoklesi gzaa. am kuTxiT, umniSvnelovanesia saqarTvelos sabaJos gamarTuli muSaoba. dRes saqarTvelos sabaJo regionSi analogiur uwyebebs Soris erT-erTi yvelaze Tanamedrove da maRalteqnologiuria. Cveni mTavari amocana, qveynis ekonomikuri sazRvrebis dacvasTan erTad, iseTi momsaxurebis danergva-ganviTarebaa, rom ekonomikurma agentma sabaJo gamSveb punqtze martivad, swrafad da kvalificiurad miiRos momsaxureba. mxolod 15 wuTia saWiro saqarTvelos nebismier sabaJo-gamSveb punqtSi imisaTvis, rom moxdes saqonlis ganbaJeba. eqsportis procedurebis ganxorcielebas kidev ufro naklebi dro esaWiroeba. aseve Zalian martivad xdeba tranzitze mimavali tvirTebis gatareba. magaliTisTvis moviyvan kvlevas, romelic Catarda amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos `mmarTveloba ganviTarebisaTvis~ proeqtis mier dafinansebuli `reformebis politikis mimarT biznesis kmayofilebis proeqtis~ farglebSi. kvlevis mixedviT, gamokiTxulTa 94%-ma sabaJo procedurebi miiCnia rogorc gamWvirvale, 92%-ma ki – maTi biznesisTvis xelSemwyobi. Cveni saministros servisebisadmi dadebiT damokidebulebas aseve asaxavs mosaxleobis ganwyobebisa da damokidebulebis kvleva, romelic mcire xnis win gamoqveynda da romlis mixedviTac, Cveni momsaxurebiT gamokiTxulTa 93 procenti kmayofilia. Zlieri saxelmwifo instituciebis Camoyalibebisa da kerZo seqtoris mxardaWerisTvis, aseve mniSvnelovania adamianuri kapitalis ganviTareba, finansurad ganaTlebuli sazogadoebis formireba. swored amitom, finansTa saministros politikaa, erTi mxriv, xeli Seuwyos axali kvalificiuri kadrebis moZiebisa da sistemaSi dasaqmebuli TanamSromlebis momzadeba-gadamzadebis process, xolo meore mxriv, finansTa saministros reformebis praqtikaSi warmatebiT danergvisTvis, aqtiurad iTanamSromlos biznesseqtorTan; aseve uzrunvelyos finansuri ganaTlebis xelmisawvdomobis zrda. swored am mimarTulebebze aqtiurad muSaobs finansTa saministros akademia, romelic Tanamedrove, saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisi saswavlo da staJirebis programebiT uzrunvelyofs sxvadasxva saxelmwifo uwyebis TanamSromelTa gadamzadebas, biznesis saWiroebebis Seswavlas da maT moTxovnebze morgebuli saswavlo programebis SemuSavebasa da konsultaciebis gawevas, studentebis CarTvas saganmanaTleblo da staJirebis proeqtebSi. Cven mier miRebuli yvela gadawyvetileba da dagegmili sistemuri reformebi mimarTulia biznesgaremos kidev ufro gaumjobesebis, ekonomikis zrdis daCqarebis, ekonomikaSi meti investiciis ganxorcielebisken, rac gazrdis dasaqmebis maCvenebels, TiToeuli Cveni moqalaqis keTildReobas.n

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ekonomikuri xedva: `gamowvevebis ekonomikidan~ `SesaZleblobebis ekonomikamde~ ganuxreli dacva da Tavisufali konkurencia. am principebs eyrdnoba mTavrobis 4-punqtiani gegma, romelic qveynis swraf ganviTarebazea orientirebuli da romlis ganxorcieleba wels aqtiur fazaSi Sevida. ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros mniSvnelovani roli akisria qveynis ekonomikuri politikis ganxorcielebaSi. is amocanebi, romlebic Cven winaSe dgas, Zalian konkretulia da ganisazRvreba Semdegi ZiriTadi mimarTulebebiT: xelsayreli samewarmeo garemos uzrunvelyofa, investiciebis xelSewyoba da savaWro balansis fundamenturi problemis Serbileba. yvela is RonisZieba, romelsac saministro axorcielebs dRes da momavalSic ganaxorcielebs, emsaxureba am globaluri miznebis miRwevas. amasTan, xazgasasmelia is reformebi Tu RonisZiebebi, romlebsac Cveni saministro ganaxorcielebs mTavrobis mier SemuSavebuli 4-punqtiani gegmis farglebSi. sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom saqarTvelo mcire Ria ekonomikis mqone qveyanaa. Sesabamisad, yvela is movlena, romelic gavlenas axdens msoflio ekonomikaze, pirdapir Tu iribad aisaxeba Cveni qveynis ekonomikaze. sagareo Sokebisadmi mdgradoba aris

Cveni ekonomikuri politika da miznebi mimarTulia Zlieri kerZo seqtoris Seqmnaze, ramac unda migviyvanos swraf ekonomikur zrdamde da samuSao adgilebis Seqmnamde giorgi gaxaria

giorgi gaxaria: saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis ministri

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inda saubari daviwyo Cveni qveynis ekonomikuri politikiT – saqarTvelos ekonomikuri politika efuZneba Tavisufali bazris principebs da misi fuZemdebluri faqtorebia makroekonomikuri stabiluroba, sakuTrebis uflebis

erT-erTi mniSvnelovani gamowveva, romelic dRes Cven winaSe dgas. Tumca, garda amisa, Cvens ekonomikas aqvs mniSvnelovani struqturuli xasiaTis problemebi, romlebic wlebis ganmavlobaSi dagrovda da Tavs iCens uaryofiTi sagareo tendenciis gamwvavebis fonze. premierministris mier inicirebuli 4-punqtiani gegma pirdapir pasuxobs Cveni qveynis ekonomikis winaSe arsebul am gamowvevebs da mimarTulia ekonomikis Zireul transformaciaze, axali SesaZle-


msoflio 2017

blobebisa da samuSao adgilebis Seqmnaze. ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros mniSvnelovani roli ekisreba am saqmeSi da Cveni gegmebic am mimarTulebebzea orientirebuli. upirveles yovlisa, piradad Cemi da zogadad Cveni saministrosa da mTavrobis mizania qveyanaSi xelsayreli biznes da sainvesticio garemos Seqmna da saqarTveloSi biznesis ganviTarebisTvis yvelanairi winapirobis uzrunvelyofa. yvela vTanxmdebiT imaze, rom Zlieri kerZo seqtori ekonomikuri zrdis da ganviTarebis mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala da samuSao adgilebis generatoria. Sesabamisad, Cveni mizani aris da iqneba biznesisTvis prognozirebadi garemos Seqmna. garda amisa, gvaqvs sakmaod ambiciuri gegma – saxelmwifosa da kerZo seqtoris urTierToba biznesisTvis maqsimalurad komfortuli gavxadoT. am mizniT Cven vamuSavebT biznessaxlis koncefcias, romelic uzrunvelyofs yvela saxelmwifo servisis biznesisTvis erT sivrceSi miwodebas da erTi fanjris principiT. aRniSnuli mniSvnelovnad gaaumjobesebs saxelmwifo servisebis xelmisawvdomobas da dazogavs biznesis drosa da resursebs saxelmwifo biurokratiasTan urTierTobis procesSi. Cven miznad visaxavT arsebuli saxelmwifo mxardaWeris programebis efeqtianobis amaRlebas. es programebi (rogorebicaa `awarmoe saqarTveloSi~, SeRavaTiani agrokrediti da a.S.) ramdenime wlis win daiwyo da dReisTvis ukve daamtkica Tavisi mniSvneloba adgilobrivi warmoebis gafarToebisa da qveynis saeqsporto potencialis gaZlierebis saqmeSi. Cven am programebis efeqtianobis amaRleba gvaqvs ganzraxuli, romlebic cocxali organizmia da unda icvlebodes ekonomikis saWiroebebis cvlilebidan gamomdinare. Cveni mizania, es programebi gavxadoT ufro miznobrivi, metad orientirebuli adgilobrivi warmoebis gaZlierebisa da gansakuTrebiT saeqsporto produqciis Seqmnaze. mxolod am gziTaa SesaZlebeli Cveni eqsportis ganviTareba, diversificireba da im SesaZleblobebis gamoyeneba, romlebsac saqarTvelos mier gaformebuli Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebebi gvTavazobs. Sesabamisad, am miznebis misaRwevad vgegmavT arsebuli saxelmwifo programebis gaerTianebas erTi qolgisa da erTiani brendis qveS, rac maTi efeqtianobis amaRlebas moemsaxureba. aseve aRsaniSnavia iseTi grZelvadiani amocana, rogoricaa sapensio reforma. am reformas aqvs ara mxolod socialuri datvirTva, aramed udidesi ekonomikuri mniSvnelobac. reformis mizania sapensio asaks miRweuli Tanamoqalaqeebis adekvaturi sapensio SemosavliT uzrunvelyofa da mosaxleo-

saqarTvelo 2017

bis keTildReobis amaRleba. dagrovebiTi sapensio sistema moqalaqes SesaZleblobas miscems saxelmwifosa da kerZo seqtoris TanamonawileobiT Seqmnas danazogi, romelic misi Rirseuli siberis uzrunvelyofis winapiroba iqneba. sapensio reforma kapitalis bazris SedarebiT farTo reformis mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawilia da garkveulwilad kapitalis bazris Semdgomi ganviTarebis winapirobas warmoadgens. kapitalis bazris reformis Sedegad safinanso bazarze sabanko seqto-

gvaqvs sakmaod ambiciuri gegma — saxelmwifosa da kerZo seqtoris urTierToba biznesisTvis maqsimalurad komfortuli gavxadoT ris garda gaCndeba dafinansebis alternatiuli instrumentebi, rac kompaniebisTvis grZelvadiani finansuri resursebis mozidvis damatebiTi saSualeba iqneba. meore mxriv, ganviTarebuli kapitalis bazris pirobebSi, mosaxleobas damatebiTi instrumentebi uCndeba Tavisi danazogebis finansur bazarze efeqtianad gasaTavsebelad. garda amisa, aRniSnuli reformebis ganxorcielebas mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri stimulirebis efeqti aqvs, rac xels uwyobs ekonomikur zrdas da mosaxleobis keTildReobis amaRlebas. dabolos: msurs Sevexo turizmis ganviTarebas. bolo ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi, turizmi saqarTvelos ekonomikis Zalze mniSvnelovan dargad Camoyalibda – gvaqvs uprecedento zrda rogorc vizitorebis raodenobis, ise dargidan miRebuli Semosavlebis mimarTulebiT. Cveni mizania kidev ufro gavaZlieroT am dargis ganviTareba misTvis Sesabamisi infrastruqturis SeqmniT. swored amazea mimarTuli Cveni koncefcia, romelic 4 sezonis kurortebis ganviTarebas iTvaliswinebs. swored am mizniT vaxorcielebT masStabur proeqtebs saqarTvelos kurortebSi. Sedegad, turizmTan erTad unda miviRoT sxva momijnave dargebis ganviTareba da maTSi dasaqmebis zrda. Sejamebis saxiT kidev erTxel aRvniSnav, rom Cveni ekonomikuri politika da miznebi mimarTulia Zlieri kerZo seqtoris Seqmnaze, ramac unda migviyvanos swraf ekonomikur zrdamde da samuSao adgilebis Seqmnamde. Cveni mizania, saqarTvelos ekonomika `gamowvevebis ekonomikidan~ `SesaZleblobebis ekonomikad~ gardavqmnaT. n

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inovaciuri reformebi ganaTlebis xarisxis asamaRleblad

aleqsandre jejelava

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aleqsandre jejelava: ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis ministri

