Page 1

V'

-

\

Apes, Monkeys, Marmosets, Lemurs


Boston Public Library y

reference

Boston.

MA

02116


Digitized by the Internet Archive in

2015

https://archive.org/details/mammalsworldofan04patm


WORLD

OF

ANIMALS

Apes, Monkeys, Marmosets, Lemurs

GROWER

...


Published 2003 by Grolier, Danbury, CT 06816

A

division of Scholastic Library Publishing

This edition published exclusively for the school

and

library

market

Planned and produced by

Andromeda Oxford

Limited

11-13 The Vineyard, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3PX

www.andromeda.co.uk Tarsiers

have extremely

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and the western

Copyright

shown here

legs, as

tarsier

tarsier (1)

Š

Andromeda Oxford

reserved. No part may be reproduced, stored

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Limited

2003

of this publication in

a retrieval system,

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in

electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,

or otherwise, without the permission of the

Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Library of

copyright holder.

Morris, Pat. Morris,

Amy-Jane

cm.

--

Contents:

v.

1

5.

Large herbivores

p.

Primates

-

v.

Beer, Erica Bower],

(World of animals) .

Art Editor and Designer:

Small carnivores

-

-

v.

v.

6.

2.

Large carnivores

-

v.

Sea

3.

Ruminant (horned) herbivores

mammals -- v. 4. - v. 7. Rodents

Cartographic Editor:

Tim Williams Marian

Editorial Assistants:

Dreier, Rita

Manager:

Picture

Claire Turner

:

:

(v.6

alk.

paper)

0-7172-5750-9

(v.8

alk.

paper)

0-7172-5752-5

(v.10

1

Demetriou

:

0-7172-5746-0 0-7172-5748-7

(v.4

McCurdy

Steve

-- v. 8.

:

III.

Angela Davies, Penny Mathias

Editors:

Rodents 2 and lagomorphs - v. 9. Insectivores and bats - v, 10, Marsupials. ISBN 0-7172-5742-8 (set alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5743-6 (v.1 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5744-4 (v.2 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5745-2 (v.3 alk. paper) - ISBN 1

Graham Bateman

Project Director:

Mammals/[Pat

alk,

:

paper)

alk.

-

-

ISBN 0-7172-5747-9

(v.5

ISBN 0-7172-5749-5

(v.7

ISBN 0-7172-5751-7

(v.9

alk.

:

:

:

paper)

alk.

paper)

alk.

paper)

-

Picture Researcher:

Vickie Walters

ISBN

Production:

ISBN

Clive Sparling

Researchers:

ISBN

Dr. Erica

Bower, Rachael Brooks,

Rachael Murton, Eleanor

paper)

Mammals-Juvenile literature. [1. Mammals.] Title. IV. World of animals (Danbury, Conn.)

I.

Beer,

Amy-Jane.

II.

Bower,

Thomas

Erica.

Origination: Unifoto International, South Africa

Printed in China

QL706.2 M675 2003

A nA/

599— dc21

.

U1

-

1

T

2002073860

Set ISBN

0-7172-5742-8

.1

About This Volume tool \i

T

.

U

he primates include lemurs, monkeys, apes, and ourselves. They are mostly highly the day. The majority

and only one

in

in their

the tropics, and apart from humans, there are no primates

whole

Most primates have only one or two young life.

That

is

little

make up

in

become

at a time,

and females may produce fewer than

five

for major losses in their populations.

The

largest species

bigger than the average human; the smallest are scarcely larger than a mouse.

Primates feed on a wide variety of foods, including leaves,

occur

North America or Australia

balanced by a high degree of care for the offspring, leading to good survival prospects.

Nevertheless, primates are unable to breed rapidly to are a

in

Europe. Primates usually form groups, often with complex social behavior involving special roles for

different individuals.

young

live in

intelligent animals, active during

a variety of habitats, but pests.

some

and the pet

trade.

other major group of mammals.

A

and

flesh.

Many

are extremely specialized. Certain species are quite

However, the majority of primates are declining

collecting for zoos

fruit, insects,

in

numbers due

higher proportion of primates are

are highly adaptable

numerous and may even

to habitat loss, hunting for meat,

officially

and

and

recognized as Endangered than any


7

Contents How to Use This Set

4

Find the Animal

6

PRIMATES

8

Monkey Squirrel

7

Monkey

Humboldt's Woolly Monkey

The golden tamarin

82

14

Northern Night Monkey

84

THE MARMOSET AND TAMAR1N FAMILY

86

Golden Lion Tamarin

88

Common Marmoset

92

world's

is

lion

one of the

most

threatened mammals.

Gorilla

Western Lowland Gorilla

26

Chimpanzee

Bonobo

THE GIBBON FAMILY

36

Lar Gibbon

Emperor Tamarin

LEMURS

THE OLD WORLD

MONKEY FAMILY

40

Ringtailed

Ruffed

Barbary Macaque

Macaque

102

Lemur

104

LOWER PRIMATES

106

Slow

108

Loris

Demidoff's Bush Baby

Savanna Baboon

Hamadryas Baboon

Lemur

Aye-Aye

Monkey

Japanese Macaque

Black

80

12

Orangutans

Vervet

78

Red Uakari

THE APE FAMILY

Mountain

Black-Handed Spider

110 Some

58

mustached

Glossary

monkey

60

Mandrill

Gelada Baboon

small

cercopithecines:

|

Further Reading and Websites

Allen's

1 1

(1);

swamp

monkey

(2);

and

gray-cheeked

Hanuman Langur Blatk-and-White Colobus

Monkey Proboscis

Monkey

THE NEW WORLD

MONKEY FAMILY Brown Howler Monkey

mangabey

Picture Credits

(3).


How |

M V

If

Use This Set

to

World of Animals: Mammals describes

is

a

1

mammals from

in detail

volume

0-

Article Styles

set that

Articles are of three kinds.

corners of

all

introductory or review

the earth. Each volume brings together those animals that are most closely related

and have

similar lifestyles.

the meat-eating groups (carnivores) are 2

and

are

in

all

in

Volumes

3,

and so on To help you

find

each volume

brief introduction to

is

groups

and

introduces smaller groups

The

volumes that

animals to be found

in

also given

A

article

on page

detail, filled

statistics of

each animal

makes up most

like families

articles

(The Raccoon

review the

different groups.

of each volume.

It

full

The

variety of

third type of

concentrates on

such as the

tiger.

Each

article starts

in

great

with a fact-

data panel to help you gather information

at-a-

glance. Used together, the three article styles enable you to

%

9

introduces large animal

describing individual animals typical of the group

2

(About This Volume).

Data panel presents basic

like

One

orders (such as whales and dolphins). Another

all

Family, for example).

pages 6 to 7 (Find the Animal).

iterest you, look at

1

article:

mammals)

the seals, whales, and dolphins (sea

Volume

So

There are two types of

Image of animal typical

become

familiar with specific animals in the context of

their evolutionary history

in

and

biological relationships.

pose Article describes a particular animal

Name and scientific classification of

animal Scientific

name

of animal

Sizes given in imperial units followed

Captions to photographs provide additional information about each animal's lifestyle

by

Common name metric equivalent

Family

of animal Visual comparison of Weight

,760-3.520

lb

average-sized adult

(800-1,600 kg)

mammal and 6-foot

Key features Stocky toothed

whale with no dorsal

t

fin

and short

flippers, skin

Scale

patches of gray-green, cream, and black,

males have unique long,

Habits

spiral

in

human

being.

feet (meters)

6

( 1

.

83 )

tusk

usually seen in groups of

Social

(1.83-m)

colored with

up

5

( 1

4

(

.

5)

20

to

animals; sometimes separate groups

1

.

2)

according to age and sex. often moves 3 (0 9) .

together as part of a

much

larger herd

containing thousands of individuals

Breeding

Most mature females produce

1

calf

6-8 Voice

20 months,

at

years.

May

Clicks, squeals,

live

sexually

months

mature

Mostly

Habitat

Cold

fish,

squid,

summer sometimes seen f/ords,

.

.

Basic description

and shrimp

arctic seas, generally

(0 3)

for

communication or navigation Diet

1

L

at

30-40 years

and whistles used

(

every 3

years after gestation period of 14-15

Weaned

0 6)

2

near sea

of animal, ice; in

in estuaries,

deep

and bays, migrates when habitat

is

Distribution Coastal western Greenland to mideastern

its life,

distribution

and

(statistics for

may

breeding and lifespan

be based on figures for related species)

Status

Population, about 25,000-30,000; Deficient; CITES

II

One

IUCN Data

of the less abundant

whales, status uncertain

Conservation status (see Glossary

Volume

1,

and

pages 9

and

10)

Cross-references

Locator

4

maps showing

to relevant

pages

and other

each animal's

in this

normal range

volumes

Easy-to-read and

comprehensive text


A number

of other features help you navigate '

through the volumes and present you with helpful extra information. At the

bottom of many pages are cross-

references to other

articles of interest.

They may be to

related animals, animals that live in similar places,

animals with similar behavior, predators (or prey), and

much more. Each volume

also contains a Set

the complete World of Animals:

mentioned

Glossary

with a

the text are indexed by

names, and many

scientific

text that

in

will also

fully

common and A in

the

understand. Each volume ends

of useful Further

"List of

animals

there are words used

if

Reading and Websites

help you take your research further.

heading

All

topics are also covered.

help you

you do not

list

Mammals.

Index to

Species" you

Finally,

will find

of the animals that are covered

in

that

under the

expanded

listings

each volume.

Detailed

maps

clarify animal's

distribution

Meticulous drawings illustrate a typical selection of

group members

At-a-glance Tables

summarize

boxes cover classification of

groups

Who

Who's

tables

summarize

topics of special

and give

scientific

names

classification of

each major group and

interest

of animals mentioned the text

groups of animals

Graphic full-color

photographs bring text to Detailed diagrams illustrate text

life

in

give scientific

names of animals

mentioned

in

the text

.;v


Find the Animal or

I

If If

d of Animals: Mammals

library that describes

Each cluster of volumes tarn

I

group of animals

ar

amp"

in

and

bians, fish,

all

is

the

groups of

— mammals,

insects

but

cover a

will

scientists (see

The Animal Kingdom below).

world

is

which (kingdom Ammalia)

the animals familiar to us and those most

all

studied by scientists

divided into five kingdoms, is

numerous

divided into

Chordates, or vertebrates as they are popularly known,

The Animal Kingdom living

is

single-cell

all

(Chordata) contains those animals that have a backbone.

include

The

group that includes

part of a

major groups called Phyla, but only one of them

invertebrates.

"ese groups also represent categories of animals

'ecogmzed by

now form

organisms. Kingdom Ammalia

and

birds, reptiles

and other

the kingdom Protista that were once regarded as animals,

animals.

living

World of Animals

World of Animals. Also included are those members of

part of a

first

one

amphibians, and

of

the main subject of the

— mammals,

fish. In all,

birds, reptiles,

there are about 38,000

species of vertebrates, while the Phyla that contain

animals without backbones (so-called invertebrates, such Regents (Order Rodent chinchillas

a)

squirrels, rats,

mice Volume

7;

cavies, porcupines,

as insects, spiders,

Volume 8

and so on) include

many more.

species, probably

at least

million

1

To find which set of

Laqomorphs (Order Lagomorpha) rabbits, hares, pikas Volume 8

volumes Tree shrews (Order Scandentia)

Volume

in

the World of Animals

is

relevant to you, see

9

the chart Main Groups of Animals (page Insectivores (Order Insectivora):

7).

shrews, moles, hedgehogs Volume 9

Colugos, flying lemurs (Order Dermoptera):

Primates (Order Primates): lemurs,

Volume

8

Mammals

monkeys, apes Volume 4

Volume

Pangolins (Order Pholidota)

in Particular

World of Animals: Mammals focuses on the

9

most

most

familiar of animals, those

easily

Carnivores (Order Carnivora): raccoons, weasels, otters,

skunks Volume Seals

1;

cats,

and sea

recognized as having fur (although

dogs, bears, hyenas Volume 2

lions

Volume

(Order Pinnipedia}:

Odd-toed ungulates (Order rhinoceroses, tapirs

may be absent

3

mammals

Perissodactyla): horses,

Volume

in

like

many

this

sea

whales and

5

dolphins),

and that provide

Even-toed ungulates (Order Artiodactyla): pigs, camels

Volume

5;

deer, cattle, sheep, goats

Volume

milk for their young.

6

Mammals

Whales and dolphins (Order Cetacea): Volume 3

are divided into

major groups (carnivores, Bats (Order Chiroptera):

Volume

9

primates, rodents, and

Xenarthrans (Order Xenarthra): anteaters, sloths, armadillos

Volume

9

marsupials to

name

just

Elephant shrews (Order Macroscelidea):

Volume

9

The chart shows the major

_

Aardvark (Order

Tubulidentata):

Volume

9

groups of mammals

in this set

Hyraxes (Order Hyracoidea) Volume 8

arranged

in

evolutionary

__ Dugongs, manatees (Order Sirenia)

.

Volume

relationship (see

3

Elephants (Order Proboscidea):

Marsupials:

Volume

5

volume

in

appears

is

page

10).

The

which each group indicated.

You can

opposums, find individual entries

by

kangaroos, koala

Volume 10 Monotremes (Order

looking at the contents page for each

volume or by

Monotremata): platypus,

echidnas Volume 10

6

consulting the set index.


SINGLE-

ANIMALS

CELLED

Kingdom Animalia

Kingdom

LIFE

Protista

The Main Groups of Animals alive today.

Vertebrates/

Volumes that cover each major

Invertebrates Numerous Phyla

Chordates Phylum Chordata

group are indicated below.

Insects, spiders,

Mammals Class

Mammalia

Amphibians

Reptiles

Birds Class Aves

Class Amphibia

Class Reptilia

Fish

mollusks, spiny-

Single-Celled

Several classes

skinned animals,

Life

worms Volumes

1

a few). All the

page

6.

Volumes 44-50

Volumes 11-20

-10

major groups are shown on the chart on

few

To help you find particular animals, a

familiar

in

is

Naming Mammals

the

To be able to discuss animals,

names

Most people regard

animal and lions as another.

are

needed

tigers as

All tigers

for the

one kind

more or

look

They breed together and produce young

of

less

it

at different

was one

species.

Domestic cats are

larger

makes

of classification

similar to lions

and

tigers,

but not as similar as those species are to each other (for

example, they do not

genus are

like

named

( Felis ),

but

roar).

Felis,

They are put

a different

Panthera, and other catlike animals

grouped together as the family

mammals

in

Felidae.

The

flesh-

themselves. This popular distinction between kinds of

eating

animals corresponds closely to the zoologists' distinction

together with a few plant-eaters that are obviously

between

species. All tigers

The

lions to another.

languages

different in

Swahili),

mountain panther,

lion species

(for

and often

common names. lion

is

belong to one species and has different

example, Lowe

a single species

known

in

German, Simba

in

may have

For example, the North also

names

all

several

American

as the cougar,

related to

them

(cats,

order Carnivora. These and suckle their Finally,

the

young

are

mammals

it

all

grouped

in

in

the

the class Mammalia.

are included, with (fish,

in

the other animals that

amphibians,

all

other animals

reptiles,

and some other animals that seem to be

and catamount.

Zoologists find

dogs, hyenas, weasels, and so on),

(such as pandas), are grouped

that have backbones

puma,

(part)

the catlike animals or

all

mammals. A formal system

this possible.

Volume 21

make statements about

often necessary to

groups of animals: for example, all

alike.

described and

times without the zoologists realizing It

the chart.

different kinds.

may have been

species

ones, such as sheep, goats, cats, and dogs, have been

included

Volumes 21-30

Volumes 31-40

Volumes 41-43

and

related to

birds)

them,

the Phylum Chordata.

convenient to have internationally

recognized names for species and use a standardized

system of two-word Latinized names. The

lion

is

Panthera leo and the tiger Panthera

The

first

Panthera,

is

the

similar species),

name

word,

of the genus (a group of closely

which includes the

second word, leo or

tigris.

called

tigris,

within the genus. Scientific

the world. The scientific

lion

and the

tiger.

The

indicates the particular species

names

name

is

are recognized

all

over

used whatever the

language, even where the alphabet

is

different, as in

Rank

Scientific

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Mammalia

Order

Carnivora

Family

Felidae

Genus

Panthera

Species

leo

Common name

name

Animals with a backbone All

mammals

Flesh-eaters/carnivores All

cats

Big cats

Chinese or Russian. The convention allows for precision

and helps avoid most confusion. However,

common one

for

scientific

it

is

one species to apparently have more than name. That can be because

Lion

also

a particular

The kingdom Animalia families, genera,

and

is

subdivided into phylum,

species.

Above

is

classes, orders,

the classification of the

lion.

7


PRIMATES monkeys, lemurs, bush babies, and humans

^pes,

are

al

primates. They are an extremely diverse

1

m group

of animals, exhibiting a

colors, sizes, adaptations, living !

primate

ounce (28

the

largest

the

is

is

g),

and behaviors. The smallest

pygmy mouse

lemur, which, at about

only slightly larger than a house mouse,

the western lowland gorilla

is

wide range of

can weigh 330 pounds

(1

50

—an adult male

associated with creative thinking),

what

gives primates the

other

mammals

terms of

from the eyes, nose,

ears,

their evolution as arboreal animals. In fact,

many

jump

how

understanding

from another's perspective. That

manipulate

a long back, a short, flexible neck,

forward-pointing eyes for stereoscopic vision

when jumping between

and

primates, including most humans, have full-color

which

primates

is

rare

is

male

a penis that hangs at the front rather than

being tucked into the body, as

most other mammals.

in

feet are

good

clinging.

The

rounded

skull.

short jaws.

The face

is

is

the large,

at grasping

and

soles are hairless,

not as good as

Instead, they rely

of sight, touch,

a short nose,

many

in

more

heavily

and

their

Many

primates have opposable joints that are flexible

to allow the

thumb

across the palm of the

A

®

back short, the

on

a vertical posture. The

their senses

large brain,

skull

and

particularly a large neocortex (the part of the brain

bend

rib

in

the orangutan

the

(a)

tail is

absent, the

cage broad, and the pelvis bones robust— features of

guenon

(b)

shows

the long back

and narrow

cage and pelvis— features of early primates. Primate hands and

showing structure adaptations

to

reduced thumb for arm swinging (2); gorilla:

(1);

feet,

gibbon: thumb distant from fingers

opposable thumb for precision gripping (4):

(3):

macaque: hand

tamarin: clawed foot for branch

siamang and orangutan: grasping big toe for climbing

running

(5);

and

baboon: long, slender foot for ground

(7);

rib

ways of life: spider monkey, showing

adapted for walking on the ground

8

to

hand to meet

Skeletons of two primates:

other mammals.

and hearing. The large

encases a huge brain.

'V.

and

usually flattened, with relatively

Most primates have

sense of smell

is

way.

the palms and digits are padded.

enough

of the key characteristics of primates

own

in

primates the hands and

In all

thumbs, with Characteristics

One

to

and

social situations

order to get their

branches.

of

them

even deliberately deceive others

essential

among mammals. A feature

lives.

the world looks

creatures such as squirrels, tree shrews, and possums.

vision,

manage

associated with

particular talent enables

Many

skin,

primates seem able to handle

characteristics are shared with other unrelated tree

forjudging distances

and

primates use their brain to

the mental physical features of primates are a result of

all

the sensory information coming

the complexities of their social

kg).

Origins

They include

edge over

As well as processing

intelligence.

Many

Most of the

in

is

living

(8).

(6)


vviiui vviiu aiiiuiiy u SUBORDER:

Strepsirhini

Family: Lemuridae

10 species

typical lemurs:

lemur Lemur

ring-tailed

riimaico:

ic

— lower primates: 66 species

in

8 families

4 genera, including

lemur ( Varecia variegata)

catta); ruffed

(

in

—sportive lemurs: 7 species genera, including northern sportive lemur (Lepilemur septentrionalis) Family: Cheirogaleidae — dwarf and mouse lemurs: 13 species Family: Megaladapidae

in

1

5

in

pygmy mouse lemur Microcebus myoxinus)

genera, including

(

Family: Indriidae— indri, sifakas, and woolly lemurs: 6 species

3

in

genera, including diademed sifaka ( Propithecus diadema)

Family: Daubentoniidae

—aye-aye:

species

1

in

genus (Daubentonia

1

madagascariensis)

Family: Galagonidae

— bush babies and galagos:

17 species

in

4

genera, including Demidoff's bush baby ( Galagoides demidoff)

Family: Loridae

slow

loris

(

and pottos: 7 species

lorises

in

5 genera, including

Nycticebus coucang ); angwantibo (Arctocebus

calabarensis ); potto ( Perodicticus potto)

Family: Tarsiidae tarsier

( Tarsius

SUBORDER:

tarsiers: 5 species in

genus, including western

1

bancanus)

— higher primates: 194 species 5 —marmosets and tamarins: 38 species

Haplorhini

Family: Callitrichidae

families

in

genera, including lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia );

marmoset

( Callitrix

Family: Cebidae

6

jacchus)

—capuchinlike monkeys: 47 species

including black uakari

monkey (Alouatta

in

common

(

fusca); black spider

monkey

—Old World monkeys: 91 subfamilies Subfamily: Cercopithecinae — baboons, drills,

and macaques: 49 species Papio aubis ); rhesus

1

genera,

1

(Ateles paniscus)

Family: Cercopithecidae

(.

in

Cacajao melanocephalus); brown howler

in

1

1

species

in

2

mandrills, guenons,

genera, including olive baboon

macaque ( Macaca mulatta)

Subfamily: Colobinae

—colobus and monkey

genera, including proboscis

(

leaf

monkeys: 42 species

in

colobus ( Procolobus badius )

—gibbons: species genus, including siamang Hylobates syndactylus) Family: Hominidae — great apes: 7 species 4 genera, including Family: Hylobatidae

1

gibbon ( Hylobates

in

1

lar)-,

lar

1

(.

in

western abelii);

©

A

New

it is

the only short-tailed primate living in the

World monkeys have long, prehensile

tails

New

World.

(

hands and

Most

chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes)

feet. Agile

lemurs, need

(able to grasp).

orangutan ( Pongo pygmaeus/

Gorilla gorilla );

careful climbers tend to

black uakari in the Brazilian rain forest. Together with the red

uakari,

gorilla

good

have mobile

first

at grasping.

modified

a

how

in

all

except

humans

balance. Their long

lots of

around

is

The basic arboreal body plan

different species according to

state. For

primates that

live in

upright tree trunks, the best

open

way

Apart from humans, most primates live

is

forests

of getting

jumping from trunk to trunk. Some bush babies

do so and have extremely long arms are excellent

for

legs for jumping.

Long

swinging from branch to branch, as

demonstrated by the great apes and gibbons. Slow,

which they

Location and Lifestyle

is

where they

tails,

this.

the

they move: Four limbs of roughly equal length

common

with

a pinching motion. In

tbes are also opposable, making the feet also very

good

and

in

and strong

branch runners, such as ring-tailed

use as a counterweight, help achieve the fingers

joints

subtropics.

They can be found

Mexico to Argentina and

in

Brazil.

live in

the tropics or

the Americas from

They are also found

throughout most of Africa and Madagascar and central

and Southeast Asia as

far east as

Typical habitat for primates

have colonized temperate

is

forests,

their time

in

south-

Japan and Timor.

tropical forest, but

some

savanna, deserts,

mountains, and coasts. Most are arboreal, but

spend much of

7

Nasalis larvatus ); western red

many

on the ground. 9

P.


PRIMATES

Infanticide some

Primate diets are variable. While

most

specialize in eating insects, fruit, or leaves,

sunnlement u\u ub

an

mu

eating

ity.

their diet

Chimps and baboons

gum and

One

of the

their sociability.

social

resin

most

from

known

are

and

to hunt other

few

a

specialize in

striking characteristics of primates

Almost

all

primates

bonds tend to be long

ne of the more unpleasant sides of primate is

the tendency of males to

primate societies

in

groups, and

live in

offspring as possible

in

the short time he

a

life

In

for

females a male has a strong drive to father as is

many

top of

become ready

mate

to

they have finished nursing; so rather than wait,

until

males sometimes

The main reason

lasting. In

is

babies.

kill

which males compete

the hierarchy. Mothers do not

trees.

seems to be to avoid predators:

many

will

with a range of items depending on

including other primates,

s,

O

species

kill

babies fathered by another

male to hasten the females back

into

fertility.

group there are

eyes to look out for trouble, and with the force of

numbers groups may be able

to

There are even cases of baboons

However,

living in

groups can be

overpower killing

a predator.

leopards.

difficult

food

if

and large groups tend to occur where food

is

is

scarce,

and food

offspring form the core of a single

male

in

a

availability: all

monogamous

pair,

as

may

in

stick

that overlaps that of several females, as

colobus monkeys, guenons, and

females

(a

harem)

is

in

gorillas a small

territory

other males away. Capuchin and howler monkeys

many males and

In

group of

who

biochemical evidence suggests that the

latest

keeps

live in

females.

ago

But

we

are close relatives, are placed

Two

baboons take a

baboon troop

is

rest break

resting, the animals

related individuals.

on the African savanna. When the

may break

into small subgroups of

The

in

large brains (larger

is

and sometimes apes and

same

family,

Hominidae.

human

in

ability to

size

evolution: our

than for any

walk upright on two

legs

as bipedalism). Other animals use the upright

of travel. Walking upright

Tool use trait,

and 10

over 4 million years old.

posture occasionally, but none uses

means

5

split

known hominid

compared with body

other animal) and our

(known

the

earliest

physical features are key

free for carrying Olive

Africa.

in

(humanlike animal) to be found

humans

orangutans.

guarded by a single male,

large groups consisting of

with

gibbons.

Otherwise she may forage alone within a male's

The

million years

The mother and her

groups. She

as Primates

between humans and apes occurred between

plentiful.

There are four basic group structures depending on species, season,

Humans

but

left

and manipulating

was once thought

now many

it

as the normal

our ancestors' hands

objects.

to be a uniquely

animals have been

shown

them. Even some birds are known to use

human

to use

sticks for picking


PRIMATES

Š

Higher and Lower Primates

Chimpanzees are

one species of primate

There are over 230 species of primates

that frequently use

families.

tools.

The chimps use

sticks to

poke around

termite nests or

bent

first is

in

employ

sticks to pull

down

fruit-laden branches. Sticks are also

weapons,

even

and

to clean teeth.

subgroups: bush babies from Africa; angwantibos,

and pottos

make

nests, beavers create

impressively

tall,

do.

Many

animals

dams, and termites build

air-conditioned towers; but no other

animal makes such drastic changes to

we

do.

Humans have used

its

surroundings as

creativity, adaptability,

and

in

haplorhines are divided into

and catarrhines.

Catarrhines are found close,

two major groups: the

narrow

nostrils

the Old World. They have

in

and hard pads on the buttocks

sitting (ischial callosities).

apes, gibbons. Old World monkeys, and humans. Platyrrhines are only flat

found

noses with wide-open

in

the

New

grammatical structure. Compared with the body language,

calls,

animals, speech

and chemical signaling used by other is

a superb

way

Tarsiers

tails.

monkeys, tamarins, and

marmosets are

language with a large vocabulary and complex

World. They have

nostrils that are far apart

New World spoken

all

platyrrhines.

have features of both groups,

but the most up-to-date classifications

them with the

list

haplorhines.

of communicating.

Being able to describe past and future events, as well as

0

describing situations from another's perspective (the

the shape of the nose. Platyrrhines have nostrils that

basics of storytelling),

is

one of the most important

characteristics of civilized

human

society.

for

The group includes the great

venture into space. a

America.

humans), monkeys, marmosets, and tamarins. The

the face. They also have prehensile

humans have

in

"Higher" primates, or haplorhines, include apes (and

inventiveness to spread across the entire world and even

Unlike any other animal,

lorises,

the Old World, and the lemurs of

Madagascar. There are no strepsirhines

food from hard-to-reach places. However, no other animal

humans

two groups. The

the strepsirhines, or "lower primates," which

platyrrhines

uses the diversity of tools that

families are divided into

dozen

include lemurs, pottos, and lorises. There are three main

used as

levers,

The

in a

The terms catarrhine and platyrrhine come from

are wide

open and

far apart

(a),

while

they are narrow and close together

in catarrhines

(b).

on


The Ape Family he great apes are the closest

T

humans. Indeed, many the

humans

scientists classify

in

zoological family as the great apes and

same

the family Hominidae. There

call

Apes generally move around on four

living relatives of

is

growing evidence from

genetic and other molecular techniques that this best approach, since

humans

are

more

the

is

closely related to

chimpanzees than chimpanzees are to orangutans. Yet

humans

are often put

Orangutans spend most of from

and

their

time

limbs.

hanging

in trees,

four limbs and moving their great weight slowly

all

deliberately.

The African apes tend to spend more

time on the ground. Chimps and

gorillas

both "knuckle

walk," curling their hands and putting their weight on

None

their knuckles.

known

are

to swim.

a separate family to the apes.

in

Food and Feeding

What

an Ape?

Is

There are

six

included).

Apes are predominantly vegetarian. Orangutans have

species of great ape (seven

The chimpanzees, bonobo, and

equatorial Africa, while the orangutans

humans

if

gorillas live in

live

Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Borneo.

All

tall

great apes

An

and can weigh more than 330 pounds (150

largest

ape ever to have

lived

until

the middle of

stood between 8.2 and 9.8 feet (2.5 and 3 m)

Apes have naked ears and in

faces.

The face

except

legs

humans have arms

and hands and

itself

is

very

feet with opposable fingers

muscles are attached to

male

(P.

io

( P.

and

and

toes.

in

4 genera

troglodytes),

for

the heavy chewing. The jaw

all

a crest at the

top of the

skull. In

high-crowned head shape. Chimpanzees

and orangutans occasionally supplement in

particular will

their diet with

hunt medium-sized

red colobus in

monkeys and baboons. The males cooperate

hunting and

will

even share food.

Interestingly,

such for

the evolution of humans.

Intelligence in

and

Social Life

the great apes are large, even compared with

other primates. The average brain capacity is

24 cubic inches (394

in

cu. cm),

25 cubic

bonobo inches (410 cu. cm)

paniscus)

2 species, Bornean orangutan ( P

of

the crest becomes very large, giving them a

gorillas

chimpanzees

common chimpanzee

amount

examples of cooperation may have been the trigger

whose tail,

(particularly

that are longer than their

Hominidae: 7 species, including humans,

2 species,

have large teeth

vegetable food needed to sustain their bulk. They also

Brains ily

all

while gorillas are

animals such as bush pigs and other primates, including

tall.

bodies are flattened side-to-side. Apes have no all

They

meat. Chimps

It

chimpanzees. Apes also have a

barrel-shaped body compared with monkeys,

largely leaf eaters.

characteristic

the Pleistocene period, around 500,000 years ago.

expressive, particularly

The

kg).

was probably

Gigantopithecus, which roamed Asia

fruit in their diet,

need large jaw muscles

adult

stands at about 5.7 feet (1.7 m)

gorilla

high proportion of

the grinding molars) to process the huge

on the

are large, and most are bigger than humans.

western lowland

are

a

pygmaeus); Sumatran orangutan

(508 cu. cm)

in

orangutans, 31 cubic inches

in gorillas,

and a massive 82 cubic inches

(P abelii) 'la

2 species, western gorilla (G.

western lowland (G. g. diehli):

mountain

1

species,

including 2 subspecies

Cross River gorilla

(1,350 cu. cm)

in

humans.

In

the gibbons brain capacity

only around 6 cubic inches (95 cu. cm).

and

1

unnamed

human H (

.

subspecies

sapiens)

lowland

All gorilla

apes appear to be highly

intelligent.

SEE ALSO Orangutans

They are

quick learners, picking up techniques from others

group and from humans when they are

4:14; Gorilla, Mountain 4:20; Gorilla, Western Lowland 4:26;

in

in captivity.

Although they do not use what we would

12

is

eastern gorilla (G. beringei), including 3 subspecies

gorilla (G. b. beringei), eastern

(G. b. diehli),

o

gorilla),

gorilla (G. g. gorilla),

call

a

Chimpanzee 4:28; Bonobo 4:34

their


language, animals within a group clearly communicate with each other.

captivity

In

chimpanzees and

gorillas

have been taught to use American Sign Language to

exchange information with Of

all

their

human

other, but their territories

overlap those of several females. Gorillas

silverback eastern lowland gorilla resting. Oddly, the eastern

lowland

less well

is

known

the latter being fewer

in

than

live in

do

mother

live in

mixed-sex communities of 40 to 80 animals. They feeding, but are highly

territorial.

Encounters with other groups can lead to deadly fights.

As

in

many

species

for females, there

to

grow

larger

is

in

which males have to compete

a strong selective pressure for males

In gorillas

despite

altitudes.

a

Apes are so

when

gorilla,

for at least three years.

one mature adult "silverback" male. Chimpanzees

disperse

mountain

those of humans, and young are looked after by the

Experimental Tools

may

cousin, the

numbers and inhabiting high

"harem," where around 12 females and young stay with

large,

its

carers.

the great apes, orangutans are the least social.

The males avoid each

ŠA

and orangutans males are much

larger than females. Reproductive cycles are very similar to

similar to

and other aspects of been used to this

test

humans

in

their biology that they

little

consideration for animal welfare

or for the conservation of species in

some

in

the wild. However,

biomedical research

common nowadays, and return

have often

drugs and surgical techniques. Often

was done with

the use of apes

their size, biochemistry,

is

much

attempts have been

less

made

to

laboratory apes to the wild.

13


— PRIMATES

Orangutans

Common name Orangutai

Pongo pygmaeus and P. abelii

(red ape)

Scientific

name Pongo

Orangutans are Asia's only great apes. Their shaggy,

pygmaeus (Bornean

reddish coats

orangutan); Pongo abelii

(Sumatran

Family

mammals. Despite

all

orangutan)

make them one of the most

spend most of their

Hominidae

Fossil remains indicate that

Order

of

their considerable size, they

high up in the treetops.

lives

the magnificent

orangutan once ranged throughout southern

Primates

Asia from the foothills of the Himalayas to

Size Length head/body:

male up to 37

southern China. Nowadays, orangutans are

in

(95 cm); female 29.5

Weight Male 130-200 female 88-1 10

lb

in

lb

(75 cm)

(59-91

confined to the tropical rain forests of northern

Sumatra (Indonesia) and the low-lying swamps

kg);

(40-50 kg) of

Key features Very

distinctive

long arms; feet are handlike; coat

Borneo

shared between

(a large island

Indonesia and Malaysia). Orangutans are the

sparse and coarse, ranging from orange to

largest tree-living animals

dark brown

their

Habits

spends most of

Solitary;

time

its

in

nests

in

among branches Single

young born about every 8 years

males at

captivity,

Voice

45-50

1

5 years. in

May

Habitat

Males make loud resonant

calls

lion's

Fruit (such as

mangoes and

shoots, bark,

and

Lowland and

Status

anywhere except among dense,

60 years

with the help

volume

roar

figs),

Even at

first

differences

trees.

tall

glance there are obvious

between orangutans and other

They are the only non-African apes, and

young

shaggy appearance bears

hilly tropical rain

forest

little

their

resemblance to

that of their African cousins. Their bright

reddish color again

and lowland Borneo

makes them

distinct

from

all

other apes and most monkeys too. Orangs are

Population: about 20,000;

IUCN Endangered; biggest threat

is

good

great apes, such as chimpanzees and gorillas.

insects

Forest clearance

a

found

in

CITES

I.

is

at

Distribution Confined to the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia)

It

Asian Apes

of their large throat pouches at a

Diet

of the forest."

"forest"

at 12

the wild

comparable to that of a

"man

literally

after

Weaned live

In fact,

the Malay words orang,

description, since orangs are never

about 3 years; females sexually mature years,

the world.

meaning "man," and utan, meaning so

gestation period of 8 months.

in

treetops;

active during the day, rests overnight

Breeding

name comes from

also generally solitary, while other apes (and

most other primates)

live in social

groups.

There are two distinct types of orangs, one type found on Sumatra and the other on

Borneo. Analysis of their

DNA

(genetic

molecular structure) suggests that the two A*;

populations

became separated around

million years ago. Since then the

1.5

orangutans of

separately

in

their different

extent that they are

now

environments to the

considered to be two

distinctly different species. Until recently

were considered

as

two subspecies

species. Generally, the

14

SEE ALSO

Gorilla,

Mountain 4:20;

Gorilla,

they

of a single

Sumatran orangutans are

Western Lowland 4:26; Chimpanzee 4:28

-O'?

^

each island have evolved and developed

r


APES ORANGUTANS

Š A young Sumatran orangutan.

lighter in color

The young of the species are more

than those

sociable than their elders

may join

and

together to play or

even travel around pairs.

are

due

thicker

the orangs

and longer

Borneo. The difference

in

to the cooler conditions

hair

may be

Sumatra, where

in

higher altitudes.

live at

Males of both races develop impressive

in

Older animals

flaps of skin

more

called

solitary.

and have

on

either side of the face.

They are

cheek flanges and make the male orang's

face appear very broad and almost circular.

They are

conspicuous feature of any adult

a

male orangutan, making

look quite different

it

from any other species of primate. The flanges

seem

no obvious

to serve

practical function,

except as a symbol of rank and status. The

cheek flange

another way

is

orangs of the two islands start to

develop

which the

in

differ:

The flanges

about eight years of age

at

in

the Bornean orangutans. The Sumatran males

and

are late developers,

appear

about the age of

until

of the Borneo males

from the head, shape to the the age of

their flanges

face.

The flanges

grow outward and forward

resulting

5. In

1

10.

do not

a round, dishlike

in

They stop growing around

contrast, the flanges of the

Sumatran orangutan do not complete

development

until

the animal

is

rather than forward, giving the

much

about 20 years

grow sideways,

of age. Their cheeks also only

a

their

Sumatran male

flatter-looking face.

Novelty Value Despite

unknown

arrived

in

to science

since

Europe it

was

seen before.

It

was completely

the orangutan

and the western world

the 17th century. The

until

stir,

size,

its

first live

orangutan

1776 and caused quite

in

a

so different from any animal

was

also strikingly similar to a

comment and

human,

exciting considerable

interest

concerning the relationship between

humans and the animal The orangutan has thick neck,

and

short,

world. a large, bulky body, a

bowed

legs.

The arms are

very long and immensely strong. The hands of

an orangutan are much fingers

and

a

thumb

like

our own, with four

that can press against

them. That arrangement enables the orangs to grasp food and other objects

—and the orang's 15


long fingers to get a tight grip on branches.

Orangutans can suspend

their

whole weight

t'om ust a couple of fingers without getting Their feet are similar to their hands, only

tued \ie

.

with an opposable big toe. That enables

the orang to grasp objects with as

its

its

hands when moving through

feet as well trees.

Fruit Eaters '

he aws of the red ape are massive, and they

•ave large teeth covered tor their

thick enamel, ideal

in

feeding habits. They are essentially

vegetarian, but they have been

on animal material such as small

mammals.

soft fruits like

known

to feed

and

insects, birds,

Their diet consists mainly of

mangoes and

but they also

figs,

feed on leaves, tree bark, and seeds. They are

Š

especially fond of large durian fruits that smell

only truly arboreal ape.

in

will travel

They are the largest

size

visit

animal that

strongly

when

they are

Orangs

ripe.

long distances through the forest to favorite feeding trees

when

their fruits are in

“nests"

in

made from

and leaves high up

because they disperse seeds

throughout the forest

lives in the

forest canopy, sleeping in

season Orangutans are important for rainforest plants

Orangutans are the

their droppings. Also,

twigs the

in

spend nearly

their time

all

the treetops. Because of their

orangs

branches or jump from one branch to

another the

way

swing with breathtaking speed from branch to branch using both their hands and

treetops.

they are traveling at a

tigers

when on

risk

and haul

enough

from predators such as

it

Quick Learners

takes

them

rely

on

their

mental prowess to develop complex feeding techniques,

sometimes involving the use of mimics. As a

tools.

result, skills are quickly

another. Groups local traditions in

learn

Wild orangs

intelligent.

in

particular areas

the

way

passed on from one individual to

have even developed their

own

communicate with people and told to

those of a three-year-old

the next tree,

in

cross the gaps,

start to

pendulum.

enough

Finally, a

Tiger 2:20

is

swing,

swing

find

difficult to

it

and so mothers may hold

scramble across.

A

female orangutan may even

create a bridge out of her

own body

to allow

her baby to get from one branch to another.

in

captivity

have been

do

child.

reveals a capability to learn so. Their

mental

words and

abilities are similar to

Nests

in

the Trees

Orangutans are diurnal and usually go to bed sunset,

around 7

pm.

They sleep

in

a nest,

at

which

they construct every evening, although they

may rest

SEE ALSO

well

to reach the next

also build nests during the day

and

play.

in

which to

Favored areas for nesting face

westward toward the sunset and

16

it

the gap

arms and slowly building up

like a

far

If

they build nests and feed. Orangs can also

taught to use American Sign Language. That enables them to

when

their

reach out,

branches together to help the youngsters

Orangutans are also excellent

from humans, and certain individuals

perform tasks

will

they have grasped

Young orangs often

branch.

rangutans are highly

in until

When

feet.

thin branches or arrive

they

too wide to reach across, they

the ground. Consequently, they

momentum

'

trees,

to transfer their weight.

hanging by

k

among

gap between

catch onto the tip of a branch

almost entirely arboreal.

Because females are much smaller than males, they are at greater

do. Instead,

they hang by their powerful arms. They can

by choosing to eat green leaves and shoots,

is

monkeys

smaller

they stimulate further plant growth.

The orangutan

walk on top of

will rarely

are

sometimes


Endangered Orangs

O

rangutans have a few natural predators, such as

and clouded leopards, but nevertheless

tigers

they have become

rare.

serious threat. Large

Humans

numbers

of

are a

much more

young orangs used to

be captured and kept as pets or exported to zoos. Often the adult females were shot babies, effectively removing

one.

In

order to take the

in

two animals

addition, slow breeding

in

instead of just

means

the species

that lost animals cannot be replaced quickly.

Consequently, the orangutan has

become

scarce.

There are

now

and

protection has reduced the threat posed by

strict

effective controls

the collection of

live

on international trade,

animals. Moreover, zoos are

able to breed orangs successfully, so there to take

more from the

wild.

is

now

no need

Programs have been

developed to help confiscated pet orangs readjust to the wild, and there are sanctuaries where rescued

animals have been released back into the forests.

However, throughout Borneo and Sumatra there continuing problem of areas.

The deliberate

human expansion

a

into forested

starting of forest fires claims the

land for agricultural use. Trees are cut

and

is

for the construction of

houses for

down a

for fuel

human

population that continues to grow. Logging has

removed huge areas of orang habitat and threatens still

more. The remaining patches of forest are often

too small to support viable populations, which need a lot

of space.

The orangutan

is

therefore classified by

the IUCN as an Endangered species, but die out completely because

may

it

now

it

is

unlikely to

breeds well

in

above water, helping

captivity.

It

reduce the dangers posed by

reserves.

However, everywhere else the future for

nocturnal predators. The nests are

unique and fascinating animal looks bleak.

made out

of soft twigs

and

also survive

in

a

few protected

and

leaves,

are wo\/en into the branches of a tree like a big

basket. They can reach 3 feet

orangutans are born

in

(1

m)

Baby

the nests, which can be

about 90 feet (30 m) above ground

grown males

across.

level. Fully

are restricted to nesting lower

down, where the

tree branches are thicker

large area to get

and

Orangs

live

alone

bond between

between

a

in

The

large territories.

individuals

mother and her

thought that the orangs'

is

will

have

ripe fruits at the

same

all

time.

It

nature

result in

all

the suitable fruits being eaten at

once, leading to starvation. Apart from the

that

offspring.

solitary

the trees

enough food because not

Too many individuals sharing the area might

can take their greater weight.

longest

because of their feeding habits: They need a

is

may be

early relationship

between

dependent young, there

a

mother and

is little

its

close interaction

17

this


A female orangutan

choose the best-sounding male with mate.

are only

reared solely by their

while Sumatran males often stay near their

mother. Sumatran males

partner as a bodyguard until the young are

remain with their

mate

defend themselves against predators such as

until the birth.

making very loud

long,

unique to

made up

is

of a series of loud

A

roars followed by a bellow.

large, resonating

pouch amplifies the sound to

orangs

in

Borneo have

volume

a

a lion's roar.

Male

a larger throat

pregnant female

more and more

have to compete

through

large, strong

male can

this difficult time. For that

about

whom

males

in

she

is

mate with;

will

Sumatra engage

in

it

and hanging upside

displays involve calling

down from

high branches. The female uses

these displays to assess the strength and

pouch

stamina of the male and

his

chances of being

less

the surrounding forest.

Calling helps

It

may

would be other

in

difficult for

frequent

is

orangutans.

offspring

is

about 15 years

female orangutan

can only expect to rear at most four surviving

Calls

male's territory

first

old. In fact, in her lifetime a

young, which

A

to be

Orangs are extremely slow breeders, and

give birth to her

it

orangs to locate each

the dense forest.

Competing

among Bornean

seem

the average age for a wild female orangutan to

also

calls

may be why

displays of physical

of emitting the loudest sounds.

in

reason a

prowess to impress females. The strange

able to defend her. Active displays

help him find a mate. Without such

aid her

very selective

than their Sumatran relatives and so are capable

males

the

the later stages of

female Sumatran orangutan

the male claim his territory by warning off other

rates of

important because

baby's

it

all

is

one of the slowest reproductive

mammals.

life its

mother

In

the

first

will carry

it

year of a

almost

contains both food and females. By making

continuously. Until

loud

whenever the mother

is

young orangutan

be carried. The young are

territorial calls,

the males can avoid the

dangers and effort involved

fighting over

in

access to precious resources. The better the

the more

out

likely

his territory

male's territory

the male

is

to succeed

and attracting is

in

call,

generally

more

staking

Juveniles

may

a mate. Each

generally large

enough

to

for a

it

will

is

about four years

sociable than their elders.

join

together and engage

few hours or even

travel

around

break away from their mother and go to

with the calling male. He

will

into the thin branches that

weight. The

and

status.

call is

SEE ALSO

will

Lion 2:14

else.

live

Young females, on the other

hand, often remain nearby.

not follow her

cannot take

his

a display of the male's size

The females

play

in pairs.

somewhere

will

in

Once they become adolescent, the males may

A

female that already has a young infant

old,

on the move, the

include the areas used by about four females.

climb to the top of the trees to avoid contact

18

will

difficult in

A

her pregnancy.

that carry

calls

A

in

with other species for food, and this becomes

for over half a mile call

comparable with that of

Sumatra

rain forest there.

lives

are capable of

throat

in

and they spend the

Male orangutans

is

may be important

That

because of the greater dangers lurking

entirely alone.

orangutans and

tiger.

between orangutans,

majority of their

The

at the most,

born. Heavily pregnant females are less able to

the

forest.

two days

to last

likely

to

the male/female relationships

with a nine-month-old youngster. Young are

will

through the

On Borneo

whom

assess the calls and

A Bornean male orangutan, showing flaps.

his large facial

The flanges seem to serve no obvious practical

function, except as a

symbol of rank and

status.


PRIMATES

Mountain Gorilla Mountain

Gorilla beringei beringei

gorillas are gentle giants.

They

live in

peaceful groups with a single dominant male.

mountain

five subspecies of gorilla, the

Common name Scientific

name

Mountain

gorilla (eastern gorilla)

most studied and perhaps

Hominidae

Order

Primates

Size

Height (standing upright): male

Mountain gorillas

most threatened.

a small area of the

live in

volcanic Virunga mountain range

(1

.4-1 .8 m); female 4.3-5

(1

.3-1 .5 m);

up to 200

lb

to

400

4. 6-5. 9 ft

Š A female mountain

on the

borders of Rwanda, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of Congo. High

m)

(2.3

ft

rain forest

(181 kg); female

lb

is

ape with barrel-shaped body;

muscular arms longer than

legs;

coat blue-

black, turning gray with age, males with silver

in

gorilla eating spiny

the mountains the

almost always cloudy and

even though

(90 kg)

Large, bulky

:

ft

arm span: 7.5

Weight Male up

Key features

gorilla is the

Gorilla beringei beringei

Family

(ti

the

Of the

it

is

leaves: These gentle

cold,

giants are exclusively

near the equator. Occasionally,

vegetarian.

A mountain

the gorillas venture even higher into the alpine

gorilla's diet is

meadows

made up of leaves,

13,100 feet (4,000 m), where

at

temperatures

fall

below freezing

well

at night.

stems, roots,

mainly

and other

patch on back; hair short on back, long types of vegetation, but

elsewhere; broad face and massive jaws

Dominating Presence Habits

Social

rarely

groups of 5-30 animals centered

around

1

Females weigh around twice

Gorillas are huge.

dominant

(or occasionally 2)

silverback" male; docile, spends

most time

as

feeding or resting; males display their

much

as an average person, and the males

weigh twice as much

The only

as the females.

strength by chest-beating and plant-thrashing

other animals that gorillas could be confused

Breeding

Usually

1

infant born every

gestation period of

4 years

250-270

days.

after

Weaned

with are chimpanzees, but gorillas are

2.5-3 years; females sexually mature at 8-10 years,

males at 10 years.

May

live

Howling, roaring, grunting, and snarling

Diet

Leaves, stems, berries, roots, pulp,

Habitat

Montane

rain forest

altitudes of

ft

Endangered; CITES

I.

warm

in

the cold, wet mountains.

on the back of

hair

IUCN

Critically

Most threatened

mature male

a

gorilla

is

hence the name of "silverback."

Mountain

gorillas

small ears, nostrils

have a broad,

banded by

extends to the upper

Population: about 320;

have long black fur to

gorillas

at

Distribution Borders of Democratic Republic of Congo,

Status

The gray,

(1,645-3,780 m)

Rwanda, and Uganda

Mountain keep them

and bark

and subalpine scrub

5,400-12,400

bigger and bulkier than chimps.

35 years

Voice

much

at

a

hairless face,

wide ridge that

and massive jaws.

lip,

They need big jaw muscles to chew the tough plant material that they eat. There

is

a ridge

on

gorilla species

the In

skull that

the jaw muscles are attached

to.

males the ridge and the jaw muscles are

huge and give the head

a characteristic bulge.

Males also have long and robust canine teeth. Gorillas, especially lot of

the males, need to spend a

time eating to maintain their huge bulk.

They eat

a

wide range of

plants, including wild

celery, nettles, wild cherry, thistles.

As well as

leaves, they will also

up bark, coarse stems,

20

SEE ALSO Orangutans

4:14; Gorilla, Western Lowland 4:26;

bamboo, and

roots,

Chimpanzee 4:28

and

crunch

vines. In the

fruit.


APES MOUNTAIN GORILLA

mountains where they fruit,

live,

there

is

not

much

but they love to eat berries

when

they are

eat fungi and

some

insects

available.

They

will

such as ants, but such small items are hardly

worth the bother. They use

their

they eat to pick plants and

strip

Gorilla

Subspecies

bark from

G

inside.

orillas live

western

beringei).

Gorillas are very docile animals.

They are active

during the day and spend about a third of the

when

the group gathers

youngsters

all

on the ground. They mostly walk hands curled

into fists so

climb trees, but the huge males are too heavy all

except the largest lower branches to

support their weight. Only the young animals are light

and

agile

enough

to swing through

the thinner branches high up. Every night each animal builds a nest to sleep

in

by bending branches to

make

gorilla

(

Gorilla

which

lives

gorilla:

the mountain

on the borders of

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda, and Rwanda; the

Of the western

they walk on their knuckles. They are able to

for

and eastern

into five subspecies.

gorilla (G. beringei beringei),

play.

fours, with their

Gorilla gorilla)

They are divided

Impenetrable Forest

They usually move slowly and spend most

on

(

species, the

b. diehli),

which

lives in

the eastern central

region of DRC; and another (unnamed) subspecies from the Bwindi

groom each other while the

of their time

gorilla

two

equatorial Africa. There are

in

eastern lowland gorilla (G.

around the silverback male. They sleep or peacefully

only

There are three subspecies of eastern

Laid-back Lifestyle

resting,

— Species and

hands when

stems to reach the succulent pith

daytime

Groupings

a

comfortable, springy platform.

in

Uganda.

gorillas the

gorilla (G. gorilla gorilla). lives

most

The Cross

common

is

the western lowland

River gorilla (G. g. diehli),

which

along the border of Nigeria and Cameroon, has recently been

classed as a separate subspecies

and

is

Critically

Endangered.


The nests are either

v

in trees,

ground. Since each

on steep

slopes, or

makes

gorilla

own

its

researchers can count the nests to

nest

jvi

how many

'

animals are

even after they have

left

in

group

a

the area.

Despite their fierce reputation from films

such as King Kong,

gorillas

have a quiet

ten perament and are very gentle unless they

They

are threatened.

them

as long as they

stare. Staring

society.

group,

If

is

people get close to

will let sit

and do not

quietly

seen as a threat

threatened, a male

in gorilla

protect his

will

with a display of strength and then

first

by attacking

fiercely.

Gorilla Society

Because mountain leaves,

which are

round, they can taking the

risk

same animals

gorillas

plentiful

live in

or 40.

in

and

available

of running out of food. stay with the

five

territorial:

know where

The

and 10

be up to 30

Their feeding

ranges often overlap, but their loud other groups

year

group for months or

between

a group, but there can

Groups are not

all

large groups without

years. There are usually

animals

feed mainly on

calls let

they are, so they

avoid direct contact.

A

large silverback

male leads each group.

He decides where the group protects

them from danger, and

the offspring.

all

will

younger male

If

will

feed each day, usually fathers

the leading male dies, a quickly take over.

the silverback, there

will usually

As well as

be one or two

subadult "blackback" males, several adult

Š After

females, and up to 10 infants

one group.

silverback to rest in the middle of the day. Females with infants (1)

their mother's

silverback

in

Females nearly always leave

group when they become sexually mature. This is

unusual

If

a female stayed

in

primates, but prevents inbreeding. in

the group, she would mate

with the dominant male. He would be her father, or his

if

he had died, a cousin, since one of

sons usually takes over. The offspring of

such matings are usually not as healthy as those

from matings between unrelated animals.

A

female leaving a group

will

head

straight

to a nearby solitary male, but she does not necessarily stay with

22

him She probably chooses

feeding,

(2),

mountain

gorilla

groups— like

while females without young

stay farther in the background

(3).

The

juveniles will play close to the silverback

under

his protective

gaze

(4),

ma'es are merely tolerated

but subadult

(5).

the one

above— gather around move

the

closest to the


APES MOUNTAIN GORILLA

male according to the quality of the habitat

a

his

home range and

his fighting ability.

matters are important

if

he

Such

to protect her

is

in

Studying Mountain Gorillas

and

her offspring from predators and other males.

Although groups are

stable,

is

it

each

T

female's contact with the leading male, rather

than with each other, that keeps them

together.

he mountain

years. Dian Fossey

gorillas.

Bonds between the dominant male and the

gorillas

have been studied very closely for many

was one famous

by spending a

lot of

grooming. However,

it

is

When young 1

1

the gorillas are used to people, they behave

rare to see

females that are not close

them

researchers can study

relatives.

around

and the

normally,

without causing disturbance.

males mature, at

to 13 years old,

is

Once

called "habituation."

mutual

grooming between mature

social

with the

lived

time just hanging out with them. The process

females, and females and their offspring, are maintained by

who

researcher

Researchers allow the gorillas to get used to their presence

half leave

the group that they were born

in.

A

male may choose to stay with the

group

if

there are too

many mature

happen, they can be extremely

females for the dominant male to

mate with alone or male

is

old.

teeth can cause serious

they leave, young males spend

Š

mountain

or with a small group of

other bachelor males before starting their

own

Despite their

size,

wounds and sometimes even

really gentle giants.

They

why

much

will tolerate

long as they do not stare,

Bigger males are more

which the

scaring

away

a fight.

A

If

the leader of a group

show

he asserts

of strength.

himself up to his

with

his

He

full

his

is

threatened by a

dominance with

roars loudly,

height,

a

draws

and beats

his

gorilla's

as a threat.

regard

females and have

to

chest

is

one reason

they are so large compared with the

harem, usually by luring females away from an

people as

death.

