World of animals 3 sea mammals

Page 1

Seals,

Sea Lions, Whales, Dolphins, Manatees




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WORLD

Seals,

OF

ANIMALS

Sea Lions, Whales, Dolphins, Manatees

PAT MORRIS, AMY-JANE BEER

GROLIER

...


Published 2003 by Grolier,

Danbury, CT 06816

A

division of Scholastic Library Publishing

This edition published exclusively for the school

and

market

library

Planned and produced by

Andromeda Oxford Various species of sea

mammals: the harbor seal—a

Limited

11-13 The Vineyard, Abingdon, Oxon 0X14 3PX

typical true seal (1);

the walrus

Cape fur

(2):

vwvw.andromeda.co.uk

and the

seal, a species

eared seal

of

Copyright

©

Andromeda Oxford

2003

Limited

(3).

reserved. No part may be reproduced, stored

All rights

or transmitted

of this publication in

a retrieval system,

any form or by any means

in

electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,

or otherwise, without the permission of the

Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Library of

copyright holder.

Morris, Pat. / (Pat Morris,

cm.

-

Contents:

v.

p.

-

Amy-Jane

Beer, Erica Bower],

(World of animals) 1.

Small carnivores

-- V.

:

8.

v.

Large herbivores

5,

-

Angela Davies, Penny Mathias

Editors:

Art Editor and Designer: -- v. 2.

Large carnivores

-

v.

3.

Sea

mammals -

v.

4.

6.

v.

Rodents 2 and lagomorphs

-

Steve

Marian

Editorial Assistants:

v.

:

:

:

:

Dreier, Rita

Demetriou

:

:

McCurdy

Tim Williams

Cartographic Editor:

Ruminant (horned) herbivores -- v. 7. Rodents 9. Insectivores and bats - v. 10. Marsupials. ISBN 0-7172-5742-8 (set alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5743-6 (v,1 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5744-4 (v.2 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5745-2 (v.3 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5746-0 (v.4 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5747-9 (v.5 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5748-7 (v.6 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5749-5 (v.7 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5750-9 (v.8 alk. paper) - ISBN 0-7172-5751-7 (v.9 alk. paper) - ISBN Primates

Graham Bateman

Project Director:

Mammals

Picture

Manager:

Claire Turner

Picture Researcher:

Vickie Walters

Production:

Clive Sparling

:

:

0-7172-5752-5 1

III.

(v.10

Researchers:

Dr. Erica

Bower, Rachael Brooks,

:

:

alk.

Rachael Murton, Eleanor

paper)

Mammals-Juvenile literature. [1. Mammals.] Title. IV. World of animals (Danbury, Conn.)

I.

Beer,

Amy-Jane,

II.

Bower,

Thomas

Erica.

Origination: Unifoto International, South Africa

QL706.2 .M675 2003

China

Printed

in

Set ISBN

0-7172-5742-8

599-dc21

2002073860

About This Volume

S

ea

mammals form

three orders of

at sea.

The

seals

and sea

lions (Pinnipedia)

do come onto

life in

the

the water, including

in

spend most of

land, but nevertheless

their time

Marine mammals are streamlined to make swimming as easy as possible, and several species undertake longer

migrations than any land precious body

warmth

in

and are insulated by

many have complex

mammals. Sea mammals tend

to be large, since a larger

body

the cold water. Seals and sea lions have dense fur to keep a thick layer of fat (called blubber) underneath.

social behavior.

Some

is

more

efficient at retaining

them warm, but whales have

Cetaceans are highly

intelligent animals,

a bare

and

seals are sociable, but others live their lives alone. All sea

mammals have

Many

populations are

suffered badly from overhunting for their meat, furs ic

of which (Cetacea and Sirenia) are so fully adapted to

water that they never come on land. They have no hind limbs and must do everything

suckling their young.

skin

mammals, two

(in

seals

and sea

lions),

and

fat (whales).

now

danger of extinction and are protected by international agreements. Reduced populations are a particular problem

because

all

sea

mammals

take

often do not breed every year.

many If

too

years to reach breeding age and only produce

many

are killed,

it

one young

at a time. Also, they

takes decades to restore populations to their former numbers.


Contents

2

How to Use This Set

Spinner Dolphin

Find the Animal

Harbor Porpoise

SEALS AND SEA LIONS

8

76

78

Beluga

Northern Fur Seal

Narwhal

Cape Fur Seal

Sperm Whale The beluga can make

Steller's

Northern Bottlenose Whale

Sea Lion

California

Sea Lion

20

Walrus

90

Gray Whale

92

Blue Whale

98

30

102

32

Minke Whale

106

Crabeater Seal

Southern Right Whale

108

Leopard Seal

Bowhead Whale

110

Harbor Seal

List

of Species

112

Gray Seal

Glossary

Monk Seal

Northern Elephant Seal

114

Further Reading and Websites

Harp Seal

DUGONGSAND

Set Index

MANATEES

46

West Indian Manatee

48

Picture Credits

Dugong

WHALES AND DOLPHINS i

Amazon Dolphin Killer

Whale/Orca

Long-Finned

Common Pacific

Pilot

62

Whale

Dolphin

68

White-Sided Dolphin

Bottlenose Dolphin

66

70 72

Long-finned pilot whales are one of the most sociable cetaceans and are always found

in

groups.

noises.

Loud

reports are produced

Humpback Whale

Hawaiian

many

117

118 128

by clapping the jaws a pursed

together

(1);

mouth

used

is

in

bottom feeding

(2).


Find the Animal r

f.?'. .

/

/

'orld

Mammals

of Animals:

is

the

World of Animals. Also included are those members of

part of a

first

1

:/

;

library that describes

'

Each cluster of volumes

in

group of animals

familiar

amphibians,

fish,

and

all

groups of

World of Animals

— mammals,

insects

the kingdom Protista that were once regarded as animals,

animals.

living

cover a

will

but

part of a group that includes

organisms. Kingdom Animalia

and

birds, reptiles

now form

numerous

divided into

is

single-cell

all

major groups called Phyla, but only one of them

and other invertebrates.

These groups also represent categories of animals

(Chordata) contains those animals that have a backbone.

recognized by scientists (see The Animal Kingdom below).

Chordates, or vertebrates as they are popularly known, include

The Animal Kingdom The

living

world

is

the animals familiar to us and those most

all

studied by scientists

divided into five kingdoms,

which (kingdom Animalia)

is

one

amphibians, and

of

the main subject of the

— mammals,

fish. In all,

birds, reptiles,

there are about 38,000

species of vertebrates, while the Phyla that contain

animals without backbones (so-called invertebrates, such Rodents (Order Rodentia) squirrels, chinchillas

Volume

rats,

mice Volume

7;

cavies, porcupines,

as insects, spiders,

and so on) include

at least

million

1

8

many more.

species, probably

To find which set of

Lagomorphs (Order Lagomorpha): rabbits, hares, pikas Volume 8

volumes Tree shrews (Order Scandentia):

Volume

in

the World of Animals

is

relevant to you, see

9

the chart Main Groups of Animals (page Insectivores (Order Insectivora):

7).

shrews, moles, hedgehogs Volume 9

Colugos, flying lemurs (Order Dermoptera):

Primates (Order Primates): lemurs,

Volume

8

Mammals

monkeys, apes Volume 4

Volume

Pangolins (Order Pholidota);

in Particular

World of Animals: Mammals focuses on the

9

most

most

familiar of animals, those

easily

Carnivores (Order Carnivora): raccoons, weasels, otters,

skunks Volume Seals

1;

cats,

and sea

recognized as having fur (although this

dogs, bears, hyenas Volume 2

lions (Order Pinnipedia):

Odd-toed ungulates (Order rhinoceroses, tapirs

Volume

may be absent

3

mammals

Perissodactyla): horses,

Volume

in

like

many

sea

whales and

5

dolphins),

and that provide

Even-toed ungulates (Order Artiodactyla): pigs, camels

Volume

5;

deer, cattle, sheep, goats

Volume

milk for their young.

6

Mammals

Whales and dolphins (Order Cetacea): Volume 3

are divided into

major groups (carnivores, Bats (Order Chiroptera):

Volume

9

primates, rodents, and

^ Xenarthrans (Order Xenarthra): anteaters, sloths, armadillos

Volume

9

marsupials to

name

just

Elephant shrews (Order Macroscelldea):

Volume

9

The chart shows the major Aardvark (Order

Tubulldentata):

Volume

9

groups of mammals

in this set

Hyraxes (Order Hyracoldea): Volume 8

arranged

in

evolutionary

Dugongs, manatees (Order Sirenia):

Volume

relationship (see

3

Elephants (Order Proboscldea):

Marsupials:

Volume

5

volume

in

appears

is

page

10).

The

which each group indicated.

You can

opposums, find individual entries

by

kangaroos, koala

Volume 10 Monotremes (Order

looking at the contents page for each

volume or by

Monotremata): platypus,

echidnas Volume 10

6

consulting the set index.


SINGLE-

ANIMALS

CELLED

Kingdom Animalia

Kingdom

LIFE

Protista

The Main Groups of Animals alive today.

Vertebrates/

Volumes that cover each major

Invertebrates Numerous Phyla

Chordates Phylum Chordata

group are indicated below.

Insects, spiders, j

Mammals

Birds Class Aves

1

Class

Mammalia

Reptiles

Amphibians

Fish

Class Reptilia

Class Amphibia

Several classes

Single-Celled

mollusks, spinyskinned animals,

Life

worms Volumes 1-10

6.

Volumes 31-40

Volumes 41-43

groups are shown on the chart on

a few). All the major

page

Volumes 44-50

Volumes 11-20

To help you find particular animals, a few familiar

Naming Mammals names

Most people regard

animal and lions as another.

are

needed

tigers as

one kind

more

look

All tigers

for the

They breed together and produce young

of

or less

themselves. This popular distinction between kinds of

between

species. All tigers belong to

The

lions to another.

languages

different in

Swahili),

panther,

(for

and often

common names. mountain

lion species

lion

is

example,

one species and

has different

Lowe

a single species

names

may have

known

as the cougar,

genus

(Felis),

but

Fells,

mammals

(cats,

recognized

names

it

for species

and use

The

first

name

in

a different

Felidae.

The

flesh-

them

(such as pandas), are grouped

suckle their Finally,

the

all

young are grouped

mammals

in

(fish,

the

the class Mammalia.

are included, with

that have backbones

in

the other animals that

amphibians,

all

other animals

reptiles,

and

birds)

related to them.

the Phylum Chordata.

tigris.

called

word,

of the genus (a group of closely

which includes the

second word, leo or

They are put

(for

a standardized

Panthera leo and the tiger Panthera

similar species),

tigers,

convenient to have internationally

is

the

and

together with a few plant-eaters that are obviously

in

lion

is

similar to lions

and some other animals that seem to be

system of two-word Latinized names. The

Panthera,

larger

dogs, hyenas, weasels, and so on),

order Carnivora. These and

puma,

species.

Panthera, and other catlike animals

in

several

was one

the catlike animals or

all

grouped together as the family

and catamount.

Zoologists find

roar).

related to

For example, the North American also

Domestic cats are

all

German, Simba

in

it

at different

formal system of classification makes

example, they do not

eating

animals corresponds closely to the zoologists' distinction

named

(part)

but not as similar as those species are to each other

are

like

A

the mammals.

Volume 21

make statements about

often necessary to

this possible.

To be able to discuss animals,

alike.

is

groups of animals: for example, all

different kinds.

described and

times without the zoologists realizing It

the chart.

in

may have been

species

ones, such as sheep, goats, cats, and dogs, have been

included

Volumes 21-30

tigris,

within the genus. Scientific

the world. The scientific

lion

and the

tiger.

The

indicates the particular species

names

name

is

are recognized

all

over

used whatever the

language, even where the alphabet

is

different, as in

Rank

Scientific

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Mammalia

Order

Carnivora

Family

Felidae

Genus

Panthera

Species

leo

Common name

name

Animals with a backbone All

mammals

Flesh-eaters/carnivores All

cats

Big cats

Chinese or Russian. The convention allows for precision

and helps avoid most confusion. However,

common one

for

scientific

it

is

one species to apparently have more than name. That can be because

Lion

also

a particular

The kingdom Animalia families, genera,

and

is

subdivided into phylum, classes, orders,

species.

Above

is

the classification of the

lion.

7


SEALS AND SEA LIONS I

— Aahe order .

Pinnipedia

is

made up

of three families:

seals (Phocidae), sea lions (Otariidae),

B

(Odobenidae). They are close relatives of the

terrestrial

and so

Carnivora (which includes the cats, bears, dogs,

on). In the course of evolving into aquatic animals,

pinnipeds have not land.

and walrus

They

still

become

come ashore

fully

independent from the

to breed,

times too. Of the three families,

and often

members

at other

of the true seal

family, Phocidae, are

most

committed to

fully

water.

life in

Their hind limbs are adapted to form flippers for

propulsion and are incapable of being turned forward

underneath the body for walking. The front limbs form

movement through

paddles to control

flat

the water, but

cannot support the animal on land. True seals also have

no external

earflaps.

external earflaps

In

contrast, the Otariidae have small

and are often

called eared seals.

They

include the familiar sea lions and are capable of

walking on

all

fours on land. True seals have to haul

themselves along on their is

Another difference

bellies.

that the eared seals use their front flippers for

propulsion for steering.

in

the water: The back ones are used solely

Although they have retained some

features of land animals, eared seals are also extremely agile creatures

in

the water.

The ancestors of pinnipeds

first

evolved from land

carnivores about 23 million years ago. Later the true

and the walrus diverged from eared

seals

from each

more to

Š

other.

However, the walrus

is

probably

the eared seals.

Characteristic features of the three pinniped families:

shows the

scroll-like earflaps

the walrus's distinctive tusks (3a);

and

closely related to the phocids or true seals than

eared seals can support themselves with their flippers seal

seals

the harbor seal

shows

(3)

and

(1);

thick fur typical of

On

land

the Cape fur

eared seals

(2);

can be used as an extra limb on land

the true seal's

smooth

hair

and no external

earflaps

(4);

true seals

are ungainly on

land

4

8

(5).


Who's

Who among

Family: Otariidae

—eared

seals:

the Pinnipedia? 14 species

7 genera, including northern fur

in

(Arctocephalus gazella): Cipe

seal (Callorhinus ursinus)', Antarctic fur seal

'

fur seal {A. pusillus): Steller's sea lion {Eumetopias jubatus): Australian sea lion

What

a Pinniped?

Is

and the walrus

Seals, sea lions,

body that

is

(Neophoca dnerea):

California or all

highly streamlined for

Family: Odobenidae

have a long, tapering life in

Family: Phocidae

the water. The

New

Galapagos sea

—walrus:

—true

1

Zealand sea

lion

species

(Lobodon cardnophagus)' leopard

name pinniped means "web-footed," and the are indeed

hind feet

webbed. The toes of the forefeet are

monk

seal

(Monachus

in

18 species

seals:

(Phocarctos hookeri)-,

lion

[Zalophus califomianus) 1

in

seal

genus {Odobenus rosmarus) 13 genera, including crabeater seal

{Hydrurga leptonyx): Hawaiian

schauinslandi): harp seal (Phoca groenlandica):

northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris): harbor seal {Phoca

also

vitulina): Baikal seal

{Pusa (Phoca) sibihca)

joined together, forming a broad flipper. All species are highly proficient

swimmers and can

dive well, often for

long periods. Pinnipeds are generally large animals,

between

and 12 feet

3

and 3.6 m) long and

(0.9

weighing up to 4 tons (3.6 tonnes). only

one baby per

year, but

many

All

Lifestyle

normally produce

species

live

for

more

Pinnipeds of

fish.

live

mostly

cold seas

in

Huge numbers

where there

of fish, along with

are plenty

many

species of

than 20 years. Eared seals have a two-layered coat.

pinniped, occur around the edges of Antarctica. Others

Coarse guard hairs cover a dense layer of fine underfur,

live in

which traps

warm

air

against the skin. True seals

do not

have underfur, relying more on their thicker layers of fat for insulation. Their pelt consists of short, stiff hairs

0.5 inches

cm) long.

(1 .3

Its

about

Pacific. Seals are virtually

the

monk

Caribbean

damage when

in

The walrus has a more or All

less

pinnipeds are predatory and feed mainly on

fish.

They therefore have carnivore dentition, with prominent canine teeth. The walrus's canines particularly spectacular,

some other fighting

(its

huge

but they are well developed

between males, leading to extensive skin of rivals.

0

The hind flippers of eared

sea

lion, still

seals,

such as the Galapagos

resemble the rear limbs of land mammals,

from vJhich pinnipeds evolved. Eared seals use the limbs for

tusks) are

species as well. They are often used for

wounds on the

moving on land and grooming.

now

monk

seal

is

in

waters of

exceedingly

rare.

live in

The

extinct. Eared seals generally live

the Pacific and southern oceans. Phocid seals are

widely distributed, occurring

bare skin.

warm

Mediterranean and Hawaii

seals of the

seas, but they are

improve streamlining and to protect the skin from the animals are wriggling around on land.

absent from the

the Indian Ocean and around the north of Australia. Only

warm

main functions are to

the cold waters of the North Atlantic and North

phocid seals are found

trapped

in

in

in

the Atlantic too.

more

Some

fresh water, including those

landlocked water bodies such as Lake Baikal

and the Caspian Sea. They have been millions of years

left

there from

ago when such waters were

linked to the


SEA

MAMMALS

ocean. The walrus

found

is

in

the North Pacific and also

the North Atlantic, presumably having reached the latter via the Arctic

Ocean when the climate was warmer.

occur alone.

in

small family groups

Many

many

species, including the walrus

the phocids, gather

same beaches

—

in

sites

large

live in

of the phocid seals

and spend much of

their lives

harem to

a

that have been used by generations.

harem of females.

structure, with

Seals that have such a

100 females, often have males that are up to

such a huge

defend

No

size difference

their part of the

bulls are often

other

beach with great

sexes.

of

five

mammal group

between the

until

the beachmaster bulls often die younger than the

result,

females,

some

Twins are rare

of

whom may

among

pup born, and

single

live

20 or 30

for

years.

pinnipeds. Normally, there all

times

others.

has

in

its

find her

own

pup, sometimes

She does so by

own

On

her return she

among thousands

calling loudly

and recognizing

scent. Seal nurseries tend to be

on

and on remote coasts or the edges of sea

Young

places

where the

they are over seven years old.

and

their

pups

will

of it

by

islands, in sea

caves,

seals

only a

most species remain

bulls

The

ferocity.

must

is

species breed only once a year.

there while the mother goes to feed.

up

not even allowed ashore by their elders

and may not breed

of the breeding season. As a

Pups are born on the seashore and

will

one male taking possession

larger than the females.

worn out by the end

Breeding

numbers to breed on the

and to stake out an area where they

accommodate

quite

go

are unable to

more than two months and become

and some of

Here the adult males spar with each other to establish priority

guard

and

fight off rivals

many weeks. They

their patch for

to sea to feed for

Eared seals are highly social creatures and often very large colonies. By contrast,

The males have to stay ashore to

in

be

ice

—

all

relatively

safe from land-based predators. Often the breeding

colonies are sited

in

parts of the world

where the weather


is

cloudy and wet throughout the sumnner. Seals are

adapted for

cold water

life in

and the wet locations help

them avoid overheating. Eared seals eat a wide variety of different types of including some, such as tuna, that are pursued at

fish,

high speed through the surface waters of the

ocean. Phocid seals tend to be feeding, concentrating

on

more

open

specialized

in

their

particular species that are often

caught on or near the seabed. Leopard seals prey extensively seals eat

on penguins and planktonic

krill

krill.

Crabeater

almost exclusively, straining these small

shrimp from the water using their specially elaborate teeth to form a sieve. mollusks,

Some

seals eat a lot of crabs

and the walrus feeds almost

entirely

and

on such

food, rooting out clams from the sandy seabed using

its

whiskers and occasionally the long tusks.

bristly All

pinnipeds feed by diving, but the eared seals tend

© An Australian sea

lion bull

Many species

territory.

attempts to chase off an intruder from

its

gather to breed on beaches, where males will

spar to stake a claim to a part of beach and

its

associated females.

not to dive as deeply as the phocids. The depth a seal dives

is

partly dictated by

its

coat.

In

eared seals the dense

fur traps a layer of air against the skin, increasing

buoyancy and making

it

harder to dive.

Moreover, the deeper the f

animal goes, the more the

T.

squeezed out by water pressure,

insulating layer of air

is

making

the animal to keep warm. True seals

it

difficult for

much

dive

deeper, being protected from heat loss by thick

under the

layers of fat

Some can

skin.

dive to depths of

5.000 feet (1,500 m), and elephant seals

may remain

" •

r

underwater for over 30 minutes. All

pinnipeds breathe

and during their

must

It

more blood than

just like other rely

amount

of

it

air

mammals,

on stores of oxygen

A

pinniped's

in

body

a land animal's of comparable

more oxygen-storing myoglobin

also has

muscles. As

in

the

dives, the seal breathes out, reducing the it

takes down, but also reducing the effort

needed to counteract the air

air,

muscles to keep them going.

contains size.

a dive they

air's

buoyant

effect. Expelling

from the lungs also avoids the problem of nitrogen

bubbles fizzing out of the blood as the animal returns to the water surface. The condition in

human

divers

and can be

is

fatal.

known

as "the bends"

Avoiding the problem

is

consequently important for diving animals. As seals dive,

©

The Baikal seal

is

found only

in

Lake Baikal, Siberia, and the

surrounding river system. The ancestors of

stranded inland

when Lake

Baikal

this

freshwater species were

was separated from the sea about

10.000 years ago.

11


MAMMALS

SEA

©

Protecting animals at sea

Large eyes are a characteristic

feature of pinnipeds. The pupils of this

huge—

northern elephant seal pup are

an adaptation for prey

in

its life

of seeking out

gloomy underwater

conditions.

their

Land

Numbers

of northern fur seals increased following an

international

that order of priority for

use

in

increase has been sustained despite a carefully

many thousands each

is

used up. At the same

The Antarctic

blood system protect the brain

sustainability of the

smell, hearing,

many

the coast of eastern Canada, The effect on the population

and

species. Smell

annual harvest of baby harp seals off

vision

is

of

in

little

of killing the animals as

pups may not be evident for

decades, by which time

it

Today there

demand

is

for skins.

may be too

more protection

a result, they are able to function

The eyes

Ears

many

gloomy conditions

the searing brightness of snow-

cope with the problem

also have to

of focusing both underwater and that leaves

in

in

the

air,

a difficulty

pinnipeds rather shortsighted on land.

The population of

However, the animals

differently

than our

underwater than

own

at hearing high-pitched

Their acute hearing

may

communicate by making

sounds underwater.

help the animals locate prey or clicking noises

when submerged.

less

face other

humans with food seems in

the North

Pacific.

sea lions has fallen by three-

Steller's

now

classified

Zealand sea

by the lUCN as Endangered. The rare

catches by trawlers, with

the sea.

Some dangerous

various PCBs, build up

in

many drowning

New

the nets.

in

posed by pollutants

chemicals, such as

in

DDT and

fatty tissues, causing sterility

even death. Seals have long time

is

through accidental

lion suffers serious losses

Less obvious are the dangers

Pinniped ears are better

in air.

now

and

quarters since 1970, and this once abundant species

need adjustment, too, because of the increased

pressure below the surface, and because sound travels

take action.

late to

for pinnipeds

to have depleted fish stocks severely

ice.

million

animals. However, there remains controversy over the

sand and seawater by secretions from special tear glands.

covered

example, recovered

fur seal, for

dangers: Heavy fishing to supply

in

local

time special modifications of the

adjusted to cope. Their eyes are particularly

underwater and also

of the

from near extinction to over three-quarters of a

important and often very large. They are protected from

As

Some

year.

managed

protection.

the sea, and the sensory systems of pinnipeds have

become

1911. The

in

reducing the rate at which

on

rely

agreement to protect them

southern seal populations also recovered following

organs from oxygen shortage.

mammals

but protection of

their hearts slow, thereby

oxygen

vital

difficult,

breeding colonies on land has been effective.

harvest of

and other

is

lives,

and

so they have plenty of

which to accumulate dangerous doses of such

in

poisons, which they pick up from contaminated prey.

Other chemicals associated with shipping and industry are

Pinnipeds and People Seals have oil

also potentially dangerous.

been an important source of meat,

for native people, especially

in

skins,

and

the Arctic. But since the

18th century the dense fur of eared seals also

made them

They may

affect breeding

success or interfere with the animals'

On

immune

the positive side, seals are popular creatures, and

many people now want

to help them. Seal rescue centers

now

an attractive commercial proposition. Indeed, the early

and animal

exploration of the northern Pacific and colonization of

stranded pups, as well as adults affected by

Alaska by the Russians

Over 2

was

driven by the fur industry.

million northern fur seals

were

killed in

the Bering

systems.

hospitals

injured by boats. So their existence

is

far,

specialize

there are

in

looking after

few such

or

oil slicks

centers, but

evidence of growing public concern.

Sea within 100 years of their breeding colonies being discovered. Several other species, mostly

in

the Southern

Hemisphere, were reduced to perilously low numbers, and at least

12

two were

believed to have

become

extinct.

© Eared seals are sociable animals that often congregate numbers,

walk on

like this

all

group of

in large

California sea lions. Eared seals are able to

fours on land, yet are also very agile in the water.



t

MAMMALS

SEA

Northern Fur Callorhinus ursinus

At one time uncontrolled hunting of northern fur seals for their highly prized skins led to a severe reduction

Common name

Northern fur seal

in Scientific

name

numbers. Today the species

is

protected, but

Callorhinus ursinus

populations are continuing to decline. Family

Otariidae

Order

Pinnipedia

Size

Length; male up to 6.5

3.7-4.6

ft

(1.1-1. 4

ft (2

Robben

m)

Weight Male 300-61 kg);

Key features Large black,

Habits

Northern fur seals have recently recolonized

m); female

female 66-1 10

lb

5 lb

(136-279

(30-50 kg)

fur seal; bulls reddish-brown

breeding

and

early

summer

in

sites are

on the

and the Commander

Spends most of the year swimming and

comes ashore

to breed

on San Miguel

also breed

About Island off

southern California. However, their main

cows pale and more gray

diving out at sea;

Island in the Sea of Okhotsk.

now

4,000

Pribilof Islands (Alaska)

Islands off Siberia. Each

year the seals migrate to these gloomy, rainin

soaked shores, traveling up to 6,200 miles

large colonies

(10,000 km) to breed. The attraction of such Breeding

One young born

per year after gestation

places

is

that the sun rarely shines through the

period of 12 months (including 4 months

delayed implantation).

Weaned

at

mist and cloud.

3-4

months; females sexually mature at 4 years, males

at

years.

May

captivity,

6 years but live

26

in

rarely

breed before 10

more than 30 years

The

lack of sunlight allows the

seals to stay ashore for the

two months needed

to breed. Although thick fur

is

essential to

in

protect the seals from the cold waters of the

the wild

Loud bellowing and barking

Diet

Mainly

Habitat

Open

sea within 60 miles (100 km) of the

coast;

comes ashore only

land

if

known

the animals are

Pacific,

Voice

to overheat on

exposed to sunshine.

fish

Harems of Females

to breed

The adult

bulls

come ashore

in

early

summer

Distribution North Pacific coasts as far south as California;

main breeding colonies on

and Commander Status

Pribilof

later,

Islands

Population: about

1

and defend

million;

lUCN Vulnerable

a breeding

and each master

territory.

bull

The cows

gathers a harem of

up to 100 females for himself. The

thick neck.

The tough

protect the animals

in

bulls are

cows and have

four times larger than the skin

is

among

beaches.

from

all

and pup

necessary to

the

are

the boulders on the breeding

A mother the rest by call

a

their fights over

dominance and access to females. Pups born

arrive

can recognize her its

own pup

unique scent. The mother

loudly to locate each other

many thousands

of other seals.

among

The

breeding beaches are therefore a continuous

cacophony

of bellowing

Young male

and bleating

fur seals

noises.

do not normally come

ashore for a couple of years after they are born.

Even at four or

14

SEE ALSO

Seal,

Cape

Fur 3:16; Seal, Harp 3:44

five years old

they stand

little


SEALS AND SEA LIONS NORTHERN FUR SEAL

were highly

harvesting for their skins. Pelts

warmth and

prized for their

making

also for

fashionable fur coats. However, since the fur seal rarely

to breed, large

comes ashore except

numbers were shot

The method was

at sea.

cruel and wasteful because

many

bodies were

never recovered. Once the breeding beaches

had been discovered by Russian hunters, the took place there.

killing

was an

It

easier

operation and more efficient.

Attempts to control exploitation of the seals failed, since

it

is

difficult to

protect wildlife

international waters. The population

living in

dwindled to

less

than 10 percent of the original

number, and some colonies died out altogether. But

1911 the various countries involved

in

agreed to make

killing

the seals

everywhere except on the

years after 191

some

For

illegal

Pribilof colonies.

young,

1

nonbreeding males were targeted Large numbers could be

culls.

effect

on the

in

killed

managed with no

overall breeding population

because many would never have bred anyway. That was

how

managed

until

the fur seal harvest

1984

was

been no

(there has

commercial harvesting since that time).

worked

Š

Females, pups, and

juveniles of the Pribilof Island

stock leave the breeding islands

.t

late

November and migrate

as far south

as southern California

chance of securing breeding beaches

in

massive beachmaster gather nearby

in

a

by

and Japan.

the face of the

all-male groups.

they

worn

out.

Many

die before

they are more than about 12 years old and are replaced by a

few

At one time there were about 4 million fur

numbers were

steadily rising to

classic

more

example of successful conservation

management

involving sustainable harvesting

from a wild population.

Although the

seals are

numbers are

declining.

now

protected, their

The main breeding in

About 50,000 northern

fewer than 50 years.

fur seals

1

the

severely reduced by uncontrolled

drown

in

fishermen's nets each year. Another serious

problem

is

that fishermen have taken too

from the North

Pacific, leaving

reduced to a

level that

the previous numbers

many

diminished

resources for the fish-eating species. possible that the food supply

between

Kamchatka and Alaska. But before 191

was

than 2 million. The northern fur seal became a

fish

of the youngsters.

seals living in the North Pacific

time, the population

be taken. At the same

population has halved

The

beachmasters may be successful for a few years, but then get

seals to

Mysterious Decline

spot on the

bulls. Instead,

an annual harvest of

well, enabling

about 40,000

It

It

is

may have been

can no longer support of seals.

15


MAMMALS

SEA

'Vw''

1

Cape Fur

\

Seal

I

Arctocephalus pusUIus

!

The Cape fur seal

a typical fur seal

is

were exploited for

many years.

whose colonies

However, populations

remain large despite the heavy harvesting of pups. Common name Scientific

name

Cape

fur seal (southern fur seal)

Arctocephalus pusillus

The Family

FIRST

RECORDED CONTACT with the

Cape

fur seal

Otariidae

by a European was

Order

Pinnipedia

Size

Length: male 6-8

4-5,2

ft (1

(8

ft

(1,8-2 m); female

,2-1 .7 m);

tail

rounding the Cape of

Good Hope

the animals (together with penguins

Š A Cape

fur seal

baskirtg or) a rock

their eggs) for

food or

skins. Like

other fur

Skeleton Coast, Namibia.

seals,

the Cape has dense fur to keep

insulated

in

the cool seas.

it

The seals were

well

has attracted the

It

hunted

attention of commercial hunters since the early

neck and hind

colonization of South Africa

can be turned forward under

dark-blackish gray, female lighter

were

furs

valuable,

and

it

in

was

the 1650s.- The

in

extract useful

Spends most time

out on rocky

at sea; hauls

century by European sailors.

They have since

been harvested for

also possible to

oil

from the

seals. Indiscriminate

and unregulated hunting continued as

luxurious

late as

beaches of offshore islands

the 19th century, and the fur seal population

Breeding

Single

pup born October-November

gestation period of about

months delayed 1

year (including 4

1

implantation).

Weaned

1-24 months; sexually mature

May

live

after

was

up to about 18-20

at

4-5

severely reduced

in size.

at

years.

Controlled Harvesting

years; males

Fortunately, legal protection shorter-lived than females

numbers Voice

Bleating

and bellowing; breeding

to increase.