Tavrobis oTxpunqtiani gegmiT, ganaTlebis sistema qveynis erT-erTi prioritetia, rac zogad, umaRles, mecnierebisa da profesiuli ganaTlebis mimarTulebebiT, revoluciuri cvlilebebis ganxorcielebas gulisxmobs. saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros reformebi mokle, saSualo da grZelvadian perspeqtivazea gaTvlili da mizani TiToeuli moqalaqis profesiuli TviTrealizaciaa –ganurCevlad asakisa, religiuri kuTvnilebisa Tu erovnebisa. saministrom moklevadian perspeqtivaSi dagegmili cvlilebebis ganxorcieleba ukve daiwyo da vfiqrobT, 2017 wlis bolos, servisebis gaumjobesebis Sedegad, gveyoleba gacilebiT motivirebuli maswavleblebic da moswavleebic. skolebSi dainergeba Tavisufali gakveTilebi, romelic orientirebuli iqneba mozardebSi analitikuri, kritikuli, logikuri da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis ganviTarebaze. amavdroulad, ganisazRvreba skolis miRma darCenili pirebisTvis saganmanaTleblo servisebi. daixveweba da gaumjobesdeba skolebis menejmenti, profesiul kolejebSi amoqmeddeba samuSaoze dafuZnebuli saswavlo programebi, gaizrdeba saqa-

rTveloSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis miRebis msurveli ucxoeli studentebis raodenoba, gaumjobesdeba kvleviTi dawesebulebebis saqmianoba da a.S. es Cveni reformebis mxolod mcire CamonaTvalia. zogadi ganaTlebis kuTxiT, saskolo programebi Tanamedrove mecnierebebze dafuZnebul da moswavleebis asakobrivi ganviTarebisa da SesaZleblobebis princips daefuZneba. amitomac, dawyebiT safexurze warmmarTveli TamaSiT swavlis principi iqneba. sabazo safexurzec, dRes arsebuli rTuli sagnobrivi programebi gamartivdeba, saSualo safexurze ki, moswavleebs skola miscems imgvar ganaTlebas, rom umaRlesSi swavlis gasagrZeleblad, repetitorebTan momzadeba aRar dasWirdebaT. swored am miznis gansaxorcieleblad, rogorc Sinaarsobrivad, aseve teqnikurad, daixveweba saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis Sinaarsi. SemuSavdeba sxva axali saswavlo resursebic, maT Soris – eleqtronuli saxelmZRvaneloebi. mravalferovani klasgareSe programebiTa da aqtivobebiT saskolo cxovreba gacilebiT saintereso gaxdeba. Tavisufali gakveTilebis, distanciuri swavlebisa da sxva meTodebis danergviT, skolas meti alternatiuli saganmanaTleblo midgomebis gamoyenebis, xolo maswavleblebs – meti datvirTvisa da profesiuli realizebis SesaZlebloba gauCndebaT. mdgomareobisa da saWiroebebis mixedviT, skolebi mcire, did da wamyvan kategoriebad daiyofa. amoqmeddeba kerZo skolebis mxardaWeris programebic. zogadi ganaTlebis kuTxiT, mTavroba iRebs pasuxismgeblobas, rom mozardebSi sportuli cxovreba popularuli gaxdes – rogorc gundurobis, xasiaTis simtkicisa da jansaRi cxovrebis Cvevebis Camoyalibebis saukeTeso saSualeba. amitom, skolebSi amoqmeddeba mravalferovani sportuli wreebi da sistematiurad Catardeba Sejibrebebi. am kuTxiT gadamzaddebian fizkulturis maswavleblebi. amavdroulad, moswavleebs eqnebaT xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargSi sakuTari niWis gamovlenis saSualebac, risTvisac skolebSi amoqmeddeba saxelovnebo wreebi da Catardeba xelovnebis saintereso gakveTilebi. mogexsenebaT, istoriidan da kulturuli Taviseburebidan gamomdinare, yvela qveyanas sakuTari literaturuli gmirebi hyavs, romlebic bavSvebisTvis misabaZi, sayvareli personaJebi xdebian da did gavlenas axdenen maT ganviTarebasa da msoflmxedvelobis Camoyalibebaze. samwuxarod, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg, qarTul sabavSvo resursebs axali gmirebi ar Sematebia. aucilebelia bavSvebsa da mozardebs axali, Tanamedrove gmirebi hyavdeT, romlebsac sibejiTeSi, megobrobaSi, patriotizmsa da erTgulebaSi mibaZaven. swored am formiT, yuradRe-


msoflio 2017

ba gamaxvildeba im Tvisebebsa da unarebze, romlebic mniSvnelovania adreul asakSi faseulobaTa sistemis formirebisTvis. mniSvnelovani siaxleebia dagegmili umaRlesi ganaTlebis kuTxiTac: SemuSavdeba umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebulebebis ganaTlebis xarisxze orientirebuli dafinansebis efeqturi sistema. saxelmwifos mxridan kvlav daafinansdeba is prioritetuli profesiebi, romlebzec damsaqmeblebis mxridan didia moTxovna. momzaddebian swored iseTi specialistebi, romlebic warmoebas, mSeneblobas, bizness, soflis meurneobas, politikas, samoqalaqo seqtors, sportul, saxelovnebo, akademiur Tu samecniero wreebs sWirdeba. warmatebul studentebs miecemaT Sansi, saxelmwifos dafinansebiT ucxoeTis wamyvan universitetebSi iswavlon. Tumca, umaRlesi ganaTlebis miReba rogorc qarTul, aseve inglisur enebze, saqarTveloSic SesaZlebeli iqneba. gvaqvs ambicia, rom saqarTvelo aRmosavleT evropis, axlo aRmosavleTisa da dsT-is regionis Tanamedrove umaRlesi ganaTlebis lideri gaxdes. sxvadasxva grandiozuli proeqtiT, 2020 wlisTvis, saqarTvelos umaRlesi ganaTlebis regionuli centris statusi eqneba. am mizniT, saxelmwifo uwyebebs Soris konsultaciiT, SemuSavdeba sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis paketi, raTa ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebma saqarTveloSi studenturi viza da sxva saWiro dokumentebi gamartivebuli procedurebis gavliT miiRon. aseve Seiqmneba internetportali, sadac Tavmoyrili iqneba yvela is informacia, rac saqarTveloSi Camosvlamde ucxoelma axalgazrdebma unda icodnen. sxvaTa Soris, ucxoelebs eqnebaT saSualeba sabakalavro – `1+4~ programiTac isargeblon da umaRlesSi swavla qarTul enaze ganagrZon. igegmeba im studentebis stipendiebiT waxalisebac, romlebic qarTul enaze umaRlesi ganaTlebis miRebis survils gamoTqvamen. revoluciuri, dualuri swavlebis danergvis Semdeg, profesiul ganaTlebaSi kidev ufro mniSvnelovani reformebi gatardeba. garda imisa, rom Tanamedrove standartis Sesabamisi kolejebi regionebSic amoqmeddeba, Sromis bazris moTxovnebis Sesabamisad dainergeba axali programebi, mravalferovani gaxdeba profesiebis CamonaTvali da inovaciuri midgomebi. mravalferovan saswavlo programebs kolejebi yvela asakis moqalaqes maT saWiroebebze morgebuli saswavlo ganrigiT SesTavazeben, rac studentebs saSualebas miscems kolejSi swavlis paralelurad, zogadi an umaRlesi ganaTleba miiRon. umniSvnelovanesia is sakanonmdeblo cvlileba, romlis Tanaxmad, profesiuli ganaTlebis farglebSi, SesaZlebeli gaxdeba sruli zogadi ganaTlebis miReba, students SesaZlebloba miecema kolejis dasrulebis Semdeg swavla umaRlesSi ganagrZos. mecnierebis mimarTulebiT, Cveni mizania axali inteleqtualuri produqtis generireba moxdes, rac qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvis aucilebel

saqarTvelo 2017

dargebs ganaviTarebs. gagrZeldeba da gaRrmavdeba wamyvan ucxour usd-ebTan, saerTaSoriso samecniero-kvleviT organizaciebTan da fondebTan TanamSromloba. yvela profesorsa da mecniers eqneba Tanamedrove samecniero eleqtronul bazebze wvdoma da swavlis xarisxis amaRlebis mizniT, samecniero kvleva integrirdeba swavla-swavlebis procesSi. samecniero-kvleviT dawesebulebebsa da mecnierebs eqnebaT saerTo wvdoma samecniero infrastruqturaze, rac mecnierebs ganviTarebis axal SesaZleblobebs miscems. saerTaSoriso gacvliT programebSi gacilebiT meti qarTveli profesori da mecnieri CaerTveba. SemuSavdeba rogorc axalgazrda, aseve sazRvargareT momuSave qarTvel mecnierTa mxardaWeris programebi. Seiqmneba erTiani samecniero sainformacio sistema, sadac Tavs moiyris qarTvel profesorTa da

2017 wlis bolos, servisebis gaumjobesebis Sedegad, gveyoleba gacilebiT motivirebuli maswavleblebic da moswavleebic mecnierTa, maTi samecniero naSromebis, kvlevebisa da miRwevebis Sesaxeb informacia. gagrZeldeba sauniversiteto da samecniero infrastruqturuli proeqtebis dafinanseba da gaRrmavdeba `horizont 2020-sa~ da sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso samecniero fondTan TanamSromloba. axalgazrda mecnierebsa da gamomgoneblebs saSualeba eqnebaT TavianTi mignebebi komerciulad saintereso winadadebebad aqcion. rogorc aRvniSne, es sakiTxebis mxolod mcire CamonaTvalia. magaliTad, eTnikuri umciresobebisTvis da ucxoelebisTvis qarTuli enisa da kulturis xelmisawvdomobisTvis, dagegmilia eleqtronuli swavlebis meTodebi. saministro uwyvet reJimSi sTavazobs yvela msurvels qarTuli enis Semswavlel kursebs, romelsac saxelmwifo srulad afinansebs. afxazuri kulturis Sesaxeb cnobierebis amaRlebisa da codnis SeZenis mizniT, ganviTardeba saswavlo resursebi da moxdeba maTi msurvelTaTvis SeTavazeba. ucxoel partniorebTan TanamSromlobiT, SemuSavdeba msoflio donis eleqtronuli swavlebis platforma, romelic ganaTlebis yvela safexurze dainergeba. moswavleebisa da studentebisTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxdeba maRali xarisxis saganmanaTleblo resursebi – virtualuri laboratoriebi, gamorCeuli profesor-maswavleblebis mier wakiTxuli leqciebis videoversiebi, ucxo enebis Seswavlis Tanamedrove programebi da a.S. eleqtronul swavlebaSi gamoyenebuli iqneba mobiluri telefoni, kompiuteri, virtualuri da Sereuli realoba, rac xels Seuwyobs sxvadasxva saganSi codnis gaRrmavebasa da swavlisadmi interesis amaRlebas. n

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swrafi winsvla da ekonomikuri ganviTareba! magram ara garemos xarjze! qveynis sakanonmdeblo sivrcesa da realobas. garemosdacviTi Sefasebis kodeqsis miRebas 2017 wlis erT-erT mTavar movlenad davasaxelebdi. es umniSvnelovanesi proeqtia da gulisxmobs yvela im saqmianobis daregulirebas, romelic mniSvnelovan zemoqmedebas moaxdens garemoze da amJamad regulirebis gareSea. kodeqsi danergavs procedurebs, romliTac adreul etapze iqneba uzrunvelyofili saministrosa da saqmianobis ganmaxorcielebels Soris komunikacia. aseTi procedurebi investors SesaZleblobas miscems droulad aRiqvas proeqtis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebuli riskebi da Seumcirebs potenciur finansur danakargebs. Camoyalibdeba gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis monawileobis efeqtiani meqanizmebi, rac uzrunvelyofs sazogadoebis aqtiur CarTulobas – rogorc administraciuli warmoebis dawyebiT stadiaze, aseve uSualod gadawyvetilebis miRebis etapze. garda amisa, kodeqsis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi miRwevaa dagegmarebis sruliad axali instrumentis danergva strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefasebis saxiT. aRniSnuli meqanizmi gulisxmobs kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvrul sxvadasxva seqtorSi momzadebuli strategiebis, gegmebisa Tu programebisTvis strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefasebis proceduris Catarebas. es yovelive uzrunvelyofs rogorc garemosdacviTi, ise jandacvis sakiTxebis gigla agulaSvili

a gigla agulaSvili: garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis ministri

socirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis farglebSi saqarTvelom aiRo garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan harmonizaciis valdebuleba. erT-erTi pirveli am mimarTulebiT qveyanaSi swori garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobis CamoyalibebisTvis garemosdacviTi Sefasebis sistemis srulyofaa. garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvis saministrom, saerTaSoriso da adgilobrivi eqspertebis monawileobiT, SeimuSava garemosdacviTi Sefasebis kodeqsi, romelic saqarTvelos parlaments dasamtkiceblad ukve gadaegzavna. kodeqsis proeqti sruliad axleburad aregulirebs garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis sakiTxebs da mTlianad harmonizebulia evrokavSiris Sesabamis direqtivebTan. amasTan, maqsimaluradaa morgebuli

garemosdacviTi Sefasebis kodeqsis miRebas 2017 wlis erT-erT mTavar movlenad davasaxelebdi integrirebas gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi da am mimarTulebiT mosalodneli riskebis maqsimalurad Semcirebas, dagegmarebis procesis gaumjobesebas yvela SesaZlo alternativisa da Semarbilebeli RonisZiebebis dasaxvis gziT da Sedegad, jansaRi garemos SenarCunebas. sruliad axleburi midgomebi yalibdeba garemosdacviTi gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis informirebisa da CarTulobisT-