Competition between males

gorillas are

established group.

solitary male,

The animals' long canine

fierce.

the dominant

own

If

time on their

if

bigger canine teeth.

likely

to succeed

in

with their displays or to win

rivals

may

successful male gorilla

20 offspring over

a 50-year

may

Unsuccessful males

father 10

span.

life

never mate at

all.

hands. Then he rushes toward the

Caring for Young

intruder, tearing

up bushes and small

Such behavior

a big bluff, designed to

Female

and avoid

about

intimidate a

is

rival

between males are

rare;

trees.

a fight. Fights

but

when

they do

become

gorillas

six

sexually

mature

have their

baby

first

they have joined a

until

stable group, usually around the Gorillas will

Gestation

mate

age of

any time of the

at

about eight and a

lasts for

months, after which a single baby Twins are very difficult to

At

rare;

birth, a

the weight of a

by

its

mother,

few weeks

baby

gorilla

chest fur by

human

who it

(1

them

is

year.

half

born.

baby. At

holds

it

usually dies.

almost bald and

around

.8 kg),

first

to her

can hang onto

itself.

is

10.

and because they are so

look after, one of

weighs about 4 pounds

a

at

to eight years old, but they will not

its

it

is

half

carried

tummy. After mother's long

Older babies ride on their

mother's back. They start to eat solid food at

23


PRIMATES

around three

years; but they will stay with their

mother, sleep

in

her nest, and drink her milk

the age of four to

until

Many baby may only

rear

five years.

young, so a mother

gorillas die

one

offspring to reproductive age

every eight years. The slow reproduction rate

means

that gorilla populations take a long time

to recover from losses.

Future Threats Mountain

gorillas are Critically

and these remaining few from hunting and

Endangered

300

animals. There are only about

of

them

left,

are under pressure

a shrinking habitat.

most of the area where the

Although

gorillas live

is

protected as a national park, people trespass on

chop down the

their habitat,

houses

up to and even

right

trees,

and

build

inside the park

boundary. Gorillas are also threatened by

poachers

(illegal

snares to

kill

who

hunters),

use guns or

the animals. Most snares are

made

of a wire loop connected to a rope tied to a

bent

bamboo

When

pole

the wire loop, the

bamboo

pulls the wire tight

trapping

it

and

springs back and its

leg or neck,

Snares are particularly

gorillas

because they are

will investigate

Male mountain Their

around

painfully.

dangerous to baby inquisitive

an animal steps into

anything new.

gorillas are twice the size of females.

huge bulk and the low

nutritional content of their

food mean they must spend much of their time feeding.

Gorillas

and Guerillas

I n recent years

the countries where the mountain

I gorillas live

gor their

las

is

have been

in conflict.

During war saving

not the highest priority for

local people,

and

governments are too poor to protect the animals.

There are not enough park wardens, and

dangerous job because

guerillas

armies) use the forest to hide

been shot

accidentally,

animals to eat.

24

in.

and the

it

(members

Some

is

a

of unofficial

gorillas

guerillas also

have

kill

the


— PRIMATES

Western Lowland Gorilla

Gorilla gorilla gorilla

The western lowland gorilla gorillas

and

is

the

the species that

is

is

commonest of the

often kept in zoos.

However, hardly anyone has studied them in the wild. Common name

Western

lowland Scientific

Family

Order

name

gorilla

mountain

Hominidae

a

Primates

occasionally 5

ft (1 .5

up to 5.9

ft (1 ,8

Weight Male 310-450 female 200

Key features

lb

lb

ft

m); female (2.3

m)

(140-204

kg);

(90 kg)

Largest primate with bulky

body and arms

Lives in small

fairly

in nests; docile,

around a

day resting

Usually

1

third of the

young born every 4 years after 250-270 days. Weaned

Voice

8-10

in captivity,

Fruit,

35

years. in

One

warmer

of the best

May

areas. Their

ways

of telling the

of

live

about 50

tip.

found

gorillas are

in

the

Cameroon, Congo, Gabon,

population numbers a few tens of thousands of

in

than mountain

the wild

is

and

was

much more

gorillas, their

behavior

not nearly as well studied.

The Cross

River gorilla (G. gorilla diehli)

recently recognized as a distinct subspecies.

caterpillars lives in

small pockets of habitat

Cameroon-Nigeria border and

Distribution Central-western Africa

is

on the

Critically

Endangered, with only 120 to 150 animals

Population: fewer than 50,000;

and habitat

have an overhanging

animals. Although they are

common

tropical forest

I.

by looking at their nose

Congo, and Equatorial Guinea. Their

and screeches

Endangered; CITES

gorillas

is

at

seeds, leaves, plant stems, bark, and

Swamp and

species apart

African countries of

It

Status

live in

Western lowland

the wild

invertebrates such as termites

Habitat

they

browner, and their faces are broad with

lowland

Roars, growls, barks, grunts, purrs, croaks,

hoots, squeaks,

Diet

is

have shorter fur than mountain

1

2.5-3 years; females sexually mature at 6-8 years, males at

years

poke

gorillas

Central African Republic, Democratic Republic

gestation period of

left.

IUCN

Vulnerable to poaching

Forest Feeding

loss

Western lowland

gorillas live in

forest that has never

dense primary

been cut down. They

also use secondary forests (where trees

will

grow

again after the original forest has been

removed). Secondary forests tend to be diverse

and frequently

offer less

less

food than the

original forest cover, but the gorillas can

manage

there nevertheless. Hence they are less

threatened by forest removal than

many

adaptable species. They are also found

26

SEE ALSO Orangutans

insects such as termites,

lowland

two

spends

than mountain

They also eat

using twigs that they

active during

the day, nights spent

fruit

moving around by "knuckle-walking." Western

fur

small jaws

more

gorillas.

gorillas eat

which they "fish"

smaller jaws.

groups of 4 to 8 animals, with

dominant "silverback" male;

Breeding

fingers, since

to dark gray; mature males have silver-

gray back; broad face with

Habits

plan, with

Their feet

Lowland

they spend most of the time on the ground,

gorillas, since

longer than legs; coat relatively short and

brown

body

huge bulky body and long arms.

m),

ft (1 .7

arm span: 7.5

m);

gorillas in their basic

and hands are broad with stubby

Height: male about 5.5

@

Western lowland gorillas are similar to

Gorilla gorilla gorilla

4:14; Gorilla, Mountain 4:20;

Chimpanzee 4:28

in

less

for,

into termite nests.


APES WESTERN LOWLAND GORILLA

swamps and montane

lowland

10,000 feet (3,000 m). Because of

altitudes of

not very good at

size gorillas are

huge

their

up to

forests

climbing trees, so they prefer areas where thick vegetation grows near the ground. Such conditions are often found

edges of the

forest.

Lowland similar to

on the

clearings

in

gorillas

mountain

have a

gorillas,

social structure

with each group

being led by a "silverback" male. Group sizes are smaller than to eight

in

mountain

gorillas,

with four

mature animals.

As with mountain

the males are

gorillas,

very protective of their group. Intruders are

deterred by noisy displays of howling and chestbeating. The male then charges at the intruder,

crashing through the vegetation and ripping up

bushes and small of the

Congo

their displays.

swampy

the

trees. In

forests

Basin males even use water

They jump

huge plumes of water

into pools

in

and splash

with their hands.

Captive Gorillas If

gorilla in a zoo,

you see a

gorilla.

will

it

There are no mountain

Some western lowland

gorillas

be

a

lowland

gorillas in zoos.

have been

taught to communicate with humans by using

American Sign Language.

Gorillas

have learned

vocabularies of hundreds of words;

some can

even string words together into simple phrases. gorillas are relatively

Although lowland

common,

their future

where they cut to

down

live

is

uncertain.

The

forests

are under pressure as people

the trees for timber and firewood and

make space

for agriculture

and houses.

Gorillas are also hunted. Their heads

and hands

are cut off to be sold as "fetishes" or charms, or as grisly souvenirs for tourists. Gorilla also a favorite In

many

in

some

is

areas.

areas deforestation and the

bushmeat trade are companies

meat

interlinked.

Logging

build roads into areas that

previously difficult to get to.

were

Poachers can easily

reach the animals as a result. The workers

employed

to

fell

the trees need to eat, so

poachers have a good market for

gorilla

meat.

27


PRIMATES

Chimpanzee Chimps are

close relatives of humans. They

and adaptable, and learn

are intelligent

quickly

how

to exploit

new situations.

The animals lead complex social with each individual having

lives,

Common name Scientific

name

Chimpanzee

its

distinct personality.

Pan troglodytes

Hominidae

Chimps

Order

Primates

communities.

Size

Length head/body; male 27.5-35

Family

(70-89 cm); female 25-33

39-66

height:

t

own

H

[(

in

Key features Coat brownish

animals, but they are rarely

(63-84 cm);

lb

(34-70

or black, graying with age;

in trees;

all

own

their

together at once. or

in

small

One day they might be hunting with

a

group

with different individuals, and the next sneaking off with a partner.

Females tend to spend more

own

or with their offspring, while

time on their

Active during the day, nights spent

platform nests

as

can have up to 120

large gang, the next foraging in a smaller

kg);

face bare and brownish pink

Habits

They spend time on groups.

(26-50 kg)

lb

known

A community

in

(99-168 cm)

Weight Male 75-1 54 female 57-110

in

large groups

live in

in

the males are more sociable.

usually seen in

groups; generally travels on ground,

sometimes walks upright, but usually on

all

fours using knuckles of hands

Breeding

Single

young born every

5 or 6 years after

gestation period of about

230

at 3. 5-4. 5 years; sexually

mature

years, but females

Voice

grunts,

Diet

in captivity,

Wide range

of

days.

do not breed

calls,

at

Weaned

until

aged

chimp

society.

The

dominant male often has three high-ranking males as aides, with other males forming a constantly shifting

power network among the

among

A

females too, but

less

including hoots, barks,

vigorously fought over.

In

chimp communities

rank

in

many

live

up to

and meat

Deciduous, montane, and tropical rain forests; also

in

subordinate animals.

May

Varied; includes fruit, flowers, seeds, bark,

Habitat

very important

around 7

and screams

insects, birds' eggs,

is

Place

similar in the wild

14-15, males at 15-16 years.

60 years

Knowing Your Hierarchy

is

it

is

not inherited as

societies, but

hierarchy exists

important and

less

other primate

has to be earned and maintained

by constant effort. Hierarchy positions can

change with an animal's

health, strength,

and

patchy savanna woodland

the influence of his friends. Distribution Western and central Africa

Status

Population

CITES

I.

1

50-230,000; IUCN Vulnerable;

Bonds between animals are very important. The strongest are between

Threatened due to deforestation offspring,

and may

last for

a

mother and her

the mother's lifetime.

Males make strong friendships with each other. Having friends that is

a

good way

will

back them up

in

fights

of defending their position within

the hierarchy. While a male on his

own may

not

be strong enough to challenge a higher-ranking male, together

two males may be more

successful. Close alliances can be

more

important than strength and bullying tactics

chimpanzee

28

SEE ALSO Orangutans

Pan troglodytes

in

society.

4:14; Gorilla, Mountain 4:20; Gorilla, Western Lowland 4:26;

Bonobo 4:34


Chimps

C

as Doctors

himps sometimes eat

to aid the digestion of plants that

soil

contain toxins. They also eat plants for medicinal purposes:

Chimps occasionally eat usually eat

first

it

thing

Aspilia in

—

the morning and

than normal food. They choose each

between

chew

their lips

and

the leaves, but

swallowing.

Some

complaints, and

it

rejecting

in

They

leaves.

way

a very different

in

holding the leaves

leaf carefully,

some but

them around

roll

rough

a plant with very

eating others. They

do not

mouth before

their

African people also use Aspilia for stomach

has antibiotic and antiparasitic properties.

thought that chimps use Aspilia to remove

It

is

worms.

intestinal

Females do not tend to make such close friendships as males.

The most important thing

them

to secure a

is

which to on

live.

for

good area

They tend to

their family

members

in

rely

to

support them, rather than on

A

friends.

female's rank

is

therefore highly dependent on

how many

offspring she has.

Home Ranges Each community of chimpanzees has

its

own home

range. The size

depends on the number of animals

in

the group and the quality of the habitat (especially the available in

it).

a

In

lots of fruiting trees will

40

Š A male chimpanzee eating'harungana berries in

the

Mahale Mountains,

Friendships are maintained by grooming,

Hugging and

kissing are seen

sq. km),

(13 sq. km).

good

hugging, kissing, and patting on the back.

more often

vary from 2 to

need

fruit

In

a larger range. In

in

eat a huge range of

Animals spend many hours grooming each

129 square miles (334

around

consists of fruit.

also

They

consume meat and

will kill

monkeys and

other mammals.

other,

removing

dirt

and

parasites from the

fur,

and cleaning wounds. As well as being physically beneficial,

grooming has an

important social function:

It

is

used to

with

the area a group uses

5.5 square miles (5 to

open savanna country, where

and nesting

between male chimps than between females.

60 percent of their diet

of food

rain forest

averaging about 5 square miles

Tanzania. Chimpanzees

foods, although

1

amount

good

trees are scarce,

chimps

one savanna community

Senegal 30 chimps ranged over an area of

Animals

know

sq. km).

their

home

range well and

have a "mental map" of the network of paths within trees,

it.

They remember where to find

and when the

fruit

is

likely

fruiting

to be ripe.

strengthen friendships, patch up quarrels,

When

confirm dominance, and to exchange favors.

randomly, but use their knowledge of the area

they go foraging, they do not

move

29


PRIMATES

itSphSff,

The chimpanzee has a

more varied

of

repertoire

expressions than

facial

to search

that not only are they

across food, but they

any other mammal

away from

except humans. The play

to drink.

face (1)

is

characterized

day

places. Each

in likely

more

is

likely to

planned so

come

not be too far

will also

nesting trees at night or from places

Remembering where streams

are

is

particularly important in the dry season.

Females, particularly those with young, do

by an open mouth and concealed teeth; threat

not travel as far as the males. They stick to their

display face used during

own

an attack

miles

for

(2);

pout used

begging for food

full grin,

(3);

showing intense

fear or excitement

submissive pout

(4);

(5);

trek

may

"core ranges" and (1 .6

only travel

or 2

1

to 3 km) per day. Males can easily

4 miles

(6.4

km)

the whole of their

in

a

home

day and may explore range.

In

doing

so,

they overlap with the ranges of several females.

and

Tribal

approach a higher-

Chimpanzees are

ranking animal

home

another group's

wiped territorial

and protect

their

ranges from other chimp communities

A chimpanzee group Tanzania. Groups are

territorial

and protect

their

home

loud

calls,

ranges with

threats,

and

even physical violence.

Groups of males

patrol the borders of their

range and use loud presence.

calls to

When two

announce

their

groups from different

communities meet, there

is

usually a display of

strength that only rarely ends Occasionally, males will

in

mount

actual fighting.

deliberate

invasions of another group's

range. They have been

hunting and

territory,

members

out.

until

is

is

strikingly similar to

humans and

in

killing

the entire group

Such behavior

warfare

tribal

is

not

known

in

any other type of animal.

Communication between group members

using noisy threat displays and physical assaults

in

to carry out raids, repeatedly entering

individual

Warfare

fear grin, used to

(6).

known

is

vital

if

they are to maintain social bonds,

reaffirm positions

announce food

in

the social hierarchy,

discoveries,

and

alert others to

leopards and other threats. Communication

both vocal and

visual.

Chimps use

a

is

wide

variety of calls, including barks, contented

"hooing" and lip-smacking, sociable grunts, loud "pant-hoots," and also piercing screams.

Sound

is

an important way of staying

when groups

are

in

see each other.

I

,

sight,

in

contact

dense forest and cannot

When

animals are within

sounds are usually


APES CHIMPANZEE

accompanied by postures and Their

naked faces and

facial expressions.

muscular

large,

lips

give

chimpanzees very expressive faces on which

A

emotions and messages can be

easily read.

wide-open mouth with the

covering the

teeth

is

lips

open mouth with

showing anxiety and

Posturing

important

is

is

in

communicating

it

a victim

is

apart.

behave submissively to him. With fur

his fur

will

laid flat

tools

he

all

now known

is

it

Chimps show

species often use

a great deal of intelligence

and use of

in

tools.

Š A chimpanzee

They

poke around

strip leaves off long, thin sticks to in

other

— chimpanzees foremost among them.

their choice, preparation,

dominant male,

fro in front of the

nonhuman

that several

which he charges around

in

between humans and

species of animals. However,

subordinate, lower-ranking animal

and

When

Tool Users

differences

standing on end he makes himself look even

darts to

up to two hours.

last

hands used to be considered one of the key

distress.

screaming and throwing branches. With

A

and

tasks that cannot be completed with bare

maintains his position by his behavior, using

larger.

or chase prey. Chases can be very noisy

The use of tools to help perform additional

a "fear

A dominant male

rank and acceptance.

displays of strength

ambush

excitement and tear

pulled

lips

and gums

back to expose the teeth grin,"

works together to

of animals

Chimps use the

a "play face."

contrast, an

A group

caught, the chimps go into a frenzy of

expression during play or to encourage a game. In

antelope.

Liberia cracks a nut with

termite nests, and use bent sticks to pull

down

in

a stone, using a tree

fruit-laden branches that are otherwise

trunk as an anvil. Chimps

panting and screaming, then turns his back and

out of reach. Sticks are also used as weapons,

show

crouches or bobs up and down. The dominant

levers, and even to clean teeth. They use leaves

intelligence in their use

male acknowledges the submissive male with a

to

hand on

back to reassure him.

his

Drum Beating Vocal noises

like a

buttress roots of

reverberate

drum. The

many

when

members

hit

fists:

Male

through the forest to other

of their diet

leaves, seeds,

is

thimps

of

also like to steal

Their identification

human

naturalists',

among

1

skills

honey from bees

are better than

and they

50 to 200 different

the edible ones from the or inedible species

Chimps

in

select

kill

most

food from

plants, recognizing

many

other poisonous

the forest.

as a

"hammer and

also eat meat.

Males

monkeys, baboons,

pigs,

anvil"

and

a large, carefully selected stone

hammer. Hammer stones can weigh up to

20 pounds

(9 kg)

and need to be held

enough

at just

force to

crack the nut without spoiling the edible kernel

Chimp

C

will

Culture

go on

will

himps show the group.

cultural traditions that are learned

One example

is

in

tool use.

groups have never learned the crack

oil

palm

nuts.

trick. In

and passed on

in

Some chimpanzee

communities use stones as hammers to crack

nuts, while other

one part of

Africa

chimps

Another community farther away uses heavier

stones to break open harder nuts, and the animals ignore the easier oil

organized hunting expeditions. They

and

a

birds'

eat over 20 different types of insects.

will

They use

and other

important source of protein and so are

and

use stones to crack open hard

ripe

plant parts. Insects, especially termites, are an

eggs,

stones, as both tools

make them more absorbent.

to

the right angle and used with

60 percent

They also eat

first

as an anvil

Chimpanzees eat an enormous range

fruit.

and weapons.

technique, choosing a rock or exposed tree root

tropical forest trees

with the

of their group.

foods. At least

and

nuts.

large, flat

chimps often use the trees to send throbbing signals echoing

food. Leaves are also used to collect drinking

Some chimps

be supplemented by

of objects, such as sticks

sticky

water from tree holes. Spongy leaves are

chewed

will also

beating trees

wipe themselves clean or to pick up

a great deal of

palms. Yet another group of chimpanzees uses branches as

wooden

clubs, but

few others

are

known

to

do

so.

hunt

and even small 31


PRIMATES

Good hammer

inside.

stones are hard to find

in

the forest,

and time again, remembering where they and carrying

it

from one place

learned during play: Hours are spent

rough-

in

and-tumble and play-fighting games.

so chimps use the same one time left

By the age of

it

to another.

five a

young chimp may be

independent of

physically

mother, but

its

still

very close to her emotionally. As they get older,

Chimp

Playful as a

Young chimpanzees helpless.

The mother

belly until

chest

it

enough

old

is

on

rides sitting upright

Young chimps They

playful

will

to

will

however, stay with their mothers for the

hang onto her

However, some young females leave

mother's back.

their birth

group and

venture, and

and

are extremely curious

A

come

earn the right to

They have to

babies.

Weaning begins when the baby

is

female chimpanzee

that time she

sessions.

mate

often.

foods are good to eat by exploring everything

males.

mother

young

chewing the other end of

has, often eats.

Mothers encourage

them

in

and discourage them from poisonous

ones by taking them out of

Young chimps

their hands.

are taught by their mother,

how

get on

Chimps

in

a

in

if

a

chimp

is

community. Many lessons are

her,

rain, since their fur

is

not

waterproof. They are normally up at dawn, but

bed

are reluctant to get out of shelter

under trees or

sit

male to perform a bizarre then he stamps

it

is

raining

hunched up waiting

stop. However, a rainstorm

gently,

if

rain

dance.

his feet,

waves

it

at the weather.

rest of

Sometimes these and disappear

male then has

the group noticing.

couples leave the group

illicit

into the forest together for the fertile

a

phase or even longer. The

guarantee of being the father

in

it

the group or losing their rank

the social hierarchy.

Huge

areas of African forests have been cut

down

for timber or to

left

very fragmented, with small pockets of

is

grow cash

animals.

Chimps

crops.

few

What

is

isolated

are also killed to supply the

bushmeat trade and were captured

to

research.

chimp

he rocks

his

arms, and

is

The only way to catch to

members in

kill

its

mother, and

for zoos,

of the group

may be

a live

many

baby

other

killed or injured

the process.

having a

A juvenile

cr.

;mp plays with an

about their

adults are also interested in

SEE ALSO Leopard

able to

to

are extremely

32

may be

gain her favor, but has to attract her attention

a

First

is

off other

the entertainment industry, and for biomedical

sometimes encourages

throws branches around as though he

temper tantrum

and for

tries to

Threats to Survival

the Rain

himpanzees detest the

During

males and may

and fending

trees that can only support a

C

rear.

the group

in

lower-ranking male

difficult to rejoin

recognizing group members, and learning the rules of social behavior are vital

receptive for 10 of

is

of the offspring, but both animals risk finding

groom,

to

A

duration of her

but also learn by experimentation or through

watching others. Learning

new community.

irresistible to

is

The top male

grooming

without the

their

to eat certain plants by dropping

their path

a risky

monopolize mating opportunities by keeping

at least

close by,

its

is

the 36 days of her estrus cycle and advertises

three years old. The young chimp learns which

whatever she

It

years before they

the fact with a pink swelling at her

close to the baby,

mother grooming

usually by giving the

join another.

may be many

it

are fully integrated into the

allow near. Other chimps are always

new

rest of

their lives.

examine anything they can

very curious about

time with their

gangs of other young males. Many females,

reach, including any other chimps that the

mother

less

months the baby

six its

chimps spend

mother, and males increasingly venture out with

baby under her

carries her

After five or

hair.

juvenile

and

are born very small

2:30; Monkey, Black-and-White Colobu

new

adult.

Young chimps

new environment,

but

additions to the group.


.

PRIMATES

Bonobo

Pan paniscus

Genetic analysis of the bonobo suggests that

be even more closely related

humans

to

than

may

it

its

better-known cousin the chimpanzee. Common name Bonobo (pygmy C chimpanzee)

was not

The Bonobo, or pygmy chimpanzee,

'

recognized as a separate species from the Scientific

name

Pan paniscus

common chimpanzee

Family

Hominidae

is

Order

Primates

the bonobo, but

Length head/body: 27.5-33

Size

Weight Male up

t

to 68

88

to

lb

(40 kg); female up

skin of face dark

Habits

brown

Active during the day

ground; sleeps

Congo

scientists first

Key features Looks like a long-legged chimpanzee, but body more slender with narrower shoulders;

in

in

live in

to black trees

nests built

from

arisen

of Bolobo

Republic of

kg)

lb (31

town

of the

came

as

a mispronunciation

was

It

there that

across the animals.

DRC

in

Bonobos

Congo

the dense rain forests of the

Basin of central

known

the Democratic

in

(DRC).

came

to be

thought that perhaps the

is

it

Nobody

the 1920s.

until

the species

name may have

(70-83 cm)

in

how

certain

River

Africa.

and on the

among

tree

Slender Build

branches; social groups more female

Although bonobos are often referred to as

centered, with the most dominant female

ranking above the dominant male

Breeding

Single

young born

4

220-230

years; females sexually

males

earlier,

until older.

Diet

Calls

mature

Weaned

at

at 9 years,

live

to possibly in

30 years

in

captivity

Fruit, leaves,

reptiles

of

Congo

between the Kasai and Sankuru Status

Population: about 15,000;

CITES

I.

their

have a lighter build and

is

chimp cousins.

bonobos

that

longer limbs.

relatively

Other differences are that bonobos generally

rounder head than the

River

and

common

two species being similar society

Rivers

IUCN Endangered;

Habitat loss and hunting have

common

chimpanzee. Bonobo distribution does not

and

Also, despite the behavior

Distribution Restricted to northern-central Democratic

Congo south

from

overlap with that of the

Tropical lowland rain forest

Republic of

size

The main physical difference

smaller,

stems, shoots, and honey; also

and small

in

are not actually

have narrower shoulders, a thinner neck, and a

more high pitched than chimpanzee

termites, ants,

Habitat

days.

although both unlikely to breed

May

the wild, rarely kept

Voice

very different

any time of year after

at

gestation period of

"pygmy chimpanzees," they

generally

is

Like

have no

more

humans and tail.

all

lifestyle

of the

some ways, bonobo

in

relaxed living

Studies of the

chimpanzee.

and

apes,

The bonobo looks

friendly.

bonobos

chromosomes

of

rather like a

more

slender, long-legged

primates reveal striking similarities between

version of

apes and humans, with the bonobo being more

chimpanzee. Yet

its

cousin the

contributed to decline

similar to us

than any other animal.

Bonobos have

a distinctive flattened

shock

down

may have

a

the

white

species separate from the

common chimpanzee until the 1920s.

patch of fur on the lower part of their back,

and babies are born with

a black face.

male weighs about 88 pounds (40 is

about one-third

have

34

SEE ALSO Orangutans

larger,

smaller.

was

not recognized as a

of hair on the head that often parts

middle. Juveniles and adults

it

An

kg); a

adult

female

Males also tend to

more prominent canine

4:14; Gorilla, Mountain 4:20; Gorilla, Western Lowland 4:26;

teeth.

Chimpanzee 4:28


APES BONOBO

bonobos

trees,

are

more

common

acrobatic than

chimpanzees, often jumping

from branch to branch.

Sexual Bonding Groups of bonobos range from about 50 to 200

The groups

individuals.

will

break up during the day,

forming smaller parties of

between

and

six

5 that

1

forage for food together. The

groups are generally larger than the foraging groups of the

common that

chimpanzee. Perhaps

why

is

and

sociable

bonobo

the less

is

more

aggressive than

other chimpanzees. Sexual acts are

way

used as a

between Even

It

of the group.

primates such a high

of sexual interaction

bonobos.

a greeting

members

all

among

of reinforcing

and as

friendships

is

level

unique to

seems to reduce tension

between group members and

The bonobo

toward each is

thought to

why bonobos

be one of the reasons rarely aggressive

is

now

are so

other.

considered a

threatened species. Habitat destruction,

Bonobos

survive mostly

the dry season

when

fruit

on

fruit,

but during

illegal

have

bonobo

led to a drastic decline in

numbers. The problem

is

shoots, leaves, and flowers are also eaten.

worsened by the

has

It

young

in

her lifetime.

It

may be

before a female gives birth to her

100 different plant species

The baby

worms,

may

small reptiles,

The bonobo animals

is

new

and even

rear,

flying squirrels.

nest from branches

spend more time

in

and

of darkness.

or captured as pets.

was founded

the trees than

active at

ground

When

they are up

numbers of animals

for large

in

the

in

bonobo its

bonobo populations

very slowly and cannot easily

They

common

level.

after five years a juvenile

leaves,

chimpanzees, but they are also often

first infant.

may remain emotionally dependent on

grow

few

take about four to five years to

will

and even

mother. Consequently,

the treetops and

where they spend the hours actually

the course of a

diurnal. Each night the

will retire into

construct a

in

also include termites,

fact

12 or 13 years

been estimated that the animals may use over

year. Their diet

pet trade

that a single female will have relatively

scarce, plant

is

hunting, and collection for the

killed

A bonobo

compensate by hunters

protection fund

1990 to help bonobo

conservation and teach the people of the

about the importance of

DRC

wildlife preservation.

35


H

The Gibbon Family he gibbons, or lesser apes, are a distinctive group

T

With

of primates legs they

searching for

hang and swing through the

Gibbons

trees

on two

Each pair defends a

life.

using loud, distinctive

are the most

arms are so long that they get

characteristic

calls

that

in

sounds of the

Southeast Asia

semideciduous monsoon

the

way when running

much

some

insects

pulpy

fruit

and other invertebrates. They prefer

and often perform an important their

in

dung.

Many

ripe,

role in

seeds are more

to germinate after they have passed through the

gibbon's digestive system, which weakens the seed coat.

the eastern edge of India to the far south of China and

They are deposited some distance away from the parent

through Bangladesh, Sumatra, and western Java and

tree with a ready supply of fertilizer.

Borneo. There are no gibbons

There are

1 1

species,

all in

in

the

Africa or the Americas.

same genus Hylobates). (

The different species of gibbon can be told apart by coat color and markings, their they

live:

calls,

their

and the areas where

Very few species have overlapping distributions.

Gibbon Songs Gibbons' songs are loud and complex, with a purity and

melancholy unmatched

What

Is

a

Gibbon?

Gibbons are

have no

Like the apes, they

the

same

size, unlike

tend to be

larger.

some

tail.

of the apes,

The coat color

species, particularly

Males and females are in

varies widely

around the head and

sometimes between the

sexes.

which males

Some

face,

between and

species have throat

pouches that are used to enhance the resonance of calls.

their

Gibbons move through the trees by swinging from

the branches, grasping them with their long, slender fingers next.

and hurling themselves from one support to the

They also frequently walk upright, both on the

ground and also running along horizontal branches,

Family Hylobatidae:

1

genus,

1 1

species

start to call

as a soft warbling

call starts

over the half hour or so

slender, graceful animals with long limbs.

any primate other than

in

humans. Before sunrise males the nest. The

while

loud and

until sunrise into a

elaborate song. The females sing later

in

the morning,

,

gibbon

lar

gibbon

(H. klossii):

(H.

lar)',

between

trees,

the

The same song

in

floor.

a crescendo,

(

gibbon

(

H H

call

a great display of swinging

breaking branches, and crashing them to

ending

in

is

repeated over and over again

a lively climax.

males accompany the females

in

In

many

species

duets. Their calls appear

seem

to be primarily territorial signals. While females

to

sing to defend the territory, males apparently sing to

defend the females from other males. By singing duets, they pair

may be

in

advertising that they have a stable

bond, and that attention from others

is

unwelcome.

.

.

(

,

moloch ); concolor)

Muller's

gibbon

single partner, often for

that varies

will

Lar 4:38

stay with a

syndactylus)', kloss

in size

life.

A

pair will

depending on the

defend a

habitat.

territory

On average

an area of forest that covers 0.4 square miles

SEE ALSO Gibbon,

in

Lifestyle

siamang

moloch gibbon

(H. muelleri): crested black

They

shorter, simpler, but highly impressive sessions.

from the treetops, making

in

still

and develops

Gibbons are monogamous, meaning that they Hylobates including

36

hang

prefer to

Their diet consists mainly of fruit and leaves, with

likely

They occur from

forests of Asia.

Therefore, gibbons

dispersing tree seeds

rain forest.

the evergreen rain forests and

live in

legs.

in

from branches rather than stand up.

monogamous, with males and females

often staying together for territory,

arms and

They are one of the few primates that

fruit

are completely

their extremely long

demonstrating a great sense of balance. However, their

(1

sq.

km)

support between two and four family groups. The


THE GIBBON FAMILY

ŠA

Muller's gibbon

swinging through the forests of Kalimantan,

Borneo. Gibbon habitat

is

decreasing rapidly, owing to logging

and

agricultural practices.

ÂŽ A female

kloss

gibbon announces her territory

by

while

midair

may

in

calling loudly

She

(1).

also run upright

along branches, tearing off leaves

(2).

n

announced by

territories are

usually by the female. Calls

the border

if

calls

from the center,

from the boundary reinforce

other gibbons venture too close.

If

that does

less

not deter intruders, confrontations are followed by a chase. Rarely does

Young

it

end

in

feet (30

and sexual maturity

period of about

six

years.

is

in

two

The females become

to four

will

their parents. Unless there

is

immature offspring and

a particularly large

source, gibbons tend to forage alone

(50 m) rest,

away from each

other.

They

will

come

together for

grooming, and sometimes sleeping. Siamangs

maintain

much

closer links

when

foraging, usually being

important

maintaining

groom each

their subadults,

also

spend time

One

food

up to 165 feet

is

bonds, and adults

reached after a

pregnant every two or three years, so the family group usually consists of

m) away.

Grooming

physical clashes.

are born after a gestation period of seven to

eight frionths,

than 100

of the

in play,

in

and the young. They centered on the youngest infant.

most serious threats

the gibbon species forests

other,

is

logging.

to the survival of

The rapid destruction of

Southeast Asia has brought the

and some crested gibbons to the edge of is

all

kloss,

moloch,

extinction,

and

seriously threatening the survival of other species too.

37


PRIMATES

Lar Gibbon

Hylobates lar

Lar gibbons are the most active of all the gibbons.

Using their long arms travel high

among

to

swing through the

the branches looking for their

favorite food offigs. (common

gibbon, white-

handed gibbon) Scientific

Family

name

Hylobates

The lar, or common, gibbon all

lar

1

Hylobatidae

gibbon species and

1

seen

zoos.

in

Its

is

of

the one most often

is

coat color

known

the best

is

variable,

depending on where the animal Order

but males

lives,

Primates

and females within the same population always Length head/body: 18-25

in

(45-64 cm) look similar.

Weight 12-14

lb

(5-6 kg) buff, in

features Coat color varies between populations

—

either black, dark

and

limbs with pale hands and feet, no

Habits

between branches; groups are

presence with loud

tail;

pale

name

their

of white-handed gibbon.

swinging

active by day; family

announcing

the Trees

Life in

their

Gibbons

live

high

the middle and upper

in

calls

They spend almost

their

Single infant born about every 2 years after

gestation period of 7-8 months.

20 months; live in

sexually mature at

up to about 40 years

Weaned

6-7

years.

in captivity,

at

whole time 100

May

rarely

30-40

m) high

feet (30

in

the trees,

coming to the ground. Because the

forests are so dense, very

grows

little

the

in

the wild

dark lower Voice

feet— hence

face and pale hands and

layers of the rain forest.

Breeding

buff,

Thailand they are either black or pale

in

other

territorial,

Sumatra they are reddish-brown or

cream. They have a white ring of fur around the

around face

Lives high in rainforest trees,

Malaysia they are dark brown to

brown,

reddish brown, or light buff; long, spindly

ring

In

Male's song

is

levels,

so the gibbons have no

simple hoots, female's longer, particular reason to descend. Moreover, their

rising to a

climax

make walking around on

long limbs Diet

Mainly

fruit;

also leaves, birds,

and

the ground

insects

rather difficult, so they are vulnerable to

Habitat

Evergreen rain forest; semideciduous

monsoon

predators once they have

left

the safety of the

forest

treetops. Their bodies are perfectly adapted to Distribution Thailand, Malay Peninsula, and northern life

Sumatra

spent high

move Status

Population: about 79,000 (1987);

Endangered; CITES

faster

in

the branches, and

lar

gibbons

and farther each day than any

IUCN other forest ape or monkey.

I

All

gibbons have a small,

athletic body, with

very long arms, long fingers that are

good

for

grasping, and relatively small thumbs. Their usual

way

of getting around

is

by swinging

hand over hand from branches and creepers

(known

as brachiation).

and precise

in

their

They are incredibly

(9

m) between

trees;

and

easily leap if

SEE ALSO Orangutans

30

split-

feet

the branch that they

are swinging from breaks, they can

38

agile

movements. They possess

remarkable hand-eye coordination and

second timing. They can

trees,

4:14, Baboon, Savanna 4:54, Baboon, Hamadryas 4:58

make

a mid-

they


them

will give air

good singing

twist to grab a branch lower

down. They are quick enough to be able to catch birds

and

insects.that

Gibbons feed hanging from even an arm and a

picking

arms or

leg, collecting fruit

them

carefully by hand,

leaving unripe ones. diet

is

ripe fruit,

They

favorite.

Territorial

from the

About 75 percent

Lar gibbons, like

among

they find

Š A female

and of their

trees

in

visit

the forest canopy.

body

a

licking their

after a rainstorm. Otherwise, they will dip

an arm into a tree hole or rub then

fruit

lick

it

on wet

leaves,

the resulting moisture from their

fur.

At the end of the day they sleep, squatting

on the branch of a gibbons have

tall

baboons,

patches") on their

rump

to protect

like

higher than the others

to sleep in

a tree that

the forest, since

it

areas

In

months

is

old.

is

where

Gibbons are spirits

by

(50 ha). They warn other gibbons off their

patch by singing, usually for about half an hour

singing together with different

has a

shrill

the indigenous forest

a plaintive

peoples of Indonesia and

The

the Malay Peninsula,

124 acres

every morning. The males and females "duet,"

about 20

venerated as

lower, territories can be as large as

who

tend not to hunt them.

calls

may

swooping

call, rising

The male

to a crescendo.

can be heard up to 2 miles rival

produce a baby every two years or

different ages

about a year

to be

only returning

it

two

about

life.

When

its

pair

so. Infants

so

young of a

baby

the father takes over

to

The

six years,

or three

the family.

in

old,

km)

between males.

gibbons choose a mate for

likely

(3

groups meet, which

result in a fight, usually

Lar

calls.

"quaver song," while the female has

away. Occasionally,

there are

them from

in

5 ha).

is

stay with their parents for

ischial callosities (bare "sitting

the rough bark. They is

tree. Like

(1

there are fewer gibbons, or the habitat quality

offspring

coming down to

a day. Rather than

home

with an infant. Lar

weaning period, which

puddle or stream, they drink by

other gibbons, are

gibbons have a long

not completed until the

16 or more widely spaced

all

range of about 37 acres

gibbon

young shoots,

Gibbons spend most of the day foraging. They may

lar

and spiders that

also eat leaves,

Singing

highly territorial. Each pair defends a

with figs being a particular

flowers, birds' eggs, insects,

calls.

fly past.

their

ends of branches. They usually choose ripe fruits,

morning

for their

a

position

mother to be

its

is

care,

breast-fed.

39


)

The Old World Monkey Family

A

great apes and the nocturnal bush babies and

Members

Asia and

may have been

of this family also occur

monkeys" and are

are kept

zoos.

in

What Are Old World Monkeys?

where

come

and baboons spend most of

into contact

49

good

genera,

1

mangabey

(C. galeritus);

De

monkey

Allenopithecus

Miopithecus

monkey

species, Allen's

species, patas

1

(C.

(

swamp monkey

Subfamily Colobinae

and have

eyesight, hearing,

and sense of

smell.

savanna baboon

also

(P.

(

(leaf

known

M

and almost no thumb. They are

(M.

in

eating leaves, they have large salivary

glands and an unusual chambered stomach.

fuscata); Barbary

.

Cercopithecines are more diverse, ranging from the

nigra)', lion-tailed

miniature talapoin

monkey and

the colorful

guenon

cynocephalus ); hamadryas

monkeys

( T.

slender, have long limbs,

as thumbless monkeys. Because they

specialize

(M. leucophaeus), mandrill (M. sphinx)

drill

—the guenons, mangabeys, macaques,

(A. nigroviridis)

monkey (M. talapoin) monkey (ÂŁ. patas)

species, gelada

1

good swimmers.

are active during the day, not at night,

and baboons. Colobines are

hamadryas

Mandrillus 2 species,

Theropithecus

four limbs. Most are

large bodies, small heads,

.

5 species, including (P.

on the ground.

(C. cephus)',

aethiops)

Macaca 15 species, including Japanese macaque macaque M sylvanus)' black macaque macaque (M. silenus) baboon

all

cercopithecines

species, talapoin

1

Erythrocebus

1

(L albigena ); black

neglectus)

(C.

species, vervet

1

their time

in trees,

white mangabey

mustached monkey

species, including

Brazza’s

Chlorocebus

the ground or

the colobus and leaf monkeys, or colobines, and the

Lophocebus 2 species, gray-cheeked mangabey mangabey (L. aterrimus) Cercopithecus 18

Macaques,

There are two main groups of Old World monkeys:

species, agile

torquatus)

(C.

are

to the stocky, large-headed baboons. They

sometimes

also called

cheek-pouch monkeys.

gelada)

monkeys) 7 genera, 42 species monkey (A/, larvatus simakobu

Nasalis 2 species, proboscis (/V.

Nearly

species

Cercocebus 2

Papio

1

tree-living.

Old World monkeys can stand upright, but generally

move around on Family Cercopithecidae: 2 subfamilies, 18 genera, 91 species

Subfamily Cercopithecinae (baboons and typical monkeys)

home on

however, are equally at

class

because many species

the wild they often

In

fur or

laboratory research.

in

Most members of the family are

familiar

meat and

in

in

introduced).

The Old World monkeys are what most people as 'real

are hunted for their

captured for use

Gibraltar (at the southern tip of Spain,

in

Some

villages.

belong to the family

their relatives,

i

Cercopithecidae.

they

with humans, since they raid crops or feed near or

African primates, with the exception of the

Colobus and Leaf Monkeys

);

(Simias) concolor)

Colobus and

leaf

monkeys

(colobines) are long-

Pygathrix 6 species, including golden snub-nosed monkey (P.

tailed

(Rhinopithecus) roxellana)

Presbytis 8 species, including grizzled (P.

Colobus

2 species,

Hanuman

langur

(5.

entellus):

1

3 species, including dusky leaf

(Semnopithecus) obscurus); golden

in

Malabar langur

monkey monkey

leaf

5 species, including satanic black colobus

white colobus

Procolobus 6

40

sureli

hypoleucos)

Trachypithecus <T.

comata); banded

femoralis)

Semnopithecus (S.

sureli (P

(C.

(C.

(T. (S.)

geei)

satanus); black-and-

angolensis)

species, including western red colobus

SEE ALSO Ape

Family,

(P.

badius)

The 4:12; Bush Baby, Demidoff's

4:1 10

monkeys

that spend

the trees. Almost

all

most of of

them

their time

eat leaves.


@A

lion-tailed

macaque

vocalizing. Lion-tailed

macaques inhabit the wet forests of southern India,

where they

most of

live

lives in the trees

rarely

come

and very

to the ground.

Cellulose

the main

is

component

of leaves, and

mammals cannot easily.

their

The leaves

deal with also

it

sometimes

contain toxins. To aid digestion,

colobines have a partitioned stomach. In

the

break

first

chamber fermenting

down

bacteria

the tough cellulose into

sugar; they can also break

The Hanuman langur

is

down

poisons.

able to eat fruits

containing the poison strychnine, which

would be

fatal to

other primates. Because

monkeys have

leaves are not very nutritious, to eat a

make up

lot,

and the stomach contents can

a quarter of an adult's

Another feature stumps. That (colobus

is

body weight.

that the

thumbs

are reduced to

particularly

marked

in

is

means "docked"

in

colobus monkeys

compared with Borneo

Greek).

is

home

1

1

to

species from six

There are over 40 species of

Their genus leaf

monkey,

forming seven genera. Their stronghold

name,

Asia, with 31 species from five genera,

monkey and

Presbytis,

refers to their wrinkled is

in

Africa.

species of colobine, including the

bizarre-looking proboscis

Asian Stronghold

two genera

means

a couple of surelis.

"old

and wizened

woman"and

faces.

The red

colobus monkeys, members of the Procolobus genus, in

live

the rain forests and savanna of equatorial Africa. Their

Š

Small and medium-sized cercopithecines: gray-cheeked (western race with double crest)

( 1);

mangabey

swamp monkey

(2);

mustached monkey

(3);

Allen's

talapoin, the smallest

World monkey

(4);

Old

patas

monkey

(5).

41


jv '

I'tvolored

he paws bac k, and

n o\\

and vary from region tip are

tail

becomes

to region.

often blackish-red; the

be white or orange, and the cheeks and chest

.u

e our.ge or yellowish-white. Black colobus monkeys

.

found

in

.rvu.fs

as

have ridges on

all

leaf

their faces that

monkeys and

make them

look

few gestures and is

likely

so there

mate

is

calls

and have low

levels of aggression.

to be because their food

less

need

some

or, in

species, that

There are over 40 species of cercopithecine

The

drill

in

seven genera.

and mandrill

on the

live

forest floor of western-central

Colobines are often described as "solemn." They use

That

to

they are pregnant.

they are raising their eyebrows.

if

colored swellings signal readiness

western, central, and eastern Africa are various

shades of black and white or gray. The

The

brightly colored.

is

widely dispersed,

Africa.

The mandrill

is

the largest

of the baboons. Both species are

mainly black with a short

Guenons have

for troop coordination.

tail.

distinctive

coat colors that vary between

"Cheek-Pouch Monkeys" (cercopithecines)

species.

The mangabeys, macaques, guenons, and baboons are

except the patas monkey,

known

long legs

make

runner of

all

fill

as the cheek-pouch

monkeys because they often

cheeks with food for transportation. They are

their

sociable, noisy,

are also well

and curious animals. These cercopithecines

known because

their distribution

and habits

fairly

long muzzle, with baboons being the most extreme

examples.

baboons, mangabeys, and macaques there

In

are brightly colored patches of bare skin

rump (and

in

In

female

the fastest

the primates.

is

is

and spends much of

its

time

in

acacia trees along riverbanks.

Mangabeys

are

called long-tailed

sometimes

baboons.

All

baboons, mangabeys, some macaques, and some

live in

guenons the

cheeked and black mangabeys

skin

around

their genitals swells

and

Demanding Females

thick

canopy

forests. Gray-

their time in the

nusually for animals,

it

is

the females of most colobines

that encourage the mating process.

monkey

will

A

The male responds by pouting and approach him, presenting her

means

either

rear. In

lips.

and even

bite him.

If

he returns

approaches

Hanuman

her, or

langurs, will hit

baboons.

home on

in trees.

mountain dweller that

and

macaque has

if

snowy winters

lives in

often raid fields

ground-living.

in

a hardy

it

The Japanese

warm

Africa

The savanna baboon

in

the

monkeys and

in India.

are the largest of the monkeys.

found almost everywhere

SEE ALSO Monkey,

Asia.

live in

of northern Japan. Rhesus will

is

northern Algeria, Morocco,

shaggy coat that keeps

a

other macaques

Baboons

The Barbary macaque

Other macaques

Gibraltar.

sne

him,

like

are at

the ground or

"yes," not "no.")

the male ignores a female's suggestive glances, she pull his fur,

Macaques

receptive female

eye a male, pursing her

her glance, she shakes her head (which

and

white mangabeys prefer to stay

on the ground,

will

It

always found close to water

treetops, while the agile

proboscis

can

It

the vervet monkey.

spend most of

U

whose

The most widespread

on the face and

the gelada on the chest too).

it

in trees,

per hour (55 km/h).

guenon

Apart from the guenons, most cercopithecines have a

stay

reach speeds of up to 34 miles

(some unpopular, such as raiding crops) often bring them into contact with people.

Most

They are

and are mainly lives in

Vervet 4:44; Macaque, Barbary 4:50; Baboon, Savanna 4:54; Baboon, Gelada 4:62

grasslands and


THE OLD

Š

De

one of the

Brazza's monkey,

WORLD MONKEY FAMILY

colorful cercopithecine species, has a

white beard and an orange "diadem" on

distinctive

other cercopithecines,

it

groups and

lives in

is

on

which

fruit feeders,

eat anything edible that they

seeds, flowers, buds, leaves, bark,

come

Savanna baboons

will

food and what

is

good

much food

to

chew

roots, bulbs,

and mammals.

are fairly experimental with

to eat.

When

feeding

will stuff their

in

an

cheek pouches

as possible, then retire to a safer place

The talapoin

at leisure.

them

of

from each other ways of preparing

exposed area, the monkeys with as

all

eat mollusks, and talapoins are said

Most species

will learn

but

across, including

gum,

insects, snails, crabs, fish, lizards, birds,

food and

with

it

each hand alternately.

Other species are mainly

to dive for fish.

almost

live

have large molars. They pick

grass, also

their hands, using

will

brow. Like most

semiterrestrial.

large molar teeth for grinding. Geladas, solely

its

World monkeys and

lives in

is

the smallest of the Old

the flood-plain forests of

western-central Africa.

Troop

Life

Cercopithecines are more sociable than their relatives the colobines.

Most

live in

noisy troops, using frequent

and aggression to

gestures,

two main types

interact with

of group are single male

each other. The

and multimale.

Baboons, mangabeys, and macaques tend to multimale troops.

In

with a single male. Males establish hierarchies

live in large,

hamadryas baboons and geladas

may be made up

such troops

calls,

of smaller subgroups, each

living

together

in

a

troop

through aggressive competitive

The ranks are changeable, so there are frequent

behavior.

spats as animals test each other's dominance. Patas bush. Others can be found

in

lowlands, rain forest, and

desert regions.

Baboons have naked faces and

muzzle, rather

like a

example, the male has long

hamadryas baboons,

silvery

for

gray hair and a bright-

and rump. However, the female's coat

and she has

is

brown,

a lot of grass

and during the dry season

up bulbs and other succulent plant

forest

usually

guenons have single-male

do not belong to troops are

found alone, although sometimes they band

together

in

small temporary groups.

Cercopithecines are slow to mature and reproduce, but they

live

a long time.

The

fastest

maturing

patas monkey, which can breed at about

a dark-colored face.

Baboons eat dig

In

monkeys and most

troops. Adult males that

a long

dog. Males and females often look

very different from each other.

red face

in

parts.

They have

years old.

In

is

the

two and

a half

contrast, the talapoin takes the longest time

to mature, not breeding until

it

is

four or five years old.


PRIMATES

Vervet

Monkey

Cerc

°^â&#x201E;˘

TTW^

Vervets are successful, adaptable

monkeys, Common name

or green Scientific

monkey (savanna guenon,

Vervet

name

Order

Primates

Size

They

habitats.

Cercopithecus aethicps

Cercopithecidae

throughout a large

many

part of Africa in

monkey)

Family

living

grivet,

thrive

19-30

length:

in

in

(38-62 cm);

tail

The vervet

one of the guenons, a group of

is

small- to medium-sized

1

lb

lb

(4-8

kg);

long

grizzled fur,

tail,

guenons

patterns. All

that have a

and dramatic face live in Africa.

Vervets are

limbs grizzled gray or olive,

underparts white; dark hands, feet, and is

monkeys

female

(4-5 kg)

Key features Back and outer

tip

of

bare and black, with white cheek

and eyebrows;

tufts

water and

(48-75 cm)

in

Weight Male 9-18

face

is

fruiting trees.

Length head/body male 20-26

tail;

almost

anywhere where there

(50-65 cm); female 15-24

8-1

different

eyelids white;

scrotum

the most widespread of the group, a large

living

across

swath of the continent north and south

of the equator

and

at altitudes of

up to 10,000

bright blue, penis red

around 16

feet (3,000 m). There are

Habits

Alert, lively, sociable

monkey;

active during

local

variants throughout Africa, each differing

the day; spends time on the ground as well as

Breeding

slightly in

trees

in

Single

young

usually born

in

favorable season

after gestation period of 7 months. at

8-9 months; females

years,

males at 3 years.

30 years

in captivity,

10

mature

May

up

in

appearance, but able to interbreed

their regions overlap.

Weaned

sexually live

where

at 2

Striking Looks

about

to

Vervets have a striking appearance, with their

the wild

black face framed by white eyebrows and long,

Voice

Includes barks, grunts, and screams

Diet

Mainly

white cheek fruit;

also leaves, flowers,

and

crops;

fur.

The males have

a turquoise

blue scrotum and a red penis. The back, crown,

occasionally insects, eggs, nestlings, and small

and outer limbs are

animals

Habitat

Savanna and woodland edges near water

grizzled, gray, olive, or

brownish, depending on the region the animal

lives. In

in

which

the eastern parts of

Distribution Most of Africa: Senegal east to Somalia and

southern Africa they are gray, becoming more

south to South Africa

Status

Population: abundant,

Common

many thousands.

olive

green

in

the west. From the Indian Ocean

to the great lakes of the Rift Valley they are an

and widespread

olive-fawn color; on the Atlantic side of Africa

they are olive-gray with a blotched face; and

Somalia they are brownish. The underside

in

is

white; the hands and feet are dark. The long tail

it

has a dark

tip

and red

tufts at

its

base, but

cannot be used for gripping branches, as

in

many American monkeys. Unlike other guenons, which tend to be forest dwelling, vervets prefer

They

44

live

mainly on the savanna and

SEE ALSO Baboon, Savanna 4 54 Baboon, Hamadryas 4 58 :

,

:

more open

,

Mandrill 4 60 :

;

areas.

in lightly

Baboon, Gelada 4:62


OLD WORLD MONKEYS VERVET MONKEY

wooded

areas. Their favorite habitat

acacia trees that line

is

in

the

riverbanks, but they are

very flexible about the types of habitat that they

occupy. They are also found along the edges of rain forest, in

mangrove swamps, and even on

agricultural land.

^anywhere there pply

In fact,

is

somewhere

The vervet monkey's it,

able to

water and enough

shade, and

fruit,

seem

they

live

trees to

to sleep.

diet consists mainly of

particularly figs. Outside the fruiting ,

they

when

will

such food

is

not available,

eat flowers, buds, and leaves.

Acacia trees are also an important source of food, providing seeds, flowers, raid crops

and gum. Vervets often

become will also

fruit,

and can

a pest in coffee plantations.

eat

some

invertebrates, especially insects, eggs,

'

small lizards

and mice. However,

thumbs mean

They

animal food, such as

their tiny

that they are not very

catching and handling

and

good

at

insects or other

live

small, active sorts of prey.

When ually

foraging for food, vervets are

happy on the ground as r,

they may spend

the trees, particularly

when

available. But they will

enough ground sleep

in

the trees,

a lot of time out of

there

always

is

try to

no

fruit

keep close

to trees to allow a swift escape off the if

danger threatens. Vervets always

in trees.

rarely leap

They are good climbers, but only

from tree to

from the trees head they walk or use a four limbs.

In tall

tree.

first.

fast,

They come down

When on

the ground,

bounding gallop on

all

grass they will run on their

hind legs to get a better view. They can also

swim, but do so only occasionally.

Inherited

Rank i

Vervets are sociable animals. They

live in

groups

I

|

(called troops) of

about two dozen

animals, but

sometimes as many as 70 or as few as

l

five.

Troops usually include several males, and both

Vervet

monkeys look very

striking. Their black

faces are framed by white eyebrows and white cheek fur.

Their

body

fur can

be a gray, fawn, or olive shade.

45


o o n

whe

tv

-

there

is

mat ngs Rank within females

males are especially cautious and are constantly

most of the inherited, so a

is

daughter born to a high-ranking mother

gioup

s

If

more than one female

ready to breed, the males

in

the

tend to

will

looking out for trouble, whether

gang

a predator or a

automatically has a high rank herself. Rank also

depends on age.

join a

Vervets are alert monkeys. High-ranking

competition for food, and

also perform

gh-rankmg males

go to

will

neighboring troop, losing their inherited rank.

nance. High-ranking individuals have

-

They

sexually mature.

The Males and females adopt a hierarchy of

of

the form of

in

males. Vervets are

rival

from many predators, including eagles,

at risk

leopards,

ambush

and pythons, which often wait

in

base of trees.

at the

prefer the older one. Similarly, females tend to

prefer older males.

The males are

Troop Signals

usually

dominant over the females, but females

will

Living in a

group demands a certain amount of

often band together to prevent males from

coordination and communication. Vervets have

attacking their young.

a

Although a troop

will

wide range of

pleas for help.

mainly with close family members. Such

will

common among

bonds and

will sit

They

fights. Juveniles

among

together and groom each

will also

defend each other

younger

for

in

tend to form close bonds

themselves, and young males

and care

males show no interest

in

will carry

However, adult

relatives.

infants.

When

threats, submission, or

defending

territories,

use a loud bark. Both males and females

Mothers

will

aggressive threat and to

the rest of the group.

If

for support

call

two

vervets within the

use a low bark to

troop are fighting, others

will

encourage them to

stop.