It

Mainly small

Diet

fish,

but sometimes octopus and

squid; occasionally lobsters

from 1893 allowed

was combined with

bulls roar

carefully organized culls

based on detailed

population studies, which allowed an annual

and crustaceans harvest of skins and stabilization of seal

Habitat

Islets

and rocky beaches with sandy bays

numbers. Most colonies are Distribution Cape subspecies

{A. p. pusillus)

breeds

hunting

is

fully

protected, and

confined to only a few. Quotas are

along coasts of South Africa and Namibia; Australian fur seal (A. p. doriferus)

is

found

set

in

Australian waters around Tasmania

Status

Population: about

1

million

African coasts, with 25,000

Tasmania; CITES

and enforced to prevent too many

from being taken. Even

around southern

still

more around

so,

seals

the annual harvest

sometimes exceeds 30,000 animals. The

Australian

Cape

fur seal population, like that

in

II

African waters, k 5:

It

in

has been

up to about 25,000 today.

Cape i.

also severely reduced

protected since 1891, and numbers have slowly built

I

was

numbers by uncontrolled hunting.

beaches

in

fur seals return'to their breeding

the spring, with the old bulls hauling

I

themselves ashore about October. Those that arrive first find

empty beaches and can

territory fairly easily, in

16

SEE ALSO

.'.ihprn

-<!(

3:14, Seal, Harp 3:44

set

up

a

but they have to be very fat

order to survive the long weeks without

first

the 15th

and browner; narrow, pointed ears Habits

on the

i

Typical fur seal with long

belly: bull

often

and

cm)

flippers that

sailors killed

1483. Subsequently,

about

length:

Weight Male 440-770 lb (200-350 kg); female 79-270 lb (36-122 kg) Key features

many

in

fur.

their

-


SEALS AND SEA LIONS CAPE FUR SEAL

feeding.

If

they leave their beach, they

their territory to others. Later arrivals

fewer

fat reserves,

to fight their bulls.

all

and

it

a bigger struggle

among

Younger males stand

landing at well

way

but find

ashore

little

the established

chance of

gather

will usually

away from the main breeding

adult bulls hold

beach

will lose

need

territories,

In

posturing

the pregnant females arrive a

two

later.

The females

territories of

settle

often squabbling viciously

rivals

week

down

the beachmaster

The

bulls,

in

the

or

themselves over space. Groups of up to

50 or more females gather around each territorial bull, usually in

an area of

square yards (58

It

sq. m).

less

than 70

here that they give

is

birth to their pups.

groups

areas.

aggressively, bellowing, and fighting off until

among

There

a strong

is

bond between

a

female

and her pup. She recognizes her own offspring by

its call

others

all

and scent despite the hundreds of around. After suckling her pup, she

goes to sea again to feed, leaving the pup

On

alone for several days.

returning from

the sea, the females are ready to mate.

While

mothers are away, the

their

pups often gather

in

small

"playground areas," splashing

around

shallow pools,

in

learning to swim. By mid-

December the females begin ,

and the pups are

to disperse,

A.

enough

large

to follow them.

However, the animals do not go far

and stay near the breeding

beaches

all

year round.

seals generally

to sea

—those

Cape

do not range

In

fur

far

out

African waters stay

within about 100 miles (160 km) of

the coast.

At about four months the pups feed increasingly on

fish,

but

may

still

take milk from their mother at nearly

one year

old.

Males do not breed

until

they are strong enough to win a territory, 1

1

which can often take up to

years.

A

bull usually

holds a

breeding territory for three years, after

which he

weak

is

probably too

to continue dominating

the territory and

its

females.

17


MAMMALS

SEA

Sea

Steller 's

Lion The huge

Steller's

cause

iikeiy

Eumetopias jubatus

is

sea lion

is

now in

deciine.

The most

overfishing in the North Pacific, but

other factors, inciuding poiiution and changes in sea Order Size

Length: male 9-10.5

female

7.

may

currents,

Pinnipedia

5-9, 5

ft (2.

ft (2.

be contributing

to its

7-3, 2 m);

3-2. 8 m) Steller's sea lions are large, noisy beasts

Weight Male 1,980-3,970 lb (9001,800 kg); female 580-770 lb

*

(263-350 kg)

Key features

Largest species of sea

golden yellowish-brown

lion; fur

when

appears dark-

dry,

brown when wet Habits

Spends most of in

Breeding

Single

rest

time swimming and diving

comes ashore

to breed

pup born May-July

delayed implantation).

after gestation

Weaned

months; sexually mature live

They

and to

shelter

at

4

at

12-24

years.

Females

over 30 years, males rarely more

Loud barking and bellowing,

especially

the cool

warm,

air.

breeding grounds from April onward, returning

from

far

fish, particularly pollock,

Often a

bull will

islands; sea caves

Distribution North Pacific coasts from California to Japan

being ousted by a younger is

so

same

be large enough or

unlikely to

years old. decline

rival.

demanding

The struggle

that bulls are sufficiently

strong to succeed until they are at least nine

Once on

Population: probably fewer than 89,000; in

to the

section of beach for several years before

for a territory

lUCN Endangered. A species

come back

but also

squid and octopus

Rocky coasts and offshore

out at sea to the same place year after

where he was born and then defend the

area

salmon, herring, mackerel, and sometimes

Status

in

begin to assemble at the

Territorial bulls

same

Habitat

sea caves, where their

Islets

on

breeding grounds

Mostly

small

Beach Defense

year.

Diet

in

come ashore on

wet bodies steam gently

than 15

Voice

to

like

inquisitive, Steller's

away from people and

sea lions tend to keep

and bask

period of 11.5 months (including 3-4 months

may

which are bolder and more

boats.

its

coastal waters, but

and to

associated with the cool seas and rocky shores of the North Pacific. Unlike California sea lions,

their territory, they stay

onshore without feeding for the whole of the breeding period. Lack of food and the stress of

defending their section of beach take toll

on the adult

bulls.

to keep their patch for

seasons. years,

Most

will

Few

of

heavy

manage

not survive beyond about 15

come ashore

live

twice as long.

to give birth from

May onward. The crowded

early

a

will

more than three

although females may

Females

them

breeding

rookeries provide a deafening spectacle from

May

to late

July,

with bleating pups and

bellowing from the adults

all

day and night.

During the breeding season the females rarely

swim more than 18

miles (30

km) from

the colony to feed, making shallow dives of

18

SEE ALSO Sea

Lion, California 3:20

demise.


SEALS AND SEA LIONS

STELLER'S SEA LION

fewer than 150 feet (45 m). Cool, shallow coastal waters support a lot of fish, so that

where fishermen

exactly too.

Commercial

is

prefer to cast their nets

fishing has left fish stocks

severely depleted state. This for walleye pollock

—the sea

For years the sea lions

in

a

particularly true

is

lion's favorite

were regarded

food. as

pests that stole the fishermen's livelihood.

now

However, the tables are

turned, and

it

looks as though excessive commercial fishing

has resulted

in

a serious decline

the numbers

in

290,000

of Steller's sea lions, from

the 1980s

in

The main

to probably fewer than 89,000 now. losses

seem

to have occurred

the eastern

in

population along the coast of California,

Oregon,

British

Columbia, and southern Alaska.

Conservation Attempts sea lions were hunted commercially

Steller's

until

the 1970s, but

all

marine

mammals

United States waters

now

protection. However,

illegal killing

and

to occur, in

a

few

have

in

full legal is still

known

sea lions are legally culled

fish-farming areas.

Fishermen are forbidden to operate within

22 miles (35 km) of the sea fishing restrictions

round, not just

in

lion colonies,

have been imposed

all

and year

the breeding season.

Fishermen have also had to find other fishing sites to

areas.

reduce the pressure on

The

fish stocks in

key

restrictions are partly the result of

court actions by environmental campaigners

seeking to save the extinction.

Steller's

sea lion from

However, severely reduced

fish

stocks could have serious effects on the

marine ecosystem. Changes

may

also affect fish

small rise

in

in

whole

ocean currents

numbers, as

will

even a

sea temperature as part of global

warming. Protective measures therefore are not just a sentimental

attempt to save sea

lions,

but

are necessary to avoid possibly irreversible

damage

Š

to the

whole North

The eastern population of

suffered the greatest decline.

percent

in

Pacific

Steller's

ecosystem.

sea lions has

Numbers have

fallen

by 83

the past 30 years to about 39,000 today.

19


SEA

MAMMALS

Sea

California

Lion

Zalophus californianus

The California sea iion

is

and circuses woridwide. steadily

Common name Scientific

name

California sea lion

more abundant

a famiiiar inhabitant of zoos

now also becoming its natural home along

It is

in

western coast of North America.

Zalophus californianus

Family

Otariidae

Order

Pinnipedia

Size

Length: male 7-8.6

The majority of California sea lions occur along the California coast, where they can clearly be 5-7

ft

ft

(2-2.6 m); female

seen hauled out on rocks, boat

(1.5-2 m)

floating pontoons.

Weight Male 440-880

t

kg):

Key features

female

1

10-240

Typical fur seal with long

lb

neck and hind

dark brown, females and young

flippers; bulls lighter,

pups

domed

head, often paler than

black; adult males have high, rest of

viewing

in

observe these engaging and active creatures basking

the sun and occasionally disputing

in

ownership of the choicest resting places. Up to

Single

pup born May-July

California, less

in

the cold

lions also live in

waters around the Galapagos Islands about 600

harbors

miles (965

Breeding

an opportunity to

body

Forms large groups hauled out on rocky shores and on floating jetties

and

jetties,

places special

facilities offer tourists

50,000 California sea Habits

some

(200-400

(50-1 10 kg)

lb

In

km) west of Ecuador. They used to

occur on a few islands to the north of Japan,

seasonal elsewhere, after gestation period of

almost

1

year (including 3 months delayed

implantation). sexually years.

Weaned

mature

May

at

6-8

at

1

year; females

years, males at 9

up to 34 years

live

probably fewer

in

but by

950 there were only

1

individuals

left.

It

the wild

Loud barking and bellowing

Diet

Fish, especially

Habitat

Cool seas along rocky coasts

now

a

few dozen

the cas.e that none

have been seen anywhere

in

the northern

in captivity,

Pacific region for

Voice

is

almost 50 years. That

population of sea lions

probably extinct.

is

mackerel and anchovy

Synchronized Breeding Distribution California to californicus), (Z. c.

(Z

Status

c.

British

around Galapagos

wollebaeki),

Male California sea

Columbia (Z

and

off

c.

Japan and Korea

lions

range as

far north as

Canada, during the

fall

and

over winter, but females and their young remain closer to the breeding grounds.

Population: about 200,000 off California; up in

Island,

Islands

japonicus)

to 50,000

Vancouver

Galapagos; lUCN Vulnerable

(Galapagos population). Japanese population

sites are

The breeding

mainly on the Channel Islands west of

San Francisco, with smaller colonies on islands along the coast of Baja California and around

probably extinct

the Gulf of California. The animals gather on their traditional

hordes until

in

early

about

July.

breeding grounds

May and They

in

select both rocky areas

and sandy shores. Ninety percent of born

in

young

noisy

remain on the beaches

all

pups are

June. Highly synchronized production of is

common among

the colonial seals and

sea lions, and probably helps ensure that

predators such as

killer

whales have so many

victims that they cannot

20

SEE ALSO Sea

Lion, Steller's 3:18; Seal,

kill

Harbor 3:40; Whale, Killer/Orca 3:62

more than

a small

the


SEALS AND SEA LIONS CALIFORNIA SEA

fraction.

If

year,

Unlike other colonial pinnipeds, female California sea lions

come ashore on

and

set out to acquire a selection of

females for themselves. They defend an area of 1

Š

In

many

for

its

skins

and

replaced by the

age of about four to

six

months. The mother stays close to her offspring

week

for the first

of

its life.

She

will

then go

back to the sea to feed. Mothers continue to comie ashore at intervals for the whole time

catching their

for

Thanks to protective

an

is

that they are nursing their pups. Pups begin

other species, the

hunted

sq. m), containing

the pup has a dark-

first

molts and

it

out their territories along the beach, patrolling laboriously

was

coat, but

average of about 16 females. The males stake

the past, like

California sea lion

oil.

50 square yards (125

born on land. At

brown

juvenile fur at the

the

breeding beaches before the males. The bulls arrive later

Females produce only a single pup each

breeding were spread over a longer

time, predators could take far more.

LION

up and down and chasing

off rivals

about four weeks, sometimes longer. During

that time they

do not go

to sea to feed, so they

lose a lot of weight. Territory holding

is

stressful

and an enormous drain on the body's resources.

measures, the population

Nevertheless,

has increased from barely

territory for

many males manage

up to

six

to hold a

successive seasons.

old,

own

food at about

may continue

but

five

months

to take milk also for

up

times of food shortages mothers

to a year.

In

may even

nurse their pups into a second year.

About females

a

month

come

into

after giving birth, the

season and are ready to

mate with the males once again. By that time any previous harems and

territory

systems

2.000 in 1938 to about

have broken

down and new ones have

200.000 today.

formed.

most often the female

It

is

will

to be

who

chooses her mate, and sometimes groups of females

mill

around

in

the shallows seeking

the attentions of nearby ?s

place

in

bulls.

Mating

the water or on

the lower part of beaches.

The breeding behavior in

California sea lions


MAMMALS

SEA

is

less rigidly controlled

colonial breeding seals,

they gave

in

most other

among whom

mate with the

usually only territory

than

bull in

females

whose

Normally, sea lions feed close to the coast, rarely

more than about 6

birth.

Closely Packed

among them

who

is

going to

closely together. In less

the best resting places on

lie in

the beaches, they

squabble over

lions often

like

to pack themselves

some

places they

than a square yard (0,8

sq.

out of water the sea lions are

When

m) each.

become

liable to

overheated, especially on sunny days. Then they will

wallow

in

shallow pools

among

the beach

rocks to keep themselves cool.

At sea the sea

lions generally

fish

at high speed.

California coast.

Some

only

However, the sea habits

may be taken

among submerged

lion

is

flexible in

and may switch to other

Some

years certain species are

more numerous than

changes

squid as

fish or

abundance changes with the

their relative

seasons.

boulders.

feeding

its

in

others.

significantly.

The

In

much

Nino"

"El

temperature

and

fish are scarce

shallow dives, averaging about 120 feet (37 m)

live at

deep. Each dive can be up to 10 minutes long,

to

but usually

mothers may be unable to produce enough

lasts

fewer than three. Sea

lions are

greater depths. The sea lions then have

work harder

to catch them,

and nursing

masters of their watery environment: They can

milk for their pup.

swim

young sea

lions will die of starvation,

sometimes

their mothers, too.

at high

speeds compared with most other

pinnipeds, reaching up to 25 miles per hour

(40 km/h), and even faster for short bursts.

They can twist and turn abruptly, leap

among

the waves, and even propel themselves

rock 3 feet

None

(1

m) or more above the

flat

surface.

of the true seals can match such

Like

agility.

many

and

oil.

In

those circumstances

territories,

male

California sea lions use ritualized gestures to maintain

boundaries.

A

typical

sequence

is

head shaking and

was hunted

barking as other males approach the boundary

(1);

followed by stares and intermittent lunges

and more

head shaking and barking

(3).

(2);

ruthlessly for

California coast

its

had been reduced to barely

2,000 animals. Today California sea

few dangers apart from

biggest threat

which sea

and

By 1938 the population along the

killer

hammerheads, and other Once they have established

many

other species of pinniped, the

California sea lion skin

completely out of the water, landing on a

22

Anchovies and

rockfish

years, for example, the sea

make

by swooping

mackerel are their preferred food off the

near the seabed or

may have

in

shallow waters up to 250 feet (76 m)

relatively

deep, catching shoaling

Although male sea

to 8 miles (10 to

13 km) from the shore. Here, they operate

lions face

whales,

sharks. Perhaps the

comes from fishermen's

lions

nets, in

can become entangled and

drown. Fishermen also sometimes shoot the sea lions.

However,

illegal,

killing

is

now

since the sea lion

protected throughout

is

its

range


SEALS AND SEA LIONS CALIFORNIA SEA

Š

California sea lions are highly social animals

LION

and

often congregate in large numbers. They are remarkably graceful in the water, performing agile leaps

and

turns.

along the United States coast and off the

Galapagos. Protection has enabled a slow recovery

numbers, and by the

in

late

1960s

there were about 80,000 along the coast of

Mexico and

California, rising to

200,000 by

1990. However, numbers sometimes as a result of

abundance has

also led to confrontations with

when roaming males

fishermen, especially

the

salmon

rich

fisheries off the

coast. Disease hit the

badly

back

fall

poor feeding years. Increased

Canadian

Galapagos population

the 1970s, leading the lUCN to

in

group as Vulnerable. Disease could also the California population, especially lions are

weakened

visit

if

list

that

strike

the sea

as a result of increased

numbers and seasonally reduced food

supplies.

The Circus "Seal"

C

alifornia sea lions

still

are, very

The animals can clap

interesting show. flippers together balls

were, and

with the public, and their antics

on

when

their nose,

told to

and

do

retrieve

popular

make an their front

so, dive,

balance

hoops tossed

into the

water. Their long, flexible necks and mobile hind limbs

make

balancing acts possible. The true seals cannot

perform such

tricks, since

they are more to

life in

fully

adapted

the water and so

are less able to perform flexibly

on

land. Sea lions

may take up learn a

new

to a year to trick.

However, they have a long

memory and

not forget, even

if

will

they

have had no practice for several months.

Sea lions are popular performers with the public.

23


—

SEA

“

MAMMALS

Walrus

The vast and unmistakable walrus has suffered from extensive exploitation in the past, but

numbers have now Common name Scientific

Walrus

Odobenidae

Order

Pinnipedia

Size

recovered and are secure.

name Odobenus

Family

rosmarus

The walrus has a small head, with

would normally

7-3. 5 m);

ft (2.

female 7.4-10.2

(2.3-3.

ft

m)

1

(800-1,700

880-2,750

lb

lb

female

kg);

movement on

seal with bloated

on

shallow seas; spends

in

time hauled out on shore, generally

much

The

after

1

mature

May

at

live

up

6-7

to 2 years; females sexually years,

males

over 40 years

in

at

8-10

years.

the wild, rare

in

captivity

Voice

Bellowing and grunts; sometimes whistles

Diet

Mollusks, crabs, worms, and invertebrates

taken from seabed; occasionally

although

walrus propels

Arctic waters along

Distribution Arctic Ocean:

more

brief bursts of

like

is

like

true seals), the

hind

its

than the front ones. The walrus

flippers rather skull

more

very solid, but the rest of the skeleton

One

that of a fur seal.

speciality

is

is

the penis

bone, which can be over 2 feet (0.6 m) long longer than

in

surprisingly,

it

any other mammal. Not

sometimes gets broken as the

massive animals heave their bulky

over

bellies

fish

edge of pack

Pacific

and warty

onto smooth

underwater using

itself

boulders or lumps of Habitat

and sea

walrus swims at about 4 to 5 miles per

(7 km/h),

4 months delayed implantation).

at

belly to help

flippers are flexible, rough,

Unlike sea lions (and

pup born April-June every 2 years gestation period of more than year (including

A

hour

can

than 20 miles per hour (35 km/h) are possible.

in

Single

Weaned

flippers

land, just like fur seals

their undersides, to help grip

ice.

company with other walruses Breeding

The hind

over;

all

broad, deep snout bears 2 long tusks

Feeds by diving

front flippers are almost

(400-1,247 kg)

appearance: generally pale brown

Habits

Its

be folded forward under the

lions.

ponderous

be.

as broad as they are long.

Weight Male 1,760-3,750

Vast,

piggy

little

eyes and only a tiny fold of skin where the ear

Length: male 8.8-1 1.5

Key features

largely

ice.

ice

population along

Conspicuous Tusks

coasts of Siberia and Alaska, Atlantic

population mainly around northern Canada,

Greenland, and parts of

Status

arctic

Population: at least 200,000

30-35,000

(Atlantic)

Scandinavia

(Pacific);

about

The most tusks.

them

It

distinctive feature of a

was once thought

to pull

suggestion

is

itself

along over the

unlikely,

walrus

is its

that the walrus used ice.

The

although the animals do

sometimes use the tusks to heave themselves out of the water and onto the also be used to chip

breathing holes

in

away

the

ice.

at the

ice in

Tusks

may

edges of

order to keep

them

from freezing over completely. The conspicuous tusks are probably mainly display features, indicating rank

and general

sometimes the males Their skin

is

will

SEE ALSO

Seal,

Cape

in fights.

enormously thickened, especially

around the neck, where

24

superiority, but

use them

it

can be over 2 inches

Fur 3:16; Sea Lion, Steller's 3:18; Sea Lion, California 3:20


SEALS AND SEA LIONS WALRUS

cm)

(5

thick,

with an underlying layer of

4 inches (10 cm) of

The

fat.

fat effectively

protects the animals from causing each other

damage with

serious

wounds around

massive

caused during

although

their tusks,

may be

the shoulders

territorial fights.

Feeling for Food The walrus feeds by diving water, rarely

deep.

It

in

more than 100

down

can stay

shallow feet (30

m)

for 10 minutes,

but most dives are shorter than that.

The tusks appear not to be used during

show more

feeding and would probably signs of

wear

they were. Walruses

if

feed on a variety of mollusks that they obtain from the seabed. They have

about 450

stiff bristles

around

their

mouths, a shorter and more numerous

bunch of whiskers than seal.

They are embedded

in

in

any other type of

sensitive skin, so

that the walrus can gently brush

Its

bristles

along the seabed, feeling for solid objects, such

Much

as clams.

feeding has to be guided by

touch, especially

when uses

it

its

is

in

murky waters and

dark most of the time.

massive, fleshy

water into the sand

lips

A

in

winter,

walrus then

to squirt jets of

at the seabed, thereby

exposing the buried clams and other mollusks

hidden there. They are then scooped up and

may be crushed by

the large, flat-topped molar

teeth before being swallowed. Usually, the

animal eats large clams or seasnails by holding the shells

In its lips

and sucking out the

then drops the empty

shell

and

flesh.

It

starts to eat

another. Doing so saves swallowing lots of shell

fragments. Several thousand mollusks

eaten

in

a single feeding session.

invertebrates are found

cucumbers, and crabs

in

a

worms, sea

—some of which may be

very large, weighing 2

Š

Other seabed

and consumed

similar way. Prey includes

may be

pounds

(0.9 kg) or more.

The enormous tusks of the walrus are a source of

ivory both harder

and denser than

a result, the animals

that of elephants.

As

have been ruthlessly exploited.

25


SEA

MAMMALS

Over 60 different types of prey have been

large floating islands of ice

recorded. Occasionaiiy, fish are eaten, especially

them

flounders and others

living

on the seabed,

younger animals

walrus can consume about 100 pounds

A

v45 kg) of food every day,

about 6 percent of

may

they

Homes

The walrus

continental shelf.

pack

ice,

winter.

migrating south as the ice extends

As the

ice

but white

melts

in

skin

when warm

when

they are swimming

brown

in

color

all

the spring, the

several

in

the edges of the permanent

The annual traveling

summer

and tend to

bully

wairus society— the

wairus with the iargest tusks

is

generaiiy the

dominant animai.

This

can iead to stabbing

animais with simiiarsized tusks in

may be lying

each other to

(1),

untii

away

(2).

They

occasionaiiy use their tusks to heave

themseives out of the sea onto the ice as head-rests

(3)

and

(4).

involve

miles

;3,000 km) each year. The animals prefer to use ice rather than land

on beaches.

where the

winter they stay

In

ice

is

but

relatively thin,

are capable of using their heavy

heads to break open

ice

up to 9

inches (23 cm) thick. The ice holes

allow

them

summer

surface. In the

Walrus

T

and to swim

to breathe

they

live

at the

among

Ivory

usks are present

in

both sexes of walrus, and very

occasionally an animal

may have

three of

instead of the usual two. Tusks are larger

grow

the males, and can long.

to

native people

straighter

in

more than 30 inches (76 cm)

The longest tusk on record weighed nearly 12

pounds

(5.4 kg).

The tusks are oval

have grooves along

their length.

in

cross section

entirely

composed

bulk of our

own

Walrus tusk ivory

SEE ALSO

in

and

being almost

of dentine, the material that forms the

teeth, with is

little

or no

highly prized, since

Elephant, African 5:16

enamel covering. it

is

many ivory

in

The tusks have been used by

ivory.

the Arctic for generations, carved into

types of ornaments, toys, and useful tools. Walrus

was

a valuable souvenir of Arctic voyages,

and

extensive hunting of walruses for their ivory led to major

They are massively

extended canine teeth and are unusual

26

and

denser than elephant

them

harder and

populations. The 1989 ban on international

declines

in

trade

African elephant ivory put further pressure on

in

stocks of walruses as a source of substitute

more than 12,000

Some

are killed every year

scientists believe that

animals has been taken

in

one

concedes defeat by turning

During January and February females and

may

in

Tusks signify status

dueis between dominant

establish occupation of the best sites.

ice cap.

cycle of migration

more than 1,800

cold

thousand strong, with the animals

sociable

the Chukchi Sea along

in

in

the sun,

packed close together. Yet they are not very

the Bering Sea, then moves northward around

duly to September)

or

over. Outside the breeding

main American population spends the winter

of Alaska to spend the

in

season males and females tend to associate separate groups. Often the groups

tip

month

that time

around the shoulders. Older

walrus travels back again, far to the north. The

the northern

Š

Adult males

water. Otherwise, walruses are a cinnamon-

follows the edge of the

It

July.

look almost naked, with prominent

males appear to be pink shallow water along the

lives in

June and

in

the

more before the new coat grows. At

lumps on the

Floating

among

first

follow, losing their short, bristly hair a

its

body weight.

total

and breed.

Molting takes place

although they are not an important source of food.

to molt

and haul out onto

in

ivory,

and

Alaska alone.

an excessive number of

recent years.


younger animals form small parties of about 20, used

stopping to rest at traditionally

sites.

The

will

When

males compete with each other to stay nearby,

cradled

each one seeking to take over a whole group to

chest, or the

himself.

The

bulls

move around

displaying their tusks, whistling

above water, and making a noise too. Each bull

from

his

lot

nearest major

rival.

Like other

bull

icy seas.

submerged on an

mother's flippers, held close to her

young walrus can

grip the skin of it

floe.

along.

some of

the smallest walruses.

35 percent fat and also

is

with

0 percent of

1

bulls

remain

slip into

whom

to

Stomach Stones kinnipeds of several species, including the walrus, often have

the

mate

in

the

After mating, the fertilized

stones

in

their

stomachs. The stones are smooth, rounded

pebbles, sometimes weighing

1

pound (0.45

kg) or

more

in total.

egg remains dormant inside the female for

Some

about four months, then begins to develop

swallow stones, but

normally Pregnancy

suggested that padding the stomach with stones helps keep the

of

some 16 months

lasts a further year, a total in all.

Therefore, females

cannot produce a pup every

year,

and pups are

born at least two years apart, longer

in

the case

can be as large as tennis it

is

bails.

unlikely to

likely,

the stones act as ballast and assist

the animals dive.

Pups weigh about 140 pounds (60 kg)

when

they are born. At that time they have pale fur

with dark flippers. Mothers look after their carefully

—

with far more devotion

be accidental.

in

from being too buoyant. Buoyancy makes in

It

is

sometimes

their

It

is

preventing the animals it

harder to dive and stay

the stomach helps counteract the

buoyant effects of blubber and any

Caring Mothers

Nobody knows why walruses

animals from feeling hungry during long periods without food. More

underwater. Carrying stones

of older mothers.

young very

ice

The Hudson Bay

population has

marine mammals, the walrus

produces milk that

Two North Hudson

Bay walruses, half

Small males stay

with the females. The females

dark and

and

and most successful

water to select a

may be

it

mother's neck as she swims, towing

its

clicking

the pup goes to sea,

spaced a safe distance

is

out of the way, and only about the biggest

in its

constantly,

of underwater

ÂŽ

help feed the orphaned offspring of other

females.

air

remaining

in

the lungs

when

interesting that crocodiles also carry stones in

stomachs and use them to cancel out the natural buoyancy of

their body, helping

them

stay underwater. Fossil plesiosaurs (large

extinct marine reptiles) often have shiny pebbles

where

their

in

the position

stomach would have been.

than sea lions show. For example, they do not leave their

pups

for long periods

and sometimes

27


MAMMALS

SEA

The pups grow well on

rich in proteins.

may

still

be taking milk from

but

it,

mother three

their

years after birth, although they are capable of

feeding on normal food long before then. They are normally fully

weaned

Young females tend

year.

about two years

at

begin to sprout at about one

old. Their tusks

to remain

in

their

mother's social group, but males wander off after a year or two.

mature

at six or

Females become sexually

seven years

Males take

old.

longer to mature, at eight to 10 years, but

not be able to breed successfully

with the big old males

until

grown, which may take

1

in

will

competition

they are

fully

5 years.

Traditional Targets

The walrus has played an important part and

native folklore

traditions for

years. For centuries

meat, for

and

oil,

making

it

little

was

and

for useful

and

effect

tents.

its

tough hide Such hunting

on the populations, so

carried out using

and from small

thousands of

has been hunted for

sled covers

probably had long as

ivory

it

in

hand weapons

boats. Hunters probably killed

no more walruses than other predators, such killer

as

whales and polar bears. However, major

exploitation by Europeans

began

in

the 16th

century and devastated the populations, particularly in the

North Atlantic.

In

the 19th

century more than 10,000 animals were taken

each year from parts of the North population alone. As a

became

extinct

retreating to

in

result,

many

of

more remote

its

Pacific

the walrus

former haunts,

places

where

it

could

not easily be reached. Protection by the

Americans

1909, followed by the Europeans

in

and 50 years

later

slow recovery

by the Russians, enabled a

numbers to

in

a present-day total

of about a quarter of a million. to

5,000 are

1

native people. if

clam

taking

A

legally harvested

each year by

The number may be sustainable

fisheries

away

Around 10,000

do not

vital

also expand,

hence

food supplies for the walrus.

walrus color)y on Round Island, Alaska. Despite

associating in

huge groups, which can be several

thousand strong, walruses are not very sociable animals.

28

SEE ALSO

Bear, Polar 2:84



SEA

MAMMALS

Monk

Hawaiian Seal

Monachus schauinslandi

:

Hawaiian Common name Scientific

Hawaiian

seal

name Monachus schauinslandi Phocidae

Order

Pinnipedia

Length:

10%

6.

5-8. 2

(2-2.5 m). Female about

ft

islands.

adapted

warm

to the is

They are not particularly well

climate, however, since their

almost as thick as that of polar

As THE HOT MIDDAY SUN

longer than male

are tropical seals that live only

on a few small

blubber

Family

Size

monk

monk seals

BEATS

dowfi relentlessly on

the sandy beaches and surrounding waters of

Weight 330-660

lb (1

50-300

kg).

monk

the northwestern Hawaiian archipelago,

Female heavier than male seals

Key features Completely

tropical seal, but with

obvious anatomical adaptations to climate; adult coat silvery gray

cream

and

belly, throat,

and yellow as

no

brown a red

or green tinge from algal growth on fur; pups

born with a black coat,

lost at

lie

cooling

on back with

sometimes has

seal ages;

Some

warm

chest; turns

can be found resting along the shoreline.

\

i

edge to allow

close to the water's

waves to wash over

their bodies, while

others seek shelter from the scorching sunlight. Every so often the animals take a dip in-the sea

I in

about 6 weeks

an attempt to refresh themselves.

| Habits

Adults usually

groups sometimes

solitary;

form on beaches, but

for favorable conditions

rather than as form of gregarious behavior;

feeds at night, spends majority of the day resting

on beaches; may disperse throughout

range, but not migratory

Breeding

pup born

Single 1

mature

unknown. May

Despite being a completely tropical the true seal family, Hawaiian

|,

at

4-8

live

at

40

years,

Keeping Cool

| I

males

Diet

Reef-dwelling invertebrates and

fish,

including lobsters, eels, flatfish,

and octopus

they rest for most of the day, sometimes

breeding season

their

cool,

wet sand. They spend

a lot

metabolic rate and body temperature.

Much is

Distribution Found on islands northwest of Hawaii Population: 1,200-1,500;

in

of time sleeping, since inactivity helps lower

Sandy, tropical beaches and shallow lagoons

CITES

habitat. Instead,

25-30 years

Males roar

Status

warm

physical adaptations to a

days; females

Voice

Habitat

of

have

seals

almost the same amount of blubber as their

wallowing in

member

monk

polar counterparts. They also have no apparent

after gestation period of

1-12 months. Weaned

sexually

| | |

of the prey of Hawaiian

hidden during the day, so

it

is

monk

seals

at night that

the animals are most active. As nocturnal feeders they cannot

lUCN Endangered;

rely

on sight to find food,

but instead use their long, sensitive whiskers to

I

detect prey. They feed on a wide variety of

organisms, including lobsters,

The

diet of the

Hawaiian

with the seasonal changes

abundance of prey foraging

is

items.

eels,

monk in

and

flatfish.

seal varies

availability

Most of

and

their

carried out along the slopes of the

coral reefs at

depths of about 230 feet (70 m),

but they can dive to more than 1,600 feet

(500 m). By slowing their heart rate

f

30

SEE ALSO

Seal,

Northern Elephant 3:32;

Seal,

rate

is

down

to

—the normal 55 to 120 beats per minute —they are

fewer than 15 beats per minute

Crabeater 3:36

seals.