msoflio 2017

vis. erT-erTi mTavari siaxle swored is gaxlavT, rom sazogadoebis monawileoba uzrunvelyofilia gadawyvetilebis miRebis yvela etapze. aRsaniSnavia, rom farTo sazogadoebis informireba da sajaro ganxilvis organizeba iqneba ara saqmianobis ganmaxorcieleblis, aramed saxelmwifos, kerZod – garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvis saministros valdebuleba. amiT uzrunvelyofili iqneba sazogadoebis ufro efeqtiani monawileoba da amasTan, investorebi gaTavisufldebian am tvirTisgan. es kanonproeqti TanamSromlobis iseT models iTvaliswinebs, romelic gamoricxavs konfliqtebs. amave dros, gviCndeba grZelvadiani dagegmarebis SesaZlebloba, ris Sedegadac prioritetebi adgilobriv doneze Tavidanve iqneba gansazRvruli. mTavrobis oTxpunqtiani gegmis erT-erTi umTavresi punqti, mogexsenebaT, aris ganaTleba. absoluturad viziareb da veTanxmebi am midgomas. meToduri nabijebiT mivdivarT win saganmanaTleblo programebSi garemosdacviTi komponentebis SetaniT. amas vakeTebT sabavSvo baRebSi, saSualo skolebsa Tu umaRles saswavleblebSi. kargia, rom Cvenma moqalaqeebma ukve daiwyes yuradRebis mipyroba iseTi problemebisadmi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, gamonabolqviT haeris dabinZureba. atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis Sesaxeb realuri monacemebis flobis mizniT etapobrivad farTovdeba haeris xarisxis monitoringis qseli. haeris xarisxis Sefasebis mizniT 2015 wlidan mimdinareobs atmosferuli haeris indikatoruli gazomvebi. momzadda Sesabamisi sainformacio ruka. garda amisa, Tanamedrove xelsawyoebiT aRWurvili eqspres-laboratoriiT 21 dasaxlebul punqtSi ukve CavatareT atmosferuli haeris, niadagis, wylis, el. magnituri gamosxivebisa da xmauris monitoringi. informacia onlainreJimSi Tavsdeba garemos erovnuli saagentos vebgverdze. etapobrivad vamkacrebT saavtomobilo sawvavis xarisxobriv normebs. saxelmwifo waaxalisebs eleqtroZraviani avtomanqanebis Semoyvanas, aseve waxalisebulia hibridulZraviani avtomanqanebis importic. Cven ar unda CamovrCeT Tanamedrove tendenciebs. rac SeiZleba meti nouhau unda Semovides qveyanaSi. yvela transformacias dro sWirdeba da es waxalisebuli iqneba saxelmwifos mxridan. Cven vaxalisebT ucxoeTidan modernizebuli, garemoze uaryofiTi gavlenis armqone mowyobilobebisa da danadgarebis imports. 2017 wels mniSvnelovani gegmebi gvaqvs daculi teritoriebis potencialis efeqtianad realizebis mxriv – ra Tqma unda Cveni unikaluri biomravalferovnebis dacviTa da dacul teritoriebze arsebuli SezRudvebis gaTvaliswinebiT. Semosavlebisa da vizitorTa raodenobis zrdis kuTxiT kargi dinamika gvaqvs, magram gacilebiT meti margaliti mogvepoveba da yvela es margaliti Tavisi sruli potencialiT

saqarTvelo 2017

aris gamosayenebeli. ufro mravalferovani servisebia SesaTavazebeli da gacilebiT meti turistia mosayvani. am mizniT garkveuli nabijebi gadadgmulia. Cven gvaqvs gegma, rom SesaZlebeli iyos xevsureTisa da TuSeTis dakavSireba. vfiqrobT calkeuli lokaciebis kompleqsur dagegmarebas. magaliTad, imereTSi mRvimeebis qselis ganviTarebas. vfiqrob, rom momavlisTvis Cven gveqneba Zalian kargi argumentebi mTavrobaSi imis sademonstraciod da sailustra-

2017 wels mniSvnelovani gegmebi gvaqvs daculi teritoriebis potencialis efeqtianad realizebis mxriv — ra Tqma unda Cveni unikaluri biomravalferovnebis dacviTa da dacul teritoriebze arsebuli SezRudvebis gaTvaliswinebiT ciod, rom dacul teritoriaze daxarjuli yoveli lari ekonomikurad momgebiania. daculi teritoriebi qmnis axal samuSao adgilebs, axal servisebs, xels uwyobs adgilobrivi mosaxleobis socialurekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas da amasTan, yvela reklamaze ukeTes reklamas ukeTebs Cvens qveyanas. darwmunebuli var, dacul teritoriebs ufro meti mxardaWera eqneba momavalSi. seriozul reformas saWiroebs satyeo seqtori. asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis farglebSi, bunebis dacvis mimarTulebiT ixveweba erovnuli kanonmdebloba da misi aRsrulebis meqanizmebi. momzadda `tyis kodeqsis~ proeqtis saboloo versia da kanonqvemdebare aqtebis samuSao versiebi, romlebic qmnis samarTlebriv safuZvlebs tyeebis movlis, dacvisa da aRdgenis efeqtiani meqanizmebis Camosayalibeblad. tyis kodeqsis parlamentSi wardgena 2017 wels igegmeba. tyeze zemoqmedebis Semcirebis mizniT, biomasisa da tyeSi arsebuli narCenebis gadamuSavebiT xels SevuwyobT alternatiuli energoresursebis Seqmnas. vamzadebT saxelmwifo programebs, romlebiTac wavaxalisebT biomasisa da Tboefeqturi Rumelebis gamoyenebas. `mwvane ekonomika~ saqarTvelosTvis mTavari gamowvevaa. minda swrafi winsvla da ekonomikuri ganviTareba, magram ara garemos xarjze. SeiZleba movigoT dRes, magram grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi wavagoT. yvelaferi, rac ki qveyanaSi keTdeba, am prizmiT unda gadaiWras. n

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„saqaeronavigacia“ — sahaero moZraobis marTvis evropuli standarti

goCa mezvriSvili

s

goCa mezvriSvili: Sps ~saqaeronavigaciis” generaluri direqtori

aqaeronavigacia, ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministrosTan da aviaciis saagentosTan erTad, stabilurad da Tanmimdevrulad aviTarebs qveyanaSi aviaciis sferos. Cven vagrZelebT yvela arsebuli meqanizmis maqsimalurad gamoyenebas, rac ganapirobebs saqarTvelos msoflio aviaciis srulfasovan da mimzidvel wevrobas, magram upirveles yovlisa, moemsaxureba saqarTvelos gaZlierebas da qveyanaSi saaviacio SesaZleblobis ganviTarebas, raTa qveyana meti TavdajerebulobiT gaumklavdes Tanamedrove, mravalmxriv da didi masStabis gamowvevebs. Sps „saqaeronavigaciis“ mTavari misia saqarTvelos sahaero sivrceSi da Tbilisis, quTaisis, baTumisa da mestiis aeroportebis afrena-dafrenis zonebSi sahaero moZraobis marTva da frenebis usafrTxoebis dacvaa. Cven mudmivad vmuSaobT imisTvis, rom qveyanas hqondes saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisi usafrTxoebis marTvis sistema da gamoiricxos sahaero moZraobis organizebis procesSi saaviacio SemTxvevebis Tu incidentebis gamomwvevi risk-faqtorebi. saqarTvelosTvis, romelic Tavisi politikiT yalibdeba rogorc satranzito habi, principulad mniSvnelovania, rom partniori qveynebisTvis mimzidveli sahaero sivrciTac gaxdes. saqarTvelo, Tavisi geopolitikuri mdebareobis gaTvaliswinebiT, umoklesi marSrutebis meSveobiT xmeleTis msgavsad, haeriTac akavSirebs erTmaneTTan azias da evropas. saqaeronavigacias ki Tavisi moqnili, daxvewili da evropul kanonmdeblobasTan harmonizebuli kanonmdeblobiT Tu infrastruqturiT, umaRlesi kvalifikaciis kadrebiT Tu uaxlesi teqnologiebi aqvs jansaRi ambicia, rom maRali donis konkurencia

gauwios mezoblebs sahaero navigaciis momsaxurebis ganxorcielebaSi da gaxdes lideri saaernaosno habi amierkavkasiis regionSi. „saqaeronavigacia“ saukeTeso xarisxis misaRebad bolomde ixarjeba. Sedegad, saqarTvelos sahaero sivrce evraziis derefnis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi nawili gaxda da sahaero xomaldebis nakadmac sagrZnoblad moimata. dRes „saqaeronavigacia“ saqarTvelos sahaero sivrceSi tranzitul xomaldebs 19 marSrutze emsaxureba. bolo 4 wlis ganmavlobaSi daemata 10 axali sahaero marSruti, ris Sedegadac saqarTvelo satranzito kuTxiT kidev ufro mimzidveli gaxda aviakompaniebisTis. ­EUROCONTROL-is prognoziT, romlis wevric saqarTvelo 2014 wels gaxda, Cveni qveynis sahaero sivrcis datvirTva yovelwliurad 8%-iT gaizrdeba, Tumca gasul wels am maCvenebelma 11%-s gadaaWarba. 2016 weli ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros Sps `saqaeronavigaciisaTvis~ inovaciebisa da warmatebuli proeqtebis weli iyo. frenebis mudmivi zrdis tendencia Cven gamowvevad miviReT da gasul wels araerTi umniSvnelovanesi proeqti ganvaxorcieleT, maT Soris aris Tbilisis saerTaSoriso aeroportis asafreni zolis Suq-teqnikuri sistemebis reabilitacia, sahaero sivrcis dazRveva, Tanamedrove meteo radiolokatoris damontaJeba, axali aviameTvalyureebis SerCeva da sxva. Sps „saqaeronavigacias“ 10 milioni lari da kolosaluri Sromis gaweva dasWirda imisTvis, rom Tbilisis saerTaSoriso aeroports nebismieri meteo pirobebis, maT Soris rTuli xilvadobis an Zlieri nislis drosac ki SeZleboda sahaero bortebs usafrTxod da umaRles doneze momsaxureba. Cven italiel, ukrainel da frang kolegebTan erTad, yvelaferi gavakeTeT, rom qveynis mTavar aeroports ICAO-s saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisi meore kategoriis Suq-teqnikuri sistema hqonoda da sahaero xomaldebi gauaresebuli xilvadobis pirobebSic mieRo. axla Tbilisis aeroportis asafren-dasafren zols da samimosvlo bilikebs 1500-ze meti sanaTi anaTebs, Zvel sistemas davamateT 800 sanaTi wertili, xolo arsebuli 720-dan movxseniT da SevcvaleT 500 erTeuli. ganaTebis axali sistema kidev ufro aamaRlebs frenebis usafrTxoebis dones saqarTveloSi, gazrdis Tbilisis aeroportis momsaxurebis xarisxs da uzrunvelyofs kidev ufro met usafrTxoebas da komforts aviakompaniebisa da mgzavrebisTvis. 2017 wels dasruldeba Tbilisis aeroportis teritoriaze sahaero moZraobis marTvis axali centris mSenebloba, sadac espanuri kompania INDRA-s warmoebis marTvis axali Tanamedrove sistema damontaJdeba. msoflioSi erT-erTi lideri kompaniis sistema aviameTvalyureebis samuSao process bevrad efeqtians da komfortuls gaxdis. aviaciis erT doneze gaCereba SeuZlebelia. erTi wuTiTac rom CamorCe, Cveul kalapots veRarasodes daubrundebi. Cven ukve bevrjer davanaxeT saerTaSoriso organizaciebs da partnior qveynebs, rom mudmivad ganviTarebaze varT orientirebuli da vzrunavT arsebuli sistemebis modernizaciasa da axali teqnologiebis danergvaze. amas adasturebs maTi maRali Sefasebebi da daintereseba, „saqaeronavigaciasTan“ ufro mWidro TanamSromlobaze. n


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saqarTvelo 2017

OPEN hearts, safe SKY!