A

"woof"

"wa" sound shows

or exhaled

from

deep, guttural

submission by a lower-ranking male to a more

dominant animal. Females and

juveniles let out

allow other females to hold their babies, and

a high-pitched, piercing scream or squeal

the young of high-ranking females seem to be

feel

preferred for such "fondling."

of the troop give a nasal grunt

Daughters stay with

same

social

their

mothers

group as long as they

sons usually leave the troop

when

in

the

they

become

off to a

new

they

if

Members

threatened and want assistance.

about to move

when

they are

area.

Vervets have a complex system of alarm

while

live,

they

use a "chutter" of low staccato barks as an

females. Individuals within a family form close

other.

that they use to

communicate warnings,

forage and sleep

close together, the animals tend to interact

practices are especially

calls

with different

calls,

calls for different

predators.

For example, they give a short, sharp "chirp" call

Defending

Territory with

and

for

mammalian

The different

Red, White, and Blue

predators, such as leopards,

rough "rraup" for birds of

a short,

calls

allow the others

to take appropriate action.

V

ervets are highly territorial

home

females are

will

defend

territorial,

home

they use aggressive intimidate their

the males are most active area.

calls

rivals.

as "red, white,

When two

and body language to

The males use and blue"

in

which they walk

bright-red penis

and blue scrotum to the

SEE ALSO Leopard 2:30

its

intruders.

the troop

alarm

call

an "eagle" the animals look up and run into

them

to stand up

As well

on

call

their hind legs

communicate.

causes

and peer

around them.

When

and

is

tail is

standing on a

good

all

clue to

the animal's mood.

When

vervet holds his

high, arched over the body.

tail

monkeys perches

in

the

Moremi

in

the

Reserve,

Botswana. Troops can

number anything from five to

70 individuals.

Dominance

hierarchies

operate within the troop,

from parents.

calls,

tactile signals to

a vervet

fours, the position of the

troop of vervet

with rank being inherited

as their extensive range of

vervets also use visual

A

lower branches of a tree

prey.

a "leopard" call

On an

the bushes, while a "snake" alarm

inio the grass

a threat display

On

the group runs into the trees. for

in

troops meet,

back and forth or stand upright, each displaying

46

their

range against other troops. Although

defense of their

^nown

and

in

Š

feeling confident, a


If

fearful,

parallel to

the animal

will

hold his

tail

they are

lower,

eyebrows and head bobbing are both threat

toward and away

from an aggressor indicates submission.

two in

When

vervets meet, they touch muzzles together

a nose-to-nose greeting.

It

by play or grooming, which

is

is

reproduce; but

usually followed

an important way

When

a

female

herself to the

single infant

Is

receptive, she will present

is

One

at

males

of the reasons for the vervets' success

breeding

any time of

year,

rate.

is

Females can breed

but numbers of births tend

to peak during the seasons

when food

is

most

abundant. During times of drought or famine

Africa, take turns

other primates,

until

A mother

the next infant

is

born,

year.

monkeys mature

quickly:

However, full

adult size until they are

four years old, and five years

to reach maturity.

will

be the following

females do not reach

males take

South

in

vervet

three.

Kruger National Park,

subsequently born, although

will usually

in

vervets in the

mutual grooming. As

Females are able to reproduce

Flexible Breeding

Two

in

nurse her young

which

Š

A

male to encourage mating.

occasionally there are twins.

Young

of maintaining social bonds.

their flexible

when good

times return, they quickly resume breeding.

the ground. Staring with raised

displays, while rapid glancing

less likely to

in

two

years and

grooming

way

is

an important

of maintaining

social bonds.


PRIMATES

Japanese

Macaque Also

known

snow monkey,

as the

macaque frequents lives in large

Macaca fuscata

the Japanese

the cold mountains of Japan.

groups with

strict hierarchies, often

with close bonds between individuals. macaque (snow monkey) Scientific

name Macaca

fuscata

Cercopithecidae

with gray to brown

Order

Primates

especially

Length head/body: 18.5-24

IN Key features

length:

tail

3-5

Thick,

1

5.5-26.5

brown

in

(47-60 cm);

lb

lb

(10-18

They also have red

tail

lives in

in

very dense,

skin

bright red

is

on

their

short and stumpy.

tail is

them

fur helps

to gray coat; bare, red-

on ground and

is

The bare face

winter.

in

which

the forests of the

live in

highlands and mountains of Japan. Their thick survive

in

the cold,

Japanese macaques

winters.

nonhuman

troops

averaging 20-30 animals, but sometimes up to 100; forages

fur,

Japanese macaques

kg);

(7-12 kg)

Active by day; highly social:

adults.

buttocks. The

colored face and buttocks; short

Habits

in

(7-12 cm)

in

Weight Male 22-40 female

medium-sized monkeys

Japanese macaques are

Family

primates

living in

snowy

are the only

Japan, and they

occur farther north than any other primate.

In

trees

northern parts of their range temperatures can Breeding

Single infant born every 2 years (usually

between May and September)

Weaned

period of 5-6 months.

at 6

months;

females sexually mature at 3-4 years, but usually at

5-6

first

breed at

years.

May

captivity, similar in

6,

live

between

vary

Various long- and short-distance

Diet

Fruit, insects,

in

summer

for winter the fur

they have a thin coat, while

some

grows long and dense.

macaques

parts of Japan the

survive the worst of the

weather by spending

calls

time

in

warm

baths formed by hot springs. The

and small

whole troop

animals; sometimes raids crops

the Habitat

winter and 73째F

in

In

Voice

leaves,

in

summer. To cope, the macaques molt

in

so that

males sexually mature

up to about 30 years

(23째C)

the wild

young

5째F (-15째C)

after gestation

will sit

warm water

calmly together, relaxing

while

snow

falls

around them.

Upland and mountain broad-leaved forest

Many groups

of

macaques have

also

been seen

Distribution Japan

making snowballs Status

in

Population: about 35,000-50,000 (1990);

IUCN

children do.

It

in

the

same way

appears to be a

that

human

social pastime, in

previously Endangered, temporarily

listed as

Data Deficient (2000); CITES

II.

Listed

which the whole troop can be involved.

as Threatened by U.S. Endangered Species Act, but status

in

wild disputed

Seasonal Diet Japanese macaques are primarily vegetarian.

Most of leaves,

such as

their

food consists of

fruit,

plus seeds,

flowers, and buds. They also eat crops rice

supplement

and corn. They may sometimes their diet with insects

and other

invertebrates, together with occasional birds'

eggs and small mammals. of their range

much

SEE ALSO Macaque, Barbary

4:50; Macaque, Black 4:52

the northern parts

of the food

seasonally. During the

48

In

fall

is

only available

there are plenty of

It


OLD WORLD MONKEYS JAPANESE MACAQUE

fruits

and

berries,

but

in

spring, the animals

have to eat more young leaves and flowers.

In In

males hierarchy

and strength;

in

stay within the

During the winter the macaques

born, but males leave

body less

fat,

since

what

on stored

available to eat

is

may be

than half their daily nutritional needs.

more southern extreme,

some

parts, fruit

is

where the seasons available

Japanese macaques

live in

called troops. Social order

is

within the troop. Both males hierarchies.

At the top there

all

In

are less

groups

maintained

and females have a

is

inherited.

size

Females

when

they are sexually

dominant, or

Š Japanese macaques groom each other while bathing. In the winter

there are

few food

mature. Females prefer to mate with different

sources around, and the

males each season, so long-standing males have

macaques

less

chance of mating

if

they stay

in

that troop.

year round.

large

strictly

is

determined by it

group into which they were

winter they must resort to tree bark and buds. rely

is

females

resort to

eating tree bark buds. They

must

Experimenting with Food

their reserves of

Different troops have different habits, mostly

to see

relating to types of

food eaten. Preferences are

passed through the troop by imitation.

It

and rely

on

body

fat

them through the

winter months.

is I

macaques

that discover

new

more

inquisitive. In

one

alpha male. Below him are male subleaders.

often the young

The females come

things, since they are

third in rank,

followed by the

nonleaders and other juvenile animals. traveling, the

macaques

line

When

up according to

troop researchers dropped grains of wheat on a beach.

One young female

discovered that she

rank, with the subleaders at the front, the

could scoop them up and wash them

in

dominant males behind them guarding the

sea.

females and their babies, and other subleaders

collect the clean grains as they floated.

and juveniles following

the whole troop had learned the

at the rear.

j

The sand would

sink,

making

it

the

easy to

Soon

trick.

49


PRIMATES

Barbaiy

Macaque

Common name

Macaca sylvanus

Barbary

macaque

Lacking a

visible

Barbaiy macaques are unusual

tail,

(Barbary

among monkeys

ape) Scientific

resembling apes. They are also the

in

only monkeys living wild in Europe.

name Macaca sylvanus

Family

Cercopithecidae

Order

Primates

Size

Most

Length head/body: 22-30

Female about

20%

in

(55-76 cm).

is

it is

Weight 10-20

lb

(4.5-9 kg)

Key features Grayish-brown monkey with almost no

tail;

face hairless with large cheek pouches to

is

the main reason the Barbary

commonly known

smaller than male

monkey, and

a

is

a very short one.

it

is

more

correctly

too. All

does have a

In fact,

although

tail,

The Barbary macaque, as

known,

unusual

is

close relatives

its

tails,

macaque

as the Barbary ape.

it

it

ways

monkeys without

people define apes as

which

other

in

come from

Asia,

store food

and Habits

Lives in small

it

is

the only

groups of up to about 40 addition,

is

it

macaque

to

live in Africa. In

the only primate, apart from

animals (usually fewer); spends more time on

Breeding

the ground than other macaques; active

humans, to

during the day

uncertain whether or not

Single

young born

at

gestation period of

about

any time of year after

210

days.

Weaned

year; females sexually

1

years, males at

about 30 years

5-7

mature

May

years.

in captivity,

at at

in

Europe, although

is

it

presence there

its

is

The most famous colony of

Barbary macaques,

living

on the Rock of

Gibraltar (at the southern tip of Spain), live

is

also

up to

about 20

in

the

one of the

Some

smallest.

scientists believe that

the Gibralter animals are descended from

Wide range

of typical

monkey sounds

Mostly plant material, including

Diet

entirely natural.

wild

2-4

wild

Voice

live

fruit

and

leaves, seeds, shoots, acorns, tubers, bark,

and pine needles; some animal food such as

macaques whose elsewhere

in

fossils

have been found

Europe. Others

were imported from

insist

that they

Africa long after their

European ancestors had become

extinct.

insects (especially caterpillars)

Habitat

Rocky mountain slopes and montane

woodland

Old Superstition Whatever

their origins, the Barbary

macaques

of

Distribution Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Gibraltar

Gibraltar are secure:

Status

Population: about 15,000;

CITES Africa,

II.

IUCN Vulnerable;

Once found widely

but

now

boosted by introductions from Africa, notably

across North

reduced to a few scattered

populations

The population has been

during World

War

II,

when

macaques were reduced

An

old superstition

macaques died from

its

the Gibraltar

to only seven animals.

warned

out, Britain

that

if

would

Gibraltar's

lose the

Rock

collection of colonies. So Prime Minister

Winston Churchill arranged

for

more

to be

transported from Africa to boost local morale.

The lucky hundred or so macaques Gibraltar are well looked after, but relatives in in

North Africa

SEE ALSO Orangutans

not so

rosy.

for their

They

live

pine and oak forests on the slopes of the

Atlas Mountains.

50

is

life

in

Some have

4:14; Gorilla, Mountain 4:20; Macaque, Japanese 4:48

retreated to the


OLD WORLD MONKEYS BARBARY MACAQUE

home

high cedar forests, while their lowland

has been taken over for forest areas have

human

been cleared

the trees felled for charcoal.

macaques

are forced to

(2,000 m) above sea

live

level.

use.

Many

for agriculture or

In

places Barbary

live

live in

semidesert or

is

as small as 65 acres (26 ha)

plenty of food, but

They

on

degraded slopes, overgrazed by countless sheep

and goats. Some

may be

macaque troop

a Barbary

in

where there

coastal

in

live in

It

strict

ha).

up to 40

small social groups of

animals with a

may

other places they

roam over more than 3,000 acres (1,200

6,500 feet

Others

Unprotected The home range of

hierarchy within the group.

takes about four years for Barbary

A mother

scrub, eking out a living as best they can.

macaques

Barbary macaques eat a wide variety of foods

an entire year to raising her single youngster,

macaques sometimes use

and supplement

often assisted by the males

babies to appease

fruit,

aggression by dominant

and by

Š

Male Barbary

males. a

male

When

threatened,

will pick

up a

baby and present the aggressor,

it

to

whose

Not

their natural diet of leaves,

and acorns by

raiding crops

stealing stored

surprisingly, the

and they end up sometimes

from

fields

food meant for humans.

monkeys

losing their

are unpopular,

homes, and

their lives, to the farmers.

numbers of Barbary macaques and

The

geographical range have been severely reduced

huddling and chattering

in

over the infant.

now

occur only

Middle Atlas Mountains and in

N/lnrnrrn

onH Alnori^

a

few

in

monkeys breed

in

the troop. The

long time to recover from losses. are automatically listed on

suffers

little

primates

All

Appendix

restricting international trade,

macaque

the

localities

devotes

slowly, so populations take a

II

of CITES,

but the Barbary

from that problem and

way

not given special protection. The best

their

behavior switches to

recent times. They

to begin to breed.

is

to

conserve Barbary macaques would be to preserve their habitat. But

in

where the

a region

need to feed an ever-increasing human population

is

much

putting so

pressure on land for

farming,

be

it

is

going to

a difficult task

to achieve.


PRIMATES

Black

Macaque Black macaques are

Macaca nigra

large, relatively

peaceful monkeys

that live in the lush rainforests of Sulawesi. Despite

being a threatened species, they are eaten as a Common name

macaque (Celebes macaque,

Black

delicacy on the Indonesian island.

Sulawesi crested macaque) Scientific

name Macaca

nigra

Family

Cercopithecidae

Order

Primates

The black or Celebes macaque just north of the equator.

It

lives in

is

Indonesia,

restricted to the

northeastern corner of Sulawesi (which used to Size

Length head/body: male 20-22

56 cm); female 18-20 length:

tail

!U

1

in (2

in

in

cm)

female 12-15.5

lb

(9-10

(5-7 kg)

lb

head

rises

to a

of

and females.

with

side of nose; hair

stiff crest; tail is

Active during the day;

lives in

on the ground as well as Breeding

in

little

use

5.5 months.

years.

May

captivity,

Weaned

mature live

20

in

at

at

3-4

1

because

is

it

It

is

Loud screams

Diet

Fruit;

as the black all

macaque few

over, with a

white-tipped hairs and pink "sitting patches" its

buttocks. The face

is

and

black, long,

narrow, with an elongated snout, a prominent

trees

year; females

years, males at

up to about 30 years

brow, and high, bony cheek ridges. The just a tiny

tail is

stump.

4-5

in

Troop

Life

the wild

social groups. also

known

basically black

Black macaques,

Voice

as the

refers to

troops; forages

Single infant born after gestation period of

sexually

known

name

on

on Habits

also

the punklike crest of hair sported by both males sitting

(ischeal callosities); long, black face

down

is

Sulawesi crested macaque. The

kg);

Key features Coat black, with prominent pink prominent ridges

The black macaque

islands.

Weight Male 20-22

pads

be known as Celebes) and other adjacent

(46-51 cm);

young

leaves, buds, invertebrates

25

like

other macaques,

live in

They usually number about

individuals, but occasionally

when

five to

troops

(such as caterpillars), and birds' eggs;

sometimes Habitat

merge, there can be up to 100 animals. Females

raids crops

Tropical forest

and areas of regrowth

form the stable core of the troop, since they tend to stay with the same troop into which

Distribution Sulawesi (Indonesia)

they were born. The males, however, leave Status

Population: about 144,000;

Endangered; CITES logging

activities

II.

IUCN

Threatened due to

and hunting

when

they reach sexual maturity, then spend

their lives

As

in

moving from troop to troop. other macaques, the troop has a

social structure that

is

determined by the

hierarchy of the individuals. inherited, but

the males

In

females rank

is

males have to compete. Because

move from troop

hierarchy level can

to troop, their

change depending on

social

environment. Within the troop black macaques recognize each other and acknowledge rank.

When two tail

do.

52

SEE ALSO Macaque, Japanese

and

animals meet, they embrace head to

sniff

each other's genitals,

just as

Bonds between females and between

4:48; Macaque, Barbary 4:50

dogs


OLD WORLD MONKEYS BLACK MACAQUE

females and their offspring are particularly close. Social

of time

macaques are known

and buds. They are

to use at least

120 species of wild

vocal. Black

calls,

fruit,

sometimes

raid farmers'

vegetables, and corn.

species.

of wild plant, and will

stop troop

supplement

have

visual

Storage Pouches The troop spends

a large proportion of the

when

traveling through

its

confronted by another

A dominant male

troop,

is

macaques use loud scream

particularly

feed on over 120 species

their

leaves, flowers,

known

most other

Communication within the group

to

but also

young

plants, but will also

and

Black

berries,

Even

crops for

are less aggressive than

and

amount

macaques

Š A black macaque figs.

a large

social links.

males generally interact on friendly terms. Black

macaque

feeding on

grooming takes up

and helps strengthen

material, mainly fruits

members

will also

use

fighting. Black

calls

to

macaques

a variety of facial expressions. Staring with

for food.

day

patch of rain forest looking

The animals have large cheek pouches

much food

that can hold as

as the stomach.

When

foraging, they stuff their cheek pouches

as

as possible, then retire to a safer spot to

diet with delicacies

an open mouth and lip-smacking are both signs

such as caterpillars

of aggression. To demonstrate submission, a

chew and

"fear grimace"

jaws and large back teeth, which they use as

and

birds' eggs.

is

adopted. Black

macaques

and eat

a

are omnivores

wide range of

plant and animal foods.

Most

of their diet

full

swallow. They also have powerful

nutcrackers to break open tough seeds and fruits.

The macaques generally forage

trees.

They also spend time on the ground,

where they

When

consists of plant

usually

walk on

all

the

in

fours.

they are ready to breed, the females

develop bright-pink, swollen buttocks. Infants are born with their eyes closed at

open within two hours. The to

mother's belly and stays close to her for

its

the

but they

first,

infant clings tightly

first

few months

of

life.

It

then gradually

becomes more adventurous and spends more time playing with other group members. The

bond between mother and as

it

stays

in

the group (for

infant lasts as long life in

the case of

females), but adult males also take great interest in the welfare of the offspring.

male young the bond sexually mature, at

them

lasts until

rapidly.

Some

become

which point the adults force

to leave the troop

Numbers

they

With

of black

and seek

macaques

a

new

group.

are falling

estimates claim that 75 percent of

the population has disappeared within 15 years.

Human

activities,

including cultivation

logging, reduce the for

amount

of forest available

them. The macaques are also hunted or

shot

when

they raid

Many

fields.

are caught

snares to be sold as bushmeat: Black is

considered a delicacy

on

and

special occasions.

in

macaque

Sulawesi and

Many

in

is

eaten

are also sold for the

pet trade. Consequently, there are thought to

be fewer than

1

50,000

left in

the wild.

53


PRIMATES

Savanna

Baboon

Papio cynocephalus

Savanna baboons owe social structure

Common name Scientific

Cercopithecidae

Order

Primates

Size

The savanna baboon

Length head/body: male 31-45

(79-114 cm); female 20-28 tail

18-27

length:

Weight Male 48-66 24-33

lb

(22-30

It

has

female

downward

so the back slopes

legs,

from the shoulders when the animal

is

walking

(11-1 5 kg)

lb

on Key features Coat

a powerful animal.

than females. The arms of a baboon are longer than the

kg);

is

sturdy limbs, and males are considerably larger

in

(51-71 cm);

in

(46-68 cm)

in

They eat a wide

adaptability.

with shortages during the diy season.

Papio cynocephalus

Family

yellowish-gray; shiny black patch of

fours.

all

kink,

The

adult's

owing to the

first

has a pronounced

tail

three or four

tail

bones

bare skin over buttocks; eyes set close

together with prominent brow-ridge above; long, ridged muzzle; powerful jaws with long

canine teeth

Habits

in

adult males

in trees; lives in

becoming joined together, shape. The coat

large troops averaging is

long, giving

(its

Latin

it

it

hooked

a

in all

name

of

baboons, the muzzle

somewhat dog-shaped

a

face

name, cynocephalus, means "dog

Usually single baby born every 1-2 years at

any time of year after gestation period of 6

Weaned

months.

mature

at

at 5 years,

1

year; females sexually

males at 7 years.

up to about 40 years

in captivity,

May

20-30

live

head.") The long muzzle houses powerful jaws,

with large molars for grinding tough plant food.

Adult males possess big canine fangs that are 2

in

inches (5 cm) long. The bare skin of the face

the wild

black, with sparse

Voice

giving

coarse and brindled yellow-

"yellow baboon." As

30-40 members Breeding

is

brown, hence the animal's other

Active during the day; forages on the ground

and

and

Barks, grunts, screeches, yelps,

white

hairs.

There

is

is

also

clicks

black skin on the hands, feet, ears, rump, and Diet

Grass,

seeds, bulbs, lichen,

fruit,

insects,

mushrooms,

young ungulates, and crops

scrotum. The hands are wide and strong, with

stubby Habitat

with

some

and

fully

opposable thumbs to

Population:

hill

country,

in

central

unknown

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

thousands; IUCN Lower

CITES

II.

and semidesert

allow gripping.

grass and thorn bush

Distribution Widespread

Status

digits

Savanna grassland, open woodland and forest edge, rocky

Fairly

common

and eastern Africa

Highly Social Savanna baboons

live in large,

sociable troops

at least tens of Risk:

near threatened;

primate

of

between eight and 200 animals, although 30

to

40

is

most

usual.

Baboon

social

life is

extremely complex, with subtle (and sometimes

not so subtle) relationships between individuals established

and maintained by an elaborate

communication system of

Good communication

is

calls

vital

and expressions.

for surviving the

day-to-day pressures of baboon

~ 4,

s

life,

which

and compete with

other troops for space and food.

SEE ALSO

in

animals need to avoid predators, establish hierarchies within the troop,

54

complex

range offoods, and their flexibility helps them cope

Savanna baboon (yellowbaboon)

name

and

their success to their

Lion 2:14, Leopard 2:30, Hyena, Spotted 2:108, Baboon,

Hamadryas 4:58


OLD WORLD MONKEYS SAVANNA BABOON

Š A male baboon Tsavo, Kenya,

The females form the core of each troop,

in

showing

the prominent ridges on the long, doglike muzzle.

and they stay with the same group,

home

range, throughout their

females of a troop there

life.

a strict

is

same

the

in

Within the

and stable

The muzzle houses

hierarchy of dominance. Daughters of a high-

powerful jaws with large

ranking female are automatically high ranking

molar

teeth.

themselves. Within a family the youngest

daughters rank

and

and by the age of two

highly,

a half a female's rank

is

fixed for

life.

social status are just as important

Hierarchy and

the males, but are more flexible. Males

among

achieve high status by strength and by forming

Young males

alliances with other males.

the troop

which they were born, usually

in

around the age of

four,

and

They may change troops lives:

leave

join

another troop.

several times

in

their

Each time they have to go through the

process of becoming accepted and climbing the hierarchy, since high rank gains the prize of

mating with more females.

Just

Good

Friends

Male baboons often make close "friendships" with a chosen female.

between one and

whom

female

may have

three such "friends," with

she spends a

groom them

A

lot

of time. She will

attentively,

forage with them,

and sleep nearby. Such friends behave well toward her offspring, even father.

its

They hold,

carry,

if

they are not

and groom the

baby baboon, share food, and protect

it

from bullying by other troop members. In

return, the

likely

male friends are more

than other troop

favored

when

members

the female

is

to be

receptive

and ready to mate. Friendships and paternal behavior also a

have other benefits for the males.

male

is

being threatened by a higher-

ranking male, holding out a baby usually inhibit an attack.

make

If

alliances with

will

Males also

each other, and two

subordinate males acting together can often chase off an otherwise dominant male.

All

unite

if

the males

they meet a

in

the troop

rival

will

group of

55


\iboons Then there "roiMJtion areas

is

Baboon Communication

to be a serious

likely

is

since competition for

good

living

always intense.

C

Varied Diet A

I

make up

the bulk of their

especially grasses, fruit,

and seeds,

and bark

known

diet,

they cope better than

many

juicy bulbs

water

in

and tubers. They

mopane

and occasionally even

grubs,

scorpions. They also eat lizards, turtles, frogs, birds'

eggs and

nestlings. Crocodile

eggs are eagerly dug up and consumed. Rodents, hares, and even young gazelles

be captured

kill

if

they are found

in

the long grass.

When

also raid crops.

hunting, savanna baboons use a

simple form of cooperation, spreading out and

often

nearly closed

when

make

and cheeks puffing

sound and have

in

a special

rebuffed.

season they often need to travel 3.7 miles (6 km).

habitat size of

The distances may be halved but doubled

lush,

is

home

the

(2

and 40

sq. km).

The troop

troop

members

When

foraging, the group

on the ground, searching

distances depending on the quality of the

in

is

plentiful,

they

wet season,

will

cover 2.8 miles

an average day, but during the dry

travels

from one

that lag behind.

each other.

foraging, groups can travel considerable

when food

size of

decide where to go and are aggressive toward

When

the

poor regions. The

feeding patch to another. The dominant males

catch anything share food only reluctantly.

In

their

can be between 0.75 and 15.5 square miles

but individuals

and the season.

in

if

range depends on the

"flushing out" prey. However, animals that

4.5 km)

A expression

the group and the quality of their habitat, and

may

are unpopular with farmers, since they

young goats and sheep and

habitat

facial

will also dig for

spiders, grasshoppers,

Baboons

mouth open,

out. Infants use a chirplike clicking

"ick-ooer" noise that they use

adopt a

During courtship baboons

calls.

mouth

will

dry streambeds. They supplement their

such as

and

and

and

hands to dig up

diet with invertebrates

fish,

very important within such a

a variety of calls, postures,

demonstrated by tooth grinding.

as a "fear grimace," with the

a muffled growl with the

other animals,

since they use their powerful

is

accompanied by short yakking

particularly

the dry season

In

Baboons use

subordinate withdrawing from a conflict

of acacia trees. The animals also eat buds,

shoots, flowers,

is

expressions to convey messages to each other. Aggression

toward another baboon

wide range of both plant and animal

â&#x20AC;˘ood Plants

tightly knit society.

facial

baboons are omnivores, which means they

eat a

ommunication between animals

A

will

still

is

spread out,

maintain contact with

typical foraging posture

for

is

sitting

food with the

Š

Baboons often make

loud coughs and grunts:

Communication this

is vital

highly sociable

primate species.

to


— 1

hands, then shuffling forward of

when one

piece

ground has been covered.

On

the African savanna there are

baboons

creatures that will prey on

if

many they get a

chance. Lions, hyenas, and leopards are the biggest threat

—even to adults—and eagles and young baboons. By

jackals will take

together, animals

There are

and

trouble; will alert

then

many

troop are

pairs of eyes to

predator

a

if

in a

is

sticking

much

safer.

watch out

spotted, loud calls

the rest of the troop. The males

move toward the source

their threatening postures

most predators

retreat.

for

and

of danger,

and attacks

At an alarm

will

make

will

males and

call

may mate

many

with

partners. After a gestation period of six

with young males bringing up the rear guard.

a single infant

Baboons are most vulnerable to attack night, so the troop usually

possible place to sleep,

among

at

chooses the safest

on high ledges or

and

At

on

its

first

the baby

onto her

belly

of deterring any animal prowling

month

begins to

they

bombard

below

it

two months

with liquid excrement.

logs. After

Youngsters

Savanna baboons can breed year,

when food

is

most

at

any time of the

plentiful.

When

females are receptive, the skin around their genital region swells In

and

its

move

and becomes bright

pink.

that condition they are very attractive to

four

about

months

other infants.

six

by

now

but

its

still

weeks

tail.

Baby

the troop,

who pay them

special attention.

about a

it

on

rides

three to

is

it

its

baby baboon plays with to eat solid food

will start

mother. relies

and protection

grabs another's

independently, and by

can climb reasonably well, but

milk from year,

old a It

One youngster

interest to the adults of

time hanging

suckling. After

activities:

in social

able to walk and clamber over

is

it

all

mother's back, and by the time

but births tend to peak during the rainy

seasons,

is

group engaged

baboons are a source of

try to

completely dependent

mother, spending

can climb well. However, the baboons have a

Irresistible

who

to be irresistible to adults,

way

it

rare), usually at

examine, touch, and carry the youngsters.

tree branches. Here leopards are the

greatest threat, since they are nocturnal

months

have black fur and red faces, and

night. Babies

seem

born (twins are

is

© A baboon family

different

baboons rush for cover to the nearest trees,

It

on

until

it

is

its

is

weaned mother

nearly

after

for

two

still

and takes

one

guidance

years old.

© A Chacma baboon troop at a drinking pool in

the

Okavango

Botswana. The species of to

be

Delta,

five

baboon used

classified as

single species.

one

They

all

look very similar, with the males boasting a thick

mane

of fur around

the shoulders.

57


PRIMATES

Hamadryas Baboon Hamadryas baboons

and each has a small harem offemales. The

troops,

Scientific

Hamadryas baboon (sacred baboon)

hamadryas was once

Papio hamadryas

has

name

Family

Cercopithecidae

Order

Primates

Size

Length head/body: male 27.5-37

nÂŤ

tail

now been

length: 16.5-24

in

in

exterminated

in

baboons, with a

Weight Male 37-55.5 lb

characteristic

(42-60 cm) feature

female 22-29.5

body and a

most

long, doglike muzzle. Their

there.

similar to other

relatively stocky

(50-65 cm);

lb

(17-25

the coat, which

is

mature, sexually

in

kg);

active males

(10-13 kg)

long and silver-gray, with a heavy

is

cape covering the neck and shoulders. The

Key features Dull-brown

baboon of Egypt, but

the sacred

Hamadryas baboons have a build

0-95 cm); female 20-25.5

unusual, complex

live in

Males form the stable core of the large

societies.

Common name

Popio hamadryas

hair

to silver-gray coat with longer

hair over shoulders, especially in adult males;

and naked red

red patch of skin over hips

is

lighter

on the cheeks and

tip

tail

and around

the edges of the sitting pads of the buttocks.

face with prominent side ridges on long

Young animals and maturing females

are

muzzle

brown. Habits

Terrestrial;

walks on

fours; lives in

all

bands of

males, each with a harem of females; bands

come Breeding

All

have

face and sitting patches. As

the males are

together to sleep

hairless, pinkish-red skin

much

other baboons,

in

larger than the females.

Usually a single baby born after gestation

period of 5-6 months. year; females sexually

Weaned mature

males at 2 years.

May

years

30-40

in captivity,

live

up

in

at

around

Male-Centered Social

1

at 3.5 years,

to

The

Voice

Variety of barks

Diet

Grass,

social

life

Life

and organization of the

about 40

hamadryas baboon

the wild

in

that

it

is

is

unusual

among monkeys

centered around males.

It

is

fruit,

and

seeds, bulbs, insects, hares,

young ungulates; sometimes

stick to

one home range, while the females move

raids crops

between them. That

is

the reverse of what

is

Arid subdesert, steppe, and bare highlands

normal Distribution Northeastern Sudan, eastern Ethiopia, and northern Somalia; also east of Red Sea

Status

the

and grunts

males that form the stable groups and

Habitat

on the

societies.

social structure

is

arranged

in

Yemen and

Saudi Arabia

Population:

likely

to be in the thousands;

Risk:

near threatened; CITES

IUCN Lower

among most monkey

The hamadryas in

four

small II.

A

vulnerable species

levels.

The smallest

harem of females

their offspring.

male groups

Two

join to

unit

a

is

(usually

male with

two

to five)

a

and

or three of these single-

form

a clan.

The males of

such clans are usually closely related and often

When

work

as a team.

male

leads, while the older

traveling, the

male brings up the

rear guard. Clans join together to

of 30 to

form bands

90 (averaging 60) animals. The bands

usually travel large

younger

and forage together. At night

numbers of bands come together to

sleep.

These troops often number more than 100 animals and can be as large as 750.

58

SEE ALSO

/,

Red 2:64; Dog, African Wild 2:7-

non, Savanna 4:54


OLD WORLD MONKEYS HAMADRYAS BABOON

Each male maintains his

and

strict discipline

harem. He must keep will

his

if

one of

his

females

strays.

He

open jaws and

Fighting males fence with

out with their hands, but almost never physical

contact and so tend to avoid

When

a

in

same

females to start

The

his

own

The baboons' sleeping

in

harem.

two

sites (rocky

large troops to

However,

their

make

food

is

animals are better off

outcrops and

come together

the most of them.

widely dispersed, so the in

small groups that can

forage apart. The baboons can travel considerable distances

when

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; between 4 and

12

shown

in

god of

letters

and

the scribe of the gods. Free-living baboons

in

the temple of Thoth were regarded as priests.

Baboons were

Š

The primary social

unit of is

conflicting factors:

are scarce, so they need to

foraging

make

attracts or kidnaps

often

representative of Thoth, the

injury.

unusual multilevel social organization

has arisen because of

cliffs)

He

was

and other buildings as the attendant or

hit

which he was born, but stays

clan.

It

and carvings on the walls of temples

pictures

will

male becomes sexually mature, he

leaves the unit

within the

ancient Egyptians.

of

males to gain or retain females.

also fight other

Sacred Animal

The hamadryas was the sacred baboon of the

group together

use force, usually a bite to the nape

the neck,

A

within

hamadryas society

the harem of one male

and up

to five females.

The females

will

show

were

also associated with sun worship.

Hamadryas baboons are into conflict with

exterminated

people as more and more

in

Egypt, even

once considered sacred

fight for the right to

of their range

groom

Arabia,

him.

coming

The baboons have now been

cultivation.

will

increasingly

areas of their natural distribution are used for

other over gaining the

and

mummified and entombed

with high-ranking people. The sacred baboons

aggression toward each

male's attention

also

numbers

where they

primate

in

though they were

there. But

other parts

are increasing.

are the only

the wild, they are a

in cities,

in

particularly near

In

Saudi

nonhuman

common

sight

garbage dumps.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; PRIMATES

Mandrill

Mandrillus sphinx

The large and spectacular mandrill vivid colors.

However,

natural home, where

Common name

famed for its

seriously threatened in

it is

it is

is

its

regarded as a valuable

source of bushmeat. Scientific

name

The male mandrill has to be one of the most

Family

Cercopithecidae

Order

Primates

fi^H|Size

impressive of

Length head/body: 22-37 Leng length:

2-3

in

Weight Male 42-66

Key features Olive-brown,

lb

tail

lb

heavily built

(19-30

kg);

and posterior

young born

at

1

year; sexually

many fewer

in

a powerful appearance.

electric blue,

less spectacular,

is

mature

at

4-5

years.

in captivity,

May

probably

barks;

end

with areas of bare skin

The

colorful fur

and

skin are signs of social rank

-Mi

and develop progressively with increasing age. facial

adornments boss

is

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

to ensure that the animals a useful

skill in

of the dense rain forest.

If

the gloomy

know light

the dominant group

including small animals

leader can be recognized at a glance, fighting

Mainly evergreen coastal forest

much

reduced, since other males

unknown, but

Vulnerable; CITES

is

not

will

challenge his authority by mistake. Mandrills

Population:

is

Rank

Social

who

Distribution Equatorial West Africa

Status

rear

groups are

making chorus of double

Prefers fruits, but will eat almost anything,

Habitat

The

ears.

the wild

sometimes grunts and squeals Diet

orange cheeks,

1-2 years

175 days. Weaned

Individuals often silent; larger noisy,

bright,

brown,

a drab

nostrils,

The purpose of the spectacular Voice

long

Its

with a crimson stripe between

but the mandrill has red

no

its

colored with bright red, white, and blue.

at intervals of

ve more than 45 years

it

mane around

retires

to trees at night to sleep Single

neck, giving

has a high, hairy

It

a thick

an orange beard, and blue

male-dominated groups; active

after gestation period of

primates.

them. The general fur color

baboon; male has

during the day, mostly on the ground;

Breeding

all

head and

its

muzzle has prominent ridges that are a

(10-15 kg)

a brightly colored face Lives in small,

(55-95 cm);

(5-8 cm)

in

female 22-33

Habits

on

crest

declining;

live in

small groups of

up to 30

IUCN animals, led by single dominant male. There are

I

often

two

whose than

or

size

more subordinate males

and coloring are

less

the group leader. The rest of the group

in

are mostly breeding females offspring.

often

present,

pronounced

and

their recent

The groups are extremely vocal and

call noisily

to each other. But old males

probably those displaced from the social

groups

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;generally feed alone and are

Overall, adult

silent.

males are uncommon. The stress

that goes with maintaining

dominance probably

contributes to the high rate of mortality.

M, trees

drills

if

can climb well and

SEE ALSO Baboon, Savanna

4:54; Baboon, Hamadryas 4:58

the

ep each night. They are normally

active only during the

60

retire to

daytime and mostly

wm.


OLD WORLD MONKEYS MANDRILL

forage on the ground. They anything edible, but prefer

eat almost

will

whenever

fruit

seasons with abundant

available. In

it

is

fruit large

groups of mandrills, perhaps amounting to

may

several hundred,

same

The

area.

gather to feed

the

in

mandrills' diet also includes

leaves, roots, fungi, land crabs,

Sometimes they catch

lizards,

and

snails.

mice, and even

small antelope. Mandrills generally travel about 5 miles (8

km)

the course of a day, but they

in

can roam twice as far

dominant male

if

they need

danger threatens, he

will

move

Mandrills feed intensively a

up the

usually takes

in

The

to.

but

rear;

if

to the front.

one place

for

about

week, turning over stones and inspecting

When

debris for potential food.

become

scarce, they

move

supplies start to

on, covering an area

km)

of about 18 square miles (50 sq.

in a year.

Both sexes reach sexual maturity at four or five years.

breed

until

However, the males are unlikely to they are

much

from doing so by the group's are pregnant for about

six

birth to a single offspring.

Females

leader.

months and The young

to their mother for a year or

enjoy protection from the

being kept

older,

give

stick close

more and

also

the group.

rest of

Continuous destruction of the forest means that mandrills are always under pressure, having

fewer and fewer areas addition, mandrill local people,

in

meat

is

which to

live. In

among

highly valued

and commercial hunters have

wiped out many mandrill groups. Those near roads are especially vulnerable.

In

living

the

daytime the animals are hunted using dogs and guns. At night they can be shot

in

the trees,

illuminated by spotlights as they sleep.

Refrigerated trucks carry the

meat

to distant

markets. Today there are a few protected reserves to conserve the wildlife of tropical forests.

enough

It

mandrills

is

West

African

hoped that there are

left in

safe areas to prevent

the species from dying out altogether.

ŠA face

is

fierce.

captive male mandrill in a zoo. The blue part of the

always swollen, so the animal looks permanently

The wide gape and huge teeth are also impressive.

61


PRIMATES

Gelada Common name

Scientific

Baboon

Gf

name

Family

found only on

plateau of Ethiopia, where

it

lives

edges.

in

(50-75 cm);

13-22

length:

along precipitous

human

activities.

ta

Geladas have a unique ground-dwelling, grass-

(32-55 cm).

in

Weight

Male 33-48

5-22

lb (1 lb

altitudes

kg);

(10-15 kg)

i

*

Habits

with long brown fur that makes

it

look

enough

for

high

and have no access

them

to climb.

monkey

that spends

its

all

time on the ground.

and very heavy; adult males

develop flowing cape of paler hair around

Grass Eaters

patches of naked skin on chest

Where the geladas

Terrestrial; lives in cliff

Single

groups on open grassland

ledges; active during the day

young born every 2 years

months.

mature live

Weaned

at

3-4

30 years

at 2 years,

high on the Ethiopian

trees, there

about

1

5-20

May in

the

Mostly grass

Habitat

High-altitude rocky

around

all

day on

by hand. Geladas

5,000

ft

It

and

sits

its

haunches, picking

will

sometimes

is

brown and withered. Roots

food

its

also eat roots,

when

are

the grass

dug up

or

a loud bark

of bare cliffs

fruit to

grass.

far to find grass

wrenched from the ground, Diet

on

that feeds almost entirely

does not need to move

especially during the dry season

Grunts and screams, depending on call is

no

females sexually

wild

circumstances; alarm

is

So the gelada has become the only type of

monkey

years, males at 8 years.

in captivity,

live,

away from

plateau far eat.

in

February-April after gestation period of 6

Voice

tree line

different live at

Consequently, they are the only species of

shoulders and forelegs and conspicuous

and

Breeding

makes them

that

life

above the

to trees large

features Large, ground-dwelling monkey

thickset

of

from other types of baboons. They

,

female 22-33

way

eating

Male generally bigger than female

and gorges above

soil

and overturned

few

occasionally eat a

leaving large areas

Geladas

turf.

insects,

but probably only

(1,500 m)

by accident along with the grass. Distribution Confined to northern Ethiopia

Status

Population: fewer than 500,000; Risk:

near threatened; CITES

Geladas IUCN Lower

live in

rocky places

5,000 feet (1,500 m) above sea

more than level.

They

II

gather together at dusk along the tops of

and steep

slopes,

rocky ledges

cliffs

moving down to sleep on

where rock faces and

ravines

provide shelter from the rain and wind. Geladas rarely

venture more than a mile or so

from the ledges

if

cliffs

and

(2

km)

flee to the safety of their

threatened. Sleeping on ledges also

makes them

relatively safe

from most predators

except leopards, but these cats are

Geladas

live in

now

large and complex

rare.

social

oups, each dominated by a single adult male, that have

62

SEE ALSO Leopard

2:30; Baboon, Savanna

the high

threatened by continued expansion

It is

offarming and

20-30

ii

is

Length head/body:

Size

fH n

The unique gelada baboon

cliff

Order

Theropithecus gelada

no harem gather

Hamadryas 4:58

into bachelor


In

the past

humans have not

seriously

threatened geladas, since there were groups. Adult males

have a flowing cape of long

baboons, geladas use

Š

A male gelada

female harem. The

male

will usually

with

be at

establish

killed, a

dominance and access to breeding

females. They also peel back their upper

live.

Some

a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

unique to the

gelada. The

himself. Geladas are

conspicuous bright patch of bare, pink skin

relatively peaceful

the middle of their chest, which

baboons. Most of the

part of their social displays.

but the practice has

Cliff-Top Foragers

least half a million

also have a

agricultural

expansion of in

flashed as

brief period

quiet!^ picking grass.

As

Geladas come up from their sleeping ledges to tops and open plateau as soon as the

the

cliff

sun

rises

each morning. They disperse into small

groups to seek food, but keep soft grunts.

in

touch with

However, at any point some of the

animals are keeping a lookout for danger, particularly large birds of prey.

bark

will

A

sharp warning

send the geladas running for the

safety of the nearest crags.

fields

and

unattractive for

villages

is

a threat. For a

geladas were trapped and taken to

the United States for use

time they are happy to

is

development. Nevertheless,

forming a greeting display that

sit

a serious threat to the

high-altitude, rocky habitat

he can secure a harem for

is

make

population as a whole. Fortunately, the gelada's

least six years old before

is

where

high proportion of the best breeding

males were taken

lip in

sneering smile to reveal bright- pink gums,

dominant males

cold highlands

geladas were occasionally shot

ceremonial cloaks. Although few geladas were

exaggerated yawns and various displays to

his

they

to collect their impressive cape skins to

Like other

hair.

few people sharing the

relatively

late as

now

in

medical research,

ceased.

the 1970s there were probably at

geladas

relatively safe within

in

Ethiopia.

They are

protected areas, such as

the Simien National Park and parts of the Blue Nile

Gorge. Nevertheless, the gelada's restricted

distribution

means

that there

is

always a

risk

that disease or another misfortune could quickly

reduce numbers to a frequent problem limited

in

critical level.

Ethiopia,

Drought

is

a

and the geladas'

food supplies are eaten by increasing

numbers

of cattle

and goats.

63


PRIMATES

Hanuman Langur

Semnopithecus entellus

Hanuman langurs live sociable, relatively peaceful lives. Named after the Hindu monkey-god, they are considered sacred in India and are allowed

to steal

food and raid crops unhindered. Scientific

Family

Order

name

Semnopithecus entellus

Hanuman langurs

Cercopithecidae

the leaf-eating monkeys,

Primates

huge Length head/body: 16-31 tail

length:

27-42.5

in

Weight Male 20-66 16.5-40

Key features

lb

in

(9-30

kg);

female

type of habitat

monkey with

a long

in

They are

which they can

They can be found from sea

survive.

over 13,000 feet (4,000 m),

(7.5-18 kg)

Slender, agile

level to

habitats as

in

diverse as rain forests, alpine scrub, semidesert, tail;

underparts white or yellowish; black face,

and even

in

and towns. Even

villages

populations are

so, their

threatened, since their

still

hands, and feet; prominent brow ridge

preferred forest habitats are being cut Habits

Active by day

in

dominated by

1

small social groups that are

or

ground as well as

Breeding

in

190-210

years

days.

Weaned

May

males at 6-7 years. in captivity,

1

Hanuman

Unlike most other langurs,

5

in

much

langurs spend

trees

10-12

at

months; females sexually mature at 3-4 years,

down.

more males; forages on

Usually a single offspring born after gestation

period of

live

about 25

ground

of their time on the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;as much as 80 percent of the day When on

nonforested areas.

sometimes run using walking upright. Up

all

in

in

the ground, they

four feet, instead of

the trees they are

the wild

extremely agile and can Voice

all

throughout a

living

part of the Indian subcontinent.

flexible in the

(69-108 cm) lb

most widespread of

(41-78 cm);

upperparts gray, brown, or buff; crown and

ears,

are the

Resonant whoops and guttural alarm

make

horizontal leaps

calls

of 10 to 16.5 feet (3 to 5 m) or diagonal falling Mainly leavps; also

Diet

some

fruits,

seeds,

leaps of flowers,

Habitat

up to 43 feet

(1

3 m).

and sometimes crops

Varied: includes

wet

tropical forests, shrubs,

desert edges, alpine scrub, and urban areas

Laid-back Lifestyle Langur

social

compared

relatively calm,

life is

to

Distribution From Pakistan through Himalayas to Nepal

and Bangladesh; Status

India

and

Sri

the bickering and

Lanka

Population: probably about half a million; Indian population estimated at

1986);

CITES

IUCN Lower

Risk:

233,800

near threatened;

chattering of

guenons and

macaques. Most animals belong to group, although

some

individuals

a social

may

alone. Males are always the leaders

live

and

I

defenders of a group, but the structure varies

depending on the

habitat.

of food, mixed-sex groups

Where

may

there

is

plenty

include several

adult males. The males are tolerant of each i

other once their relative status has been established.

groups

will

Normal group

come together

drinking, resulting

animals.

When

in

SEE ALSO Baboon, Hamadryas

4:58; Mandril

cey,

is

13 to 37, but

for feeding or

gatherings of over 100

groups meet, there

aggression. Langurs

64

size

make

small,

is

usually

no

appeasing

Black-and-White Colobus 4:68; Monkey, Proboscis 4:70

?

a


OLD WORLD MONKEYS HANUMAN LANGUR

seem to minimize

noises to each other, which

tension between them.

Where

there

more competition

is

supplies, the social structure

cases there

of females, with an average of

females per male. They

two

adult

together with an

live

assortment of juveniles. The resident male fight off

such

different. In

is

one male per group

usually only

is

food

for

any other males that

try to join

will

the

group. Remaining males wander alone or form

"bachelor groups" of up to 30 or so animals.

Once males have

established a

dominance

hierarchy by fighting, the structure of the group is

A

generally stable.

lower-ranking male

will

reaffirm his subordinate position to the

dominant male by approaching him and "presenting"

him

in

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;turning

hindquarters toward

his

a sign of submission.

He

will

then

the ground while the dominant male

On

him.

male

lie

on

grooms

the rare occasions that a dominant

challenged, he stares at the subordinate,

is

and grunts and grimaces.

slaps the ground,

Suddenly, he lunges and chases his challenger,

and even

hitting

biting him.

Within a group females have an established hierarchy, but

it

is

weak. Expressions of

dominance and submission between females are rare, although a

dominant female

will

occasionally slap a lower-ranking one.

Tough

at the

For a male,

at the

life

usually short

Top top as troop leader

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;two or three years

The lead male position by a

will

some females

average.

eventually be ousted from his

younger

younger male may

is

rival.

split a

Alternatively, a

group by stealing

to form a troop of his own.

young male succeeds often attempts to

is

in

kill all

their babies brings the

If

a

taking over a group, he

the young, since losing

females back into

breeding condition. He can then mate with

them, giving him a chance to father as many

Š A Hanuman langur mother Hanuman silvery

rocks her baby.

Newborn

langurs are chocolate brown, in contrast to the

gray of the adults.

65


fermentation chambers where bacteria break

down

the tough plant

walls

cell

Hanuman

neutralize toxins.

and help

many

langurs eat

poisonous plants that other animals avoid.

Cross-Country Foraging Leaves are not a

food source, so langurs

rich

need to eat large quantities to obtain enough sustenance.

food

is

In

dense forests finding enough

not usually a problem, but

vegetated areas groups

may have

in less

well-

to forage

over several miles every day. The size of the

home

range depends on the

and the type and females are protective of their young and

Young Hanuman

gang together

to defend their smallest babies.

Juvenile males

in

males leave or are driven

are chased away.

out of the troop and join

bachelor gangs

other unattached males.

claim their

own

new

day-to-day

life

leader's authority,

power

Hanuman

42 acres (17

when

they meet other

groups. They often form

30 or more animals that forage over

larger areas, typically 5 square miles

square miles (7 to 22 Each

home

is little

or no

all

langurs,

Hanuman

langurs are

use a deep, resonant whooping

Hanuman

langurs are most active

in

early

the middle of the day. At night the group sleeps

first

two pouches

are

in

Hanuman

and vegetables from market

langurs

stalls

their

afternoon, sleeping during

a tree, gathering at the thinner

away from

cities.

They scavenge

for

derated. They are often >

share

some

of the

monkey companions

will

In

large predators like

ranges with no trees the

sleep huddled

in

on high

rocks.

areas that experience seasonal rains, most

births

happen during the dry season. The

female

initiates

mating by looking

and presenting her she

is

fertile.

She

ignores her and

rear to let

will

at the

birth

4:50

if

he

bite him.

seven months after

mating, usually to a single offspring.

Ma

male

him know that

object violently

may even

The female gives

Tiger 2:20; Leopard 2:30;

ends

Mating can occur throughout the year; but

close contact with

live in

Because they are considered

of traveling holy mei

food donated to them with

late

leopards and tigers.

to be sacred animals, their brash behavio

SEE ALSO

a

pouched stomach. The

food, raid gardens, orchards, and crops, and even help themselves to

66

in

morning and

or around villages, towns, and

company

often

comfortably apart.

troop troops of

call,

poor diet of tough leaves they have a complex

Sacred Animals

the

overlap with those

morning chorus, that keeps groups spaced

of branches

in

may

Boundaries are not enforced. Instead, the males

together

seen

sq. km).

range

of other groups, but will tend to have a core

almost entirely vegetarian. To cope with their

fruit

is

area into which other groups do not wander.

Like

in

travel

mixed troops with the much more aggressive

competition between them.

many

whose

macaques. Because the two types of monkey feed on different things, there

humans

groups can

youngsters, can cover ranges of 2.7 to 8.5

is

n India

ha). In drier regions

as

little

langur troop

species of monkeys, langurs are just as peaceful

I

5 individuals use relatively

ranges, which can be as

not constrained by the presence of slow

dominant male.

own

1

In

struggle,

eye to usurping a

as within their

five to

home

group

abundant, mixed-sex

is

(13 sq. km). All-male groups,

females.

generally calm. Even

groups of

much

quality of the habitat.

where food

consist of

they are old enough to

within a

forests,

small

offer a

Those that survive form

until

Despite the occasional

Such bands watch

who

the group,

potential threat to the

breeding troops with an

will

size of the

Newborn


babies are dark brown,

Soon

gray fur of the adults.

other females in

the

the troop

in

newborn baby and

around, and

contrast to the

in

great interest

will pick

it

up, pass

predators and accidental

common

suckle the infant.

langursâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; but youngsters

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

injury. In

especially the perpetually curious is

electrocution from pylons and

wiring on house roofs. The mother's nursing instinct

is

carry the

to

strong;

encourage

eight

and

it

baby

and

to cling

months babies are

their mother's milk.

fur

a

if

body around with her

becomes

As

a

dies,

less

will

suckle. For the first

totally

dependent on

baby grows,

progressively lighter,

youngster becomes

she

for days, trying

its

dark

and the

dependent on

its

Hanuman

langurs

foraging for food.

Although mainly tree

Growing Up

into their

all

Š

dwelling, the animals

Young females

urban areas

cause of death for

fertile

and ready to mate again.

it

Small babies are extremely vulnerable to

the most

mother. Weaning takes place at about 10 to 12

months, after which the female becomes

after birth the

show

some may even

silver-

can survive

generally stay within the group

which they were born. They often help mothers with younger offspring,

until

areas

where forestation scarce,

they

in

is

moving across the

ground on

all

four feet.

themselves become sexually mature at three or four years old. of time playing

and

fighting.

Young males spend

games such

a great deal

as "king of the

Such games become

trials

hill"

of

strength through which the animals determine their social position.

Males leave their troop at

three to five years of age, usually adult male takes over. six

or seven years, the

look for their

own

When

when

sexually

a

new

mature

young males begin

at

to

females.

67


i.

PRIMATES

Black-and-White

Colobus Monkey

Colobus angolensis

There are five species of black-and-white colobus

x

monkeys, and Colobus angolensis

Common name

(white-

common,

epauleted black colobus monkey, Angola

name

Colobus angolensis

Colobus monkeys are slender creatures that look

Family

Cercopithecidae

much

Order

Primates

is

Size

Length head/body: 20-26 length:

25-35

in

Weight 20-44

in

(50-66 cm);

tail

cheeks and face are also surrounded by long whiskers. The rest of the body

lb

monkey with white

black

shoulders

time up

lives in

One young born

active

in trees;

small family groups

every 20

months

a gestation period of 6 months.

or so after

Weaned

about 4 years, males

Voice

in captivity,

6 years.

at

many fewer

in

May

sometimes makes

a loud

at

at

dawn

silent;

long

The black-and-white patterns appear

conspicuous

books and photographs, but

in

in

the wild the monkeys are extraordinarily easy to

overlook as long as they remain

among

still

and

silent

the treetops.

Variations on Black and White The

five species of

similar.

colobus monkeys look rather

At the same time, they are

different

consists of fruit

its

distinctly

cough

Mostly leaves, but about a third of

Diet

often partially white

and thick-looking, again because of

30

the wild

Loud croaking and roaring chorus

and dusk, otherwise generally

live

tail is

black,

is

at

about 6 months; females sexually mature

years

although the long

hairs. all its

during the day;

Breeding

white hairs around the neck and shoulders. The

(9-20 kg)

cheeks and long, flowing white cape around

Spends almost

illusion

created by their characteristic cape of long

(63-89 cm)

Key features Large

Habits

The

larger than they actually are.

its

diet

from

all

other monkeys.

Basically,

all

colobus monkeys are black and white, although

and seeds the extent of the characteristic white cape and

Habitat

Mountain and lowland

forests

cheeks varies from one species to another. Each Distribution Central African forests; scattered

localities in

species often includes several subspecies, again

Tanzania

differentiated by details of their black-and-white

Status

Fairly

common; IUCN

Vulnerable (some small,

isolated populations); CITES

II.

Apart from

pattern. Nevertheless, the animals have similar

and are

found

habitat loss, the main threat to colobus

lifestyles

monkeys

across tropical Africa.

is

hunting for their

have been popular with

skins,

tourists

which

all

in

a

broad band

Black-and-white colobus monkeys are able to digest old leaves and coarse vegetable material,

and so can

live in

areas with a distinct

dry season. Consequently, unlike the

more

red colobus monkeys, they can be found relatively dry forests

be rather

fussy

in

where the vegetation can

indigestible.

tend to be found only

Red colobus monkeys in rain forests.

The black-

and-white colobus monkey has also managed to colonize

68

SEE ALSO Monkey,

mountain

Proboscis 4:70; Monkey, Brown Howler 4:74

forests in

It

and hunting for skins.

despite habitat loss

colobus monkey) Scientific

a typical one.

of Africa and remains fairly

lives in the tropical forests monkey

Black-and-white coldbus

is

some

areas.