SEALS AND SEA LIONS HAWAIIAN MONK SEAL

able to stay underwater for up to 20 minutes. Fifteen beats per vital

minute

is

just fast

enough

for

organs such as the heart and brain to get

enough oxygen while the Hawaiian primitive.

monk

seal

Is

submerged.

and

pelts as they lay basking in the sun.

was

so small that

began to

was

respite

have been their home: They

military activity in the

structures that are

ago.

more

in fossil relatives

Monk

retain several

primitive than those

from 15

of the pinniped order

members

and are sometimes

Second World War once

Today the population

is

estimated at

somewhere between 1,200 and 1,500 individuals,

making Hawaiian monk

second most threatened

referred to as "living fossils."

caused by

shortlived. Disturbance

again caused their numbers to decline.

million years

seals are the oldest living

However, the

reestablish themselves.

that the remote islands of the Hawaiian chain

found

Soon

was no

it

remaining seals a chance to recover, and they

the 15 million years

still

seals the

seal species in

the

world. Most of the islands they inhabit are

Š

protected within the Hawaiian Islands National

After the main islands of Hawaii were colonized

Wildlife Refuge, but three are also inhabited by

monk

restricted to the islands of the

the sedentary Hawaiian

The beaches of the

monk

islands

and

seal,

which

is

extremely sensitive to disturbance, became

are the ideal location for

seals to rest

now

Sensitive to Disturbance

by humans, the Hawaiian Lonely sandy beaches

oil

longer profitable to hunt them. That gave the

seals are in fact quite

in

for hunters. In the early 19th

century thousands were slaughtered for their

the population

They have remained almost

completely unchanged

were easy targets

and

atolls

Leeward chain.

small, isolated oceanic

were

free

from

terrestrial

humans. One of the main threats to

monk

sites are

the seals areas

predators, and without disturbance the seals

tide.

from large sharks, their

were able to

abandon

main predator.

inactivity

and

relative

tameness meant that they

sometimes give

if

disturbed,

birth in unsuitable

where pups can be washed away by the

give birth, offering safety

thrive. Unfortunately, their

high up on beaches; but will

disturbance

is

mothers. The preferred birthing

seal

It is

leaving

not

unknown

their

them

mothers to

for disturbed

pups before they are weaned,

to die of starvation.

Other threats to the species include a lack of food resources

entanglement sharks,

in

and the

due to commercial

fishing nets, predation by

effects of

seals are also at risk

behavior attack,

in

fisheries,

marine pollution. The

from "mobbing,"

a

mating

which groups of males chase,

and sometimes even

when

kill

trying to claim her.

not actually

killed,

If

she

a

female

the female

is

may be

weakened by wounds and vulnerable to shark attacks.

When

there are greater

numbers of males, the problem

is

enhanced.

31


1

MAMMALS

SEA

Northern Elephant Seal

Mirounga angustirostris

The northern elephant seal

one

Is

of the largest of the world's seals, easily recognized

snout

inflatable

Common name Scientific

Northern elephant seal

name Mirounga Phocidae

Order

Pinnipedia

in the adult males.

most other seals and sea

Like

angustirostris

species has suffered

lions, the Family

by the drooping,

severely from unregulated exploitation in the past. Size Length: male 13-16.5

ft

female 6.5-10

ft

(4-5 m); (2-3 m)

Weight Male 2-3 tons

Northern elephant seals spend more time at sea

(1.8-2. 7 tonnes): female

1,300-2,000

Habits

than most other pinnipeds: about 10 months of

(600-900 kg)

every year

Key features Huge almost

lb

all

other seals, brown

Spends most of

all

90 percent of

over

which

time at sea; occasionally

its

Single

pup born

months

implantation). sexually

8-9

after gestation period of

(including

mature

years.

May

at

at

about

live

up to 20

Diet

Habitat

in

years, but

males

last

is

enormous. Such

up to two hours, but

so,

the average dive time and depth are

greater than for most other seals.

midwater; also some

There

fish

Cold coastal waters

lives in

up

Mexico

are, in fact,

species of elephant

in

subantarctic waters, occasionally turning

scattered locations across the Indian

Ocean and South

Population: about 100,000-150,000

two

The southern species {Mirounga leonina)

seal.

Distribution North Pacific coasts of North America from

Status

to 5,000 feet (1,500 m),

and only go down about 1,600 feet (500 m).

and slow-moving

California to northern

general.

normally the seals dive for about 20 minutes

Even

Mostly squid caught

down

deep dives may

Bellows and roars

small sharks

in

males at

usually fewer than 12

Voice

spent underwater,

is

where the water pressure

4 weeks; females 5 years,

time

their

also not typical of seals

occasionally

1

2-3 months delayed

Weaned

is

Moreover, elephant seals dive very deep,

hauls out to rest on rocky islands and beaches

Breeding

the case of females. About 80 to

in

seal with bent, floppy nose; unlike

Pacific. Its distribution

does

not overlap with that of the northern elephant but otherwise the species are

seal,

similar.

Segregated Males tend to disperse widely at sea to feed,

i

living

alone for most of the year. They travel

farther north I

i

\

'

{

into the Pacific

than females. Segregating the sexes

way

SEE ALSO

Seal,

Hawaiian Monk 3:30

such a

in

midwater,

often luminescent species that can be seen even

the darkness of deep water. The seals also

take small sharks and slow-moving

32

in

avoids competition for food. Elephant seals

feed mainly on the squid they find

in ;

and farther out

fish,

which


SEALS AND SEA LIONS NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL

Š A young male

they find

northern elephant seal.

seals

Young miles are

themselves.

aggressively prevented

match

from breeding by the

taken by great white sharks and

dominant

bulls until

in

have

for

about 12,000 miles (20,000 km). They gather

shallower coastal areas. Elephant

little

A

December on sandy and pebbly beaches around

to fear from predators

fully

grown elephant

seal

is

various islands along the California coast (and

a

any creature, but youngsters may be

Normally, carnivorous

killer

whales.

mammals have

at a

few

sites

on the mainland) to

harems and mate. The

bulls

set

up

compete with each

other by showing off their huge bulk. They rear

a

they are at least eight

shorter intestine than herbivores, buL the

up and bellow

years of age.

northern elephant seal has a longer intestine

chests crashing to the ground again. They also

than any other mammal.

One was measured

662 feet (201 m), which stretched

40 times

its

own body

longer than a typical

at

more than

length and 20 times

human

in

gut.

Each year northern elephant seals migrate

fiercely,

inflate their big

impressive. fights,

before bringing their

noses to become even more

Sometimes they engage

but avoid doing so

such a contest both males

and chests high

in

the

air

if

will raise their

and wrestle

to their traditional breeding beaches,

necks together, attempting to

completing a round-trip migration that totals

downward

stab at their

physical

in

possible. During

make

heads

their

a

opponent with

their big


MAMMALS

SEA

canine teeth. Raking the neck with the teeth

abandoned them, the pups

often opens long gashes, but the skin of an

feeding for a

elephant

wounds

neck

seal's

is

so thick that such

are rarely a danger to

life,

The

summer

they do leave impressive scars.

The dominant

number

—adult males doing so as

Some

mate with the

largest

sometimes as many as 100.

of the males stay onshore, continuously

and without food, season

in

until

the end of the breeding

February or March

—a

sand

It

may be

offers a

little

protection from the sun.

most

as

do, they shed the outer layer of

same

The

time.

comes

hair

animals a sorry sight while their

new

coat

no dense

the females give birth

sea lions. Instead, elephant seals (and other

like

is

that found

in

layer of

fur seals

to their single

pup

members

and provide

with

thick layers of fat (blubber) to insulate their

it

milk for up to four

bodies against the cold water

They might

easily get

sunshine was

not go to sea to feed.

come ashore

Instead, they stay

summer

close to their pup,

damp

it

on

rich milk

but do so

then giving

air

in

if

when

much

of the

usually bathed

is

come ashore

winter,

live.

summer

the

during the period they

fog, screening the animals

and

which they

to molt. However, for

of the sun. They

derived from their fat supplies.

warm

in

overheated

the California coast

own

and

of the true seal family Phocidae) have

weeks. During

do

off

The new growth consists only

into place.

of short, bristly hairs; there

her offspring,

that the

one by one

woolly underfur

milk,

its

unusual:

with ragged patches of skin, leaving the

in

from the heat

again to breed,

the weather

is

bad,

temperatures are low.

Females may be capable of breeding only

Converting fat to

seal

late as is

months. Meanwhile,

feeding

back.

their skin at the

early

in

time of over three

lactation they too

Š An elephant

mammals

other

grows

total fasting

0

throws sand over

elephant seals

in

Instead of losing their hairs

bulls get to

of females,

for themselves.

on land to molt

seals haul out

August. Molting

Enforced Fasting

Then they too go

or more.

and begin to forage

to sea

although

month

stay ashore without

it

to

means

three years after they are born, but usually

that a typical female

maturity.

may

anyway

lose nearly half

her body weight

it

takes about four or five years to reach sexual

Males take longer to mature and

are prevented

older and

dominant

from breeding by the

bulls until

they are at least

before she returns to the sea to feed.

eight years old. The stresses of breeding and

Meanwhile, the pup

holding territory on shore while also fasting for

will

have grown from a

birthweight of about 100 pounds (45 kg) to

three

more than 300 pounds (136

more than

kg).

months 1

are so great that

few males

live

2 years.

Toward the end of the suckling period the females later.

will

mate, then go to sea a few days

Development

of the fertilized

egg

arrested for a couple of months. The

then implants

itself

womb

a gestation

Targets for Exploitation Elephant seals were ruthlessly exploited 19th century for their blubber, which

melted burning

down in

to

make

lamps.

A

oil

the

was

for lubrication

big elephant seal

in

and

yield

pup

substantial sum. Over a quarter of a million

is

born almost exactly 12 months after the

one. At birth northern elephant seals have

a black coat, which

by

silvery hair.

is

soon molted and replaced

After their mothers have

SEE ALSO

Seal,

seals

up to 85 gallons (386

had been

1860s, As a to have

Gray 3:42; Monkey, Proboscis 4:70

killed for

result,

become

I)

of fine

for

might

period of eight to nine months, so that the next

last

34

embryo

into the wall of the

and develops normally through

is

oil,

worth

a

the trade by the

elephant seals were thought

extinct

in

California waters, but


seem

there also

few

to have been a

remained on small islands

survivors.

Some

off Baja

However, reducing the population to

California.

such low numbers meant that present-day elephant seals have

all

come from

ancestors. That could prove a problem

future

—the population being

few

relatively in

the

less resistant to

disease, for example. Elephant seals have

benefited from protection by Mexico and the

United States

the 20th century, and numbers

in

steadily increased to

more than 100,000 by the

1990s. Elephant seals have

almost

now

recolonized

the areas from which they were

all

eradicated

earlier.

Occasional stragglers are

now

seen as far away as Hawaii and Japan, and north to Vancouver Island and Alaska.

Big Nose!

T

he huge nose or proboscis of the adult elephant seal has nothing to do with

an improved sense of smell. Instead,

showing

for size

when

off.

The nose grows to

is

full

the males are mature at an age

of about eight years

and becomes even

larger in the breeding season.

almost

it

like a

It

droops,

small elephant's trunk, so

that the nostrils point

downward, and the

end overhangs the mouth by up to 12 inches (30 cm). The strange organ can be inflated by

of

blood pressure and a buildup

air inside,

so that

it

forms a large

cushion on top of the animal's snout. The skull

is

specially

shaped and enlarged to

accommodate the muscles used the proboscis. a resonance

In its

it

move acts as

chamber, magnifying the

bellows and roars that

make

to

inflated state

bull

elephant seals

to intimidate their rivals on the

breeding beaches.

ŠA

California

male threatens

rivals.

During the

breeding season males compete with each other for mates, and fierce displays of strength are commonplace.

35


1

SEA

MAMMALS

Crabeater Lobodon carcinophagus

"Crabeater" Common name Scientific

Family

Phocidae

Order

Pinnipedia

carcinophagus

specialized teeth that allow

smaller crustaceans

Length: 6. 5-8. 5

Size

ft

Weight 440-660

lb

brown teeth

in

consume

to

it

ice

on

ice

follows the seasonal advance and

color with variable

sides; coat

summer; long snout;

fades to

specially ridged

cheeks; no external ears; often

retreat of the ice.

feeding on

krill,

It

has

become adapted

to

small shrimplike crustaceans

that form a major part of the plankton

polar

in

scarred from attacks by leopard seals and

waters. The seals have a specially modified

fights with other crabeaters

Habits

Male

female after she has given

joins

when pup

is

dentition that includes the

possessed by any carnivore. The lower and

weaned, male mates with

are usually solitary or found

in

most complex- teeth

birth;

female, and family group disbands; crabeaters

upper teeth have long, sharp prongs that

small groups,

when

together perfectly, so that

but larger aggregations can occur

the

closed, there are only tiny spaces

Breeding

Single calf born after gestation period of

Weaned

implantation.

mature food

at

3-6

availability.

average

is

at

14-21 days; sexually

years, often

May

live

depending on

up to 40

fit

mouth

is

between

1

months, probably including period of delayed

them.

When

the seal takes a mouthful of water,

the teeth act as a sieve, leaving the animal with a

mouthful of food. The teeth therefore

years, but

function

about 20

like

the baleen plates of filter-feeding

whales, such as the blue whale. Voice

Snorts, hisses,

frightened;

and blows through nose when

deep groaning sounds produced

while underwater

Success at a Price

Diet

Krill,

Habitat

Stays close to the pack ice of the Antarctic

other invertebrates, and small

fish

Crabeaters are the most abundant of

total retreating pack ice of Antarctica

Status

Population:

may be

over 10 million. The

world's most abundant seal

all

the

world's seals. Population estimates suggest that

Distribution Circumpolar, following the advancing and

numbers

lie

somewhere between 7 and

14 million individuals. After humans they are probably the most abundant large earth. Living

among pack

the

is

krill

that

mammal on

they can feed on

ice,

not easily accessible to their

competitors. The large baleen whales, for

example, have to feed

The environment inaccessible to

is

in

more open waters.

remote and

humans. As

relatively

a result, crabeaters

are not generally exploited, which

may

contribute to their abundance. Sadly, the

success of the crabeater seal

is

also partly

to the rapid decline of baleen whales.

whales were severely reduced

in

due

Many

numbers

during the 20th century owing to excessive

36

SEE ALSO

Seal,

Leopard 3:38; Whale, Killer/Orca 3:62; Whale, Blue 3:98

krill

—strained from sea water

of the Antarctic, drifting through the sea

(200-300 kg)

in

markings on

ring in

it

The crabeater seal inhabits the extensive pack

floes as Slim seal; silvery gray

white

actually has extremely

It

(2-2.6 m). Female

generally larger than male

Key features

a misleading name, since the crabeater

seal does not feed on crabs.

Crabeater seal

name Lobodon

is

—much


SEALS AND SEA LIONS CRABEATER SEAL

hunting and

left

a plentiful supply of

krill

support increasing numbers of crabeater

As true

seals,

external ears

and cannot

pull their

However, they are amazingly agile

known

Š A crabeater seal on an drift

ice floe.

on the

rests

The seals

floes,

diving

into the cold waters that

surround them to feed

seals.

snow and

ice,

hind flippers lions do.

when

and have been

(25 km/h). They look almost comical as they

to side

in

head held high, swinging from side

time with the

pelvis,

while the hind

flippers are held together off the

Unlike

some other

off the Antarctic's

crabeater

breeding season the seals can be found

is

female

joins the

just

males and predators. The male takes care of the

with her

when

small

is

waiting to mate

the pup has been weaned.

If

the

male moves too close to the female or her pup, the female

and female remain as

is

in

is

Most

weaned, the male

a pair.

two weeks,

separate.

mate seal

face

will react aggressively, biting his

and neck. Once the pup

will

not a colonial breeder. During the in

not always the

is

and the pup from other

actively protects her

within about

ground.

species of seal, the

abundant supply of krill.

He

father of the pup.

female and pup because he

to reach speeds of 16 miles per hour

sprint, their

and pup. However, the male

before or soon after she has given birth and

crabeaters do not have

forward to walk as fur seals and sea

traveling across

to

Mating occurs

which the

after

seal species are

the water, but mating

in

thought to occur on the

pair

known

to

the crabeater

ice floes.

family groups consisting of a male, female.

War Wounds Pups and juvenile crabeaters are at attack by leopard seals.

down

scars running

Many

from

risk

adults have long

their bodies as a result of

Some

predatory attacks by those fierce animals. individuals

may even bear

attacks by

killer

the scars of failed

whales, which hunt

crabeaters of

all

ages. Older male

crabeaters are often heavily scarred

on

their face

and neck as

of fights with males of their

own

or another,

a result

and females

species.

One way

most adult

pelts

are so scarred they are of little

commercial value.

The international ban on whaling has allowed

some populations

of

baleen whale to recover.

Numbers seals

may

of crabeater

decline as the

ecosystem readjusts to the return of the krill-eating

whales.

In

addition,

commercial fishing of Antarctica's

krill

is

now

in

progress,

providing yet another competitor for that resource. The breeding success and

population growth of crabeater seals could restricted as a result.

37


1

SEA

MAMMALS

Leopard Seal

Hydrurga leptonyx

sharp canines and reptilianlike head give the

Its long,

leopard seal a ferocious appearance. Living up to Common name

reputation, the seal Scientific

name

the

is

main predator of the

Hydrurga leptonyx

Antarctic Family

Phocidae

Order

Pinnipedia

Size

Length: male 8.2-10.5

ft (2.

"

5-3. 2 m);

Weight Male 440-990

is

lb

female 495-1,300

(200-450

lb

more

is

distinct

kg);

(225-590 kg)

Large, slender seal with reptilelike

that

head

the sea leopard, the leopard seal

named because

so

that decorate

almost anything that moves.

will attack

its

and patches

of the spots

Unique as the only

coat.

pinniped that regularly preys on warm-blooded animals, the leopard seal

from body than most life

is

well adapted to

as a predator, eating almost anything.

its

Its

powerful jaws with wide gape; long

seals;

varied diet includes

canines and sharply pointed molars; long,

broad front sides

and

Once known as

female 7.8-11 ft(2.4-3.4 m)

Key features

and

flippers;

penguins, and other sea birds.

dark-gray back, paler

silvery underside; variable spots

squid, octopus, fish,

krill,

on

on other

habitually feed

In

addition,

it

will

seal species, particularly

shoulders, throat, sides, and stomach

crabeater seals. Although the majority of seals Habits

Solitary,

than

1

ferocious creatures: rare to find

on an

ice floe

other than

in

more

attack

the leopard seal could be described as the

(including a probable

males at 4 years.

May

the wild, rarely kept

in

live

1

2-month period

Weaned

weeks; females sexually mature

at

26

Krill

years

seals,

and squid

pack

unusually long for a true seal.

seal are

When swimming,

true seals propel themselves through the water

low droning sound made underwater

Antarctic

aggressive predator,

The foreflippers of the leopard in

captivity

and other crustaceans; penguins,

An

classes.

marine equivalent of the leopard on land.

at 3 years,

at least

age

all

about 4

Gargling, grunting, whistling, and birdlike chirps;

Habitat

will

Single pup born after gestation period of

months

Diet

older animals indicate that leopard seals

often found near penguin and seal colonies

of delayed implantation).

Voice

preyed on are young, fresh scars on the pelts of

breeding

season; segregated by age to different areas;

Breeding

by moving their hind limbs from side to side. contrast, leopard seals

long,

powerful strokes of their large foreflippers,

more and subantarctic waters, often near

swim with

In

like a

sea lion than a seal.

they are fast and agile

—

a

In

the water

dangerous hunter

ice

even for the elusive penguin. Distribution Circumpolar distribution along edges of antarctic pack

ice;

found

all

year round and

System

seasonally on subantarctic islands; sometimes

Filter

along Australian and South African coasts

Armed with remarkably

long canine teeth,

sharply pointed molars, powerful jaws, and a

wide gape, the mouth of the leopard well suited to grabbing prey.

the crabeater seal, that can

The

filter

filter

out

it

if

In

seal

is

addition, like

has complex cheek teeth

krill

from mouthfuls of water.

system enables

food source

it

to use an alternative

larger prey are unavailable.

A common

habit of leopard seals

is

to

prowl the waters beside penguin rookeries.

38

its

Leopard seal

SEE ALSO Leopard

2:30; Seal, Crabeater 3:36

Intelligent

and

wait

hunger forces the

until

inquisitive creatures, the seals

birds to enter the


SEALS AND SEA LIONS LEOPARD SEAL

water is

in

search of

held firmly

seal

in

then thrashes

and forth to

Once caught,

fish.

the leopard

skin the bird before eating

when

so, to

confuse their

predators, they usually

do so

in

The skull of the is

where they

are

more

been known to leap

agile.

large groups.

the water,

in

known.

However, they have

clear out of the sea into a

It

thought that males

is

several females in

not involved

in

caring for the young.

frequency drones that they make underwater are

sometimes described as "haunting," and

their

also

breeding

known

are soft

calls

and

to produce gargling noises, grunts,

gathering of penguins. Not only do they have excellent eyesight, but they can rapidly adjust

No

Serious Threats

when moving between

The

pelts of leopard seals are

well-

their focus

air

and

an important asset to the

They are

lyrical.

and even high-pitched chirps and

Here, a leopard seal its

The low-

especially during the breeding season.

distinctively elongated.

displays

mate with

will

one breeding season, but are

Leopard seals produce a variety of sounds,

it.

entering

and leaving the water,

Leopard seals tend to hunt

ÂŽ

penguin

strong, flexible neck back

its

Penguins are most vulnerable

leopard seal

a

mouth. The

seal's

whistles.

poor quality and

commercial value. The animals are also

developed canine teeth.

water. This

The complicated cheek

since they often peer out of the water, then

difficult to

submerge themselves again when hunting.

The combination of such factors has kept the

teeth are

used for

filtering krill.

A

is

relatively solitary animal,

the leopard seal

has almost nomadic tendencies as for food.

Where food

is

seals,

plentiful,

it

searches

the animals

can be found together. Otherwise, they only

congregate to breed. Living close to the antarctic pack ice,

where they

difficult to study, their

activities are

not well

are

breeding

of

little

hunt owing to

seals relatively free

Although leopard reliant

on

remote

their

habitat.

from human exploitation.

seals are not precariously

a single type of food,

krill

is

essential

to the young, since they are too

weak

to hunt larger prey. But

they are not as efficient at foraging for

krill

as other

krill-

feeding specialists, such as the crabeater

problems

seal,

and could face

the food source were

if

reduced by commercial recovery of

some

fishing.

krill-feeding baleen

whale populations may

also

have an

adverse effect on leopard seals. of such threats, the only real

leopard seals

the sea

is

The

In

spite

enemy

of

the ultimate hunter of

—the

killer

Its-

whale.

z-t


SEA

MAMMALS

Harbor Seal

Phoca

Small groups of harbor seals basking

common

in the

sun are a

sight throughout the year along both coasts

of the United States and across the shores of Common name Scientific

name

Harbor seal (common

Phoca

Family

Phocidae

Order

Pinnipedia

Size

Length:

30%

vitulina

Harbor

47-79

(120-200 cm). Male up

in

to

larger than female lb

medium-sized

Typical

(45-130 kg)

silvery

head small and rounded with

when

short,

both sexes. Unlike many seals and sea

making short

structure,

pup born

in

June and

gestation period of 10.5-1 (including

Weaned

the

any,

obscure. Also unlike

is

only occasionally

makes

almost

is

many

silent

and

short, quiet barks.

months

2-3 months delayed implantation).

at

Well-Developed Pups

3-6 weeks; females sexually

at 2 years,

live

1

July after

males at 5 years. Females

up to 32 years

years; probably

in

the wild, males up

fewer

Mating takes place

in

summer months. The

the water during the fertilized

egg remains

in

a

in captivity

dormant Voice

if

other seals, the harbor seal

26

lions,

of male-dominated harems. Indeed, their social

in

dives

to

may

include

species does not form large breeding colonies

small groups; feeds at sea by

mature

small

groups, but occasionally several hundred

may

as

islets

live in

dry;

narrow

Basks on rocks and sandbanks, usually

Single

to use

coasts, but also

gather at a good place. Groups

muzzle

may

sandbanks along sheltered

like

the tide goes out. Normally, they

pale-cream coat

seal;

brown, or black; often looks

Breeding

a lot of their time hauled out

the sunshine. They

in

sometimes perch themselves on rocky

blotched with mottled pattern of gray,

Habits

seals spend

to bask

Weight 100-285 Key features

northwestern Europe.

seal)

end of the

state until the

year,

when

Short barks and grunts, but probably the least

implantation occurs, and true pregnancy begins.

vocal of seals

Females come ashore to give Mainly

Habitat

Rocky and sandy coasts, estuaries, and

fish

birth to a single

caught on or near the seabed

Diet

pup

June or

in

July,

although along the

California coast births occur earlier in the year. sheltered inlets

Unlike

many

other seals, baby harbor seals are

Distribution Coasts of North Pacific and North Atlantic

born with their adult coats already formed and Status

Population: probably well over half a million.

Common

adult dentition already

in

place.

They can swim

and widespread

away on the

next high tide

if

necessary and are

capable of making short dives within hours of birth.

Nursing occurs

in

short bouts, lasting only

about a minute, every three or four hours. The

mother feeds her pup on very enabling or so

it

to double

and be

fully

its

rich, fatty milk,

weight within a month

independent by the age of

six

weeks. At weaning the strong bonds between the mother and pup dissolve, and the mother

abandons the pup to look

after

itself,

while she

begins the process of molting. The process takes place on land, with males following suit a

week

40

SEE ALSO Sea

Lion, California 3:20;

or

two

Whale, Killer/Orca 3:62

vitulina

later

than females.


SEALS AND SEALIONS HARBOR SEAL

Young harbor

grow

seals

its

is

not always available, and

it

to their

birthday,

first

never reach breeding age. oil slicks

such as sharks and

mdependent by

about six weeks of age.

species as a individuals In

when

formed and a

disease similar to

full

set of

some

live

Some

more than 30

one occurring

quarter of the population

in

a

in

harbor seals is

in

close

live

most concentrated.

feed by making shallow dives

normally lasting about eight minutes. However,

and may dive as deep as 1,400 feet (430 m).

years. hit

(a viral

dogs)

Sadly,

pollution

Harbor seals

that various forms

they can stay underwater for up to half an hour

places, the threats.

an outbreak of distemper

hard

adult teeth.

in

whales. However, apart

likely

is

It

weakened immune systems

marine mammals.

where

also occurred along

the 1980s and 1990s, but

in

unclear.

is

of pollution have

inshore,

1988 the North Sea population was

adult coats already

do

half

Some may be

whole faces few

may even

a quarter

and

cause

or attacked by predators,

killer

from human hunters

They are born with their

About

die at an early stage.

make

overcome by

Harbor seal pups are

numbers

large decline in

the Alaska coast

many

ÂŽ

The annount

growing bodies

not

fully

fast.

of food they need to support their rapidly

killed a

few months. A

Young

seals mainly feed

but soon they take to of species.

mainly on

on crabs and shrimp,

fish,

eating a wide range

European waters they often

In

fish

will

many

and migrating salmon. Each

needs about 5 pounds but

and

flatfish (like flounders), herring,

cod. Off the Pacific coast they take

spawning

rely

take more

if

it

per day,

(2 kg) of fish

can.

seal

The amount

corresponds to about 6 percent of the animal's total

body weight. The

their eyes,

hunt using mainly

seals

which are large and

light conditions,

sensitive in

low

but not so effective out of

water. Feeding normally occurs during daylight,

but at night and

in

murky waters the

whiskers probably help

seals

undertake long seasonal migrations,

but harbor seals tend to stay all

seal's

locate food.

Home

Staying Close to

Some

it

in

the

same

the time. Their daily activity rhythm

dictated by the tide

coming

in

place

is

and covering

their basking places. Certain individuals

haul out day after day at exactly the

may

same

spot, but then disappear for long periods

before returning. Occasionally, pups

marked

at birth

may

turn up over

km) from where they

miles (1,000

were born. However, that and

still

600

is

unusual

only a short distance

compared with the long and regular migrations undertaken

by

some

pinnipeds.

41


SEA

MAMMALS

Gray Seal The gray seal hut where Common name Scientific

Gray

There have been

and

killing adults

Family

PhocicJae

OrcJer

Pinnipedia

Size

Length head/body:

calls to

Gray

their young.

seals are the largest

members

of the true

They are comparatively numerous

seal family.

around the rocky coasts of the North

Weight Male 375-680 (170-308

lb

although

of

head forms

conical

Habits

(104-186 kg)

flat profile;

snout broad and

in bull

at sea, but

comes

and breed; dives to catch food

rest

they

1 1

.5

months

sexually

(including 3

Weaned

mature

at

4-5

years.

Females may

many

fewer, about

live 1

Voice

Loud barking sounds

Diet

Fish, especially

months delayed

at 3

to breed

the

In

large colonies,

in

often on islands to escape disturbance. Seals are in

danger of overheating

and breeding

weather

them

likely

is

in

in

sunshine: Giving

the winter,

the

and stormy, allows

to be cold

to avoid the heat of

when

summer

days.

years,

males

at

6-8

over 40 years, males

5-20 years

year after year. The oldest females appear

and

their

Britain,

Scandinavia, Iceland, and

Labrador and Nova Scotia

(Canada), occasionally south as far as

defends

many cows his

position population)

up

biggest bulls arrive

keep others away from

their

as he can

and

first

own mate

fiercely

harem, which may number up to 10

females. The

Population: about 200,000;

set

small groups of cows. Each bull tries to

with as

first,

The adult

come ashore and

start to

home among them. The try to

after.

New

Jersey

(Baltic

pups are born soon

males then

cod and salmon; occasionally

Rocky coasts with sandy beaches; open sea

Baltic; off

Gray seals return to the same breeding grounds

and

Distribution Coasts of

Behavior

Bullish

weeks; females

octopus

Status

so on the American side.

come ashore

Single calf born after gestation period of

implantation).

Habitat

fall

birth

Spends most of year out ashore to

Breeding

lb

dark-gray seal with pale blotches; top

Big,

less

Atlantic,

kg);

female 230-410

Key features

bull's

success depends on his

on the shore and on

his physical size

lUCN Endangered

and stamina. The

first bulls

ashore have a big

advantage, but they do not leave their place

throughout the breeding season. They must

endure up to eight weeks of constant alertness

and

It

all

expectancy live

night and day, without going to sea

activity,

to feed.

is

takes a heavy

still

toll,

and

their

life

sharply reduced. Bull seals rarely

beyond about

cows can

1

5 to

20

years, while the

be breeding 10 years

later.

The young are born weighing about 30

pounds (14

kg),

with a long, white coat as

protection from the wind and rain. They cannot

swim until

in

their

baby

fur

and do not enter the sea

they have molted into an adult coat. The

adult coat consists of short,

42

seals;

reduce numbers by

(2-3 m)

ft

1

abundant

can wreak havoc for commercial

it

Halichoerus

grypus

7-1

less

seal

fisheries.

name

one of the world's

is

occurs,

it

Halichoerus grypus

SEE ALSO

Seal,

Northern Fur 3:14, Seal, Cape Fur 3:16

stiff hairs,

typical of


SEALS AND SEA LIONS GRAY SEAL

Š

Outside the breeding

seals.

Its

main function

is

to protect the skin

season gray seals haul

from being damaged as the animals heave

out on rocks or

themselves over rocks. The pups get

sandbanks to also molt

on

rest.

They

land,

mother's milk. Milk for three

is

The milk

to sea to feed herself.

the mother's

several weeks; the males

average of over 7 pounds

in

March to May,

own

fat reserves,

is

formed from

and she

is

about 55 percent

to develop

its

fat,

insulation before

loses

an

body weight

(3 kg)

each day. Seals produce very creamy

which

their

provided every five hours

changing their coat once

the females earlier.

on

weeks, without the female returning

a year. The process takes

molt

fat

in

many

years.

A

entirely of fish. daily of

The

is

poor, but even

appear to cope well and may gray It

seal's diet consists

takes about

1

1

live

for

almost

pounds

(5 kg)

whichever species are most abundant.

seals travel long distances,

and some have

turned up over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from

where they were born.

milk,

enabling the pup it

the water. Their eyesight

blind seals

goes to

sea.

