1 R&D STUDIO COASTAL QUALITIES
Ankit Bhargava 4187180 Sept - Nov 2011
Katwijk is a coastal municipality with a popular beach and a thriving residential population. In 1996, Katwijk became one municipality, an amalgamation of 4 villages namely -Katwijk aan Zee, Katwijk a/d Rijn, Rijnsburg, and Valkenburg each being a religious close knit community in itself. Katwijk has seen a considerable growth in population and development in the last 50 years and continues to do so. The project analyses Katwijk as a built urban environment along with its surrounding landscape both urban and rural that have constantly shaped Katwijk at both local and regional scale. The coastal landscape as an edge being of particular importance since sea level is projected to rise by .8 - 1.2m. After a general group analysis to point out the issues at hand, the 4 individual projects take it further to diagnose and propose solutions individually of problematique based on separate visions. The projects retain the overall concerns stipulated by the addition of 20,000 people (1/3 of present population) and need for renewal of coastal defence. Simultaneously they also explore what other developments can be brought about that will improve the built environments for the residents.
Contents 1 Analysis 2 Diagnosis of the Problematique
Transport and mobility Open, public and recreational spaces New growth Social Cohesion 3 Strategies
Strategy 1 - River Strategy - Highway Strategy 3 - Coast 4 Structure plan
Katwijk, is situated10 km northwest of Leiden and 16 km north of The Hague, in the province of South Holland in the western Netherlands. Katwijk lies on the western part of the Randstad area, the sixth-largest Metropolitan Area in Europe.It also shares its borders with the other municipalities of Noordwijk, Teylingen, Oegstgeest and Wassenaar.
Placement as coastal town
Placement in Randstad
The problems in Katwijk arise out of the process of development of the city in the last 50 years. The four villages having been independent until 1996, have developed organically as fragmented clusters built with no conscious coherence with their surroundings or a larger plan. They have grown to each others boundaries only separated by the apparent natural and urban edges like the river and highway. Now, having become a single municipality, the peripheral edges of the villages face each other as internal edges in the heart of Katwijk. While the river and highway are the most legible edges, the underlying terrain, the harbour, mismatched transport spines and the large pumping station that provide a completely contrasting scale behave as visual and spatial edges as well. Their porosity and the landscape around defines not only the mobility within and out of Katwijk but how these different communities (villages) interact socially and spatially. The project addresses this problematique of the edges and how restructuring them can benefit the residents of the municipality.
Structure Plan Highway - Converting the highway into an urban boulevard. River - Developing a new interface and relationship with Katwijk at local and city scale - Creating separate harbours as short term (Leisure harbour) and long term stay (parking lot) Mobility - Making the river and highway more porous edges, building towards a more non-car efficient space and means of mobility Landscape - Deals with the aspect of differential scales - neighbourhood and city scale and incorporating making green spaces more usable and accessible Regional Plan This plan investigates into the various elements that make up the larger region and their role in shaping Katwijk. One such element being the highway that can now be seen as a regional corridor. Can it be extended to Noordwijk? What will be the impact of that? Others include the industry that current act as the buffer between leiden and Katwijk. It also looks at the layers of the Katwijk-leiden Urban scape to investigate whether resistance to growth towards Leiden is the future for Katwijk or merging with Leiden.