OLD WORLD MONKEYS BLACK-AND-WHITE COLOBUS MONKEY

ll i.

..

They are not

daily activity in the trees.

continuously active during the day and take

frequent

They often

rests.

travel,

but

not

will

venture farther than about a third of a mile

(500 m). They feed mainly on leaves,

which make up about two-thirds of The

their diet.

food

rest of their

and seeds. The

consists of fruit

monkeys chorus again

dusk

at

before settling for the night.

Territorial Truce

Most populations

monkeys

of colobus small

live in relatively

social groups. Normally, there

only one

is

but up to

fully

grown male,

adult females.

six

Such groups use a of up to

20 acres

home

range

(8 ha), part of

which may be guarded as

a

from which others of the

territory

species are excluded. Territory usually

y

who

is

defended by the adult males,

express hostility to intruders

through gestures and exaggerated displays of leaping. Occasionally, territorial

behavior

is

suspended, and several hundred

black-and-white colobus monkeys

Here the animals tend to

and thicker coats than of the

and warmer colobus

is

same

altitudes.

principally

Š

and the

is

up

rain has dried

when

they

make

level.

a daily

wake up around dawn.

First

from the feaves, black-

they climb into prominent trees or high into the

and-white colobus

forest canopy. Each

monkeys begin

their

a loud session of croaking

daily activities,

which

of advertising

take place almost entirely in the trees.

others of

its

its

group then

joins together in

and roaring

as a

way

presence and numbers to

species. At the

same

time, the

animals jump around, shaking branches and flicking their

their long

to

make

tail,

while prominently displaying

white cape. The dominant males tend

the loudest

calls

same

locality,

probably attracted

abundant food.

Females give

birth to a single

young

at

any

time of the year. The newborn baby weighs

The black-and-white

found between 1,200 and

colobus monkeys

Typically,

chorus

the

in

by particularly

species living at lower

3,500 feet (365 and 1,066 m) above sea Once the sun

together

may gather

and the most

exaggerated movements. They then begin their

about 30 ounces (850 its

mother

g)

for at least six

and

will

be suckled by

months. Babies are

often handled by individuals other than their

mother. Colobus monkeys are highly social creatures and very friendly toward each other.

Groups indulge

in

and stroking each All

mutual grooming, combing, other's fur.

colobus species have declined

numbers over the

last

Forest clearance for agriculture

settlement

is

fragmented

in

hundred years or

so.

and human

partly responsible, since

forests

make

it

difficult for

the

animals to travel from place to place. Hunting for skins

is

now

restricted by law.

69


PRIMATES

Proboscis

Monkey The extraordinaiy -looking

monkey

proboscis

mangroves and Borneo. Scientific

name

Nasalis larvatus

Cercopithecidae

Order

Primates

Size

Length head/body: male 24-30

(60-76 cm); female 21-24

22-24

in

15-24

lb

lb

developed

Breeding

(16-25

in

fewer

in

up

to

afternoon to dark;

at

23 years

in captivity,

Habitat

when

Found near forests or

groups of 20 or more

found

in

the mangrove

Its

swamps

which

Islands,

lie

most outstanding

over the large

mouth

in

adult males. The nose

and pendulous, and may reach (8

cm)

in

length.

The noses of

at 7

remain

developed. The purpose of such a

less

large nose

the adult males

in

is

unclear.

It

is

usually

thought that the larger the nose, the more

call is

attractive the

a milder sound, similar to

also

male may be to

fruit

and flowers

also

a female.

It

has

been suggested that the nose could act as

a radiator, helping get rid of

Mainly leaves, but eaten

relatively large species

the young monkeys and the females, however,

any time of year after

that of a goose

Diet

is

It

about 3 inches

Weaned

t.

the protruding nose, which hangs

is

becomes

lives

the wild

honk; female

a

Borneo and the Mentawai

down

Males make a long, drawn-out resonant

Voice

in

feature

months; sexually mature at about 3 years. live

of primate that lives

of

female

kg);

adult males, less

gestation period of 106 days.

May

is

to the west of Sumatra.

in late

young born

The proboscis monkey

individuals.

small social groups

Single

seriously threatened

It is

tail

females

in

Mainly active in

(53-60 cm);

(7-11 kg)

Key features Long, dangling nose

Habits

in

in

(56-60 cm)

Weight Male 35-55

tropical forests of

by h um an en croach m cn

Family

length:

lives in the

body heat that the

large

some

of the excess

monkeys generate.

available fresh

water

in

lowland

rain

Sound

Effects

mangrove swamps

The nose Distribution Borneo and Mentawai Islands

in

the Malay

is

known

resonant "honk"

to help produce the loud,

that male proboscis

monkeys

Archipelago

make. With each vocalization the nose Status

Population: probably fewer than 250,000; inflates

IUCN Vulnerable; CITES is

I.

and

stiffens,

slightly

modifying the sound.

A

Habitat destruction

threatening populations; hunting

is

also

warning

on

call in

the presence of predators

prompts the young to

the increase

retreat to the forests.

Sometimes the sounds are aggressive and made to threaten other

members

of the group.

It

is

possible that the size of the nose causes subtle

changes to the sounds each animal makes, conveying additional information about the

and status of the females can

caller.

make

Juveniles

size

and adult

a shrieking sound,

which

they emit at times of excitement or agitation.

response the adult males pi

70

SEE ALSO Monkey, Black-and-White Colobus

'

may make

a low-

:hed growling to help restore calm.

In


OLD WORLD MONKEYS PROBOSCIS MONKEY

As

grooming

is

an important means of

communication.

bonds between its

When

other primate groups, social

in

It

One monkey

uses

and

five

between one

lasts

At

an infant proboscis monkey has

hair that

Swimmers

Excellent

Apart from the large nose of the males, another interesting feature of proboscis

minutes. birth

to pale orange on the back,

while the underparts are a creamy grayish color.

hands or teeth to groom the coat of another,

and each grooming session

brown

vary from

also helps reinforce social

individuals.

grown, the proboscis monkey can

fully

is

skin

face

its

three

is

deep

blue. By

months the face

have turned

gray,

will

and

the black birth coat will

become

and more

brighter like

of skin

between

monkeys

their fingers.

the

is

It

is

thought to be an adaptation to swimming.

almost black, while the

on

webbing

the

color of an adult.

Indeed, proboscis

monkeys

swimmers, an unusual

The

skill

are excellent

among

the primates.

swim, coupled with short fur that

ability to

dries easily, are probably useful adaptations for

the species, since

normally

it

and swampy lowland

lives in

forests.

mangroves

The monkeys'

trees are often completely surrounded by water for long periods of time, so immersion in the

water

to be a regular occurrence.

likely

is

When

entering the waters around the

coastal regions of Borneo, proboscis

run the

of being preyed

risk

monkeys

on by crocodiles.

The animals therefore prefer to cross narrowest points and

their

numbers. Crossing

one

of any

a

in

try to

rivers at

do so

in

group reduces the

individual being picked out

targeted as prey. Despite their

large risk

and swim,

ability to

the monkeys mostly stay within the trees. They

move

carefully

from branch to branch, grasping

with both their hands and

feet. Occasionally,

they cross wide gaps by making a great leap

from one of the branches, with arms outstretched to grab the next branch. Proboscis

monkeys

are strictly vegetarian.

Their diet consists mainly of leaves, although

they

will

eat

fruit,

seeds,

and flowers when they

are available, as well as the young, soft shoots of the mangroves. Unfortunately for the

proboscis monkey, is

Š

The pendulous nose

its

mangrove swamp

shrinking. Trees have

human

use,

been cut down

and many wet lowland areas have

grow

of the male proboscis

been drained

monkey

forest that used to be inaccessible to

is

used

in

the

loud, resonant "honking"

sound

it

makes

to

warn

now opened

habitat

for

in

order to

up, exposing the

hunting. Proboscis

crops.

Swampy humans

monkeys

is

to

monkey populations

other proboscis monkeys

continue to be broken into smaller groups that

of predators.

may

not be viable

in

the long term.

71


New World Monkey

The

Family New World monkeys

ogether with the tamarins and marmosets, the

T

New World monkeys nonhuman

primates found

successful group, cebids

and subtropical

(family Cebidae) are the only in

the Americas.

A

nose

However, as

America from the Amazon Basin to Paraguay, northern Argentina, and southern

Most are

Brazil.

species that only occasionally

come

One

tree-living

to the ground.

Saimiri ndudes

(S.

WOOLLY MONKEYS

squirrel

monkey

UAKARIS

(L

contrast,

Cacajao red uakari

lagotricha)', yellow-tailed

MONKEYS

1

calvus ); black uakari

(C.

melanocephalus)

(C.

monkey

prehensile.

southern night

(A.

{A. palliata)',

1

red howler

(A.

long-haired

in

monkeys the

In

capuchins is

it

(A. seniculus)

used as a

irrorata),

has no fur on the

flexible

tail is

fully

the trees and

move hand-over-hand from branch

to

monk

(C.

Many

capucinus)

of the differences

differences saki

in their

sockets.

(P.

In

contrast,

air.

weeper capuchin

monachus); bald-faced

saki

in

between the species

their diets. Spider

monkeys

energetic, with sharp, narrow teeth.

reflect

are small

They eat

and

rich,

buffy saki (P albicans)', Guianan saki (P pithecia) saki (C. satanas );

white-nosed

AND MURIQUI MONKEYS

and

leaves.

2 genera, 14 species

personatus ); dusky

titi

(C.

titi

(C.

insects.

Howler monkeys,

saki

on the other hand, are large and

Callicebus 13 species, including yellow-handed

torquatus):

masked

specialize

Although leaves are widely

particularly nutritious.

in

eating

available, they are not

Howler monkeys therefore need

moloch) big, grinding teeth

and

a long, modified intestine

in

species, muriqui (B arachnoides)

which the leaves can be broken down by are easy to find but not rich

monkeys 72

but not

stabilizer.

legs for launching themselves into the

(C. ape//a);

(C. albinasus)

1

tail

have two ways of moving.

digestible food, mainly fruit

Brachyteles

In

"leapers," such as squirrel monkeys, have long, powerful

2 genera, 7 species

(C.

it

not flexible or strong enough

is

that allow the arms to swivel

fusca ); mantled howler

monkey

white-faced capuchin

Chiroptes 2 species, bearded

titi

since

"Swingers" or brachiators, such as spider monkeys, hang (A. geoffroyi)',

genus, 4 species

Pithecia 5 species, including

TITI

hang from,

to

genus, 6 species

(C. olivaceus):

P

enough

belzebuth)

Zebus ndudes brown capuchin

MONKEYS

tail,

branch. They have long arms and flexible shoulder joints 1

CAPUCHIN MONKEYS

SAKI

a fully prehensile

monkey

genus, 6 species

Alouatta includes brown howler monkey

monkey

Spider,

sensitive to touch, just like the tips of

is

New World monkeys

monkey

HOWLER MONKEYS

tail.

objects, such as branches, to

The end of the

for grasping, but

(A. trivirgatus)',

Ateles ncludes black-handed spider monkey spider

also strong

fingers. In squirrel

(A. nigriceps)

SPIDER

their long, flexible

none of the Old World monkeys can hang by

underside and

genus, 2 species

1

is

woolly

flavicauda)

orthern night

is

their tails alone. (L.

genus, 2 species

1

NIGHT MONKEYS Aotus

.

New World monkeys

can support the whole of the monkey's weight.

sciureus)', Bolivian squirrel

genus, 2 species

Lagothrix Humboldt's woolly monkey

monkey

(S.

boliviensis)

1

species have color vision.

genus, 4 species

1

common

monkey

Some

and howler monkeys have

It

many

Unlike

grip against the fingers.

of the key features of

them.

nostrils.

other primates, their big toes can be used

which can be curled around grip

MONKEYS

SQUIRREL

thumbs cannot

(except the uakaris)

genera, 47 species

1 1

in

for gripping.

woolly,

Family Cebidae:

their

species have

around the head. The

broad with widely separated

monkeys,

and southern

forests of Mexico, Central,

is

Many

in color.

distinctive patterns, particularly

the evergreen temperate

live in

vary

SEE ALSO Old World Monkey

Family,

The 4:4

;

are fairly docile

jnd Tamarin Family, The 4:86

in

bacteria. Leaves

energy, so howler

and spend

a lot of time resting.


1

@

The unmistakable

white facial mask of the

male Guianan

saki.

As

in

many other New World monkeys, Guianan sakis

monogamous

live in

pairs

or small family groups.

ÂŽ A northern night monkey. The night

monkey

nocturnal species.

eyes

it

the only truly

is

monkey

With

its

enlarged

has excellent

night vision.

and eagles are common, so numerous

Social Structure All

to

some

extent, but the

New World monkeys way

different for each species. titi

monkeys,

pair

and

live in

their

also squirrel

their

Many

groups are arranged

monkeys,

offspring. Larger

live in

types. There are "harems,"

and female

monkeys, and

bigger groups of

made up

of

two main

one male and up

to three females. There are also groups with

and females and

is

smaller species, such as

family groups of a male

immature

are sociable

many males

a definite rank order. Attacks by

hawks

useful to

watch

fruit tree

more

for danger.

effectively,

A

group can also defend a

and finding food

Brown capuchin monkeys send scouts

A

piercing whistle alerts the other

when

a supply

About

is

a third of

Basin

many

are shot for food

is

easier.

to search for food.

members

of the group

discovered.

New World monkeys

Destruction of rain-forest areas

Amazon

pairs of eyes are

is

a

major problem.

species of woolly

and

in

are threatened. In

the

and spider monkey

danger of being wiped out.

73


â&#x20AC;˘m PRIMATES

Brown Howler Monkey Famous for

enormously loud noise

the

brown howler monkey It

Common name Scientific

5

name

Brown howler monkeys

Alouatta fusca

of a

dozen or so

two

or three adult males, a

Cebidae

Order

Primates

Size

Length head/body: 18-23

(Hi

Jl

Brown howler monkey

Family

tail

20-26

length:

Weight 9-16

lb

Key features Chubby,

in

in

As the sun

thickset

monkey, with swollen

below

Tree dwelling; lives

small groups; active

in

after gestation

Weaned

at

years,

May

males take longer. in captivity,

1

5

in

live

their characteristic howling.

The noises they

and are

at

made

to

Mainly leaves, but also

Habitat

Tropical forests

especially

Population:

about the

South America. Such special

It

Brazil

II.

Threatened by destruction and fragmentation

past a

bony

the throat of the adult males.

in

size of a golf ball

is

not entirely clear a noise, but

and accounts

It

for

of telling each group

why howler monkeys

it

is

to feed

in

the

same

of howling helps

probably a means

where the others

all

It

is

trying

and the dawn chorus

place,

them

are.

many monkeys

important not to have too

unknown, probably low

air

adult males.

in

make such

thousands; IUCN Vulnerable; CITES

km) through the

the characteristic swollen appearance of the

fruit

Distribution Coastal forests of southeastern

.6

(1

The sounds

a characteristic feature of the

tropical

in

"voice box"

throat

Diet

spine-chilling roars.

noises are created by forcing

the wild

by males

Status

jungle

strike

include hoarse coughs or low

carry for over a mile

is

Very loud howling and roars

up

males

about

10-12 months; females sexually mature

about 20 years

and before the animals begin

rises,

moans, but also

young born each year

period of about 189 days.

Voice

few females, and

their daily routine, the adult

forests

3-4

small social groups

live in

individuals. Often, there are

make sometimes

adult males; coat dark

in

reddish brown, paler

Single

of Brazil.

Dawn Chorus

mainly during daylight hours

Breeding

also a specialized leaf eater.

(45-58 cm);

(50-66 cm). Male

(4-7 kg)

throat region

Habits

makes, the

younger animals of various ages.

generally larger than female

^

lives in the forests

is

it

Alouatta fusca

keep out of each

of forest habitat

other's way.

It

also helps save energy, since the

monkeys do not have

to chase around looking

for intruders or patrol their

scent marks.

meet, there

range to leave

groups of howler monkeys do

If

is

home

generally a

lot

of noisy

squabbling, charging around, and outright aggression. Such encounters waste energy and are easily avoided by sending out noisy signals.

The noises might

monkeys

attract predators, but the

are relatively safe

in

the treetops.

Howler monkeys are active during the day

and move slowly among the

74

SEE ALSO Monkey, Black-and-White Colobus

4: 68,

tree branches to

Koala 10:92

A


NEW WORLD MONKEYS BROWN HOWLER MONKEY

feed on leaves. They rarely

come

Even during the day more than time

is

spent resting. Conserving energy

important because leaves are

and not

Š A brown howler monkey

feeds on fruit

in

eastern Brazil.

A dawn

difficult to digest

in

their

in

mammals, howler monkeys

leaves. Instead, they

gut that can break

monkeys

are

They

will also select ripe fruits

whenever they

down

the material.

food using a process that

There are also

each other's presence, so

formation of compost. Colobus monkeys

become overcrowded.

which have

similar to the in

a similar lifestyle, digest

leaves using microbes

in

their

multichambered

stomach. The stomach of a

howler monkey like

and flowers

are to hand.

Land of Plenty

warn the monkeys of

Africa,

what they

have microbes

The

do not

howler

a result,

are highly selective about

The monkeys are therefore able to digest the

that feeding areas

not very

is

choosing only the most nutritious leaves.

chorus of howls helps

is

As

enlarged

in

sections of the intestine. The process

eat,

unable to digest cellulose, the main chemical material

and microbial digestion takes place

efficient at the best of times.

is

particularly nutritious.

Like other

the Caratinga Reserve,

to the ground.

half of their

is

more

our own, with a single chamber,

have leaves

tropical forests

many

year round.

all

different tree species within

quite small areas, offering a variety of leaves to eat.

Consequently,

monkeys

in

possible for howler

is

to feed without traveling very

a

far.

howler monkeys can find

single troop of

need

it

home range

of about 70 to

all

A they

80 acres

(30 ha), and they only need

move about

quarter of a mile (400 m)

the course of the

in

day. In contrast, the fruit-eating spider

sometimes have to

travel at least

a

monkeys

10 times as far

to find their food, since ripe fruits are only thinly distributed across the forests.

Howler monkeys are having rather short prehensile

tail,

They have

legs.

which

is

agile animals despite

a long

naked on the underside

and capable of an immensely strong

grip:

animal can leap from a tree and arrest

grabbing a branch with just

The

its fall

by

its tail.

There seems to be no distinct breeding season, and young howler

born at any time of baby, births.

and generally

There

is

at least a year

only a single

between

The newborn monkey weighs about 12

ounces (340 fur

year.

monkeys can be

and

g).

year weaning

monkey

It

later rides

is

is

holds tightly to

its

mother's

on her back. After about

a

complete, and the young

able to feed

itself.

Like other slow-

breeding mammals, howlers compensate by living to a ripe old

age. The average

life

span

probably about 15 years, although they can

much

longer

is

live

in captivity.

Howler monkeys are threatened by destruction and fragmentation of their forest habitat.

At

least

two

isolated local subspecies

are considered to be at

risk,

numbering only about 200

with populations individuals.

75


PRIMATES

Black-Handed Spider A? f U

Monkey Spider monkeys

Common name handed spider

Black-

monkey

name

that use their

Ateles geoffroyi

Family

Cebidae

Order

Primates Prima

1

Length head/body: 13-20 tail

length:

in

monkeys get

lb

lb

a small body, are

a spider. Unlike the Old

many with black hands and

tail,

leading

mask

of

prehensile.

mouth

swings through trees

using hands, feet, and

tail;

of those living

in

monkeys can hang by

it

Lives in small groups;

reminiscent of

World monkeys and

@ Spider monkeys

South America, spider

brown,

feet; long, slender

face often has a

pale skin around the eyes and

Habits

and

somewhat

(7-9 kg);

(6-9 kg)

Short, thin fur of various shades of

tail;

hang from

(60-82 cm)

in

Weight Male 16-20

limbs and long

to

name from the fact that

their

their extraordinarily long limbs

24-32

female 13-20

Key features

tree-dwelling creatures

hands, and feet

tails,

(34-52 cm);

from

Jl

image of a

the branches to pluck fruit from the treetops.

Spider

Size

agile,

to the classic

(Central

American spider monkey) Scientific

up

live

monkey. They are

Ateles geoffroyi

looks

their

The underside

tail.

is

It

long and

normally grip the

fur. In fact,

branches with at least

is

bare of

the palm of a hand, being covered

like

with sensitive, creased

skin.

two

feet as well as the

tail,

which they use as a

day

active by

fifth limb.

Breeding

young born every 2 or 3 years

Single

at

any

Getting Around

One or more

of the hands

is

then

left

time of year after gestation period of 225 days.

Weaned

about

5 years.

captivity,

Voice

at

1

May

year; sexually live

more than 20

mature

up to 48 years in

at

in

the wild

and

most monkeys, they

rapidly

Diet

Mainly

Habitat

High tree canopy; rarely on the ground

leaves; also tree bark

Distribution Central America from Mexico to Panama Population:

fairly

through the

local

subspecies). Vulnerable (3 local subspecies); I.

Still

fairly

trees.

will also travel

They hang below the

rather like the gibbons of Southeast Asia. Fruit

forms more than three-quarters of although they

will also

eat flowers,

abundant, probably many

thousands; IUCN Endangered (4

CITES

free to pick the fruit

branches and swing from one to the next,

their food,

Status

monkeys move around by

walking along the tops of branches. However, unlike

Barks and screams fruit

Typically, spider

common

in

some

places

nuts,

and occasionally

Sometimes they eat nibble at bark

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

insects or birds' eggs.

and occasionally

leaves

a strange habit, since bark

difficult to digest

and not

particularly nutritious.

Black-handed spider monkeys prefer

mature

forests,

where the

is

tall,

trees offer a

continuous canopy of widely spreading limbs.

They do not

thrive in areas

been fragmented

where the

into small patches.

of tree removal, the species

some

places

where

it

is

forest has

As

a result

already extinct

in

used to occur. Local

subspecies have developed

in

some

areas, but

they are confined to small patches of forest due to clearance of trees for timber

76

SEE ALSO Gibbon

Family,

and

agriculture.

The 4:36; Monkey, Brown Howler 4:74; Monkey, Humboldt's Woolly 4:82

which they feed.

on


a

in

mango

tree

full

of ripe

example, larger

fruits, for

numbers sometimes

gather.

Catnapping Black-handed spider monkeys are generally active tree canopy.

day

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

resting.

They are

now

They

survive

small

in critically

in

active during the

the morning and late

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; but spend much

of the time

They often sprawl along

arms and

human

the highest part of the

They are only

especially early

afternoon

their

in

legs dangling

difficult

to see; but

a branch with

down each if

disturbed by a

branch, stamping their feet and shaking the vegetation.

Sometimes they break

off small

branches and throw them, growling

monkeys

menacing fashion.

are

sometimes

numerous, but

fairly

prone to yellow

fever, a disease

may

also be

transmitted

by mosquitoes. Spider

monkeys is

live in

Central America,

usually

warm and

tropical forest that

moist.

grows there

supports a huge variety of trees, so at least

some year.

will

be producing

fruit at

The monkeys normally

about 20, although they

all

live in

split

up

times of the

groups of

into smaller

foraging parties to avoid competing with each

other for food.

Spider

monkeys do not

usually range over

in

travel far

a

and

no more than about

1

square mile (1.6 sq. km). Females, especially

where the climate The type of

on the

or a predator, they will stand

numbers. Elsewhere, black-handed spider

they are often shot for food. They

side.

Where

there

is

plenty to eat, as

those with young,

will restrict their activity

to a

small core area. Males help each other defend their

group Spider

territory

monkey numbers do not

rapidly since they

time, with at least births. Like

from strangers. increase

produce only one young at a

two

or three years

between

other slow-breeding mammals,

black-handed spider monkeys compensate for producing few young by

living a

long time.

77


PRIMATES

Squirrel

Monkey

Saimiri

sciureus

The small, greenish squirrel

monkey has been widely

collected

for the pet trade, but remains fairly

common tropical monkey (common Scientific

name

squirrel

over a large part of

South America.

monkey) There are four or

Saimi; sciureus

five species

of squirrel monkeys,

each occupying a different region of South and

Family

Cebidae

Order

Primates

Central America. The is

Length head/body: 11-14.5 tail

length: 14.5â&#x20AC;&#x201D;18

in

(28-37 cm);

in

tropical forest.

It

southern g)

of the

monkey with

Small olive-green

orange hands and white around the

and westward

Brazil

Andes mountains

squirrel

monkeys have

brightly colored,

of Active by day

Breeding

Single

in

huge area of

a

ranges from Venezuela to

in

into the foothills

Colombia.

short,

All

dense fur that

is

face;

muzzle black Habits

monkey

squirrel

(37-45 cm)

Weight 19-44 oz (550-1,250 Key features

common

found almost throughout

groups of 30-40 animals

contrast to the drab browns

in

most monkeys. They appear greenish; with

a

white face and neatly contrasting black muzzle. young born once

period of 170 days.

a year after gestation

Weaned

at

about

The underside 1

females sexually mature at 3 years, males at 5 years.

May

live

up to 30 years

probably fewer

in

is

yellow,

and the

feet are

year;

in captivity,

orange. Squirrel monkeys are not only attractive in

appearance, they are also cute

in

their

the wild

behavior. They are active, sociable creatures,

Voice

Variety of squeaks, chirps,

Diet

Mainly

Habitat

Forests, including

6,500

fruit

ft

and

and purring noises

insects

communicate using

mangroves from sea

level to

almost as

if

a

wide range of sounds,

they were having a conversation.

(2,000 m)

The Perfect Pet

Distribution Tropical South America

Status

constantly interacting with each other. They

Population: abundant; CITES

II.

Common

animal. Large numbers previously captured for the pet trade,

now

protected

in

and no longer threatened by such

The

squirrel

monkey's endearing features,

coupled with a conveniently small

size,

made

it

the wild

extremely popular

in

zoos and as

a

household

activities

pet.

The animals are easy to keep

where they may result of their

live

up to 30

for

in captivity,

years.

numbers were captured and exported pet trade.

It

is

As

a

appealing characteristics, large for the

estimated that more than

173,000 were imported

into the United States

alone between 1968 and 1972. About half

went

into

while the Trade

in

zoos or became household rest

were used

squirrel

for medical research.

monkeys, and the consequent

pressure on wild populations, has

brought under control.

78

SEE ALSO

Uakari, Red 4:80;

Monkey, Humboldt's Woolly 4:82

pets,

In

now been

the wild the squirrel


NEW WORLD MONKEYS

MONKEY

SQUIRREL

Š A common

squirrel

monkey

the forests of Ecuador. Fruit are

its

preferred food, but

it

feeds in

and

insects

will also eat

other animal material, flowers, and nuts.

groups may subdivide into small foraging parties during the day,

but gather together again from

time to time. During their daytime activities

they often stop and take

before continuing to forage.

a rest

monkeys

Squirrel

mostly

in

are active

the trees, but they

occasionally

come

will

to the ground. Each

group ranges through about 40 to 50 acres (16 to

20

Within the group's

ha).

communal home range

a small core area will

be used by that group alone, although the

may be shared with

outer regions

monkeys.

250

good

In

monkeys

squirrel

other squirrel

habitat there can be over living in

square mile of

1

forest (100 per sq. km).

Repertoire of Calls The animals keep

monkey now has little

It

is

monkeys. They squeak, squawk, and

too small to

be much use for food, has no value, and

its

its

skin

habitat remains largely intact.

make

that in

fragmented habitats and also among the

replace natural forests. However, the continued

at

occur

results in conversion of large areas of

forest to grassland, threatens squirrel just as

it

monkeys

does every other tree-dwelling animal.

Common

squirrel

monkeys

live in

humid

may scream with

of keeping

means

any time of the

ride

is

of the

also a substitute for

is

monkeys seem

to breed

although births often

3 to

squirrel

4 ounces (100

cling to their mother's fur for a

weeks, then

It

of communication.

year,

monkey weighs about

not

It

members

one season. Each newborn

The babies

to

touch for an animal

in

foliage, with

the wild squirrel

in

seem

different recognizable calls.

dense

using scent as a In

South America,

20

way

lives in

expansion of cattle rearing

which

least

group widely scattered.

planted trees that often

in

barking noises and

They

purr.

pain during fighting. Altogether, they

a helpful

other species, are able to survive

new growth and

also

have at

forest

Moreover, squirrel monkeys, unlike

many

touch with each other

using a wider range of vocalizations than other

to fear from

humans.

in

g).

few

on her back. However, they do

become independent

until

they are about a

lowland forests, where they form larger social

year old. Although the adult males fight fiercely

groups than any other species of South

to

American monkey. Groups of up to 300 have been reported, although find

between 30 and 50

it

is

more normal

living

to

together. Larger

mate with the females, they

raising the

play

young. Indeed, males

away by the mothers, who their offspring

no part

may be

in

driven

prefer to look after

without help.

79


r PRIMATES

Red Uakari

Cacajao calvus

The bald, blushing face of the red uakari it

Common name

highly distinctive and sets

is

mammals of the

apart from other

South American jungles.

Red uakari

(bald uakari, uakari)

Scientific

name

Although

Cacajao calvus

Family

Cebidae

Order

Primates

it is

is

Length head/body: 21-22

in

(54-57 cm);

*

in

more

rather

specific in

found mostly

its

It

the trees that fringe small

in

tail

rivers

length: 5. 5-7.3

is

most South American primates.

habitat than

Size

found over a wide geographical

area, the red uakari

and lakes deep

the forest.

in

is

It

(14-18.5 cm) particularly associated with the so-called "black-

Weight Male

7.6

lb (3.4 kg);

female 6.4

(2.9 kg)

lb

water"

Key features Small monkey with long, coarse, palebrown fur and bare, red face; tail very short

rivers

whose water resembles

without milk owing to the large amounts of natural peaty plant chemicals

Habits

the water.

in

Tree dwelling, but often descends to the

ground;

lives in social

15-30 animals; Breeding

tea

groups numbering

active by

One young born

Avoiding the Floods

day

every 2 years or so after

gestation period of about 6 months. at

20 months; females

years, males at 5 years.

years

in captivity,

10

in

sexually

May

Weaned

mature

live

at 3

Red uakaris

the tops of the largest trees

live in

and tend to stay there,

wet season when the

particularly during the

forest floor

is

flooded.

In

over 30

many

the wild

upper Amazon flood waters

parts of the

cover the forest floor to a depth of 6.5 feet Voice

Generally

Diet

Mostly seeds, but also flowers,

silent,

except during noisy fights

(often 2

and

m

or more) for several

year.

The flooded

forests are the

insects

the red uakari. The Habitat

weeks

Wet lowland

common

main home of

species

found

is

forests

from Colombia and Peru Distribution Upper

of the

fruit, leaves,

Amazon

into eastern Peru

into Brazil.

A

second

and species, the black-headed uakari, lives in

southern Colombia

Venezuela and adjacent parts of northern Status

Population:

thousands; IUCN Endangered subspecies); Vulnerable

CITES

I.

Brazil.

unknown, probably many

Fairly

(1

The red uakari

(3 local

subspecies);

common, but threatened by

monkey with

is

a short

blushing. Otherwise,

the only South American tail.

it

is

It

has a red face, as

if

rather expressionless.

hunting and forest clearance; certain In

subspecies are rare

white

captivity the face tends to bleach to a

or yellowish color.

and

The red

large, fleshy ears are

human, but there especially

in

is little

head

uakari's bald

almost fat

like

those of a

under the

skin,

adult males. As a result, the

angular parts of the

muscles tend to

skull

and bulging jaw

show through, making

the face

look rather corpselike. Uakaris from different parts of the species' range differ

coloration

and are often

subspecies.

80

SEE ALSO

Dolphin,

Amazon

One

is

in their

general

classified as different

nearly white, while others are

3:60, Monkey, Black-Handed Spider 4:76


NEW WORLD MONKEYS

RED UAKARI

u-t

but do not use the

way we treetops

in

do. They

thumb

move around

small groups of

the

in

the

up to 30

animals. However, larger groupings have been

reported containing as captivity uakaris will

dominance.

m

occurs

in

It

is

many

as 100 animals.

In

squabble to establish

likely

that a similar process

the wild, creating a social hierarchy

within the group.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

m

Females are able to breed at about three years old and can continue to produce until

mother nurses her baby and

young

they are at least 10 years of age. The for nearly

two

not have another offspring

will

nursing period

is

over. Like

many

years

other

primates, the slow rate of reproduction yellowish. typical

w-

form has shaggy,

captivity.

feet (6

or more), but

to spring from branch to

their

arms or

A white

uakari

through the lower

part of the

all

tail.

Instead,

fours along the

thick branches of the lower canopy, returning

to the topmost branches to feed.

offset

in

However, populations are unable to

hunting or accidents. of uakari have

and are

now

some

In

Some

localized subspecies

been reduced to low numbers

threatened with extinction. areas uakaris have

hands of the pet trade.

become

scarce

Traditionally,

the

animals were shot with a blowgun dart tipped

Foraging

white form

Uakaris are normally active during the day. They

be caught

considered to be a

feed mostly on

revived

separate subspecies.

forward-pointing lower incisor teeth. Saki

sometimes

is

to be at

said to have lived at least 31 years

is

rainforest kanopy. The is

live

respond rapidly to compensate for losses due to

at the

Amazonian

long time. Uakaris can

10 years old, perhaps considerably more,

least

m

20

they run and scamper on

travels

living a

and one

branch as much as other monkeys do. Nor

do they swing by

by

rusty red fur. Uakaris can

leap

seem not

Another

the

until

in

the Treetops

monkeys, close

fruit,

lot

of seeds

probably assisted by their

relatives of uakaris, share

same arrangement

with a dilute dose of poison. The uakari would

heavy the

of teeth. Uakaris also eat a

and sometimes leaves and small

when

later.

toll in

it

fell

from the branches and

Excessive hunting has also taken a

some

areas, while forest clearance

to supply the timber industry

Removing the

is

another threat.

trees not only takes

away

habitat

and food sources, but creates large open spaces

animals, including insects. They have extremely

between the remaining populations. As

supple and sensitive hands. They grip their food

groups are prevented from mixing

with the whole hand or between the fingers,

run the

risk

freely

a result,

and so

of inbreeding.

81


PRIMATES

Humboldt's Woolly Common name

Monkey

Humboldt's woolly

Lagothrix lagotricha

monkey (common woolly monkey)

Humboldt's woolly monkey Scientific

name

Cebidae

Order

Primates

Size

Length head/body:

of colors from smoky gray

to black.

(46-65 cm)

in

21-30.5

length:

in

(53-77 cm)

Male 8-22 (3.6-10

canopy of undisturbed

rain forests. Its dense, woolly fur can be a

18-25.5

Weight

a large, stocky animal

that forages for fruit high in the

Family

tail

is

Lagothrix lagotricha

lb

kg);

The Humboldt's or

common woolly monkey

one of the

largest

monkeys

Despite

relatively

its

heavy

is

in

South America.

build,

it

agile in the

is

female trees, using

7.5-14.5

its

prehensile

The

as a fifth limb

tail

lb tail

has a bare patch on the underside at the

Key

tip,

with a ridged texture that

features

and gives

(3.4-6. 5 kg)

and

Fur dense

a

good

The

grip.

is

highly sensitive

the

rest of

tail is

strong and muscular, and can easily support the

moderately long; body gray to olive-brown or dark brown; the rounded head

Habits

Diurnal; prefers to stay high

canopy;

Breeding

lives in

gestation period of

May

live

tail

223

sexually

24 years

1

hands and feet are also good fingers

tree

in

mixed-sex groups of 20-70

Single baby born every

9-12 months;

up

monkey's hanging weight. The woolly monkey's

often

is

darker, almost black; strong prehensile

at grasping:

and toes are well developed, and each

has a long, pointed

nail.

.5-3 years after days.

mature

in captivity,

Weaned at

10

6-8 in

Woolly by Name

at

years.

the wild

The woolly monkey's thick coat with dense underfur gives the species

Voice

Range of

Diet

Fruit; also

yelps, screams, chuckles,

Habitat

and other vegetable material

Mature, undisturbed rain forest from sea to 9,850

ft

its

its

lining of

name.

Its

and barks coat sets

leaves

Its

level

whom

it

many

apart from

the fur

is

other monkeys, on

often quite sparse. The woolly

monkey's color varies from smoky or blue-gray,

(3,000 m)

olive-brown, tawny, dark brown, or even black. Distribution

Bolivia, Brazil,

Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and

Some

individuals

may be

a yellowish buff color.

Venezuela

Woolly monkeys are mainly Status

Population: probably Critically

Endangered

Vulnerable

fruit eaters,

many thousands; IUCN (1

preferring soft, ripe fruit such as figs. They can

subspecies);

(2 subspecies);

CITES

abundant, not considered to be

II.

Relatively

at risk

away from the

excrete the seeds a long distance

parent tree and so are an important agent

seed

dispersal.

When

woolly monkeys leaves.

will

They also eat

ripe fruit

not

is

insects such as ants

catching sparrows that

fly

into their cage.

SEE ALSO Monkey, Brown Howler

the jungle

the tops of the emergent trees

the forest. They

grow out above the

also

sometimes descend to the shrub

to

82

in

that

feed.

In

rest of

the wild they rarely need to

ground

level;

and

been seen

Woolly monkeys forage high in

in

season,

feed on seeds, flowers, and

termites. In captivity they have

canopy, often

in

while

in captivity,

4:74; Monkey, Black-Handed Spider 4:76

layer to

come down

they walk

wide range


NEW WORLD MONKEYS

Š A mother with her young.

When

females

reach sexual maturity,

HUMBOLDT'S WOOLLY MONKEY

on the ground, often on two

easily

They

legs.

move

are reluctant leapers, preferring instead to

around gaps

the canopy.

in

they usually leave the group in

which they were born, while

males tend to stay.

Groups

Flexible Social Woolly monkeys

loose social groups of

live in

20 to 70 animals (30 to 40

is

most common).

Within the group there are roughly equal

numbers form

of males

a hierarchy

and females. Although males

based on age and strength,

the top-ranking males do not

mating rights with

command

sole

their females. In a large

group a receptive female usually mates many times with several males

the group, but most

in

often with the lead male.

In

a smaller group,

without the distraction of other females the lead male

may monopolize

a receptive

female

and prevent other males from mating with

Group membership sometimes leaving to

is

flexible,

her.

with animals

join other groups.

Subadult females are the most

common

wanderers and may spend hours or days with other groups. Groups of woolly monkeys often consort with other

will

species, such

monkeys. The other

as howlers or capuchin

species

monkey

do not compete

same

for the

food, and

grouping together means there are more pairs of eyes to

watch

for predators.

Each group of woolly monkeys has a

range of about

10

sq. km).

1

.5

to

4 square miles

home

(4 to

The boundaries are not enforced,

and the ranges

usually overlap with those of

may sometimes

other groups. However, a group

temporarily defend areas such as favorite fruiting trees. Animals, particularly the males,

leave scent marks by wetting a surface with saliva,

then rubbing their chest on

it.

Woolly monkeys are vulnerable to human

encroachment, since they cannot adapt to secondary forests that replace mature forests

when

they are

monkeys

felled. In addition,

are often sold as pets;

that for every baby that alive,

10

will

monkeys large size

be

makes

it

it

young woolly is

estimated

to market

killed or die in transit.

Woolly

are also hunted for food, since their

makes them

profitable targets.

83


PRIMATES

Northern Night

Monkey

Aotus

trivirgatus

Night monkeys are the only truly nocturnal monkey.

They sleep during the day and forage for fruit Common name

Northern

monkey

Northern night monkeys are diminutive creatures.

(owl

They are the smallest members of the South

monkey, douroucouli) Scientific

name Aotus

Family

Cebidae

Order

Primates

American monkey family (Cebidae) and the

trivirgatus

world's only nocturnal monkey. Their large,

brown eyes

set

in

white face give them an

a

owlish appearance, hence their alternative Length head/body: 12-16.5

J Size

tail

10-17

length:

in

(30-42 cm);

in

common name

(25-43 cm)

way Weight

1

.8-2.8

(0.8-1

lb

.3

of

life

of owl monkey. Their unusual

them avoid predators and

helps

kg)

competition. As a

Key features limbs,

Grizzled

brown

or gray

on back,

monkey

the northern night

highly successful. This species

and

its

and back of head; underside buffclose relatives

white; head has triangular white patches

above large

and

is

result,

between

eyes; 3 black stripes run

either side of eyes, converging

now

throughout most of

live

South America.

tropical

on top of

head

Night Vision Habits

Nocturnal; arboreal: mainly forest canopy; lives

in

top half of

Night monkeys begin

family groups of 2-5

in

and

in

tree hollow or tangle of climbing vines

at

Usually only a single offspring born at any

time of year after gestation period of

120-133 sexually

years

Weaned

days.

mature

at

at 3 years.

in captivity,

10-1 5

in

dawn. Their

6-8 months;

May

live

about 27

Wide

variety of calls, including

hoots, grunts,

clicks,

Small

and

fruit;

shrill rries,

travel shorter distances

also leaves, nectar, plant

insects; for extra protein

eggs and small

ft

(3,200 m)

Status

Brazil,

active at

Population: probably low thousands; CITES fairly

is

due

pads at the II

abundant

many

confidently through the

thin vines. Their

partly to their small size. Also, their

and narrow, with expanded provide extra grip. Unlike

tips to

tail is

not prehensile, so the it

to hang by or to grip

branches. Instead, the like

tail is

used for balancing,

that of a squirrel. Night

have thick fur that

is

denser than

South American monkeys.

Its

monkeys in

Night monkeys venture out

is

2:36; Ocelot 2:44; Monkey,

to

chills.

when

all

monkeys and most predators have gone

SEE ALSO Jaguar

also

most other

purpose

protect the animal against nighttime

roost.

in

other South American monkeys, the long,

black-tipped

mere

of 10 to 16 feet

m) and balancing along

animals cannot use

84

light

bright, moonlit nights,

move

fingers are long

Venezuela, and Peru

Widespread and

and are most

making daring leaps

(3 to 5 agility

Distribution Tropical Central and South America:

Panama,

On

dusk.

however, they trees,

Primary and secondary forests from sea level to 10,500

some

or cloudy nights they

gums,

animals, such as lizards and frogs

Habitat

On moonless

and squeaks

dawn and Diet

large eyes provide excellent night

but the animals always need

vision,

a

the wild

to see by.

Voice

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

retreat to a safe place

after sunset

Breeding

about 15 minutes

activity

other to

Being nocturnal, they can hide from birds

Brown Howler 4:74

at night.


NEW WORLD MONKEYS

—the most serious predators

of prey

of small

monkeys, but which are only active by

day.

tapetum lucidum present

ocelots, but they are too big

catch night

monkeys

©

Night monkeys tend

to travel quietly

and

tree for hours at a time.

in

the trees. The night

would chase them away from

who

fruit trees.

Evidence suggests that night monkeys evolved from day-active monkeys, since they still

two

light-reflective layer

most nocturnal animals.

in

live in

to five individuals

close family units of

—an adult

young of up to three years

and

pair

their

old.

also avoid competition with the larger

daytime monkeys, such as capuchins,

relatively slowly, often

staying in a single fruit

monkeys

and heavy to

—the

Night monkeys

There are nocturnal predators, such as jaguars

and

NORTHERN NIGHT MONKEY

have color vision (which

nighttime). Also, their eyes

is

not needed at

do not have

a

Demanding Babies Adults pair for

baby

a year.

and produce on average one

life

Mating and

births

time of year, but births peak

at birth

in

The one baby

ripening season.

and grows

quickly.

can occur at any the is

fruit-

relatively large

takes the

It

concerted effort of both parents to nurture For the

first

months the father

four

most

cares for the baby for

returning

carries

it.

and

of the time,

to the mother every two or

it

three hours for suckling. Older siblings also take a turn

in

childcare duties. At

about three years young night monkeys leave their family group to search for their

own

partner and

territory.

Each family group guards a territory of

#

about 22 acres

(9 ha).

The boundaries are

defended against other monkeys with

aggressive displays of whooping, stiff-legged

jumping, and chases. Such displays can end wrestling matches, but usually

last less

in

than

10 minutes, with the trespasser retreating. Night monkeys communicate by using

sound and

when

smell. Individuals sniff

each other

they meet. They urinate on their hands,

then rub them on a branch to communicate sexual attraction. Unlike social

grooming

mating.

When

is

threatened, night

sound the alarm with is

most other monkeys,

and only used during

rare

a

monkeys

"wook wook." The

amplified by a throat pouch

like a

cry

smaller

version of the howler monkey's.

Northern night monkeys are tolerant of disturbance and often

can survive there are

when

in

many

some

live

near humans. They

habitat types as long as

trees.

However, they

still

suffer

areas are deforested for building

development or

cattle ranches.

are also killed for their

collected as pets

and

The monkeys

meat and

for use

in

fur,

and

experiments.

85


The Marmoset and Tamarin Family

M

armosets and tamarins

South America. The

most of the

north as Costa Rica

Paraguay and

among

Amazon

Central America.

in

Bolivia live in

Basin

is

some occur

species, but

some form

Central and

live in

A few

home

to

species

in

patches of trees dotted

Marmosets and tamarins have many features that

have claws on

fingers

all

primates. Instead of

and

They have two molar teeth on

primates. They

live in social

dominant She gives

is

primates. All

The and

members

hair of

silky.

It

banded

in

two

or

more

some

colors.

mane

of hair around their neck

tamarins have a

unlike that of

tail,

many

typical

all

primates. The

Mico

dwarf marmoset

TAMARINS Saguinus

(

M

.

active during the day. At

is

usually fine

those with

made

crevices

by woodpeckers. They are

fast, jerky

movements

Most species have

branches and leap from tree to their

in

trees, often

agile creatures,

make them

that

look nervous

run along horizontal

will

tail

(C.

geoffroyi);

tree,

but do not swing

or hands.

grasshoppers, beetles, and stick insects. They also prey on spiders, snails, frogs, lizards,

will

eat plants, taking

young buds and

flowers, but not

(Callithrix) argentata)',

leaves. Fruit

(Callithrix) humilis)

is

fusciollis);

emperor tamarin

and the animals

a favored food,

small, sweet, ripe (5.

and small snakes. They

pygmaea)

select

examples from among the many

The seeds and pips are often swallowed, to be

available.

oedipus)

(S.

dropped elsewhere among 1

fits

and holes

in

and highly strung. They

marmoset

imperator)- cotton-top tamarin

LION TAMARINS

the tiniest and

hand.

night they shelter

rare

individuals single hairs

(C. (Callithrix)

includes saddleback tamarin (S.

human

is

the smallest of

Marmosets and tamarins are

is

genus, 15 species

1

among

Tamarins and marmosets eat a variety of animals,

marmoset (M.

species, including silvery

1 1

South American monkeys.

jacchus)

pygmy marmoset

species,

1

cannot grip branches,

including insects. They are especially fond of

Callithrix 6 species, including Geoffroy's

Cebuella

a

and shoulders.

which

3 genera, 18 species

(C.

it

pygmy marmoset

palm of

easily into the

from branches using

common marmoset

but

Tamarins and marmosets are

Family Cailitrichidae: 6 genera, 38 species

MARMOSETS

its

Habits and Diet

in

a range of colors, including black, In

a pure-white crest that cascades to

other

group help rear the young.

of the

The cotton-top tamarin of

tufts.

which one female

marmosets and tamarins

comes

in

in

birth to twins,

white, and golden-yellow. are

groups

in

All

they

each side of their upper

lower jaws instead of the three found

and

nails,

toes, except the big toe.

crest, fringe,

shoulders, and the lion tamarins are so called because of

the large

the savanna, but most prefer dense rain forest.

make them unique among

mustache, or ear

Colombia has

as far

adornment, such as a

of fancy

their feces.

Marmosets and

genus, 4 species

tamarins are therefore important agents for dispersing Leontopithecus includes golden tamarin

GOELDI'S

(L.

MONKEY

1

lion

tamarin

(

L

.

rosalia); black lion

chrysopygus)

seeds within the forest. Most species

genus,

gum. Where the bark of

1

species

and stop

infection.

marmoset

own SEE ALSO New World Monkey

is

damaged, by

eat tree insects, for

example, the tree exudes a sticky sap to close the hole

Callimico (C goeldii)

86

trees

will also

Family,

Marmosets

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; have specialized

holes

in trees,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;especially the pygmy

in

using

it.

They gouge

their

using specially modified lower teeth.

The 4:72; Tamarin, Golden Lion 4:88; Marmoset,

Common

4:92


Š

Geoffroy's

marmoset from

northwestern Colombia, Panama,

and Costa face with

Rica

combines a monkey's

an almost

catlike body.

Threats Habitat destruction,

Amazon

the

particularly

in

rain forests

where most

the species

live, is

the survival of

of

threatening

tamarins

all

and marmosets. Those most at risk are species that live in

The golden

one

small area.

lion

tamarin, for example,

occurs only

in

what

is

the coastal forest of

Over the years

it

has

left

of

Brazil.

become

one of the world's most threatened mammals. In

Social Life

and Defense of

Tamarins and marmosets individuals. in

Within groups there

other primates,

competing

among whom males

dominance. Each

for

dominant female

small groups of up to is little

who

social

20

for the pet trade. Others

captured for zoos or laboratory

are constantly

research, putting yet

a single

mates with a number of males

more

pressure on the already shrinking populations. The

in

the group. The dominant female prevents other females

problem of animals being

from breeding by her behavior and by chemical signals

taken from the wild

(pheromones)

now

twins in

in

her scent marks. She gives birth to

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; usually once

a year for tamarins, but twice a year

marmosets. The males

newborn

infant clean.

time, reluming

them

or three hours.

When

members

of the

calls.

their territories

of the group.

the birth by licking the

They carry the babies most of the

to the female for feeding every

all

group help feed them. its

own home

since international

agreements between in

monitor trade

Many

place to

in

rare animals

species are also

breeding well

range with smells

is

largely controlled,

countries are

two

the infants start eating soft food,

Each group defends

and loud

assist in

were

aggression, unlike

group has

in captivity,

thereby reducing the need to

Marmosets use scent marking to define

take animals from the wild.

and to communicate with other members

Captive breeding

Some

will

urinate

in

the tree holes that they

have gouged. Other animals feeding on the tree sap smell the scent of the hole's original owner.

many

tamarins and marmosets were caught

Territory

live in

the recent past

will

is

also

infant while being

allowing the reintroduction of

by an older helper

some

helper

species to areas from

which they have been

lost.

from

(3)

its

groomed

(2);

another

takes the twin

mother

(4)

(5).

87


PRIMATES

Golden Lion Tamarin The golden

mammals

tamarin

lion

in the world.

one of the most threatened

is It

Leontopithecus rosalia

has been rescued from the

brink of extinction by successful reintroduction of Common name Scientific

name

Golden

tamarin

lion

captive-bred animals to their natural habitat.

Leontopithecus rosalia

Family

Callitrichidae

Order

Primates

Lion tamarins are only the size of squirrels, but

they are Size

Length head/body: 8-13 length: 12.5-16

in

(20-31 cm);

callitrichid family.

tamarin,

Weight 21-28 oz (600-800 Key features silky

Small, lively

g)

mane; long

Habits

nostrils

groups of 3-7

Young (most commonly

after gestation period of at 12

2-3

its

lion

tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara), golden-

lion

years.

weeks; sexually

tamarin

lion

(L.

chrysomelas), and black

tamarin (L chrysopygus).

May

live

28 years

golden-red

many fewer

in

lion

tamarin

color,

is

almost uniformly

and hands.

tail

in

has

a

with the occasional splash of

orange, brown, or black on the It

captivity,

golden over

is

The others are the black-faced

entire body.

The golden

twins) born

128 days. Weaned at

golden coloration, but

Golden Fur

tree holes

in

September-March mature

lion

the wild.

the dense middle layers

of the forest; rests at night

Breeding

in

spending

individuals; active during the day, in

a

only the golden lion tamarin

headed

Social animal that lives in small

most of the time

There are four types of

golden coat; long hair

bare, flattened face with

tail;

of the

of which are threatened

all

The four species have

monkey

on crown, cheeks, and sides of neck forms

widely spaced

members

(32-40 cm)

in

with a long,

the largest

still

tail

soft, silky fur

and

a thick

golden

mane

of

the wild

long hairs on the top of the head, cheeks, Voice

A

variety of calls, including

trills,

clucks,

and

and neck.

throat,

whines

Its

stunning color

reasons that the animal Diet

Mostly

fruit

as frogs

Habitat

Lowland

and

and

insects; small

lizards; also birds'

tropical forests

about 3,000

ft

is

I.

Demand

for the

so close to

golden

lion

tamarin

and zoo animal has meant that many

as a pet level to

have been taken from the wild. However, by

(1,000 m)

Endangered; CITES forest

extinction.

eggs

from sea

Population: fewer than 1,000;

now

one of the

animals such

Distribution Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern

Status

is

is

IUCN

Brazil

the lowland forests

in

which

lives.

it

Critically

Destruction of lowland

greatest threat to survival

far

the largest threat has been the destruction of

Like other tamarins, golden

At night they sleep

diurnal.

occasionally

grow on warm, at least

among

in

lions are

tree holes or

vines or dense creepers that

tree branches. Tree holes provide a

safe shelter for the night. They

4 inches (10 cm)

in

diameter, but not so

large that predators can get

in.

Tamarins spend most of their time at a height of

10 to 33 feet

must be

(3 to

in

trees

10 m). Here

the dense canopy of leaves protects them from the sharp eyes of hawks and other raptors. The tangle of vines and branches provide easy

88

SEE ALSO Marmoset, Common

4:92; Tamarin, Emperor 4:94


MARMOSETS AND TAMARINS GOLDEN

type of

When

call

TAMARIN

LION

for large birds flying overhead:

other tamarins hear

it,

shelter of the tree trunks or

they head for the

sometimes

just

drop to the ground

Family Groups Golden

tamarins are social

lion

animals, living

groups of

in

between two and although

animals,

1

1

five or six

is

most

common. The group

usually

consists of a mating pair of adults, plus the juvenile

one or two

offspring from

recent

litters.

Sometimes

extended family members

Some

are included.

groups contain two adult males. However, only the

dominant one

father

will

the female's offspring, by

monopolizing her time

when

she

at the

likely

is

to

conceive. Groups with

more than one adult female are infrequent; but

happens,

it

is

when

it

usually only the

dominant female that breeds. Her aggression prevents subordinate females

from mating, but

in

times of plenty the

second female may also breed. Unlike most other tamarins and marmosets, the dominant

female does not seem to exert any pheromone

Š

The golden

pathways between

lion

tamarin's magnificent

coat

made

it

one of the

most highly sought after animals

in

zoos and by

private owners.

It is

now

illegal to

take specimens

from the

wild.

trees, so the

animals rarely

have to use the ground for getting from one to

control (chemical signals) over her subordinates to prevent

another. Golden lion tamarins are very agile and leap from branch to branch with ease, using

all

nervously, constantly

Golden

lion

on the move.

tamarins are mainly

hawks and other

travel 0.8 to

to 2.6 km) a day

home

four limbs. They dart around quickly and

them from breeding.

Groups can

when

killed

by

and

.6

ha),

nearer 100 acres

is

defend the core of

(1 .3

foraging. They occupy

(40 ha). Golden lion tamarins are will

miles

ranges of up to 500 acres (200

although the average

raptors, as well as cats

1

their

territorial

and

home range

large snakes. Recently a weasel-like animal

against other groups. They use scent markings

called the tayra has learned to dig tamarins

from the neck and genital region, and threat

from

calls

their nest holes

groups

when

in

some

and

is

wiping out whole

areas. Tamarins use alarm calls

they feel threatened. They have a specific

and postures. Aggressive postures include

staring with an

open mouth and arching

back. Chases sometimes

end

their

in fights.