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saqarTvelo liderebi 2017

msoflio 2017

aSS-is elCi ian keli 2017 wlis Sesaxeb – umniSvnelovanesi aspeqti aRniSnuli principebis dacvisTvis – aseve unda iyos prioriteti 2017 wels. saqarTvelom unda gaagrZelos aqtiuri monawileoba msoflio sakiTxebSi. qarTveli jariskacebi, amerikel kolegebTan erTad, msaxuroben avRaneTSi da monawileobas iReben samSvidobo operaciebSi sxvadasxva krizisis zonebSi. saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mier gaweuli Rvawli da Tavdadeba terorizmTan brZolisken mimarTul globalur ZalisxmevaSi, yvela Cvengans icavs safrTxisgan. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi gaagrZelebs saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mxardaWeras erToblivi wvrT-

2017 wels qarTvel partniorebTan erTad Cven vimuSavebT saqarTveloSi mewarmeobis ganviTarebis xelSewyobaze, reformebis gatarebasa da kontaqtebis damyarebaze regionisa da msoflio masStabiT

ian keli

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ian keli: aSS-is elCi saqarTveloSi

els amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi da saqarTvelo aRniSnaven diplomatiuri urTierTobebis 25 wels. es Sesaferisi garemoebaa imisaTvis, rom gaviazroT Cveni partnioruli miRwevebi da davsaxoT Semdgomi winsvlis gegma. saqarTvelo axla imyofeba im poziciaSi, rodesac ukve namdvilad SeuZlia daiwyos wlebis manZilze gatarebuli reformebis nayofis momka, da gaagrZelos muSaoba demokratiis Semdgomi gaZlierebis, ekonomikuri zrdis xelSewyobisa da globaluri stabilurobis saqmeSi wvlilis SetanisTvis. saqarTvelos SeuZlia hqondes amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis Zlieri mxardaWeris imedi yvela am ZalisxmevaSi. 2016 wlis saqarTvelos saparlamento arCevnebma daamtkica, rom qveyanam moipova adgili msoflios mtkice demokratiebs Soris. SeerTebuli Statebi kvlavac gaagrZelebs TanamSromlobas saqarTvelosTan Ria da inkluziuri sazogadoebis ganviTarebisTvis, rac qveynis momavali keTildReobis saukeTeso garantia. Tanasworoba, kanonis uzenaesoba, da adamianis uflebaTa dacva ar aris mxolod Zlieri da warmatebuli demokratiis niSnebi. yovelive es agreTve umniSvnelovanesi principebia maTTvis, vinc afasebs Tavisuflebas. reformebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofs marTlmsajulebis damoukideblobas

nebisa da swavlebebis saSualebiT, da TavdacviTi SesaZleblobebis gaumjobesebis kuTxiT. mzardma da novatorulma ekonomikam xeli unda Seuwyos saqarTvelos demokratiul progress. 2017 wels qarTvel partniorebTan erTad Cven vimuSavebT saqarTveloSi mewarmeobis ganviTarebis xelSewyobaze, reformebis gatarebasa da kontaqtebis damyarebaze regionisa da msoflio masStabiT. saqarTvelos mdebareoba globaluri savaWro marSrutebis gzajvaredinze qmnis udides SesaZleblobas, rac qveyanam unda gamoiyenos da ganaviTaros. Cven gavagrZelebT muSaobas imisaTvis, rom saqarTvelo gaxdes mimzidveli adgili biznessaqmianobisTvis da viTanamSromlebT mTavrobasTan, romelic ganaxorcielebs infrastruqturul, sagadasaxado da ganaTlebis programebs, rac ase mniSvnelovania samuSao adgilebis Seqmnisa da ekonomikis sicocxlisunarianobisTvis. axal wels axali gamowvevebi da SesaZleblobebi moaqvs. qarTvelebma unda iamayon im progresiT, romelic qveyanam ganicada arcTu did droSi, da gaaormagon Zalisxmeva winsvlisken. dauRalavi SromiT, da amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan da saqarTvelos sxva partniorebTan TanamSromlobiT, saqarTvelos SeuZlia ganaviTaros ukve mzardi reputacia, rogorc daniSnulebis adgilisa, mogzaurobis, investiciebisa da kargi sacxovrebeli pirobebisa. qarTvelebma optimizmiT unda Sexedon sakuTari qveynis momavals.n


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2017 — kursis SenarCuneba saqarTvelosTan erTad ianoS hermani

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evecdebi ekranze gaxsnil TeTr da cariel dokumentSi 2017 wlis perspeqtivebze ramdenime mosazreba Camovayalibo. diax, momavali marTlac SesaZleblobebiT aRsavsea, uwindelze metadac ki. gasul wels evropa da mTeli msoflio gansacvifrebel cvlilebaTa mowme gaxda, ramac prognozirebisas TavdaWerilobis gamoCenis mniSvneloba gvaswavla. yvelafris gaTvaliswinebiT, kvlavac gvaqvs safuZveli vivaraudoT, rom globaluri da regionuli gaurkvevlobis miuxedavad, saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris TanamSromlobaSi ukve arsebuli ZiriTadi tendenciebi welsac gagrZeldeba. bolo arCevnebSi partia `qarTuli ocnebis~ xmaTa didi umravlesobiT gamarjvebam damatebiTi stimuli da SesaZleblobebi gaaCina, cxadia garkveuli gamowvevebis fonze, raTa saqarTveloSi gatarebulma reformebma kidev ufro gaamyaros rogorc demokratia, agreTve stabiluroba. am mxriv, uaRresad mniSvnelovania mTavrobis mier gacemuli piroba, SeinarCunos da gaaZlieros WeSmariti politikuri pluralizmi, rac Zlier opoziciasTan erTad, aseve gulisxmobs mravalferovan da Tavisufal medias. aq moiazreba kanonis uzenaesobis uzrunvelyofa, kontrolsa da balansze agebul sistemaSi Semavali TiToeuli institutis damoukideblobis upirobo pativiscemis gziT. kvlavac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania sasamarTlos damoukideblobisa da profesionalizmis zrdis gagrZeleba. yvela es mizani ara mxolod mTavrobis programaSia asaxuli, aramed evrokavSiri-saqarTvelos asocirebis SeTanxmebis centrSic gaxlavT moqceuli. cxadia, maT mxardasaWerad yovelTvis mzad viqnebiT. saqarTvelos mTavroba ambiciur programas axorcielebs, romlis mizania ukeT gamoiyenos qveynis SedarebiTi upiratesobebi, samuSao Zala, geografiuli mdebareoba da bunebrivi resursebi. wlis dasawyisidanve, friad marTebuladac, yuradReba maxvildeba (maT Soris – evrokavSiris mxridan) finansuri mdgomareobis sijansaRis saWiroebaze. Tumca imasac vxvdebiT, rom es programa momavalSi Cadebuli investiciaa, romelic metwilad Cveni asocirebidan gamomdinare reformebsa da prioritetebs moicavs. wels gamowvevad gvevlineba ganviTarebis, fiskalur da socialur prioritetebs Soris Sesaferisi wonasworobis dacva. pirveli nabijebi imedismomcemia, Tumca bevri ram damokidebuli iqneba ekonomikur zrdaze, sagareo sagadasaxado balansze, valutasa da regionul faqtorebze. evrokavSiri gaagrZelebs grantebiT saqarTvelos mxardaWeras wliuri 100 milioni evros farglebSi. evropis ganviTarebis bankebi uzrunvelyofen

didi da mzardi sesxebis gamoyofas. wels miviRebT asocirebis axal dRis wesrigs, romelSic gawerili iqneba saqarTvelosTvis evrokavSiris mxardaWeris prioritetebi 2020 wlamde periodSi. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba daeTmoba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis xelSewyobas – arsebul Tavisufal savaWro sivrcesa da evrokavSiris bazarze saqarTvelos Tanmimdevrul integraciaze dayrdnobiT. Tumca namdvili mizani saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisTvis ufro da ufro meti xelSesaxebi sargeblis motanaa. gaizrdeba mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis pirdapiri mxardaWera; ufro aqtiurni viqnebiT garemos/energiis efeqturobisa da ganaTlebis sakiTxebSi. am kvirebSi, evrokavSiris institutebi ukanasknel nabijebs dgamen saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisTvis Sengenis zonaSi uvizo mimosvlis Sesaxeb saboloo gadawyvetilebis mosamzadeblad. es gadawyvetileba – bevris TvalTaxedviT mxolod simboluri – Cvens xalxs kidev ufro daaaxloebs erTmaneTTan. amasTanave, vemzadebiT Semodgomaze dagegmili, uaRresad mniSvnelovani `aRmosavleT partniorobis samitisTvis~. yoveli CvenganisTvis naTelia, rom 2017 wlis dasawyisidanve gaurkvevlobaTa talRebSi gviwevs gzis gakvalva. Tumca marTebulia gvqondes molodini, rom saqarTveloSi da saqarTvelosTan erTad, kursis SenarCunebas SevZlebT. n

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2017 — saiubileo weli britaneTisa da saqarTvelosTvis!

jastin makkenzi smiti

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jastin makkenzi smiti: britaneTis elCi saqarTveloSi

016-ma welma daamtkica, Tu amas mtkiceba sWirdeba, rom prognozi mecniereba ar aris. isini, vinc fiqrobdnen, rom 2017 wels ulmobeli tempisgan Seisvenebdnen, albaT imedgacruebulni darCebian. momdevno weli, rogorc Cans, moitans met gamowvevebsac da met SesaZleblobebsac, romlebic msoflios formirebis ganmsazRvreli iqneba momaval wlebSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom bevri ramis prognozireba SeuZlebelia, Cven namdvilad viciT, rom 2017 iubileebis weli iqneba. 500 weli luTeris mier misi Tezisebis gamoqveynebidan, 100 weli rusuli revoluciidan da 60 weli romis SeTanxmebis dadebidan. aseve mniSvnelovani TariRebia britaneTisa da saqarTvelos urTierTobaSic. 30 weli gavida mas Semdeg, rac yofili premierministri margaret tetCeri Tbiliss ewvia. aseve aRsaniSnavia, rom 25 weli gavida mas Semdeg, rac britaneTma da damoukidebelma saqarTvelom kvlav daamyares diplomatiuri urTierToba. bevri ver iwinaswarmetyvelebda, Tu ra mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi moxdeboda mas Semdeg. 1992 wels, azri, rom britaneTi da saqarTvelo gaxdebodnen strategiuli partniorebi, erTad imuSavebdnen stabiluri, demokratiuli da warmatebuli sazogadoebis Sesaqmnelad, warmoudgenlad mogveCveneboda. im dros britanuli da qarTuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebis erToblivi wvrTna Soreul perspeqtivad Canda. sainteresoa, Cems winamorbedebs Tu sjerodaT, rom dadgeboda dRe, rodesac warmate-

buli qarTuli biznesebi londonis safondo birJaze iqneboda warmodgenili, an britanuli da qarTuli universitetebi erTobliv diplomebs rom gascemdnen. rasakvirvelia, yvela cvlileba ukeTesobisken ar aris mimarTuli. Zalian samwuxaroa da arasworia, rom 2017 wels saqarTvelo Tavisi teritoriisa da misi dasaxlebis mniSvnelovan nawils ver akontrolebs da ojaxebi iZulebiT gayofili rCeba xelovnuri sazRvrebis gamo. britaneTis mxardaWera saqarTvelos suverenitetisa da teritoriuli mTlianobisTvis iseTive myaria, rogorc yovelTvis. radgan Cven meoTxedi saukunis partnioroba gvakavSirebs, axla Sesaferisi droa imisTvis, rom Sedegebi SevajamoT da momavali miznebi davsaxoT. seqtemberSi TbilisSi Camosvlis Semdeg, TiTqmis yoveldRe mekiTxebian, moaxdens Tu ara gavlenas breqsiti britaneTis mier saqarTvelos mxardaWeraze. pasuxi aris `ara~. sinamdvileSi me veli, rom britaneTi kidev ufro aqtiurad Seuwyobs xels saqarTvelos da regions mas Semdeg, rac evrokavSirSi Cveni wevroba dasruldeba da ganvaaxlebT sakuTar statuss, rogorc gaxsnili, movaWre qveyana, romelic acnobierebs Tavis pasuxismgeblobas msoflios mimarT. rogorc premier-ministrma tereza meim Tqva, britanuli istoria da kultura Rrmad internacionaluria. Cven erTaderTi msxvili qveyana varT, romelic akmayofilebs NATO-s miznebs da xarjavs Cveni mSp-is 2%-s Tavdacvaze. amavdroulad, akmayofilebs gaeros miznebs da xarjavs mTliani erovnuli Semosavlis 0,7%-s ganviTarebaze. britaneTi kvlav iqneba saqarTvelos evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis mxardamWeri.

me veli, rom britaneTi kidev ufro aqtiurad Seuwyobs xels saqarTvelos da regions mas Semdeg, rac evrokavSirSi Cveni wevroba dasruldeba da ganvaaxlebT sakuTar statuss 2017 wels orive mxaris keTili nebiT, britaneTma da saqarTvelom SesaZloa safuZveli Cauyaron momdevno meoTxedi saukunisa da Semdgom urTierTobas. Cven kvlav vemsaxurebiT erTmaneTis usafrTxoebis dacvas Sin da saerTaSoriso arenaze. britaneTi kvlav dauWers mxars saqarTvelos mTavrobas saxelmwifo mdgradobis gamyarebaSi da ekonomikur reformebSi. Cven dauRalavad vmuSaobT, rom wavaxalisoT vaWroba da investiciebi orive mimarTulebiT. Cvens sazogadoebebs Soris kavSiri izrdeba, maT Soris axalgazrda TaobebSi, Tumca bevri maTgani arc ki iyo dabadebuli, rodesac britaneTma da saqarTvelom 1992 wels urTierToba ganaaxles. sul ufro meti moqalaqe aRiarebs, rom Cven saerTo interesebi, Rirebulebebi da momavlis imedi gvaqvs. yalibdeba megobruli kavSirebi, romlebic saukunod gagrZeldeba. es 2017 wlis prognozze gacilebiT metia. es Cemi rwmenaa. n