• Transport and mobility - Connectivity problems - Excessive use of cars - Parking issues
• Lack of open spaces • Inadequacy of infrastructure and facilities • Coastal Defence • Future growth? • Regional Stance and Connections
City along the highway
Diagnosing the Problematique
Diagnosing the problematic
Transport | Mobility
oord w ij
Between villages River and highway as major connectivity barriers
Work : to industries around Accessibility to industry only through select arteries
Katwijk - Leiden Leiden - Katwijk - Noordwijk To Beach by Car, boats
Agenda 1 en
Le id Highway, instead of a pass through needs to become an access corridor It edges Valkenburg, Katwijk a/d Rijn and Katwijk aan Zee
To Noor d
Imagining river edge as a new connection spine. It edges all villages. Draw new pedestrian connections
Reduce car use
Introduce an alternative transport spine
Boulevard, Beach : Tourist area Discourage parking here
Water transport Reducing the scale of the harbour within the city and shifting it to the periphery. 11
Diagnosing the problematique
Recreation Zones, open spaces 1
Small community parks with play areas for children
Large disconnected green spaces
Green area in courtyards between buildings used for parking
Plaza near church covered with Parking 3
Ponds, green space not well accessible
Solo standing houses (sprawling landscape in front)
Large amount of greening to hide the junction
Reclaim unused green space New programme
Market square, sports amenities
CONNECT across road Reclaim fragmented urban residue
Large fragmented potential green, open space upto the beach
Convert to Leisure Harbour (Short stay) Remove disused industrial landscape Reconnect, reclaim and make accessible River as Event space Creating a new dialogue with the river
s n es cc ee gr n ks ina ee par ion ely gr n g sit lar tio tran n, ea e, ce recr ee r c c a g A all sp ed Sm sed ood u as Un se w are n g s as za re De pin reas m na pla a a C pe and ts or ro s p ve S ce fto spa s e L en lot Op king r Pa
Canal space as Potential New public park ? Domesticate the scale of water and space
What to do with the Urban residue?
Most of all large sports facilities situated in the peripherals
Diagnosing the problematique
+ 5000 houses
Highway even more important as a traffic corridor
Agenda 3 14
New centre ?? â€˘ Community centre for new residents â€˘ New centre to incorporate missing Facilities/amenities â€˘ Cut short excessive travel to Leiden
New dialogue between Rijsburg - N206 - New residents
With the new residential blocks to be built on one side of the highway, with Rijsburg on the other, the N206 is absorbed and becomes the central spline, connecting to Leiden. If it is restructured as an urban boulevard programmatic nodes within, it would decrease the pressure on Katwijk aan Zee and Leiden as the two main cores at the two ends.
Diagnosing the problematique
The problems of social cohesion are born out of the process of cluster growth shaped by the natural and urban barriers. However social cohesion has become of concern only since the villages have grown to each others boundaries and amalgamated in 1996 into one municipality and there is significant connectivity problems between places.. As a result, in the case of valuable green spaces, they are disconnected and under used. This residential municipality likes its villageness. The limited accessibility to areas ( that may be observed in some cases, as poor connectivity) has resulted from quiet private interfaces, while in other cases, its more exposed.
Social cohesion : Within individual villages Between villages New residents - katwijk Observed: lack of public access, bad connectivity
Strong ties Highway and river as barriers ? Private interfaces for residents Quite Calm Safe Less cross traffic
These clusters have given form to pockets of coziness that people associate with, that are quiet and almost private. The river edge is a very good case This calls into question public accessibility to public assets. Public interface vs private space.
Private residences, accessible public spaces
Is the atmosphere of villageness, quietness in conflict with rectifying connectivity issues because they limit mobility to and from all areas?
Can city scale public spaces coexist with intimate neighbourhood scale spaces, closeness, while maintaining cultural integrity?
Municipality as a cluster of private zones
Different kinds of spatial connections with the river
In these agendas the â€˜pain areasâ€™ (the problem areas) all largely lie on the edges. It is these edges - internal and peripheral edges that determine the coherence and cohesion of the cluster development. So, to fulfill the agenda, the strategies examine claosely these various typologies of edge conditions - the RIVER, the HIGHWAY and the COAST and suggest newer relationships that can improve the built environment for visitors and locals alike.
• River as Event space, creating a new dialogue with the river • Introduce an alternative transport spine for pedestrians and bicyclists • Improve cross connectivity • New green network, to connect with inner areas of the city • Reconnect, reclaim and make accessible fragmented urban residue • Creation of Leisure Harbour (Short stay) Remove disused industrial landscape • Potential New public park in the inlet harbour? Domesticate the scale of water and space
3 • Draw new pedestrian connections • Highway, an access corridor connecting Valkenburg, Katwijk a/d Rijn and Katwijk aan Zee • Highway as an Urban Boulevard
RIVER AND HARBOUR AREA
River and Harbour Area 1 River as Event space. Creating a new dialogue with the river 2 Introducing an alternative transport spine for pedestrians and bicyclists
Improve cross connectivity 3 New green network, along river edges to connect with inner areas of the city 4 Reconnect, reclaim and make accessible fragmented urban residue 5 Creation of Leisure Harbour (Short stay)
Removal of disused industrial landscape 6 Potential New public park in the inlet harbour?