89


PRIMATES

The

lion tamarin's diet consists

and

insects,

but

and

birds.

when

,:ards,

ong slender hands and

its

prey

m

It

dead

fingers to probe for

dense

leaves, or

uses

It

steal

which

it,

animals

is

A

Rearing young

is

All

members

they

work. The female gives birth

and wettest period of the September and March.

in

year,

new

time finding a

between

aggressively by

seasonality

until

is

the young females that are

their mother.

the warmest

In captivity

it

24 months. Unlike most

at

group

When

first.

become mature, young females

away by

cooperate, but the father does most of the

a rasping noise as they

to leave their family

likely

a family effort.

make

Females reach sexual maturity at 18

other primates,

Family Affair

Young

tolerated by their elders.

often

months and males

foliage.

juveniles playfully

take food from another animal.

try to

wood,

will

young family

to the

it

members. At other times the

consumes eggs,

available.

the crevices of tree bark, rotting

piles of

share food by offering

fruit

also eats spiders, snails,

it

plant gums, and nectar

"ogs, small

mostly of

are chased

They often have

members

hard

a

and are chased

territory

of established groups

they find an unoccupied area.

of birth can be broken so that a female can

have two

litters

Disappearing Forest

per year. Unlike most other

primates, lion tamarins usually have twins rather

The golden

than a single young. The babies are born

of Atlantic coastal forest

furred,

and

For the

first

can open immediately.

their eyes

few weeks they

the

cling tightly to their

mother, but the father soon takes over carrying the

fully

young around. By the

third

members

mother. Other

for juveniles

It

is

week

have their

own young

in

five

weeks the young get more

adventurous, leaving the safety of their parent's fur to explore their surroundings.

weaned

at

They are

around 90 days. Sometimes groups

in

the narrow

eastern

is

now

Brazil.

strip

was

It

in

the most heavily

the country. The lowland

easy to get to and easy to

is

two

clear.

For

centuries trees have been felled

for timber

and to make charcoal or cleared to

make way

for plantations, rice fields, cattle

pasture, buildings,

habitat

a year or two's time.

At about

Europeans and

well over

of the group also help

lives in

part of Brazil to be colonized by

first

forest

a valuable learning experience

who may

tamarin

populated region

in

he spends more time with them than the

with rearing.

lion

and roads. At one time the

which the tamarins

in

area about the size of Texas.

covered an

lived

Now

only 2

much

percent remains as forest. Even worse, the area

is

of

divided into tiny fragments of forest

separated by open ground, so groups of

animals cannot mix. As a

result,

inbreeding

is

a

problem among the remaining tamarins.

Tamarins and Bromeliads

A began

B

romeliads are a

common

where the tamarins

live.

sight

in

the humid forests

They are plants that grow

coordinated captive-breeding program in

1973, involving zoos

were on the brink of only about

touching the

in

hide

in

soil.

of the insects on which the tamarins feed

the bromeliads' leaves.

bromeliad plant

is

In

The

wells are useful sources of drinking water for tamarins,

and they foods

also harbor another of the tamarin's favorite

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;small

frogs.

extinction. There

200 animals

left in

zoos. Within 10 years the

were

the wild and 70

numbers of captive

animals had increased to 600, providing

the center of each

a hollow that collects rainwater.

Š

many

countries. At that time golden lion tamarins

high on the branches of other trees without ever

Many

in

enough

to start reintroducing

them

tend to inhabit the dense branches and vines that

grow

at heights of 10 to

33 feet

(3 to 10

m)

in the

are safe from the sharp

to the

eyes of hawks and other

Zoo-bred animals were released into nature reserve near Rio de Janeiro. At

first

Some were

birds of prey.

a

many

killed

by predators, partly because they spent more

time on the ground than the more wary wild

90

lion tamarins

forest canopy. Here they

Brazilian forest.

of the released animals died.

Golden


conservation program has been to plant

Š

The golden-headed

lion

tamarin

is

one of

to finding their

four species of lion tamarin,

all

threatened.

of which are Its

home

Una

Biological

Reserve

in Brazil is

the

landless squatters.

in

being

stripped of trees by

animals normally do. Also, they were not used

own

food, so they relied on

trees

in

deforested areas

in

more

order to create

corridors that link small patches of habitat.

A

handouts. As scientists and zookeepers became

huge tree-planting program to improve the area

better at preparing captive-bred animals for

for lion tamarins has also benefited

in

the wild, survival levels increased.

life

Now

forest animals.

Another

vital

many

other

aspect of the

reintroduced animals have a better breeding

conservation program has been educating local

rate than those kept

people. By encouraging people, especially ranch

in

zoos.

Because each family group needs an area of about 100 acres (40 ha), patches of forest that are any smaller will not be

enough

to

owners, to value the animals, that they will

want

Brazilians are

now proud

it

is

more

likely

to protect the forest.

of their tamarins.

91


PRIMATES

Common Marmoset Common marmosets many easy

Scientific

name

Callithrix

to

Primates

Size

Length head/body: 4.7-6

tufts,

and

12-14

in

in

back

(30-35 cm)

coat;

crown

ear tufts; gray and white banded Active during the day;

One

to

lives in stable

months.

1

at

100 days; males sexually

1-1 5 months, females at

May

live

Soft

16 years

in captivity,

"phee" contact

call;

Tree sap, insects, spiders,

Atlantic coast forest rivers; forest

Common

marmosets

patches

markings

fruit,

and in

came from the

originally

forests of northeastern

However, they are

Brazil.

highly adaptable animals

10

in

angry chatter and call

flowers,

in

many

and are now

thriving

other areas where they have been

Buenos

and

gallery forest along

dry thorn scrub and

live in

Aires, Argentina.

the type of forest they

and nestlings

nectar; also lizards, frogs, eggs,

Habitat

head and neck. By the time they are

introduced. They even

high-pitched whistle as a warning

Diet

their

juveniles, the characteristic striped

14-24

the wild

Voice

and have gray

lack ear tufts

Easy Going

4 young (commonly twins) born twice 1 30-1 50

at

brown

The infants

with faint horizontal

groups

5 animals

Weaned

mature

brown, and the

usually dark

is

have grown through.

tail

yearly after gestation period of

days.

long ear

blackish

with a white patch on forehead; long white

Breeding

tail,

white blaze on the forehead. The'

a grayish

is

on

fur

1

are small, lively animals with

0.5â&#x20AC;&#x201D;1 2.7 oz (300-360 g)

Key features Mottled gray-brown

of up to

plantations.

Most

as there are

enough

They are

live in

riverside trees, dry scrub,

the suburbs of flexible

about

and can use dense

and even parks and

habitats are suitable, as long

gum

trees producing sap or

and hiding places from predators. The

common

bush savanna

marmoset's Distribution Northeastern

Brazil

threatened by habitat

more Population: abundant; CITES

common and

means

flexibility

that

west and south from the

Rio Parnaiba

Status

I.

it

is

many

than

loss

less

of the

specialized tamarins.

Relatively

common

Like other related species,

widespread; not seriously

marmosets are

threatened

in

active during the day.

stable groups of

normally eight to

up to

10).

1

They

live

(most

5 individuals

Each group has a

home

range of approximately 25 to 100 acres (10 to

40

ha).

The group

visits

about a

range each day, traveling up to in

from

Lion 4:88; Tamarin,

1

rival

marmosets defend

.2

its

miles (2

total

km)

their territories

groups with a loud "phee"

perform a display

SEE ALSO Tamarin, Golden

third of

search of food.

Common

92

live in

and

many have been used

in captivity,

(12-15 cm);

stripes.

Habits

a

the head

rest of

1

keep

dark and light bands around the

Order

Weight

types offorest. Because they are small

Common marmosets

jacchus

Callitrichidae

length:

and

marmoset

Family

tail

are very adaptable

jacchus

biomedical research.

in

Common name Common

Callithrix

Emperor 4:94

in

which they

call

and

raise their tails,

â&#x20AC;&#x17E;


MARMOSETS AND TAMARINS COMMON MARMOSET

Common

marmosets

also eat insects,

and

including grasshoppers, cicadas, crickets,

When

cockroaches.

tackling a large insect, a

marmoset

will

bite off

head, and eat the

its

pounce, grab

the wings and will

with both hands,

it

rest,

leaving just

Common

intestines.

marmosets

often follow swarming army ants, catching

the insects that they disturb on the forest In a

group there

is

floor.

one dominant

usually

breeding female, one or two dominant males,

and

There

their offspring.

may

also be

one

or

two unrelated immigrants. Smelly hormones (called

pheromones) produced by the dominant

female prevent younger but sexually mature females from breeding. The hormones, which

and physiology,

affect behavior

inbreeding.

A

also help avoid

number

the

restriction in

of

breeding females means there are always plenty of young, nonbreeding females around to

provide help

when

the dominant female has

group members

babies. By enlisting the help of

common marmosets

to raise the young,

are

able to breed successfully twice a year.

During the gestation period the pregnant

mother needs to eat

voraciously, since together

twins can equal up to 40 percent of her

own

body weight. The babies are completely dependent on

two

their carers for their first

weeks. They are usually carried around by the males,

who

return

them

feeding. By the age of travel

Š

Common marmosets

are active during the day. Tree saps are the

most

important part of their diet,

and the animals

up

fluff

their fur,

white genitals. they

If

and show their

off their

rumps and

warnings are not heeded,

The

common marmoset,

marmosets and tamarins,

like

lives

on

fruit

some

small animal prey.

(gums and sap) that seep from wounds

feeding on them.

tree bark. specially

bark,

It

is

particularly

fond of in

The marmoset's lower front teeth are

adapted for gouging holes

in

tree

from which the sweet, nutrient-rich sap

oozes. Sap

is

dry season

when

The animals

especially important during the

will

other food

is

in

short supply.

return repeatedly to trees that

provide the valuable food.

for

two months they can

own and spend much

and learning to catch

time play

insects.

They

begin to reach breeding condition at about 12

months and are

fully

grown

at

two

years.

Medical Research

and

juices

to 70 percent of

their

mother

other

their foraging time

spend up

fighting

to 18

will fight.

on

to their

Many common marmosets

are used

since they are easy to handle captivity.

their

in

research,

and breed well

in

Because they are primates, much of

body chemistry

humans, so

is

similar to that of

scientists find

it

useful to study their

biology and behavior. For those involved

biomedical research

in

common marmosets

provide a suitable model on which to test

new

drugs before they are tried on humans.

93


TFT PRIMATES

Emperor Tamarin

Saguinus imperator

Emperor tamarins have impressive mustaches.

/Is

long, white

with other tamarins, they are social,

They often share

living in small groups.

feed with saddleback tamarins.

The emperor tamarin was so

Common name name

Saguinus imperator a

Family

Order

Callitrichidae

14-17

Weight

1

in

in

(23-26 cm);

tail

(36-42 cm)

1-14 oz (300^400

Small, lightweight

g)

silvery, tail

is

so long that

two

strands are

most

distinctive

body

is

laid

back and

among

the animal's

is

mainly gray, with a mixture of fine

coat; long,

scattering of color

tree branches;

family groups of up to 15

young born

or 2, rarely 3

gestation period of

140-145

2-3 months; sexually mature months.

on the chest. Emperor

hands and

feet,

and

a reddish-brown

May

live

at least

after a

Weaned

days. at

Voice

Birdlike calls

Diet

Fruit, insects,

and

Amazon

northern

in captivity,

Status

Basin;

emperor tamarin

which has

(S.

a nail.

imperator subgrisescens)

has a small white beard, which

is

black-chinned emperor tamarin

(5.

Some

and tree sap

Bolivia,

fingers

There are two subspecies. The bearded

16-20

20 years

toes, except the big toe,

all

at

scientists consider

them

lacking

the

imperator).

/.

to be

in

two

separate species.

Tropical rain forest

Distribution

Like

tail.

members

usually fewer in the wild

Habitat

the

tamarins also have a silvery-brown crown, black

Active during the day

One

Kaiser

and impressive feature. The

most tamarins, they have claws on Breeding

its

it

when

reddish-

orange

lives in

The mustache

yellow hair on the back and a rusty-red

monkey; gray

white mustache; crown

Habits

I.

reaches to the tamarin's shoulders

Length head/body: 9-10.4 length:

famous 19th-century German emperor,

Wilhelm

Primates

Key features

of

which resembled that of

long, white mustache, Scientific

named because

Emperor tamarin

extreme southeastern Peru,

and northwestern

Brazil

Population:

unknown; IUCN Vulnerable

(subspecies

S.i.

imperator); CITES

II.

Becoming

threatened, especially because of habitat loss

Energetic Foragers Emperor tamarins are bounding through

lively

animals, leaping and

trees with quick, rather jerky

movements. They spend the majority

of their

time foraging for food, using most levels of the forest.

high

in

They venture to the ends of branches the trees to feed on ripe

nectar, but

and middle

fruit

tend to look for insects levels of

in

and the lower

the forest canopy. They

carefully inspect the leaves

and branches,

picking off insects as they find them. Stick insects, mantises,

up most of

and other large

insects

make

their diet, together with ants,

spiders, small animals such as lizards,

and

probably occasional birds' eggs. They also eat

94

SEE ALSO

Tamarin, Golden Lion 4:88

territory

and


MARMOSETS AND TAMARINS EMPEROR TAMARIN

tree

gum where

get at

it,

they

it

may

leaks

leave the branches

embedding

to the side of the tree,

Š

The emperor tamarin

can be recognized by distinctive

feeds at forest,

upper

mustache.

all

levels

of the

but mainly layers.

in

the

The smaller

and

their

cling

claws

Emperor tamarins

live in

groups of up to

15 individuals, although between five and eight is

more common. Within each group there

two

or

more unrelated

glands around the base of the

Unlike the

tail.

sprawling posture used by species of tamarin

emperor

that have neck or chest glands,

tamarins smear the scent onto the branches

into the bark to support their weight.

its

It

from damaged bark. To

are

while

They also

a sitting position.

in

notify other

tamarins of their presence with birdlike

When

away

necessary, they will chase

calls.

intruders.

adults, together with

offspring of varying ages. Each group has a

Mixed Troops

saddleback tamarin

home range

catches insects that drop

(10 and 40 ha). The size of the range depends

species, particularly the saddleback tamarin.

on the amount of food

two

to the

lower

levels as a

of

between 25 and 100 acres

available, the size of the

result of the emperor's

group, and whether the area

feeding technique.

another species of tamarin. The tamarins mark their

home

is

shared with

ranges using urine and scent from

Emperor tamarins often

with other tamarin

live

species will share a territory, each using the

same boundaries. Saddleback tamarins more

smaller and will

The

are

agile than emperors, so they

often reach a food supply

However,

first.

the larger emperors are dominant and

will

chase the saddlebacks away

not

enough food

if

there

is

go around. Despite

to

occasional conflicts over food supplies,

both animals seem to benefit from the association, since

it

increases their chances of

spotting predators. Emperors

seem

to be

better at detecting aerial predators, such as

hawks, while saddlebacks are better at spotting ground predators, such as snakes or small cats.

The two species exchange

and are able to coordinate

movements even other

in

if

calls

their

they cannot see each

the dense forest.

Emperor tamarins mate

in

May

and June, which means the young are born at the

start of

the rainy season

A male

October to November.

courts

the breeding female by opening

mouth, waggling

his

in

his

tongue, and

producing a high-pitched

trill

Newborn emperor tamarins weigh |

about

short

1

hair.

.2

ounces (35

g)

and have

a coat of

As with other tamarins, mothers

feed the babies every few hours, then return

them

to the father or other group

carrying.

The young

they are about that they

When

six

become

ride

on an

or seven

members

adult's

weeks

back

for until

old. After

increasingly independent.

they are able to take solid food,

all

the

group members help feed them.

95


Lemurs

T

A

lemurs are an extremely diverse group. They

tie

have been separated from other primates for

on the

millions of years, isolated

wide

Madagascar

behaviors. Being an island,

physical space to the species that

are found

live

40 and

offers limited

there.

The animals

the forested areas, with different species

in all

Some have been

using different types of habitat.

introduced to the nearby

Comoro

million years ago.

island

on

species, ringtailed lemur

Eulemur

5 species, including black lemur

habitats

and ways of

had evolved on the

ago humans

life,

(

mongoz crowned lemur

E

Within a few hundred years

terms of primate evolution

in

largest

But then, about 2,000 years

in

species.

known from

sloth lemurs,

caves. Today, of the

a blink

— hunting and

wiped out many of the

were the giant

37 species of

lemur several are threatened with extinction, and many

coronatus)

(£.

);

Over thousands of

about 50 different species

until

island.

arrived.

skeletons found macaco); mongoose lemur

(£.

drifted to the

years the offspring multiplied and adapted to different

The

catta)

(L.

on Madagascar about

The animal probably

habitat destruction had

1

arrived

a raft of floating vegetation.

of an eye

Islands.

Family Lemuridae (typical lemurs): 4 genera, 10 species

Lemur

a single ancestor, perhaps just

one pregnant female, which

island of

variety of characteristics

come from

lemurs have

All

Madagascar. Over time they have evolved into many different species with a

Lemurs

Brief History of

are under pressure, especially from loss of habitat. Varecia

lemur

species, ruffed

1

Hapalemur

3 species,

(H. aureus);

variegata)

(V.

bamboo lemur (H. griseus); golden bamboo lemur greater bamboo lemur (H. simus)

Family Megaladapidae (sportive lemurs):

Lepilemur includes weasel sportive lemur ( L

.

deciduous desert sportive lemur L (.

Mirza

mouse

Allocebus

1

lemur

(

M

.

pygmy

rufus)

(microcebus) coquereli)

dwarf lemur dwarf lemur

species, greater (C.

(M. murinus);

brown mouse lemur (M.

dwarf lemur

species, hairy-eared

Cheirogaleus 2

lemurs): 5 genera, 13 species

mouse lemur

(M. myoxinus);

species, Coquerel's

1

They also

Some

live in

and

lemurs are active

major); fat-tailed dwarf

come out

things that other primates are

from insects to leaves and

fruit.

Avahi 2

(indris, sifakas,

species, eastern woolly (A.

(P.

1

to eat,

live

and forage alone to

is

the

ounce (30

g),

pygmy mouse only slightly

lemur, which weighs about

more than

a

house mouse.

of the giant sloth lemurs

would have held the record

lemur

{A, laniger);

pounds (200

western woolly lemur

at

440

kg) or so, bigger than a

full-grown male

gorilla.

occidentalis)

species, indri

sifaka

(P. (P.

tattersalli);

diademed

verreauxi)

indri)

(/.

Family Daubentoniidae:

1

genus,

1

species

©

In

2b

one

genus, Eulemur,

Daubentonia aye-aye D madagascariensis) (

.

the coat color

96

They eat

known

furcifer)

sifaka (P diadema); Verreaux's sifaka 1

the

mixed-sex groups. The smallest lemur (and smallest

and woolly lemurs): 3 genera, 6 species

Propithecus 3 species, golden-crowned

Indri

in

Their social behavior

ranges from solitary animals that large,

at night.

for being the largest primate

Family Indrndae

spiny,

medius)

species, fork-marked lemur

1

all

primate)

(A. trichotis)

(C.

almost

One Phaner

forests.

daytime, while others only

species, including gray

mouse lemur

social behavior.

mustelinus); Milne-Edwards's

.

edwardsi)

Family Cheirogaleidae (dwarf and

Microcebus 8

and

reproductive,

size, habits, diet,

habitats as diverse as evergreen rain forest

genus, 7 species

1

Lemurs exhibit a wide range of

SEE ALSO Gibbon

Family,

is

different in males

and

females. Here,

male black lemur

(la);

female black lemur

mongoose lemur

(2a);

female mongoose lemur

The 4:36; Lemur, Ringtailed 4:98; Aye-Aye 4:102

(1b);

male (2b).


LEMURS

Š

Milne-Edwards's

lemurs, like other

sportive lemurs, rest in

hollow trees during the

day as a way of conserving energy.

(Inset):

Energy-rich nectar

forms an important part of the diet of

and mouse

(often kept

zoos) and

in

cat-sized with a long

some

tail.

The coat color

is

dwarf

lemurs.

are mostly

variable,

and

species have face stripes, patches, or beards. Typical

lemurs are

except the ringtailed lemur, which

tree-living,

prefers to travel

plants

brown lemurs. They

all

and

on the ground. Most eat but the

insects,

having specialized

in

bamboo

bamboo

a range of

lemurs are vegetarian,

shoots.

Sportive lemurs are medium-sized creatures weighing less

than 2.2 pounds

mammals

kg).

They are possibly the smallest

the world that feed only on leaves. Leaves

in

are not rich

(1

in

foraging and

energy, so sportive lemurs spend

many hours

resting

little

time

and digesting food. They

also have a lower metabolic rate than other animals of

body burns up

their size, so their

Dwarf and mouse lemurs are eyes associated with a nocturnal tail

Common

Features

features

in

common. They

apart from the partially Viairy,

bamboo

all

have

hands and

feet have ringed pads. All lemurs, except the mdri, have a long, furry

alone.

tail,

but

it

is

not strong enough to hang by

Lemurs seem to use

their sense of smell

more than

common way

other primates, and scent marking

is

labeling territory. Ringtailed lemurs

sometimes have

"smell fights." They cover their

on the

wrists,

then wave

it,

tail in

a

They have large

when food

Some

lifestyle.

is

use their

keep them going short

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;something

Members

of the Indriidae family are relatively large

animals with long, powerful legs for leaping between

lemurs. Their ears are at least their

tiny.

slowly.

that no other primate does.

a long, foxlike face,

and the naked areas of

more

for fat storage. Storing fat helps

during the dry season

Although they are a diverse group, lemurs have many

fuel

trees. Indris

eating leaves,

defend

wafting the smell at their

opponents. Typical lemurs include the ringtailed lemur

fruit,

territories

The aye-aye It

their time high in the treetops,

and flowers. Small groups of

with scent marking and loud

including duets that

of

scent from glands

spend most of

is

sound

the only

like

indris

calls,

those of gibbons.

living

member

in its

family.

has a unique appearance, including long, thin middle

fingers, crevices.

which

it

uses to probe for insects

in

holes and

Aye-ayes have peculiar teeth too, with two large

front incisors, like those of rodents.

97


PRIMATES

Ringtailed Common name Scientific

Lemur

Ringtailed lemur

Lemur

name Lemur catta

Family

Lemuridae

With their distinctive banded

Order

Primates

a fag and in "stink fights"

Length head/body: 15-18

Size

(38-45 cm);

I

I

22-25

in

tail

tail

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; useful as

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;ringtailed

lemurs are unmistakable animals. They

in

length:

breed well

(56-63 cm)

and are

in captivity

common lemur kept

most

the

in zoos.

%) Ringtailed lemurs are sociable animals. in

They

live

groups of between three and 25 animals,

although about 14

is

the average. The groups,

called troops, contain animals of both sexes all

ages. There

is

and

a well-defined hierarchy

is

dominated by the females. a top, or "alpha,"

In

female

each troop there

who

is

dominant

over the group as a whole. The males have their

Weight

5-7.7

lb

(2.3-3 5 kg)

own Key features

Cat-sized animal with dense, pale-gray fur;

hierarchy. There

more

likely

is

one

central

male

to interact with the females

who

in

is

the

underparts pale; white face with black eye patches; long black-and-white

banded

tail,

group than any of the others.

The troop spends

usually held upright

Habits

Active during the day; feeds

spends a

Breeding

lot

of time

trees but also

in

on the ground

socially.

a

after

a lot of time interacting

The lemurs seem to love close bodily

contact,

Single infant (occasionally twins) born

between August and November

and often huddle together to snooze

mass of

fur

and

tails.

Social

grooming

in

is

important to reinforce bonds of friendship,

gestation period of approximately 136 days.

Weaned

at

3 years.

May

fewer

the wild

in

4 months; sexually mature live

over 30 years

at 2 or

in captivity,

Voice Diet

Mainly

Habitat

Dry deciduous scrub and forest

fruit;

especially

among

also leaves, bark,

grooming,

they use their hands and lower teeth. The lower

form

a

out from the lower jaw to

"grooming comb."

Home

Patch

Each troop has a

depends on the Population: fewer than 100,000; II.

When

and sap

Distribution South and southwestern Madagascar

Endangered; CITES

the females.

incisors stick straight

Catlike mews, grunts, yaps, howls, and purrs

Status

Declining

home

range, the size of which

quality of the habitat.

IUCN

due to

loss of

habitat

Important resources within the habitat include the

number

water.

of fruiting trees

Home

(6

and 30

open

and sources of

ranges also change with the

seasons and vary between ha),

1

5

and 75 acres

with the larger ranges being

forest or dry brush

in

and scrub. Each day

the lemurs travel about half a mile search of food. Sometimes their

(1

km)

home

in

ranges

overlap with those of other groups. Meetings are rare, but

in

confrontations

it

is

the females

that are responsible for defending the group.

98

catta

SEE ALSO Aye-Aye 4:102; Lemur, Ruffed 4:104


LEMURS

RINGTAILED LEMUR

that they use to rub the scent into the tender

bark of young saplings.

Fruits of the Forest Ringtailed lemurs feed at in

levels

all

the forest, from the thin

branches at the tops of trees to the forest floor.

They use

hands to

their

branches close, then

pull

food to

bite off morsels of

chew. They

hands to

rarely

use their

peel, pick, or prepare

food. The ringtailed lemur has a varied diet, taking food from

many

different types of plants. Occasionally,

on

also feed

majority of

insects

its

diet

is

and

birds' eggs.

fruit,

it

will

The

with that of the

introduced tamarind tree being a particular favorite.

It

also eats leaves, bark,

Sometimes

it

raids crops, eating

and

sap.

melons and the

leaves of sweet potato plants. Ringtails are active during the day, with

two main periods

of feeding separated by a rest

period at midday. At night they sleep up

in

the

They spend more time on the ground

trees.

than any other lemur (about one-third of their day) and tend to travel on the ground rather

than through the branches of

trees. In

many

typical areas of dry habitat trees are often

widely

spaced— a

feature that probably dictates

the lemurs' preference for ground

make

progress, they

Conflicts usually begin with a staring

match

would have to keep

coming down to the ground anyway.

When

walking on

a

ringtailed

© A ringtailed lemur

travel; to

all

fours, the hind

lemur

are so short.

is

The

end of

held high because

tail is lifted

its

arms

into a question-

drinks from a river on a

between

private reserve in

approaches that only occasionally lead to

Madagascar. Ideal ringtail

physical aggression. After a confrontation the

animals use clear routes through the forest, so

habitat— dry deciduous

excited group will return to the safety of the

they are often seen on roads and

scrub

and

forests

on the

edges of rivers— is disappearing.

fast

rival

core of their

lemurs, followed by lunging

home

it

from

When

keep

traveling, the

human

paths.

Ringtailed lemurs are extremely vocal

mark out

scent. Females use scent

a bit like a flag to

group members together.

range.

Ringtailed lemurs

smear

mark shape and used

their

range with

their genitals

and

onto branches. The males have scent

glands just above their wrists, with a horny pad

animals. They use about 15 different calls to

maintain contact, indicate aggression, and warn

each other of danger. Calls are especially important

in

dense forests when group

99


members may not be

Many

They use

of their noises are catlike.

meow" traveling

i

able to see each other. a

Sunbathing

keep the group together when

to

and are even known to purr

contented. Rapid staccato grunts signal aggression between

two

T

Males use

individuals

km) away to announce

(1

presence and possession of

their

home

flying

between

name

local

for the ringtailed

consider the animals to be the

especially early in the

their

lemur

"Maki." Local people

is

of the

spirits

range.

bellies to

worshippers meditating

aerial threats (such as

a

in

yoga

position.

Expressive Gestures a tap

on the

begging for food,

and push

nose. Although they are not as expressive as

some

primates, various expressions are used

face-to-face communication.

When

threatening

each other or mobbing a predator, they stare fiercely, with their eyes

open, but the teeth covered. The

lips

drawn back

to reveal the teeth

a

face," used

when

are also revealed

retreating

in

a

more

communicate submission approach.

When making

will

wide and mouth

in

can be

"scream

in terror.

The teeth

relaxed situation to

or a friendly

contact

calls

at

two

wide

their eyes

an "0" shape.

become

or three years old,

mature

sexually

and females

will

probably have a baby every year. Once they are mature, the males always leave the group

in

which they were born, and established males will

change groups every three to

five years.

mate between mid-April and

Ringtailed lemurs

mid-May. The timing ensures that the young will

or

their lips into

Ringtailed lemurs

in

open

ringtails

be weaned

abundant.

When

a period

when food

the females are

and turn

genitals swell will

in

pink.

A

is

fertile, their

receptive female

turn a normally calm group of males into a

make

frenzy of sexual excitement. They

loud,

aggressive challenges to each other for the

chance to mate. Males also hold "stink fights" in

which they wipe the scent from

glands onto their long, bushy

tails,

their wrist

then waft

the scent at the opposition. Presumably, the smelliest

enough

tail

wins. Such contests are usually

for the lemurs to decide

who

is

dominant, but sometimes fights break out.

Most young

are born

September, with a few

November. There

is

in

August and

late arrivals in

usually

one baby, although

tw'ns do occur occasionally. Immediately after birth the

baby

clings to the mother's underside,

but after a couple of weeks her back.

A female

underside. At

100

two weeks

SEE ALSO

it

its

mother's

begins to ride on her back.

Fossa 1:96

starts to ride

adult females help

in

on

raising the

group's young. They baby-sit, form playgroups,

ringtailed lemur with her young.

Immediately after birth the infant clings to

All

it

and even switch babies so they are sometimes breast-feeding another's offspring.

If

sit

up with

their

the sun. Their arms are

held high or resting on their knees. They look

hawks) and ground-based predators.

Lemurs greet each other with

dead returned to the

morning before feeding. They

bent legs splayed, exposing their

Ringtailed lemurs use different alarm calls to distinguish

he

world to worship the sun. Ringtailed lemurs love to sunbathe,

a oud, penetrating howl that can be heard up to half a mile

Spirits

when

an infant

i:

like furry

sun


LEMURS

orphaned, the group

members infants

will

it.

Other group

groom the young. The

are allowed to

seem

adopt

to spend a lot of time having their

faces licked, which they

do not seem to

enjoy!

At two and a half months a young lemur gains a

little

more independence and begins

play with other youngsters

in

the group.

spends the next few weeks exploring

to

its

in

the trees. However,

mother's back

Young but

are

when

weaned

many do not

their first year,

at

survive.

Around

killed

of prey such as harrier

will is

Ringtailed lemurs breed remarkably well captivity,

still

and over 1,000 now

live in

in

about 140

zoos around the world. However, the species disappearing rapidly

problem

is

in

is

the wild. The main

that habitats

The most

its

in

which

ringtails

can

suitable habitats for ringtailed

lemurs are gallery forests. They are narrow

ride

on

traveling.

about four months

and only about

adulthood. Most are

it

the group

Shrinking Habitats

thrive are shrinking fast.

It

environment, tasting plants, and climbing

around

RINGTAILED LEMUR

old,

Š

lemurs gathers

good

The animals are highly

living for ringtailed

lemurs. However,

people are destroying such areas with

half die in

a third reach

by predators. Birds

hawks and buzzards

bands of forest that are found along the edges of rivers. Dry Euphorbia scrub also provides a

will

take babies, and both the adults and young are

fires,

A

troop of ringtailed in a tree.

companionable and enjoy

overgrazing, and through the harvesting of

close bodily contact.

wood

Sometimes they huddle

still

to

make

hunted

in

charcoal. Ringtailed lemurs are

some

places,

trapped and kept as pets.

and

a

few

are

together to snooze.


PRIMATES

Aye-Aye The aye-aye

Dauben tonia madagascariensis

a bizarre creature that looks

is

nothing else on earth.

uses

It

long,

its

like

bony middle

finger to winkle out wood-boring grubs and to extract the flesh of coconuts.

Common name Scientific

name

Aye-aye

The aye-aye

Daubentonia madagascariensis

its

Family

Daubentoniidae

Order

Primates

an incredibly strange animal. With

is

shaggy coat, long bushy

leathery ears, orange eyes,

looks Size Length head/body: 12-15

(30-38 cm);

tail

length:

animal.

17-22

Spielberg creation than a real

like a

long and thin, but the third

is

fingers are even longer than the others

(2-3 kg)

skinny.

Key features

it

hands are the most unusual feature.

Its

Each finger

4. 4-6. 6 lb

and bony hands

in

(43-56 cm)

Weight

more

in

enormous

tail,

The aye-aye

and very

also has long front teeth

Largest nocturnal lemur; long, shaggy coat,

dark gray-brown;

tail

long and bushy; short

face with round, pink nose, large ears, and large,

orange eyes; hands with long, thin

fingers

and long,

keep growing throughout the

(incisors) that

animal's a

Continuously growing incisors are

life.

major feature

in all

rodents, but not

other primate. As a

elongated and bony Nocturnal; mainly solitary

Breeding

Single

when

result,

discovered, the aye-aye

Habits

in

any

middle finger

nail-like claws;

was

first

classified as a

squirrel-like rodent.

baby born every 2-3 years

gestation period of 170 days.

months; sexually mature live

about 23 years

at

after

Weaned

2-3

in captivity,

years.

at 7

May

over 20

in

the

Specialized Diet The aye-aye has

wild in

Voice

Variety of

Diet

Insect larvae

calls,

including a short "cree"

and

of feeding

including coconuts and

fruit,

mangoes Habitat

Rain forest,

insect grubs

With

its

a very unusual diet, specializing

and the

linked to

is

inside of nuts.

Its

mode

unusual body features.

its

long front teeth

it

gnaws

a hole in the

hard outer cover of nuts such as coconuts.

humid

deciduous

forest,

forest,

It

long, thin middle finger to extract

then uses

its

the fleshy

interior.

mangroves, thickets, and plantations Distribution Eastern and northern Madagascar, with small population

on western

similar way.

Population:

unknown, perhaps

a

few

thousand; IUCN Endangered; CITES other lemurs, at Feared as bad

risk

when

omen and

shot by farmers; a few

I.

forest cut

killed

killed

eats insect grubs

them by tapping on wood

finds

on

its

movement

large ears to locate the

inside.

Then

sight;

some

wood and pokes

out the grub, again using

specially elongated middle

to eat. Very rare

Aye-ayes are mainly

is

plentiful.

day alone

Nevertheless,

solitary.

sometimes seen outside the sites

where food

They are nocturnal, spending

in

the trees and

their

nests. The nests are built high

made

of twigs

and

animal uses several nests within ayes often sleep different animals

its

finger.

breeding period, particularly at

in

leaves. its

in

Each

range. Aye-

each other's nests, so several

may occupy

over a few weeks, just as

SEE ALSO Lemur,

sound of

gnaws through the

it

Like

down.

small groups are

102

a

in

side

and using Status

It

It

Ringtailed 4:98; Lemur, Ruffed 4:104; Rodents 7:8

we

the

same

nest

might use a motel.


LEMURS

much

ranges are

75 to 120 acres

smaller, at

(30 to 50 ha). They

do not generally overlap

with each other, and females usually fight on

Aye-ayes usually become active just first

calls

start their

evening with a bout of loud

that ring through the forest. They

most of the night foraging and can

spend

travel

up to

and 4 km). Females are

may

When

last a

they meet.

loud

in

calls.

Several males

may be

any season.

attracted to a

female, and fights often break out.

When

she

has mated, the female moves to another area

mate with

calling again.

As

Š A six-month-old ayeaye. For the

a result, she

first

two

months the mother leaves the

receptive, they advertise their state with

and begins

wide ranging. Bouts of foraging are

interspersed with rest periods that

when

Female aye-ayes can breed

before sunset. The males tend to appear

and

2.5 miles (between 2 less

the rare occasions

AYE-AYE

baby

in a

nursery nest, rather than carrying

it

foraging.

weaned least

with her while

Young are not

until

they are at

seven months

old.

may

several males.

couple of hours. Aye-ayes walk and jump using all

fours.

betweeh

They are

confidence. They

ground, but can

between

agile, leaping

vertical tree trunks

move more still

deliberately

large,

(100 and 200

home range

that

home

it

range of

between 250 and 500 acres ha).

Such ranges often overlap

with other males, and encounters between the

animals can

Aye- Aye Surveys Aye-ayes were once thought to be restricted to a

few lowland

become

aggressive. Female

home

rain forests

along the east coast

of Madagascar. However, after intensive surveys

they have

trees.

Each aye-aye has a

is

on the

travel fairly long distances

marks with urine and scent. The males

and climbing

and branches with

and

in

dense

now been found

many more forest,

over a wider area

types of habitat. As well as

they also

live in

mangroves,

and even plantations of

fruit

such as

coconut and lychee. They are shy and

difficult

thickets,

to see, but

gnaw marks on

nuts and fibrous

fruits are signs of their presence.

103


PRIMATES

Lemur

Ruffed

members of the lemur

Ruffed lemurs are the largest

family and have the most fruit-based primates, their

Common name Scientific

name

and have

Varecia variegata

Order

Primates

dense

rich,

neck and

their

Lemuridae

many

Ruffed lemurs are the largest of the true lemurs

Ruffed lemur

Family

contain

litters

There are two

ears.

around

fur, particularly

distinct-

looking subspecies: the black-and-white ruffed

lemur ( Varecia variegata variegata) and the redSi2e

Length head/body: 20-22

(51-56 cm);

in

tail

|J

22-26

length:

in

ruffed lemur

(

Varecia variegata rubra). The

(56-66 cm)

black-and-white ruffed lemur has furry ears,

Weight 7.3-10

n.%)

lb (3. 3-4.5

kg)

and Key features dense

Large lemur with long,

especially

fur,

the legs are white.

patched black-and-white coat; redTruffed

and

body. is

chestnut-red with black legs, face,

is

Lives in flexible,

mixed-sex groups; spends

most of

in trees;

its

time

active during the

early part of the night, with

the morning and again

activity in

hands, feet, and

Two of

to

tail,

and

in

4 young born

90-102

sexually

30 years

days.

white marks at

mature

at

2-4

at

Voice

Variety of

Diet

Mainly

calls,

A few

their wrists

and

animals have

peaks of

some

are also

and

ankles,

marked on the rump and muzzle.

Social Life Ruffed lemurs are social animals and usually

4-5 months;

years.

in captivity, slightly

creamy-white patch

the late

after gestation period

Weaned

back of the neck.

a

day

afternoon and early evening

Breeding

black on the rest of the

white patch on neck

tail;

and the

is

complete contrast, the red-ruffed lemur

In

a rich chestnut-red color, with a dark face,

at the

Habits

It

around neck; 2

subspecies: black-and-white ruffed lemur has

lemur

neck, back, sides, rump, and outside of

its

in

May

live

fewer

in

groups of between

small, flexible

five

live

and 16

over

the wild

including loud barks and roars

animals. Each group includes several adult

males and females, plus their offspring.

some

In

parts of their range, however, the lemurs fruit;

also nectar, leaves, seeds,

and

appear to

occasional small birds and rodents

Habitat

live

wet periods

Primary and secondary rain forest

as

monogamous

of the year

fruiting trees,

many

pairs.

During the

animals gather at

then disperse into smaller groups

Distribution Eastern Madagascar

during the dry season. Each group has a Status

Population: fewer than 29,000; Critically

Endangered (subspecies II.

V.

Declining due to habitat

removal of

v.

range of about 50 acres (20 V.

v.

ha),

although

ruber),

variegata): CITES

loss;

home

IUCN

Endangered (subspecies

vulnerable to

occasionally groups

may range

500 acres (200

The animals focus

ha).

over as

much

around the

they feed and mile (1.6

rest.

largest fruiting trees,

The lemurs

km) within

their

travel

where

up to

home range

as

their

fruit trees

activities

a

every day

searching for food.

The group defends

its

territory against

other groups of lemurs. The animals use loud barking

calls to

are usually

The

calls,

announce

their presence,

104

SEE ALSO Orangutans

4:14;

Chimpanzee 4:28; Lemur,

which

answered by neighboring lemurs.

together with scent marking, provide

warning signs and usually help avoid Ringtailed 4:98

Varecia variegata

direct

diet.

Unlike most

offspring.


LEMURS

confrontations.

two groups meet, they use

If

intimidating barking

which may end

in

in

(ยง

an aggressive standoff,

many

white

types of

call.

As

of

warning

The warnings sound

throughout the lemurs' range.

different

Farther north the animals

according to the type of threat involved,

whether

bird of prey, snake, or other

for example. Ruffed lemurs also

clear"

when

appear mainly

mammal,

sound the

the south they look whiter.

when

consumed

fruit

than the other lemurs, with the food forming approximately three-quarters of their they

diet.

eat leaves, seeds, and even

will also

Nectar

is

popular, but

it

is

year.

in

in

is

preference

to any other food.

But

Nature's Helpers

soil.

A

only

available for a short time

each

plants are

flower, their nectar

intruders.

Ruffed lemurs eat a great deal more

black, while in

"all

the danger has passed and

sometimes roar loudly to intimidate

and red-ruffed

(inset)

(below). Coat patterns vary

well as territorial barks, they also have a variety calls.

The two distinct subspecies

of ruffed lemur: black-and-

a real fight.

Ruffed lemurs use

RUFFED LEMUR

particularly

important

source of nectar

However,

is

the

The

travelers' palm.

lemurs use their strong

hands to open the tough flower

poke

to reach the nectar.

the process the lemurs

In

get their face covered

animals pollen

move

bracts, then

muzzle deep inside the flowers

their long

in

pollen.

When

the

to other plants, they transfer the

between

flowers.

The ruffed lemur may

be the only creature large and strong enough to pollinate this type of palm.

Ruffed lemurs mate between

May and

July.

Most young are born the following September and October Twins and

after a relatively short gestation.

triplets are

four or even

common, but

litters

of

have been recorded. Instead of

six

the usual two nipples of other primates, a ruffed lemur

feed

all

six

so that she can

her babies at once. Unlike most other

lemurs, the

After

mother has

mother leaves her babies

carrying

them

kittens.

When

'parks"

her

mouth

they are a

them

Young quickly.

in

in

babies,

as a cat carries

little

older,

she

a tree while she forages.

ruffed lemurs develop incredibly

By three weeks they are able to

around among the mother. They keep vocal

a nest.

in

one or two weeks she moves the

calls.

move

trees, following their in

contact with her using

By four months the youngsters

are as active and as agile as their parents.

105


)

Lower Primates bush babies, and

es, pottos,

tarsiers

are small, nocturnal, tree-living

L

many

primates. Although they share

features with early primates, they are not primitive," since they

have evolved many

specialized characteristics. Recent research suggests

that tarsiers are not closely related to lorises, pottos,

and bush babies, despite having features

common.

in

Certain tarsier characteristics, including features

some

of their eyes, have encouraged

zoologists to group

them with the higher primates (monkeys and

the family Loridae. Bush

apes).

babies (sometimes called Lorises, Pottos, Lorises, pottos,

and Bush Babies

galagos) form another family

and bush babies are related to the lemurs,

called the Galagonidae.

and together the groups form the lower primates or strepsirhines. Lorises

and pottos are grouped together

Lorises, pottos, in

have large eyes with a

Galagomdae (bush

babies):

4 genera, 17 species

Euoticus 2 species, southern needle-clawed galago northern needle-clawed galago

Galago 6

species, including

galago

Galagoides 7

(E.

possible at night. They have

elegantulus):

hands have fleshy pads

(G. gabonensls)',

bush baby

good

galago

galago

which give them

However, the animals are incapable of delicate

(G. demidoff):

manipulation, since the separately.

2 species, thick-tailed

at the fingertips,

and thumbs that can reach around branches.

grip,

Zanzibar galago (G. zanzibaricus)' Thomas's galago (G. thomasi)

Otolemur

or no color vision. Their

Senegal

Somali galago (G. gallarum)

species, including Demidoff's

little

back

light as

pallidus)

a

Gabon galago

(G. senegalensis);

(E.

reflective layer at the

tapetum lucidum) to capture as much

(the

Family

and bush babies

(0. crassicaudatus ); Garnett's

thumb cannot touch each

The fingers and toes have

second toe, which has a claw and

is

nails,

finger

except the

modified for

(O. garnettii)

grooming. The forward-pointing front teeth are also Family Loridae (lorises and pottos): 5 genera, 7 species

modified for grooming the Loris

1

the

fine, fluffy fur. In addition,

species, slender loris (L tardlgradus)

animals use their teeth for gouging the bark of trees to Nycticebus 2

species, slow loris

Arctocebus 2

species, golden potto (A. aureus );

(A/.

coucang);

pygmy

loris (A/,

pygmaeus)

feed on the sap that oozes out. angwantibo Lorises, pottos,

(A- calabarensis)

Perodicticus

Pseudopotto

carnivorous, feeding on insects and a

species, potto (R potto)

1

1

Family Tarsiidae

species, Martin's false potto

(tarsiers):

1

and bush babies are mainly

(P.

They tend to be

reptiles.

martini

with each other by

genus, 5 species

calls

few

solitary feeders,

and

smells.

small birds

and

communicating

They use excreta and

scent from glands on their body to mark out their Tarsius includes western tarsier (I bancanus)', spectral tarsier ( T.

spectrum ); pygmy

tarsier (I

territory

pumilus)

among

some other All

106

SEE ALSO Primates

4:8;

Lemurs 4:96;

Loris,

primates, they have a keen sense of smell.

17 species of bush baby

bush baby eyes,

the tree branches. Like lemurs, but unlike

is

live in

live in Africa.

The name

highly appropriate because they have large

the bush, and sometimes wail

Slow 4:108; Bush Baby, Demidoff's 4:1 10

like

babies.


@A

thick-tailed galago.

The loud croaking noise

made by some bush babies like

is

sound

said to

the crying of a child.

The slender

loris (1)

has a mobile hip joint for climbing.

A potto

(2)

hangs from a branch. An

angwantibo from Africa (3).

The rat-sized

here, spectral (4)

western species

tarsier:

and

(5).

same

and they have

length,

and ankles.

flexible wrists

They can maintain a strong grip for hours

at a time with

the help of special blood vessels that supply oxygen to the

tensed muscles of the hands and

The

feet.

stumpy,

tail is

unlike the long, fluffy balancing aid of the bush babies. To

match

their

slow

and pottos take mostly

lifestyle, lorises

slow food, chiefly

caterpillars

and

beetles.

Bush babies are vocal animals.

They use

a variety of calls to

sound the alarm. They are

there

may be

or

The

tail

long and bushy and used for balancing. large,

mobile ears.

When

hunting, they usually hear their prey before they

They eat

gum from damaged

insects, particularly

forests of

West

in

Asia,

Africa.

than bush babies. They

trees plus

moths. Bush babies catch

insects in flight by grabbing Lorises live

them with

their hands.

and pottos are found

in

the rain

Both animals are more ponderous

move hand over hand,

foot over

foot along the branches, taking extreme care with every step.

species of tarsier are

and

Bush babies have very

it.

far, five

small

slender, with long legs for leaping.

see

So

maintain contact, attract mates, repel rivals,

is

Tarsiers

They are equally comfortable walking on top of a

branch or hanging below. Their limbs are roughly the

known. But they are so the dark, that

difficult to study, especially in

others as yet undiscovered.

tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia

islands of Borneo, Indonesia,

All live in

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;on the equatorial

and the

Philippines.

Tarsiers are roughly rat sized, except for the tarsier,

which

is

smaller.

They are

the

pygmy

entirely carnivorous,

feeding on insects, birds, and snakes, and have been

known most

to catch birds

much

distinctive feature

relative to

body

the western large size

size,

tarsier's

may

is

larger than themselves. Their

their eyes.

They are huge and,

the largest of any

mammal. Each

eyes weighs more than

its

brain.

of

The

help compensate for the lack of a tapetum

lucidum. Tarsiers also have a fovea, a spot at the back of the eye used for pin-sharp focusing.

It

is

also

found

in

higher primates, including humans.

107


0

PRIMATES

Slow Loris Due Common name Scientific

Slow

to their

name, slow

Nycticebus coucang

lorises are not the fastest or

loris

brightest of primates. They rely on a tight grip for

name

clinging to branches, stealth for hunting,

Nycticebus

coucang

glands for defense.

Family

Lorisiidae

Order

Primates

Size

Length

i

Lorises are difficult to see in the wild, since

w Weight

10-15

high

in

(25-38 cm); length: 2

and spend nearly

are nocturnal

head/body:

tail

in

the canopy

bamboo

all

of rain forests.

they

time

their

Dense

thickets are another hiding place. Even

cm)

in (5

when 0.8-4. 5 lb (0.3-2 kg)

Key features Plump animal with

a loris

because

dense, woolly coat; red-

Slow

is

nearby,

keeps so

it

is

it

often

spot

difficult to

still.

animals with

lorises are rabbit-sized

gray to gray-brown with paler underside;

dark stripe along back and dark

ears;

Habits

arms and

legs

Very slow moving,

same

length,

lives in trees;

shorter limbed than their relatives the slender

tail

short

lorises.

Weaned

2,

at 6

young born any time

captivity,

1

live

probably fewer

up in

to

of

85-1 97 days.

months; sexually mature

18-24 months. May

The large

mammal,

eyes, typical of a

are ringed with dark

a paler stripe

down

lorises

ears.

the nose. Like other

have almost no

fur.

between them, which lorises,

slow

tail.

small

and mammals, and eggs; some plant

food, including

Habitat

snails); lizards,

because of white

the hairs. They have a dark-brown stripe

nocturnal

runs

mollusks (such as giant

from

that runs along the back, forking at the head to

They have

and buzzing

Insects (often foul smelling or poisonous);

its

tips to

behind the

in

the wild

Whistles, growls, snarls, chirrs,

birds

variable, ranging

at

26 years

noises

Diet

is

fur often has a frosted look

One, occasionally

year after gestation period of

Voice

Their coat color

a reddish-brown to pale brown-gray, and the

generally

solitary

Breeding

They are plumper and

short, dense, woolly fur. circles

around large eyes; pale muzzle and small

gum and

fruit;

finds

most of

Slowly but Surely Slow

food by smell

lorises

almost as

Tropical rain forest

move

in

a

slowly and deliberately,

slow-motion

carefully along branches,

Distribution Southeast Asia and western Indonesia

They

film.

moving

a

travel

hand

first,

then getting a secure grip before moving a Status

Population: million;

unknown,

CITES

declining

II.

possibly about

1

foot. Their

Not yet threatened, but

due to habitat

hands and feet are perfect

grasping, with the

loss

thumbs and

for

big toes

pointing sideways from the rest of the digits.

An unusual arrangement

of blood vessels helps

the animals grip tightly for their

muscles getting

tired.

many hours without Even

when

first

born, slow lorises have a powerful, instinctive grip for clinging to their mother's fur.

During the day slow

and

crevices,

bamboo

lorises sleep in holes

thickets, or in the fork of

a tree. Gripping tightly with the

they

curl into a ball

between

108

SEE ALSO Bush

Baby, Demidoff's 4:1

1

hands and

and tuck their head

their thighs.

feet,

and poison


LOWER PRIMATES SLOW

LORIS

and palms. Smells

chest, arms,

them recognize each

help

who

other and detect

been passing

has

by.

Toxic Substance Slow

one of

lorises are

mammals

the few

that

produce poison. They have glands on

arms

their

that exude a smelly

substance that

P

mixed with

toxic

is

when

They spread

saliva.

the secretion from their arms

when

over their body their

teeth).

tooth-comb

all

they groom, using

modified front

(specially

They also exude the poison when

confronted by a predator, such as a snake.

the

If

unpleasant smell does not warn off the attacker, the loris either uses the quickest

means

of escape

ball.

A

rolled-up

secretions on

in

it

will roll into a tight

shielded from attack by

is

back

its

backbones covered

many

—or

loris

tough humps on

go of the branch and

letting

the ground

falling to

made

by the

The poisonous

thick skin.

and put

fur are distasteful

its

predators off eating

Slow

lorises

time of year.

lorises.

can breed at any

When

the female

is

receptive, males are attracted by

the smell of her urine.

male

and Lorises

© Slow

lorises

Slow

come out

lorises are believed to

be

may spend some time

at night to forage.

although pairs

Although generally slow

It

moving, they can strike

with rearing offspring. While foraging, slow

surprisingly fast

when

hunting. They creep up silently

on

their prey,

then lunge at it

it,

is

unknown

together.

males to occasionally help

for

lorises whistle loudly to

the animals

each other. The

know where

call lets

the others are so that

Males have

territories that overlap

with

those of several females, and such areas are diligently

on

their

marked with

urine.

The

lorises urinate

hands and feet and wipe them on

branches, leaving smelly footprints as they walk. Lorises also

weeks

will

encourage him.

often "park" her baby

when

old. Before leaving

to a branch

a

rising

mate hanging upside down.

while she forages, even of

When

she uses a

—she

will

cover

it

is

it

it

only a couple

clinging tightly

and

in saliva

probably also the smelly, poisonous secretion

from her arm glands. The scent

will

protect the

baby from predators. Infants become more

they can keep their distance.

grabbing

with both hands.

not

in sight,

falling whistle to

A mother

solitary,

is

have scent glands on their face,

active at six to eight still

carry her

weeks, but the mother

baby around

until

it

is

nearly as

large as herself.

The young become sexually

mature

24 months

at 18 to

young males mature,

them out

old.

will

When

their father will

the

chase

of his territory.

109


PRIMATES

Demidoff's

Bush Baby Demidoff's bush baby Common name

Africa.

It

Galagoides demidoff

the smallest primate in

is

dense vegetation

lives in

in the

Demidoff's

equatorial African forests.

bush baby (Demidoff's dwarf galago) Scientific

name

Galagoides demidoff

Demidoff's bush baby (otherwise

one

known

Galagonidae

Demidoff's galago)

Order

Primates

dwarf bush babies. Members of

Size

Length head/body: 3-6 length:

8-10

Weight

1

in

(7-1 5 cm);

in

to reddish coat with paler

down

between

bridge of nose; pointed,

upturned nose and

or

how

hope

Nocturnal; leaps

lively:

relatively short ears

Breeding

in nests;

1

may

young, sometimes

2,

born per year

10-1 14 days.

1

Weaned

at 2

months; sexually mature at 8-9

months.

May

live

12 or more years

probably fewer

in

crescendo; buzzing alarm

and

in

(genetic molecular structure).

Demidoff's bush babies are

cute bundles of

gum

the wild

They have

of the fur varies

and some

The ears are and the nose a distinct

Dense secondary growth;

forest

edges or land

thick as

Population: relatively abundant; CITES in

places,

a gray-black to

between

reddish-brown

individuals

relatively short for a is

and

is

running between the eyes

white stripe

in

bush baby,

pointed and upturned. There

and down the nose. The

Distribution Equatorial western and central Africa

Numerous

with a large head and big

according to age, younger animals being darker.

call

(tree sap)

fur,

body, with paler yellowish underparts. The color

mainly beetles, moths, caterpillars,

crickets; also

barely larger

tiny,

than a mouse. Like other bush babies, they are

running along the sides of roads

Status

and analyzing differences

Tiny Balls of Fluff

fruit

Habitat

calls

in

Series of loud chirps, increasing to a

Insects:

species of bush baby there are,

to resolve the mystery by studying the

DNA

eyes.

captivity,

Diet

females

huddles of 10 or more; forages alone

in

after gestation period of

Voice

not

still

tree canopy; sleeps in hollow trees,

in

Usually

scientists are

runs along branches and

dense vegetation, or sleep

four species

they are related to each other. They

bush babies' their

Habits

However,

how many

sure

yellowish underparts; white stripe

all

look alike and are usually identified by their distinctive calls.

.5-3.4 oz (43-96 g)

Key features Gray-black eyes and

tail

(20-26 cm)

is

as

of four species of

Family

tail is

long, but not as

other bush babies.

Demidoff's bush babies

live in

dense

vegetation. They prefer the lower levels of a

II.

although not often seen

forest, usually within

16 feet

(5

m) of the

ground. High-quality habitats attract large

numbers

of animals

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;as many as 260 per

square mile (100 per sq. km). In

grow

the center of forests the trees usually

close together,

for the type of

and there

is

too

little

light

shrubby growth that the bush

baby needs. Consequently, the animals tend to be found on the edges of forests or along roadsides.

They also favor patches where

fallen tree has

110

SEE ALSO

Loris,

Slow 4:108; Mouse, House 7:68

allowed

light to

a

reach the forest

understory of


LOWER PRIMATES

floor,

conditions

in

which dense shrubs and

Š A Demidoff's bush

young

able to inhabit the small islands of forest that

the rain forest of

when

trees are cut

are

of Congo, formerly Zaire.

may be one

Demidoff's bush babies

benefit from tree felling

are nocturnal, sleeping

during the day trees or nests.

in

hollow

left

where other animals

trees can proliferate. Bush babies are

the Democratic Republic

of the

down.

few mammals and road

Demidoff's bush babies are

In fact,

they

that actually

are.