Friend or Foe?

Numbers

of gray seals rose steadily until the

By that time the baby fur has been shed, and

1960s, then nearly doubled

the pup weighs about 100 pounds (45 kg).

Fishermen began to complain that the animals

Toward the end of the suckling period each

cow mates

with one or more bulls and then

returns to the sea.

The pups are abandoned on

the open beach. They go to sea for the

first

in

10 years.

threatened their livelihood because of fish

they ate. Culls were carried out

of public opposition. fish, their

predation

In fact,

may

in

all

the

the face

although seals eat

actually increase the

time shortly after and must quickly learn to

numbers

feed themselves. Nonetheless, about 85 percent

other species that compete with

of pups normally survive to this stage.

However, gray seals can cause damage where

When

ashore, seals spend over 90 percent

of their time inactive. Their busy times are spent at sea, but

little is

known about

their behavior

of larger commercial fish by removing

them

fixed nets are set to catch salmon.

for food.

They may

also try to break into floating cages used to rear

captive salmon, causing fish to escape.


5

MAMMALS

SEA

Harp Seal

Phoca (Pagophilus) groenlandica

The Arctic harp seal has been the subject of major international controversy due to the harvesting of its attractive white

The harp seal

Common name Scientific

Family

Order

name

Harp

seal (saddleback seal)

Length:

North Annerica the

its

seal's

to the

rise

name

"saddleback seal." The harp seal frequents the

Pinnipedia

edges of the Size

In

markings have given

distinctive

Phocidae

harp-shaped band around

and back.

flanks

their skins.

so called because of the

is

characteristic

Phoca (Pagophilus) groenlandica

pups for

5, 6-6.4 ft (1

of

Weight 250-310

arctic ice.

ranges far to the north

It

.7-2 m) lb (1

Canada

in

the

summer months,

often

13-141 kg)

migrating over 3,000 miles (5,000 km) between

Key features Adults

gray with a black face and

light

its

bold, curved dark marking

summer

breeding grounds and

feeding areas.

on the back;

pups white Habits

Spends most of year

Fishy Diet at sea

along edges of

Harp seals eat mainly shrimp and small

arctic ice

Breeding

Single

pup born

in

February after gestation

period of 10 months (including 4 months

delayed implantation).

Weaned

10-12

at

caught near the surface

fish,

open waters.

in

However, adults may dive 500 feet (150 m) to feed on herring, cod, and other larger

The

fish.

days; sexually mature at about 5.5 years, but

often does not breed

May Voice

live

up

to

until

about 8

years.

Various barks, grunts, and growls;

Shrimp and small

Habitat

Open

big, sensitive

They make

30 years

fish, especially

a

number

eyes for locating prey.

of underwater grunts to

communicate with each

other, but are generally

1

different vocalizations recorded

Diet

have

seals

silent

capelin

above water except

colonies.

They

seas and edges of ice floes

like

to

distances from the

around

live

hummocky

crumpled,

at the

breeding thick,

and may

ice

travel long

open water by following

Distribution Populations based on 3 breeding areas:

Newfoundland, Jan Mayen

Island,

Sea, with animals dispersing farther north

Status

in

and White

and going

channels

the

Harp

They can swim

ice floes.

underwater and move

summer

Population: probably at least 3 million.

in

fairly rapidly

seals breed in three

Newfoundland, Jan Mayen

main

fast

on the

ice.

areas:

Island (east of

Abundant Greenland), and Russia).

in

the White Sea (north of

They assemble

in

large

numbers

in late

winter (February and March). The newborn seals are nursed

that their

cry

is

two

to three times a day on milk

more than 40 percent

weight

and

wail,

triples in less

and

their

fat.

As

a result,

than two weeks. Pups

mothers

call

to them, so

breeding colonies are noisy places. After 12 days the pups are abandoned and

left

to molt.

They then go to sea by themselves. The females

now mate and undergoes

a

disperse. Their fertilized

development before

44

SEE ALSO

Seal,

Harbor 3:40

egg

four-month period of delayed full

pregnancy begins.


SEALS AND SEA LIONS HARP SEAL

Controversial Cull Since about 1800 harp seal breeding colonies

have been heavily exploited to collect

easily

pelts,

from the white pups. The animals are

especially

approached across the

ice

and cannot

escape by diving into the sea. Pups are large

numbers by clubbing:

about 180,000 to be

for

known

killed in a

year off the

Newfoundland alone. At one time the

coast of total

killed in

has been

It

may have

population of harp seals

numbered up

to 10 million. However,

percent of

its

Concern

potential size.

became

it

severely reduced, perhaps to less than

30

for the

species grew, and public opinion turned against culling

and the apparently

Campaigns

methods used.

brutal

to stop the cull resulted

in

confrontations on the ice between sealers and

animal conservationists. The Canadian

government, anxious to protect the source of income for

locals,

traditional

refused access to

the breeding areas, even to aircraft and helicopters. publicity

The aim was to reduce adverse

and to keep opposing factions

apart.

Persuaded by public disquiet, European

banned the import of harp

countries in

1983. The ban sharply reduced the market,

but did not result off.

Š

The pure white fur of harp seal pups against the

white

snow is

a particularly appealing sight.

It is

not

surprising that feelings run high over the culling of pups.

months. The delay ensures

in

the seal hunts being called

Today about 50,000 pups are

similar

number from the White

7,000 from Jan Mayen. The

numbers

is

The

Sea,

culls

effect of a cull

taken

and about

remain

on breeding

not seen for at least five years, by

that the pups are born at one-year intervals.

which time another quarter of

Otherwise they would

will

arrive in midwinter, or

still

each year from the Newfoundland colonies, a

controversial. lasting a further six

seal skins

have been

killed.

a million

pups

Yet despite such huge

the males and females would have to find each

numbers being harvested, the harp

seal

other again to mate

population remains large. However,

many

in

about May. By mating

on the breeding grounds, males and females

people believe that

need only come together once

cruelty

a year.

Females become sexually mature at years old, (occasionally a

little

sooner),

On

five

until

they are

much

older.

If

numbers become reduced, however, they tend to breed at a

younger age.

wildlife, especially

young animals.

for local people

who

might otherwise

have to move to find work. There

in

densely crowded populations the animals do

not usually breed

should not exert such

the other hand, the industry provides an

income

and

males at about the same time. However,

on

we

is

also the

problem that the increased harvesting of

fish

humans may remove the food supply needed maintain large populations of seals of

by to

all

species, the harp seal included.

45


DUGONGS AND MANATEES —he

_

curious

dugongs and manatees

are

members

of

What

Is

a Sirenian?

no hind

the order Sirenia. They are descended from land

Sirenians have

animals that were distantly related to elephants.

modified to form large

They probably fed on aquatic vegetation some 50 to 60 million years ago. By

spending greater amounts of time

their tails

expanded

to

True "sea cows," they

in

munched in

about 40 to 50

waterweeds

estuaries.

disappeared, and

their

way through

the

million years ago. Later,

became

proliferated

in

less

abundant.

the big rivers and

new food

source.

Meanwhile, the dugong's ancestors remained associated with sea-grass beds and spread to other tropical oceans, leaving the

manatees to occupy the

relative, Steller's

Atlantic.

A

sea cow, evolved to exploit the

seaweeds of the cool waters of the North exterminated by overhunting

in

brown but

the mid- 18th century.

shallow seas and estuaries where they thick

and naked. They are

more than

to

1

in

live.

into a

the warm,

The

skin

is

weighing

body appears rather bloated,

a small car. Their

intestines,

50 feet (45 m) long. Such a vast gut

digest the

expanded

large animals, often

which can be up is

needed to

huge amounts of vegetable material that

sirenians eat, typically over

Manatees have

200 pounds (90

kg) each day.

peculiar teeth which, like those of

strong teeth helps

them cope with the

often gritty plants they feed on.

was

rather

muddy and

Dugongs have only

a

few

simple teeth, and the males have short tusks.

A

sirenian's

head appears sunk

into the shoulders,

with no neck. The front of the head

giant

Pacific,

tail is

elephants, are continually replaced from behind. Having

At that time the ancestors of modern manatees

developed special teeth to exploit the

their front legs are

The

flippers.

perhaps because of their huge

the shallow waters of the

as the climate cooled, sea grass Instead,

finally

form huge, propulsive paddles.

swards of sea grass found tropical Atlantic

and

and

broad paddle used to propel the animals

the water, the animals gradually stopped coming ashore. Their hind limbs degenerated

limbs,

has thick, fleshy

lips.

These muscular

pulling off mouthfuls of vegetation

material

backward

into the

sensitive, helping the

water

is

blunt-ended and

lips

and

are used for

stuffing the

mouth. They are

animal grope around

to select suitable things to eat.

search for food

is

also very

in

muddy

The animals'

also assisted by taste

on the tongue, and manatees

show

preferences for

buds

at least

some

over others. The


Who's

Who among

the Sirenians?

—manatees: 3 species

Family: Trichechidae

manatee (Trichechus Family: Dugongidae

—dugong;

cow (Hydrodamalis

sea

species

1

in

1

genus, including West African

Amazonian manatee

senegalensis):

in

gigas) extinct

© A West Indian manatee the mobile

lips typical

an Amazonian manatee tail

typical of

species of sirenian

They

pigi

earflaps,

quite good, at

underwater. However, they do not seem to be as

least

good

why

is

at detecting

low-frequency sounds, which

may be

they often do not recognize the approach of motor

boats,

sometimes with

lives

widely spread

the Indian Ocean. The three species of

manatee occur

along the tropical coasts of the Atlantic,

mouth

in

in

of the

Amazon,

of fat under their skin:

Florida

manatees gather

make

Few

make

in

their backs. Typically,

short dives to gather food underwater, usually

remaining submerged for

less

than a minute. They mate

the water and give birth to single young there.

only

mammals adapted

the sea and are the

to feed entirely

on marine

plants.

© A West Indian manatee cow nurses her is

calf in a

freshwater spring.

the strongest social link in the sirenian world.

plants.

Humans

killer

whales large enough to

However,

oil,

meat,

their useful

and

skins

make them

vulnerable to attack by humans. Accidents are frequent,

Consequently,

sirenians have

all

numbers. They reproduce

in

and entanglement

sea

cow

is

now

extinct,

most of

numerous,

where they

its

at least

are

slowly, so their Steller's

and the dugong has become very

range. Manatees remain

around

strictly

in

been severely

populations cannot withstand heavy exploitation.

rare over

The infant-mother bond

power

stay farther out to sea.

reduced

in

In

places for the winter,

make an approach normally

may not have another

nowhere other than

warm

in

cooler waters.

long-distance journeys.

and sharks and

sirenian,

nets.

live

living in

too, particularly collisions with boats

for several years afterward.

without food

natural predators can tackle the thick hide of a

Mothers suckle their offspring for up to two years and

Dugongs

The Amazon manatee

do not normally undertake seasonal migrations,

Sirenians

Sirenians are slow, placid creatures that rarely travel far or

they

manatees

insulation for those

Relations with

on

water hyacinths and

the dry season. The accumulated fat also provides

Lifestyle

extensive beds of algae growing

in

a wider range

fat reserves to survive long periods

but occasionally

They are such slow movers that they often have

mud

mangroves. Manatees store large

bits of

and also along parts of the West African coast.

fast.

the sand and

including water outlets from electric

the

(3).

forms vast carpets

and brackish water, where they take

its

cow

Manatees are more often found

plants grow.

submerged

in

northern Australia, with small, scattered populations

in

of vegetation, including floating

uses

along the coasts of the southwestern Pacific and

Caribbean, around and into the

fresh

amounts

fatal results.

The single species of dugong

where the

sea

specialize in eating sea grass, a

also has nutritious roots buried

although their sense of hearing

Steller's

shallow, well-lit waters. Sea grass

in

both above and below

shows the

manatees: the biggest

was the

straplike plant that

and

of sirenians;

has been extinct since 1768.

It

eyes are small

(2)

(1)

on

displays the strong bristles

rounded

(T inunguis)

genus (Dugong dugon)]

1

Florida

fairly

and the Caribbean,

protected.

47

Steller's


SEA

MAMMALS

West Indian Manatee Manatees float gently

TTichechus manatus

shallow waters, munching on

in

foating and submerged vegetation. These large but harmless creatures do a Common name

West Indian manatee (Caribbean

manatee) Scientific

name

Family

Trichechidae

Order

Sirenia

West

Indian manatees

waters and large Length;

Size

1

2-1 5

ft (3.

job keeping waterways

free of weeds, but their reward

is to

motor

victims of collisions with

manatus

Trichechus

usefiil

boats.

occur around the coastal the West

rivers of Florida,

7-4. 6 m) Indies,

Weight up

to

1

.4

and the coasts of northern South

tons

Annerica, (1 .2

They are sometimes regarded as

tonnes)

forming a northern and southern subspecies.

Key features sluggish,

grayish-brown tail

and no hind

Large,

and slow-moving creature: with paddle-shaped

in color,

limbs; skin

naked with

The former, based around

numbers about 2,000 southern subspecies

patches of green algae and a few scattered, bristly hairs;

Habits

Moves

blunt-ended head with

and

fleshy lips

slowly, floating

Single

young born

about

1

births.

year,

in

and diving

probably

— up to

in

shallow

small family groups

after gestation period of

with long intervals between

Weaned at 2 years; sexually mature at May live at least 28 years, probably

animals generally gather

in

live

groups of

tolerate each other,

The

10,000 or so

—are

the Caribbean and along

rest of

the coast of South America as far as

small, piggy eyes

water; often found

Breeding

thick,

spread over the

Florida,

to 3,000 animals.

alone, but

Brazil,

The

sometimes

or more. While they

six

manatees do not form

subordinate individuals.

a

dominant and

true social structure with

In fact,

the animals

may

8 years.

and leave the groups whenever

casually join

considerably longer

they

Voice

Normally

Diet

Aquatic plants, floating and submerged; also

silent

like.

They are probably drawn together by

an attractive resource, such as a plentiful supply grass

and other vegetation overhanging from

of food or stretches of unusually

warm

water.

riverbanks

Habitat

Estuaries, large rivers,

and shallow seas

Distribution Florida, Caribbean, and coastal waters of

South America as far as Status

Brazil

Signs of Affection Apart from the close association between

mothers and

Population: probably about 10,000-12,000;

interactions

lUCN Vulnerable; CITES

they

I

show

their offspring, there are

few

between manatees. Nevertheless,

signs of affection

gentle "kissing." There

is

and may indulge

in

also evidence that

manatees may leave scent marks on logs and

submerged

rocks.

underwater, but

The scent cannot be detected

may be

tasted instead. Such a

form of chemical communication

among in

mammals,

land

the water.

It

may

common

of course, but unusual

indicate that

make some

sort of social

But there

no sign of

is

is

manatees

arrangements

after

territorial behavior,

48

SEE ALSO Dugong 3:52

all.

and

aggressive interactions of any kind are rare.

be the frequent

}


DUGONGS AND MANATEES WEST

A

Diet of Greens

50 plant species have been recorded

Manatees cannot conne onto land to forage, since they

have no hind limbs. Instead, they

dive

underwater to feed. As they breathe out,

they

become

surface.

less

buoyant and sink below the

Here they gently paddle around

seeking food. They to half

may

stay

an hour without needing to breathe.

the bottom, apparently asleep.

rest lying

on

Manatees eat

mainly aquatic vegetation, both submerged and floating; in coastal areas

mangrove shoots bottom

is

made

in

they

their diet.

easier by the

may

include

Feeding off the

West

Indian

manatee's downwardly directed snout, which enables grass

it

to

consume

browse underwater beds of sea

and waterweeds. Altogether, more than

diet.

large

eat.

in

the

The animals seem able to

amounts

hyacinth, a plant that

of floating water

few other creatures

Water hyacinths are

rivers,

underwater for up

Sometimes they may even take a

manatee's

INDIAN MANATEE

a

major pest

in

will

tropical

where they clog the waterways and

prevent the passage of boats. The manatees' liking for

the plant

is

therefore beneficial to

humans, helping maintain open water.

Manatees sometimes

raise their

\Nest Indian

head well

manatees move slowly

above water to crop overhanging vegetation or

through shallow waters,

nibble at grass along river banks.

often traveling in small

Most of the time manatees motionlessly at the surface

just float

like large

logs

family groups. in

the

water. With only the top of their back visible,

they are

difficult to

spot and cannot see

themselves. Such behavior

is

much

dangerous where

As they

swim, they feed on aquatic plants that float

on the surface or grow

under the water.


SEA

MAMMALS

O A West Indian

Pregnancy

manatee munches on

single calf

is

aquatic plants. As the

up to two

years, sucking milk

which are located

species feeds mostly

also begins to eat plants. By keeping close to

mother,

numbers of

fast

learns

it

teats,

few weeks

where

when

especially

to find food

will

of the Caribbean

be at

towing water

manatees are frequent and often

a vital

water

in

it

on.

for visiting

calf

grows

reach breeding condition old.

Such a slow rate of reproduction

enemies and do not need to breed

reflects

rapidly.

Indeed, they might well run out of food sources

skiers, or

if

they did. However, various unnatural dangers

with

now

result in nasty

existence

or even death as propellers cut deep

threaten the animal's placid and stable

collisions

— beside the

problem of

particular

with motorboats.

In

1996 over 150

into their body. Outside United States waters

dead and dying manatees were found

hunting for their tasty meat

waters, apparently poisoned as a result of an

is

probably the

main threat to manatees, but many

also

drown

increase

Breeding Patterns

in

Florida

unusual bloom of toxic algae. Again, pollution

may have been

after getting tangled in big fishing nets.

responsible for the

huge

algal production.

in

The slow-breeding manatees cannot quickly

Breeding can occur at any time of the year.

In

make good

extra losses to their populations,

cooler waters, however, manatees tend to be

however they are caused.

seasonal breeders, and the calves are mostly

increased by only a

born during the summer.

It

years before the mother has

up to eight years

is

move

the fact that manatees have few natural

and neighbors. Other boats may be

local deliveries. Collisions

may not

slowly and until

waterside houses

and

two

least

another offspring. Meanwhile, the

many people have

their boats for fishing

its

temperatures may make certain feeding areas

boats skim the water.

and parts

—

seasonal changes

unsuitable and force the animals to

the coastal waters

her

in

of birth the calf

launches and other

In

wounds

for

"armpits." Within a

of Florida

making

mother

its

from one or the

other of her

large

ferrying passengers,

two

stays with

It

a

downward-pointing

skill,

stores

born.

which

year, after

snout suggests, the

on the seabed.

and use

about a

lasts for

A

female may mate

with several males, not forming a permanent

bond with any

of them.

easily die out.

As

few

If

natural mortality

is

manatees may

percent,

a result of injuries

and general

disturbance, manatees have already declined

along the coasts, especially

Š Although

l/l/esf

in Florida.

They are

Indian manatees lack any

cohesive social organization, they will interact with each other using simple

gestures, such as "kissing"

mother-calf bond

(2),

in the sirenian world.

communicate

via

(1).

however,

is

The the strongest

Manatees also "rubbing posts"

(3).

They

deposit tastes and odors onto

prominent

objects,

where they can

be detected by others. Sometimes, manatees relax on their backs

50

SEE ALSO Whale, Humpback 3:102

on the seabed

(4).


now

quite rare

altogether

If

the

may

places and

in

cause manatee

activities that

deaths are not controlled.

disappear

the present losses

If

could be reduced, even by a small amount, the

manatee population would enjoy

a small but

steady growth. Boat-free zones and lower

speed

limits

might help protect populations.

Tourist Attraction

Manatees are especially

a popular tourist attraction,

where they

are easily visible drifting

in

the clear waters fed by springs from the

many

limestone below. However, too

visitors

approaching too close may not be beneficial. Local legislation

in

Florida

aims to control the

problem. The United States

Fish

and Wildlife

Service has created a special sanctuary at Three Sisters Springs in

the Crystal

River,

where more

than 250 manatees spend the winter because the water there

is

pleasantly

warm. Disturbance

had been driving them away, but the area

now

be

off-limits to visitors

will

and boats between

November and March.

Š A mother and the

calf. In

young manatee

the 12 to 18

stays close to

its

months

after birth

mother, learning

about feeding areas and annual migration routes.

A Warm Welcome

M

anatees do not

like

water that

is

cooler than about 68°F (20°C).

summer

In

manatees disperse widely

Florida's

along coasts and

rivers. In

particularly in winter, they

cooler periods,

make

local

migrations and often gather together places

where power

warm water

into the sea, such as at

Canaveral, Fort Myers, and Farther south

remains

in

in

plants discharge

in

Tampa

Cape Bay.

the Caribbean the water

warm most

of the time. Here

manatees tend to move around

less

according to season, congregating to feed rather than to enjoy

warm

water.

51


MAMMALS

SEA

Dugong dugon

Although not veiy beautiful, the harmless, seaweed-

dugong

eating

Common name Dugong

saved

name Dugong dugon

Family

Dugongidae

Order

Sirenia

Size

Length: 8-9 1

3

it

(4

ft (2. 4-2,

7 m), occasionally up to

cow

good

kg), occasionally

(136-360

lb

up to 2,000

a

way

mammal

with gray,

bent at an

skin; front flippers

along; small eyes and large

with tough,

crescent-shaped

bristly

pads;

in

land,

small herds, slowly

Cows

local vegetation.

feed

dugongs eat sea

grass, but

equivalent. Sea grass forms

grow underwater along sandy dugongs gulp

few breaths

a

marine

grass, a

huge beds that

of

air,

A

The

coasts.

then dive

in

flat,

the shallow water to crop the sea-grass beds.

no hind limbs

tail;

mostly

munching on the on

seal- or whalelike

almost hairless

live

lb

(900 kg)

lip

cows on

description because, like

is

m)

Weight 300-800

angle part

Their flat-ended snout has special muscles that

Habits

Floats lazily in shallow water, diving

enable the animals to pluck plants from the

occasionally to eat plants from seabed, usually seen singly or

Breeding

Single

young born

in

months. Young

at intervals of

9-10 Voice

at

years.

Generally

first

seabed. While feeding, the dugong leaves long,

small groups

3-7 years

(twins rare) after gestation period of

weaned

13-14

graze at 3 months,

and loose sand that

trails

settles

surrounding plants. As a

of plant debris

back on the

result,

it

is

easy to see

May

live

where dugongs have been. The animals often

over 70 years

do not

but occasional chirps and

silent,

return for long periods, allowing time

for the plants to

grow

again.

Dugongs

underwater for about

brown seaweeds

stay

Shallow seas along tropical coasts

time.

Distribution Indian Ocean and southwestern Pacific up

In

half a

generally

m) and

dive to depths of less than 10 feet (3

Mostly sea grasses; sometimes green or

Habitat

meandering underwater

18 months; sexually mature at

whistles

Diet

minute each

deeper water they need longer and

may go down

to 20 feet (6 m).

to 27° north and south of equator

Status

Population: probably fewer than

1

Innocent Victims

50,000

spread over a huge area; lUCN Vulnerable;

CITES Australian population

II;

elsewhere

I

Dugongs probably have an average

cow

or deer,

and

intelligence like the

their flesh

is

said to

taste like veal. Consequently, they have

been

extensively hunted for meat. Their thick hides are also useful, large

amount

and each dugong can

of valuable

oil.

Hunting

yield a is

easy,

even from a small open boat, because the

dugongs swim slowly and must come surface frequently to breathe. gentlest of creatures

to the

Dugongs

are the

and do not defend

themselves against attack. Large numbers have

been

killed as

a result,

and the dugong has

reached the brink of extinction throughout

52

rise to the

numbers are now severely reduced.

dugongs

Key features Large

have given

to

from extensive hunting pressures, and

The dugong's alternative name of sea

ft

upper

supposed

legend of the mermaid. However, the myth has not

(sea

cow) Scientific

is

SEE ALSO Manatee, West

Indian 3:48; Ruminants 6:8


DUGONGS AND MANATEES DUGONG

most of the

range. The dugong's closest relative,

its

enormous

extinct,

Steller's

sea cow,

in

throughout

their range, the

enforce, and Lacking hind iimbs,

dugongs do not come ashore, but

whoie

spend

iives in

water. The taii

propuision

their

shaiiow is

used for

and the

fiippers for steering

illegal killing

occurs. Today the seas

now law

is

difficult

undoubtedly

coast of Australia and the island of

Guinea

to a

stronghold. But even here the animals are not entirely safe.

About 1,200 dugongs

each year under a system that licenses

and

people to catch them using traditional

methods

local

— mostly nets or harpoons. Such

hunting

is

strictly

monitored, since even a

limited take

might be too much. It

'

their thick skin

is

The huge,

and bristle-studded

image of

traditional

cumbersome

a

lips

are far

mermaid! But

a certain gracefulness, their

bulk being buoyed up by the

waters. They are also

animals

with

fat creatures,

among

the most curious

the sea, approaching divers and

in

small boats, apparently attracted by unusual

sounds. However, dugongs can see and hear well,

and

will

disappear rapidly

if

disturbed.

are killed

front

“waiking" on the seabed.

to

still

New

dugong has

sailors.

dugongs have

protected

between the northern

are the closest thing the

based on sightings of dugongs by

is

from the

the 18th century.

Although dugongs are

(siren)

homesick

already

having suffered similarly from excessive

hunting

ÂŽ

is

said that the

legendary mermaid

No

Home

Place Like

Sometimes dugongs undertake long journeys of hundreds of

miles,

perhaps checking out

feeding areas. Mostly they stay general area and within a

in

the

may spend much

few square

new

same

of their

miles, provided there

life

is

plenty of suitable food.

Females sometimes take up to 17 years to reach breeding age and produce only one often with

more than

five years

between

calf,

births.

Populations are therefore slow to build and

cannot cope with heavy

losses.

dugongs remain with

two

years before

their

Young mother

becoming

for

fully

independent, but often stay

nearby as part of an

extended family group.


WHALES AND DOLPHINS hales, dolphins,

a

and porpoises

major group of

all

mammals known

went back

as

cetaceans The word cetacean comes from the Greek

word

ketos,

of whales, their eerie

the basis for

meaning "whale." The great

calls,

and mysterious

many legends about

lifestyles

size

were

sea monsters. Today

whales are popular animals, especially because of social

Cetaceans have evolved from land mammals that

belong to

their

behavior and highly developed intelligence.

to

features that

live in

make them

example, they breathe milk,

years they have

become

an adult human, but the blue whale

weighing

at least

Up

to

is

truly the

100 feet (30 m) long and

102 to 136 tons (90 to 120 tonnes),

blue whales are the largest animals the earth has ever seen.

Newborn

Yet over millions of

hairs.

superbly adapted to aquatic

life.

now found

in

every ocean of the world from the equator to the poles.

A

fresh water.

live in

There are over 80 species of whales, dolphins, and

cetaceans are large. Even the smallest dolphins are the

giant of the sea.

few

a

For

young feed on mother's

their

air,

mammals.

They have been so successful that they are

Giants of the Sea

size of

recognizable as

and they even have

few cetaceans even

All

the sea, but they have kept key

blues are as big as elephants, while adults

porpoises. Biologists divide

them

two groups:

into

toothed (Odontoceti) and baleen whales

The

(Mysticeti).

toothed whales are hunters and the largest group, with

about 70 species. Most eat

fish or squid,

octopus and other mollusks, such as turtles,

and

seals.

Some even

but

some

eat

shellfish, crabs,

eat other cetaceans. The 12

species of baleen whales are the "gentle giants" of the

Š Baleen whales vary greatly the

pygmy

other there

right

is

in size.

whale measuring 16

the blue whale

(2)

At one end of the scale there

to

20 feet

(5 to 6

m) long

at 80 to 100 feet (24 to 50

m)

(1).

Is

At the

long.


Who among

Who's

the Cetaceans?

ORDER: Cetacea Suborder: Odontoceti

—toothed whales: at

—sperm whale;

Family: Physeteridae

72 species

least

species

1

in

10 families

in

genus

1

(Physeter catodon)

—pygmy sperm whales: 2

Family: Kogiidae

(Kogia breviceps)-, dwarf sperm whale

Family: Ziphiidae

— beaked whales: at

pygmy sperm whale

species,

simus)

{K.

least

20 species

6 genera, including

in

northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus)

Family: Monodontidae

— beluga and narwhal: 2 species

(Monodon monoceros): nanwhal (Delphinapterus Family: Phocoenidae

porpoises; 6 species

in

2 genera, beluga

leucas)

3 genera, including harbor

in

porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

Family: Delphinidae

common

— dolphins;

dolphin (Delphinus

36 species

at least

in

17 genera, including

white-sided dolphin

delphis)-, Pacific

(Lagenorhynchus obliquidensY, bottlenose dolphin {Tursiops truncatus)] spinner dolphin {Stenella longirostris)] long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas):

killer

whale {Ordnus orca)

Family: Platanistidae

river dolphins: 2 species in

(Platanista gangetica): Indus dolphin

Family: Lipotidae— Yangtze

{P.

Ganges dolphin

2 genera,

minor)

river dolphin:

species

1

genus

in 1

{Lipotes vexillifer)

Family: Iniidae

—Amazon dolphin: species genus geoffrensis) dolphin; species genus —

{Pontoporia

in

1

Family: Pontoporiidae

La Plata

{Inia

1

in

1

1

blainvillei)

Suborder: Mysticeti— baleen whales: 13 species Family: Eschrichtiidae

gray whale:

1

species

in

in

4

families:

genus

1

(Eschrichtius robustus)

Family: Balaenopteridae

rorquals:

8 species

in

whale {Balaenoptera musculus): minke whale

®

Family: Balaenidae

Some people argue

under

stress.

Family: Neobalaenidae

— pygmy

right

right whale:

whale {Eubalaena 1

species

in

1

krill

size,

they feed on tiny prey

(shrimplike animals), plankton, or shoals of small fish.

They have no teeth to hold and chew food. Instead, their prey

is

sieved from the water by rows of curtainlike plates

called baleen that

mouth.

Stiff like

up to 10 feet

(3

hang from the roof of the whale's

our

own

fingernails, the

m) long. They hang

more, each with a

in

horny plates are

rows of 100 or

bristly fringe of hairs.

capacity as the rorquals. They feed by

with their

parted, so that water can pass through the

lips

They are called

right

whales because they were once

considered the "right" whales to catch: They were easy to

and

large profits could

Whales evolved from

whose name comes

from the Old Norse for "grooved whale." The grooves are pleats of skin that allow the throat to in

huge volumes of water. After

The blue whale

can take up to 2,450 cubic feet (70 m3) of water gulp.

Its

giant tongue pushes each mouthful

baleen plates, which Right whales

filter

as

in

one

between the

out morsels for swallowing.

do not have the same massive gulping

their baleen.

four-legged land

DNA

analysis have

shown

that the closest living relatives of whales are the even-

toed ungulates such as

cattle,

expand to take

use, the pleats contract

to restore the whale's streamlined shape.

be made from

furry,

mammals. Techniques such

Baleen whales include the rorquals,

slowly

long baleen plates that hang from their huge upper jaws.

kill,

Expandable Throats

swimming

0

The baleen of the bottom-

much

feeding gray whale

is

and heavier than

surface

feeders.

in

shorter filter

The whale plows through

sediment using

its

baleen to pick up

crustaceans, worms,

and

mollusks.

sheep, and camels.

bowhead

gladalis)

genus

(Caperea marginata)

group. Despite their huge

humpback

right whales: 3 species in 2 genera, including

whale {Balaena mysticetus): southern that daily interaction with the public places the animals

acutorostrata):

whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)

Marine parks justify keeping whales, such as the areas above, on the

grounds of scientific research and public education.

2 genera, including blue

(B.


The

earliest

whale

million years old.

fossils

found so

far are

Such animals are called archaeocetes,

meaning "ancient whales." They swam seas of the Eocene period a

become

dinosaurs had that

about 50

mammals were

few

extinct.

It

in

skeleton too. Because water

the shallow

life in

during the Cretaceous period.

It

this

time

and spongy. Hindlimbs have been

fairly

well adapted to first

furry,

took to

water, an aquatic

how "lumpy"

compared with

a dolphin).

that

would cause

^ucked away almost

all

in

pockets

and rubbery, offering

in

would be

a

A

problem when swimming

long,

bendy neck

at speed, so the

like

efficiently

through

the skin. The skin

mammal

is

breathing

air.