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017 wels ukeTesi momavlis rwmeniT vegebebiT, radgan ukan vitovebT gasuli wlis warumateblobebs da veyrdnobiT pozitiur miRwevebs. gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia saqarTveloSi agrZelebs monawileobas reformaTa uwyvet procesSi, raTa saqarTvelom Tavisi potenciali moaxmaros xalxis keTildReobas. Cven vaZlierebT Cvens strategiul xedvas da ganvagrZobT ganviTarebis programebis misadagebas erovnuli prioritetebisTvis. vmuSaobT, raTa moxdes saerTo Zalisxmevis ukeT integrireba jandacvis, ganaTlebis, soflis meurneobis, infrastruqturisa da sxva sferoebSi, raTa realuri cvlilebebi SevitanoT xalxis cxovrebaSi. sul cota xnis win, 2016 wlis 30 dekembers kidev erTi warmateba iqna miRweuli: saqarTvelos mTavrobam daamtkica soflis ganviTarebis pirveli erovnuli strategia, romelic gansazRvravs qveynis xedvas 2017-2020 wlebisTvis iseT sakvanZo sakiTxebSi, rogorebicaa adgilobrivi ekonomikis zrda da diversificireba, socialuri da sajaro servisebis ganviTareba, bunebrivi resursebis mdgradi gamoyeneba da ganviTarebis procesSi moqalaqeTa CarTuloba. soflis ganviTarebis 2017-2020 wlebis erovnuli strategiis miRebiT dasrulda strategiis SemuSavebis erTwliani procesi, romelic ganxorcielda saqarTvelos mTavrobis iniciativiTa da evrokavSirisa da gaeros ori saagentos – gaeros ganviTarebis programisa da gaeros sursaTisa da soflis meurneobis organizaciis mxardaWeriT. rac Seexeba samomavlo gegmebs – Cven gvaqvs droSi gawerili mTeli rigi amocanebi. esenia: 2016-2020 ww. gaeros saqarTvelosTan TanamSromlobis gegma mdgradi ganviTarebisTvis, romelic saqarTvelos mTavrobam moiwona da miznad isaxavs demokratiuli mmarTvelobisa da kanonis uzenaesobis ganmtkicebas, adamianis uflebebis instituciebis gaZlierebas, Tanamedrove ekonomikis ganviTarebas, socialuri samarTlis gaZlierebas, janmrTelobisa da ganaTlebis farTo xelmisawvdomobas, da sazogadoebis usafrTxoebisa da sicocxlisunarianobis gazrdas. TanamSromlobis gegma warmoadgens qmediT instruments koordinirebuli saqmianobis uzrunvelsayofad, romelsac ZaluZs inkluziuri da mdgradi ganviTarebis grZelvadiani xelSewyobiT Zireuli cvlilebebi Seitanos saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis cxovrebaSi, gansakuTrebiT –marginalur da Rarib moqalaqeTa yoveldRiurobaSi. garda amisa, arsebobs `2030 wlis dRis wesrigi mdgradi ganviTarebisTvis~. axali dRis wesrigi ZalaSia 2016 wlis ianvridan. igi moicavs universalur, transformaciul da integrirebul miznebsa da amocanebs, romlebmac xeli unda Seuwyos iseT gamowvevebTan gamklavebas, rogorebicaa siRaribis aRmofxvra, mdgradi ekonomikuri zrda, socialuri dacva da jansaRi garemo. es miznebi gansazRvraven saqarTvelos ganviTarebas uaxloes wlebSi. saqarTvelosTvis mdgradi ganviTarebis miznebis ganxorcielebaSi mxardaWera kidev ufro met aqtualurobas iZens, radgan qveynis winaSe jer kidev bevri gamowvevaa.

miuxedavad erTgvari pozitiuri ekonomikuri tendenciebisa, saqarTvelos sWirdeba Tanmimdevruli, realisturi programa ekonomikuri problemebis mosagvareblad. mzardi molodinis dasakmayofileblad saqarTvelom unda moaxdinos misi ekonomikis Semdgomi liberalizacia, moizidos investiciebi, aqcenti gaamaxvilos produqtiulobaze, inovaciaze, infrastruqturis ganviTarebaze da ganaTlebul, kvalificiur samuSao Zalaze. 2016 wlis saparlamento arCevnebSi iseTi partiebis mxardaWeriT, romelTac mkafiod gamoxatuli proevropuli pozicia aqvT, qarTvelebma aCvenes TavianTi uryevi neba, imoZraon evropis mimarTulebiT. Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos es sWirdeba, raTa kidev ufro Seuwyos xeli demokratiuli mmarTvelobis, adamianis uflebebisa da kanonis uzenaesobis ganmtkicebas. saqarTvelos aqvs SesaZlebloba, kidev ufro ganamtkicos demokratia Tavisufali da samarTliani 2017 wlis adgilobrivi arCevnebisa da 2018 wlis saprezidento arCevnebis CatarebiT. da ra Tqma unda kidev erTi mniSvnelovani gamowvevaa ganaTleba – qveynis ganviTarebis umniSvnelovanesi mamoZravebeli Zala. imedia saqarTvelos prezident giorgi margvelaSvilis mier 2017 wlis ganaTlebis wlad gamocxadeba iqceva udides stimulad sayovelTao, da amasTan – mravalmxrivi da xarisxiani ganaTlebis misaRwevad. am rTul da gamowvevebiT savse garemoSi, gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia iyo da rCeba saqarTvelos stabilur da sando partniorad demokratiis ganmtkicebis, siRaribisa da uTanasworobis Semcirebis, ekologiuri usafrTxoebisa da socialurad daucvelTaTvis ufro meti SesaZleblobebis uzrunvelyofis sakiTxebSi. n

nils skoti: gaeros mudmivi koordinatori saqarTveloSi


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transkaspiurma derefanma satransporto sferosTvis aseT gardamtex epoqaSi, sworad unda moaxdinos sakuTari SesaZleblobebis pozicionireba mamuka baxtaZe

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veli welTaRricxviT meore saukuneSi, evropisa da aziis kontinentebs Soris didi abreSumis gzis mSeneblobas udidesi kulturuli Tu ekonomikuri progresi mohyva im civilizaciebisTvis, romlebic am derefans ekuTvnodnen. transkontinenturma savaWro-saqaravno gzam, romelic CineTs xmelTaSua da Savi zRvebis sanapiroebTan akavSirebda, sruliad Secvala imdroindeli samyaros aRqma. mogvianebiT, meCvidmete saukunis miwuruls, abreSumis gzam evropelebis mier saokeano derefnis srulad aTvisebis Sedegad, nel-nela dakarga mniSvneloba. Tanamedrove biznesisTvis abreSumis gzis gacocxlebis idea saocari siswrafiT ikrefs Zalas. saukuneebis win miviwyebuli xidi evropasa da azias Soris rkinigzis saerTaSoriso qselebis daxmarebiT aRdgenas lamobs. saintereso faqtia, rom yvelasgan miviwyebul abreSumis gzas dRes rkinigzam unda daubrunos sicocxle. saxmeleTo nawili, rogorc ZiriTadi komponenti abreSumis gzis ekonomikuri sartylisa, evropisa da CineTis sul ufro da ufro met qalaqs akavSirebs satvirTo matarebliT erTmaneTTan. nabij-nabij, ZiriTadi maCveneblebis (dro, sandooba, fasi) gaum-

mamuka baxtaZe: ss `saqarTvelos rkinigzis~ generaluri direqtori

jobesebiT, sabaJo procedurebis gamartivebiT, alternatiuli marSrutebis simravliT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom transkontinenturi sarkinigzo gadazidvebis `renesansis xana~ daiwyo. zemoT aRwerili gadanacvlebebi, romlebic gadazidvebis sqemebSi xdeba, bevrad masStaburia, vidre erTi SexedviT Cans. CineTi ar gaxlavT erTaderTi satransporto mimarTuleba, romelic transformacias ganicdis. ukanasknel wlebSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis wyalobiT, mniSvnelovnad gaaqtiurda iranis da zogadad samxreT aziis qveynebis vaWroba evropasTan. Sesabamisad, gaCnda tvirTnakadi, romelsac gadazidvis axali alternativebi da miwodebis gacilebiT efeqturi arxi esaWiroeba. tvirTi wylis nakadiviT TviTon qmnis kalapots, romelSic unda idinos. mTavaria derefanma, Cvens SemTxvevaSi transkaspiurma derefanma, satransporto sferosTvis aseT gardamtex epoqaSi sworad moaxdinos sakuTari SesaZleblobebis pozicionireba. istoriulad, saqarTveloze gamavali satranzito derefani ori samyaros – evropisa da aziis erTerTi mniSvnelovani damakavSirebeli rgoli iyo. dRes Cvens kompanias mkveTrad gansazRvruli kursi aqvs arCeuli. `saqarTvelos rkinigza~ ori mniSvnelovani proeqtis aqtiuri monawilea. pirveli gaxlavT `erTi sartyeli, erTi gza~, romelic abreSumis gzis ganaxlebas isaxavs miznad, xolo meore – `sparseTis yure, Savi zRva~, romelic indoeTisa da iranis udides portebs akavSirebs Sav zRvasTan. orive iniciativis farglebSi gadadgmulia konkretuli nabijebi da miRweulia Sedegebi: orive derefnisTvis SemuSavda specialuri SeRavaTiani tarifebi, gaeSva ramdenime matarebeli satesto reJimSi, damuSavda transportirebis optimaluri sqemebi mezobel qveynebTan erTad. gatarebuli RonisZiebebi 2017-2018 wlebidan sruliad axal tvirTnakads warmoSobs transkaspiuri koridorisTvis. am etapze mniSvnelovania yvela monawile mxaris aqtiuri CarTuloba da koncentracia saboloo mizanze, romlis miRweva am gadmosaxedidan ukve advilia. n


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turizmis sferoSi rekorduli 2016 weli giorgi CogovaZe

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oxarulni varT, rom 2016 weli saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTarebisTvis gansakuTrebiT warmatebuli aRmoCnda. pirvelad saqarTveloSi 6 milionze meti saerTaSoriso mogzauri Semovida, romelTa raodenobam 6 350 825 adamiani Seadgina. turistebis momatebuli raodenoba niSnavs ufro met samuSao adgils da gazrdil Semosavlebs qveynis ekonomikaSi. 2016 wels pirvelad Semosavlebma saerTaSoriso turizmidan saqarTveloSi 2 miliard amerikul dolarze meti Seadgina. swored amitom aris es maCvenebeli da cifrebSi gamoxatuli zrda gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani. aseve aranakleb mniSvnelovania, rom warmatebulad daiwyo 2017 welic. ianvris Tvis monacemebiT, dafiqsirda 32%-iani zrda im turistebis raodenobisa, romlebic 24 saaTze meti xniT gaCerdnen Cvens qveyanaSi. yovelive es gvaZlevs stimulsa da rwmenas, rom swori gziT mivdivarT da saqarTvelos mTavrobis turizmis ganviTarebis politika Sedegiania. mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi sazRvargareT Catarda araerTi RonisZieba, romelic swored turistebis mozidvisken iyo orientirebuli: saerTaSoriso aqtivobebi, maT Soris 19 saerTaSoriso turistuli gamofena, aseve zafxulisa da zamTris aqtiuri marketinguli kampaniebi msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSi, prezentaciebi da sxva RonisZiebebi samizne bazrebze, romlebic uaRresad mniSvnelovania. tradiciuli bazrebidan turistuli nakadebis mniSvnelovan gazrdasTan erTad, aqtiurad vaviTarebT axal bazrebs, romlebic saqarTveloSi turistuli nakadebis diversifikacias emsaxureba. garda amisa, 10 qveynis mimarTulebiT CavatareT kampania msoflioSi erTerT yvelaze popularul samogzauro portalze ­Tripadvisor.

2017 weli datvirTuli iqneba saerTaSoriso aqtivobebiTa da RonisZiebebiT. darwmunebuli var, 2017 kidev ufro didi miRwevebis weli iqneba turizmis ganviTarebisTvis wels, aseve pirvelad saqarTvelos istoriaSi, turizmis erovnuli administraciis farglebSi funqcionireba daiwyo saqarTvelos sakonvencio da sagamofeno biurom, romelic saqmiani turizmis (MICE) ganviTarebasa da sxvadasxva Sexvedris, wamaxalisebeli turebis, konferenciebis, gamofenebisa da msgavsi saerTaSoriso RonisZiebebis mozidvas Seuwyobs xels. marto 2016 wels Cveni organizebiT saqarTvelom 600-mde Jurnalistsa da 300 turoperators umaspinZla msoflios sxvadasxva qveynidan. Sedegad, saqarTveloze momzadda 700 statia da aTeulobiT satelevizio siuJeti Tu dokumenturi filmi. rac