Sound and scent

also important

finding food after dark

in

dense African

forests.

lively

and

agile, In

Competing

for Territory

Each male has

home range

a

(1

need to make the huge jumps that other bush

several females. Competition for

although horizontal

leaps of 5 to 6.5 feet

in

is

the

of about 2.5 acres

dense, tangled vegetation they do not usually

of,

are

the main ways of communicating, and smell

building.

running along narrow branches with ease.

babies are capable

know

alone, but use contact calls so that they

baby

in

DEMIDOFF'S BUSH BABY

(1 .5

to 2

m)

ha) that overlaps with the smaller ranges of

containing

intense,

and

adult males are aggressive toward each other

when

have been known.

good areas

many females may be

they meet. The bush babies mark their

territories using scent

on

urinating

glands and urine. By

hands and

their

they spread

feet,

wherever they walk.

their personal scent

Females usually give

one or sometimes two

once

birth

a year to

babies. Demidoff's bush

babies have the shortest gestation period of any

bush baby

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;about

1

1

1

days.

They can mate

all

year round, but births tend to peak at the time

when food

is

most abundant.

Newborn young less

are tiny

than half an ounce

Although the mother

and weigh

(5 to

10

g).

normally

is

tolerant of other females, she does not

allow another near her for the

first

couple of weeks after she has given birth.

When

old, their

the babies are a few days

mother

carries

them away

from the nest and leaves them hidden

in

vegetation while she forages during the night. In the

morning she

back. After about a

for the

_

JR

Like other

bush babies,

Demidoff's bush babies are nocturnal They spend the day sleeping

hollow

in

they weave from leaves and twigs. The animals

sometimes groups of

females and their young huddle together. They are active for brief rest at

most of the

night, with just a

around midnight. They forage

carries

carries

she jumps a gap that

young to

and she

still

cross alone, they

them

are able

is

call

them

too large her back,

across.

Demidoff's bush babies eat mainly insects.

trees, thick vegetation, or in nests that

usually sleep alone, but

If

them

month the young

to follow the female, but she occasionally.

carries

Beetles, moths, caterpillars, favorites.

They have

and

crickets are

a higher proportion of

insect protein in their diet (at

about 70 percent)

than larger species of bush babies. They also

sometimes eat

fruit.

occasionally eat the

During the dry season they

gum

(sticky sap) that

oozes

from trees where the bark has been damaged.

Ill


PRIMATES

List

of Species

The following

lists all

species of

primates:

FAMILY TARSIIDAE

Phaner P

furcifer

Fork-marked dwarf

lemur

Tarsius

Order Primates Primates

Indri, sifakas,

Suborder Strepsirhini Lower primates (Strepsirhines)

FAMILY LEMURIDAE Typical lemurs

Eulemur coronatus Crowned lemur fulvus Brown lemur macaco Black lemur mongoz Mongoose lemur rubriventer Red-bellied lemur

E. E. E.

E. E.

and woolly lemurs

bamboo lemur H griseus Bamboo lemur H. simus Greater bamboo lemur Lemur aureus Golden

L.

catta Ringtailed lemur

Varecia V.

variegata Ruffed lemur

spectrum Spectral or eastern

T.

A. laniger Eastern woolly lemur A. occidentalis

Western woolly

tarsier

syrichta Philippine tarsier

T.

S.

lemur

Suborder Haplorhini

indri Indri

I.

Propithecus P diadema Diademed sifaka P tattersalli Golden-crowned sifaka

verreauxi Verreaux's sifaka

P.

Higher primates

monkeys, and apes)

FAMILY CALLITRICHIDAE Marmosets and tamarins

FAMILY DAUBENTONIIDAE

C

Aye-aye

Callithrix

Euoticus E.

FAMILY CHEIROGALEIDAE Dwarf and mouse lemurs

geoffroyi Geoffroy's

clawed galago (Matschie's galago) G.

moholi Mohol galago

(lesser

G. orinus

G. rondoensis

G.

argentata

Silver

Lorises

and pottos

Arctocebus Golden potto A. calabarensis Angwantibo

A. aureus

Loris L.

tardigradus Slender

Nycticebus N. coucang Slow N.

loris

marmoset (Callithrix)

emiliae Snethlage's

marmoset

marmoset M. (Callithrix) mauesi Maues marmoset M.

(Callithrix)

tailed

5.

Pseudopotto

A. fusciceps

spider

bicolor Pied tamarin graellsi Graell's

black-mantle

Saddleback tamarin

S.

fuscicollis

S.

geoffroyi Geoffroy's tamarin

S.

imperator Emperor tamarin inustus Mottle-faced tamarin labiatus Red-bellied tamarin

S.

S.

Brown-headed

monkey

A. marginatus White-whiskered

monkey

A. paniscus Black spider

monkey

Brachyteles B. arachnoides Muriqui (woolly spider monkey) Cacajao Uakaris C. calvus Red uakari (white uakari)

melanocephalus Black uakari

C.

(black-headed uakari) Callicebus Titi monkeys C. cupreus (superspecies group contains: C. dubius, C. caligatus, C. olallae, C.

modestus,

C.

chestnut-bellied C.

oenanthe, titi)

moloch (superspecies group

contains: C. cinerascens,

hoffmannsi, C. brunneus, donacophilus, dusky titi) personatus Masked titi torquatus Yellow-handed titi

C. C.

tamarin

false potto

black

A. geoffroyi Black-handed spider

melanurus Black-

M. (Callithrix) nigriceps Blackheaded marmoset Saguinus Tamarins

loris

chamek Black-faced monkey

spider

marmoset

loris

Perodicticus P potto Potto

P martini Martin's

marmoset

S.

pygmaeus Pygmy

A.

spider

M. (Callithrix) intermedius Aripuana marmoset M. (Callithrix) leucippe Goldenwhite bare-ear marmoset M. (Callithrix) marcai Marca's

FAMILY LORIDAE

(white-bellied spider

monkey)

marmoset M. (Callithrix) chrysoleucus Golden-white tassel-ear

Otolemur

galago

monkey

monkey

(Callithrix)

M. (Callithrix) humeralifer Santarem marmoset M. (Callithrix) humilis Dwarf

galago

night

Ateles Spider monkeys A. belzebuth Long-haired spider

Mico

thomasi Thomas's galago udzungwensis Matundu galago G. zanzibaricus Zanzibar galago

0. garnettii Garnett's

monkey (gray-necked

Lion tamarins

tamarin chrysomelas Golden-headed lion tamarin L. chrysopygus Black lion tamarin L. rosalia Golden lion tamarin

Rondo galago

0. crassicaudatus Thick-tailed

douroucouli)

caissara Black-faced lion

M.

night

monkey, owl monkey,

douroucouli)

pygmaea Pygmy

L.

galago

Mountain galago

monkey (red-necked

monkey, owl monkey,

Cebuella

M.

bush baby)

G. granti Grant's

G.

lemur)

galago

Galagoides G. demidoff Demidoff's galago (dwarf bush baby or galago)

A. trichotis Hairy-eared dwarf

M. ravelobensis Golden-brown mouse lemur M. rufus Brown mouse lemur M. sambiranensis Sambirano mouse lemur M. tavaratra Northern rufous mouse lemur Mirza Dwarf lemurs M. (Microcebus) coquereli Coquerel's dwarf lemur (mouse

112

(southern lesser galago) G. senegalensis Senegal

Aotus Night monkeys

marmoset

marmoset Leontopithecus

G. matschiei Eastern needle-

Mantled howler Mexican black howler (Guatemalan howler) A. seniculus Red howler

A pigra

Black-tufted-ear

C. penicillata

L.

Brown howler

palliata

A. trivirgatus Northern night

galago gabonensis Gabon galago G. gallarum Somali galago G.

A

marmoset

marmoset

C. (Callithrix)

G. alleni Allen's

A. caraya Black-and-gold howler

A. nigriceps Southern night

Galago

Allocebus lemur Cheirogaleus C. major Greater dwarf lemur C. medius Fat-tailed dwarf lemur Microcebus Mouse lemurs M. berthae Berthe's mouse lemur M. griseorufus Gray-brown mouse lemur M. murinus Gray mouse lemur M. myoxinus Pygmy mouse lemur

Buffy-headed

jacchus Common marmoset kuhlii Wied's black-tufted-ear

C.

L.

sportive lemur

Buffy-tufted-ear

marmoset C.

elegantulus Southern needleclawed galago (elegant galago) E. pallidus Northern needleclawed galago (pale galago)

sportive lemur)

mustelinus Weasel sportive lemur L. ruficaudatus Red-tailed sportive lemur L. septentrionalis Northern

Marmosets

C. flaviceps

FAMILY GALAGONIDAE Bush babies and galagos

monkey

marmoset

madagascariensis Aye-aye

D.

Capuchinlike monkeys

Alouatta Howler monkeys A. belzebul Red-handed howler A. fusca

goeldii Goeldi's

C. aurita

Daubentonia

FAMILY MEGALADAPIDAE

dorsalis Gray-backed sportive lemur L. edwardsi Milne-Edwards' sportive lemur L leucopus White-footed sportive lemur L. microdon Small-toothed sportive lemur (light-necked

FAMILY CEBIDAE

(tarsiers,

Callimico

Sportive lemurs

L.

tripartitus Golden-mantle saddleback tamarin

Indri

C.

Lepilemur

tarsier

dianae Dian's tarsier pumilus Pygmy tarsier

T.

T.

Avahi

Hapalemur H.

bancanus Western

T.

FAMILY INDRIIDAE

leucopus Silvery-brown tamarin (white-footed tamarin) S. martinsi Bare-face tamarin S. midas Red-handed tamarin S. mystax Mustached tamarin S. niger Black-handed tamarin S. nigricollis Black-mantle tamarin S. oedipus Cotton-top tamarin S.

Tarsiers

C. C.

(white-handed titi, widow monkey, collared titi) Cebus Capuchin monkeys C. albifrons White-fronted capuchin C. apella Brown capuchin (tufted or black-capped capuchin)


LIST

capudnus White-faced capuchin (white-throated capuchin) C. olivaceus Weeper capuchin (wedge-capped capuchin) Chiropotes Bearded sakis

(greater white-nosed monkey,

C.

albinasus White-nosed saki satanas Bearded saki (black

C. C.

lagotricha Humboldt's woolly

monkey (smoky

or

pogonias Crowned guenon

C.

solatus Suntailed

C.

wolfi Wolf's

aethiops Vervet (g rivet, savanna, or green monkey)

E.

albicans Buffy saki

P

irrorata Bald-faced saki

monachus Monk

saki

mangabey

M. arctoides Stump-tailed macaque (bear macaque) M. assamensis Assamese

macaque

saki (white-

faced saki) Saimiri Squirrel monkeys

macaque

monkey Red-backed

oerstedii

squirrel

monkey

Common

sciureus

M. fuscata Japanese macaque M. maura Moor macaque M. mulatta Rhesus macaque (rhesus

squirrel

monkey monkey

FAMILY CERCOPITHECIDAE Old World monkeys SUBFAMILY CERCOPITHECINAE

Baboons, drills, mandrills, guenons, and macaques Allenopithecus A. nigroviridis Allen's

swamp

monkey Cercocebus Mangabeys galeritus Agile

C.

mangabey

(crested or Tana River

managbey) torquatus White mangabey (collared, red-capped, or sooty

C.

mangabey) Cercopithecus Guenons

monkey monkey

C.

albogularis Sykes'

C.

ascanius Redtail

monkey, Schmidt's

(coppertail

guenon)

monkey

C.

campbelli Campbell's

C.

cephus Mustached monkey

C diana Diana monkey C. dryas Dryas monkey (salongo monkey)

M. M. M. M. M. M.

Red-eared monkey

monkey)

hamiyni Owl-faced monkey

C.

(Hamlyn's monkey)

monkey C. nnitis Blue monkey (silver, golden, or Samango monkey) C. mona Mona monkey

macaque

macaque macaque sinica Toque macaque syivanus Barbary macaque

M. talapoin Talapoin monkey Papio hamadryas P h. cynocephalus Yellow

baboon anubis Olive baboon

P P

h. h.

ursinus

P.

h.

papio Guinea baboon

P comata Grizzled

h.

gelada Gelada (gelada baboon)

monkeys

Colobus C.

angolensis White-epauletted black colobus (Angolan black

C. Ihoesti L'Hoest's

or black-and-white colobus) C.

guereza Guereza (whitemantled or magistrate black

petaurista Lesser spot-nosed

monkey

(lesser

white-nosed

monkey) C.

neglectus De Brazza's

C. nictitans

monkey Spot-nosed monkey

sureli

(red-bellied sureli) sureli

(maroon

sureli)

siamensis Pale-thighed Procolobus Red colobus

sureli

black leaf

(leonine or gray-

headed black T. s.

(Francois'

leaf

monkey

laotum White-browed black

monkey

mauritius Ebony leaf monkey (Moor or Negro leaf

T. s.

monkey) s.

T.

obscurus Dusky

(spectacled leaf T.

leaf

s. pileatus Capped monkey (bonneted

leaf

leaf

monkey) vetulus Purple-faced leaf

monkey (wanderoo)

FAMILY HYLOBATIDAE Gibbons

(bay colobus) kirkii

Dark-handed red colobus

(Kirk's red

P tholloni Red-crowned red colobus (Thollon's or tshuapa red colobus)

P verus Olive colobus (Van Beneden's colobus) Pygathrix P. (Rhinopithecus) avunculus Tonkin snub-nosed monkey (Dollman's snub-nosed

monkey) (Rhinopithecus) bieti

Yunnan

snub-nosed monkey (black snub-nosed monkey) P (Rhinopithecus) brelichi Guizhou snub-nosed monkey (gray or oxtailed snub-nosed

monkey) P nemaeus Red-shanked douc monkey (cochin China monkey) P nigripes Black-shanked

monkey

Hylo bates gibbon concolor Crested black gibbon (concolor or whitecheeked gibbon) H. gabriellae Yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (buff-cheeked gibbon) H. hoolock Hoolock gibbon (white-browed gibbon) H. klossi Kloss gibbon (Mentawai gibbon, beeloh; incorrectly: dwarf gibbon, dwarf siamang) H. lar Lar gibbon (white-handed or common gibbon) H. leucogenys Northern and southern white-cheeked crested gibbons H. moloch Moloch gibbon (silvery gibbon) /-/. muelleri Muller's gibbon (gray gibbon) H. pileatus Pileated gibbon (capped gibbon) H. syndactylus Samang H. agilis Agile

colobus)

pennantii Pennant's red colobus P. preussi Preuss' red colobus

P.

monkey

monkey)

monkeys

P.

(black-footed douc

monkey) P (Rhinopithecus) roxellana Golden snub-nosed monkey

H.

FAMILY HOMINIDAE Great apes Gorilla Gorillas

(orange, snub-nosed, or Roxellane's monkey, moupin

G. beringei Eastern gorilla

langur)

Homo

Semnopithecus Langurs and leaf monkeys entellus

(common

Hanuman

langur

or gray langur)

hypoleucos Malabar langur Trachypithecus semnopithecus T. s. auratus Spangled leaf monkey (ebony or moor, or negro leaf monkey)

S.

T. s.

s.

or

langur)

P badius Western red colobus

colobus, eastern black-and-

white colobus) C. polykomos Gray-epau letted black colobus (king or western black-and-white colobus)

Hooded

s johnii

T. s.

P.

T.

C.

monkey)

leaf

P potenziani Mentawai

5.

leaf

black leaf .

(black-crested sureli or simpai)

SUBFAMILY COLOBINAE

Colobus and

sureli (gray or

White-sideburned

monkey

T.

Island sureli)

P femoralis Banded sureli P fredericae Fuscous sureli P frontata White-fronted sureli P. melalophos Mitered sureli

Chacma baboon

hamadryas Hamadryas baboon (sacred baboon) Savanna baboon (common baboon) Theropithecus P

francoisi

black leaf

Nilgiri

radiata Bonnet

silenus Lion-tailed

Miopithecus

monkey (Sclater's

nigra Black

pagensis

(Barbary ape or rock ape) M. thibetana Tibetan macaque (Pere David's or Tibetan stumptailed macaque) M. tonkeana Tonkean macaque Mandrillus M. leucophaeus Drill M. sphinx Mandrill

T.

C. erythrotis

Pig-tailed

monkey) T. s.

Presbytis Surelis

P.

macaque

erythrogaster Red-bellied

C.

monkey)

M. nemestrina

ustus Golden-backed squirrel

S.

(crab-eating or

cynomolgous macaque)

hatinhenis Bar-headed black monkey (ha tinh black leaf

leaf

monkey

P rubicunda Red

M. cydopis Formosan rock macaque (Taiwan macaque) M. fascicularis Long-tailed

boliviensis Bolivian squirrel

snub-nosed monkey,

s.

T.

Pagai Island langur) N. iarvatus Proboscis monkey

Sunda

albigena Gray-cheeked

L.

saki (red-

saki)

P pithecia Guianan

5.

patas Patas monkey (military or hussar monkey)

aterrimus Black mangabey Macaca Macaques

P.

5.

(pig-tailed

C.

L.

R aequatorialis Equatorial

S.

monkey monkey

Chlorocebus

common

woolly monkey) Pithecia Saki monkeys

bearded

C.

Lophocebus

monkey

P.

satanas Satanic black colobus White-thighed black colobus (ursine blackand-white colobus) Nasalis N. (Simias) concolor Simakobu C.

C. vellerosus

Erythrocebus

saki)

Lagothrix Woolly monkeys L. flavicauda Yellow-tailed woolly

L

hocheur)

OF SPECIES

barbei Barbe's leaf

G. gorilla

Western

H. sapiens

gorilla

Human

Pan Chimpanzees P paniscus Bonobo (dwarf pygmy chimpanzee)

or

P troglodytes Common chimpanzee Pongo Orangutans P abelii Sumatran orangutan P pygmaeus Bornean orangutan

monkey

cristatus Silvered leaf

monkey T.

s.

delacouri White-rumped

black leaf T.

s.

monkey

geei Golden leaf

monkey

113


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

7

PRIMATES

Glossary Words

Carnassial (teeth) opposing pair

small capitals refer to

in

other entries

in

adapted to

of teeth especially

the glossary.

shear with a cutting (scissorlike)

Adaptation features of animal that adjust

it

to

may be produced by e g

edge;

environment;

its

evolution

camouflage, coloration

,

Adaptive radiation when

closely related animals

group of

members

(e.g.,

of a family) have

evolved differences from each other so that they can survive

in

Adult

a fully

grown animal

that

has reached breeding age

Anal gland

(anal sac) a gland

opening by short duct either inside

just

anus or on either side of

Aquatic

living in

Arboreal

living

it

water

cheek teeth.

opening to the body instead of

born with

is

Carrion dead animal matter

Coniferous forest evergreen

used as a food source by

forests

scavengers

regions and mountainous areas

away from where they were

dominated by

born and brought up

a blind sac

the

in

the ground. See Plantigrade

found

pines, spruces,

Biomass the

total

them

weight of

Display any

the junction between the small

Corm underground food

conspicuous pattern of behavior

and

storage bulb of certain plants

that conveys specific information

Crepuscular active

to others, usually to

large intestines. In

mammals

herbivorous very large;

the

is

it

it

site

on

end of the cecum

is

often

in

twilight

Cursorial adapted for running

of

cellulose. is

in species

by trees that lose their leaves

displays

Diurnal active during the day

DNA

(deoxyribonucleic acid) the

substance that makes up the

main part of the chromosomes of all

walls of plants

cell

Cementum

hard material that

coats the roots of

that,

laid

some

In

down under

mammalian

cementum

species

annual layers

in

a microscope,

can

for activities such as

living things;

code that

animals

generation to generation

is

Delayed implantation when

Domestication process of

the development of a fertilized

taming and breeding animals to

egg

is

suspended

provide help and useful products

for a variable

humans

period before

cycle of reproductive activity

of individuals

the wall of the uterus and

Dormancy

from courtship,

Cheek pouch

completes normal pregnancy.

a result of

the temporary storage of food,

Births are thus delayed until a

growth

found only

favorable time of year

metabolic

Den

minimum

formation

through nesting to

territory),

monkeys

independence of young

Browsing feeding on trees

leaves of

and shrubs

Bushmeat

name

general

(especially in

West

given

Africa) to

meat from wild animals, often collected

and sold

illegally

Cache hidden supply

of food;

in

pouch used

a

for

the typical

of the Old

World

implants into

it

a shelter, natural or

Cheek teeth

teeth lying behind

constructed, used for sleeping,

mammals,

giving birth,

consisting of premolars

and

give birth

Chromosomes

and

raising

act (verb) of retiring to a

MOLARS

and

raise

Dental formula a convention for

nucleus; responsible for

one

generation to the next and for

future use

controlling

cell

growth and

arrangement,

numbers

of

all

in

lower jaw are given. The

CITES Convention on

numbers

International Trade

the order: incisor

Canine

(tooth) a sharp stabbing

tooth usually longer than

Canopy continuous broken (open) layer

rest

(closed) or in

forests

in

Endangered Species. An

premolar

agreement between nations that

figure

restricts international

trade to

permitted levels through licensing

controls. Rare animals

Capillaries tiny blood vessels

Droppings see

is

(P),

molar (M). The

number

the total

13/3,

example

Cl/1, P4/4,

in

the

of

for Carnivora

(echos); occurs

Edentate

final

skull.

waves

is

M3/3 = 44

Endemic found Estivation

that convey blood through

instance Appendix

dominated by

organs from arteries to veins

Volume

See

rainfall

specially

plants such as cacti

adapted

is

also

for

and armadillos

only

in

one

geographical area, nowhere else

weather

1, 2).

name

anteaters, sloths,

A

Desert area of low

1

in

their

bats

in

toothless, but

used as group

are assigned to categories: (for

page

and

Echolocation the process of

decreased

and plants

whole system

the pattern of reflected sound in

canine (C),

(I),

a

plants, animals,

Dentition animal's set of teeth

1

and Scats

Feces

perception based on reaction to

are always presented

teeth to be found typical

and administrative

produced by the intermingling of branches of trees

reduced to a

environment interact in

each half of the upper and

function

primates)

activity

Ecosystem

which the

types of tooth

Callosities hardened, thickened

some

suspended and

the upper surface

which

summarizing the dental

areas on the skin callosities in

or for

genetic material (DNA) within

transmitting features from

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;as

action

Dorsal relating to the back or

den to

the

cell

which

in

spinal part of the body; usually

young;

young

is

a state

hormone

winter shelter

strings of

also (verb) to hide food for

(e.g., ischial

for

the canines

in

contains genetic

handed down from

growing crops and grazing

be counted to estimate the age

(and often establishment of

114

in

open space

two

pair

in

trees for timber or to create

is

entire

elements, as

Cellulose the material that

Biped any animal that walks on See Quadruped

of

threat, courtship, or greeting

down and removing

cutting

members

can involve

species;

visual or vocal

Deciduous forest dominated

with a

same

relatively

forms the

teeth.

legs.

the

The

the

an antibacterial

retain

living material

Breeding season the

live

and cedars

opening out from

digestive tract,

function

variation within

Dispersal the scattering of

young animals going to

northern

in

and

and the

Digit a finger or toe

Carnivore meat-eating animal

Deforestation the process of

species

ungulates

in

Digitigrade method of walking

may

Biodiversity a variety of

although also found

on toes without heel touching

jointed outer skeleton e.g., crabs insects

rodents and lagomorphs, a

Congenital condition an animal

lower molar

winter (or the dry season)

a

and

typical of

sexual and excretory activities

first

reduced cecum the appendix

Arthropod animals with

is

It

involved are the fourth upper

appendix;

branches of trees

reproductive, and urinary ducts

separate anus and openings for

bacterial action

up among the

space between the

a

teeth, usually the incisors

Carnivora, and the teeth

Cecum

different niches

Diastema

cavity in the pelvic

region into which the gut,

open. The cloaca forms a single

the

unique to

is

premolar and

a

mammals

in living

arrangement

Cloaca

inactivity or greatly

activity in

Estrus the period

hot or dry

when eggs

are released from the female's


1

GLOSSARY

Gape wide-open mouth Gene the basic unit of heredity

Inbreeding breeding among

Lactation process of producing

available for successful mating.

closely related animals (e.g.,

milk

Estrous females are often

enabling one generation to pass

cousins) leading to

referred to as "in heat" or as

on

genetic composition and

Larynx voice box where sounds

reduced

are created

ovaries,

and she becomes

"receptive" to

Eutherian mammals that give

rear

them without

activities,

using a

pouch on the mother's

Euphorbia

offspring

its

belly

left regularly,

added

The

plural

page

1

closely related is

genera. See

regions of Africa

pregnancy

between

in

which every

and

dies,

lost

is

fertilization of

birth of the

the egg

baby

Gregarious

forever

living

together

in

loose groups or herds

Family technical term for a

group of closely related

Flarem

species

that often also look quite similar.

end

in

page

1

1

Also used as the

.

for a social

species

Volume

"idae." See

group within

made up

1

word and

their offspring

Feces remains of digested food

body

as

living

and

Matriarch senior female

between animals of

member

species

different

coasts

in

living in

the tropics the sea

of a social group

Metabolic rate

or varieties within a single

which

rate at

species

activities

Invertebrates animals that have

and

no backbone

having a different function. See

bones) inside their body,

(or

occur within

respiration

and the

energy from food

jellyfish,

within animals that

Migration movement from one place to another and back

e.g.,

and

again, usually seasonal

Molars

crabs

IUCN

and constant body

in

turn food into energy

other true

mollusks, insects, of

activities

Metabolism the chemical

same

premolars, each type of tooth

large crushing teeth at

the back of the

mouth

Conservation of Nature,

Molt process

which mammals

internal processes; also called

responsible for assigning animals

shed

"warm-blooded"

and plants to

and

Territory

that an

the course of

in

activity.

its

International Union for the

table

rarity.

Homodont

Frugivore an animal that eats

the teeth are

dentition in all

Monotreme

below

continuous coat characteristic of

related species that can

mammals

interbreed, but the hybrid

Fused joined together

sterile

closely

its

Montane

has not reached breeding age

in

mountain

a

Kelp brown seaweeds

Mutation random changes

Keratin tough, fibrous material

genetic material

in

that forms hairs, feathers, and is

and cannot produce

offspring of

as the duck-billed

platypus

environment

appearance and function

Hybrid offspring of two

animals that

egg-laying

mammal, such

similar in

Fur mass of hairs forming a

usually seasonal

have only one mate at a time

See

See

which

hair,

in

Monogamous

internationally

agreed categories of

Juvenile a young animal that

underground tunnels

diet

Marine

Interbreeding breeding

individuals of the

normal periods of

main part of the

along

shrews, and moles

Intraspecific between

dentition specialized

animal uses

fruit as

shrubs and

living

muddy

Fleterodont

Fossorial adapted for digging

burrows or

adapted to

animals such as hedgehogs,

therefore herbivores)

animal

living in

trees

liberation of

Flome range the area

eggs on an

laid their

for

of gasses

temperature by means of

where CARRiON-feeding

name

Interspecific between species

and browsers are

have gone wild and

have

Mangroves woody

similar small prey.

animals, including the exchange

a high

Flystrike

and

pool

Feral domestic animals that

flies

insects

for

can cause dilution of the gene

Homeothermy maintenance

independently of people

production of milk

Flerbivore an animal that eats

scent secretions

live

Insectivore animals that feed

on

characteristic

consorting with a single male

Homodont

Often accompanied by

glands

mammals, glands

of

chemical

territory

into canines, incisors,

expelled from the pellets.

same

plants (grazers

a

of parents

group of females

Mammary

not an

(i.e.,

introduced species)

family or strain; interbreeding

the

in

names always

Zoological family

a

often with scent

living naturally in a

Also used as a group

Grazing feeding on grass

last individual

species

mammals,

in

Indigenous region; native

1

for

Latrine place where feces are

Incisor (teeth) simple pointed

used for nipping and snipping

species.

and

survival rates

group of

a

Gestation the period of

feces

mammary glands

teeth at the front of the jaws

plants characteristic of savanna

Extinction process of dying out

in

offspring

not specialized

Genus Volume

large cactuslike

Excrement

is

capable of a wide range of

not eggs, and

birth to babies,

characteristics to

Generalist an animal that

males

weakened

protective plates

on the

Native belonging to that area

skin of

vertebrate animals

or country, not introduced by

own

human

assistance

IUCN CATEGORIES EX

Extinct,

when

there

is

no reasonable doubt that the

last

VU

individual of a species has died.

EW

when

Extinct in the Wild,

the wild

a species

is

known

only to

survive in captivity or as a naturalized population well

outside the past range.

CR

Critically

immediate

EN

risk

a species

of extinction

in

is

facing an

the wild

in

the

future.

in

in

Risk,

when

not satisfy the

about

Deficient,

risk

of extinction in

been evaluated and does CR, EN, or VU.

a species has

criteria for

when

there

is

not enough information

a species to assess the risk of extinction.

NE Not Evaluated, IUCN

Endangered, when extinction

Lower

DD Data

Endangered, when

extremely high

LR

when a species faces a high the medium-term future.

Vulnerable,

species that have not been assessed by the

criteria.

a species faces a very high risk of

the wild

in

the near future.

115


1

1

PRIMATES

Natural selection

when

Placenta the structure that an embryo to

animals and plants are

challenged by natural processes (e g. predation,

bad weather) to

ensure survival of the

New World

fittest

"rumination") to by microbes

assist digestion

the stomach

in

on land

Terrestrial living

Territory defended space

Thermoregulation the

pregnancy, allowing exchange of

chemicals between them

Salivary glands glands

Plantigrade walking on soles of

mouth and

in

the

throat that produce

amounts

of watery

maintenance of

a relatively

constant body temperature

feet with heels touching the

large

ground. See Digitigrade

secretion to aid

American continents (not usually

Polygamous when

digestion of food

between sunshine and shade

Australia)

have more than one mate

Savanna

Torpor deep sleep accompanied

World

the Americas; Old

non-

refers to the

Niche part of a habitat occupied by an organism, defined of

all

aspects of

its

Nocturnal active

Nomadic fixed

terms

in

single

animals

Population

in

animals of the same

home, but wander

continents. See

New World

Omnivore an animal

can be brought to bear against

same hand

others on the

or foot

order to grip objects a subdivision of a class of

Prehensile grasping

tail

on cleared ground.

Ungulate hoofed animals such

that includes monkeys, apes,

Siblings brothers and

and ourselves

Social behavior interactions

between

many

same

mates, not just one

made up

all

on two

legs)

Range

total

animal that

fours

takes to

bond"

on or

in

body of another

(a biped

upper waters of

distributed is

(in estrus)

Reproduction the process of breeding, creating

new

offspring

parts

too harsh for trees to grow all

parts of Africa

south of the Sahara Desert

Subspecies

a locally distinct

group of animals that slightly

live

on

its

own

fingers or toes

organisms into groups according

Physiology processes within

digesting plant material

origins, or behavior.

Ruminant animals

categories,

mammal

warm-

physiology

vegetation and later bring

Taxonomy

branch of biology

to similarities

it

on snout, but can be on tail,

or

eyebrows Viviparous animals that give

young rather than

eggs

Vocalization making of sounds

in

a part of

sometimes

areas such as elbows,

laying

Rumen

is

a

mammals,

with skeleton

of bones, but

birth to active

and recognize them

blooded state

made

length into a single structure

animals to enable others to find

digestion. Maintaining a

(e.g., fish,

that are joined along their

traffic

that eat

backbone

usually

concerned with

e.g.,

Vertebrate animal with

Vibrissae sensory whiskers,

together for their

regularly uses for sleeping

and animal bodies,

underneath of

Symbiosis when two or more species live

Pheromone

plants

belly or

an animal (opposite of dorsal)

softer cartilage

killed

complex stomach found

Ventral

of species; often called a race

a bat or a bird

ruminants specifically for

Ungulates hoofed animals

reptiles), usually

differ

from normal appearance

Roost place that

scent produced by

are

where the climate

of the world is

in

Roadkill animals

by

which embryos

in

mammals develop

hear

offspring

fertile

the open sea or large lakes

living in

womb

Uterus

produce

Syndactylous

lakes

horses;

Ultrasounds sounds that

than either could

beside rivers and

and

mostly HERBIVORES

too high-pitched for humans to

Retina

living

mammals

hairs in

look similar and can breed to

mutual benefit more successfully

light-sensitive layer at

stiff

as pigs, deer, cattle,

of

for the next generation

Riparian

Pelagic

is

female

a

the back of the eye

mammal

courtship

and underneath the outer

Species a group of animals that

lying

Parturition process of giving

furry coat of a

walks

geographical area

birth

Pelage

sisters

individuals within the

species, e.g.,

Sub-Saharan

ready to mate

a "pair

trees that

Steppe open grassland

its

Parasite animal or plant that lives

of

acids. Essential in the diet

female together it

front

in

Promiscuous mating often with

Receptive when

is

forming a

Primate a group of mammals

over which a species

mate; marriage

fine hairs

coat of

behavior that keeps a

beyond the time

Underfur

skin

walks on

a

usually

have been planted or grown up

that has

male and

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;woody plants

Secondary forest

Quadruped an

bond

grassy or shrub-

covered lands of the far north

Pride social group of lions

animal or plant kingdom; a body

fertilization

Tundra open

of molars, but behind canines

of animals

the female's ovary prior to

which

one

Scrub vegetation dominated by

or

of the

life

in

of a species from

location to another

dense, woolly mass dose to the

Volume

Ovulation release of egg from

of skin

interpret

with more than one stem

Protein chemicals

1

Scrotum bag

shrubs

amino

Pair

kills live

and

the male testicles are located

related animal families. See

page

animals

members

animals consisting of a series of

Organism any member

defense against being eaten by

animals to leave smell messages

of every varied opportunity that

fingers or toes that

markers

territorial

for others to find

Premolars teeth found

behavior

often produced by plants as a

often

deposited with the pellets as

behind another structure

Opportunistic taking advantage

arises; flexible

is

rate

Toxins poisonous chemicals

Posterior the hind end or

prey for food

that eats

pellets, especially of

by lowered body temperature

and reduced metabolic

Translocation transferring

fingers

1

all

areas

metabolism or by moving

Scent chemicals produced by

almost anything

Order

or

species

warm

rainfall, usually in

Scats fecal

group of

Predator an animal that

Olfaction sense of smell

in

one

the animals of that species

Old World non-American

tropical grasslands

carnivores. Scent

a distinct

either by adjustments to

chewing and

with scattered trees and low

male mates

a

BREEDING SEASON

at night

animals that have no

Opposable

a

in

mating season.

Polygynous when

with several females

lifestyle

continuously

116

links

mother during

its

in

in

their structure,

The

Yeti mysterious apelike creature reportedly inhabiting parts of

Himalayas

order of increasing

broadness, are:

species, genus,

back from stomach to chew

family, order, class,

again ("chewing the cud" or

See Volume

1

such as barking and croaking

classifying

page

and phylum. 1

Zoologist person

who

studies

animals

Zoology the study

of animals


FURTHER READING AND WEBSITES

Further Reading General

Skinner,

and Smithers,

D.,

J.

R. H. N.,

Mammals of the Southern Cranbrook, G., The

Mammals

Southeast Asia, Oxford

New

of

Subregion, University of

University Press,

South

The

Linden, E

Wilson, D. Eisenberg,

J.

and Redford

F.,

Chicago

D

Estes, R

African

1999

Young,

University of California

J.

Z

,

The

Specific to this

Pica Press, Sussex, U.K.,

J., The Kingdon Field Guide to Mammals, Academic Press, San

Kingdon,

Diego, CA, 1997

Guide to the

Collins Field

,

Russon,

the Mist, Houghton

Mifflin,

New

Mammals,

Barnes and Noble,

New

Lemurs of

,

Walker's

Mammals

World, The John Hopkins University

A

E.

(

Press, East

1996

NY.,

Orangutans: Wizards of the U.K.,

M A ,

Primate's Memoir: Love,

Death, and Baboons

East Africa,

in

Jonathan Cape, London, U.K., 2001

G.,

and Marquardt,

L.

University Press,

S.,

Press,

Chicago,

Weber,

and

Press,

2000

IL,

2002

Cambridge, MA., 1989

York, NY,

of the

Almost Human: A journey into

the World of Baboons, Chicago University

A.,

L. J.,

Future, Perseus Group,

New

B.,

and Vedder,

of Gorillas, Aurum

The

Orangutans: Their Evolution, Behavior,

M

Guide to the

Pictorial

1999

Strum, P.

Kaplan, G., and Rogers,

Nowak, R

The

Press,

2000

Cambridge, U.K., 1990

Heltne,

2001

,

Sapolsky, R J.,

Harper

The Encyclopedia of

D.,

Walker's Primates of the

,

2000

York, NY,

Understanding Chimpanzees, Harvard MacDonald,

1975

Rain Forest, Robert Hale, London,

Madagascar, IUCN, Switzerland and MacDonald, D

Rowe, N

Hampton,

1975

volume

Harcourt, C., and Thornback,

Mammals of Britain and Europe, Collins, New York, NY., 1993

M

R

Living Primates, Pogonias

1999 Fossey, D., Gorillas in

African

Nowak,

Baltimore, MD.,

of Mammals: Their

Life

York, NY.,

World, John Hopkins University

Physiology, Oxford

University Press, Oxford, U.K.,

The Mammals of

,

Madagascar,

A Taxonomic and

Washington, DC, 1999

Anatomy and

New

Mammal

D. M.,

Geographic Reference, Smithsonian Institute Press,

CA, 1991

Press, Berkley,

N

IL.,

and Reeder,

E.,

Species of the World.

The Behavioral Guide to

,

Mammals,

Garbutt,

The

K. H.,

Neotropics, University of

Chicago,

Press,

Apes, Men, and Language,

,

Dutton and Co.,

York, NY, 1991

Mammals of the

The Making of Mankind,

,

Pretoria, Pretoria,

1990

Africa,

Leakey, R

Michael Joseph, London, U.K., 1981

African

A., In

Press,

the

Kingdom

London, U.K.,

2001

York, NY,

MD, 1999

Baltimore,

Useful Websites General

http://www.iucn.org Details of species

http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/ University of Michigan

Museum

of Zoology

and

http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/walkers

their status; listings by

the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, also

lists

IUCN publications

mammals Text of basic

of the_world/prep.html

book

listing species, illustrating

almost every genus

animal diversity websites. Search for pictures

and information about animals by family,

common name.

and

class,

Includes glossary

newsroom, http://www.cites.org/

IUCN by

arfld

CITES

scientific

species, or

listings.

name,

Specific to this

http://www.panda.org World Wide Fund

reports,

for Nature

press releases,

volume

(WWF), http: //www. primates online.com

government

campaigns

General website for information on primates

Search for animals

order, family, genus,

common name.

Location by

http://www.aza.org

http://www.primate.org

American Zoo and Aquarium Association

General information and

links

on primates

country and explanation of reasons for

http://www.wcs.org

listings

Website of the Wildlife Conservation Society

http://endangered.fws.gov Information about threatened animals and

http://www.nwf.org

plants from the U.S. Fish

Website of the National Wildlife Federation

and

Service, the organization in

Wildlife

charge of 94

million acres (38 million ha) of wildlife refuges

American

http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/

Mammals

list

on Smithsonian Museum

site

117


0

0 2

0

51

1

1

Set Index riber shows the volume and is followed by the page numbers (e g 1: 52, 74).

A bold relevant

,

bold

g

,

aardwolf' mean that

the animal has an illustrated main entry in the set. Underlined page numbers (e g., 9 78-79 ) refer to the :

main entry

for that animal.

numbers

animals

in

Page numbers information

(e.g.,

Arctocebus 4: A. aureus 4:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

parentheses e.g., At-a-Glance boxes.

1: (24)

A 78-79

:

alpaca 5: 92, 93, 105, (106) ambergris 3: 89 Amblonyx cinereus 1 32,

70-71 American Sign Language 4: 13, (16), 27 Ammodorcas clarkei 6: 62 Ammotragus lervia 6: 62 angwantibo 4: 106, 106

bennetti 8: 30 8: 31

Abrocomidae acacia 6: 87 Acinonyx

26-29

acouchi

animal farming 2: (97) anoa, lowland 6: 62

29

A. rex 2:

Aconaemys

fuscus 8: 30

30

Acrobates pygmaeus

84-85

10: 74,

marsupial see numbat short-nosed spiny see echidna, short-beaked

Acrobatidae 10 (76) :

addax

62

6:

Addax nasomaculatus 6: 62 Aepyceros melampus 6: 62, 86-87 Aepyprymnus rufescens 10: 48 Aeromys tephromelas 7: 34,

66 Antechinomys laniger 10: 27 antechinus 10: 11, 25, 20, (25), 27 silky 9:

brown

36 34

Afrotheres 5: (10) Af rotheria 9: 1

agouti

88

28

8-9

Central American 8: 30

common

42-43 spotted (common/ 8: 42-43 8:

Agouti A. paca 8: 30 A. taczanowskn Agoutidae 7: 12 agriculture 1

:

98 Shan Lop Nur Nature

3:

Arjin

Resen/e

9:

common

9:

65

98-101 Ailurops ursinus 10 74 Ailurus fulgens 1: 20, 30-3

6: 62,

2: 82,

:

:

2: (99)

4 46, 57, 89, 100; :

6: 79; 7: 53, 111, 8: 51,

55, 99 see also communication

albino 8: (84)

62 62

A. alces amerlcanus 6:

6:15 6:15 6:15

A. alces shirasi

Allenopithecus nigroviridis

4 40 :

Allocebus trichotis 4 96 Alopex lagopus see Vulpes lagopus Alouatta :

A. fusca 4: 72,

118

34, 38, 40, 60 ants 9: 64, 66, 69,

24-25,

74-75

:

mammals

98

introduced

into 2: 80; 5: (97), 8:

72

96

96

Axis 1

A. porcinus 6:

1

4: 96, 97,

102-103

86-87 baboon 4: 8, 40, 42, 42-43 Chacma 4: 56-57 gelada 4: 40, 42, 43, 62-63 75,

5: 74,

mangabey

32

A. nigriceps 4:

72

ape ape family

4: 40,

42-43,

Apodemus

sylvaticus

78-79

Appaloosa

5:

archaeocetes

3:

1:

32, 34, 35,

94 9: 80,

honey

1:

86

vampire)

(false

32,

82-83

98-99

horseshoe 106-107

1: 32 Palawan stink 1: 32 Balaena mysticetus 3: 55, 110-111

Indian ferret

acutorostrata 3: 55,

106-107

lesser 9:

brown

104-105 long-eared

9: 83,

9:

long-tongued

1

9:

10-1

3:

spectacled 2: 82, 83 sun 2: 82, 83 Beatragus hunterl 6: 62

beaver 7: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 American 7: 28, 29, 30-33 beaver family 7: 28-29 Canadian (American) 7: 28, 29, 30-33 Eurasian 7: 28, 29 mountain 7: 12, 14, 28, (29) mountain beaver family

28-29

swamp

see coypu

dung

2:

76-77

62

3: 55,

80-83

bettong burrowing 10: 48, 57 Tasmanian 10: 8 Bettongia lesueur 10: 48 bilby 10: 44-45

45

binturong 1: 88, 89, 90, 91 biomedical research see medical research bipedalism 4: 10

bison

American

6: 60, 62,

European 6: 62, wood 6: 68

B.

1

86

Mexican free-tailed 9: 82, (83), 84-85, 86, 100-103

83

83

sloth 2: 82,

(66),

64-69 67

Bison B bison 6: 62, 64-69 B bison athabascae 6: 68

long-nosed

84-85

little

giant

greater 10: 27, 44, lesser 10: 27, 44

hog-nosed 1:71, (11); 9: 38, 80, 86 lesser bulldog 9: 108 9:

82

2:

polar 2: 9, 82, 84-89: skunk see wolverine

beluga

84-85, 86, 1 00-1 03 hairy big-eyed 9: 85

lesser

78-81 1: 32

hog

B.

56

:

82

native Australian see koala

beira 6: 60,

tailed) 9: 82, (83),

2: (60)

Malaysian sun

beetles,

free-

Kitti's

Balaenoptera

59

86

5: 74, 86-87 badger 1: 34 American 1: 32, 76-77

12-13

red see orangutan Aplodontia rufa 7: 28 Aplodontidae 7: 12, 28, 29

guano (Mexican

9: 82,

2:

94-97

7:

vampire

2: (97)

koala see koala

98-99 greater horseshoe 9:

84-85, 86, 100-103 Indian greater false

European 4:

funnel-eared 9: 87, 87 greater false vampire (false vampire) 9: 82,

42-43, 54-57 Babyrousa babyrussa

84-85

Barbary see macaque, Barbary

87

horseshoe 9: 80, 87 house (Mexican free-

yellow (savanna) 4: 40,

Amblonyx

84-85,

diadem roundleaf 9: 86 disk-winged 9: 87 Egyptian fruit 9: 86 Egyptian rousette 9: 92-93 false vampire 9: 82, 98-99 fisherman 9: 108-109 free-tailed 9: 87 fruit 9: 58, 80, 81, 86

9:

9

2: 9; 5:

panda see panda,

hammerheaded

58-59

98

1:

grizzly 2: 82, 83, 92,

Brazilian (Mexican) free-

9:

9

98

:

"dawn bear"

hairy-legged vampire

10-11

sacred (hamadryas) 4: 40,

1

8:

American black 2: 82, 90-93 Andean 2: 82, 83 Asian black 2: 82, 83 bear family 2: 82-83 big brown (brown) 2: 82, 83, 92, 94-97 brown 2: 82, 83, 92, 94-97 dancing

tailed) 9: 82, (83),

4: 40, 43,

58-59 olive 4:

87

108-109

Avahi

A. axis 6:

9:

pallid 9:

86, 100-103 bulldog (fisherman) 9: 87,

54-57

1:

7:

76-77

brown 84 86-87 80-81

little

Bechstein's 9:

1

A. occidentalis 4:

84

86

Daubenton's

A. laniger 4:

(37);

vampire

tailed 9: 82, (83),

savanna

76

false

bat families 9:

A. africanus 8: 12

Aonyx

9:

American American

A. belzebuth 4: 72

43,

A. trivirgatus 4: 72,

A. alces andersoni

A. alces gigas

antlers 6: 9, 12, (15),

A. congicus

1

20-21

A. algirus 9: 12, 13

A. frontalis 9: 2 Ateles

jacksoni

bear

80-87

American

Australia,

8.

African slit-faced 9: 82,

Atelerix

A. geoffroyi 4: 72,

B crassicauda

gabbii 1: 20

9:

94

pipistrelle

Bathyergidae 7: 12, Bathyergus B janetta 8: 56 B suillus 8: 56 Bdeogale

20

B. alleni 1:

8.

9:

see also flying fox;

B astutus 1: 20 8 sumichrasti 1: 20 bat 1: 8, 10, 14, 7: 12,

Asian wild 5: 56-57 Asiatic 5: 42 domestic 5: 57

long-tailed see

Aotus

alces 6: 10, 14-19 alces alces 6:15

Bassariscus

4: (29)

5: 42, (44) African 5: 42

6: 62, 110-111 Antilocapridae 6: 63, 110 Antilope cervicapra 6: 62

cinereus

Alces

Asp ilia

A. albiventris 9: 12,

27

108

102

94-97

84, (85),

9:

9: 110-111 white-winged vampire

27

western barred 10: 27 banteng 6: 62

Bassaricyon

hamadryas

A. cinereus see 6:

A. lichtensteinii 6:

64

87

spear-nosed 9: 84, 87 spectacled 9: 87 thumbless 9: 87

whispering (long-eared)

Island 10:

Artiodactyla 1: 10; 5: (10), 12, 66, 6: 52 Arvicola terrestris 7: 98-99

Antilocapra americana

A. capensis 1: 32

Alcelaphus A. buselaphus

A A

96-97

vampire

27

bark stripping 8: 24 barnacles 3: 57, 92, 102,

B

Tibetan 6: 62 Antidorcas marsupialis

:

9:

artiodactyl 1: 8, 8:

babirusa

62

rabbit-eared see bilby

striped 10:

three-banded

86

slit-faced 9:

74-77 nine-banded 9: 65, 74-77 66

87

northern 10: 46-47 northern brown (northern) 10: 27, 46-47 pig-footed 10: 27

Seram

southern naked-tailed 9: 65,

87

9: 82,

Old World leaf-nosed 9: 87 Old World sucker-footed

sheath-tailed 9: 87

rufous spiny 10: 27

9: 65,

86-87

9:

9:

27

87

Old World false vampire

mouse

10:

9:

Zealand short-tailed

rousette 9:

long-nosed (nine-banded)

aye-aye 62

sable 6: 62

:

Ailunnae 1 20 Ailuropoda melanoleuca

calls

40-41 27

6: 60, 62, (63),

6: 60,

royal 6: 60,

65

New

long-nosed 10: 27

Raff ray's 10:

aurochs 6: 63

roan 6: 62 :

64-67 65

Atilax paludinosus 1

110-111

46, 2 21, 28,

(102)

5:

armadillo

A. macrourus 8:

antelope 5: 10, 11, 12, 13; 6: 60-63 American pronghorn 2: 26; 6: 63 four-horned 6: 60, 62

pygmy

44, 69, 77, 79 Ailundae 2 (99)

alarm

40-41

10: 27,

dusky 10: 27 sandstone 10: 27 Antechinus

pronghorn 30

8:

4:

46-47

(northern) 10:

Atherurus

A. stuartii 10: 27, A. swainsonii 10:

7: 8, 10, 12, 14, 8:

black 8:

65,

agile 10: 41

Africa, national parks/reserves 2: 16, 31, 5:

98-99, 100,

2:

large short-nosed

ass

Anomaluridae 7: 12, (19) anteater 1:9, 14, 9: 64-67 banded see numbat giant 9: 64, 65, 68-71

12

7:

red 8:

16-17

A. pusillus 3: 9,

lesser fairy 9:

:

aardwolf 2: 102, 103, 110-111

A. jubatus 2: 10,

06

:

A. seniculus 4: 72

Abrocoma

1

97 bandicoot 10: (10), 24, 25,27 eastern barred 10: 8-9 giant 10: 27 golden 10: 27

Arctonyx collaris 1 32 Argentinosaurus huinculensis

72

A. palliata 4: 10: 5: (10), (12);

64, 65, (66), 67, African 9 65

bamboo

Arctogalidia trivirgata

giant 9:

9:

06 06

A. calabarensis 4:

1:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; locate

Animals that get main entries in the set are indexed under their common names, alternative common names, and scientific names.

1:

1

Arctocephalus

~

aardvark

1

9: 86 mustached 9: 87 New World leaf-nosed

mouse-tailed

:

in

in

:

A. gazella 3: 9

2 103) point to illustrations of parts of the set other than the main entry.

ige

8 bonaerensis 3: 1 07 B musculus 3: 55, 98-101

Archaeonycteris 1: 8 binturong 1 88

Arctictis

bonasus

6: 62,

66

blackbuck 6: 67, 62 Blarina brevicauda 9: 28,

30-33 Blastocerus dichotomus 6:

10


4

0

11

1

0

,

4

8

2

2

SET INDEX

blubber

3:

34, 58, 72, 84, 85,

89, 91, (101)

bluebuck 6: 63 boar, wild 5: 74, 76-79 boat traffic 3: 50, 51, 65, 79,

103 bobcat 2: 10, 38-39. 40 body temperature 1: 9-12

4: 12,

bontebok

95-96

C. C,

C,

C. C.

81

brachiation 4: 38, 72

Brachylagus idahoensis 8: 64, (93)

Brachyteles arachnoldes 4: 72

Bradypus torquatus

65

9:

B variegatus

9: 65,

72-73

8: (84)

90-91 96, 96-97, 103,

forestation

breaching

3:

4:

in

strategists 7: 14, 8: 21

R strategists

synchronized

63

20-21;

3:

castoreum

36

Caloprymnus campestris 10: 48 Caluromys

Asiatic

mound

18

7:

1 1

,

5: (98)

5:

92, 93,

depressicornis 6: 62

B mindorensis

92,

5:

92,

5:

6:

92,

5:

62

C.

bubonic plague 7: 14, 76-77 Bubulcus Ibis 6: (73) Budorcas taxicolor 6: 62, 108 buffalo 1: 15 African 6: 60, 62, 70-73 see also bison, American Bunolagus monticularis 8: 64

C.

6: (73)

Burramys parvus 1 0: 74 burrows 7: 26-27, 9: 44-45, 67, 10: 99 ground destabilization 66-67; 9: 77; 10: 99 see also tunnels

bush baby

4: 106-107 Demidoff's 4: 1 06, 110-111 bushbuck 6: 62 bushmeat trade 4: 27, 32, 40,

53, 61, 85, 5: 87; 6: 59,

66, 72

75

80-81

2: 50,

C. C.

50,

ibex cylindricornis

106

06

ibex ibex 6:

/hex nubiana 6:

1

Capreolus capreolus

6:

1

14

capucinus

C.

olivaceus 4:

4:

0,

Capricornis

monticola Ceratotherium

Capromyidae 7: 12; 8: 31 Capromys pilorides 8: 30, 52-53

65;

15

captivity 1: 22, 29, 65, 3: 59,

42-43, 58, 66, 91; 9: 21; 10: 83 capuchin 4: 10, 72, 83 brown 4: 72, 73

49

80

62

simum

5: 28,

30-35

chiru 6:

4:

5:

8

74

9

C.

C.

40 neglectus 4: 40 cephus

Cervidae

4:

6: 9, 10,

12

1

8:

1

prehensilis 8:

1

2,

41-42

4: 40, 68-69 black 4: 42

black-and-white

4: 40,

68-69 :

red 4: 41-42,

30,

68 40

satanic black 4:

western red 4: 40 white-epauleted black

8 30

(black-and-white) 4: 40,

:

7:

1

5,

68-69 Colobus

1

48-49

7: 34,

48 1

4:

C. satanus 4: 40 colugo 1: 70; 7: (37); 8: 108-111 Malayan 8: 109, 709, 1

10,

7

70-7

7 7

Philippine8: 108-109,

109, 110

45

Chlamydia psittaci 10: 95 Chlamyphorus truncatus 9: 65 Chlorocebus aethiops 4: 40 Choloepus

65 C. hoffmanni 9: 65 chozchori 8: 29

commensal animals 7: 14 communication 1 (23); :

3: (83), 4: (56), 74, 79, 85,

99-100;

101, 8: 16, 42, 51, 9: 61; 10:

80

alarm

calls 4: 46, 57, 89, 100; 6: 79; 7: 53, 111;

Chrotogale owstoni 1 88 Chrysochloridae 9: 9 Chrysocyon brachyurus 2: 50 Chrysospalax trevelyani :

40

99 American Sign Language 4:13, (16), 27 see also songs 8: 51, 55,

Condylura

109

Spermophilus

Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

cristata 9: 40,

48-51 Conepatus chinga 1 32 mesoleucus 1: 32 coney see pika, American Connochaetes C. gnou 6: 62, 82 C.

trldecemlineatus

civet 1: 98 African 1: 88 African palm

5: 13, 15, 19,

(24), 44, (49), 79; 7: 53,

didactylus 9:

5:

40

angolensis 4: 40, 68-69

C.

CITES see Convention on International Trade in

C.

8:

4: 10, 40, 40-42, 68-69, 69, 75 Angola (black-and-white)

:

40 C. torquatus 4: 40 Cercopithecidae 4: 40

Cercopithecus C. aethiops 4: 44-47

coati,

colobus

8 37

Ci telI us trldecemlineatus see

cercopithecines 4: 40, 40-41 42, 43

21

,

:

1:

colobines 4: 40,

C. concinnus 10: 74 C. nanus 10: 74 Cercocebus C. galeritus 4:

20 1

26-27

62

chulengo

30

8:

28

mexicanus

C.

12, 13,

7 7,

chital 6: 10, 13,

9:

Cercartetus 10:

45, 47, 54,

65, 71, 74, 4: 27, 78,

11-12,

62 6:

C.

C. sumatraensis 6: 62, 108 Caprolagus hispidus 8: 64

Coendou 6:

Chironectes minimus 1 0: Chiroptera 1: 10; 9: (86) Chiroptes C albinasus 4: 72 C. satanas 4: 72

C.

5:

6: 62,

C. dorsalis 6:

62

5: 26,

72 72

4:41, 75;

Cephalophus

1:

86

70; 6: 8; 7: 103, 8:

38-39 C. crispus 6:

4:

72

C.

cellulose

59, 100, 4: (17), 87,

caniventer 10: 14

pygmaea

4: 72

C. apella 4:

06 ibex sibirica 6: 1 06 /bex walie 6: 1 06 1

90-91, 98, 101;

C, fuliginosus 10:

Cebuella

Cebus

C.