Cetaceans cannot breathe

blowhole (the cetacean equivalent of

is

has

nostrils)

on the top

of the head. Toothed whales have a single blowhole,

protrusions

itself

most whales and

through their mouth. Instead, they breathe through the

Cetaceans have evolved a lost external

that

Probably the biggest challenge for an aquatic

its

streamlined (think

the cheetah

means

dolphins cannot turn their heads from side to side.

lost

and has become smooth, tough,

little

of supporting the animal's weight.

into a single bone. That

a dog-sized

drag. Even their genitals and nipples are

traces of hair

and the forelimbs

was probably

move

smooth torpedo shape and have

light

neck bones of most cetaceans have contracted and fused

mammal must be

even a creature

become

millions of years before,

cetacean's body differs from that of

four-footed ancestors. To

lost,

to be as strong

have become flippers for steering and swimming instead

animal from an extinct group called the mesonychids.

A modern

do not need

as those of land animals. Instead, they have

the ocean, so the furry ancestor that

many

at supporting a

was around

rapidly taking over the land (a

the water must have lived

good

the

body's weight, whale bones

whales were already

early

is

in

million years after the

process that started about 70 million years ago).

The

There have been major changes

resistance to the flow of water.

while baleen whales have two, side by side. With

blowhole on the top of

its

head, a whale can take

lungful of air without any other part of the

the surface of the water.

were much

In

its

in

a

body breaking

the early whales blowholes

closer to the front of the face, like nostrils.

56

'•

f'S'''


WHALES AND DOLPHINS

comes out

as tiny bubbles that can be lethal (a condition

that divers

call

whale's lungs

"the bends"). To avoid the problem, a

will

collapse at great depths, squeezing air

back into the windpipe. Air

not absorbed into the body,

is

and the amount of gas that reaches the blood Studying the natural behavior of cetaceans

and

we know

little

about

their

complex

lives.

reduced.

is

Most

sociable animals, coming together

cetaceans are

difficult,

is

in

of the

groups

for feeding, courtship, or play. Even individuals that are

many

miles apart

may

actually be part of a social group,

communicating with each other through sounds that Cetaceans also

carry long distances underwater.

communicate using body language and even touch, often stroking each other with their flippers.

Behavior that can be observed from above the water includes breaching

(when the whale leaps out of the

Whale Watching the coloration of these Atlantic spotted

them from predators.

dolphins, hiding

They have moved to the top of the head as an evolutionary adaptation to a

more

efficient

T

water.

local

trips.

Warm

Water absorbs a a

warm body

aquatic

in

lot

of heat from a body, often rapidly, so

water soon cools down. Warm-blooded to

keep

their

body temperature

constant at about 97° to 99°F (36° to 37°C). To help

body

fat or

loss,

most cetaceans have

keep a large body

is

a thick layer of

warm

also important:

It

is

a profit

now

is

a thriving industry.

from people appreciating the animals

is

States the whale-watching industry

year and

is still

growing.

whales are worth

far

In

In

one

to be so huge.

Whales have mastered even the most extreme aquatic

—the deep ocean. A sperm whale has been

Many

more

is

In

alive

than dead.

It

their

an important

is

St.

Lawrence

many

River,

parts of

Massachusetts

Bahamas, and the Caribbean. There are also

Alaska to California, as

on

billion a

survival.

excellent whale-watching sites

coastline

the United

worth over $1

North America whales can be seen from

coast, Florida, the

all

along the West Coast from

humpback and gray whales

annual migration routes.

In British

follow the

Columbia

dramatic sightings of orcas are almost guaranteed, while Baja

one of the most important areas

recorded diving to 6,560 feet (2,000 m), equivalent to the

California

height of the tallest of the Appalachian mountains. At

whales and one of the few places that whale watchers are

such depths, where the pressure of the water greater than atmospheric pressure dissolves

in

blood.

When

on

is

200 times

their

in

contrast to the past, today's big

the East Coast, including the

easier to

than a small body, which

why some whales have grown

environment

Whale watching

guarantee of their future

blubber just under the skin as insulation

against cold water. Size

reason

the world where whales and

natural environment, rather than killing them.

mammals need

combat heat

in

communities that a few decades ago depended on whaling

now make Keeping

places

dolphins can be seen, either from lookout points on land or

on boat

life in

many

here are

is

in

the world for

to glimpse the huge blue whale.

land, nitrogen gas

the animal resurfaces, the gas

57

likely


SEA

MAMMALS

water to land with a huge

splash), flipper-slapping,

lobtailing (slapping the

onto the water). Some of

may be

these behaviors or they

may be

tail

show

a

for

communication or

signaling,

of strength during courtship or a

challenge. Alternatively, they could be to herd

remove

and

fish,

parasites, or just for fun!

many examples

There are

members. Sperm whales injured animal to protect

whales,

one of

if

breathe, others

Sound

will

it

from shark attacks.

group

their

lift it

is

too

weak

water than

and

in air,

for hunting, navigating,

it

many

In

swim up

to

to

to the surface.

travels better in

whales have mastered

of whales protecting group

gather around a young or

will

all

and

communicating. Low-frequency ("deep-throated") sound travels long distances underwater.

baleen whales

may

Š A humpback whale

The low moans of

thousands of miles and

travel for

reach across entire oceans. Dolphins use higher-pitched whistles, squeaks,

whale

is

and

188 decibels

it

is

made by any

louder than a passing

At

living thing.

in

the species

flipper

onto the surface of the water.

and may be used

is

a

common

for communication.

worldwide,

it

only

is

in

the

last

100 years that commercial

hunting has seriously affected whale numbers. The

jet plane.

— dolphins, — use higher-pitched whistles, squeaks, and

Most of the toothed whales example

behavior

its

lobtailing, flipper-slapping

The whistle of the blue

clicks.

the loudest noise

slaps

Along with breaching and

invention of an exploding harpoon fired from a cannon

for

clicks

meant

that whales could be killed

more

easily,

even the

for echolocation. Like bats, they emit an intense burst of

largest species.

From the 1920s factory ships were used to

sound and from the patterns of noises that bounce back

harvest whales

in

they can build up an accurate "picture" of their

meant

surroundings and the movements of their prey.

for processing.

each

Whale Products In

valuable products. Oil from blubber

burning

in

lamps, and special

sperm whale made

oil

was used

and the

bristles

brooms and brushes.

along

Now

products, but whales are

from the head of the

its

and

ladies'

edges were made

into

there are alternatives for whale

still

killed for their

Whales have been hunted originally

Many thousands

for

of whales

were targeted

until

became

rarer,

they too

industry,

meat.

thousands of years,

from land or from small boats using hand-held

and

large

of whaling ships

were based

convenient ports, such as San Francisco and Boston.

But the annual

58

numbers

toll

was probably only

a

killed

the smaller species

became

scarce.

Saving the Whale Campaigns by environmental organizations raised

awareness of the problems of

overhunting and the cruelty involved, and led to a

worldwide ban on whale

hunting

in

still

being

1986. However, whales ar killed;

some

in

defiance of

the ban, others through a loophole

harpoons. By the 1800s whaling had become a major

at

were

Large whales were hunted to the point of

for

a high-grade lubricant for clocks

other delicate machinery. Baleen was used for corsets,

year.

extinction; as they

the days before plastics and petroleum whales provided

many

the open oceans of the Antarctic, which

that the catch no longer had to be brought ashore

few thousand

0

The

lifeless

body of a gray whale, washed

up on a beach after

it

discarded fishing net.

was ensnared

in a

g:


WHALES AND DOLPHINS

that allows killing for "scientific" purposes. After tissue

samples and measurements are taken, the meat in

demand

for

whale meat.

allowed to be in

is

sold to

Japan and other parts of the world, fueling the

markets

killed

A

small

protected here, and trade like

many

all

whales are

in their

products

strictly illegal.

is

other animals at the top of the

food chain, are particularly sensitive to pollution. Everincreasing

amounts

debris are

dumped

toxic that they

may cause

into the sea.

Some

liver

now many whale and human

for millions of years,

A few

whales are kept

enabling large numbers of people to learn more

in

popular of

the wild. Whales are all

living creatures,

extraordinary intelligence and

now one

of the

with a ship or entanglement

most

collision

become stranded

all

at once.

Nobody knows why

strandings occur on particular beaches

water

is

unexpectedly shallow.

where the

such cases the

In

instances of mass strandings

it

tide. In

appears that

the whales' strong social bonds are their downfall,

group members are unwilling to leave

distressed, sick, or injured animal.

end up

in

As

a

a result, they

trouble together. Sometimes the

individuals have

been found to be

ill,

with

injuries,

heavy parasite infestations, virus infections, or high

respected for their

levels of toxic pollutants in their bodies.

swimming

alive,

abilities.

in

However, occasionally large groups

whales get stranded together. Every so often

since in

about them and get closer to them than would ever be possible

— perhaps victims of an accident,

such as

some

dolphin populations are

actions.

up on beaches. Sometimes such strandings are

of single animals

whales may have been caught by a receding

hormone

and brain damage.

Whales have ruled the oceans

captivity,

plastic

pollutants are so

years of suffering by changing

threatened by

and

cause death directly and quickly. Others

balances and causing

but

oil,

ead or dying cetaceans are occasionally washed

D

fishing nets.

of industrial waste, untreated sewage,

agricultural chemicals, radioactive waste,

Strandings

of whales are

as part of traditional hunting activities

North America; otherwise,

Cetaceans,

number

If

they are

stranded cetaceans need urgent professional

attention, especially since gravity

make

it

on land the

difficult for

them

effects of

to breathe.

Dead

animals should also be reported, since postmortem studies can reveal important scientific information.

111 .

'

-

<-A-‘

.


SEA

MAMMALS

Amazon Inia geoffrensis

Common name Amazon Scientific

name

Inia

Iniidae

Order

Cetacea

Size

Length: male 6.5-9

and most

the iargest

is

ft

(2-2.7 m); female

ft

Most

m)

(1.5-2. 3

Weight 190-285 Key features Large

lb

their

(86-129 kg)

dolphin; ridge along back, no dorsal

and

large flippers

flukes; long, slightly

tail

curved snout, small eyes, bulging cheeks and

dolphins

whole

live in

few spend

the sea, but a

of the world's largest tropical rivers.

Amazon

dolphin

river

some

fresh water, inhabiting

lives in

found

is

in

The

the great

river

systems of South America: the Orinoco Basin

forehead; variable color: can be bluish-gray,

(Venezuela), Madeira Basin (Bolivia), and the

younger animals are gray

pink, or whitish;

Amazon groups; most active

in

early

morning or

to

in

Amazon

down; sometimes jumps up

side or upside

40

what the Guaryo

late

swimming

afternoon; slow swimmer, often

(100 cm) into

air;

just

forehead and blowhole; makes short dives of

30-40 seconds Single calf born

at at

1

about 8

May

years.

up to 30

Breathes out

in

in

1

after

months.

Mostly

fish;

live

at least

20 years

the wild

Rivers

some

ft (1 .8

it.

muddy, but also

flooding.

The waters can

When

liable to

seasonal

by 10 feet (3.5 m),

rise

swim out

the water

into the

drops

level

again, the dolphins can get trapped

in

when

fish

in

pools.

If

trapped with them, the until

the next flood,

they escape back to the main

Adaptations for River Amazon

dolphins have

muddy

forests

in

Amazon and Orinoco

their eyesight

systems

Population:

in

enough

there are

river.

m)

crustaceans, including

and flooded

Distribution South America river

call

water. The wide rivers of South America

dolphins usually survive

crabs; also small turtles

Status

is

slow-moving,

live in

are often

flooded forests.

Weaned

long, slow sigh; spray

sometimes reaches 6

Habitat

Inia,

year or more; probably sexually mature

captivity,

Diet

muddy

Indians of Bolivia

dolphins

allowing the dolphins to

May-September

gestation period of 10-1

Voice

name,

occasionally puts

whole head out of water, but mostly

Breeding

itself (Brazil). Its scientific

Lives alone, in pairs, or occasionally small

on

rivers. is

Life

many adaptations

to

life

Their eyes are small, although

some

probably adeguate (unlike

species of river dolphin, which are blind).

unknown, probably

a

thousand; lUCN Vulnerable; CITES

few II.

However,

their bulging

downward

vision,

cheeks impede their

which

is

probably

why

they

Threatened and becoming scarce are often seen

swimming on

upside down. Eyes are not

muddy

their sides or

much

use

water, so the dolphins' main

navigating and finding food

is

in

even

the

way

of

through

echolocation. They send out bursts of sound

underwater that bounce back shoals of

fish,

They also use

helping

SEE ALSO

Dolphin,

Common

them

off obstacles

and

locate their prey.

their sense of touch: Their long

and the

flippers feel for the

bottom

long beak has

sensory hairs that grope

stiff,

around for prey

60

it is

threatened by deveiopments aiong the river banks.

7.5

Habits

often

seen of the five river doiphins. Like the others,

geoffrensis

Family

fin;

The Amazon dolphin

dolphin (boto, pink dolphi n)

in

of the

the soft mud.

3:68; Dolphin, Pacific White-Sided 3:70

river,


River Dolphins of the Unlike most other cetaceans, the neck

Amazon

bones of

single piece.

As a

dolphins are not joined

twisting

and turning through the dense tree trunks and

cetaceans, teeth.

Those

in

dolphins have

In

two types

of

the front half of the jaw are

pointed and conical as

in

like

other toothed whales.

molars. These

used to crush tougher catfish, crabs,

prey,

flat

rivers

Yangtze

(R minor),

(Pontoporia

river

blainvillei),

sonar to detect ancestor.

the back of the jaw the teeth are flattened

and look more

across the world from South America to

Uruguay. They are

vegetation of a flooded forest. Uniquely for

Amazon

D

olphins are usually thought of as ocean creatures, but

and even small

It

is

all

prey.

more

dolphin {Lipotes

which

river

proximity to

and

likely

humans. Despite

similarities,

dolphins

became adapted

came about

they

and many

may

all

teeth,

evolved

life.

in

some

river

systems

—the —are also seriously

tropical forests

The likenesses

in similar

conditions.

drowned

parts for their

making the eroding

rivers

soils.

flow more

Dams

erratically

It

also

pollution.

They are more

at risk than other

cetaceans because rivers

and

block off the dolphins'

navigation routes, so small groups

© River dolphins are highly susceptible to

damages food

chains that support the dolphins' prey.

become

Such groups are vulnerable to

tend to be more polluted than open seas. The dolphins also

come

into

contact with sewage and

isolated.

charms. They are also hunted for meat and

extinction. Drainage for agriculture reduces

pollutants from factories

navigable waterways and can be lethal

and gold mines.

in

commercial fishing

oil,

nets.

if

it

ail

use

different parts

eyes and sex organs, which are valued as love

and can get trapped

and

common

not share a

to freshwater

as they

destroys the "sponge" effect of the trees,

local beliefs that

dolphins harbor the souls of in

La Plata dolphin

that different species of marine dolphins

threatened. The removal of trees

species, river dolphins

people, they are hunted

and the

turtles.

everywhere are threatened by their close

Amazon

vexillifer),

teeth are

dolphin populations are

more secure than some

freshwater

and China. The

the Plate River between Argentina and

small dolphins with a long snout

of the world independently

between the

lives in

Despite their

The dolphins' habitat

Amazon

live in

such as armored

Problems with People Although

some

India, Pakistan,

other species are the Ganges dolphin {Platanista gangetica), Indus dolphin

they can turn their

result,

them catch prey when

heads, helping

a

in

World

emnties the doinhins' seasonal flood nools.

61


SEA

MAMMALS

Whale/

Killer

Orca Common name

Killer

whale

(orca)

member of the

The largest Scientific

Orcinus orca

name

dolphin family, the killer

Orcinus orca

whale (or orca) Family

Delphinidae

Order

Cetacea

the top sea predator.

is

Hunting

in

groups, orcas will even attack giant blue whales. Length: male 17-29.5

Size

ft

(5.2-9 m); female 15-25.5 ft (4.

whales are one of the most recognizable

Killer

5-7, 7 m)

cetaceans, familiar from their antics

and

bodies Striking black-and-white markings;

belly,

high

Habits

triangular dorsal

and gray saddle

in

fin,

up to 6

(56 km/h)

From

tail

fin. In

Social, living in a tight-knit family

6 feet

(1 .8

group or

swimmer; acrobatic and

tail

at the

a

gestation period of 17 months.

Weaned

14-18 months; sexually mature

at

Males may

up to 90 years

more than Voice

a

in

live

35-60

most recognizable

a

m)

is

the

mature male

it

can be up to

—the height of

tall

fin

is

triangular

tall,

a

man.

only half as

more curved shape. The

tall

In

and has

flippers are also

large, especially in males. Killer

whales have 20

at

12-16

years, females

the wild; rarely survives

few years

whale

killer

females the dorsal

slap

Single calf born about every 8 years after

years.

the

in

fast as a racehorse.

a distance the

feature of a dorsal

"pod";

Breeding

—almost as

black on top, white on underside

surface, will breach, spy-hop,

mammal

35 miles per hour

m)

ft (1 .8

male; broad, rounded flippers;

fast, active

fastest

sea, with sprints recorded at

patch; head rounded with no obvious snout; tall,

make them the

body

mainly black with white patch behind eye,

white cheeks and

with characteristic

black-and-white markings. Their muscular

3-10 tons (2.5-9 tonnes)

Key features

captivity

the Free Willy movies. They are very

in

large, heavily built dolphins

Weight

in

to

26 sharp teeth

in

both the top and bottom

jaws. The teeth are pointed, conical, and each

When

up to

2 inches (5

close,

they interlock perfectly, clamping

cm) long.

is

the jaws

in captivity

Varied, including complex, often pulsed, calls

other prey

in a

and

fish

vicelike grip.

Ssmall fish and squid to seals, turtles,

Diet

seabirds,

Habitat

Open

and even other whales

Not So Deadly

sea to coastal waters; estuaries; often

around

ice floes in polar

Distribution Every ocean

in

Killer

whales are formidable hunters and gained

their

name from

waters

the world, from polar regions

them

18th-century whalers

who saw

attack other whales and believed that

to equator

they would also eat humans. This belief lasted Status

Population: 100,000;

lUCN Lower

conservation dependent; CITES

II.

Risk:

Widespread

and quite numerous

the 1960s,

until

whales more

when people began

closely.

Despite their reputation,

there are no records of killed

by a

killer

the more kindly Killer

to study

humans

whale, so

name

ever being

some people

prefer

of "orca."

whales are one of the most widely

distributed animals

in

the world. They

live in

every ocean and have adapted to both the

icy

conditions of the Antarctic and the warm, equatorial seas. However, individuals

do not

appear to migrate between them as some

62

SEE ALSO

Dolphin, Pacific White-Sided 3:70


of

One

cold, polar waters.

see orcas

de Fuca Killer

whales are the

top sea predators. They

and eat almost

will catch

any type of prey— from seals

and

turtles to other

common

whale do. They are more

the wild

in

of the best places to

the waters of the Juan

is

and San Juan

Strait

between

Islands

Washington State and Vancouver

Island, British

Columbia, Canada. Killer

whales

identified,

live in social

groups known as

one mature male,

several

whale have been

killer

each with different

There are residents, transients

social habits. (or

and offshore animals. Residents stay

relatively small

in

large

home

and

range. They tend

communicating to each other

to be very noisy,

with frequent

calls.

They hunt using

echolocation and feed mainly on

mature

wanderers),

family pods, usually of five to 25 animals,

have a

"pods." These consist of up to 50 animals, usually

Three types of

in

fish

and squid.

/

young

They are

one to

whales. However, they

females, and

tend to feed on locally

stable, tightly knit groups, with animals staying

seven animals. They roam over a wide area and

abundant resources and

with the same pod for their whole

are quieter, using stealth to hunt sea

this

of both sexes.

life.

such as

can affect hunting

techniques

body

and even

size in different

parts of their range.

Transient orcas

Group

Dialects

Animals

in a

calls,

some

which may serve to

identify the

group to other pods. Each pod has a

distinct

The

dialects are so distinctive

that by listening to the

researcher can

tell

seals, sea lions,

mammals

and other dolphins.

calls,

even a

human

which pod an animal

open

sea,

much

farther

and probably eat mainly in

large groups of

away from the fish.

is

from.

Killer

whales

in

the

coast,

They seem to stay

25 or more, communicating

with each other frequently and

dialect, using a characteristic pattern of

repetitive sounds.

smaller pods with

Offshore orcas spend most of their time

pod communicate with complex

of

live in

will

noisily.

catch and eat almost any

type of prey. They have been recorded eating over 100 species of animal, more than any

63


SEA

MAMMALS

Other cetacean. As well as will

and squid, they

fish

eat seals, dugongs, turtles, penguins, gulls,

and even other whales more than 10 times their size.

When

They hunt cooperatively

lips

and tongue.

in

a team, like a

herd salmon

by making noisy

and slapping flippers

calls

Killer

whales are

coast of Patagonia,

social animals that live in

Argentina, snatches a sea

tightly knit

lion for its meal.

known

A

groups

as "pods."

killer

whale pod

surfacing in Canada.

Often the whales will

work together

to

hunt

prey, such as salmon,

trapping shoals between the

64

SEE ALSO

pod and

Wolf, Gray 2:54

the shore.

ice for seals.

killer

of

whale's

and

watched

First,

it,

the whole group

then

all

a

group of

they spotted

few

swam

slid off

whales could catch

it

wave

to

rapidly

it.

ice.

wash over the

at such a sharp angle

into the sea

^

,

together dived under the

loose ice floe, tipping that the seal

When

carefully for a

it

Their dive caused a big

one

antarctic waters

whales, their heads poking out of the water,

frightened bunch

where the

-

>

-

:

Such an example of

cooperative behavior suggests that

killer

whales

v

are very intelligent creatures, capable of

;

the whales go to

problem solving and coordinating

e

great lengths to catch

as a

favorite foods,

0

researcher

toward

the

whale off the

A

fish in a tight,

sea lions are

in

have been known to hunt seals by tipping them off ice floes.

minutes.

eat them. Seals and

killer

whales

surface, trapping the

to

(

whales launch

Then, using their front

one, they watched

in

killer

they wriggle back into the sea to eat

flippers,

scanning the

their

on the

before lunging

A

Ocean

and on the Crozier

themselves onto the beach to seize baby sea

their victim. Killer

catch different prey. will

parts of Argentina

In

lions resting there.

wolf pack, and use different techniques to

They

water:

Islands in the Indian

they attack large whales, they

tend to bite pieces off their

them. Prey animals are not even safe out of the

group for the benefit of

all.

their actions

3


WHALES AND DOLPHINS

Killer

interference causes

species of whale,

many

deaths.

whales are hunted, although in

the past.

In

so

less

human

Some

Studying

killer

now

killed

5,537

killer

whales.

A few

have also been caught for exhibition aquaria

in

O

most

killer

whales only

live

for a

rcas in the

waters around Vancouver Island

Canada, have been studied

Some have

for

many

years. Individual animals

distinctive nicks

and scars on

their bodies.

recognized. By following particular animals from birth, recording their family histories, habits, and interactions with other orcas, researchers are learning

more and more about the complex

Salmon Stealing

fishermen,

who

will

conflict with

sometimes

kill

them

if

they

Other threats include boat

believe that they are taking valuable fish. In

Alaska

salmon

killer

whales have learned to

directly

from fishing hooks.

steal Fish

farms

can also cause problems. Intensively farmed fish are a source of diseases,

and pesticides used to

control fish lice can get into the

fins.

The shape of

the gray saddle marking often varies, enabling individuals to be

previously misunderstood creatures.

whales also come into

Columbia,

in

spectacle for millions of visitors each year.

Killer

in British

few

but offer a fascinating and educational

years,

Whales

can be identified by the different shapes and sizes of their dorsal

orcas

major

—over 150 since the 1960s. Once

captivity,

Killer

than

the years between 1938 and

1981 Japanese, Norwegian, and Russian

whalers

WHALE/ORCA

whales have no natural predators; but

many other

as with

KILLER

food chain.

traffic

is

and

killer

whale

also particularly vulnerable to pollution,

which

underwater noise from engines. The

affects

its

prey and can lead to the

accumulation of dangerous substances whales'

own body

tissues.

in

the

lives

of these


SEA

F

MAMMALS

Long-Finned

Whale

Pilot

One of the most

Globicephala melas

sociable whales, long-finned pilot

whales are always found

groups. Because they stick

in

mass

together, they are susceptible to

Common name Scientific

name

Long-finned

pilot

hunters find

whale

easy

it

to kill

them

in large

Globicephala melas if

—the long-

Family

Delphinidae

There are

Order

Cetacea

finned and short-finned. Both look very similar:

Size

Length: male 13-25

whale

species of pilot

medium-sized whales with a bulging

black,

(4-7.6 m); female

ft

two

forehead and a distinctive wide dorsal scientific

name

The

fin.

of the long-finned pilot whale,

Globicephala melas, means "black round-

female about 1-2 tons (0.9-1

Key features Medium-sized

.8

tonnes)

dolphin; black, dark-brown,

or gray-black, sometimes with gray markings

behind eye, on chin, and behind dorsal

fin;

head."

One

apart

the length of their pectoral

is

few ways

of the

the

two

two

of telling the fins,

or

However,

flippers. Their teeth are also different.

species are rarely confused, since they

do not tend

to be

Long-finned

pilot

found

in

the

same

place.

rounded head with bulging forehead; dorsal fin

wide, thick, curved back, and set toward

front of body; flippers long

be up to Habits

25%

of

and pointed: can

body length

Highly social: swims slowly

in

water, but

Breeding

One

calf

lifts tail

rarely leaps

in

from

born per year after gestation period

of 15 months.

at 2 years; sexually

mature at

live

over 60 years

Diet

Mainly squid;

Habitat

Offshore, prefers deep water; occasionally

as

comes

establish

10 to 50 animals, but

into coastal or shallow waters to feed

waters of

Widespread and

fairly

in

groups, sometimes

some herds can number

several hundred. There are usually

shoaling fish

all

seas

Southern Hemisphere Status

whales are highly sociable.

bottlenose dolphins. Groups usually consist of

and whistles

all

tropical waters.

keeping company with other cetaceans such as

Clicks

Distribution North Atlantic and

pilot

They are always found

Voice

some

warmer

Keeping Company Long-finned

above surface

Weaned 8 years. May

of temperate to subpolar regions, while the

large groups;

often seen "logging" or lying horizontally

water apparently asleep;

whales prefer the cool waters

short-finned prefer

in

many females

about twice

as males. Males have to

dominance

for mating rights,

common

and

their

scarred bodies are evidence of such contests.

Groups swim slowly and often

travel in

formation, with bands of animals moving

in

long lines abreast of each other and separated

by a few feet. The arrangement probably

maximizes their chances of spotting

main food mackerel,

is

prey. Their

small squid, but they also like

whose

seasonally. Pilot

shoals they follow around

whales

will dive for

food. Each

dive lasts about 10 minutes. They usually dive

down about 100

to

200

feet (30 to

60 m), but

deeper dives can reach 2,000 feet (600 m).

66

SEE ALSO

Dolphin, Bottlenose 3:72

strandings,

numbers.

and


WHALES AND DOLPHINS

Stranded

whole groups of whales toward shallow, sandy

Strandings on sandy beaches probably occur

bays.

more frequently

ashore with

than

in

long-finned pilot whales

any other type of whale.

in

Pilot

whales

to

pilot

shorelines than

more

often than other types.

Mass strandings

may be

a result of the whales'

tight-knit society,

which

whales are

some

particularly

All

and

called gaffs

the animals are

killed,

including

If

one whale

needs help, the others may follow, and

means they stay together

whales are spotted

despite the risks.

converge shore.

in

Men

Iceland.

but

in

hunt

When

some

years the

peaking at 4,325

is

kill

the

off the coast, the islanders

pilot

whales

Is

much

year,

larger,

1941

in

so far been Ignored. The islanders justify the

and the meat

the

and

about 1,200 per

by saying that is

is

it

a long-standing tradition,

much-needed source

a

protein. Recently, scientists

in

years,

International pleas to stop the killing have

all

Faroe Islands, a Danish territory situated

between Scotland and

have died. The average

cull

Every year hundreds of long-finned pilot killed in a traditional

hundreds of

then over 250,000 long-finned

and

stuck as the tide goes out.

whales are

for

continuous records date back to 1709. Since

will stick

into dangerously shallow waters

become

prone

their tight social

which the group

together whatever the hazard.

swims

in

around Cape Cod.

mass strandings because of

structure, within

into difficulties

hooks

steel

been staged

Long-finned

The species seems to get

slaughtered.

whales are dragged

become more confused around

Strandings are especially frequent

pilot

there, the

pregnant females and calves. The hunt has

coastal areas, for example,

whales on a beach.

Once

normally prefer the open sea, so they probably

whales that are familiar with coastal waters.

Š Stranded long-finned

LONG-FINNED PILOT WHALE

have shown

of

that

long-finned pilot whales are very heavily

contaminated with toxic heavy metals such as mercury and other pollutants. Children born to

mothers brain

who

eat lots of whale

damage and may reduce

meat may

suffer

other health problems. Such

the appeal of whale meat for

boats to drive them toward the

risks

splash the water with oars to herd

the Faroe Islanders

in

the future.


SEA

MAMMALS

Common Dolphin Common name Common Scientific

name

dolphin

common

The

Delphinus delphis

Family

Delphinidae

boisterous,

Order

Cetacea

lives in

Size

Length: 5-6,5

ft

(1,5-2 m), Male generally

dolphin

a sociable,

and noisy cetacean

warm

the world.

is

It

that

waters throughout

has recently been

split

than female

into two different species: the Weight 155-297 Key features

lb

(70-135 kg)

long-beaked and short-beaked Fairly large

dolphin with long, slender beak;

made

common

on flanks

distinctive "hourglass" pattern

closes to a point

below

dorsal

fin,

opening up

again as a gray band and darkening toward tail;

Habits

dark back, flippers, and

The name delphinus

and Greek word

the Latin

is

creamy-

common

and the

white underside with black "chinstrap" extending from lower jaw to flippers

species that the ancient Greeks and other early

Active, acrobatic,

of usually a

Voice

fins;

for dolphin,

swimming;

Breeding

dolphins.

by a wide yellow band from head that

and noisy dolphin;

sociable: normally

found

civilizations

fast in

groups

few dozen animals

Single calf born every 1-2 years after

12-18 months;

at

sexually

May

live

kept

in captivity

about 25 years

Pulsed whistles,

mature in

5-6

Common

dolphin

warm

lives in

seas

all

at

over the world. years.

and high-pitched

On

the American side of the

they can be seen from

Pacific

the wild, rarely

down clicks,

the

paintings.

common

The

Weaned

familiar with.

is

dolphins were often depicted on their pottery

and wall

gestation period of 10 months.

were most

dolphin

to central Chile,

and

in

British

Columbia

the Atlantic from

the northeastern United States to Argentina,

squeaks Diet

Squid and shoaling

Habitat

Waters with a surface temperature of above

fish

Elaborate Markings

50°F (10°C), usually more than 600 !

1

The

ft

common

dolphin

is

streamlined body and a long, slender snout

80 m) deep

termed

(often Distribution Widespread

in

warm-temperate,

tropical,

between

and subtropical waters

The markings vary

a "beak,")

different populations of

dolphin, but are generally Status

with a

fairly large,

Population: abundant,

many

millions;

CITES

Intensive hunting in Black Sea has reduced local population. Pacific

population has

suffered as a result of being accidentally

caught by tuna

common

much more

elaborate

II,

than on any other species of whale or dolphin.

The dark cape (which can be gray, or purplish color)

is

a

brown, black,

a characteristic

fisheries

feature.

It

ends

in

a

"V"-shape below the

fin,

with a broad, yellowish band from the eye to the middle of the body. The belly

is

white and

may have another

yellowish stripe below the

main yellow band,

A

joins the yellow

colors

The

make

tail

one

gray band along the flanks in

a point. Together, the

a distinctive "hourglass" pattern.

flukes are black,

and there

is

a black

"chinstrap" stripe from the flippers to the lower jaw. There

from the

68

SEE ALSO

may

tail

Dolphin, Bottlenose 3:72; Dolphin, Spinner 3:76

also be another black stripe

area into the side of the

belly.


WHALES AND DOLPHINS COMMON

Common animals that

Group it

is

DOLPHIN

dolphins are highly sociable

travel, feed,

and sleep

in

groups.

depends on the season and whether

size

day or night.

500 animals are

In

most areas groups of 10 to

usual, but occasionally

particularly in the eastern tropical Pacific

groups can be over 2,000-strong. They have

been known to hunt cooperatively, working as a group to herd fish into a tightly packed shoal

where they

When

are easy to grab by the mouthful.

the dolphins are frightened, the group

bunches

tightly

together for defense.

Acrobatic Displays The dolphins are very acrobatic. They can often be seen jumping into the lobtailing,

ride

and

on the

air,

somersaulting,

flipper-slapping.

bow waves

They frequently

of boats or even larger

whales. They are fast swimmers, reaching

speeds of up to 27 miles per hour (43 km/h).