Seexeba Sida turizmis stimulirebas, warmatebiT mimdinareobs proeqti `gaicani saqarTvelo~, romelsac qarTuli mediis mxardaWeriT vaxorcielebT da saqarTvelos regionebSi popularizacias isaxavs miznad. ganxorcielda axali turistuli infrastruqturis Seqmna. maT Soris – inkluziuri turizmis mimarTulebiT. 2016 wels SSm pirebisTvis mcxeTis istoriuli Zeglebis adaptireba davasruleT. momsaxurebis xarisxis gaumjobesebis mizniT treningebic grZeldeba. aseve gadamzadebis kursebi, romelic turizmis industriis 1270-ma adamianma gaiara. garda amisa, pirvelad saqarTveloSi 2016 wels turizmis administraciis iniciativiT samTo-safexmavlo marSrutebis qselis moniSvnis qarTuli standarti SemuSavda, rac imas niSnavs, rom amieridan qveyanaSi yvela samTosafexmavlo marSrutis gegmareba da markireba standartiT gansazRvruli wesebis mixedviT moxdeba. xazgasasmelia Rvinis turizmis pirveli globaluri konferencia, romelic turizmis erovnuli administraciis organizebiT, gaeros msoflio turizmis organizaciam saqarTveloSi gasuli wlis seqtemberSi gamarTa da romelsac 250 delegati, maT Soris gaeros msoflio turizmis organizaciis generaluri mdivani – Taleb rifai daeswro. 3-dRian RonisZiebaze kidev ufro xazgasmiT moxda saqarTvelos, rogorc Rvinis samSoblos, warmoCena. qveynisa, romelsac Rvinis kulturasTan 8000-wliani uwyveti tradicia akavSirebs. wlevandeli welic datvirTuli iqneba saerTaSoriso aqtivobebiTa da RonisZiebebiT, romlebic mimarTulia qveyanaSi turistuli produqtebis Seqmnisa da turizmis sferoSi momsaxurebis xarisxis gaumjobesebisken. darwmunebuli var, 2017 kidev ufro didi miRwevebis weli iqneba turizmis ganviTarebisTvis. n

giorgi CogovaZe: turizmis erovnuli administraciis xelmZRvaneli


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TamaSis axali wesebi — sabanko seqtoris 2017 weli

interviu `Tibisi bankis~ generalur direqtor vaxtang bucxrikiZesTan

r vaxtang bucxrikiZe: `Tibisi bankis~ generaluri direqtori

a iyo gasuli wlis ZiriTadi gamowvevebi, romlebic qarTul safinanso seqtors Seexo? 2016 wels qarTul ekonomikas araerTi gamowveva hqonda. navTobze fasis Semcirebam Cveni ZiriTadi savaWro partniori qveynebis ekonomikur zrdaze imoqmeda, rac Tavis mxriv, aisaxa saqarTvelos ekonomikaze. TurqeTSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma, politikurma Tu ekonomikurma sisusteebma, aseve gavlena moaxdina saqarTvelos ekonomikaze. politikuri kuTxiT, mniSvnelovani gamowveva iyo saparlamento arCevnebi, romelmac warmatebiT Caiara. zemoTqmulma gamowvevebma imoqmeda laris kurszec, romelic 2016 wels dolarTan mimarTebaSi 10,5%-iT gaufasurda. vfiqrob garemo faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT sabanko seqtorma sakmaod kargad

gaarTva Tavi am gamowvevebs. unda aRiniSnos, rom 2016 wels ufro met zrdas mivaRwieT, vidre 2015 wels. vfiqrob kursis cvalebadobis miuxedavad, sabanko seqtorma SeZlo kargi xarisxis sakredito portfelis SenarCuneba. ra nabijebi gadaidga imisaTvis, rom am gamowvevebs gamklavebodiT? sabanko seqtorma swori nabijebi gadadga am gamowvevebis dasaZlevad. maqsimalurad SevecadeT momzadebulebi SevxvedrodiT am gamowvevebs. metad volatiluri industriebisa da segmentebis dakrediteba maRalriskianobis gamo SevamcireT; meti aqcenti gadavitaneT im produqtebze, romlebzec kursis cvlileba naklebad zemoqmedebs. 2016 weli sakmaod warmatebuli iyo `Tibisi bankisTvis~. swored 2016 wels gaxda `Tibisi~ yvelaze msxvili banki saqarTveloSi. gTxovT, SeajamoT gasuli weli. 2016 weli marTlac gamorCeuli iyo `Tibisi bankisTvis~. minda gamovyo ramdenime mniSvnelovani movlena, romelmac Cveni warmateba ganapiroba. es aris londonis safondo birJis premiumsegmentSi gadasvla, ramac Cveni potenciuri da arsebuli investorebis raodenoba gazarda. aseve bank `respublikas~ SeZena, ris Sedegadac saqarTvelos sabanko seqtorSi `Tibisi~ #1 banki gaxda, yvela – korporaciul, mcire da saSualo biznesisa da fizikuri pirebis segmentSi. garda amisa, gasul wels Cven SevZeliT gagvefarToebina finansuri momsaxurebis areali – SeviZineT sadazRvevo kompania, romlis ganviTarebas momdevno sami wlis ganmavlobaSi aqtiurad vgegmavT. rogor fiqrobT, ra gamowvevebi eqneba saqarTvelos sabanko seqtors 2017 wels? 2016-Tan SedarebiT, wels ufro met ekonomikur zrdas velodebiT, Tumca migvaCnia, rom ekonomikis 4%-iT zrda ar aris sakmarisi da ufro meti iniciativa, aqtiuri muSaobaa saWiro imisaTvis, rom qveyanam gacilebiT did ekonomikur zrdas miaRwios. sistemuri riski, romelic qarTul sabanko seqtors istoriulad aqvs da welsac eqneba, dolarizaciis maRali donea. 2014 wlamde aRebuli sesxebis galareba kargi iniciativaa da vfiqrob pirveli kvartlis ganmavlobaSi ukve moitans Sedegs dolarizaciis Semcirebis kuTxiT. meore mniSvnelovani iniciativa am mimarTulebiT gaxlavT 100 000 laramde sesxebis gacema mxolod larSi. es dadebiTi movlenaa, magram amave dros gvaqvs meore gamowveva – depozitebis galareba. meti depozitis mozidvaa saWiro adgilobriv valutaSi da vfiqrob am kuTxiT bankebma aqtiurad unda iTanamSromlon rogorc erovnul bankTan, ise mTavrobasTan.


msoflio 2017

zogadad vfiqrob, rom reformebi, romlebic gaTvaliswinebulia 2017 wels, dadebiTad imoqmedebs larizaciaze. upirvelesad, vgulisxmob sapensio reformas, romelic laris grZelvadian resurss Seqmnis sabanko seqtorisTvis, da meore – Cveni informaciiT, 2017 wlis pirvel naxevarSi ganxorcieldeba finansTa saministros xazinis angariSebis nawilobriv ganTavseba komerciul bankebSi, rac xels Seuwyobs mokle vadaSi bankebSi laris resursis gazrdas. ra iqneba `Tibisi bankis~ 2017 wlis strategia – aqcents zrdaze gaamaxvilebT Tu servisis ganviTarebaze? zogadad, minda giTxraT, rom sabanko da finansuri produqtebis penetracia wlidan wlamde izrdeba mTlianad sabanko seqtorSi. aqedan gamomdinare, vfiqrob momavali 3-5 wlis perspeqtivaSi bankebi aqcents gadaitanen metwilad produqtebis diversifikaciasa da mravalferovnebaze, vidre momxmareblebis raodenobis gazrdaze. magaliTisTvis, `Tibisi banks~ dRes daaxloebiT 2 mln momxmarebeli hyavs. es mosaxleobis naxevarze metia. amitom yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT ara imdenad momxmareblebis raodenobis zrdaze, ramdenadac axali produqtebisa da momsaxurebis SeTavazebaze. vfiqrobT momavalSi safaso konkurencias Secvlis konkurencia momsaxurebis xarisxSi, da gvinda am kuTxiTac viyoT liderebi. miT ufro, rom momsaxurebis maRali xarisxi yovelTvis gamogvarCevda. am mimarTulebiT araerTi iniciativis ganxorcielebas vgegmavT. gvsurs pirveli viyoT servisis xarisxiT ara mxolod bankebs, aramed yvela sxva serviskompanias Sorisac. garda amisa, 21-e saukune teqnologiebis eraa da digitalizacia erT-erTi seriozuli gamowvevaa mTel msoflioSi. dRes Cven saukeTeso internet da mobail banki gvaqvs saqarTveloSi da teqnologiuri produqtebis penetraciis kuTxiT aRmosavleT evropuli bankebis doneze varT, magram amiT ar davkmayofildebiT. jansaRi ambicia gvaqvs, rom saSualo vadaSi teqnologiuri produqtebis penetraciiT msoflios lider bankebs SevedaroT. erT-erTi axali produqti, romelsac wels momxmarebels SevTavazebT, iqneba pirveli Chatbot saqarTveloSi. garda imisa, rom pirvelni davnergavT am produqts bazarze, mniSvnelovania erTi niuansi – Cveni Chatbot-i qarTul enaze imuSavebs. bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi araerTi wamowyeba SevTavazeT Cvens sazogadoebas cifrul mowyobilobebSi qarTulad weris waxalisebis mizniT da moxarulni varT, rom Chatbot-ic qarTuli gveqneba. funqciurad es iqneba moqnili servisi, romelsac SeeZleba momxmarebels miawodos informacia sesxebis pirobebze, valutis kursebze da a.S. Chatbot-i droTa ganmavlobaSi informaciulad daitvirTeba da momxmarebels bankTan urTierTobas kidev ufro gaumartivebs. zogadad, simartive, momsaxurebis xarisxi da teqnologiuri produqtebis ganviTareba Cveni prior-

saqarTvelo 2017

itetia. gvaqvs mizani, momxmarebels iseTi produqtebi SevTavazoT, romlebsac bankis TanamSromlis CarTuloba aRar dasWirdeba, an masTan mxolod erTi interaqcia iqneba sakmarisi. vfiqrob es aris momavlis servisi da Cveni prioritetebic amis mixedviT gavanawileT. ra gamowvevebi eqneba `Tibisi banks~ segmentebis mixedviT, korporaciul, mcire saSualo da fizikuri pirebis segmentebSi? sacalo segmentSi bankis ZiriTadi gamowveva larizaciaa. ZiriTad aqcents larebSi sesxebis gacemaze gavamaxvilebT. vfiqrobT 2017 wels gacemuli sesxebi erovnul valutaSi naklebriskiani iqneba, xolo riskis Semcireba gazrdis produqtebis moxmarebas. rac Seexeba mcire da saSualo bizness, es is sferoa, sadac metis gakeTeba gvinda da sxvadasxva inovaciuri proeqtebis ganxorcielebas vgegmavT. momsaxurebis kuTxiT Cveni amocanaa, procesebi kidev ufro gavamartivoT da davxvewoT, klientebs maTze morgebuli teqnologiuri produqtebi SevTavazoT. damatebiTi sargebeli Cveni klientebisTvis is arafinansuri servisebia, romlebzec mudmivad vmuSaobT da am mxriv 2017 welic produqtiuli iqneba. Cven mier SeTavazebul arafinansur servisebs, konsultaciebsa da ufaso treningebs, daemateba axali mimarTuleba, romelic mcire da saSualo bizneskompaniebs miscems SesaZleblobas, Seafason is industria da bazari, romelSic operireben da Seedaron konkurent kompaniebs. es maT daexmareba imaSi, rom ganviTareba codnasa da konkretul monacemebze dayrdnobiT ganagrZon. zogadad, mcire da saSualo biznesTan mimarTebaSi Cveni xedva, mxardaWera da maTi saqmianobis efeqturad warmarTvaa. swored am xedvis nawilia ufaso treningebi, romlebsac mcire da saSualo biznesebs vTavazobT; biznesdajildoeba, romliTac maT popularizacias xels vuwyobT; sakonsultacio servisebi, romlebic uSualod maT saWiroebebzea morgebuli. am mxriv 2017 welic produqtiuli iqneba. rac Seexeba korporaciul bizness, aq swrafi zrdis molodini ufro naklebi gvaqvs. kursis cvalebadobam maT finansur maCveneblebze mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdina da Cveni azriT, 2017 ufro metad finansuri gajansaRebis weli iqneba. korporaciul biznesSi zrdis molodini 2018 wlidan gvaqvs. yvela riskis gaTvaliswinebiT ramdenad saintereso iqneba saqarTvelos sabanko seqtori investorebisTvis 2017 wels? Zalian mniSvnelovania ekonomikuri zrda. qveynis zomis, masStabisa da geografiis gaTvaliswinebiT, aucilebelia, rom ambicia gvqondes ufro met ekonomikur zrdaze. vfiqrob, saqarTvelosTvis 4%-iani ekonomikuri zrda ar aris sakmarisi da unda SevZloT gvqondes gacilebiT maRali maCveneblebi. es, erTi mxriv, Seqmnis met samuSao adgils, xolo meore mxriv – moizidavs met investors, rac sabolood Cveni moqalaqeebis keTildReobaze aisaxeba. n

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maRali xarisxis momsaxureba saukeTeso fasad levan CikvaiZe