84

4: 72,

1: 19,

ringtailed

4: 12

Siberian 7:

southern mountain 8: 70-7 7, 30 cavylike rodents 8: 8-1

94-95

Coelodonta 5: 28 coendou see porcupine, tree

chinchilla rat 8: 31

eastern

88

:

:

Chinchillidae 7: 12

30

88

1:

coatimundi see

Chilean 8: 30, 31

yellow-toothed

88, 91

20 28-29 white-nosed 1 20, 29

10

5: 8, 6:

chipmunk

Cebidae

7:

ringtailed

pollution

chevrotain

1:

(91)

mountain

chemical poisoning see

common

Peruvian 8: 39 rock 8: 30

c

C.

C.

oil 1:

coati

Chinchilla lanigera 8

31

Owston's banded palm 1 90, 91

coalitions 2:

major 4: 96 medius 4: 96

short-tailed

28-31

8: 28,

62-63

ibex 6: 62, 106-107 ibex caucasica 6: 1 06

6:

C.

36-37 8: 28,

domestic see guinea pig Patagonian see mara

6: 91, 7:

king 2: 29

Cheirogaleus

fur 8: (10)

50, 80-81 mesomelas 2:

Cabassous unicinctus 9: 65 Cacajao 4: 72 C. calvus 4: 72, 80-81 C. melanocephalus 4: 72 20, 21 Caenolestes 10: 14

C.

8:

common

captive breeding

1:

porcellus 8: 30, 38-41 tschudii 8: 39

8:

(55), (59), 71; 2: (23), (29),

cacomistle

aperaea

C.

58-61

C.

C.

39

C,

88, 91

:

clompers 5: 58 Clyomis laticeps

36-37

lupus 2: 50, 54-57 lupus dingo (C. dingo)

6:

C.

6:

63 rearing 4: 79

1

Cladonia rangiferina 6: 23 Clethrionomys gapperi

pygmy see bonobo China, Imperial Hunting Park 6: 44, 45 chinchilla 7: 12; 8: 10, 28,

62 63

8:

6:

:

otter

small-toothed palm 1: 88 Sulawesi palm 1: 88

9: 79 26-29

2: 9, 10,

common

cavies and relatives

C. simensis 2: 50 Caperea margin ata 3: 55 Capra C. aegagrus 6: 62 C.

60-63:

:

cheetah

28-33:

Caviomorpha 7: (8), cavy 7: 11, 72, (14) Brazilian 8: 39, 41

2:

~

7: 49, 50, 59; 8: 29, 57,

dingo

C. latrans 2: 50, C.

6:

humped zebu

:

Civettictis civetta 1

chimpanzee 12;

:

civet

catarrhines 4:

7 7,

88 88 large spotted 1 88 Lowe's otter 1 88 Malayan 1 88, 90 masked palm 1 88 Oriental 1: 88, 90 1

chamois 6: 62 European 6: 108 Pyrenean 6: 62 charms 3: 61, 8: 67,

water 6: 1 chewing the cud

catatonia 10: (20) cattle 1: 15; 5: 9,

90

1:

large Indian

small Indian

Indian spotted 6: 10

1

Indian

:

greater Malay see deer, greater mouse

2: 10, 13,

golden palm 1: 88 Hoseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s palm 1: 88

chain chorusing 5: 71

Caviidae 7: 72

C. familiaris 2: 50, (53)

Bubastis 2: (12) bubble netting 3: 104

Buphagus africanus

bactrianus )

Cam's

C

22-23 Chaetomys subspinosus 8: 30 Chaga's disease 8 27 7:

Cavia

dromedarius (

49

88, 90,

1:

94-95

90,

:

Catagonus wagneri 5: 88 catamount see puma

cattle

100-103

100-103 1: 20

9

2: 9, 10, (12),

humpless

bactrianus

13

2: 10,

48-49

Canidae 6:

domestic

27

:

European wildcat 2: 72 jungle 2: 10, 13 leopard 2: 10, 13 miner's see raccoon, ringtail saber-toothed 2: 1 sand 2: 10, 13 wildcat

one-humped (dromedary) 5: 92, 93, 94-99 102 two-humped (Bactrian) 5: 92, 93, (98), 100-103 camelids 5: 92-93

C. ferus

7: (31)

tiger 2: 10, 72

92-93

5:

domestication

13

bromeliads 4: (90) browsing 5: 12, 13, 38; brumby see mustang Bubalus

28

golden

common palm

Jerdonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s palm 1:

C. elaphus 6: 1 0, 26, 30-33 Cetacea 1: 70; 5: (10) cetaceans 3: 54-59 Chaeropus ecaudatus 10: 27 Chaetodipus penicillatus

30

8:

27

canadensis nelsoni 6: 26 canadensis roosevelti 6:

blackfooted 2: 10, 13 cat family 2: 10-13

C, derbianus 10: 14 C, philander 1 0: 1 Caluromysiops irrupta 10: 14 camel 5: 8, 9, 12 Arabian (dromedary) 5: 92, 93, 94-99. 102 Bactrian 5: 92, 93, (98),

dromedary

C.

8

Castoridae 7: 72, 28 cat 2: 9 African wildcat 2: 72

36 36

prevosti 7:

20-25

27

canadensis nannodes 6:

C,

10, 18, 2:

1:

C. fiber 7:

C. notatusisi 7:

C.

C.

Castor 7: 28 C. canadensis 7: 28, 30-33

94-99

brocket, red 6: 10,

5: 74,

jacchus 4: 86, 92-93 pygmaea see Cebuella

C. nigrovittatus 7:

interbreeding

8: (50)

1

carnivores 1: 10 large 2: 8^9 small 1: 18-19 teeth 1: 75 Carterodon sulcidens

Callosciurus

C.

reproduction; inbreeding,

bushpig

86 Mico

14-15

see also captive breeding;

6:

6: 10, 12,

Carnivora

Camelus

83, 88, 7: 57, 8: 79; 10: 41

6:

B.

humilis see

caribou

.

14

7:

selective 5: (43), 74; 6:

breeding

argentata see Mico argentata

94-99. 102

breeding

K

caracal 2: 10,

Callorhinus ursinus 3: 9,

104, 109

12, 28; 8: 8, 9,

48-51

capybara farms

86

Cervus C. canadensis 6: 0, 26-29 C. canadensis manitobensis 1

caravaning 9: 39

100-103 camel family

branding, freeze branding

7: 8,

10, 28,

pygmaea

C.

72

4:

capybara

humilis

34-35

1:

moloch 4: 72 personatus 4: 72 torquatus 4: 72

C. geoffroyi 4:

6:

bovine tuberculosis

Brazil,

C,

C

62 Borhyaenidae 10: 26, 36 Bos B. frontalis 6: 62 B grunniens 6: 74-75 B. javanicus 6: 62 Boselaphus tragocamelus 6: 62 boto see dolphin, Amazon Bovidae 6: 9, 60-63

B.

white-faced 4: 72

Callithrix

see also hibernation, torpor

bonobo

weeper

Callicebus

Callimico goeldii 4:

control of 5: (17); 9: 24, 67, 72, 82, (90); 10: 69

desert animals 5:

Caenolestidae 10: 16

:

C.

C. taurinus 6: 62, 82-85 conservation 1: 47, (59), 75;

2: 33, 55, (88), 100; 3: 15, 1:

banded palm

1:

91 civet family

1:

88

19; 4: 35, 5: 26, 39, 63;

88, 90, 90,

6: 25, 64; 7: 45, 77; 9: 85;

10: (77), (95), (101)

88-91

see also protection

119


4

250

SET INDEX

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and

D

Flora (CITES) 1: 17 convergent evolution 9:

D 1

0,

D.

88 lunatus lunatus 6: 88 lunatus tiang 6: 88 lunatus topi 6: 88

D.

pygargus

D.

korrigum

6:

62

40 10: 36, (52) coon hunting 1: 26

dassie, rock see hyrax, rock

coonskins 1: (23) coppicing 7: 106

Dasycercus cristicauda 10: 27 Dasykaluta rosamondae

coprophagy

62

8: 51,

10:

6:

27 8: 30,

42-43 Dasypus novemcinctus 74-77

eastern 8: 64, 90-93 Mexican Guerrero 8: (93) New England 8: (93) Omilteneor 8: (93)

dasyure

swamp

puma

coyote 1: 77; 2: 50, 58-61 coypu 7: 12; 8: 9, 11, 31, 44-47 South American 8: (46) Craseonycteridae 9: 86 Craseonycteris thonglongyai 9: cria 5:

02,

1

108-109 crop raiding 5: 23-24, 41, 72, 91; 6: 13, 78, 81; 7: 100, 105; 8: 18-19, 9: 85, 91 Crossarchus alexandri

1

C

ansorgei

1:

:

98 98

Cryptomys C. damarensis C.

56 hottentotus 8: 56 mechowi 8: 56

Cryptoprocta ferox

1:

,

28

Ctenodactylidae 7: 12, 108 Ctenodactylus C.

gundi

108, 110-111

7:

C vali 7: 108 Ctenomyidae 7: 12: 8: 9 Ctenomys C. frater 8: 30 C. validus 8; 30 culls 3: 15, 43,45, 67; 6: 32, 66; 8: 81; 10: (95)

Cuon

alpinus 2: 50

32-33

D. hallucatus 10: 27,

Daubentonia madagascariensis

102-103

9:

103 12

5: 8, 9, 10,

barking see muntjac black musk 6: 10 black-tailed (mule) 6: 10,

34-37 Chinese water

50

lesser

mouse

marsh

6: 10,

mouse mule 6:

bear 10: 74 spotted (spotted) 10: 12-13, 82-83

common

ground 10: 74 mountain 10: 74 peleng 10: 74

dicoumarol 7: 75 Didelphidae 10: 14, 16 common see opossum,

48

34-37

10,

37 Dinomyidae 7: 12 Dinomys branickii

30-33 38-39. 60

6: 10, 12, 13.

6: 10, 12,

musk

6:

10

12

wild) 2: 9, 50, 53,

wild) 2: 9, 50, 53,

raccoon see also

dolphin

1: 70; 3:

3: 55,

bottlenose

72-75

73, 75, 81, 90, 5: 20; 6: 49, 51, 9: 23, 91

65 1: 98 108

Cyclopes didactylus Cynictis penicillata

Cynocephalidae Cynocephalus C. C.

8:

30 mountain 8: 30 dehydration 5: 95-96 Bridge's 8:

9:

Delphinapterus leucas

variegatus 8: 1 volans 8: 1 09

C. C.

Dendrohyrax

Cynomys ludovicianus 56-59

7: 34,

1

D. arboreus 8: D. dorsalis 8:

D. validus 8:

D 8:

30

03 1 03 1

D. tatel 10:

D. bennettianus 10:

48

66-67

74

D. trivirgata 10:

74 40-43

6: 10,

D. lunatus 6: 62,

88-89

Dermoptera

1:

40-43 40, 52-53 40, 42, 43, 53

70; 8:

9: 9, 11,

Russian 9:

common

69

9:

1 7,

108

spectacled 7: 102

short-eared 9: 59, 59 Elephantulus rozeti 9: 59

spiny 7: 103

Elephas maximus

7:

102

Draculin 9: 97

bay

6:

forest 6:

52-53

6: 62,

80-81

80-81

6: 62,

80

10:

common

27

38-39 27 38

10:

Gilbert's 10:

Kangaroo little

Island 10:

long-tailed 10:

Dusicyon

short-beaked common 3: 69 short-snouted spinner 3: 76

76-77 56-57, 77

3: 55, 3:

3: 71

white-sided 3: 71 river 3: 55, (61)

27

see also moose Nino 3: 22 Emballonuridae 9: 87 embryonic diapause 10: 12- 13, 57, 63, 69, 71, 73,

rollover (spinner) 3: 55,

Yangtze

Tule 6:

62

common dunnart

8:

38 38

E.

caballus przewalskii (E.

przewalskii) 5: 42,

54-55

61

australis 2:

85

Enhydra lutris 1: 32, 72-75 Eohippus 5: 42 Eomanis waldi 9: 64 Equidae 5: 42 Equus E. asinus 5: 42, 57 E. burchelli 5: 42, 46-51 E. caballus 5: 42, 58-61

50

52-53 56-57 £ przewalskii 5: 42, 54-55 £. quagga 5: 48 £. zebra 5: 42 Eremitalpa grand 9: 40, 56-57 Erethizon dorsatum 8: 12, 20-25 E.

grevyi

5:

42,

£ hemionus

E echidna

1: 14; 8: 12; 10:

105

long-nosed 10: 105, 110

short-beaked 110-111 Echimyidae 7: Echimys pictus

10: 105,

12, 8: 31 8:

102 102

El

3: 47,

bush (common)

7: 7:

Siberian 6: 15

102 46-47,

blue 6: 62

Duplicidentata

spotted

quercinus

10 Manitoba 6: 27 Merriman 6: 26 North American 6: 12 Rocky Mountain 6: 26-27 Roosevelt's 6: 27

5: (12)

river 3: (61)

white-beaked

melanurus

E.

Irish 6: 1

102 1 02

10, 3:

1:

E.

elk 6: 10, 26-29 eastern 6: 26

4: 40, 42 dromedary see camel, dromedary

52-53:

5: 14,

22-27 Eliomys

red-cheeked 10: 27

Risso's 3: 71

9: 59,

North African 9: 59, 59

Setzer's mouse-tailed

fat-tailed 10: 25,

white-sided 3: 55, 70-71 pink (Amazon) 3: 55, 60-61

spinner

desman

Pyrenean

Damaliscus

76-77

15

62-63

duiker

3: 55, (61)

14-15

5: 14,

golden-rumped

102

Dugong dugon

76-77

D. goodfellowi 10: 48,

Dactylopsila

3: 55,

102

102

Oriental 7: 103

71

Pacific

68-69 02 1 03

Dendrolagus

Dactylomys dactylinus

Dama dama

69

8:

.

hourglass 3: 71 Indus 3: 55, (61)

3:

D. delphis 3: 55,

:

68-69

71

long-beaked

D. capensis 3:

bennettn 1 88 lowei 1: 88

3: 55,

22-27 14-1

elephant shrew 1: 10, 9: 10, 58-59 black and rufous 9: 59, 59 checkered 9: 58-59, 59 four-toed 9: 59, 59

masked mouse-tailed

dugong

76

3:

Fraser's 3: 71

Ganges

savanna

D. nitedula 7:

long-beaked (spinner)

Delphinus

Cynogale

3:

forest 5: 14,

106-107

D. Ianiger7:

3: 55, 66,

La Plata 3: 55, (61) 3: 55,

80-83

09

dusky

60-61

5:

family units 5: 15

D. sichuanensis 7:

spotted 10: waigeou 10:

see also habitat destruction 8: 29, 31

:

16-21.

5: 14, 15, 16,

elephant family

Dromiciops gliroides 1 0: drought 4: 63; 5: 34, 94 drug testing 4: 13, 93

:

5: 14, 15,

circus elephants 5: 24, (24)

Dryomys

Amazon

deforestation 1: 21, 31, 48,

degu

1

(10)

common

86

8: 30,

98 54-59

white-tailed 6: 10, 13, 18,

clymene

9:

dog

patagonum

51, 71, 2: 58-59; 3: 61;

Cyanophenus

78-79

32-35

see also brocket deer parks 6: 13, 42-43, 47

26 Asian

drill

prairie

Dologale dybowskii 5:

African

woolly 7: 102 douroucouli see monkey, Northern night

50

2:

4: (17), 27, 32, 37, 61, 69,

cuy see guinea pig

50-53

domestic 2: 9, 50, (53) painted hunting (African

small Sulawesi 10:

74 12-13, 82-83 74

78-79

10, 5: 8, (10),

11 ,( 12 )

102 garden 7: 102, 102-103 hazel 7: 102, 103,

2: 9, 50, 53,

2:

elephant 1:10,

102,

7: 102,

1

electrocution 4: 67

102-103 7: (14),

6:

6: 10,

44^15

Roach's mouse-tailed

53

2: 50,

Elaphurus davidianus

forest 7:

7:

76

6: 60, 62,

6:

76-77

104-105

9 African hunting (African

32

Elaphodus cephalophus

(hazel) 7: 102,

Japanese

1:

62, 76-77 Lord Derby's (giant) 6: 62,

giant

fat (edible) 7: (14), 102,

1: 15, 5:

tufted 6: 10 (36)

common

7: 11, 12, 13, 15,

common

7:

barbara 5: 13

eland

104-105

24-25

ordii 7:

104-105

Eimer's organs 9: 45, (50) Eira

garden 7: 102 Chinese 7: 102 Chinese pygmy 7: 103

7:

Diprotodontia 10: 25, 75, (94) diseases 1: 26, 87 rodent-borne 7: 14 distemper 3: 41 canine 2: 79 Distoechurus pennatus 10: 74

Dolichotis

13

6: 10,

48

17, 19

edible

78-79

44-45 red roe

10:

dormouse family

30

8:

:

bush

6: 10, 13,

luctuosa 10:

rufescens 10: 27

egret 6: (73) Eidolon 9: 86

103, 106-107 desert 7: 102, 103

dinosaur 3: 98 Diplogale hosei 1 88 Diplomesodon pulchellum

dog family

Pere David's

D

£.

Asiatic

Salt's 6: 62 dimorphism, sexual 3: 87 dingo 2: 50, 80-81: 10: (30),

African wild

12

hageni 10: 48

9: 8, 28, 32, 37,

ecotones 6: 86 Edentates 9: 64, 64 egg-laying mammals

African 7: 103

62

Kirk's 6: 60,

pampas

6: 10,

D.

18-23

dik-dik

dog

62

6:

dorcopsis gray 10: 48 white-striped 10: 48 Dorcopsis

dormouse

14

10: 14,

5: (45)

44-45

Dorcopsulus D. macleayi 10: 48 D. vanheurni 10: 48

Didelphis

muntjac see muntjac musk 6: 10

spotted

74

6: 10,

12 see chevrotain

sika 6:

cuscus 10: 76, (77)

27

vi rginiana

5:

22-23 80-81, 92-93, 99, 106, 109, 110-111 echymipera, Clara's 10: 27 Echymipera E. clara 10: 27

donkey

Dorcatragus megalotis

Dicerorhinus sumatrensis 5: 28 Diceros bicornis 5: 28, 36-39

Dipodomys

6: 10,

see also cat, domestic; dog, domestic

wild

Echinoprocta rufescens 8: 1 Echinops telfairi 9: 24 Echinosorex gymnura 9: 12, echolocation

domestic

diastema 7: 10, 7 7; 8: 60 see also reproduction dibatag 6: 67, 62

9: 28 Diplomys labilis 8: 30 Dipodidae 7: 72

10

6:

deer and relatives 6: 10-13 dwarf musk 6: 10

Siberian

cursorial animals 2:

admiralty 10:

27

50-51 hog 6: 10

96-97 Cryptotis parva 9:

85

D.

48-49 Himalayan musk 88

10: 12-13, 57, 63, 69, 71,

D. albiventris 10:

4: 96,

63

3:

Virginia

fallow 6: 10, 12, 13, 40-43 greater mouse 6: 10,

8:

whale pods diapause, embryonic 73,

2: 53, 5: (43),

(45), (98), 105-106, 107; 6: 25, 63; 8: 38-39, 40,

(72)

Dasyuromorphia 10: 24 Dasyurus D. albopunctatus 10: 27

deer

C.

27

domestication

28-31

27,

Dasyuridae 10: 24, 36

DDT

38 107

Crocuta crocuta 2:

C.

broad-striped 10: 27 narrow-striped 10: 25, 27 short-furred 10: 25,

8: (93)

cougar see

9: 65,

dolphinaria 3: 71, 74

dhole 2: 50, 57

dibbler 10:

Dasyproctidae 7: 12

desert 8: 64, 67, (93) Dice s 8: (93)

red-bellied 10:

Desmana moschata 9: 40 Desmodus rotundus 9: 94-97 devil, Tasmanian 10: (24),

dialects of

Dasyprocta punctata

coruro 8: 29, 30 cotton bollworms 9: 103 cottontail 8: 62

120

lunatus jimela 6: 88

D. lunatus

30

5:

42,


0 00 2100

,

2

,

)

2

1

2

2

SET INDEX

Erethizontidae 7: 12, 8: 12

E concolor 9:

1

E. europaeus 9: 12, 14-19 ermine 1:112 see also stoat Erythrocebus patas 4: 40

Eschrichtidae 3: 92 Eschrichtius robustus 3: 55,

92-97 estivation 7: 19, 9: 13, 21

Ethiopia, geladas in 4:

E australis

61

gallery forests 4: 101

goitered 6: 61 62 slender-horned 6: 67, 62

Fossa fossa 1: 88 fossorial animals 7: 18, 65 Fouchia 5: 28 fovea 4: 1 07

bat-eared

E.

macaco

E.

mongoz

4:

Eumetopias jubatus 18-19

Cape

pallidus 4:

corsac 2: "cross fox" 2: 64, 65 fennec 2: 50, 52, 74-75 gray 2: 50, 52

3: 9,

1

06

Eupleres goudotil 1 88 Euroscaptor parvidens 9: 40 :

Eurotamandua 1: 9 Euryzygomatomys spinosus 8: 30 Eutheria 10: (10)

evolution

convergent

50, 52,

red

50, (59),

swift 2: 50, 52, 68-69 white Arctic 2: 71, 72 freeze branding 8: (84)

expression 4: falanouc 1: 88, 91 fanaloka 1: 88

facial

(56),

Furipteridae

1

00

farmland, expanding 1: 15-16 Fells 2: 10 F. bengalensis 2:10 1

'

1

chaus 2 10 F concolor 2: 1 0, 42-43 F lynx 2: 10, 40-41 :

'

lynx canadensis 2: 40, 41 F lynx lynx 2: 40, 41 F.

F lynx pardinus 2: 40, 41 F. margarita 2: F. nigripes 2: 10 F pardahs 2: 10, 44-45 1

38-39 46-47 0, 48-49

F.

rufus 2: 10,

F.

serval 2:

F.

silvestris 2:

1

F.

temmincki

2:

F tigrinus F.

0,

1

2:

1

1

yaguarondi

2:

10

1 08 Fennecus zerda see Vulpes

Felovia vae 7:

zerda fermentation ferret 1: 45

black-footed

1

1:

32, 34, 35,

46-47 see implantation/ fertilization; reproduction

fertilization

50-51 farms 3: 65

fisher 1: fish

7:

34

46-47 9: 87

:

8:

20

fishing 3: 12, 15, 19, 37, 43,

105 cooperative, by dolphins 3: (74)

fishing nets 3: 22, 30, 50, 59,

69, 71, 77, 79, 105 fleas 9: (18)

flehmen 5: (11), 62, 65 flood water 4: 80 flying fox 9: 80, 86 Indian 9: 88-91 food poisoning 7: 74 food sharing 9: (96) forestry operations 5: 26

aquatic

4: 40, 42, 43,

92-93 European (common) 1: 88, 92-93 genet family 1: 88-91 large-spotted 1: 88 small-spotted (common) 1: 88, 92-93 88,

1:

Genetta G. genetta

92-93

88,

:

88 30

8:

Georychus capensls 8: 56 gerbil 7: 13, 15 bushveld 7: 13

(lar)

crested black 4: 36 4:

36-37

37

12-13, 35, 41, 44, 69,

Muller's 4: 36,

37

(72), 75; 3: 12, 16; 4: 40,

white-handed

(lar)

4: 36,

38-39

Giraffa

G. senegalensis 4:

1

06

demidoff 4: 106, 110-111 G. thomasi 4: 1 06 G. zanzibaricus 4: 1 06 Galea musteloides 8: 30 Galemys pyrenaicus 9: 40, 52-53 Galeopithecidae 8: 108 Galictis

G. cuja 1:

32 32

G. vittata 1:

Galidia elegans 1

98

:

G. fasciata 1:

98

G. grandidieri 1

:

6:

National Park 5: 34

G.

dama

6:

G. subguttarosa 6:

thomsonl

6:

54

62

94-95

26

2, (2

rothschildi 6: 52,

1

2,

52

tippelskirchi 6: 52,

54

11, 12, 6: 54-57.

5:

60 giraffe family 6: 52-53

kordofan 6: 52 Masai 6: 52, 54 nubian 6: 52

1),

30, 31;

54

34

groundhog see woodchuck guanaco 5: 92, 108-109 wild 5: 93 guenon 4: 8, 10, 40, 42, 43, 44 guiara 8: 30 guinea pig 8: 10, 30, 38-41

Rothschild's 6: 52, 54,

56

52 Thornicroft's 6: 52, 53 West African 6: 52 giraffe-gazelle see gerenuk 6:

52-53

Gulo gulo

gundi

38-39, 39, 40

8:

39-40 32, 56-57

1:

13 desert 7: 108, 109 felou 7: 108, 109, 109 7: 12,

gundi family Lataste's 7:

7:

mzab

Glaucomys

North African 110-111

60-61

gleaning 9: 84 glider

(pygmy) 10: 74,

Saharan

108-109

109

Gir Forest Reserve 2: (15)

7:

108, 109, 109 7: 108,

7:

9: 12,

13

mahogany

short-tailed 9: 12, 12

pygmy

shrew

10: 74, (77) 10: 74, 77, 84-85

9:

1

2,

62

Lichtenstein's 6:

sustainable 3: 15 Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge 3: 31 hawks, bat 9: 84

hedgehog

1: 9,

10, 14; 8: 12;

1

African 9: 12, 13

African

pygmy

9: 12,

20-21 9:

12

collared 9: 12

Daurian

9:

12

desert 9: 12, 13

dwarf (African pygmy) 9: 12, 20-21 eastern European 9: 1 four-toed (African pygmy) 9: 12, 20-21 hairy 9: 12, 22 hedgehog family 9: 12-13 Hugh's 9: 12, 13 long-eared 9: 12, 12-13 Madagascan 9: 25 North African 9: 12, 13

western European 9: 12. 14-19 white-bellied (African

pygmy)

9: 12,

20-21

Helarctos malayanus 2: 82

Heliophobius 7: 9 H. argenteocinereus 8: 56 Helogale parvula 1 98, :

108

Speke's 7: 108, 109, 109 Gymnobelideus teadbeateri 10: 74. 88-89 gymnure 9: 12, 13

Hainan

8: 62, 64,

74-79

Asian

destabilization 7: 49,

wild 8: 28,

American

pika,

hare hunting 8: (89) hartebeest 6: 62

9: 8, 9,

89

domestic

southern African

26

102

black 8: 41

reticulated 6: 52, 53,

64

snowshoe

50, 59, 8: 29, 57, 66-67; 9: 77, 10: 99

54

G. Camelopardalis thornicrofti 6:

ocularis 7:

32,

8:

mouse see

polar (Arctic) 8: 74, 82-85 Smith's red rockhare 8: 64

1

32

1:

64-67 66

8:

hispid 8: 63, 64,

Patagonian see mar a

Great Gobi Strictly Protected Area 5: 103 little

hare family

harvesting 3: 28; 6: 18 controlled 3: 12, 16

5: 12, 13,

1:

(Arctic) 8: 74,

82-85

grass see sea grass

grison

86-89

64

26-27

67,

8: 62,

see pika, American

Greenland

G. dryas 10: 14

6:

brown

8: 80 European 8: 64

4: 8, 12,

1 2, (2 G. gorilla gorilla 4: 12,

grazing

96 96

4:

Jameson's red rockhare

G. gorilla diehli 4:

Graph iurus

simus

haplorhlnes see primates, higher hare 8: 61 Arctic 8: 74, 82-85

greater red rockhare 8: 63,

4: 12, (21)

1

aureus 4: 96

Cape

mountain 4: 12, 20-25 silverback 4: 13, 22, 22-23

G. beringei 4:

84-85

H. griseus 4:

calling

26-27

pocket) 7:

ground

77, 84-85 greater 10: 74

62

G. leptoceros 6: 62 G.

reticulata 6: 52,

G. Camelopardalis

feathertail

Gazella

18

7: 17,

horned 7: 12 northern pocket 7: 26-27 pocket 7: 12, 18 western pocket (northern

G. agilis 10: 14

52 G. Camelopardalis Camelopardalis 6: 52 G. Camelopardalis capensis 6: 52 G. Camelopardalis peralta 6: 52 G. Camelopardalis 6:

G. volans 7: 34,

62

gopher

19

Hapalemur H.

9: 10; 10: (1 1),

Gracilmanus

G. sabrinus 7: 61

98

gallery forests 4: 101

Garamba

antiquorum

Giraffidae 6:

Galidictis

gaur

angolensis 6: 52 G. Camelopardalis

giraffe

08-1 09

H.

(21),

G. Camelopardalis

Galagoides

1

G. gorilla 4: 12, (21)

G. Camelopardalis

06

6: 62,

Gondwanaland

18,

Syrian (golden) 7:

63

6:

mountain

G. beringei diehli 4: 12, (21)

galago

1

domestic

20-25

apes in 4: 50 Gigantopithecus 4: 1 Gibraltar,

54-57

G. gallarum 4:

60-63

6:

G. beringei beringei 4:

G

1

hamster 7: 11, 15, golden 7: 84-85

Gorilla

G. Camelopardalis 6: 52,

1

goat

31-32, (31)

4:

white-tailed 6: 82

see also wildebeest, blue

western lowland (21), 26-27

37

106 Garnett's 4: 06 northern needle-clawed 4: 106 Senegal 4: 106 Somali 4: 106 southern needle-clawed 4: 106 thick-tailed 4: 106, 107 Thomas's 4: 06 Zanzibar 4: 106 Galago G. gabonensis 4: 1 06

gnu

western

38-39

4: 36,

4:

habituation 4: (23) Halichoerus grypus 3: 42-43 hammer stones 1: (74);

eastern 4: 12, (21) eastern lowland 4: 12, 13, ( 21 )

crested 4: 37

moloch

Gabon

habitat preservation 4: 51

Glyptodon 9: 66 G. panochthus 9: 64 gnawing 7: 10, 16-17, 64

goral 6: 62, 108 gorilla 4: 8, 10, 12, 13 Cross River 4: 12,(21),

4: 36,

64, 68-69, 87, 93; 2:

Demidoff's dwarf see bush baby, Demidoff's

10: 27, (77), (95)

see also deforestation

108

Geocapromys brownii Geogale aurita 9: 24 Geomyidae 7: 12

kloss 4: 36, 37,

36, 37, 46, 61, 90; 9: 43; 10: 22, 65, (80) see also skin trade

59, (66); 7: 25, 63, 107; 9: 33, 62, 63, 85, 91;

3: 55,

wild 6: 62 1

G. tigrina 1:

lar 4: 36,

65, 91; 6: 20, 47, 49, 51,

104-105

66-67

88, 91

1:

62, 64;

35, 87, 96, 101, 5: 26, 63,

102 see dormouse, edible

Globicephala melas

1:

2: 35, 44, 79; 3: 83; 4: 24,

glutton see wolverine

gibbon family

G.

5:

gelada baboon 62-63 gemsbok 6: 62 genet 1: 18, 98

habitat destruction

Glirulus japonicus 7: Glis glis 7: 102.

38-39

85; 7: 33, 41, 97; 8: (10),

91, 91

1:

Tibetan 6: 67, 62

H

(76),

gliding marsupials 10: (76) Glironia venusta 10: 14

glis

common

fur trade 1: 22, (23), 51, 54,

F

F

64

2:

97,

.

Mongolian 7: 88-89 gerenuk 6: 62, 98-99 gibbon 4: 8, 10, 12

53

Ruppell's 2: 50,

Samson

2: (72); 8:

of rodents 7: 12 extermination 6: 64-66

F catus 2:

68-69 64-67

70

10

1:

caracal 2:

1: 9; 2:

fur farming 1: 22, 35, 54, 55;

10: 36, (52)

Madagascan

50

kit (swift) 2:

Funambulus pennantii

9: 10, 40;

mammals

53

island gray 2:

06

1

53 50, 53

2: 50,

Indian 2: 50,

Euoticus E. elegantulus 4:

76-77 53

Blanford's 2: 50, blue Arctic 2: 71, (72)

96 96

4:

2: 50,

94-95

6:

110

common 7: (14)

55 eucalyptus 10: 95-96, 96 Eulemur 4: 96 E. coronatus 4: 96

F.

100

4:

62

Thomson's

26

gorillas in 4:

see also deforestation fossa 1: 88, 90, 91. 96-97:

108-109

3:

E. glacialis 3:

of

47

6:

Arctic 2: 50, 70-73. 87;

Eubalaena

E.

5:

dama

fox

63

sugar 10: 74, 76, 86-87. 88

gazelle

in Brazil 4:

forests

90-91 elephants in 5: 22

Erinaceidae 9: 9, 11 Erinaceus

12

106-107 Hemibelideus lemuroides 10:

74

Hemicentetes semispinosus 9:

24

Hemiechinus H. aethiopicus 9:

H. auritus 9: 12, H. collaris 9:

1

12-13

1

121


001

02 0

2

1

1

1

1

1

SET INDEX

Hyaena H. brunnea 2 102 H. hyaena 2: 102, 1 04â&#x20AC;&#x201D;1 07 hybridization 2: 59

infanticide 1: (13), 2: 24,

Herpestes H. edwardsii

Hydrochaeridae 7: 12 Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris

interbreeding 2: 59; 6: 75, 107; 10: 41 International Union for the

:

1 108-109 H ichneumon 1 : 98 H naso 1; 98 Herpestidae 1: 88 :

58-59 02 Heterohyrax 8 03 H. antineae 8 03 H. brucei 8 8: 56,

1

:

1

:

chapmi 8, 103 Heteromyidae 7: 12 He\aprotodon liberiensis 5: 66 hibernation 2: 87-88, 93, 97, 100; 7: 19. 51, 54-55, H.

107; 9: 13, 18, 27, 82, 104, 105, 111; 10: 111

Himalaya Mountains 1: 30 hippo see hippopotamus Hippocamelus H. antisensis 6:

H. bisculus 6:

103,

1

common

striped

moloch

36 36

4:

5:

pygmy

66, 66-67,

5:

67

36

7 34, 36 Hyperoodon ampullatus 3: 55, 90-91

giant forest

36 :

Hypsiprymnodon moschatus 10: 48, 72

74, 75,

84-85 pygmy 5: 74

102-105

8: 68,

red river 5: 74

Ahaggar

Bruce's yellow-spotted

Homo

sapiens

1

:

1

4; 4: 12

13

honeybees honey guide, African 7:

1:

83

hoofed mammals 5: 8-13 Hoplomys gymnurus 8: 30 107

hornbill 1:

5: 29, 31, 36-37, (37), 40, 41; 6: 9, 56, 60, 1 1 horse 1: 15; 5: 8, 9, 10, 11,

horns

11. 12,

ancestral

1

:

dawn

(rock) 8: 103,

104-105, 105, 106-107 eastern tree 8: 103 Matadi 8: 103 rock 8: 105, 106-107 southern tree 8: 102-103, 103 tree 8: 104 western tree 8: 1 03 yellow-spotted 8: 105 :

:

72;

(8),

8:8-11,28, 55

60-61

africaeaustralis 8:

58

H.

brachyura

see mustang horse family 5: 42-45 Mongolian wild 5: 42,

54-55

8:

1

I 6: 62, 106-107 alpine 6: 106, 107

ibex

Przewalski's (Mongolian wild) 5: 42, 45, 54-55 racehorses 5: (43) wild (Mongolian wild) 5:

nubian

106

6:

Siberian 6: 106, 107

42, 45, 54-55 wild (mustang) see mustang hot springs 4: 48

walia 6 106, 106-107 Ichneumia albicauda 1 98 tctonyz striatus 1 32 impala 6 62, 86-87 97

huemul

implantation/fertilization,

Chilean 6: 10 Peruvian 6: 10, 12-13 human 4: 10-1 1,12 hunting partnerships 2: (60)

hutia 7: 12, 8: 11,31 ,31 Brown's 8 30 :

Cuban

8: 30,

Desmarest's

52-53

Cuban (Cuban)

52-53 eared 8: 30 Hispanolan 8: 30 8: 30,

prehensile-tailed 8:

West

122

Indian 8:

1

:

:

.

delayed

1:

42, 49, 57, 81,

105, 107 see also reproduction

imprinting 6: 83

97

Indricotherium Indri indri 4:

96

5: 8,

28

californicus 8: 64,

L.

europaeus

kangaroo 48-53

27

8: 62, 10: 8, (10),

Bennett's tree 10:

eastern gray (gray) 10: 48,

60-63 Goodfellow's tree 10: 48, 6-67 gray 10: 48, 53, 60-63 red 10: 11, 48, 54-59 60, .

63

L.

lagotricha 4: 72,

82-83

66-67

10: 48, 51, 52,

western gray 10 60, (62) :

kangaroo

rat 7: 13, 17

bannertail 7: 18-19

Ord's 7: 24-25 Kannabateomys amblyonyx 8: 30

Langorchestes L.

conspicillatus 10:

L.

hirsutus 10:

langur

48

Lestodelphys Lestoros inca 10: 14

88

kuhm

keystone species

1: 1:

8:

30

93

khur see ass, Asian wild kiang see ass, Asian wild kinkajou 1: 20, 21 klipspringer 5: S; 6: 60, 62 koala 10: (10), 77, (77),

92-97 kob 6: 62 Kobus K.

14-19

12-13, 4: 40,

1:

64-67 4: 40

llama

L.

latifrons 10: 74, (101)

lassa fever 7:

5: 12,

14

92

6: 62, K.

92-93

92-93

ell'osiprymnus

97

4: 96,

96

black-and-white ruffed

105 97

brown 4: brown mouse crowned dwarf

96

4:

K. K.

vardonii 6: 62

kob

96

4:

97

4: 97,

96

eastern woolly 4:

dwarf 4: 96 flying 8: 108 fork-marked 4: 96

fat-tailed

giant sloth 4:

96

bamboo

golden

mouse

locomotion, plantigrade 9: 8, 12 22 68 logging 1: 51, 77; 2: 21; 6: 20 Lonchothrix emiliae 8: 30 Lontra L canadensis 1: 32, 64-67 ,

4:

96

96

4:

96 96 greater dwarf hairy-eared dwarf 4: 96 indri 4: 96, 97 4:

Milne-Edwards's sportive

97 mongoose 4: 96, 96 mouse 4: 97, 97 pygmy mouse 4: 8, 96, 97 4: 96,

red ruffed 4:

1

sportive 4:

05

04, 96, 97, 1

9,

6:

breviceps 3: 55

K. simus 3: 55 korrigum 6: 88 Kruger National Park 2: 31 kudu, greater 6: 78-79 kulan see ass, Asian wild kultarr 10: 25, 27

96 96 98-101

4: 4:

catta 4: 96,

Leontopithecus caissara 4:

88

88 4: 86 88 L. L. rosalia 4: 86, 88-91 leopard 2: 9, 10, 13, 30-33 black 2: 30,3? L.

chrysomelas chrysopygus

clouded

2: 9,

4:

,

10

africana 5:

L,

cyclotis 5:

1

4,

16-21

14

8: 67; 9:

79

Lutra

58-63 32

L

lutra 1: 32,

L.

maculicollis 1:

L.

sumatrana

32

1:

Lutreolina crassicaudata 10: 14 Lutrogale perspicillata

1:

32

Lycaon pictus 2: 50, 78-79 Lyncodon patagonicus 1: 32 lynx 2: 10, 12, 38, 40^11 ;

76-77

8:

2: 40, 41 Eurasian 2.40 2: 41

Canadian

2: 10, 13,

M Macaca M. M. M. M,

48-49 52-53

fuscata 4: 40, nigra 4: 40, silenus 4:

40

sylvanus 4: 40, 50-51 macaque 4: 8, 40, 42, 43, 66 Barbary 4: 40, 42, 50-51

black 4: 40, 52-53 Celebes (black) 4: 40, 52-53

Japanese

4: 40, 42,

lion-tailed 4: 40,

melanistic 2: 30, 31

snow

L.

Iberian 2: 40, 41

97

weasel sportive western woolly

Lemur

L. felina 1: 32 Lophiomys imhausi 7: 66 Lophocebus L albigena 4: 40 L aterrimus 4: 40 loris 4: 106-107 pygmy 4: 106 slender 4: 1 06, 106 slow 4: 106, 108-109 Loris tardigradus 4: 1 06 love charms 3: 61 Loxodonta

lucky charms

bamboo

greater

L.

62 leche 6: 92

K.

90-91

7: 66,

ruffed 4: 96, 104-105

ellipsyprymnus 6: 92-93 K.

65

98-101

ellipsiprymnus defassa 6:

K.

2: 72; 7: 13, 17,

collared 7: 9

4: 104,

109

lobtailing 3: 96,

Laurasia 9: 10

black 4: 96,

92, 93, 93,

104-107 Lobodon carcmophagus 3: 9, 36-37

10: 74, (101)

krefftii

bamboo

55, (61)

Caribbean ground 109

1:

36

L.

Norway

puma

vexillifer 3:

98-99 lizard,

Lasiorhinus

6:

18-19

6: 82, 8:

:

Asian 2: (15) Barbary 2: 17 mountain see

Litocranius waller/ 6: 62,

ringtailed 4:

ellipsiprymnus 5: 75;

90

88 88

lipotyphla 9: 10

4:

5: 26; 6: (68);

:

88,

1:

banded spotted

Lipotes

48

42

4:

Hanuman

gray

keratin 5: 10, 29, (37); 6: 60;

14

lion 1: 15, 2: 8-9, 9, 10, 13,

glama 5: 92, 104-107 guanicoe 5: 92, 108-109 pacos 5: 92, (106)

Coquerel's dwarf 4: 96

tree (Goodfellow's tree)

80-81

86-89

8: 64,

1 98 whale 3: 57, 92, 102, 108 Limnogale mergulus 9: 24

lemmus lemmus 7: 90-91 lemur 1: 96; 4: 96-97

48

74-79

8: 64,

82-85

halli 10:

,

red 10: 25,

little

Kogia

inbreeding 1: (59), 2: 29, 33, 109; 4: 22, 81, 90, 93, 7: 13, 66, 70; 8: 57, 59; 10: 101

L.

African

flavicauda 4: 72

lemming

2: 82, (86), 93, 3: 34, 6:

39, 8: 109; 9: 61, 77, 83,

arcticus 8:

linsang 1: 89, 90, 91

L

lechwe

:

:

indri 4: 96,

30

K

7: 32,

16-19

L

lice,

48

Lariscus insignis 7:

jaguarundi 2: 10, 12 javelina see peccary, collared jerboa 7: 12, 17 jird see gerbil

1

H. cristata 8: 12,

36-37

20 Kerodon rupestris

H

americanus

leverets 8:

Lagothrix

41.

8:

Hystrix

feral

2: 10,

64

alleni 8:

L.

Liberiictis

30

8:

Lagostrophus fasciatus 10:

14

L.

Malabar

Karroo desert 2: 77

12; 8: 12

5: (43)

draft 5: (43),

45,

104-105

Hystricognathi 7

8

5:

42

5:

domestic

8: 103,

Hystricidae 7

62

Camargue

103

8:

Cape rock

10

4:

80-81

53,

see also warthog

Hominidae

83,

1:

65

5: (11),

kaluta,

Hypsiprymnodontidae 10: 48 Hyracoidea 1: 10, 5: (12), 14 Hyracotherium 5: 42 hyrax 1: 10, 5: (10), (12), 14,

homeothermy 1:9-10, 14

black-backed 62-63

black 2: 37

hippotigres 5: 52

5:

Lagostomus maximus

L,

antelope 8: 62, 64, 66, 66

jaguar

12 12, 12

Hylopetes

hog

Lagidium peruanum 8: 30 lagomorphs 1: 10, 8: 61-63

L.

H. hainanensis 9: 12, 13

H. spadiceus

cruciger 3: 71 obliquidens 3: 55, 70-71 obscurus 3: 71

Lama

black-tailed 8: 64,

Hippopotamus amphibius 5; 66, 68-73 Hippotragus H. equinus 6: 62 H leucophaeus 6: 63 H. niger 6: 62 hirola 6: 62

72

Jacobson's organ 2: 12;

H. lepidus 7:

L.

jackrabbit

84-85

H. suillus 9:

albirostris 3: 7

2: 50,

H. sinensis 9: 12,

66-67

L.

L.

jackal,

H. syndactylus 4:

74,

acutus 3: 7

jaca see guinea pig

Hylomys

hippopotamus family

for the Conservation of

J

38-39

H. lar 4: 36,

5:

macrourus 10: 27, 46-47 pagurus 8: 30 IUCN see International Union /.

8

1:

leptospirosis 1: 87, 7:

Lepus

L.

L.

auratus 10: 27

see also tusks ivory poaching 5: 20

36

Lepticidium

Lagenorhynchus

L.

Nature

Hylobates H. concolor 4: 36 H. klossii 4:

36

ivory 3: 26, 5: 14, 20, 26,

102, 103,

2:

7:

leprosy 9: (76)

8: (41)

Isothrix

102-103,

2: 102,

104-107

66, 66, 67,

5:

68-73

I.

108-109

Hylochoerus meinertzhageni

8

lomys horsfieldi Isoodon

67

laboratory animals 4: 40, 87; 7: 15, 66, (75), 83, 86,

see also medical research Lagenodelphis hosei 3: 7

introductions 1: 18, 22, 43

1

9,

38-39 Hyemoschus aquaticus 6 hyena brown 2: 102, 103, 103 hyena family 2: 102-103 spotted

8-1

10, 9:

1: 8,

Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 1:16

47

:

geoffrensis 3: 55, 60-61

insectivores

:

H. muelleri 4: 5: 8, 9, 10;

Inia

Hydromys chrysogaster 7 9

H.

1

1

hippopotamus

3:

:

1

:

48-51

8: 30,

Hydrodamalis gigas

Hydropotes inermis 6 Hydrurga leptonyx 3:

Heterocephalus glaber

4: (10)

:

Leporidae (leporids) 8: 60, 64,

L

Hemigalus derbyanus 1 88 Hemitragus jemlahicus 6 * 62 herding, predator avoidance 5: 10

34-35

Lepilemur L edwardsi 4: 96 L, mustelinus 4: 96

48-49

41

Sulawesi crested (black) 4: 40,

52-53

Macrogalidia musschenbroekii 1:

88


5

005001 0

5

i

SET INDEX

Macropodidae Macropus

M

M. martes 1: 32 M. pen nan ti 1: 50-51

50

10: 48,

masseter muscles

fuliginosus 10: (62)

Massoutiera mzabi 7: 108 Mazama americana 6: 10 meat trade see bushmeat trade medical research 4: 13, 32, 63,

60-63 M. parryi 10: 48 M. robustus 10: 48 M. rufogriseus 10: 48,

64-65 M. rufus 10: 48, 54-59

78, 93; 7: 15, (75); 8: (41);

Macroscelidea 1: 70; 9: 58 Macroscelides proboscideus

59

Macrostylus 9: 86 Macrotls

Madoqua M. kirkii 6: 62 M. saltiana 6: 62 Makalata armata 8: 30

mammals

99,

15-16

1:

(1 1),

14-1

major groups 1:11 8

origin 1:

12-14

1:

mammoth 5: Mammuthus

5:

manatee

70; 3:

1:

3:

46-47

:

47

Caribbean (West Indian) 3: 46, 47, 48-51 West African 3: 47

West Indian

3: 46, 47,

48-51 mandrill 4: 40, 42, 60-61 Mandrillus

40

M. leucophaeus M. sphinx 4: 40, 60-61 mangabey 4: 40, 42, 43 4:

42 40, 42

agile 4: 40,

black 4:

gray-cheeked 4: 40, 40, 42 white 4: 40, 42

mangrove swamps Manis M- gigantea 9: 65 M. temminckn 9: 65 M. tricuspis 9: 65 mara 8: 8, 30, 32-35

4: 71

Marmosa

M

mexicana 10: 14 M. murina 10: 14

marmoset

common dwarf

4:

92-93

4: 86,

86

87 marmoset family 4: 86-87

Geoffrey's 4: 86,

pygmy

4:

silvery 4:

86 86

M

7: 76, 35,

36

alpine (European) 7: 34,

52 T 53

European 7: 34, 52-53 Marmota 7: 34 M. marmota 7: 34, 52-53 M. monax 7: 34, 50-51 marsupials 1: 70; 10: 8-13 Australian carnivorous 10:

24-27

other plant-eating 10: 74-77 marten 7: 36

American

1:

48-49

American pine (American) 1:

100-105 Megachiroptera 9: 80, 86 Megaderma lyra 9: 98-99 Megadermatidae 9: 87, 98 Megaptera novaeangliae 3: 55, 102-105 Megatherium 9: 64

48-49

pine 1: 32, 35 yellow-throated

1:

32

Martes M. americana 1 48-49 M. flavigula 1: 32 :

European coast 9: 40, 41 desert (Grant's) golden

5: (10), 9: 9,

44-47 10-11,

golden mole family 9: 40-43 40 Grant's golden 9: 56-57 hairy-tailed 9: 40, 42 Grant's desert golden 9:

9: 54 golden 9: 40, 43 marsupial 10: (10), 26, 27,

Japanese Juliana's

9:

40-43

northern marsupial 10: 43 northwestern marsupial

Melogale personata 1: 32 Melursus ursinus 2: 82 Menotyphla 9: 10, 58 Mephitidae 1: 32, 84

small-toothed 9: 40, 43

Mephitis

star-nosed

M. macroura 1: 32 M. mephitis 1: 32, 84-87 Meriones unguiculatus

see also shrew mole

7: 88-89 mermaids 3: 53 Mesechinus M. dauricus 9:12 M. hughi 9: 12 Mesocapromys auritus

10: 27

Mesomys

30 56 Messelobunodon 1: 8 Metachirus nudicaudatus hispidus 8:

mesonychids

3:

72

Bolivian squirrel 4:

cheek-pouch 42 cloaked see colugo

4: 40,

78

4: 72,

42-43

40

golden leaf 4: 40 golden snub-nosed 4: 40 green (vervet) 4: 40, 42,

Balkan blind (lesser blind)

Hanuman

100-101

8:

langur 6: 13

4: 10, 72, 83 Humboldt's woolly 82-83 leaf 4: 40, 40-42

howler

57

common

10:

8: 56,

4: 72,

long-haired spider 4: 72

Damara 8: 56, 57 dune 8: 57

mantled howler 4: 72 mustached 4: 40, 41

Ehrenberg's 7: 18

New World monkey family

Angolan

4:

72-73

northern night 4: 72, 73, 84-85 Old World monkey family 4: 40-43. 72

M

1: (11), 14, 7: 13,

8: 10, 56, 57,

coquereli see Mirza

Namaqua dune silvery 7: 9; 8:

58-59 8:

56

56

southern dune 8: 56 mollusks 3: 25 Molossidae 9: 87 Monachus schauinslandi 3: 9,

30-31

mongoose

coquereli

Alexander's

1:

Angolan

1:

98

M

banded

1:

18-19, 98,

rufus 4:

96

M. murina 10: 27 Micropotamogale M. lamottei 9: 24 M, ruwenzom 9: 24 Microtus agrestis 7: 92-93 migration 3: 82, 85, 87, 93-94, 103, (105), 109; 5: 18, 109; 6: 17, 23, 37, 84-85, 96, 101, 7: 91, 9: (83), 102, (103),

106-107 milu see deer, Pere David's

98

1:

gray) 1:

common 1:

98

1:

99

Bengal (Indian

108-109 gray (Indian gray)

108-109

common

Indian (Indian gray)

108-109

dwarf

1:

98, 99, 99,

106-107. Ill Egyptian

Gambian

1:

98,

1:

patas 4:

proboscis 4: 40, 41 red howler 4: 72

,

70-71

7: 12,

pygmy

7:

shaker

7: (69)

18

64

singing 7: (69) spiny 7: 65; 8: 11, 12 three-striped marsupial 10: 25, 27 waltzing 7: (69)

western harvest 7: 80-81 West Indian key 8: 1

7: 64,

82-83

wood

7: 13,

78-79

mouse-hare see pika mouselike rodents muktuk 3: 85 mulgara 10: 27

7:

multituberculates 7: 10

Mungos

72 spider 4: 8, 72, 75 squirrel 4: 72, 78-79 swingers 4: 72 thumbless 4: 40 vervet 4: 40, 42, 44-47 woolly 4: 72 yellow-tailed woolly 4: 72 Monodeiphis 4:

9: 9, 11, 12,

Dinagat 9: 12

Mungotictis decemiineata 1: 98 Muntiacus M. crinifrons 6: 1 M. muntjak 6: 1 M. reeves 6: 46-47

13

46-47 46-47

6: 12,

Chinese 3: 55,

16-19

M. gambianus 1: 98 M. mungo 1: 18-19, 98, 110-111

muntjac

domestica 10: 14 kunsi 10: 14

84-85 Monotremata 1: 10, 10: 104 monotremes, spiny 8: 12

108-109

pocket

Japanese southern night

moonrat 1:

65

mouse 8: 38 plains 7: 65

snow see macaque,

Monodon monoceros

108-109

Indian gray

(vervet) 4: 40, 42,

98

Indian (Indian gray)

Nicaraguan harvest 7: 80 Old World 7: 14, 65, 65

white-footed (deer)

40,41,42,43

99

98

giant-striped 1: 1:

73,

4: 72,

84-85

44-47

bushy-tailed 1: 98,

common

84-85

owl (northern night)

savanna

103-104, 110-111 broad-striped 1: 98

brown

84-85

rhesus 4: 42

M. murinus 4: 96 M. myoxinus 4: 96 Microchiroptera 9: 80, 86 Microgale M. melanorrachis 9: 24 M. parvula 9: 24 Microperoryctes M. longicauda 10: 27

73,

65

7:

pig

northern (northern night) 4: 72, 73,

mole

pencil-tailed tree 7:

naked

8: 56,

(wood)

78-79

marsupial 10: (25), 27, 40 meadow jumping 7: 16

mouse family 7: 64-67 New World 7: 14, 64, 65

leapers 4: 72

57

27

7: 13,

Mico M. argentata

30

68-71 jumping 7: 17, 19 kangaroo 7: 17

long-tailed field

4: 40, 42,

night (northern night) 4: 72,

8:

7: 80 Cozumel Island harvest 7: 80 deer 7: 64, 82-83 desert 7: 65 desert pocket 7: 22-23 field (wood) 7: 13, 78-79 hairy harvest 7: 80 harvest 7: 64 house 7: 13, 14-15, 65-66,

rat 7: 15, 18, 65; 8: 9 African 7: 12, 8: 56

57 lesser blind 7: 100-101 Mechow's 8: 56, 57 mole rat family 8: 56-57

M. humilis 4: 86 Micoureus M. alstoni 10: 14 M. constantiae 10: 14

64

long-clawed marsupial

giant

86

12

Costa Rican harvest

Metatheria 10: (10) miacid 1: 9 Miacoidea 1: 88, 98 mice see mouse 4:

10,

coarse-haired pocket (desertpocket) 7: 22-23

4: 40,

squirrel 4: 72,

7:

birch 7: 17

76-77

82-83 De Brazza's

1

0,

1

African climbing 7:

(black-handed spider)

(Humboldt's woolly)

M. berezovskii 6: 1 M. chrysogaster 6: 50-51 M, fuseus 6:10 M. moschiferus 6: 1 mosquitoes 6: (22) mouflon 6: 62, 63

mouse

4: 72,

74-75 Central American spider

common

6:

44-47 guenon (vervet) 44-47

43

molehills 9:

giant 8: 57

10: 14

10: 11, 16,

swamp 4: 40, 41 black-handed spider 4: 72, 76-77

4: 72,

1

Moschus

Allen's

brown howler

6:

grivet (vervet) 4: 40, 42,

Cape 7: 10, 8: 56 Cape dune 8: 56

86-87

99

44-47

48-51

7:

Mesocricetus auratus 7:

9: 40, 42,

blind 7: 12-13, 15, 18;

30

monte

del

1

morrillo 8: 51

(16)

dusky-leaf 4:

43

Persian 9: 40,

mole

8:

monito

.