Groups of fast-moving dolphins tend to arch out of the water to breathe at the same time, a

known

behavior

as "porpoising."

They often

cannot be seen for the mass of foam they create.

Š

Common

dolphins are highly

and

sociable animals that travel, feed,

sleep in groups. In the Pacific groups can

number up

Common

short dives of about 10 seconds to

minutes, with a

maximum

They are one of the whales, using

to 2,000 animals.

dolphins usually only take

two

of eight minutes.

noisiest of the small

clicks for

echolocation and

squeals and high-pitched whistles for

The wide

variations

'populations of

between

common

biologists to try to divide

species.

It

is

them

now thought

probably two species of

different

dolphin have led

some

common

that there are

common

dolphin

dolphin; the

(D, capensis).

long-beaked dolphins have a

slightly

The

longer

snout and more muted colors than the short-

beaked

types, with less contrast

between the

black and yellow-white markings.

they have a

beak

flatter

In

addition,

forehead that meets the

at a shallower angle

than

in

short-beaked

dolphins. The two species can

also be told apart

biochemically by differences

their

in

(genetic molecular structure).

on boats nearby can hear them.

into distinct

short-beaked {Delphinus delphis) and the long-

beaked

communication. They are so loud that people

DNA

Fishing Net Deaths

Common illegally

dolphins are sometimes caught

by fishermen

in

Japan, South America,

and the Azores. They are

also

one of the most

frequent species caught accidentally nets. Large nets that

trapped year.

many

in

fishing

were used to catch tuna

dolphins, killing thousands every

The animals could not surface to breathe

and consequently drowned. Methods of making the nets more conspicuous to dolphins and built-in

have

escape routes for the trapped animals,

now been

introduced. Such measures

should help reduce the death

toll.

69


SEA

MAMMALS

Pacific

White-Sided Lagenorhynchus obliquidens

Pacific white-sided dolphins are boldly

and very

to identify,

acrobatic,

Common name

Pacific

making them favorites with

Delphinidae

Order

Cetacea

lively

tourists

on

and

i

-

white-sided dolphin

name Lagenorhynchus

Family

They are also

sociable.

whale-watching boat Scientific

marked, easy

trips.

obliquidens

i

I

The Pacific white-sided dolphin looks similar to several other dolphins that have a short snout

.7-2.4 m)

5. 6-7. 8 ft (1

Size Length:

or "beak" projecting

Weight 187-330

beyond

rounded

their

(85-150 kg)

lb

forehead. They might be confused with

Key features Stocky dolphin with

a short, almost

common

snout ("beak") and rounded,

invisible

backward-curving dorsal

black or dark-

fin;

gray back; thin gray stripe running along

both sides from head and curving

toward

tail,

where

opens to a wide flank

on each

patch; gray patch fins

it

down

above

side

flippers;

dark at front fading to paler at rear; belly

dolphins, which also have pale side

patches and share the same areas of ocean.

common

However,

much

dolphins have a

longer beak compared with the rounded face

and

short, almost nonexistent

Pacific

beak of the

white-sided dolphin.

white

Habits

Highly sociable dolphin, usually seen

in

large

Variable Markings

groups occasionally numbering thousands; lively

and acrobatic; curious, often coming

in

close to inspect boats

Breeding

Single calf born every 2-3 years

afte’'

gestation period of about 10-12 months.

Weaned years,

years

at

18 months; sexually mature at 10

sometimes more. May in captivity,

45

The markings on white-sided dolphins can vary

in

live

position

Clicks

color.

The back

black or dark

is

gray with a thin, pale-gray stripe running along

both sides from the head, leading to a wide, pale patch near the

tail.

There

is

also a pale-

up to 20 gray patch on each side above the flippers. The

the wild

fins are

Voice

and

dark at the front, fading to paler at the

and whistles

The dorsal

rear.

Diet

Squid and small shoaling

Habitat

Mainly offshore waters; occasionally seen

curving.

inshore

if

water

is

fin

is

rounded and backward-

fish

keep

When

they swim slowly, the dolphins

their bodies just

below the surface with

deep the dorsal

fin

pointing out of the water, making

Distribution Cool-temperate waters of the North Pacific

them appear Status

Population:

1

million;

throughout most of

CITES

its

II.

Common

rather like sharks.

The species name obliquidens means

range "slanting teeth," from the

backward toward the

way they

throat.

are angled

These backward-

pointing teeth help dolphins hold and swallow their slippery prey of squid Pacific

and small

white-sided dolphins only

cool-temperate waters of the North

where streams

of cold water flow

coastlines

sometimes come

—where there

is

live in

the

Pacific,

down from

the Arctic. They spend most of their offshore, but

fish.

lives

closer to

deeper water

to

feed at certain times of the year. They can be

70

SEE ALSO

Dolphin,

Common

3:68; Dolphin, Bottlenose 3:72; Dolphin, Spinner 3:76

J


WHALES AND DOLPHINS

seen from

Columbia (Vancouver

British

Island)

and southeastern Alaska southward to southern California

and Mexico.

Pacific

Š

Pacific

curious.

They

will

swim near boats inspect their

them or

bow

and

make them

some

firm favorite with

wake and

They are also

of boats.

will

often

Because of

come

their habits they are

They swim

whale-watching

common

waters of southern California.

close to

Pacific

popular with the coastal

trips, especially in

white-sided dolphins are hunted

small boats using hand-held harpoons.

Tourists' Favorites

watching tours off the

The dolphins are

California coast.

to love

showing

lively

off.

over 2,700 animals were

and

They

acrobatic,

will

and seem

sometimes breach

(leap high out of the

water) and perform a full

in

Japan for their meat. They are caught from

of the large baleen whales.

a

whale-

or

ride in

of the water (spy-hopping) to get a better look. in

and occasionally

dolphins, Risso's dolphins,

wave. Their

lively antics

to 2,000 animals.

with other cetaceans too, including

to

ride in

bow wave

and often

fast

boats to inspect them, poking their heads out

in

groups, often 100-strong, and sometimes

huge herds of up

often

the

They can swim

intensely curious

white-sided dolphins are highly

sociable animals. They are always seen

white-sided

dolphins are sociable

for fun.

PACIFIC WHITE-SIDED DOLPHIN

midair somersault

before landing with a splash, apparently just

are

killed;

no accurate population

known

if

1984

In

but since there

figures,

hunting on such a scale

not

is

it

threatening

is

survival of the species in that part of the world. Pacific

many

white-sided dolphins are

among

dolphins that accidentally drown

They are also caught

fishing nets.

in

for use

in

dolphinaria because of their acrobatic

and

friendly nature.

In

the

skills

the 30 years

to 1985 over 300 animals were

taken into

captivity,

third survived

but only a

more than

a year.

The "Lags" The

Pacific

group of

of a

known

white-sided dolphin

is

as "Lags," from their generic

of Lagenorhynchus. They have similar

shapes and

one

closely related dolphins

sizes, a short

name

body

beak, and are

sociable and acrobatic. They can be told

apart by differences their distribution,

teeth.

their markings,

in

and the number of

The other Lags are the white-

beaked dolphin

{L.

albirostris),

Atlantic white-sided dolphin (I.

acutus), dusky dolphin

(L obscurus),

dolphin

(/..

and hourglass crudger).

A

further related species,

Lagenodelphis hosei or Fraser's dolphin,

has a

short, stubby beak, is

thought to be a

and link

between the Lags and the

common

dolphin.

71


SEA

MAMMALS

Bottlenose

Dolphin

Tursiops truncatus

Bottlenose dolphins are highly sociai, inteiiigent Common name

Bottlenose

animais. They form ciose, cooperative friendships"

dolphin Scientific

name

Family

Delphinidae

Order

Cetacea

out

Length: 7.5-12.5

Size

with each other, and

Tursiops truncatus

(2. 3-3. 8

human

some

individuais wiii even seeic,

contact.

ft

Bohlenose dolphins are the most familiar species

m)

of small cetaceans,

made famous

by the

Weight 330-1,433

televison series Flipper.

lb

(150-650 kg)

Key features Robust dolphin with

studied of

fondness for coastal waters makes them easy to

a

wide head and body and rounded forehead; body mostly gray with a

They are the best

whales, partly because their

all

lighter or

observe, and also because they adapt to

white

They are the

captivity better than other species.

underside; color patterns are variable

dolphins most frequently seen along the shores Habits

Active, social dolphin usually seen in groups

Breeding

Single calf born every

4-5 years

gestation period of

year.

of the United States.

1

years; females sexually

males at 10-12 years. in

Voice Diet

the wild, fewer

Weaned

mature

May

after

y-

at

4-5

at 5-1 2 years,

live

up to 50 years

in captivity

High-pitched whistles and

Variable |

Bottlenoses are robust dolphins, with a short,

|

wide snout

clicks

Large variety of food, including

Body Shape

|

(or "beak"). Their size

vary widely depending fish,

the dolphins

squid,

live,

on where

and pattern

in

the world

and whether they come from

t'

octopus, cuttlefish, and mollusks

Habitat

Wide range

of habitats from

I

open water to

harbors, bays, lagoons, estuaries,

coastal or offshore waters.

the northwestern

In

Atlantic coastal dolphins tend to be smaller

and rocky

and

slimmer than their offshore counterparts. Body

reefs

size also

Distribution Widespread

in

temperate and tropical

depends on the temperature

water: Dolphins

waters

blubber to Status

Population:

unknown, perhaps hundreds

thousands; CITES

II.

A common

of the

}

colder seas need

living in

keep warm. Because

more

five of their

of I

species,

especially in particular areas

seven neck bones are not fused as

in

their

rigidly

together

other whales, they have more mobility

in

necks than most other cetaceans and thus

can nod and turn their heads. Bottlenose dolphins

temperate and

live in

tropical seas.

a

wide range of

Along the western

Atlantic coast they can be seen from to the Caribbean

side of the United States they are

the coast from

New

Panama

found along

to southern California.

Since color, markings, and healed scars

each individual

Jersey

and Panama. On the other

different,

it

make

has been possible to

keep a photographic catalog of the animals. Studies

show

that the dolphins living near the

coast return to the

72

SEE ALSO Whale, Long-Finned

Pilot 3:66;

Dolphin,

Common

3:68

same

area year after year.

#


WHALES AND DOLPHINS

Depending on

do not need

BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN

most dolphins

their habitat,

deep to catch

to dive very

food. They regularly

go down to depths of

between 10 and 150

and 46 m), holding

feet (3

their breath for eight to

10 minutes.

The bottlenose dolphins' diet They are second only to

number

their

killer

of species they eat.

is

very varied.

whales

They

the

in

take

will

fish

including sea trout, anchovies, herring, and cod,

and invertebrates such as squid, octopus, and

Under experimental conditions

large shrimp.

blindfolded dolphins are able to find

even

fish,

small ones, by using their underwater

echolocation system (or sonar). They their diet to the conditions

will

where they

adapt

and

live,

some groups have developed special feeding techniques.

the Gulf of Mexico dolphins

In

sometimes catch

large fish by flicking

of the water with their

tails.

them out

The stunned

fish

can then easily be picked up from the surface.

Social Structure Bottlenose dolphins are nearly always found groups.

coastal waters

In

group

size

is

in

usually

fewer than 20, but offshore gatherings of

hundreds are sometimes seen. Dolphins have a loose social structure, with individuals

coming

together then separating, and joining up with other dolphins. There are three main types of

© Bottlenose dolphins in a

wide range of seas, from

live

tropical

to temperate. They are often seen in captivity,

and are therefore one of the more

familiar cetaceans.

groups: The

acrobatic animals. They (9

m)

into the

and bodysurf

air,

in

will

ride the

leap up to

bow wave

offspring.

30 feet

breaking waves. Both adults

for

mixed

afield

them

bubbles

—dolphins

in

seem

captivity

vortex of water

(a bit like a

older, the

and spend time

to enjoy blowing

groups of males groups

smoke

ring).

most

will stick

leave

together

may be single sex.

animals range farther in

smaller and smaller

groups. Males eventually form strong, long-

have been seen

blowing perfect halos by trapping a bubble

Once they

young dolphins

the

term alliances with one or two other males. The

to invite other animals to play.

Bottlenose dolphins also

five years.

is

in

with their

—with males and females—or

objects such as seaweed, coral, or even

use

will stay

gangs. Such subadult groups

As they get

They carry the objects, throw them around, and

up to

their mother, in

home range where food

Young animals

and young are sometimes seen "playing" with jellyfish.

calf pairs or

Such associations tend to stay

parts of their

mother

of boats,

mother and

groups of mothers with their most recent

plentiful.

Bottlenose dolphins are very active,

first is

in a

to

in

form looser

Females

will

move between female

their range. Females,

will

alliances that are

however, tend

more

flexible.

help each other give birth to, raise.

73


SEA

MAMMALS

and teach young. They

even protect each

will

other from any unwanted male advances. Social

bonds between

swimming

individual dolphins

appear to be strong. Studies show that certain animals prefer the

company

of "friends"

and

recognize each other after long periods of

communicate

other. Physical contact

instructions to each

frequent. Dolphins

is

dolphins

in

July

In

1996

man was

a

the Red Sea with five bottlenose

when

a shark attacked him. Three of

the dolphins surrounded the slapping their fins and

Some people have

swimmer and by

flukes prevented the

tail

shark from attacking again

separation. Captive dolphins have even been trained to

shark attacks.

until

help arrived.

claimed that contact with

dolphins can trigger the healing process will

in

humans. Swimming with dolphins has been

stroke and caress each other, and contact of a

used as therapy for many conditions, including

sexual nature, including copulation,

depression, anxiety, and cancer.

used to

is

reinforce bonding. Dolphin society can also be

helped stimulate learning

very aggressive: The animals will vocalize angrily

disabilities. In

Some show

with

clicks,

their

dominance by raking others with

squawks, and pops.

their

teeth, frequently leaving extensive scars.

Bottlenose dolphins are very curious and often

swim with boats and

many

cases of dolphins staying

bathers. There are in

human

deliberately seeking out

contact. Fungi,

Bay, Ireland, since 1984,

is

one

in

of the

in

people with

parts of the world

In

Santa Catarina,

Brazil,

fishermen by driving the

dolphins help local fish

toward

their nets.

The United States Navy has trained dolphins to help with underwater mine clearance.

Dolphins are highly

intelligent.

They are

one of the few animals that have been shown

Dingle

to be self-aware

most

themselves

in

that they can recognize

The only other animals

a mirror.

in

famous. Extrafriendly dolphins are usually lone

capable of doing so are humans and great

males that appear to have no natural

apes. Trained dolphins are also able to respond

group of

their

social

own.

to at least

20

Dolphins to the Rescue There are

many

come

sailors, lifting

—

to the rescue of

them

to the surface

include tiger and bull sharks, and occasionally killer

whales

(orcas).

Humans, however, cause

their biggest problems.

There have been cases

and either helping them reach the shore or

of

keeping them afloat

Often the victims have been heavily

until

help arrives. They

have also been known to protect people from

mass deaths of dolphins from

their

dolphins are

Cooperative Fishing

immune

still

caught

They are also captured

social

animals, dolphins often hunt cooperatively.

kept In

diseases.

systems. Bottlenose in

Japan for their meat.

for use

in

Bottlenoses are the species most

expected of such intensely

viral

contaminated with pollutants that may have

damaged

yys would be

a better

most sheepdogs.

Natural predators of bottlenose dolphins

stories of dolphins helping

people. Dolphins have

drowning

commands

different

repertoire than

in captivity.

displays.

commonly

Between 1860 and 1983 more

than 2,700 were caught for exhibition

in

South Carolina and Baja California dolphins have

dolphinaria and zoos, with over 1,500 taken

learned an extraordinary

from United States waters. Dolphins are

trick to

together to herd a shoal of

Then swimming

in

catch

fish

fish close to

a tight, fast

line,

onto the beach. The dolphins then

They work

the shore.

they sweep them roll

out of the water, to grab the stranded

protected

Mammal

in

the United States by the Marine

onto the beach, fish.

@

Gregarious and intelligent, bottlenose dolphins form ties.

Individuals often appear to seek the

company of certain

SEE ALSO Whale,

now

Protection Act of 1972.

strong social

74

.

bottlenose dolphins cooperate with fishermen.

one area and

a bottlenose dolphin that has lived

some

has also

It

Killer/Orca 3:62

special "friends."



—

Stenella longirostris]

Spinner dolphins are famous for their stunning aerial displays.

Common name Scientific

name

accompany ships for long periods

Stenella longirostris

Delphinidae

Order

Cetacea

Size

Length: 5.5-8

The spinner dolphin ft

(1.7-2. 4 m); Southeast Asian

animals are smaller: about 4.5 (1.4

t

ft

100-165

lb

Few

dolphin:

many

As they

as often.

is

others

at sea.

champion leaping

the will

jump

nearly as high or

clear the water, the dolphins

m) long spin

Weight

will spin

times before landing with a great splash. They often

Spinner dolphin

Family

They perform huge leaps and

(45-75

kg);

animals: adults about

Southeast Asian

48

lb

and

No other

twist.

do

wild dolphins

this,

apart from the closely related clymene or short-

-

-

r

-

,

(22 kg)

snouted spinner dolphins. Spinner dolphins can Key features Slender body;

long, thin snout ("beak");

3-toned coloring: dark on top fading to with a

Habits

Active,

leap

fast-swimming dolphin; often swims

characteristic leaps, spinning in

m)

(3

into the air

to seven times before landing with a

light belly

with boats for long periods of time; performs

swims

up to 10 feet

up to 7 times;

splash

why of

on

back or

their

they leap

sides.

such a way.

in

It

may be

communication within the group

gestation period of 10.5 months.

Weaned

(the

way

males at 7-10 years.

May

live

it

sound

may be

of dislodging skin parasites. Otherwise,

it

may be

just for fun.

up to

about 50 years

Long Snouts

and whistles

Voice

Clicks

Diet

Fish

Habitat

Mainly open ocean, but sometimes inshore

The spinner dolphin

is

one of

group of

a

oceanic dolphins that have a long, narrow

and squid

Distribution Tropical and subtropical seas throughout

snout. The genus

name

Stenella

comes from the

Greek word stenos, meaning "narrow," and the

name,

means "long snout."

world

species

Population: several million;

The other names given to the spinner dolphin

lUCN Lower

conservation dependent; CITES in

a

at

1-2 years; females sexually mature at 4-7

Status

form

a

groups of usually about 30 animals

Single calf born about every 3 years after

years,

huge

No one knows

of the splash travels a long way), or

Breeding

and spin up

gray,

II.

Risk:

Populations

longirostris,

rollover dolphin

and long-beaked dolphin

the eastern Pacific are severely reduced

also descriptive.

from deaths associated with tuna

If

it

is

—are

not leaping, a spinner

fisheries

dolphin can be recognized by

its

long, slender

body and well-defined, three-tone shape of the dorsal

fin varies

coloring.

and with the sex of the animal. Sometimes erect or even forward-pointing, so that

as

if

it

The

between regions

it

it

is

looks

has been put on back to front. Spinner

dolphins have between 172 and 252 teeth,

more than any other cetacean

species.

Spinners are sociable dolphins, usually seen in

groups of between

five

and 30 animals,

although groups of 1,000 can occur

in

the open

ocean. Even larger groups have been reported

76

SEE ALSO Dolphin, Common

3:68; Dolphin, Bottlenose 3:72

V


WHALES AND DOLPHINS

where spinner dolphins mix with other cetacean species. Spotted dolphins are their

common

companions, and

tropical Pacific

dolphins. Both species of dolphin have suffered

both species are often seen

swimming with

severely from tuna fishing practices since 1959,

yellowfin tuna.

The behavior of spinner dolphins has been closely studied

around Hawaii.

groups of dolphins

rest in

In

the mornings

jump up the air

in

to 10 feet (3

and

spin

m)

up

to

to the

individuals will not necessarily return

same

bay, but

may

join other

among groups

crashing back into the

perhaps for protection: The spotted dolphins

sea with a

huge

splash.

predators while the spinner dolphins

feeding at different times, the V

.

pursed

not competing for the same

two

prey.

watch rest.

to form

laid

around

giant curtains hanging

is

shoal

is

in

enclosed, the

drawn together

—or

a bag, trapping the

fish

and

Dolphins need to surface frequently for

of spotted dolphins,

are active during the day, so they can

like

Once the

bottom of the net

instead. Spinner dolphins that live out at sea

seem

The huge nets are

any dolphins swimming with them.

groups

seven times before

to rest

fish.

shoals of tuna,

spreading out as the night progresses. The next

morning

catching the

the water.

© Spinner dolphins They can

purse seine nets began to be used for

deeper water,

perform magnificent aerial leaps.

when

shallow bays, but at

dusk they leave to feed

in

yellowfin tuna has been the

downfall of both the spinner and spotted

the eastern

in

Dolphin-Friendly Tuna

Swimming with

most

SPINNER DOLPHIN

so

if

they

become tangled

they drown. for

By

species are

In

the

last

in

air,

the loose netting,

few decades the

industry has been responsible for the deaths of

up to 12

million dolphins.

There are

now ways

of reducing dolphin deaths, such as nets with

escape hatches, and the industry

is

more

tightly

regulated to prevent accidental capture of dolphins. However, the problem

k

many

dolphins currently die

in

still

exists,

fishing nets.

and


d

tm rjm SEA

MAMMALS

Harbor Porpoise Common name

The harbor porpoise

Harbor

porpoise

(common

is

shy creature that tends

phocoena

a placid, to stay

porpoise)

unobtrusively undeiyvater. Scientific

Family

Phocoenidae

Order

Cetacea

commonest and most well-studied

member of the porpoise family,

Length: 5-6

Size

ft (1

Key features

low dorsal

Forms small groups,

swims with

Breeding

lb

coastlines in estuaries

(49-90 kg)

fin

and small

typically of

flippers

2-5 animals; keeps low

a slow, rolling motion;

the water; rarely leaps; wary of boats

gestation period of

1

1

about 8 months; males sexually mature

3-5

Voice

years, females slightly earlier,

region.

May

Low-pitched

live

calls;

echolocation clicks up to

Habitat

Cool, shallow coastal waters, usually less than ft

(100 m) deep and cooler than 65°F

and

and

all

are small

less

m) long. Dolphins are often

(2

have

all

a

blunt-ended face with no

projecting snout or "beak."

Fish"

The Romans used to or porcus piscus

name

occasionally squid and shrimp

Mainly

(15°C); bays

porpoises

The "Pig

Diet

330

coastal waters,

live in

than 6.5 feet

Most

the porpoise family.

six species in

depending

up to 13 years

"popping" or sneezing sound fish;

There are

at

1,000 times per second; breathes with a

call

in Latin,

porpoises "pig fish,"

which gives us the

porpoise. Porpoises have flattened,

spade-shaped teeth (rather

like

human

front

teeth), instead of the usual conical, pointed

teeth of most other toothed whales. These

estuaries, also offshore over

teeth are

sand banks Distribution Temperate and subarctic waters of Northern

good

smooth

large,

for

fish

grabbing and gripping the that

make up most

of the

porpoises' diet.

Hemisphere Status

bays.

called "porpoises," but unlike dolphins, the true

summer after months. Weaned at

Single calf usually born each

on

and

Small and blunt nosed; dark back, fading

to pale belly;

in

glim psed feelingly aro un

m)

.5-1 .9

Weight 108-198

Habits

the

It is

name Phocoena phocoena

Population: 200,000-300,000;

Vulnerable; CITES

II.

lUCN

Decreasing, mainly due

to accidental capture

in

fishing nets, but also

The harbor, or common, porpoise

is

the

most frequently seen porpoise

in

comes

and sometimes

into bays

and

estuaries,

the wild.

It

problems with disturbance, food supply, and

swims quite long distances up

disease

rivers.

Most

sightings are within 6 miles (10 km) of land,

while

many

other species of small cetaceans are

found only well out to

sea. In the United States

the harbor porpoise can be seen along the Atlantic coast south to the Carolinas

and

occasionally into Florida; on the Pacific coast

they occur from Los Angeles to Alaska. It

is

easy to identify a harbor porpoise

the wild because of

rounded

face,

The coloring

78

SEE ALSO

Dolphin,

Common

3:68; Dolphin, Bottlenose 3:72

is

and

its

in

habitat, small size,

small, blunt-tipped dorsal fin.

dark gray on the back, fading


dolphins and

many

of the larger whales. Usually

they just swim slowly, surfacing with a slow

down

the flanks to white on the

porpoises have a black chin and

Š

Harbor porpoises are

They do not

traits

more

show some exhibitionist

common

of the dolphins

to

many

distinctive

a

pop

when

a

—

a

is

Decreasing Numbers

sudden outburst that sounds

five,

some

in

but never form large

of the dolphins.

live

Groups

schools

breaching, bodysurfing,

sometimes come together to feed when there

and

a large shoal of fish or other

It is

actually fairly rare to see

like

prey,

no evidence

However, there

above the water.

social structures that exist in

species.

is

is

suggesting

some dolphins

do, with

all

formation

are often very heavily polluted,

and many of

taken over for industry or shipping. Boat is

traffic

another hazard for such shy creatures, and

numbers

dying from disease.

for the strong

in

owing to

The coastal waters where they

there have also been cases of large

some dolphin

They also do not swim

activities.

rapidly

their habitats are lost as natural coastlines are

they can communicate over long distances.

much of the porpoise

numbers have decreased

human

small

larger whales, such as

flipper-slapping.

Harbor porpoises were once very common, but

like

their

Harbor porpoises usually swim

they breathe.

if

also

or sneeze.

groups of two to

and

and

that curves up slightly so they look as

they are smiling. Their breathing

rather shy creatures.

of the

mouth

lips

roll

every 10 to 20 seconds, making a "pop" sound

Harbor

belly.

Harbor porpoises are like

animals coming up

still

hunted

in

some

parts of the world, with the largest catches

around

Iceland.

Many thousands

also

drown

in

fishing nets

—

groups tend to appear as more of a

vertically in

the water anchored to the seafloor.

disorganized "rabble," with individuals crossing

They are used to catch low-swimming

each other's paths and making sudden spurts

as cod

for air at the

same

time. Harbor porpoise

and charges. They are not the

most

exciting

cetaceans to watch because they are timid and

tend to

show

very

little

waves

to find

caught

of ships or perform any of the other

fish

and flounder; but since porpoises

become trapped. The

bow

interesting behaviors so characteristic of

which hang

such

also

tend to feed near the seafloor, they often

of themselves above

water. They never leap high or ride the

particularly in gillnets,

fishing industry

ways to reduce the number in gillnets.

One method

devices called "pingers" that noises to

warn the animals

is

is

trying

of dolphins

to attach

make underwater

to keep away.

79


SEA

MAMMALS

Beluga The beluga

Common name Scientific

name

alter the

shape of its forehead and

appearing

Order

Cetacea

Size

Length: 10-16

to smile,

lips,

frown, or whistle.

For most of the year adult belugas are pure ft

(3-5 m). Male larger than

female

white, only becoming tinged with yellow

period

summer

the

in

for.

a

before the seasonal molt.

common name

Their coloration explains their

when

white whale. Calves are dark gray

of

first

born, but the color fades during their immature

Weight

1,100-3,300

lb

(500-1,500 kg) years until they reach about four years old,

Key features

head small and rounded;

fin;

when

flippers broad,

paddle shaped, and highly mobile;

short,

Habits

no dorsal

Stocky, white-colored whale;

tail

color

become

they

due to

is

white. The lightening

a reduction

in

(called

Social animals, rarely seen alone; masculine

shed the surface layers of their

5,

nursery groups of mature

melanin)

the skin.

in

in

the dark pigment

fluke frequently asymmetrical

groups of 3-1

In

summer belugas old, slightly

yellow skin to reveal the new, gleaming-white

females and several young of various ages; during migrations congregations of hundreds or even thousands

Breeding

One

calf

may be seen

Weaned

at

20-24

months; females sexually mature at 5 years, males

8 years.

May

live

30-40 years

some have been known

wild,

years;

Voice

at

moos,

Trills,

sometimes

clicks,

live

in

to 50

captivity

in

Coastal and offshore

near

ice;

head

possible, they

instead. Estuaries

of fresh water,

that

if

not

is

for melting glacier fronts

and

both sources

glaciers are

which may quicken the shedding

The belugas

process.

also rub themselves

on the

seabed to help themselves molt.

squeaks, and twitters;

Layers of Fat fish,

crustaceans, worms, and mollusks

Habitat

estuaries; but

in

the

called "sea canary"

Mostly bottom feeders, eating

Diet

to

does not survive so long

skin underneath. At that time the animals like

to congregate

born every 3 years after gestation

period of 14-14.5 months.

in

cold waters, usually

shallow waters,

rivers,

The beluga

is

and rotund whale

quite a small

with short, wide flippers that curl up at the

There

is

no dorsal

and estuaries scientific

Distribution Coasts of arctic regions of North America,

name

fin

—accounting

for

tips.

its

Delphinapterus, meaning

"dolphin without a wing." However, there

is

a

Greenland, northern Russia, and Svalbard short, raised ridge

Status

Population: about 100,000;

CITES

lUCN Vulnerable;

where the

fin

would normally

be found. The beluga has a very thick

layers of

II

blubber to keep arctic seas.

It

is

it

well insulated

in

the cold

so fat that the head looks too

small for the body. Unlike

most other whales,

belugas have a very mobile neck that allows

them

to

nod and turn

inquisitive

their head.

They are

animals and use their neck to look

around when they

lift

their

heads out of the

water. Another feature of the beluga ability to

break through solid

inches (10 cm) thick by

80

SEE ALSO

Bear, Polar 2:84;

Narwhal 3:84

to its

produce several facial expressions.

Delphinapterus leucas

Monodontidae

among whales owing

unique

is

ability to

Beluga (white whale)

Family

Delphinapterus leucas

ice

ramming

its

is

up to four it

from

It

often

can


Š

The belugas' deathly

white skin and

swimming

undulating

motion makes them look like

underwater ghosts.

For a period in the

underneath, using the firm melonlike structure

on in

its

head. The impact creates breathing holes

packed

ice.

However, belugas cannot stay

waters that are covered by very thick

ice,

they would not be able to break through

breathe the

air

in

since it

to

seconds, but studies have

summer belugas become

that belugas

routinely dive for periods of nine to 13 minutes.

A

beluga that

was seen Surface

swam up

to be

ice

is

3

the Rhine River

submerged

for

1966

in

70 minutes.

not a great problem to belugas,

since they can travel

they need.

shown

up to

1

to 2 miles

(1

.5

to

km) underwater. But they can become

f

tinged with yellow

Ghosts of the Deep

trapped

before the seasonal

Belugas are normally slow swimmers. They

prey for hunters and polar bears. Belugas often

molt occurs.

usually travel at

about

to 5 miles per hour

1

(1.5 to 8 km/h), but can reach

miles per hour (23 km/h)

very supple

if

speeds of 14

pursued. They are

and can operate

their

so that

tail

the sea

in

most of the year belugas remain

offshore, near sea

shore

in

which makes them easy

from polar bear attacks.

carry scars

For

ice,

ice.

summer, since

They move closer to rivers are

not frozen and

they can swim backward, allowing them to

can be entered to find food. After mating they

maneuver

very shallow water that just covers

move

They move with

migrate back to colder areas

in

their bodies.

undulating motion that can like

ghostly apparitions

in

a gently

make them

look

murky waters. They

surface to breathe about every 30 to

40

to

warmer waters

are strong

enough

to give birth

when

to cope. Migrations appear

to be affected by the distribution

abundance

of prey

and then

the calves

and

and the extent of pack

ice.

81


Belugas are

among

the most social of

Some others

whales. Males and

It

populations migrate long distances, while live IS

permanently

in

very rare to see a solitary beluga, since

females usually form

they are highly social animals. The strongest

separate groups that

social

bond

is

between

a

mother and her

calf:

migrations the different groups join together

herds that can contain hundreds or even

She cares

migrations in huge herds

Although the breeding cycle

containing hundreds or

years long, mothers sometimes suckle their

family groups.

even thousands of

young

ahead of migrating groups, appearing to

animals. However, the

time between births to three years. Groups

for her

for

young over

normally two

up to 24 months, and extend the

smaller family units

consisting of a mature female, her

remain distinguishable.

calf,

and

several of her

newborn

are also separate groups of will

Kilier/Orca 3:62,

possible to

make out

Some

the

many

it

smaller

adults have been seen

follow. Larger aggregations also

where food

is

In

is

in

places

one of the most vocal of the

toothed whales and "sea canary."

form

abundant.