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levan CikvaiZe: `saqarTvelos fostis~ generaluri direqtori

aqarTvelos fostis~ 2016 wlis mTavari gamowveva – saerTaSoriso aRiareba – daZleulia; mwvervali, romliskenac Cveni gundi ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi dauRalavi SromiT miiwevda – dapyrobilia. 2016 wels saqarTvelom msoflio safosto kavSiris mmarTvel organoebSi pirvelad waradgina sakuTari kandidatura da gaimarjva. msoflio safosto kavSiris kongresi imarTeba 4 weliwadSi erTxel, sadac msoflios 192 qveynis samTavrobo delegacia da safosto operatori monawileobs. kavSiri gaeros avtorizebul saagentos warmoadgens, mWidro kavSirSia da strategiul TanamSromlobas eweva msoflio sabaJo da saaviacio saagentoebTan, aseve gaeros sxva struqturul erTeulebTan da evroparlamentTan. saqarTvelo msoflio safosto kavSiris orive – administraciul (CA) da safosto operaciebis (POC) sabWoebSi iqna arCuli da maT marTvaSi miiRebs monawileobas. 192 wevri qveynis delegaciidan 108-m saqarTvelos mxari dauWira, rac gulisxmobs, rom msoflio aRiarebs safosto saqmianobis maRal xarisxs saqarTveloSi da misca saSualeba `saqarTvelos fostas~ miiRos monawileoba gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi msoflioSi mimdinare metad saintereso safosto procesebSi. es iyo udidesi gamowveva da warmateba qveynisTvis da Cveni kompaniisTvis, rac pativTan erTad TavisTavad gulisxmobs maRal pasuxismgeblobas. saintereso iyo metad rTuli gza, romelic gaviareT. is, rac 2013 wels mxolod ocneba iyo, 2016 wels realobad iqca. saqarTvelos safosto dargis uaxlesi istoria sakmaod mZimed gamoiyureba: ara siaxle, ara ganviTareba, aranairi xedva. 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisidan, faqtobrivad 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi erovnuli operatori ver akmayofilebda saerTaSoriso standarts da Sesabamisad momxmareblis moTxovnebs. ganadgurebuli infrastruqtura, gaumarTavi saoperacio qseli, dabali kvalifikaciis kadrebi, SeuZlebels xdida safosto valdebulebis elementarul doneze Sesrulebas. 2013 wlidan `saqarTvelos fostis~ menejmentma ambiciuri miznebi daisaxa. upirvelesi mizani – saoperacio nawilis gamarTva da saerTaSoriso standartis dakmayofileba iyo. partniori evropuli qveynebis eqspertTa daxmarebiT Cven es warmatebiT davZlieT. paralelurad mwvaved idga kadrebis kvalifikaciis sakiTxi. axali profesionali kadris moZieba, treningi da maTi motivireba iyo adamianuri resursebis marTvis departamentis amocana. aqcenti profesionalizmze gavamaxvileT da Sedegmac ar daayovna. mwiri resursebis dabalanseba Cven swored profesionalizmiT da warmatebis miRwevis mZafri surviliT SevZeliT. evropeli eqspertebis mier 2013 wels gacemuli

rekomendaciebi saoperacio mimarTulebiT, `saqarTvelos fostam~ vadaze adre Seasrula. Sedegad, kompania maT mier dasaxelda rogorc erT-erTi swrafad mzardi da ganviTarebadi safosto operatori. dRes Cveni miRwevebiT dainteresdnen da gamocdilebis gaziarebas gvTxoven iseTi qveynebi, rogorebicaa ukraina, da regionSi arsebuli sxva mezobeli saxelmwifoebi. Tanamedrove teqnologiebis danergvam SesaZlebeli gaxada CamovyalibebuliyaviT erTiani msoflio safosto qselis nawilad da dagvenerga iseTi safosto produqtebi, romlebzec moTxovnileba dRiTi dRe izrdeba. Cven saSualeba miveciT safosto biznesSi CarTul mcire da saSualo biznesis warmomadgenlebs, gamoiyenon `saqarTvelos fostis~ qseli da sakuTari biznesSesaZleblobebis pozitivi gaavrcelon qveynis masStabiT, anu sakuTari biznesproduqti regionis mosaxleobasac miawodon. msoflio safosto kavSiris mier specialurad saqarTvelosTvis SemuSavebuli ganviTarebis samwliani gegmis nawili, komercializaciis mimarTulebiT, vfiqrob dasrulebulia, xolo modernizaciis gamowvevebis misaRebad da siaxleebis dasanergad 2017 weli win gvelis. axali safosto produqtebi, dafuZnebuli axal teqnologiebze, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens saqarTvelos regionebisTvis, sadac amgvari momsaxureba ar aris ganviTarebuli. aseTi gaxlavT safosto fuladi gzavnili da eleqtronuli komercia. es produqtebi gaxlavT gegmis nawili, riTac 2017 wels SevasrulebT regionis mosaxleobisTvis micemul dapirebas. Tumca, mniSvnelovan gamowvevad mainc rCeba qveynis mTel teritoriaze erTgvarovani operireba, rac moiTxovs Sesabamis infrastruqturas qveynis srul teritoriaze. 2017 wels `saqarTvelos fostis~ momxmarebeli elodeba axal serviscentrebs rogorc regionebSi, aseve damatebiT serviscentrebs qalaq TbilisSi. aRniSnuls vaxasiaTeb rogorc gamowvevas kompaniisTvis, radgan, mogexsenebaT sxva sakuriero kompaniebi saqmianobas ZiriTadad mWidrod dasaxlebul teritoriebze, did qalaqebSi ewevian, sadac mcire saoperacio danaxarjiT SesaZlebelia maqsimaluri mogebis miReba. Cven unda SevasruloT regionis mosaxleobisTvis micemuli dapireba da yvela momsaxureba unda gvqondes erTgvarovani xarisxis – rogorc did qalaqebSi, aseve regionebSi. vfiqrob, survili geografiuli potencialis gamoyenebisa da qveynis savaWro, samrewvelo da ekonomikur habad gadaqcevis Sesaxeb, safosto mimarTulebiT didwilad SevasruleT. safosto mimocvliT gavxdiT qveynebis damakavSirebeli, da es fostis TiToeuli TanamSromlis damsaxurebaa. CemTvis ki yvelaze metad saamayo gaxlavT is, rom ukanasknel 2 weliwadSi SevqmeniT ramdenime gamocema, safosto saoperacio Teoriuli masala (safosto procedurebi, safosto standartebi, momxmareblis saxelmZRvanelo, TanamSromlis saxelmZRvanelo), romliTac ixelmZRvaneleben momavali Taobebi – isini, visac survili eqnebaT sakuTari kariera safosto bizness daukavSiron. n


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2017 weli _ optimisturi perspeqtivebi merab lominaZe

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016 sakmaod rTuli weli iyo rogorc Cveni kompaniisTvis, aseve dargisTvis – ara mxolod saqarTveloSi, aramed msoflioSi. 2016 wels bazari xasiaTdeboda yvelaze dabali fasebiT bolo xuTwlian periodSi. Tumca Cvenma kompaniam garkveuli zomebis miRebis Semdeg warmatebiT gadalaxa yvela es gamowveva. WiaTuris samTo-gamamdidrebel kombinatSi SemoRebul iqna specialuri muSaobis reJimi 4 Tvis ganmavlobaSi, radganac Zalian dabali iyo moTxovna Cvens produqciaze. Tumca, amis miuxedavad, Cven SevZeliT warmatebiT dagvesrulebina 2016 weli, ar gavsuliyaviT finansur zaralze, gvenaxa cotaodeni mogeba da ukve sruli mzadyofniT SevxvedrodiT 2017 wels. rac Seexeba 2017 wels, Cven gvaqvs Zalian didi imedi, rom procesebi, romlebic daiwyo 2016 wlis ukanasknel kvartalSi, kerZod ki dekemberSi, gagrZeldeba mTeli 2017 wlis ganmavlobaSi da SenarCundeba is moTxovna da fasebi romlebic dRes gvaqvs msoflio bazarze feroSenadnobebze da madanze. 2016 ara marto gamowvevebis, aramed inovaciebis welic iyo, radganac pirvelad ukanaskneli 25 wlis manZilze, Cvenma kompaniam da am sawarmom moaxdina WiaTuris samTo-gamamdidrebel kombinatSi warmoebuli koncentratis eqsporti, romelic CineTSi gaigzavna. Cinelma partniorebma es produqcia ukve miiRes, da metsac vityvi, rom kidev mogvces SekveTebi, TumcaRa samwuxarod veRar vaxerxebT am moTxovnis dakmayofilebas, vinaidan Cven es koncentrati gvWirdeba im saboloo produqtis, anu feroSenadnobis sawarmoeblad, romelsac realizacias vukeTebT msoflios sxvadasxva bazarze. rac Seexeba bazrebs, 2016 wlis bolo kvartalSi Cven movaxerxeT da gavediT ruseTis bazarze. dReis mdgomareobiT es kompania gaxlavT erT-erTi mTavari mimwodebeli rogorc amerikis, aseve ruseTis bazarze. samwuxarod, amis paralelurad Semcirda Cveni wili evropul bazrebze, radganac ubralod ar gvaqvs sakmarisi simZlavreebi, rom davakmayofiloT yvela es lokacia da partniori. mogexsenebaT, saqarTveloSi `jorjian emeriqan eloiz~ jgufSi Sedis ara mxolod `jorjian manganezi~, aramed iseTi kompaniebi, rogorebicaa `feromedi~, `varcixe 2005~, WiaTuris wyalmomaragebis axladdaarsebuli kompania. TiToeuli maTganisTvis 2016 iyo sakmaod rTuli weli, Tumca minda daviwyo im didi warmatebiT, romelsac miaRwia `varcixe 2005~ma! am sawarmom rekorduli gamomuSavebiT daasrula weli da TiTqmis miliardi kilovatsaaTi eleqtroenergiis generireba moaxdina, romelic mTlianad miemarTa zestafonis qarxanaSi da misi meSveobiT moxda Cveni produqciis warmoeba. 2016 wels aseve saukeTeso maCveneblebs, rogorc Semosavlianobis, agreTve momgebianobis TvalsazrisiT, miaRwia jgufSi Semavalma hospitalma `feromedi~. aris sakiTxebi, romlebic kvlavac iTxovs gadawyvetas, Tumca mogeba, romelic kompaniam miiRo, miemarTeba swored imisaTvis, rom moxdes hospitlis metad keTilmowyoba, ganviTareba da axali momsaxurebis SeTavazeba Cveni pacientebisTvis. rac Seexeba WiaTuris wyalmomaragebis kompanias, igi axladSeqmnilia, daarsda 2016 wels. masTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs Zalian mniSvnelovani gegmebi,

romlebic Tavis TavSi gulisxmobs wyalmomaragebis uwyveti reJimis uzrunvelyofas WiaTuraSi. es Zalian rTuli proeqtia, vinaidan WiaTuris municipalitetSi, sadac Cven gviwevs operireba, Zalian rTuli – mTiani reliefia. amavdroulad, didi yuradReba eTmoba wylis xarisxs. vfiqrob 2017 wlis ganmavlobaSi im sainvesticio proeqtebis ganxorcielebis Semdeg, romlebic dagegmili gvaqvs, Cven ukve SesaZlebloba gveqneba wyalmomaragebiT srulad uzrunvelvyoT is soflebi da qalaq WiaTuris is nawili, romelic maragdeba Cven mier mopovebuli wyliT. 2016 wlis bolo kvartalSi fasebi radikalurad Seicvala feroSenadnobTa bazarze, moxda maTi zrda. me viziareb sxvadasxva eqpertebis mosazrebebs imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom 2017 wels am fasebis SenarCuneba moxdeba. msgavsi situacia Cven mogvcems imis saSualebas, rom ufro Tamamad ganvaxorcieloT sainvesticio proeqtebi rogorc zestafonSi, aseve WiaTuraSi. zestafonSi igegmeba kidev erTi Rumelis sruli kapitaluri remonti, romelic unda gaimarTos da gaiSvas mimdinare wlis martis TveSi. ukve Zalian didi xania Cven vsaubrobT axal gamamdidrebel fabrikaze, romlis mSeneblobis nebarTva sul axlaxan iqna mopovebuli. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu warmatebiT dasrulda im problemebis gadawyveta, romlebic dRes arsebobs kompaniaSi (vgulisxmob sagadasaxado organoebTan davebs), vfiqrob es proeqti daiwyeba 2017 wels da Tu klimaturi pirobebi mogvcems saSualebas, Cven SevZlebT, rom es proeqti mSeneblobis nawilSi 2017 wels davasruloT. rac Seexeba sainvesticio gegmebs, kompania wlidan wlamde axorcielebs 12-dan 15 milion dolaramde kapitaldabandebebs, vgulisxmob ara marto kompania `jorjian manganezs~, aramed mTlianad jgufs. aq igulisxmeba is kapitaluri remontebi, romlebic xorcieldeba varcixehesis energogeneraciis obieqtebze. agreTve „feromedSi“ – zestafonis feroSenadnobTa qarxanaSi, WiaTuris samTo-gamamdidrebel kombinatSi. agreTve dagvemata WiaTuris wyalmomaragebis kompania, romelic aseve moiTxovs mniSvnelovan investiciebs. 2017 wels vfiqrobT ganxorcieldeba mniSvnelovani proeqtebi. zestafonis feroSenadnobTa qarxanaSi igegmeba axali erTeulis damateba, romelic uzrunvelyofs wvrilfraqciuli silikonmarganecis gadamuSavebas da mza produqciis saxiT ukve bazrisTvis miwodebas. am produqcias ewodeba anaceri da misi zomebi aris 0-dan 6 mm-de. am proeqtze Cven ukve ramdenime Tvea vmuSaobT da imeds gamovTqvam, rom warmatebiT gavivliT testirebas da SevZlebT mis srulad ganxorcielebas. WiaTuris samTo-gamamdidrebel kombinatSi igegmeba axali fabrikis mSeneblobis dawyeba, razec did imeds vamyarebT. rac Seexeba `feromeds~, mudmiv reJimSi mimdinareobs axali danadgarebis SeZena da montaJi, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs Cveni momsaxurebis xarisxi mniSvnelovnad gavaumjobesoT. investiciebi gagrZeldeba energetikis dargSi (vgulisxmob `varcixe 2005-s~), rac imis saSualebas mogvcems, rom ar davkargoT wyali da maqsimalurad efeqturad gamoviyenoT CvenTvis xelmisawvdomi resursi. n

merab lominaZe: `jorjian emeriqen eloizis~ qarTuli jgufis komerciuli direqtori


160

saqarTvelo 2017

msoflio 2017

mudmivad mzardi moTamaSe sacalo bazarze - `elit eleqtroniqsi~

lado jobava

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lado jobava: „elit eleqtroniqsis“ generaluri direqtori