14-15, 17

6:

northwestern shiras 6: 15

Moschidae 6: 10 Moschiola meminna

98, 101

1:

14-19

moose disease 6: 18 Mormoopidae 9: 87

1:

common woolly

mole family

82-83

99

monkey

56-57

golden

yellow

13

9: 12,

eastern 6:

98,

white-tailed 1: 98,

10, 9: 9, (10), 11

42-43

32, 78-81

Microcebus

M. dorothea 10: 14 fuscatus 10: 14

Selous' 1:

slender 1:

22-23

6: 10, 12,

Alaskan

ringtailed 1: 98,

Mirza coquereli 4: 96 moldewarp see mole,

12

21-22

98 99 98, 99 98

Pousargues'

9: 12,

lesser 9:

Mindanao

family 1:

greater

moose

98-99

narrow-striped

3: 9,

M

1:

mongoose 1:

11, 40, 41, 42, (42)

98, 99,

:

Mirounga M. angustirostris 32-35 leonina 3: 32

European 9: 40, 42, giant golden 9: 40

98, 99,

100-105

1

32, 35, 35,

1:

52-55. 62, 7: 99; 9: 53 European 1: 54, (55) Miopithecus talapoin 4: 40

mole

1:

Liberian 1:

mink 1: 35 American

9:

Microcavia australis

Marmosops

marmot

37

Mellivora capensis 1: 32,

8

(12)

5: (10),

5:

Meles metes

8

Amazonian

Chinese

gray (meerkat) 1: 19, 98,

evolution 1: 70

reproduction

(97), 100, 6: 107; 7: 63, 8:

41, 9: 91

1: 19,

changing species diversity of 1:

for 2: 21, 33,

slender-tailed (meerkat)

8-17

1:

see also laboratory animals, surgery medicine 6: 51, 7: (31)

meerkat 1: 19, 100-105

96-97

90,

97

9: 77,

body parts

M. lagotis 10: 27, 44-45 M. leucura 10: 27 Madagascar, carnivores in 1:

16-17,

7:

98 98 long-nosed 1: 98 Madagascan 1: 98 marsh 1: 98, 99 Meller's 1: 98

Jackson's

ringtail

64, 8: 12, 12

M. giganteus 10: 48,

9:

miner's cat see raccoon,

6:

hairy-fronted 6: 10 Indian 6: 10

Reeves's 6:

46-47

Murexia

M

.

M.

longicaudata 10: 27 rothschildi 10:

27

123


i

0

1

i

1

i

SET INDEX

Mundae 7

:

:

62

N.

bates

N.

pygmaeus

6:

common

M

muse ulus M. musculus

68-71

N. netscheri 8:

brevirostris

N. timminsi 8:

7:

7 71 musculus domesticus 7: 71 M. musculus musculus 7 71 M. musculus wagneri :

Zealand, mammals introduced into 1: 43;

M. porcellus 8: 38 Muscardinus avellanarius

7:

28

ningaui 10: (24)

musk

1:

85; 6: 5

104-105 13, 65, 96-97 7: 96-97

6: 62.

N. timealeyi 10:

muskrat

7:

N.

common mustang

5:

42, 58-61

Mustela M. erminea

1: 32, 36,

40-43 M. frenata 1: 32, 36 M. lutreola 1: 54, (55) M. nigripes 1: 32, 46-47

,

M. personatus 7: 102 M. roach 7: 102 M. setzeri 7: 102 Myomorpha 7 (8) Myoprocta exilis 8: 30 Myosciurus pumilio 7: 34 Myosorex varius 9: 28 :

Myotis lucifugus 9: 104-105 Myoxidae 7: 12

Myrmecobiidae 10: 24 Myrmecobius fasciatus 10: 27, 34-35 Myrmecophaga tridactyla 9: 65,

68-71

Mysateles prehensilis 8: 30 Mystacinidae 9: 87

54 myxomatosis 8: 72, 93 Myzopodidae 9: 87 Mysticeti 3:

7:

:

Nycticebus

3: 55,

N.

pygmaeus

:

84-85 40

20

N. nasua 1

20,

28-29 1: 20

Nasuella olivacea Natalidae 9: 87 national parks/nature reserves 2: (15), 16, 31; 5: 34,

103

:

Nectogate elegans

1:

77; 2: 10, 72,

44-45

98 0. himalayana 8: 94 O. princeps 8: 94, 98-101 O pusilla 8: 94 Ochotonidae 8: 60 Octodon bridges 8: 30 collaris 8: 94,

Octodontidae (octodonts) 7: 72; 8: 29-31

Octodontomys 8: 30 octodonts

lorentzi

Odontoceti

29-31 30

:

7: 72, 8: 11, 28, 30,

4: 8, 10, 12, 13,

Oreamnos americanus 108-109

6: 62,

Oreotragus oreotragus

6:

62

62

6: 67,

7 7,

Orycteropus afer

6:

1

3:

3: 9,

9:

65,

1

34-37

0, (36)

54

okapi 6: 52, 52-53, 58-59 Okapia johnstom 6: 52, 58-59 Olallamys edax 8: 30

white (Arabian)

O, leucoryx 6: 62, 90-91 Oryzorictes tetradactylus

1

hairy-nosed

1:

32

48 O. unguifera 10: 48 opossum 1: 87

North American river 1: 32, 64-67

mouse 10: 14 woolly mouse

14 10:

14-17

bare-tailed woolly 10: 14

black four-eyed 10: 14

black-shouldered 10

:

14,

brown four-eyed

Indian smooth-coated 1:

10: 14

bushy-tailed 10: 14

:

58-59 98 :

88

,

river

American

44

84 1:

9

8: 108; 10: (76), 84,

Patagonia

35

5:

108

river) 1:

32,

64-67 sea 1: 19, 32, 72-75 short-clawed 1: 32, 70-71 smooth-coated 1: 32 spot-necked 1: 32, 35 otter shrew 9: 1 1, 24, 25

25

Ruwenzori 9: 24, 25 ounce see leopard, snow

pheromones

7: 66,

70

P andersoni 10: 14 P opossum 10: 14 Phoca

Phocarctos hookeri Phocidae 3: 8

5: 8,

Chacoan

5:

collared

5:

12 88, 89, 89 88, 89, 90-91

88-89 white-lipped 5: 88, 89, 89 Pectinator spekei 7: 08 peccary family

5:

1

Pedetes capensis 7: 20-21 Pedetidae 7: 12 Pelea capreolus 6: 62 penguin 3: 38-39 Pentalagus furnessi 8: 64

Peramelemorphia 10: 24 Perameles

3:

Phocoena phocoena 78-79 Pholidocercus

9

3: 55,

9

1:

1: 70; 9:

64

Phyllostomidae 9: 87 Physeter catodon 3: 55, 86-89 pig 5: 8 10, 12 ,

bearded bushpig

tajacu

(North

92-97

Phascolosorex P doriae 10: 27

Pholidota

Pecan 5: 88 P tajacu see Tayassu

peccary

27

P groenlandica 3: 9, 44-45 P sibirica see Pusa sibirica P vitulina 3: 9, 40-41

Pasteurella tularense 8: 81

patagium 86

.

red-tailed 10: 25,

P dorsalis 10: 27 1

27

virus 7:

Paroodectes

32

giant 9: 24,

77

1

26 27

brush-tailed 10:

Phascogale P calura 10: 27 P tapoatafa 10: 27 10: 74,

4: 40,

:

parasites 9:

giant 1: 18, 32

Phaner furcifer 4: 96 phascogale 10: (25)

Philander

bilarni 10:

parapox

Phacochoerus P aethiopicus 5: 74 P africanus 5: 74, 80-83 Phalanger 10: 82

Phascotorarctos cinereus

Parascalops breweri 9: 40

Cape clawless 1: 32 Congo clawless 1: 32 European 1: 58-63 European river 1: 60

onager see ass, Asian wild Ondatra zibethicus 7: 96-97 Onychogalea

agile gracile

P

O. garnettn 4: 1 06 otter 1: 19, 35, 54, 8: 48

northern

2: 10. 36-37 P pardus 2: 1 0, 30-33 P tig ns 2: 10, 20-25 P uncia 2 10, 34-35 Pantholops hodgsoni 6: 62

1 88 P zeylonensis 1: 88

06

see also cat, domestic; dog, domestic

Pgymnotis 10: 74

Parantechinus P aplicalis 10: 27 1

109; 2: 75; 4: 53, 78, 81, 83, 85, 87, 88, 101, 7: 15, (69), 83, 86; 8: 39, 42, (72); 9: 13, 21

Phalangeridae 10: 76

5)

Ponca

P jerdoni 2: 50,

O. crassicaudatus 4:

1:

(1

pets 1: 22, 29, 35, 45, 95,

Pcarmelitae 10: 74

94-95

76-77 Otolemur

marine

2:

Paradoxurus P hermaphroditus

Otariidae 3: 8

68-69

20, 21

panther

88

:

1:

1:

2: (99)

Paracynictis selousi

24

34 Petrodomus tetradactylus 9: 59 crinitus 7:

.

panda bear see panda, giant pangolin 1: 70; 9: 64-67 African 9: 66 armored 9: 64 Asian 9: 66 giant 9: 65, 66 ground 9: 64-65, 65 tree 9: 65

54-57 P hamadryas

62 62

6:

74

gracilis 10:

P persephone 10: 48 P xanthopus 10: 48, 70-71 Petromuridae 7: 12 8: 31 Petromus typicus 8: 30, 54-55 Petropseudes dahli 10: 74

pantotheres 7: 10, 1 Papio P cynocephalus 4: 40,

6: 62,

90-91 Oryx

36

7:

Petrogale

:

giant river

olingo

1

:

6: 62,

Otocyon megalotis

0,

4:

black 2: 30, 31

90-91 scimitar-horned 6: 62

9:

34-35 2, 28-33

2,

98-101

2: 82,

P leo persica

dammah

P

Petinomys 1

36

7:

P petaurista

see also leopard; puma Panthera P leo 2 10. 14-19

106-109

68-73 oryx Arabian

P elegans

Petauroides volans 10: 74 Petaurus P breviceps 10: 74, 86-87

88

1:

24

Petaurista

30-31: 2: (99) red 1: 20, 21. 30-31:

14-19 Bornean 4: 12, 14-15, 18, 18-19 Sumatran 4: 12, 14-15, 18 orca 3: 55, (57), 62-65 O rein us orca 3: 55, 62-65

O.

Pan P paniscus 4: P troglodytes

Peroryctidae 10:

Petauridae 10: (76)

lesser (red) 1: 20, 21,

10: 14 woolly 10: 16

orangutan

30

mountain 8: 30 pacarana 7: 72, 8: 28, 31 pademelon red-legged 10: 48, 57

giant

mouse

spirit gracile

Osbornictis piscivora

22, 34, 52, 58, 85, 89,

16,

Neophoca cinerea 3: 9 Neotoma lepida 7 84-85

wood

O. gazella 6:

gliroides

7: 72, 8:

hemionus

10:

28

white-eared 10: 14

Oryctolagus cuniculus 8: 64,

94

O. alpina 8:

American fodiens 9:

paca

panda

77

13, 14, 16,

78-79

Ochotona

Alston's

1

18-23

16, 17,

water 10:

oribi 5:

o ocelot

28

108 Neofelis nebulosa 2:

,

10:

6: 62,

9:

Nemorhaedus goral

Neophascogale 10: 27

06

fraenata 10:

Neamblysomus julianae 9: 40 nectar 4 105

Neomys

1

91, 101

40, 70-71

N. narica 1:

(102),

4:

Odocoileus

Nasua :

06,

virginianus 6:

N. concolor 4:

4

1

Virginia 10: 8 13, 14, 15,

Ornithorhynchus anatinus

oil 3:

N. larvatus

4:

0.108-109

:

Nasalis

124

coypu nyala, mountain 6: 62 Nyctereutes procyonoides 2 50 Nycteridae 9: 87 nutria see

100-101

narwhal

10: 13, 24, 25, 26,

34-35

:

N

P broadbenti 10: 27 P raffrayana 10: 27

3: 44-45 Paguma larvata

short-tailed 10: 14

shrew 10: 16 silky shrew 10: 14

1

Peroryctes

pygmy

108 108-109 87 noise pollution 3: 88, 95 noolbenger see possum, honey Notoryctemorphia 10: 24

Octomys mimax 8: Odobenidae 3: 8 Odobenus rosmarus 24-29

Nandinia binotata 1 88 Nannosciuris exilis 7 36 Nannospalax leucodon

oxpeckers 5: 38; 6: (73) Ozotocerus bezoarticus 6 10

N. leporinus 9:

N0. coucang

Myomimus

06 Peromyscus P leucopus 7: 83 P maniculatus 7: 82-83

7: (14)

N. albiventris 9:

Noctilionidae 9:

numbat

44-47

43 Perodicticus potto 4:

P

mouse

7: (31) Perissodactyla 1: 70; 5: 10, 12,

62

red-necked 10: 48 Pagophilus groenlandica

Noctilio

Mydaus

Myocastoridae 7: 12 8: 31 myoglobin 3: 1 1, 87 Myoictis melas 10: 27

33

pallid fat-tailed 10: 14 Patagonian 10: 14

Notoryctes N. caurinus 10: 27, 43 0. 42-43 N. 0. typhlops 10: 27, Notoryctidae 10: 24, 26

M

100-103

:

10: 14

M. nivalis 1: 32, 36-39 M. putorius 1: 32, 44-45 M. vison 1: 32, 52-55 mustelids 1: 32-35 M. javanensis 1; 32 marchei 1: 32 Myocastor coypus 8: 30,

mouse

gray four-eyed 10: 14, 77 gray short-tailed 10: 14 Incan shrew 10: 14

pale-bellied woolly

27 yvonneae 10: 27

muskox

6:

snowy

14 Mexican mouse 10: 14, 77 murine mouse 10: 14

.

musimon 7: (37), 9:

O. :

lutrine 10:

27

Pilbara 10: 25,

southern 10: 27 Ningaui

106-107

7: 102.

membrane

62

nilgai 6:

62

O. aries 6:

owl

14 gray-bellied shrew 10: 14 gray-bellied slender

Ovis O. canadensis 6:

10: 14, 75

10: (80) nictitating

,

mouse

10: 14 elegant fat-tailed 10

New

:

:

13, 14, 15, 16, 17,

54-55

9:

8 18-23

(Virginia) 10:

Dorothy's slender

Neurotrichus gibbsii

M

7 71

64 64

P bougainville 10: 27 P nasuta 10: 27 Peramelidae 10: 24 perfume industry 1: (91);

104-105

Chilean shrew 10: 14

62

6:

Nesolagus

Mus

Ourebia ourebi 6: 62 Ovibos moschatus 6: 62,

Central American woolly 10: 14, 17

Neotragus

65

12,

:

Murinae 7 14 muriqui 4 72

75 75

5: 74, 5:

74,

lard pig 5: (78)

pig family pig fish 3: pig

5:

74-75

78

mouse

38

8:

pika 8: 60, 62 Alpine 8: 94

American

8: 67, 94, 96,

98-101 Asian 8:

97

collared 8: 94, 97,

common 96,

98

(American)

98-101

8: 94,


2

1

1

1

0

0

1

,

,

SET INDEX

North American

Eurasian 8: 98, 100

Himalayan 8: 94, 96 pika family 8: 94-97 Rocky Mountain (American) 94, 96, 98-101

8:

Russian steppe 8: 94, 97

8-13

10; 3:

1:

pinto 5: 59

87

pipistrelle 9:

Pithecia 4:

P irrorata 4: P monachus P.

72

4:

10: 8,

aedium 76-77

8:

30

P maculata 10: 27 P novaeguineae 10: 27

8:

riverine 8: 62,

64

poaching

78-79

55,

69

3:

78-81

74 74, 75-76,

ringtail 10:

88-89

ringtail 10: (77)

74 74 74, 76

Weyland 32

1:

see also opossum,

9:

Potamogalidae

1

71, 75; 2: (88); 3: 12, 41, 59, 61, 65, 67, 74, 79,

83 noise pollution 3: 88,

95

Pongo P abelu 4: 12, 14-19 P pygmaeus 4: 12, 14-19 blainvillei 3: 55,

(61)

pony Falabella 5: (43)

see mustang

42-43 mustang

porcupine 1: 50-51; 8: 10. 12-15 8: 10, 12,

7: 8;

16-19

crested (African) 8: 10, 12,

12-13, 14, 16-19 in Europe 8: (19) hairy dwarf 8: 12

13, 14, 8:

8: 12, 12,

14

26-27 7: 12;

12-15

74

P archeri 10: 74 P cupreus 10: 74, 90-91 caroli 10:

74

P cinereus 10: 74 Pseudois nayaur 6: 62 Pseudopotto martini 4: 1 06 pseudoruminants 5: 70 Pseudoryx nghetinhensis 6: 62

72-73

10: 48, 50, 51.

pudu

dog

1:

46-47,

7: 13,

36

black-tailed

7:

56-59

34,

56-59 7:

white-tailed 7: 58

higher 4:

lower

2: 10, 13,

Pygathrix roxellana 4:

5:

106-107

Priodontes maximus 9: 65

Prionodon

1

106-107 Procaviidae 8: 102 Procotobus 4: 41-42 P badius 4: 40 Procyon 1:

48

20 26

20 raccoon family 1: 20-21 ringtail 1: 20, 20, 21 21

Rangifer tarandus 6:

1

10: 48, 72 rufous 10: 48, 51 see also potoroo Rattus R. norvegicus 7: 72-75

R

.

Ratufa R. affinisi 7: R.

African marsh 7:

65

Amazon bamboo

8:

armored 8: 30 armored spiny

62

6:

7:

8:

Guinea 10: 25, 27 northern 10: 27, 32-33

1:

Amami

43; 8: 61, 62 8: 62,

64

American swamp 8: 66 annamite 8: 64 brush 8: 64 bunyoro 8: 63, 64 bush see hare, snowshoe chocolate Dutch 8: 72-73 cottontail 1: 87 desert 8: 66

29

refection 9: 29,

reforestation 4: 91

.

regeneration, of land 10: 89

moss

6:

20-25 22-23

reintroduction

1:

46; 2: 41,

reindeer reindeer

64

6: 10, 12.

(56), 69; 4: 87, 88, 5:

64

Chilean rock 8: 30 chinchilla 7: 12 common (brown) 7: 14-15,

72-75. 77; 8: 10; 10: 11 dassie 7: 12; 8: 31, 54-55 desert wood 7: 84-85 golden-backed tree 7: 67 greater cane 8: 30 greedy olalla 8: 30 house (ship) 7: 11, 13, 14-15, 72, 75, 76-77

multimammate

New World

7:

64

7:

7:

65

64

Norway (brown)

5,

:

84-85

R.

hirsutus 7: 81

R.

megalotis

R.

paradoxus

R. R.

7:

80-81

81 rodriguez 7: 81 spectabilis 7: 81

religious

7:

ceremonies

relocation 5:

34

repopulation reproduction

1: 1:

5:

25

75 12-14

61,

see also embryonic diapause; implantation/fertilization;

breeding rhebok, gray 6: 62 Rheithrosciurus macrotis

36

rhinoceros 5: 8, 8, 9, 11, 12 black 5: 28, 33, (34), 36-39 giraffe 5: 8 grass (white) 5: 28, 29,

30-35 greater Indian (Indian) 5: 28,

painted tree 8: 30 Panama spiny 8: 30, 31

plague (ship) 7: 11, 13, 14-15, 72, 75, 76-77 plain brush-tailed 8:

plains viscacha 8: 7:

90-91;

34, 6: 45, (66), 91;

7: 29, 107 Reithrodontomys

7:

7:

14-1

72-75. 77; 8: 10; 10: 11 Old World 7: 14, 65 Owl's spiny 8 30 pack (desert wood)

pouched

62 62

reestablishment 3: 31, 93

30 14-15, 72-75 8:

77, 8: 10, 10: 11

7:

6:

fulvorufula 6:

R. redunca 6: 62 reedbuck bohor 6: 62 mountain 6: 62 southern 6: 62

14-15, 72, 75, 76-77

Natal

of Threatened Species (IUCN) 1: 16

.

R.

black (ship) 7: 11, 13,

68-69

New

33

Lists

Redunca R arundinum

31

Kenyan crested 7: 66 lesser cane 8: 30

10: 48, 52,

36 36

R. indica 7: 34, 62-63 recolonization 3: 14, 35;

Red

30 Asian climbing 7: 64 Atlantic bamboo 8: 30 Australasian water 7: 65 Australian water 7: 9, 17, 65

7:

bicolor 7:

red ape see orangutan

30

30 broad-headed spiny

76-77

rattus 7:

giant

20-25 Raphicerus campestris rat 1: 15; 7: 12

48

musky

ratufa see squirrel, Indian

0,

Indonesian key-footed

quoll 10: (25), 27

rabbit

22-27 26

Island 1:

16-17, (21)

see also spines

R

Proboscidea 1: 10; 5: 14 Procapra picticaudata 6: 62 Procavia capensis 8: 03,

1:

45,

40

see porcupine, North

quokka

P cancrivorus P gloverellam

1

42-43

quills 8: 12, (14),

1

4: 11.

6:

American

4: 8-1

20, 21,

7:

punare 8: 30 Pusa sibirica 3: 9

quillpig

40 4: 40

26

1:

desert 10:

Central American vesper

P mephistophiles P pudu 6: 1 puku 6: 62

4:

1:

common

7:

74

see badger, honey rat-kangaroo 10: 51, 52

70-71

8:

103 raccoon Barbados

brown

rat;

ratel

rabies 1: 26, 87; 2: (67), 77,

8:

mole

rat;

viscacha rat-bite fever 7:

8:

bamboo

65

kangaroo

:

cane

Pudu

puma

vlei 7:

30

30

water see vole, water see also chinchilla rat;

brush-furred 7: 65 7: 12; 8: 31 Central American climbing

59

12 northern 6: 10 southern 6: 10, 12

quagga

Presbytis 4: 41

P femoralis primates 1: 10;

32,

6: 10,

Q

58

P comata

1:

Pteropodidae 9: 86 Pteropus 9: 86 P giganteus 9: 88-91 Ptilocercus lowii 9:

prairie

:

bristle-spined 8:

P longipes 10: 48 P tridactylus 10: 48, 72-73 Potos flavus 1: 20 potto 4: 106, 106-107 golden 4: 106 Martin's false 4: 106 pouches 10: (10)

:

North African (African) 8: 10, 12, 12-13, 14,

6-19

Pseudantechinus P macdonnellensis 10: 27 P woolleyae 10: 27 Pseudocheiridae 10: (76) Pseudocheirus peregrinus

wood)

84-85

tuft-tailed spiny tree 8:

62

72 rabbit warrens

30

:

viscacha rat 8 29,

crab-eating 1:

68-69

:

tree (tree) 8: 12,

New World

Woolley's 10: 27

73

7:

volcano 8 63, 64 see also cottontail rabbit hemorrhagic disease

Cozumel

27

Pteronura brasiliensis

P linsang 1 88 P pardicolor 1 88

long-tailed 8: 12, 14, 16

104

pseudantechinus

Potorous

Utah

10

tree 8: 9 Asian brush-tailed 8: 12 bahia hairy dwarf 8: 12 bicolofed tree 8: 27 Brazilian tree 8: 12, 13 brown hairy dwarf 8: 12 brush-tailed 8: 14, 16 Cape 8: 12, 15

Malayan Mexican

50, 51,

plains (black-tailed) 7: 34,

African brush-tailed 8: 12 8:

24

long-footed 10: 48 long-nosed (potoroo)

15, 18,

12-13,

9:

potoroo 10: 48, 72-73 Gilbert's 10:

American American

110-111

P

pollution 1: 61, 62, 64, 69,

14,

(95) Proteles cristata 2: 102,

Pseudochirulus

Virginia

hare,

64-66 8:

64

spiny tree 8

79; 7: 14, 74; 9: 84, 97,

Pseudochirops

74

ringtail 10:

Potamochoerus P larvatus 5: 74 P porcus 5: 74 Potamogale velox

:

African

107; 5: 41, 60, 9: 85; 10: 28, 32, 37, 43, 71,

10:

western pygmy 10: 74

Poelagus marjorita 8: 64 Poiana richardsoni 1 88 polecat 1: 44-45 European 1: 32, 34, 35, 35 marbled 1: 32, 34, 34

5:

74

mountain mountain pygmy 10: 74,

striped 10:

1

32

Poecilogale albinucha

Pontoporia

35, 39, 44, 49, 55, (97), 100; 3: 12, 19, 59, 74,

fat-tailed 10: 25,

rock ringtail 10: 9:

8:

smooth-tailed giant 7: 65 South American climbing spiny 7: 12, 8: 31

Sumatran 8 63, 64 Sumatran short-eared

swamp

14-15, 72,

76-77

trade (desert

snowshoe see snowshoe

96 96 96

76-77

7: 11, 13,

75,

7:

64-67

rock see pika

62, 69, 74; 2: 21, 28, 33,

scaly-tailed 10:

13

4:

Prototheria 10:

76, 77, (77)

P aureospinula

Welsh

76

74

brushtail 10:

Poecilictis libyca 1:

feral

74,

marsupial gliding 7: (37) 1

4:

ship

8: 64, (93)

:

tattersalli 4:

P verreauxi

Daintree River ringtail 10: 74 eastern pygmy 10: 74

77,

(102)

truer 9: 12,

P

ringtail 10: 74,

10: 8,

pygmy

protection, legal 1: 35, 47, 51,

ringtail 10:

Leadbeater's 10: 74, 76,

4: 24, 27; 5: 39,

wild see

P diadema

brush-tipped ringtail 10: 74 brushtail 10: 10,

common

feathertai! 10:

63

6:

Propithecus

102-103

Podogymnura P

(harbor) 3: 55,

10: (10), 75-77 Arnhemland 10: 80

honey

Pliohippus 5: 42

marsh 8: 65 Mexican volcano 8: 64 Old World (European) 8: 60-61, 62, 64, 68-73 rabbit family

P gangetica 3: 55, (61) P minor 3: 55, (61) platypus 1: 14 duck-billed 10: 105,

Plecotus auritus 9: 110-111

72, 75,

P crassicaudatus 8: 64 P randensis 8: 64 P rupestris 8: 64 Propaleotherium 1: 8

green

106-109

6: 60, 62, (63),

rock 8: 29

rufous tree 8: 30

Pronolagus

Plata nista

platyrrhines 4:

Prolagus 8: (96)

90-91

Planigale

roof (ship) 7: 11, 13, 14-15,

60-61 62, 64,

8:

66

porpoise

copper

27

European 68-73

Porcus piscus 3: 78

common

Papuan 10: 27

rat family 7:

forest 8:

pronghorn

64-67

domestic (European) 8: 60-61, 62, 64, 68-73

110-111 American 2: 26, pranking 6: 97

:

74, 76,

7: 14,

planigale 10: (24) common 10: 25,

30

8:

porcupinelike rodents 8 8-11

porpoising

9-11,13 Plagiodontia

P lotor 1: 20, 22-27 P pygmaeus 1: 26 Procyonidae 1: 20-21 Proechimys semispinosus

possum

mammals

placental

7: 12; 8:

tree 8: 12, 13, 14, 26-27 upper Amazon 8: 12

78-79 harbor 3:

72 72

pithecia 4: 72

plague

Old World

12-15 South African 8 19

common

P albicans

20-25

:

Sardinian 8: (96) pingers 3: 79 Pinnipedia

7: (8);

8: 10, 12, 13, 14,

18

30

30

40-41 Indian 5: 28, 40-41 Javan 5: 28 northern white 5: 34

rhinoceros family 5:

28-29

southern white

5:

34,

35

125


5 91

1 1

0

1

2 2

.

5

i

i

SET INDEX

^quaie- oped (v\hite) 5: 28. :

29.

30-35

Sumatran

white .

S: 28,

5:

28, 29,

5:

28

Sciuromorpha

Rhinoceros R sondaicus

R unicornis

29 30-35

28

5:

40-41

5: 28,

niger 7: 34,

5.

vulgaris 7: 34,

59 59 :

common

eared 3: 8, furl: (11)

raccoon rockhare see hare, greater red rockhare

gray 3: 42-43 harbor 3: 8, 9, 40-41 harp 3: 9, 12, 44-45

Rocky Mountain tick fever 7: 14 rodents 1: 70; 7: 8-1

Hawaiian monk

1-12 7: 16-19 porcupinelike 8: 8-1 1

mouselike

squirrel-like 7:

1

9-10,

86-87

5:

1

12; 6:

1,

pseudoruminants Rupicapra R. pyrenatca

5:

8-9

70

62

American 1: 48, 50 sacred animals 4: 59, (66); 9: 91

94 94

oedipus

4:

86

S. S.

entellus 4:

sciureus 4: 72,

78-79

Setifer

6:

62 62

sheep

46-47 46 setosus 9: 24

1: 15; 5:

1

saliva 9: 17, 21

barbary 6: 62 blue 6: 62 desert bighorn 6: 100 domestic 6: 62, 63

(32), rat,

10: 27,

5. laniarius

10: 27,

Scandentia

Orkney

Island

Soay

solenodon

Cuban

(

28-31

harrisii)

28-31 1: 70; 9:

Scapanus orarius

9:

58

40

9:

9: 8, 9, (10), 11

9

African forest 9: 28 American short-tailed

30-33 American water

Solenodontidae sonar 3: 83

1: 70, 9: 8, 9, (10),

1

9:

9:

36-37

9:

9

100-105 meerkat

barbatus

74

5:

ground

eastern fox 7: 34, 46-47 Eurasian red 7: 42-45 European red 7: 34

Sylvicapra grimmia 6: 62,

flying 7: 8, 13, 17, 34, 37,

Sylvilagus

7:

36

36 8-9

7:

Indian giant 7: 34, 62-63 Javanese flying 7: 36 Low's 7: 36 Malabar (Indian giant) 7: 34, flying 7:

audubonii

8: 64, (93)

S.

bachmam

8:

90-93

S.

insonus

5.

palustris hefneri 8:

8: (93)

S. transitionalis 8:

64

(93)

symbiosis 6: (73)

Syncerus caffer 6: 62, 70-73 syndactyly 10: 75, (94)

Tachyglossus aculeatus

10 110-111

7: 34,

:

Tadarida brasiliensis

36 36 Prevost's 7: 36 pygmy 7: 36 pale giant 7:

9:

100-103

Himalayan 6: 62 takh see horse, Mongolian

plantain 7:

tahr,

wild

red 7: 41

southern flying 60-61

64

dice 8: (93) floridanus 8: 64,

T

34

northern flying 7: 61 northern striped palm

8: (93)

5.

5.

36

74

3:

80-81

S.

7: 18, 19, 34,

antelope

62-63 Mindanao

swimming therapy

S aquaticus

(37); 10: (76)

takin 6: 62, 7: 34,

36

36

7:

10,

54-55 three-striped ground 7: 36 tree 7: 17, 34, 35, 36 tufted ground 7: 36 squirrel-like rodents 7: 16-19 stances 5: 9-10

108

43

talapoln 4: 40, 47, Talpa T.

europaea

T.

street 9:

9: 40,

44-47

40

Talpidae 9: 9

tamandua 7: 34,

spotted giant flying 7: 36 squirrel family 7: 34-37 thirteen-lined ground 7: 34,

Hispaniola 9: 9 Solenodon S. Cuban us 9: 9 S. paradoxus 9: 9

shrew

Suricata suricatta 1: 98,

squirrel, thirteen-lined

36-37 16

animal parts for human surgery 5: 79 testing surgical techniques 4: 13

60-61

slender 7: 36 South African ground

9:

40 40

4:

scrofa 5: 74, 76-79 suslik, thirteen-lined see

scaly-tailed 7: 12, 17, (19)

8: (78)

10

1:

S.

dolichura 10: 38 gilberti 10: 38

snowshoes

banded

S.

36

7:

red giant flying 7:

snakes 1: (102), 109; snares 4: 24, 53

Supercohort 41

sureli 4:

eastern flying (southern flying) 7: 34,

36

Sus

36 Cape ground 7: 36-37

red-cheeked flying

mt irina 10: 38-39 virginiae 10: 27

tenuis 7:

suricate see

crassicaudata 10: 27

S.

63

36

black-striped 7:

ground

lowii 7:

5.

surgery

1

34

S.

S.

6:

7:

S.

S.

wild 6: 63

Sarcophilus S. harrisii

39

65

Sminthopsis S. aitkem 10: 38

77;

6: 60-63 American bighorn 6: 100-103

poisonous 9: 8, 11, sand puppy see mole naked saola 6: 62

9:

three-toed 9: 65

9: 65 three-toed 9: 65, 72-73 Smilodon fatalis 2: 1

1,

3,

101

1:

pygmy

colonial

38-39

9: 28,

7:

36 36

S.

grizzled 4:

35

southern two-toed

monk 4: 72 white-nosed 4: 72 Salanoia concolor 1 98 :

72-73

Hoffmann's two-toed

sewellel 7: (29)

73

4: 72,

66 )

brown-throated three-toed

maned

68-69

72

buffy 4: 72

Guianan

6:

Setonix brachyurus 10: 48,

bald-faced 4: 72 4:

108

20-21 71, 96, 107

7: 72, 18, 3:

5: (12)

bottom" see whale,

S hippurus

8-9, 67, 62,

horse-tailed 7:

sloth 9: 64-65, 65-66, 66,

pelengensis 10: 74

Sundasciuris

black flying 7: 34, black giant 7: 36

Harris'

32 striped 1: 32, 84-87 western hog-nosed 1: 32 western spotted 1: 32 (

6:

springhare

ground

1:

celebensis 10: 74

5.

blue

12

8:

gray-cheeked flying

(three-toed) 9: 65, giant ground 9: 64

servalines 2:

saki

bearded

skunk 1: 34 Andes 1: 32 hooded 1: 32 pygmy spotted

40 40, 64-67 4:

27

Suncus etruscus

gray 7: 34, 36, 38-41 43-44, 47

see also fur trade

serval 2: 10,

72

boliviensis 4:

S.

18-19

hypoleucos 4: 40 S. obscurus see Trachypithecus obscurus sengi 9: 58

Japanese mainland

Saiga tartarica 6: 62 Saimiri 5.

concolor

111; 3: 12, 15; 5: 91; 6: 66, 10: 56, 91

S.

6:

96

patches 4: 39, 52, 58 skin trade 1: (23), 69, 72, 74;

gee/ see Trachypithecus geei

serow

4:

Sigmoceros lichtensteinii see Alcelaphus lichtensteinii Sign Language, American 4: 13, (16), 27 simakobu 4: 40

12

mammals

32 76-77

American gray (gray) 7: 34, 36, 38^41. 43-44, 47 American red 7: 42 Arctic ground 2: 65

Sirenia 1: 70; 3: 47; 5: (12)

Serengeti Plains 6: 84, (85)

saiga 6: 62

7:

2: 33, 36, 37, 39, 47, 100,

9,

1:

,

sitting

Selvinia betpakdalaensis

imperator subgrisescens 4:

5.

32

3: 9, 13, 18,

7: 102 Semnopithecus

Saguinus S fusciollis 4: 86 5 imperator 4: 86, 94-95 5. imperator imperator 5.

3:

fur) 3: 8,

7 7

Steller's 3: 9, 12,

4:

9, 12,

pygmaea

spines 9: 13, 15, see also quills

African

32 3: (59),

S.

"sulfur

African ground

37 104

91

3: (27),

on shore 66, 67, 96

strandings,

styloglossus 5: (12)

32

squid 3: 87, (88), 91 squirrel 7: 1 1 72, 1

102

4: 8, 36,

the stomach

in

stotting 6: 35, 97, 8:

Strigocuscus

spy-hopping

02

1

5/m/as concolor see Nasalis

Galapagos 3: 9 New Zealand 3:

sable,

40

8:

1: (74);

31-32, (31)

subungulates

springbok 96-97

3: (27), 91

lower

springhaas see springhare

54-55

hammers 4:

stridulation 9:

1

kraemeri 10: 74 maculatus 10: 82-83 papuensis 10: 74

spiny

40-43 stomach stones

1

Spilogale

S.

102

8:

variable 8:

20-23

s

9: 8,

28-29

9:

diademed 4: 96 golden-crowned Verreaux's 4: 96

:

California

rupicapra 6: 62, 108 Rupicaprim 6: 108 R.

S.

Tibetan water 9: 28 see also elephant shrew; otter shrew; tree shrew shrew mole 9: 40, 41

Siebenschlafer

2,

vestitus 8:

5.

sifaka 1

5.

S. gracilis 1:

inquisitive 9:

70; 3 8-13. 64

1:

30-33

pygmy white-toothed

shrew mouse

38-39

insidiosus 8:

S.

stoat 1:19, 32, 34, 36,

strepsirhines see primates,

S.

Spilocuscus

tailed 9: 28, piebald 9: 28

sea leopard see seal, leopard

sea lion

28

northern (American) short-

Gibb's (American) 9:

16-17

Australian 3: 9, 6:

least 9:

American 9: 54-55 Asiatic 9: 42

1 1

southern fur (Cape 9,

13

,

3: 9,

44-45 southern elephant

92-93

rumen 6: 8 ruminants

3:

28

Indian house 9:

76-77

54-55

34,

62

6: 61,

Stenella longirostris 3: 55,

as

Sphiggurus

8-9

branch 37.

saddleback (harp) 3:

diazi 8:

Rousettus aegyptiacus 9:

9:

siamang

ringed 2:

phocid

6-1

64 55, 106, 107

rorquals 3:

9

.

3: 9,

northern elephant 72, 32-35 northern fur 3: 9, 14-15

1

Romerolagus

3: 9, 11,

monk

1 1

0,

1

30-31 leopard 3:

36-37

3: 9, 11,

9, 9,

7:

shrew family

(harbor) 3: 8, 9,

40-41 crabeater 38

28

greater white-toothed

28

Rhynchomeles prattorum 10: 27 rinderpest 6: 73, 77, 85 ringing of trees 7: 37 ringtail see under possum;

cavylike 8: 8-1 evolution 7: 12 expansion 7:

126

forest 9:

steenbok

stones

Spalacopus cyanus 8: 30 Speothos venaticus 2: 50 spermaceti 3: 86, 87, 89, 91 Spermophilus tridecemlineatus

29

46, 47, 47, 53

36-37

palustris 9:

Soricidae 9: 9, 58 9: 28,

29

circus tricks 3: (23)

10: 14

34-35 pygmy

songs gibbons 4: 36, 39 whale songs 3: 99-100, 105 Sorex S. araneus 9: 34-35 S minutus 9: 28 S.

Eurasian water 9: 28,

:

Rhynchogale melleri 1 98 Rhyncholestes raphanurus

extinct 7:

9:

see also dugong sea grass 3: 46, 52 seal 1: 70; 3 8-13. 64; 7: 12 Antarctic fur 3: 9, 12 Baikal 3: 9, 70-7 7 Cape fur 3: 8, 9, 16-17 Caribbean monk 3: 9

petersi 9:

common

Eurasian

cow

Steller's 3:

Rhinopomatidae 9: 86 Rhynchocyon R. chrysopygus 9: 59, 9:

46-47 42-45

S.

sea

38-39

Eurasian

sea canary see beluga

Pygathrix roxellana

62-63 R cirnei

38-41

7: 34,

scorpion 1: (102) Scutisorex somerem 9: 28

106-107

Rhinopithecus roxellana see

R.

1: (1 1), 9: 28 Etruscan white-toothed

9: 28,

S carolinensis

10

9:

Etruscan

8

7:

29

9: 28,

desert 9: 29

elephant

Sciurus

Rhinocerotidae 5: 28 Rhinolophidae 9: 87 Rhinolophus hipposideros 9:

armored

Scelidotherium 9: 64 Sciuridae 7: 12 Sciurognathi (sciurognaths) 7: (8), 12. 16-19; 8: 8

9:

southern

9:

68 65

Tamandua tetradactyla tamaraw 6: 62 tamarin 4: 8 bearded emperor

4:

9:

65

94

black-chinned emperor 4:

94

black-faced lion 4: 88 black lion 4: 86,

88 87 94-95

cotton-top 4: 86,

emperor

4: 86,

golden-headed

lion 4:

88


1

5

,

SET INDEX

golden

thylacine

lion 4: 86, 87,

saddleback 4: 86, 95 tamarin family 4: 86-87 Tamias T sibiricus 7: 48 T striatus 7: 34, 48-49 tapetum lucidum 2: 10-12;

107

4: 85, 106,

tapir

11, 12

5: 8,

63

64-65

62, 63,

5:

64-65 5: 62-63

62, 63,

T.

62 indicus 5: 62 pinchaque 5: 62

T

terrestris 5: 62,

T.

bairdii 5:

107 pygmy 4: 106, 107 spectral 4: 106, 107 western 4: 106, 107, 107

tarsier 4: 11, 106,

102-103 Tarsius T.

T. T.

06 pumilus 4: 1 06 spectrum 4: 06 bancanus

4:

1

1

Tasmanian devil

10: (24), 27,

28-31 Taurotragus T. derbianus 6: 62, 76-77 T derbianus derbianus 6:

76

T derbianus gigas T oryx 6: 62, 76 Taxidea taxus

1:

32,

76

6:

76-77

pecan

5:

88

T tajacu

5:

88, 90-91

T.

Tayassuidae

5:

tayra 1: 32, 4:

6:

9

aquatic 9: 24, 25,

spiny 9: 25

24-25 tailless (common) 9: 24, 26-27 tenrec family 9: 24-25 26-27 24

9: 24,

34

78-79

10

6:

1:

0,

1

48

62-63

9: 58,

59

Trichys fasciculata

8:12

triok, Tate's 10: 74, (77)

79 Trypanosoma

truffles 5:

cruzi 8:

tsessebe 6: 88 tuberculosis, bovine

27

1:

81;

1:

10, 5: (12);

65 7: 12, 8:

9-10, 11,

30 strong 8: 30

Thryonomyidae Thryonomys

8:

7: 12; 8:

1 gregorianus 8:

30 31

tunnels, foraging 7:

30

swinderianus 8: 30

100-101 see also burrows

1

5,

maned

53

2: 50,

marsupial see thylacine

:

60

10: 48, 50,

54-57.

2: 50, 53,

59

50

Mexican 2: 54 59 Tasmanian see thylacine red 2:

timber (gray) 54-57. 59

2: 50, 53,

U.

wolverine 56-57

Li,

thibetanus 2: 82

wapiti see elk warfarin 7: 75

wombat 10: (10), 77, 93 common 10: 74, 75,

U.

warthog

86

9:

Varecia variegata 4: 96,

desert

74

5:

variegata rubra 4:

1

04

variegata variegata

104

Vicugna vicugna

5:

92,

Endangered Species of 5: 75, 6: 62,

defassa 6: 93 water reabsorption

least

1:

32, 34,

1: 19,

32,

1: 19,

34

(least)

35, 36-39

32, 34, 35,

36-39 long-tailed 1: 32,

36

North African banded

1: 32,

34

30

megaspila 1: 88 tangalunga 1: 88

V.

zibetha

:

webbed 1

:

54; 7: 9,

Vombatus ursinus 98-101

10: 74,

vomeronasal organ Vormela peregusna

34

32,

weasel family

88 Viverridae 1: 18, 88, 98 vole 7: 13, 17, 65 bank 7: 74-75 field 7: 92-93 north European water (water) 7: 9, 98-99 short-tailed (field) 7: 92-93 southern red-backed 7: 94-95 Viverricula indica

1:

short-tailed see stoat

88

fingers 4: 71

wetlands 1:

10, (11), 14;

54-59:

7:

12

baleen

3:

5: (10), 66,

54-55, 56, 58

1: (11); 3: 54, 55,

(57), 58,

bowhead

98-101 3: 55,

108,

110-111 dwarf sperm 3: 55 gray 3: 55, 57, (57), 59, 92-97

humpback

3: 55, (57), 58,

102-105 5:

62, 65

1

32

:

5:

104, 105,

(106), 108, 111

worms

9: (46)

Wyulda squamicaudata 10: 74

X Y

Xenarthra

yak

6:

1:

10; 9:

64-66

74-75

yapok see opossum, water Yellowstone National Park 6: 66,

67

Yersinia pestis 7:

74

24

1:

3:

blue

87; 7: 34,

World Conservation Union see International Union for the

32-35

1:

Weil's disease 7: 14,

whale

1:

50-51 wool production

wild 6: 75

Patagonian

1/

10: 74, 101, (101)

woodchuck

Conservation of Nature

96

5:

common

European

28 northern 8: 30 plains 8: 28, 30

southern hairy-nosed

Wild Fauna and Flora

African striped

8:

1

10: 74, (101)

weasel

110-111 vicuna 5: 92, 93, 110-111

32, 35,

northern hairy-nosed

92-93

87

56

mountain

74

washing bears 1: (24) Washington Convention see Convention on

waterbuck

1: 18,

98-101

80-83

75,

5:

International Trade in

Vespertilionidae 9:

1/

5:

common

95

(53)

walrus 3: 8, 9, 10, 11, 24-29 want see mole, European

Vombatiformes 10: 75

tuna 3: 69, 77

6:

94-97 maritimus 2: 82, 84-89 melanoleuca 2: 98

water 1: 98-99

tularemia 8: 81, 93

89, 91,

whiteness in mammals 8: (84) wildcat 2: 10, 13, 48-49 African 2: 12 European 2: 12

gray

yellow-footed rock 10: 48, 70-71 wallaroo 10 60-61 10: 48,

3: 58,

93, 101, 105, 107, 108 whistlepig see woodchuck

Falkland Island 2: 50, 53,

wallowing 5: 38, 69, 71, 77, 76-77, 83

2: 82,

arctos 2: 82, 92,

Viverra

forest 8:

26-27

Thrichomys apereoides

americanus

plains 8:

caninus 10: 74 vulpecula 10: 74, 78-81

49

whiptail 10: 48, 51

hill

viscacha rat 8: 29, 30

3:

rock 10: 51

10: 48,

whaling Industry

wildebeest 5: 12, 47, black 6: 62 blue 6: 62, 82-85 wolf 2: 9 Ethiopean 2: 50, 52

70-71

common

48-51 T senegalensis 3: 47

tuco-tuco

40

54

viscacha 7: 12; 8: 28

28-29, 31 talpoides

9:

vibrissae 8:

58

Philippine 9:

9:

4: 40,

59

9:

Tremarctos ornatus 2: 82 tribal warfare 4: 30 Trichechus T inunguis 3: 47

Tubulidentata

62

Theropithecus gelada

50

90-93

U

4:

60-61 58, 58, 59

ringtailed rock (yellow-

swamp

Urogale everetti

1/

9: 59,

50 64-65

whale meat 3: 59, 67 whale songs 3: 99-100, 105 whale watching 3: (57), 71, 95, 104

toolache 10: 53 :

Urotrichus Ursus

50

48

red-necked 10: 48,

3: 55, 57, 58,

white see beluga

64-65

forest 10:

66

3:

3: 55,

86-89

rufous hare 10: 48, 51 spectacled hare 10: 48

cinereoargenteus 2 50

U. littoralis 2:

1/

10; 5: (10);

pen-tailed 9:

pygmy

7,

104-105

58-59

common

7

European Urocyon

48

shrew

9: 10,

10; 5: 10,

88

urchin see hedgehog,

V.

6:

sperm

footed rock) 10: 48, 10; 5: 10,

Vampyrum spectrum

10: (80)

Tetracerus quadricornis

T.

tree

8-13

V

T. napu 6: 10, 48-49 tree dwelling 2: 31

T.

points 6: 88, 88-89 termites 2: 50, 76, 110-111; 6: 87, 9: 64, 66, 69;

7:

strepsiceros 6:

southern right 108-109

:

Papuan

2: (67)

T.

right 3: 55 short-finned pilot

:

vulpes 2: 50, 64-67 zerda 2 50, 74-75

V.

prettyface 10: 48, 57 Proserpine rock 10: 48,

43

62

6:

scriptus 6: 62

V.

northern nail-tailed 10: 48

vaccination, against rabies

T.

T.

Tenrecidae 9: 9, 1 1, termite mounds, as vantage

Thomomys

3: (57),

pygmy right 3: 54, 55 pygmy sperm 3: 55

50

velox 2: 50, 68-69 velox herbes 2 69

10: 48,

9,

even-toed 1: odd-toed 1:

U.

70-73

2: 50,

bridled nail-tailed 10: 48, lesser forest 10: 48

72 black-headed 4: 80 red 4: 72, 80-81 white (red) 4: 72, 80-81 Umfolozi park 5: 34 black 4:

U.

ruppelli 2:

Bennett's (red-necked)

80-81

bald (red) 4: 72,

Uropsllus investigator 9:

Trichosurus

Tenrec 9: 9

6:

Tragelaphus T. buxtoni

T manatus

streaked 9: 24,

10:

1,

topi 6: 62, (85), 88-89 torpor 7: 80; 9: 20-21, 29, 38, 82, 102; 10: 40, 85, 103 tourism 3: 51, 71, (94), 95; 5: 39; 9: 53, 101

T javanicus

1

25

9: 24,

ecaudatus

0â&#x20AC;&#x201D;1

1

31-32, (31)

Tragulus 6:

26-27 four-toed rice 9: 24 greater (common) 9: 24, 26-27 greater hedgehog 9: 24, 25 large-eared 9: 24, 25 lesser hedgehog 9: 24, 25 long-tailed 9: 24, 25 pygmy shrew 9: 24 rice 9: 24, 25

T.

(16),

Tragulidae

8: 12, 9: 8, 9,

common

tool users 1: (74); 4:

geei 4: 40 I obscurus 4: 40

teledu 1: 32 Telicomys 7: 11-12

tenrec

72 masked 4: 72 yellow-handed 4: 72 toddy 1: 95 toddy cat see civet, common palm tommie see gazelle, Thomson's

T.

78-79

u

5:

4:

lagopus

V

wallaby 10: 48-53 banded hare 10: 48, 51

uakari

titi

1/

:

Wallabia bicolor 10: 48

Uncia uncia 2: 34-35 ungulates (hoofed mammals)

white 2: 23, (23) tiger-horses 5: 52

Trachypithecus

88 89

teeth aardvark 9: 65, (66), bats 9: (85), (95)

selenodont

22-23

corsac 2 : 50

w

Tympanoctomys barrerae 8: 30 typhus 7: 14, 74

20-25

chama 2 50

V.

1/

see also ivory

14

3: 55, 106-107 northern bottlenose 3: 55, 90-91 northern right 3: 109

minke

cana

V.

2:

3: 55,

66-67

50

1/

17

87

whale watching 71, 95, 104

Tayassu

9:

tusks 3: 26, 84-85; 5: 14, 17, 26, 66, 72, 74, 80-81, 86,

Tasmanian see thylacine

dusky

Tarsipes rostratus 10: 74,

minor

72-75

87

9:

Siberian 2: 20, 21, Sumatran 2: 21

64-65

T.

48

ticks 6: 18, 7:

tiger 2: 10, Bali 2: 21

59,

west Caucasian 6: 106, 107 Tursiops truncatus 3: 55,

88

tiang 6:

glis 9:

east Caucasian 6: 106, 107

Thylamis T. elegans 10: 14 T pallidior 10: 14 Thylogale T. stigmatica 10: 48 thetis 10:

60-61 59

T

long-finned pilot

Vulpes V. bengalensis 2: 50

Tupaia

tur

Bengal 2: 21, 27, 22, 23 Caspian 2: 21 Chinese 2: 20, 21 Indochinese 2: 21 Javan 2: 21

tapir family Tapirus T.

26

36-37

10: 27,

Thyropteridae

Malayan 5: 62, 63, 63 mountain 5: 62, 63 South American (Brazilian) 5:

24, 26,

Thyiacinus cynocephatus

T.

Baird's 5: 62, 62,

Brazilian

2: 80; 10:

28, 36-37 Thylacinidae 10: 24,

88-91 lion 4: 86

killer 3: 37, 39, 55,

62-65. 83, 94, 96

76

z Zalophus californianus

20-23 zebra 2: 8-9; 6: (85),

5: 12,

3: 9,

12-13;

95

Burchell's (plains) 5: 42,

46-51

common

(plains) 5: 42,

46-51 Grevy's 5: 42, (44), 52-53 mountain 5: 42 plains 5: 42, 46-51 zebra family 5: 42-45 zokor

7:

zorilla 1:

1

32, 34,

34

127


PRIMATES

Picture Credits Abbreviations Frank Lane Picture Agency

FLPA

NHPA

Natural History Photographic

Agency

naturepl.com

NPL Oxford

OSF

Scientific Films

44-45

Daniel

Cox/OSF; 46-47

J.

=

top; b

= bottom;

c

= center;

I

=

left;

r

=

right

47

Richard du Toit/NPL; 48-49, 50-51 Jean-Paul

52-53 Minden

Ferrero/Ardea;

Pictures/FLPA;

54-55

Geoff Trinder/Ardea; 56 Adrian Warren/Ardea; 56-57

W. Wisniewski/FLPA; 57 t

Jeff Foott/NPL;

J.

T.

Whittaker/FLPA; 58-59

Wegner/Foto Natura/FLPA; 60-61

P.

&

Zig

Leszczynski/Animals Animals/OSF; 62-63 Konrad

Wothe/OSF; 64-65 Alan Towse/Ecoscene; 66

Jacket tl

caracal, Pete Oxford/naturepl.com; tr

gorilla,

Moore/Anthro-Photo; 67 Anup Shah/NPL; 68-69

group of

dolphins, Robert Harding Picture Library;

bl

Jurgen

lowland

&

Christine Sohns/FLPA;

Lacz/FLPA; 73

Martin Rugner/Naturphotograpnie; br

70-71 Gerard

Rome Magnusson/Bruce Coleman

Collection; 74-75,

Rothchild's giraffe, Gerard Lacz/FLPA

76-77 Kevin Schafer/NHPA; 78-79

Pete Oxford/NPL; 80-81 Nick Gordon/Ardea;

8-9 Staffan Widstrand/NPL; 10-11 Richard du Toit/NPL; 11 Steve Robinson/NHPA; 14-15, 16-17, 18

Shah/NPL; 18-19

Tom Vezo/NPL; 20-21

Anup

B.

Blossom/Survival Anglia/OSF;

Ltd/OSF; 87 M. Watson/Ardea;

84-85 88-89

82-83 Joe

Partridge Films E.A.

Janes/NHPA;

90-91 Mike Lane/NHPA; 91 John Downer/NPL; 92-93,

Martin

94-95 Gerard

Harvey/NHPA; 22 Adrian Warren/Ardea; 23 Yann

24-25

J.

Lacz/FLPA; 971 Pete Oxford; 97r David

Aveling/ICCE;

Haring/OSF; 98-99, 100, 100-101 Pete Oxford/NPL;

26-27 Gerard Lacz/FLPA, 28-29 Ferrero-Labat/Ardea;

102-103 David Haring/OSF; 104-105 Alan & Sandy

Arthus-Bertrand/Corbis;

30t

Fritz

Polking/FLPA;

Bromhall/OSF, 32-33

C.

&

R.

30b Miles Barton/NPL; 31

Anup Shah/NPL; 34-35

Carey/OSF; 105 Kevin Schafer/NHPA; 107 Anthony

Clive

Bannister/NHPA; 108-109 Martin Harvey/NHPA;

Chris

110-111 Bruce Davidson/NPL

Martin Bahr/Ardea; 37 M. Watson/Ardea; 38-39, 41

Anup Shah/NPL; 42-43 James Carmichael

Jr./NHPA;

Artists Denys Ovenden,

While every effort has been

made

Priscilla

Barrett with Michael Long,

to trace the copyright holders rectify

128

of

illustrations

any omissions or

Graham

Allen,

reproduced

inaccuracies.

in this

Malcolm McGregor

book, the publishers

will

be pleased

to


BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY

II

III

mi

3 9999 0439C

III

236

&m)m NAb Um. fm Ubzm && d Si


I


MAMMALS 1

SMALL CARNIVORES Raccoons, Weasels, Otters, Skunks

...

2

LARGE CARNIVORES Big Cats, Dogs, Bears, Hyenas

...

3

SEA Seals,

MAMMALS

Sea Lions, Whales, Dolphins, Manatees

...

4

PRIMATES Apes, Monkeys, Marmosets,

Lemurs

...

5

LARGE HERBIVORES Elephants, Rhinos, Horses, Pigs

...

6

RUMINANT (HORNED) HERBIVORES Deer, Cattle, Antelope, Goats,

Sheep

...

7

RODENTS Squirrels, Rats,

1

Mice

...

8

RODENTS

2

AND LAGOMORPHS

Porcupines, Cavies, Rabbits

...

NSECTIVORES AND BATS Hedgehogs, Moles, Anteaters, Bats

...

10

MARSUPIALS Kangaroos, Possums, Koala

90 Sherman Turnpike Danbury, CT 06816

SET ISBN 0 - 71 72 - 5742-8

VOLUME GRCLIER

ISBN

0 - 7172 - 5746-0

Profile for Angel C

World of animals 4 mammals primates  

Encyclopedia of Mammals.

World of animals 4 mammals primates  

Encyclopedia of Mammals.

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