The beluga

merge with

female groups during the breeding season.

is still

explore passages through pack ice for others to

most recent young are

about three to 15 males that

SEE ALSO Whale,

can extend over 6 miles (10 km) or more, but

several years. is

in

thousands of belugas. These migrating groups

join together during

common. There

82

Russian offshore waters the male groups

sometimes contain up to 500 animals. During

quite small areas.

It

is

sometimes known as the

has a fantastic repertoire of

Whale, Humpback 3:102

i


WHALES AND DOLPHINS BELUGA

What

squeaks, moos, and twitters.

trills,

is

amazing about the noise produced by belugas is

that

The

can easily be heard above water as

it

Talkative Beluga

well as below. Underwater the sound of a herd

of belugas

apparently comparable to a noisy

is

barnyard. The sounds are used to

communicate

with other whales. The beluga also has a wide

which are thought

facial expressions,

range of

produce

when

sonar

(called

takes place underwater),

it

bouncing echoes off prey and the seabed to help the animals find their

way around. The

waters where belugas

are often covered

with

and there

ice,

months

live

sometimes no sunlight

is

at a time. Visibility

quite poor,

and sonar

way

then a useful

is

smile, frown, or

slaps

threat. Physical contact

animals

even whistle. Lobtailing,

its tail

—they

will also

One

of

killer

of the predators of the beluga

whale

(orca).

A salmon

fishery

understood. There

is

some evidence

suggests the beluga uses

system of

its

sonar

packed

find breathing holes in

most

that they have the

not

the

is

in Bristol

whale noises

It

bears attack belugas that

that

is

small areas of

to

thought

effective echolocation

They

also attack

when

come

to breathe

open water surrounded by

in

ice.

whales that become stranded

the tide has gone out: Belugas can

survive until the next tide

cetaceans.

all

prey to polar

bears and sometimes even to walruses. Polar

fully

abilities

ice.

become

away. Belugas can also

apparently used to help with is

thought to be a

'-to*/*:?-

underwater to keep salmon-stealing belugas

how

clap their jaws

love to rub against each other.

bulging forehead (often called the melon) of a is

is

the is

very important to these very social

is

Bay, Alaska, played recorded killer

beluga

when

on the surface of the water,

avoiding obstacles and hunting for prey. The

echolocation, but exactly

alter their lips

for

therefore often

is

and seem to

together to create a drumming sound, which

used for echolocation

an impressive vocal

They often appear quite comical when they

repertoire.

another form of communication. They

toothed whales, belugas

clicks that are

variety of facial expressions as well as having

whale rhythmically

to be another form of communication. Like other

B

elugas are very communicative animals that can produce a

they have been

if

stranded, but they are vulnerable to polar bears

Diverse Diet The beluga's

and people

diet

is

and includes worms,

diverse

crustaceans, mollusks, and is

found on the seabed

1,500 feet (500 m).

at

fish.

Most of

it

to

scan the ocean floor for food. Having detected prey by sight or sonar, to

draw the

squirts

victim into

water

among

from

its lips

its

produce suction

mouth. Otherwise

stones. Belugas have about 32 to

40 peglike teeth, which are not fully until

the whale

teeth often

is

two

much

for feeding

their prey

or three years old.

become worn and

able to grasp prey.

grown

In fact,

so

The

would not be

they are not used

because belugas swallow

whole. The teeth

may wear out

producing sound: The animals clap their jaws together, are

making loud drumming

thought to be used as a

sounds that

threat.

Humans

are the

main threat to belugas. Belugas use the same migration routes every year, which allows

population of belugas

is

them

The world

Š Belugas produce loud drumming sounds by

thought to number

clapping their jaws

about 100,000, but some populations are

together

almost extinct because of overexploitation.

mouth

Belugas

it

them

at small animals, dislodging

such a situation.

to be exploited by hunters.

mobile neck allows

Its

food

its

depths of up to

in

waters,

move

seasonally to coastal shallow

where they are

at risk

Another threat to belugas

is

from pollution.

that their coastal

habitats are being spoiled by exploration for

oil

and the building of hydroelectric dams. Both activities

(1);

(2) is

the pursed

believed to

be used when the animals are feeding from the seabed. The

lips

produce suction to draw prey into the mouth.

often require detonation of explosives

underwater, which has an adverse effect on the health of belugas. Ironically, the beluga will

probably be saved from overhunting because industrial pollution has raised

their

meat

to such high

longer sold for

mercury

levels that

levels in

they are no

human consumption. 83


SEA

MAMMALS

Narwhal Once thought

Monodon monoceros

be the horn of the legendary unicorn,

to

the long, spiraled tusk of the narwhal

Common name

and fascinating cetacean.

distinctive

Narwhal Scientific

name Monodon monoceros

word

The name narwhal derives from the Norse Family

Monodontidae

Order

Cetacea

Size

Length: 13-16

meaning "corpse whale." due to the animal's habit ft

(4-5 m). Male larger

and

than female

Weight

(800-1,600 kg)

lb

swimming

makes

Narwhals are

rotting corpse.

Key features

of

look

it

adaptation to

life in

up

Its

like a

shape to

similar in

the beluga; both species lack a dorsal

Stocky toothed

belly

motionless for several minutes.

lying

peculiar mottled skin also

1,760-3,520

could have arisen

It

fin

as an

A

the cold arctic seas.

whale with no dorsal fin

and short

dorsal fin increases the surface area of the

with

flippers; skin colored

patches of gray-green, cream, and black;

males have unique long, Habits

Social: usually

seen

in

spiral

whale and would thus speed the

tusk loss.

groups of up to 20

could also

It

insulation over the rest of the

together as part of a

much

warm

narwhals

larger herd

the

in

the

in

ice-

layers of blubber provide

packed waters. Thick

animals; sometimes separate groups

according to age and sex; often moves

rate of heat

become damaged

icy

body to keep

cold waters.

containing thousands of individuals

Breeding

One

calf

months; sexually mature live

Unicornlike Horn

born every 3 years after gestation

Weaned

period of 14-15 months.

at

6-8

at

20

years.

The narwhal

renowned

is

for having a long,

May From medieval times seamen and

spiraled tusk.

30-40 years

traders distributed the spectacular tusks around

Voice

Clicks, squeals,

and whistles used

for

Europe. People believed they were unicorn tusks

communication or navigation

with magical powers that could detect Diet

Mostly

Habitat

Cold

fish,

squid,

enemies had poisoned arctic seas, generally

summer sometimes seen fjords,

near sea

in

estuaries,

narwhal tusk

deep

and bays; migrates when habitat

mideastern Canada

II.

One

upper

lip.

males.

A

grow

Population: about 25,000-30,000; of the less

their food. Actually, the

is

an extremely long incisor tooth

that protrudes from the left-hand side of the

is

Distribution Coastal; mainly western Greenland to

Deficient; CITES

their

ice; in

unfavorable

Status

if

and shrimp

lUCN Data

a

The tusks are generally found only small

number

of males

second tusk on the right-hand

Occasionally females

grow

in

sometimes side.

a single thin tusk

abundant too.

whales, status uncertain

The

the tusk

spiral will

pattern

grow

interference with

is

believed to ensure that

straight, preventing

swimming.

I

Sometimes the tusks can reach astonishing lengths.

pounds

A

10-foot (3-m) tusk weighing 20

(9 kg)

on

a

1

5-foot (4.5-m) whale

is

not

unknown. There have been many ingenious ideas to explain the purpose of this

extraordinary structure.

weapon

Some

believe

even boats. Others suggest that

84

SEE ALSO

Bear, Polar 2:84;

it

to be a

with which to attack other narwhals or it

is

Whale, Killer/Orca 3:62; Beluga 3:80; Deer and Relatives

used to 6:10

makes

this

a


WHALES AND DOLPHINS NARWHAL

Š Narwhals are a sociable species. They form

migrating herds of hundreds or even

thousands of animals made up of smaller groups of

whales of similar size or sexual

make

‘

unlikely to be a

are social animals

aggressive. ideas:

We

breathing holes

or to spear food.

in ice

weapon,

It

since narwhals

can also

rule

out the other two

would

creating breathing holes, then females

have them too. the tusk

used

in

It

is

hierarchies, like antlers

The narwhal

extremely

is

when

herds that migrate unsuitable in

generally thought that

jousts with other males to establish

dominance

over

now

an ornament carried by males and

is

—

the

for example,

fall.

When

when

becomes

the seas freeze

migrating, hundreds or

even thousands of narwhals may

travel

together. However, these large aggregations actually consist of

many

smaller groups

hunted narwhals for centuries. The as "muktuk," it

is

a

is

valued because

good source

tourists

and

collectors.

still

skin,

when

of vitamins.

known

eaten

The unique

oil

for heating

4 to 6 inches

is

fed to sled

and

(1

lighting.

A

layer of blubber

0 to 15 cm) thick

will yield at

least

100 gallons (455

Inuit

hunted narwhals from kayaks using

toll.

The

The meat

dogs, and the blubber can be used to produce

I)

of

oil.

Traditionally,

some modern hunters have

motorboats and

such large numbers

inevitably attracts the attention of hunters.

released into the sea. However, they are

threatened by hunting. Native people have

harpoons, but

containing whales of a similar size or sexual status. Migrating in

from pollutants

tusks are prized, since they can be sold to

forming

their habitat

Narwhals mostly avoid waters close inshore, so are less at risk

raw,

deer.

in

social,

killer

and Greenland sharks; but the

(orcas),

main threat comes from humans.

and do not tend to be

the tusk were needed for feeding and

If

predators of narwhals include polar bears,

whales

is

status.

rifles,

the

fast

which increase the death

Populations must be monitored carefully to

ensure the narwhals are not overharvested.

85


SEA

MAMMALS

Sperm Whale Common name

Sperm

whale Scientific

name

Physeter catodon

For

many years

image of the

the

Physeter

catodon

great sperm whale portrayed by

Family

Physeteridae

whalers filled people with terror

Order

Cetacea

Bat a greater knowledge of these

Length: male 49-62

Size

amazing creatures means they are

ft

(15-19 m); female 26-39

Weight

ft

(8-12 m)

now viewed

with admiration.

Male 51 tons (45 tonnes), maximum 65 tons (57 tonnes); female 17 tons (15 tonnes),

maximum 27

tons (24 tonnes)

It is

relatively easy

since

Key features

Largest

It

to

identify

the sperm whale,

the largest of the toothed whales and

is

has a distinctive, flat-ended head. The head

toothed whale; dark-gray

on

to dark-brown skin with white patches belly; skin

has a wrinkled appearance; often

scarred; large, square-ended head; dorsal fin

reduced to a small, triangular hump; short,

actually contains the largest brain in the animal

kingdom, although

makes up about 0.02

only

it

percent of the animal's total body weight. The

unusual shape of the head includes a forehead

paddle-shaped flippers

that forms a boxlike cavity large

Habits

Females and young

young males 20-25

in

bachelor schools, both with

males

individuals; older

solitary or in

small groups; join breeding schools to

Breeding

Single calf born every

4-6 years

for a

car to

fit

inside.

The

cavity actually contains a

huge mass of spermaceti, an

was once

highly prized for lubricating fine

machinery such as clocks.

Weaned

oily material that

the spermaceti organ

is

It

what use

unclear

is

whale

to the

itself.

1-3 years, sometimes longer; females

sexually

mature

18-21 years.

Voice

mate

after

gestation period of 14-16 months. at

enough

breeding schools,

live in

Clicks used for

7-13

at

May

live

years,

at least

Some

males at

60-70 years

believe

it

may

control

buoyancy when

diving for food; others suggest that

it

may

help

with the animal's echolocation system.

communication and

echolocation

Mostly squid; also

Diet

Habitat

cuttle,

octopus, and

fish

Deep waters, often near the continental females and calves stay

in

warm

shelf;

waters,

males migrate to colder feeding grounds Distribution Found

Status

in all

the oceans of the world

Population: estimates vary from 200,000

(minimum) to

1.5 million

Vulnerable; CITES

(maximum); lUCN

Wrinkled Skin Sperm whales have very

are also unique because they

distinctive skin that

prune. The wrinkling too

is

wrinkled

like a

may have an

important function, perhaps to reduce turbulence along the animal's body, assisting

passage through the water. The

friction-free

I

flippers are relatively short,

and the

reduced to a rounded hump.

hump

runs from the

powerful at

tail

to the

A

tail

dorsal fin

series of

flukes.

bumps

The

allows the sperm whale to travel

speeds up to 23 miles per hour (37 km/h).

Only the lower jaw has true teeth, with about

20 to 26

pairs.

pegs, and can

(20 cm) long. present

86

SEE ALSO Whale, Long-Finned

Pilot 3:66;

in

They are simple,

grow up

Some

like

pointed

to 8 inches

rudimentary teeth are

the upper jaw, but they remain

Whale, Blue 3:98; Whale, Humpback 3:102

is


but the movements of females

and juveniles are much

less

extensive than

those of the males. Females and juveniles stay

hidden pt.

Ithy

the

gums and

However, the discovery of

whales that have either no

is

thought that sperm whales suck

mouths and swallow them

sperm whale was once a

whole. Their powerful jaws and teeth can be used

males may use them

mass of

spermaceti,

when defending

rivals for

themselves, and mature

when competing

A

Differences

whale could provide 15

the females, a situation

known

barrels of spermaceti

dimorphism

oil.

difference

(literally

in size

is

as sexual

is

when

they are approximately

when

males

several females.

Sperm whales can

time to mate.

dives called

The male's teeth

and more numerous than those of

the female, possibly because they are used

more so

dive to

and strong to

in

conflict with other males.

The differences between the sexes are not Both sexes migrate seasonally

their feeding

is

where they

with a group of females, so they need to be big

between

only

solitary, it

males

older,

many

the

in

— possibly because they make deeper

dives than the females,

depths. They are able to

just physical.

years old and

bear scars from battles with giant squid. Their

Males compete for the opportunity to mate

are larger

six

find

meaty

sharks and rays near the seabed.

polygamous,

fight off rivals.

their

young. Males leave these breeding groups

diet also includes fish, but

meaning"two forms.") The

meaning one male mates with

and

Both sexes feed primarily on squid, and than

probably due to the fact

that their mating system

ice.

breeding groups consisting

tend to become increasingly

between the Sexes significantly larger

single

and antarctic pack

live in

joining females briefly

Male sperm whales are

whale products.

Females

form bachelor groups. As they get

with

sexually receptive females.

one of the

most valuable of all

65° north and 70° south,

at latitudes

of about 12 closely related females

prize catch for whaling

forehead

Mature males move much farther and can be

close to the arctic

It

travel to latitudes

greater than 40° north or south of the equator.

believe that the teeth are not essential for

prey into their

contains a

warmer waters and do not

found

toothed whales, the

ships. Its

in

teeth or deformed jaws has led scientists to

feeding.

largest of the

in

and breeding grounds.

owing to

enormous

make such

large quantities of a

myoglobin

in

their muscles.

extensive

pigment

Myoglobin

stores oxygen, keeping the muscles operating

when

the animal

is

underwater and cannot

breathe. During deep dives the heartbeat slows

down, the lungs

collapse,

and the whale

on the vast amounts of oxygen stored muscles to supply other

vital

organs.

relies

in its

Deep

87


SEA

MAMMALS

waters are dark and often murky, so the whales

cannot

on

rely

Instead, they use

them

around.

their eyes for getting

find food.

sound to

When

them and help

direct

diving,

sperm whales

appear to be more dependent on sound than eyes are small and inconspicuous,

vision. Their

and

their

two

nasal passages each have very

different functions:

The

left

is

and

for breathing

the right for the production of sound.

Sperm whales produce

clicks that are

and as

for the echolocation of prey

of communication.

It

head helps focus the

sound

—

like

thought that

is

clicks into a

a flashlight

and obstacles

in

a

beam

used

method their large

beam

of

—to detect prey

the underwater darkness.

It

has even been suggested that sperm whales use sound to stun or

with an intense

announce

their prey

kill

beam

of

by zapping

sound energy. Males

their authority with loud clicks,

mother uses

clicks to

calf. Scientists

it

keep

in

and

a

contact with her

can use the sounds produced by

sperm whales to locate them. Unfortunately, the sperm whales' reliance on sound makes

them

susceptible to noise pollution created by

humans, including the sound of

and

oil-drilling

There are strong females and young

Young dives;

ships'

engines

equipment. social

in

bonds between

the breeding groups.

calves are unable to

so while a mother

is

make prolonged diving to feed.

another female

Olympic Divers

calf.

It

is

in

the group looks after her

possible that females

do not make

as

deep and lengthy dives as males so that they

T

he sperm whale deserves a gold medal for

its

amazing diving

animal can stay submerged for up to two hours at a time.

deeper than any other

mammal

in

It

skills.

An

adult

can also dive

to

the world. Sperm whales dive to great depths

to hunt for their favorite food, bottom-dwelling squid. Accurate sonar recordings reveal

them

diving to depths of 4,000 feet (1,200 m). However, analysis of the

stomach contents of male sperm whales often at

reveals prey species typically

found

generally the mature males that for

which the species

is

make

alone, they or

killer

contact with their young and return -if

necessary.

If

young were

would be an easy target

is

left

for sharks

whales. The females within the

there are always It

is

some

it

in

turn to feed, so

adults present to care for

even thought that they

sometimes suckle calves that are not It

the extraordinarily deep and lengthy dives

renowned.

in

quickly

the young.

permanently dark and cold, with pressures

is

equivalent to the weight of a bus on every square foot of the animal's body.

them

breeding groups take

even greater depths, indicating that the whales can sometimes dive twice as

deep. At such depths the water

can stay

will

their

own.

Adult sperm whales are also very protective of

one another within

their social group.

they are being attacked, or

group has been

if

a

When

member

injured, they will

of their

assemble

together, their heads facing inward, and use

88

SEE ALSO Whale,

Killer/Orca 3:62


WHALES AND DOLPHINS SPERM WHALE

© Adult sperm whales are very of each other.

If

a

member

injured, they will encircle

and use

their

powerful

means of defense.

In

protective

of their group

it,

tails

is

facing inward as a

the past such

behavior proved disastrous for the whales, which could be picked off one

by one by whalers.

spermaceti

oil,

one of the most valuable of

whale products. Ambergris, in

their intestines,

perfume

industry.

the whalers (1

1

found

a substance

was formerly used

in

the

was extremely valuable

It

a piece

to

weighing 250 pounds

was worth more than the wages

3 kg)

all

for

the entire crew for a whole year. Today

Sperm whales

synthetic substances are used. are

now

protected by International agreement.

Literary Character In

the novel

Moby

Dick by

Herman

sperm whale was portrayed as

a

Melville the

monster of the

Hunting sperm whales was once very

sea.

dangerous and was looked on as an act of great bravery. The whalers

would row

in

an

open boat to spear the whales with hand-held harpoons. The whale would sometimes turn on the whalers

in self

defense.

It

could knock them

out of their small boat, a fraction of size,

and crush them

in its

whalers feared the mighty to defend themselves and

their

powerful

their

weakened comrade.

tails

put themselves at

companion that As the

risk

is

in

Individuals will even

to try to rescue a

danger.

largest of the

toothed whales, the

sperm whale was a valuable catch to any whaler, not only for

its

plentiful supply of

raised high

©

Whaling was once a

dangerous risks

activity.

The

faced by whalers

were described novel

Moby

in

Dick.

the

made

a

its

own

powerful jaws. The tail

that

would be

above the water before the whale

deep

dive, calling

it

"the hand of God."

However, the advancement of whaling technology, notably diesel-driven boats

more powerful steam- and

and the exploding harpoon

gun, denied the sperm whales any chance of

defending themselves. They were slaughtered

many

years before being protected by

blubber, but also the provision of spermaceti

for

and ambergris. Whalers once believed

international law. Because whalers selectively

that the material

was

like

in

the forehead

the sperm produced by

male mammals.

It

is

from that

mistaken belief that the sperm

whale and

A

single

its oil

take their name.

sperm whale could provide

whalers with

1

5 barrels of

hunted the larger males, they created an

uneven

ratio of

males to females. The

combination of the naturally slow population

growth and the

selective hunting of the larger

males has resulted

in

low calving

rates.

That has

slowed the recovery of the sperm whale population, despite worldwide protection.

89


2

SEA

MAMMALS

Northern Bottlenose

Whale Common name Scientific

Northern bottlenose whale

name Hyperoodon

One of the

ampullatus

longest and deepest divers of all whales

Family

Ziphiidae

and dolphins,

Order

Cetacea

recorded diving 23-30

Length:

Size

Hyperoodon ampullatus

ft

the northern bottlenose whale has been to

depths of 4,500 feet (1,370 m).

(7-9 m). Male larger than

female

The northern bottlenose whale

beaked whales.

I

and Weight

Male 8 tons

(7.5 tonnes):

of the

It

a narrow, pointed

snout

"beak") quite

(or

female 6.6 tons similar to that of the bottlenose dolphin.

(5.8 tonnes)

distinctive,

Key features Medium-sized whale with

bulging forehead

is

Its

more prominent

distinctive,

may overhang

older males and

the beak.

bulbous forehead and narrow snout ("beak");

in

lower jaw of beak extends

the bulbous forehead can be seen, the whales

slightly further

than upper; 2 main teeth at in

of lower

tip

If

jaw are easy to identify, since they are the only

males; dorsal (back or spinal) regions dark

gray to brown, lighter on flukes

Habits

one

is

has a long, cylindrical body

no notch

belly;

beaked whales

in

rounded

(tail fin)

Usually lives

in

in

the North Atlantic with such a

head. Adults are dark

gray to brown on their dorsal (back or spinal)

groups of 1-4; larger herds

formed when migrating and

in

profile to the

the breeding

regions and are a lighter gray or creamy

brown

season; older males often travel alone

on the underside. Older males are Breeding

One

calf

born every 2-3 years after gestation

period of about a year.

Weaned

months; females sexually mature males

years,

at

about 7-9

years.

at

about

at

become

Little

known, but uses

Mainly squid; also

Diet

starfish,

Habitat

fish,

clicks

and whistles

whale has two main

sea cucumbers, cuttle,

have

arctic waters, preferring

mouth in

ft

four,

teeth, but

is

some males

which are located on the

lower jaw and are not exposed

offshore areas with water depths of over

3,300

Juveniles

in color.

are black to chocolate brown. The bottlenose

and prawns

Cold-temperate and

white, and occasionally their entire

body becomes yellow-white

live

approximately 30-40 years

Voice

recognized, since their forehead and beak

1

8-12

May

easily

shut. These teeth

tip

when

do not

of the

the

usually erupt

females, but remain below the gums. Both

(1,000 m)

males and females may have rows of tiny teeth Distribution North Atlantic oceans and

arctic regions,

along both jaws.

avoiding shallow waters

Status

Population: probably a

Lower

Risk:

few thousand; lUCN

conservation dependent; CITES

Insufficiently

known; has declined due to

hunting

Deep-Sea Divers II.

The northern bottlenose whale for

its

amazing diving

abilities.

is

well

known

Whalers have

reported they can be submerged for up to

two

hours, but the typical dive time, without

causing any stress to the animal, minutes.

When

far horizontally

close to

diving, they

is

do not

14 to 70 travel very

and often surface again very

where the

that air-breathing

dive began.

mammals

It

is

amazing

can remain

underwater for such a long time. They are also able to dive to extraordinary depths. Dives

90

SEE ALSO

Dolphin, Bottlenose 3:72


^

WHALES AND DOLPHINS NORTHERN

ÂŽ

generally range from

The northern

250 to 2,500

feet (76 to

bottlenose whale

760 m)

regularly dives to depths

4,500 feet (1,372 m) has been recorded.

of 2,500 feet (760 m),

to

rummage around

seabed for

its

the

main food

depth, but an astounding depth of

The bulk of the

and

sometimes much deeper,

in

diet

is

squid

in its

stomach. The whales have to use

deep, sustained dives to find their food, which

and invertebrates, from the

of squid. The whales can

also includes fish

be submerged for up to

seabed. The stomachs of

two hours, but the more

been found to contain

usual dive time

clay, indicating

is

somewhere between

14

One whale

squid:

individuals have

of shell, stones,

may

that they

rummage around

some

bits

and

use their snout to

the seabed for food.

distributed

in

3,000 feet (914 m) deep. preference for deep water

abundance and are found

in

It

sea is

is

is

at least

thought that

due

cold-temperate and

their

They

arctic regions

and prefer water temperatures that are

between 32 and 62.6°F the to

warmer waters

mate and

in

(0 to 17°C).

winter,

give birth,

They use

swimming south

and then migrating

north again for the summer.

approach boats quite

fearlessly,

also

a calf

approaches a

swim between

known

it

and the

vessel.

mother

They are

to be loyal animals that will stay

with injured companions die.

ship, the

until

they recover or

Unfortunately, such behavior allowed

to be exploited by whalers

in

them

the past. Since

they are so curious, the whalers could simply

an area and wait for the whales to

reduced

in

numbers were

the 19th century

hunted for

their

spermaceti

oil

come

drastically

when

they were

blubber and the valuable

found

in their

heads. Northern

bottlenose whales have been protected by the

to the

distribution of their prey.

will

If

to them. Their

the North Atlantic. They are most

commonly found where the

will

but mothers are extremely protective of their calves.

drift in

Northern bottlenose whales are widely

and 70 minutes.

Loyal Friends Northern bottlenose whales are nosy, inquisitive animals and

was found with more than 1,000 beaks from

BOTTLENOSE WHALE

International

yet there

is

Whaling Commission since 1977,

insufficient information to

make

a

population estimate. Although they are no longer

in

danger from whalers, the

whales are

still

friendly

threatened by humans through

disturbance, pollution, and reduction

owing to human

activities,

in

food

such as fishing.

91


SEA

MAMMALS

Eschrichtius robustus

Gray whales make one of the longest migrations of

mammal— an

any

annual round

trip

of up

to

12,500

miles (20,000 km). Over one animal's lifetime the total Family

Eschrichtiidae

Order

Cetacea

distance covered

Size Length; male 39-46

ft

(12-14 m); female 43-49

moon and

ft

equivalent to

is

swimming

to the

back.

(13-15 m)

Weight 26-40

tons

The gray whale

one of the most well

is

known

j

(22.5-35 tonnes)

and best understood of Key features Robust baleen whale;

upwardly

fairly short,

to

coastal habitat

its

the cetaceans, owing

all

and

friendly character.

i

cun/ed head; skin mottled gray, covered with

patches of barnacles and whale dorsal

of

but low

fin,

bumps running

hump

lice;

Stockier than

no

followed by series

to the large

tail

most

more slender

rorquals, but

than the bulky right whales, grays exhibit

flukes;

features that are intermediate

between the two.

and paddle shaped

flippers small

However, they are different from other baleen Habits

Generally found larger

in

small groups of 1-3, but

whales, and as a

groups of up to 16 sometimes seen;

large gatherings

form

at feeding

family of their

and

they are classified

result,

own

—the

in

a

Eschrichtiidae.

breeding grounds; performs one of the longest migrations of any

Breeding

mammal

gestation period of 12-13 months. at

7-8 months; sexually mature

at

Gray whales take their name from the mottled

Weaned gray color of their skin. Their bodies are also

between

and 1 years. May live 50-60 years, maximum documented 77 years

covered with patches of orange or yellow

Rumbles, groans, whistles, rasps, chirps,

(160 kg) of barnacles attached to their

5

Voice

Barnacle Carrier

Single calf born about every 2 years after

1

moans, growls, and bongs

One

Small invertebrates scooped off the seabed,

Diet

including crustaceans, mollusks,

may have

barnacles; adults

type of barnacle

whale.

over 350 pounds

mainly on the

in clusters,

and worms

head and back. The barnacles breed Habitat

Shallow, coastal waters

between summer feeding grounds north in

easily find a

of

population found

Status

whale to

settle on.

Gray whales are one of the most parasite-

Chukchi and Bering seas and winter

breeding grounds off Baja California; smaller

this

group

is

off

Korea and Japan, but

lUCN Lower

all

Endangered (northwestern I.

Fairly

common

off

commonly

cetaceans. They are

infested with

close to extinction

Population: 20-25,000;

heavy of

whale

lice

small, crablike

crustaceans that cling to the whale's body. Risk:

Although the

sound

lice

nasty,

conservation dependent; Critically

CITES

at the gray

whales' calving grounds, so their larvae can

Distribution Pacific Ocean; main population migrates

Alaska

good

for the whale, since they

they can be

keep wounds

Pacific stock);

western U

clean by feeding on the decaying tissue.

S.

Parasitic creatures are able to live

whales because species,

their host

is

a

on gray

slow-swimming

and the parasites do not get washed

off easily.

Whale

calves begin to acquire these

passengers just a few days after

birth.

Gray whales do not have a dorsal

on the

last third

found, which

is

of the back a low

SEE ALSO Whale,

Blue 3:98; Whale,

Humpback

3:102; Whale,

fin,

hump

bowed head

Bowhead

3:1 10

is

small

in

but

can be

followed by seven to eight

smaller ones. The

92

skin.

exclusive to the gray

is

can be found

It

r


r

WHALES AND DOLPHINS GRAY WHALE

ÂŁ

relation to the body, the

tail

fluke

is

deeply

notched, and the flippers are paddle shaped with pointed

Grays also have

tips.

much

whales are only found

shorter

baleen plates than other baleen whales because

small population occurs off Korea, but Critically

A

now

is

Endangered, having been reduced by

whaling to possibly fewer than 50 individuals.

Although they are

The eastern North

of collecting their Gray whales were

the Pacific Ocean.

in

they have a different feeding technique. filter

feeders, like other

way

baleen whales, they have a rather different

ÂŽ

around 300 years ago. Today gray

extinction

food from other species.

Instead of eating floating and

close to extinction. Whalers discovered the

breeding grounds

swimming

many

slaughtered

the open water, they feed

came

population also

Pacific

in

the late 1800s and

Numbers became so

whales.

was no longer

profitable to hunt

once the target of

organisms found

whaling ships. However,

on what they find on the seabed. They dive to

them, and they were

today the friendly giants

the bottom

whalers, the population began to recover, and

are a popular tourist

side.

They plow that side of

their

attraction, with

the sediment, then suck the

mud

thousands flocking to

stirred

watch their seasonal

muscular tongue

migrations along the

sediment out through the baleen

California coast.

strain off

up

in

in

shallow waters and

into their

mouth. Using

like a piston,

roll

onto one

left

became threatened when hunting resumed

their

with the introduction of factory ships

they force the plates.

They in

it

the

was hunted

increased. However, they

Then

early 1900s.

in

once again

in

the

1946 the International

Whaling Commission was formed, and with gray whales

listed as

Endangered, commercial

hunting was prohibited. They were able to reestablish themselves,

the North Atlantic,

but

alone. Free from the

that they have

There was once a population of gray in

left

numbers

with a mouthful of food.

whales

it

body through

any crabs, mollusks, or worms

process and are

low that

population

is

and the current

thought to be 20,000 to 25,000.

to

Long-Distance Journeys Moving between the warm waters where they breed and their cold polar feeding grounds, gray whales

make one

migrations of .

all

of the longest

mammals. The main

population of gray whales spends the

summer months

feeding

in

the cold waters of the Bering and Chukchi Seas.

With the

winter, the

start of

whales

93


— SEA

MAMMALS

migrate south to warmer waters, where

When

breeding and calving take place.

to leave

another whale with them to help. The second

to get to

whale supports the mother, keeping her head

the

warm

waters to calve. They swim along the

West Coast their

First

who need

are the pregnant females,

America

of North

they reach

until

breeding grounds off Baja California.

Pregnant females

Laguna Ojo de

move

The warm,

calf to

first

to

milk

not survive

if

they were born

The lagoons are

the threat of

killer

in

killer

after birth the

50 gallons (227 is

53 percent

70 pounds (27

to

the cold arctic

shallow lagoons the

from

bond with

its

—conditions that

all

important

and the

it

can do

if

it

the

In

calf establishes a

builds is

The

up

its

60

calf will gain

to 32 kg) daily.

warm

strong its

layer of blubber

to survive the long journey

to the arctic feeding grounds

whales tend to avoid.

mother helps

mother, learns to coordinate

movements, and

whales, since they are

the

breath. For

of rich milk every day.

I)

fat,

The calves could

also relatively safe

shallow with narrow entrances

few hours

will assist

its first

so alone. The mother provides the calf with up

the newborn calves, which only have a thin

seas.

the surface to take

her calf to the surface to breathe until

shallow waters of the lagoons are perfect for

layer of blubber for protection.

sometimes have

above the water and sometimes

the

into lagoons, such as

Liebre, to give birth.

giving birth, females

in

the spring.

Courtship Helpers

Friendly

Whales

In

the breeding season males and receptive

females swim together near the calving

/^^rays are extremely

inquisitive

the lagoons of Mexico

In

and is

it

friendly whales.

not unusual for a

gray whale to approach a small boat of people close

enough

for

them

to reach out

and touch

to enjoy having their backs scratched

and

it.