016 `elit eleqtroniqsisTvis~ warmatebuli weli iyo rogorc gayidvebis, aseve momgebianobis kuTxiT. kompaniam gasul wels 15%mde zrda daafiqsira sacalo gayidvebis mimarTulebiT 2015 welTan mimarTebaSi. sakmaod mniSvnelovani zrda iyo teqnikis sxvadasxva kategoriebis mimarTulebiT: mobilur telefonebSi 30%-mde, xolo msxvili da wvrili sayofacxovrebo teqnikis mimarTulebiT 20%-mde zrda dafiqsirda. aseve momgebianobis kuTxiT, kompaniam istoriulad yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli daafiqsira. gasul wels `elit eleqtroniqsi~ dasaxelda wlis brendad. 2016 wlis adamianebisa da kompaniebis – `oqros pergamentis~ kandidatebis sareitingo SerCevaSi monawileoba 100-ma eqspert-specialistma miiRo. sareitingo SerCevis safuZvelze Sedga nominantebis sia da gamokiTxvis anketa. sul saqarTvelos masStabiT sakonsultacio-kvleviT jguf GCG-is mier gamoikiTxa 2157 respondenti, romelTa umravlesobam kompania `elit eleqtroniqsi~ 2016 wlis saukeTeso brendad daasaxeles. `elit eleqtroniqsma~ 2016 wels 3 axali maRazia gaxsna, erT-erTi maTgani ki dasavleT saqarTveloSi teqnikis yvelaze didi maRaziaa, romelic qalaq baTumSi mdebareobs. `elit eleqtroniqsi~ momxmarebels unikaluri koncefciis maRaziebs sTavazobs, romelic adamianebs saSualebas aZlevs ufro komfortul sivrceSi SearCion da SeiZinon sasurveli teqnika. aseve aRsaniSnavia faqti, rom `elit eleqtroniqsi~ pirveli multibrenduli teqnikis maRaziaTa qselia saqarTveloSi, sadac warmodgenilia msoflioSi wamyvani brendebis Sourumebi, rogorebic gaxlavT: Apple, Samsung, LG, Sony, Bosch, Siemens,

Gorenje, Philips, Acer, Lenovo da sxva. `elit eleqtroniqsi~ gaxlavT Samsung-is da Apple-is avtorizebuli partniori, Bosch-is, Siemens-is, Gorenje-sa da Hitachis eqskluziuri da erTaderTi warmomadgeneli saqarTveloSi. `elit eleqtroniqsi~ wlis ganmavlobaSi masStaburi aqtivobebiT da kampaniebiT gamoirCeoda. kompaniis TOM cnobadoba teqnikis bazarze ufro metad gaizarda. aseve SegaxsenebT: `elit eleqtroniqsi~ kvlevis mixedviT ikavebs saqarTvelos teqnikis bazris lideris pozicias da uWiravs sacalo bazris 43%-mde wili. `elit eleqtroniqss~ wels sakmaod saintereso da ambiciuri gegmebi aqvs sacalo gayidvebis zrdisa da ganviTarebis mimarTulebebiT. kompania wlis bolomde momxmarebels inovaciur proeqtebs SesTavazebs. rogorc kompaniaSi acxadeben, pirvelad saqarTveloSi danergaven saojaxo, wvrili sayofacxovrebo teqnikis gayidvebis axal arxs. aseve Zalian male `elit eleqtroniqsis~ maRaziaTa qselSi ara marto teqnikis, aramed mTliani samzareulos SeZenas SeZlebT. `elit eleqtroniqsi~ samzareulos avejis mimarTulebas aviTarebs da israelSi wamyvan brendTan SeTanxmebas debs. Sedegad, momxmarebels saSualeba eqneba adgilze ixilos samzareulos avejis nimuSebi, Seqmnas misTvis sasurveli dizaini da Sesabamisad moargos sasurveli teqnika. aseve wels `elit eleqtroniqsi~ momxmarebels `boSis~ eqskluziuri xazis teqnikas warudgens. imisaTvis, rom momxmarebels kidev ufro gaumartivdes sasurveli teqnikis SerCeva, `elit eleqtroniqsis~ maRaziaTa qselSi moewyoba specialuri `laiv testingis zona~, sadac momxmarebels saSualeba eqne-

`elit eleqtroniqss~ wels sakmaod saintereso da ambiciuri gegmebi aqvs sacalo gayidvebis zrdisa da ganviTarebis mimarTulebebiT. kompania wlis bolomde momxmarebels inovaciur proeqtebs SesTavazebs ba adgilze gamoscados sasurveli teqnika. aseve kompania mniSvnelovan proeqtebs gegmavs momsaxurebis axali standartis danergvis kuTxiT, produqciis gayidvamde da gayidvis Semdgom momsaxurebis gaumjobesebis mizniT. `elit eleqtroniqsi~ dResdReobiT saqarTveloSi teqnikis yvelaze didi savaWro qseliT aris warmodgenili. saukeTeso produqcia, farTo da mudmivad ganaxlebadi asortimenti, sagarantio da gayidvis Semdgomi saukeTeso momsaxureba, SeZenili nivTebis adgilze mitana-montaJi da momsaxurebis maRali standarti – yovelive es ganapirobebs `elit eleqtroniqsis~ dRevandel saxelsa da adgils saqarTvelos samomxmareblo bazarze. n


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`Tegeta motorsis~ ambiciuri gegma — regionSi lideris statusi

dimitri gozaliSvili

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dimitri gozaliSvili: `Tegeta motorsis~ komerciuli direqtori

016 weli `Tegeta motorisTvis~ erT-erTi saukeTeso iyo, radgan Cven weli jamSi 20%-mde zrdiT davxureT. zrda gvqonda yvela segmentSi: axali saburavebis realizaciis Sedegad bazris wili 25%-iT gavzardeT, xolo akumulatorebis gayidviT 30%-iani maCvenebeli gvqonda; rac Seexeba avtomobilis zeTebs, Tu gamovricxavT dabali segmentisTvis gankuTvnil iaffasian produqcias, maSin bazris wili 20%-iT gavzardeT. aseve warmatebuli gayidvis maCveneblebi gvqonda sxva produqtebis mimarTulebiTac, radgan maTi zusti daTvla SeuZlebelia. vfiqrobT bazris 20-30%-iT wilis gazrda SevZeliT. 2014 wels dawyebulma stagnaciis periodma ganapiroba msoflioSi navTobis fasis dacema, ramac gamoiwvia fasebis daweva Cvens Sesasyid produqciazec da momxmarebels umaRlesi xarisxis produqcia saukeTeso fasad SevTavazeT. Cveni holdingi momxmarebels avtoproduqtebisa da avtoteqmomsaxurebis srul asortiments sTavazobs – rogorc msubuqi da satvirTo avtomobilebis, aseve avtobusebis, samSeneblo da specteqnikis mimarTulebiT. Cveni kompania aseve amaragebs saqarTveloSi moqmed msxvil sawarmoebs servisis danadgarebiT. `Tegeta motorsi~ foTis portis, `feros~, rusTavis `azotis~, `haidelbergcementis~ da sxva giganti Tu mcire zomis kompaniebis mTavari mimwodebelia. 22 wlis win Cvenma kompaniam saqmianoba daiwyo erTi patara maRaziiT TbilisSi, sadac satvirTo avtomobilebis saTadarigo nawilebi iyideboda. swori menejmentisa da momsaxurebis maRali xarisxis Sedegad, mokle periodSi Cven saavtomobilo produqtebisa da servisis dargSi lideri kompania gavxdiT. amJamad Cveni holdingi aerTianebs xuT kompanias: `Tegeta Traq end basi~, `Tegeta qonsTraqSen eqvifmenTi~, `Tegeta premium viiqels~ (`porSesa~ da `mazdas~ oficialuri warmomadgeneli) da `toiota centri Tegeta~. Cven vemsaxurebiT 200 000-ze met fizikur pirs – loialur momxmarebels, 2 000 sabiTumo da 10 000-mde korporaciul klients. gasul wels aqtiurad vimuSaveT – rogorc axali filialebis gaxsnis, aseve arsebulis ganaxlebis kuTxiT. axali filialebi gaixsna sofel ruxSi da TbilisSi, gez-is teritoriaze, quTaisSi msubuqi avtomobilebisTvis gaixsna calke servisi, baTumis

filiali gadavida axal lokaciaze da ganxorcielda misi masStaburi ganaxleba, xolo TbilisSi, centralur filialSi calke gavxseniT korporaciuli momsaxurebis servisi. Cven aqtiurad avamuSaveT cxeli xazis servisi, romelic emsaxureba TveSi 20 000ze met zars da aseve vmuSaobT momxmareblebis kmayofilebis donis kvlevaze. vcdilobT momxmareblis rCevebi gaviTvaliswinoT, raTa kidev ufro gavzardoT momsaxurebis xarisxi. `Tegeta motorsi~ 2016 wlidan saerTaSoriso gadamzidebs sTavazobs unikalur Tax Free serviss, romelic Seiqmna finansTa saministros mxardaWeriT da saSualebas aZlevs momxmarebels SeZenil da damontaJebul saburavebSi gadaxdili Tanxis dRg sazRvris gadakveTisas daibrunos. es servisi sakmaod warmatebiT muSaobs, rasac aseve xels uwyobs amierkavkasiisa da centraluri aziis masStabiT saburavebze Cven mier SeTavazebuli saukeTeso fasi. CvenTvis erT-erTi saintereso obieqtia 2016 wels gaxsnili ruxis serviscentri, romelic warmatebiT operirebs samegrelos teritoriaze. mimdinare wels vapirebT aRniSnuli filialis gafarToebas, sadac aseve igegmeba saswavlo centr `Tegetas akademiis~ gaxsna. Cvens sferoSi kvalificiuri kadrebis moZieba rTulia, ris gamoc gadavwyviteT dagvearsebina saswavlo centri `Tegetas akademia~, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs movamzadoT saukeTeso specialistebi avtoindustriis mimarTulebiT. momavalSi vgegmavT gaviaroT akreditacia da gavceT Tanamedrove standartis profesiuli sertifikatebi. rac Seexeba mimdinare wels, igi daviwyeT axalqalaqSi filialis gaxsniT. gazafxulze gaixsneba axali filiali marneulSi da gafarTovdeba arsebuli filiali gorSi. 2017 wels navTobze da mineralebze fasebis zrdis tendencia SeiniSneba, rac gamoiwvevs msoflio bazarze Sesasyidi fasebis 10-15%-ian zrdas, Tumca gvjera, rom Cvens partniorebTan aqtiuri molaparakebebis Sedegad SevZlebT Sesasyidi fasis SenarCunebas. 2016 wels aqtiurad daviwyeT gare bazrebis asaTviseblad muSaoba, xolo 2017 wels adgilobriv partniorebTan erTad gavxseniT pirveli filiali qalaq baqoSi. azerbaijanis bazari saqarTvelosTan SedarebiT ramdenjerme didia, swored amitom metad sainteresoa CvenTvis. vinaidan kavkasiis regionSi Cveni tipis kompania ar funqcionirebs, vfiqrobT did warmatebas unda mivaRwioT. Cven vimuSavebT rogorc korporaciul, aseve sacalo da sabiTumo mimarTulebebiT. vfiqrobT ukve zafxulidan gamoCndeba dadebiTi tendenciebi, ris Semdegac daviwyebT arsebuli serviscentris gafarToebas. Semdegi qveyana, sadac uaxloes momavalSi vgegmavT Sesvlas, TurqmeneTia. Cven aq did potencials vxedavT gafarToebisTvis da biznesis warmatebisTvis. 2017 wlis gegmebSi aseve Sedis axali brendebis damateba, qolcentris momsaxurebis gaumjobeseba, SMS-servisis SemoReba, raTa CvenTan urTierToba kidev ufro komfortuli gaxdes da lideris statusi SevinarCunoT yvela mimarTulebiT. kompaniis ambiciur gegmebSi aseve Sedis kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis qveynebSi strategiul brendebTan makrodistributori kompaniis statusis mopoveba. vgegmavT regionuli sawyobis Seqmnas, Tumca es ufro grZelvadiani gegmebia. n


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