Domesticate the scale of water and space
Analysis of the River Edge
Morphology (surrounding landscape) and Connections 20
Typology of zones on the river
Harbour area, pumping station, and holds large disconnected green zones.
It is the transitional space between the two residential areas in Katwijk aan Zee that lie on either side of the bank. This are has the greatest potential for development nt only because of the scale of space available but its proximity to the beach, easy accessibility from the traffic arteries.
This zone has Rijsburg on one side of the river and industrial landscape on the other.
Pumping station area Villas that block view and access to river edge Residential buildings Inlet harbour
50-60s Residential Building
This zone, the river edge is largely populated with residences facing the river, with industries, and a sports field in some part.
Green zone with Bike path Transition green space Market plaza Swimming pool
80s Residential Areas
New Harbour (Long Stay) To act like the parking lot for boats
New Road parallel to the river edge for people from Rijsburg to go the industry instead of taking the highway
Landscape edge, to cut off view to the industries
Critical Detail 3 Landscape proposal for the pumping station area facing Katwijk aan Zee
Critical Detail 1 Spatial Proposal for the new park encompassing the existing public amenities like the market and sports facilities Critical Detail 2 Proposal for restructuring the inlet harbour and disused industrial area.
Sports area merged with newly developed green zones displacing the industries alongside the river
The harbour road becomes a primary artery, thus INCREASING ACCESSIBILITY AND VISIBILITY to the new harbour development.
New bridge New bridge over the river connecting sports to the redeveloped industrial area
Existing Road Situation
Proposed Road Situation
70s Housing stand alone villas
Inlet harbour 70s Housing Industrial buildings
Stand alone houses
50-60â€™s Row Houses
Existing Layers of the landscape Ponds, green space, Market, public buildings
Layers of Zone 1
New pedestrian & bike bridges
Harbour, river side Residential side
Historic connection to the beach
Critical Detail 3
Central Green Lung This is the main traffic artery going to the inner city and the beach. This road is very wide and has a high green bund on one side with single houses perched on top while it has spaces like the market, sports facilities on the other. The proposal is to remove the high car traffic and use the excellent landscaping and programmatic features around to create an intimate green lung, which stretches till the inner city.
Critical Detail 2:
High point affords large expansive views of the landscape below
Overall space :
- The defunct industrial buildings must be moved out so it can make place for much craved public open space.
- Retained as a historic memory. - Broken into smaller parcels creating new play spaces and a variety of relationships with water.
se d I
t r ia
sc a p e l La n d
Proposed s with
an ar cade
Exposing the terrain to capitalise on the views available from the few high points looking at the expanse of the harbour and river landscape
Early Experiments with Montages
Existing canal replaced with a canal in Rotterdam Existing
Looking away from arcade
Looking towards the arcade
Introducing a large undulating green space with pockets of water Existing
Panoramic view of the sea and much enjoyed public space
Green spaces used as parking lots
Awkward out of scale green expanse
Critical Detail 3:
Pumping Station area Proposal 2 Road - shifted towards the river edge Green landscape - absorbed as part of housing block to form open spaces, parks Parking - provided in patches along the road
Draw new pedestrian connections
Highway, an access corridor connecting Valkenburg, Katwijk a/d Rijn and Katwijk aan Zee
Highway as an Urban Boulevard - Downgrading the highway - Increase accessibility, pass through - Removing unnecessary infrastructure Reclaiming unused transitional landscape to become a part of larger urban boulevard Use this corridor to draw new improved connections and insert programmes within this green belt
Highway as a strong traffic corridor continuing on from Leiden to Noordwijk
Highway as a sparsely porous edge/barrier
Between 3 villages - rijnsburg, katwijk a/d Rijn and Valkenburg
Vlissingen has a green belt cutting through the residential areas. It contains sports fields, parks and residential development is on both sides.
Road Network and crossings/ bridges 34
Green Houses Polder Landscape Dune Landscape
Residential Industries â€˜Big Boxâ€™
Diagram illustrates the mismatch of highway and surrounding landscape 35
Proposal for Urban Boulevard 1
Downgrading the highway
Removing unnecessary infrastructure Reclaim unused transitional landscape to a part of larger urban boulevard
Increase accessibility, pass through
Use this corridor to draw new improved connections and insert programmes within this green belt
Layers of the NEW Urban Boulevard Landscape Bicycling paths Light rail
The beach is regarded by people of Katwijk as the municipalityâ€™s most attractive feature. The beach is more or less an independent space, while the city forms the backdrop with a few programmatic nodes like cafes and restaurants on the boulevard contributing actively.
The sea level is projected to rise between .8 - 1.2 m and to be safe in the future there is a need to reinforce the coastal defence. The new defence will not only redefine the citycoast relationship but also the spatial quality of the beach having a direct impact on the tourism economy.
If we go 1 block behind the boulevard, the beach is not visible. However, its the sensation of the proximity of the beach, the scale that creates the atmosphere. The fact that the beach is so accessible unlike the case in Schevenningen, it is therefore unique offering a distinct character.
Proposal for Coastal Defence
Scenario 1 - Coastal Protection as parabolic dune
Unlike a blank high barrier this allows views to the sea in perspective while still providing defence
42 Case study coastal edges
Scenario 2 - If a new building edge is created
Scenario 3 North and South ends being the higher terrains, the low central part can be raised to the same level and underneath we can have parking or shops This way the beach does not need to get extended.
Scenario 2.1 - Porous Building edge
Case study : Vlissingen Coastal Edge
If the sea level keeps rising, is the solution to keep raising the dyke higher or build higher dunes as protection? And even then what if in a storm it is breached?
Is there another way? Can we use the 50 years ahead, until when the present coastal defence is sufficient to prepare the landscape to absorb the water overflow instead of constantly building higher defences to cut the water out? What can we do with sea water, once its in? Can it become a part of the urban landscape? A Venice landscape? Sea water mixing with river water??
This scheme questions the need to address natural processes through the act of building higher hard barriers instead of building a adaptive landscape.
In this scheme we introduce a canal network. as a water network. We replace some vehicular arteries with canals and make them pedestrian. Further as the terrain becomes lower using the natural gradient, we connect it to the dune landscape and the lower harbour region, which are made into a large catchment basin. The industrial landscape in the harbour is displaced and allowed to flood. In this case, we wonâ€™t need to build as high a dyke as presently assumed earlier. In fact in the event of a rare super storm water is all held back, it is allowed to tip over to some extent, which is channelized into these canals.
STRUCTURAL VISION Highway - Converting the highway into an urban boulevard with programmatic nodes. River - Developing a new interface and relationship with Katwijk at local and city scale - Creating separate harbours as short term (Leisure harbour) and long term stay (parking lot) Mobility - making the river and highway more porous edges, building a non-car efficient space and means of mobility Landscape - dealing with the aspect of differential scales neighbourhood and city scale and incorporating making green spaces more usable and accessible
New harbour Green Landscaping Green Landscaping + Built Programme Green Landscaping + Public Functions Built Programme Dune Landscape
Residential Industries Polder Landscape
REGIONAL PLAN This plan investigates into the various elements that make up the larger region and their role in shaping Katwijk. One such element being the highway that can now be seen as a regional corridor. Can it be extended to Noordwijk? What will be the impact of that? Others include the industry that current act as the buffer between leiden and Katwijk. It also looks at the layers of the Katwijk-leiden Urban scape to investigate whether resistance to growth towards Leiden is the future for Katwijk or merging with Leiden..
Residential Industries Polder Landscape Green Landscaping corridors