They seem

will

even

let

lagoons. During courtship they caress each

other with their flippers. Migration

mate

arrive at the

same

time.

It

is

breeding grounds at the

thought that mating

people reach into their mouths and stroke their

sometimes involve as many as

tongues. Although tourism must be monitored to

that

ensure

it

does not cause the whales

distress or

disruption, people's desire to see such magnificent

creatures

in

their natural habitat

produces support for

the continued conservation of the gray whale. Their affectionate character has gained

Friendly

and

them many

curious, gray

small boats in the lagoons around

people scratch

mouth

to stroke

friends.

is

coordinated so that whales that are ready to

swim and

roll

may

five individuals

around together. Researchers

speculate that the extra whales

mating

rituals

pair together.

may

hold the

Females are sexually


WHALES AND DOLPHINS GRAY WHALE

make the

entire migration north;

find areas

where they can

stay

some may

and feed

for the

winter without going as far as the arctic seas.

Tourist Attraction The coastal migration of such amazing animals is

now

major tourist attraction.

a

whale-watching industry

so lucrative that the

is

California gray whales are

the

In fact,

now

safe from

hunting. Thousands of people travel to see

them every

and there are whale-watching

year,

viewpoints at strategic places on

cliff

tops

all

along the coast of California north to Oregon

and beyond. The whales' high public offers

them

profile

a secure future, but hunting

is

not

the only danger. Noise pollution from the

engines of big ships could have an adverse during the long migration, and

effect, especially

the

dumping

of

sewage

habitat. Also, the very

into the sea spoils their

same

popularity that has

helped save them from hunting may cause too

much

disturbance, especially at their calving

grounds. The number of Californian gray

whales

currently fairly stable, but

is

it

be monitored to guarantee continued

needs to survival.

During migration and the breeding season gray whales eat very

Š

When

first

mother's help

support the

born, gray whale calves

in

calf

When

a

at

if

all.

They

their

on her back

until

number

winter

is

can breathe unaided.

it

weeks and probably

of different males.

over, the

whales migrate

The Right-Handed Whale

G

ray

whales feed mainly on small organisms that

live

on the ocean

floor.

To feast on the abundant

supply of food, they dive to the seabed, turn on their

north, back to the cold waters

where they can

side,

find plentiful supplies of food.

On

found that most gray whales turn on

north

it

is

the return

the recently impregnated females

that lead the migration;

last

to leave the

and suck up mouthfuls of

Mothers and calves remain

the

lagoons for as

The right-hand

left.

scarred since

become

feeding, but

as strong as possible for the long

Swimming

at less

than 5 miles

parasites

it

it

is

on that

side of the

means

their right-hand

head placed on the

become worn

body

is

often

covering about 50 miles (80 km) a day. The

human

when

when

that there are fewer skin

side. Their

onto the right side bias

has been

scraped along the ocean floor

also

per hour (8 km/h), they travel along the coast,

trip of

their

It

and are sometimes shorter than those on

faster

long as they can to allow their offspring to

journey ahead.

their prey.

seafloor, the right-hand baleen plates

down

at the

With that side of

side to feed.

breeding grounds are the females with calves.

yearly round

on

live

reaching the surface to breathe. She will

receptive for about three

mate with

may need

little,

preference for turning

feeding

is

rather like the

toward right-handedness.

some gray whales may be

12,500 miles (20,000 km). Not

all

whales

will

95


SEA

MAMMALS

the store of blubber that

When

under

lies

third of their total

may have

body weight.

up to one-

lost

during the

is

It

summer

long daylight hours of the arctic

air),

and breaching (leaping out of the water).

They sometimes wave

summer

the whales arrive at their

feeding grounds, they

their skin.

that

water, almost

a flipper out of the

greeting. Grays also

like a

produce a wide variety of vocalizations, including grunts, clicks, moans, knocking

and

whistles. However, their

sounds do

the gray whales do most of their feeding. From

noises,

about May to November they gorge themselves

not appear to be as complex or socially

on the abundant supply

of food that surrounds

made

important as those

by other whales.

them. They store enough energy to allow themselves to survive for the

Conflicts with Killer

the year.

rest of

The gray whale's feeding method, plowing

Whales

Despite being almost twice their

size,

gray

,

through the sediment to find food, may help

whales are sometimes attacked by

increase the productivity of the ocean, since

and many bear the scars of past encounters

from the seabed. The whale's

releases nutrients

specialized feeding technique allows exploit the seasonal

abundance

it

of food present

Although they are primarily bottom

ice.

feeders, gray whales will also

planktonic creatures and small fish out

open water column, that graze

large

among

the

killer

calf.

in

whales

will

an attempt to get to

Grays are strong animals,

whales are nevertheless a serious

swim away

have shown that grays

or try to hide

recordings of

of kelp.

and swim

the more active of the

whale

killer

when

will

they hear

vocalizations.

tail

fluke

into shallow waters:

in

the

When

the tide

goes out, unable to maneuver themselves back

become stranded on

to deeper waters, they can

head out of the water to look

around), lobtailing (waving their

separate the pair

the defenseless

killer

Whales sometimes become disorientated

whales and are often seen spy-hopping

(lifting their

try to

threat. Experiments

as well as the invertebrates

on long fronds

Grays are

in

most vulnerable. A pack of

but

sometimes eat

whales,

with these predators. Females and their calves are

to

floor after the retreat of the arctic

on the ocean pack

it

killer

the beach. Without the water's support large

whales are crushed by

own weight and

their

cannot breathe. Being coastal, the gray whale

The Rescue of Baby Gray

J. J.

the

ease

relatively at

in

appears able to survive such strandings. wait quietly for the tide to

n January

^

1

gray whale

Marina del

1997, a seven-day-old female baby

1,

was found beached on

Rey, California.

It is

a seashore

possible that she

in

and

herself.

The baby was

taken to

SeaWorld, where she was named

memory

of Judi Jones,

member

been

a

J.

J.

J. J.

hours to survive. after she

J. J.

when

in,

are lucky

a

It

is

retreat to the shallows as a killer

whales.

predominantly coastal species, the

was extremely vulnerable

to the

whaling industry. Today their coastal habits help protect

the hard work paid off when, 14

was rescued from the beach,

all

may

It

to survive, but groups are able to

gray whale

had to be fed every three or four

All

come back

Not

defense against attacks from

As

prominent

it.

withstand a few hours out of the water.

in

of "Friends of the Sea Lion." Being such a

young whale,

months

who had

enough

will refloat

thought they may

her mother had not bonded, and that the stranded

baby then accidentally beached

the water

is

shallow waters and often

was

released back into the wild. During her stay at

them because they

tourist draw.

Many

creatures as they for

are such a

huge

flock to see the magnificent

make

the extensive migration

which they have become renowned.

SeaWorld she had gained about 7 tons (6.3 tonnes)

and grown over 18

Š A gray whale

feet (5.5 m).

whale then

96

SEE ALSO Whale,

Killer/Orca 3:62

will

fall

lift

calf breaching.

half or

back on

its

During breaching a

more of its body out of the

side into the sea.

water,


mr

kT sl

f

'

jr***

\iS' l7-£


SEA

MAMMALS

Blue i

Whale

Balaenoptera

musculus

i

I

Scientific

name

Balaenoptera musculus

Family

Balaenopteridae

Order

Cetacea

Bigger than any of the dinosaurs, the blue whale

creature ever

on the

is

the largest

known

have lived

to

earth.

than male

Weight

1

14-136 tons (100-120 tonnes), occasionally

blue whale

up to 216 tons (190 tonnes)

Key features Long, streamlined

whale

rorqual

Weighing more than 20 African elephants, the

—

earth.

largest

animal on earth; blue-gray with pale mottling; ridge runs along top of

flat,

The

gigantic

is

largest

—the biggest animal on

known

dinosaur,

Argentinosaurus huinculensis, was about "U"feet (30

m) long and weighed

89 tons

(81 tonnes), but the blue

1

00

massive

a

shaped head; 2 blowholes with fleshy splashguard; tapered flippers up to one-

been known to

seventh of body length; small, stubby dorsal flukes broad

fin; tail

Habits

and triangular

Shy and wary; mother and

whale has 108 feet

attain lengths of

(33 m) and weigh nearly 180 tons (163 tonnes).

A

calf travel

pumps

heart the size of a small car

roughly

together, otherwise tends to be solitary;

sometimes

larger

numbers found

together feeding or migrating; with

Breeding

fin

6 tons (5.4 tonnes) of blood around the body. close

may

associate

whales

enough

mouth

Single calf born after gestation period of

10-1

1

Weaned

months.

sexually

mature

under 5 years

at

7-8 months;

at 5 years in

in

males.

May

human

live

In fact,

Loud, low rumbling

calls

Principally

krill,

80-100

team could stand

much

incredible sizes by will

come

in all

as a school bus.

grow to such

making use of the

feeding grounds. Their size

is

fertile

plentiful

polar

possible because

warmer their

grounds

tropical breeding

body

is

supported by water, and so they large, heavy,

and impractical

oceans of the world

bones that Status

The

on the tongue.

inside

supply of food present at their

closer to

do not require the Distribution Found

it.

so big that an entire

is

Blue whales have been able to

fish

polar feeding grounds and

and

to crawl through

whale

Abundant Food Supplies

shore to feed or breed; migrates between

subtropical

large

that travel long

but also other small

Mainly open ocean, but

is

the tongue alone weighs nearly 4 tons

(3.6 tonnes), as

crustaceans and

Habitat

for a

the dorsal aorta,

of the blue

football

distances underwater

Diet

artery,

females and just

years

Voice

The main

Population: 3,500;

lUCN Endangered; CITES

a land

animal of equivalent size

I

would need. Furthermore, support from the water

is

spread out evenly over the whole of

the whale's underside, not concentrated on the

bones of the hips and shoulders.

The blue whale has shape with

a girth that

adult right whale. But

a slim, streamlined is

less

when

than that of an

it

feeds the 80 to

100 throat grooves, which run from the chin to the navel, expand and increase the whale's

volume

98

SEE ALSO Whale, Southern

Right 3:108

as

it

takes

in

36 to 45 tons (33 to


© An underwater view

41 tonnes) of food and water. Surprisingly, the

of a blue whale feeding.

largest creature in the

The throat grooves can

the smallest

expand

only a couple of inches (about 5 cm) long, but

broad, "U "-shaped head from the tip of the

they are the main energy source of blues. The

snout to the two distinct blowholes. The

to increase the

whale's volume, enabling it

to take in

immense

quantities of water krill— its

and

krill

krill.

ocean feeds on one of

These

tiny crustaceans are

huge mouthfuls of

are filtered out from

water by the whale's baleen

wide as the wingspan of flippers are slender

blowholes are surrounded by a prominent fleshy

whale's

blue color of

its

skin,

which

is

the slate-

mottled with gray

and white blotches. Algae sometimes attach themselves to the stomach of the whales, giving

them

a yellowish tinge.

The algae are

actually responsible for the animal's

nickname

of "sulphur bottom." Blue whales have a small dorsal fin

about three-quarters of the way

along the back.

It

is

tiny in relation to the rest

of the body, only about It

also varies

shaped. The

nostrils.

As well as being the

name from

in

1

5 inches (38

cm) high.

form from triangular to

tail

flukes are broad

The

single, raised

longitudinal ridge runs along the top of the

Nickname its

A

splashguard, which helps keep water out of the

plates.

main food.

The blue whale takes

a small aircraft.

and tapered.

sickle

—about as

blue whale

is

largest animal, the

also the loudest.

Its

calls are

emitted at a very low frequency and at a

volume

of

188

decibels.

human shout

is

engine at

blast

full

As

a comparison, a

only 70 decibels, and a is

barely

140

jet

decibels. Since

decibels increase by factors of 10, the whale's call

is

thousands of times louder than that of a

human. The loudness enables the sounds to travel for

many

miles underwater.

The

calls

are

highly structured, with long sequences of varied

sounds,

like

our sentences.

It

is

thought that

the "songs" are used to communicate with

99


MAMMALS

SEA

Other whales, especially during the breeding season. Effective communication

because blue whales are

important

is

thinly spread across

the world's seas, with each one having

hundreds of cubic miles of ocean to

itself.

Meeting to mate would be a very chancy

were

not for the

it

ability of

each other where they

are.

affair

the whales to

tell

Because the

intensely loud calls travel for thousands of miles in

deep water, there

the possibility that blue

is

whales could even communicate across whole oceans.

addition to communication the blue

In

whale may use sound to navigate, bouncing echoes off the seabed.

Solitary Blues

seem

a strong

to be fairly solitary whales. There

bond between

mother and her

a

but otherwise they are found alone or

groups of two or three

we need

calf,

small

in

individuals. Larger

groups sometimes form However,

is

at

good feeding

to be cautious

when

places.

looking

at the social behavior of these creatures

because our perception of "solitary" may not

stay close together, since blue

be the same as that of the blue whale

occasionally the target of a pack of

itself.

Being such large animals, they require a great

what we may

deal of space. Therefore, as a lonely blue

own

whale may

perception, be

in

actually,

think of

from

whales that are only a few miles away. From time to time blue whales are found

In

breed and calve.

Little

is

drawn

abundant food.

warmer waters

in

is

unusually short for such a large animal, only 10 to

1

are

1

months.

When

the calves are born, they

about 18 to 20 feet (5.5 to 6 m) long and

weigh

1

.8

to 3,6 tons

(1

.6

to 3.2 tonnes).

mother produces over 450 pounds (200 milk every day to nourish her

I)

length.

The

back to the cold waters of the feeding grounds. are migratory, but

—such as the

(known

Pacific

waters off Costa Rica

as the "Costa Rican

Baja California

some

in

Dome") and

— blue whales are seen

not embark on the

full

all

some whales do

migration every year and

stay behind. Otherwise, the population

perhaps permanently resident there. also

off

year

It

is

could

be due to the seasonal overlap of

populations:

When

the Northern Hemisphere

whales migrate north to

their feeding grounds,

The

the Southern Hemisphere population replaces

of

them

Her milk

is

at the breeding grounds. Blue

have been observed feeding on

krill

whales off Baja

warm

rich

and creamy, containing 35 to 50 percent

California.

fat,

and the young

waters to support large enough quantities of

200 pounds (90

100

calf.

in

its

calves coincides with migration

round. That could be because

to

known about mating

the open seas. Pregnancy

at least nine times

weight and having doubled

areas

blue whales, since they are shy creatures and

hard to locate

weaned, weighing

Most blues

winter blue whales migrate from their

polar feeding grounds to

in

in

is

weaning of the

in

association with fin whales, probably

together by a shared interest

calf

calf will gain

kg) a day.

SEE ALSO Whale,

more than

The mother and

Killer/Orca 3:62

calf

krill

and

It

this

is

unusual for the

may

explain

©

An

aerial

blue whale

killer

whales. After only seven or eight months the

birth

its

"company" with other

whale calves are

breeding

why some whales

view of a

and two

calves off the Pacific

coast of Mexico.


seem

to remain

available, they

all

year round: Since food

do not need

Big Appetites!

is

to undertake the

exhausting journey to the polar feeding grounds, hence saving precious energy reserves. Despite their

size,

When

swimmers:

blue whales are fast

to

quickly through the water, faster than

large body.

its

It

gorges

itself

at

its

polar feeding grounds,

krill.

At the

fertile

polar

waters the whales eat an estimated 3 to 3.6 tons (2.7 to 3.2 tonnes)

speeds of over 30 miles per hour (48 km/h).

them

he gigantic blue whale requires huge amounts of energy to sustain

taking advantage of the plentiful supply of

alarmed, they can reach

Their streamlined bodies allow

T

every day, the equivalent of about 40 million

move

most

krill.

Some

blue whale

populations fast once they leave the feeding grounds because there is

not such a plentiful supply of food

in

the

warmer waters where

ships.

But they rarely leap out of the water,

they breed. Also, they must dedicate their time to mating. Instead of

unlike

many

feeding, they obtain energy from their vast store of blubber

of their smaller relatives. They are

also timid,

which, combined with their

swiftness,

makes them hard

may weigh 54

to approach.

also surprisingly hard to locate

It

(fat)

that

tons (49 tonnes) per animal.

is

them, since they

tend to stay submerged for long periods, only surfacing for a diving for

few minutes

to breathe, then

up to 45 minutes. As

known about the everyday

life

a result,

little is

of blues.

Favored Catch

unable to catch

it,

its

enormous

size

advantage. Whalers were

so the species

was spared

the massive exploitation suffered by other

whales. However, the introduction of faster boats, improved whaling techniques,

and the

depleted stocks of more traditional catches led to the blue In fact,

up almost 90 percent of the whaling

whale becoming the favored

the animal's large size

strong motive to hunt

about 120 barrels of

it.

oil

now

target.

provided a

Whalers could extract

from

a single blue

made

industry's

total catch.

The slaughter peaked

when more

than 30,000 blue whales

to the whaling industry.

Before the mid-1800s the blue's

and speed were to

whale; and being so valuable, they soon

1931,

in

fell

victim

The International

Whaling Commission banned hunting of blue whales

much

in

1966,

when numbers had

that the species

influence of other

was

now

However, there are

declined so

close to extinction.

concerns about the

human

activities

Š

Blue whales usually

stay underwater for 10 to

on blue

20 minutes at a time

whales, such as pollution, habitat degradation,

before surfacing to take

and increased

a dozen or so breaths.

Some people low

levels of acoustic disturbance.

fear that

for a recovery to

be a tragedy

become

if

this

numbers have

happen.

It

fallen

would

too

certainly

phenomenal animal were

extinct because of

human

to

exploitation.

With each exhalation they spray a jet of water as high as 30 feet (9 m).


SEA

MAMMALS

Humpback Whale

Megaptera novaeangliae

and

Powerful, graceful,

playful, the

the gentle giant of the oceans. Scientific

name Megaptera

Family

Balaenopteridae

Order

Cetacea

songs,

ft (1

As well as being

Male

1.5-1 5 m).

also well

it is

The humpback whale

known

as the acrobat of the seas.

so called because

is

it

raises

generally slightly smaller than female

and bends

back

its

dorsal

About 34 tons (30

Key features

maximum 55

fin.

Its

preparation for a dive,

in

hump found

accentuating the

tonnes);

in

front of the

name, Megaptera, means

scientific

"giant wings" and refers to the whale's

tons (48 tonnes)

enormous

Large, stocky baleen whale; upper

body

flippers. In

an adult whale the

can reach 16 feet (5 m) long, equivalent

flippers

black or blue-black, underside white; long flippers;

raised

head and front edge of

lumps

different

Habits

More

in

social

called tubercles;

flippers

have

rarely

which narrows

large groups to

fluke.

feed and breed; moves individually or parties of

Breeding

One

produced every

1

May

1

months; sexually mature live

40-50

at

Complex underwater songs

Seasonal feeders on

krill

rapidly

toward the huge

tall

in

having fleshy bumps. These knobby lumps,

known

as tubercles, are found on top of the

head, on the lower jaw, and on the front edge

Weaned

4-6

years.

years, occasionally over

A

of their flippers.

70

consisting of

grunts, groans, rasps, twitters,

Diet

less

They are also unique among rorquals

of each,

Voice

length.

small

2 years after

gestation period of 11-12 months. at

in

2-3 within large groups

calf usually

body

have a more robust and

streamlined body than other rorqual whales,

than other rorqual whales, in

to almost a third of the total

Humpbacks

flukes

tail

every individual

seen alone; congregates

and

long, coarse hair

grows out

has been suggested that they

it

could provide an improved sense of touch.

and moos

(shrimplike

Parasite Host

crustaceans) and small fish

Humpback whales have Habitat

Oceanic; enters shallower tropical waters

rough, knobby skin.

in

bumps

cold waters the

winter for breeding

provide a

home

barnacles, which cannot attach to the Distribution Widely distributed; occurs seasonally

Population 30,000; lUCN Vulnerable; CITES

Uncommon and

In

for

smoother

in all

skin of other whales.

oceans and from the Arctic to Antarctic Status

One

species attaches

itself

deeply into the whale's skin so that only the I.

crown shows, while another

threatened

tubercles.

When

the

sits

on top of the

humpbacks move to

their

warmer breeding grounds, the barnacles drop off,

but

become

An is

where they were attached.

leaving scars

The whales are

their

now

fin

is

fluke

SEE ALSO Whale, Gray

3:92; Whale,

Mmke

3:106

free

infested by

from the barnacles,

whale

interesting feature of tail

flukes.

different

in

and dorsal

lice

instead.

humpback whales

Each whale has a uniquely

shaped and colored

102

is

admired for the production of amazing and complex

novaeangliae

Length: male 38-50

Size

humpback whale

tail fin.

Similarly,

each animal. fin

In fact,

the dorsal the

are as unique to each

tail


WHALES AND DOLPHINS HUMPBACK WHALE

individual

whale as

a fingerprint

is

human.

to a

Š

"Breaching"

is

one of

Researchers can use these features to identify,

the most spectacular

photograph, and catalog the whales, allowing

humpback

behaviors. The

each to be individually monitored. Wherever the

whales

almost their

whales turn up, they can be recognized from

whole bodies out of the

the color and shape of their therefore

becomes

tail

fluke.

lift

water, twisting as they

It

possible to track a whale's

movements around the ocean and provide

do

so,

and come crashing

down onto

their backs.

valuable information about migration, behavior,

breeding, and population sizes. Researchers often use the markings on the

name

tail

fluke to

name

the whales. Sometimes the

reflects

dangers faced by humpbacks: "Tidbit" has a

chunk of

its tail

missing from a

killer

whale attack, and "Lopsided" has lost

one-half of

its tail.

possibly as a '

from

result of injury

a ship's propeller. Ships

/

are a threat to

since the whales •fear of

little

them; they have even

been known to scratch the

humpbacks,

show

their

backs

hull of stationary vessels.

Feeding Grounds humpback whale spends cold polar feeding grounds.

It

the

summer

in

migrates to

coastal tropical or subtropical breeding areas

in

the winter, often traveling thousands of miles. is

It

thought that the whales do not cross the

eguator, so the populations of the Northern

and Southern Hemispheres are probably separate. The Pacific

humpbacks

do not mix

either,

physical differences

of the Atlantic sides,

of the Atlantic

and there are

between them: The

humpbacks

are white

and

also flippers

on both

sometimes with black markings. The

flippers of the Pacific

humpbacks

are black on

the upper side and white on the underside.

Humpbacks

are seasonal feeders, eating

amounts

krill,

of shrimplike

plankton, and

throughout the summer when they

stay

in

highly productive cold seas. During

in

the

warmer breeding grounds the

103


SEA

MAMMALS

whales do not feed, but instead spend

their

time mating and calving. They use energy stored as fat

the thick layers of blubber,

in

which they have

down

laid

summer

over

the

in

Humpbacks have

cold polar feeding grounds.

the most diverse and spectacular feeding

techniques of

all

baleen whales. They

sometimes hunt cooperatively, rounding up and gulping huge

large groups of prey

mouthfuls of water. The pleated throat grooves can expand, allowing large volumes of water to

be taken into the mouth. They expel the water

when

the

mouth

closes, sieving off the small

food items on the bristle-fringed baleen plates as the water

is

forced between them. The prey

remains trapped inside the whale's mouth,

method

ready to be swallowed. Another

feeding used by humpbacks netting.

The whales

beneath

their prey.

start to

.8

humpback whale

to 2.2 tons

.6

(1

a spiral

and traps In

all.

grounds an

at the polar feeding

average-sized

in

produce

them

allowing the whales to swallow

summer

bubble

out of their blowholes.

wall of bubbles surrounds the prey

It,

1

air

called

swim around

will

They then

bubbles by blowing

A

is

of

will

to 1.9 tonnes)

consume

ol'

prey over

©

Humpback whales

shot.

These loud noises are possibly used as

feeding

270 and 400 baleen

waters of the

scattered group of whales to keep

Chatham

with each other, or they might act as a warning

which are dark gray

plates,

and up to 26 inches (65 cm) long.

in

a

the cold

Straits,

southeastern Alaska.

Sea Acrobats

acrobatic displays.

behaviors

is

One

®

awe-inspiring

of the

most spectacular

the "breach." The whale uses

flukes to produce

method

signal.

of communication, enabling a

The acrobatic displays are whale-watching

attraction to

Humpback whales produce

enough upward

about two-thirds of

its

body

right

force to

its

lift

out of the

humpbacks sometimes

twist their bodies

How

the

humpback

Humpbacks

engulfed

in a

of water

(a);

mouthful water

is

plates,

and

and food held on

the plate's bristles

(b).

are slow

swim

touch

a major

in

summer.

swimmers and look

extremely graceful as they water. They

in

tourists off Hawaii

and the coast of Massachusetts

feeds: Plankton are

sieved through baleen

water. During these amazing leaps the

move through

the

individually or in small social

groups that tend to be family units of about three or four. The groups keep

in

contact with

other similar-sized groups by sound signals.

appear to spin out of the water. They then

Their calls can travel for hundreds of miles

come

crashing

underwater. Large, loose groups of animals

huge

splash.

down on

It

is

play, or

it

their backs with a

not understood

perform such a stunt

it

why whales

gather for breeding or feeding. However, most

could be purely for

associations are temporary, only lasting a

might serve as a courtship display or

to loosen skin parasites. Other behaviors

include

lifting

flipper-slaps,

the head or

tail

and head-slaps. Slapping the

SEE ALSO Whal

,

Bi ie

3:98

hours or perhaps days before the animals on.

out of the water,

water surface produces a very loud noise

104

rifle

about 120 days. The humpback has between

like

few

move

The exceptions are the strong bonds

between

a

mother and her

offspring,

and some

long-term associations between individuals a

living

together at the feeding grounds.


WHALES AND DOLPHINS HUMPBACK WHALE

by circulating

chambers

through the tubes and

air

humpback

of the

The songs

of their respiratory system.

varied social calls

are the longest in

and most

the animal kingdom.

Recordings of the magical yet eerie songs are sold

around the world. Hence, the

all

serenading humpbacks have even reached

audiences beyond their Despite

whale

its

own

humpback

popularity today, the

threatened by

is still

kind.

humans

in

several

ways, the most obvious being whaling.

been hunted

whalebone.

for centuries for

It

is

has

It

meat, and

its oil,

one of the whales to have

suffered most from whaling practices, since

slow swimmer and not

a

easily scared.

it

is

also

It

tends to frequent coastal waters, returning to the

same regions every

been easy to

year.

As

a result,

exploit. In recent times a

it

has

ban on

whaling has allowed humpback numbers to recover somewhat. Other threats to the

humpback

include marine pollution, depletion

of food resources by fishermen, drift

nets for fishing,

in

and the use of

which the whales can

become entangled.

Whale Songs One

most fascinating features

of the

humpback whales

made up

is

of grunts,

their songs.

moos,

groans that are organized are created by the

Humphrey the

of

and

rasps, twitters, in

sequences. Songs

They can be heard up to 30 miles (about

H

umpbacks migrate many

thousands of

humpback who,

close

range, vibrating through the hulls of passing

who

1985,

Both males and females can produce

sings.

it

is

mating

restricted to the

in

calls or territorial displays. All

a particular area sing the

October

in

swam more

miles (46

breeding season and so are thought to be the whales

same song, but

than 28

km) beyond the San

into

Francisco Bay and up the

Sacramento

River.

had got

on

lost

Humphrey

his

way

to the

Hawaiian breeding grounds.

songs vary between regions. The songs also

Thanks to the

efforts of

many

Humphrey was rescued

appear to change from one breeding season to

people,

the next. Whales do not have vocal cords, so

and returned to the open

is

not clear

how

they produce the songs.

It

—often

male

a

Golden Gate Bridge

thought to be only the male

Songs are generally

waters where they breed.

However, traveling such long distances does not

miles.

Humphrey was

sounds, but

tropical

always go as planned.

powerful that they can even be

felt at

miles from their cold, polar feeding

grounds to reach the warmer,

50 km) away. The sounds are so intense and

ships.

Humpback

They undertake one of the longest migrations of any animal

sequences being repeated

over and over again, sometimes for hours at a time.

Lost

These are

it

sea.

has

been suggested that they can produce sounds

105


SEA

MAMMALS

Minke Whale The minke whale

is

“c

most abundant of all

the

the

rorqual whales, although estimates of its total

numbers vaiy

widely. Unfortunately, that numerical

"success" has

made

target for the

whaling industry.

Common name Minke whale Scientific

name

Balaenoptera acutorostrata

Family

Balaenopteridae

Order

Cetacea

Size

Length: 23-33

The minke whale has many of the physical (7-10 m). Female larger

ft

is

It

The rorquals are

its

large whales;

and even though

small size.

top of head appears

central ridge

and

color with white

in

flat

with a raised

distinctive pointed snout:

relatively short flippers,

(10 m) long.

Its

quite robust

in

minke can grow up to 33 feet

larger cousins

tall

streamlined body

sometimes

found larger

in

dorsal

—the general body shape

calf

groups of 2 or 3

is

when

its

body

size,

it

;

has the

when

groups formed

tallest dorsal fin of

Minkes have

born every 2 years after gestation

period of about 10 months.

Weaned

at

months: sexually mature at 6-7 years. live

its

fin

feeding: can be quite inquisitive

One

actually

similar to that of a dolphin

viewed underwater. Relative to Solitary or

is

comparison with most of

often with white

somewhat

band near base:

4-5

May

baleen whales.

which

—only one-eighth of the

body length. Their

skin

is

and they have

barnacles,

all

slender, paddlelike flippers,

are relatively short

smooth with no a distinctive head,

up to 60 years

ending Voice

all

the smallest

Smallest and most abundant of the rorqual

belly:

Breeding

is

it

tons (6-10 tonnes)

1

whales: black or dark gray

Habits

from

easily distinguished

the others by

of the family, the

Key features

most rorqual whales,

characteristics typical of

flat-topped head.

7-1

<

such as a large mouth with baleen plates and a

than male

Weight

minke an easy

the

Some

in

a narrow, pointed snout. Like other

and pings

grunts, clicks, thumps,

baleen whales, they have a double blowhole. Diet

Filter

and

feeders: mainly

fish,

but

will

krill

(planktonic shrimp)

eat squid

plankton other than their favorite

Habitat

and there may be three

varied,

krill

or even four subspecies.

Coastal and offshore polar, temperate, and tropical waters:

regions, but

seems

to prefer cooler

sometimes migrates

Distribution Widely distributed throughout

all

the oceans

unlike

is

found

virtually

worldwide; but

most other baleen whales,

it

does not

appear to undertake extensive seasonal

Population: 500,000-1 million: Risk:

Home Ranges The minke

of the world

Status

Minkes are very

and types of

near threatened: CITES

lUCN Lower

migrations.

I

spring

Some minkes

move

and summer and south

winter, but studies have

appear to stay areas,

will

known

all

as

in

shown

north

the

fall

in

and

that others

year round within certain

home

ranges. They are not

considered a coastal species, but generally

will

be found within 100 miles (160 km) of land.

They are also known to enter

and

fjords,

fields

and

SEE ALSO

Dolphin,

Common

move

farther into polar ice

than most other rorquals.

up the Thames

106

will

estuaries, bays,

3:68; Whale, Blue 3:98, Whale,

River

One even swam

through the center of

Humpback 3:102


Š A minke whale

in a

London. Minkes also seem to

fjord in Antarctica.

The

baleen whales

in

from other

differ

that they are fairly solitary

whaler, Minke,

would frequently

fish for

were smaller than the permitted

that

time the small whales

came

whales

size. In

be known

northern animals belong

animals, being seen singly or

to the subspecies

aggregations can occur on feeding grounds.

Minke's whales. Later the

southern form.

Inquisitive Behavior

smallest of the rorquals. However, small size

(subspecies bonaerensis),

Minkes, unlike most rorquals, are inquisitive

also the

animals. They can often be seen spy-hopping:

the most abundant of today's rorquals. For

poking their heads above water to look around.

many

acutorostrata. The

often lacks a pale

on

its flippers.

scientists

in pairs.

Larger

band

regard these as

They

will

sometimes approach and

linger near

People on polar expeditions have been

separate species. Another

ships.

smaller southern form

able to approach and pat minke whales that

may be

have been trapped

either a

subspecies or species.

as

formally

given to the minke whale, since they are the

main

Some

to

name was

among

the pack

ice.

Minke

whales are also quite acrobatic and can leap out of the water relatively fast

travel

like a

dolphin. They are

swimmers and when

it

was

whale was the captivity.

An

only for a

first

few weeks,

a

can

was kept

in

in

a netted

is

named

much

them

is

in

larger species.

The minke only became economically attractive to the

numbers

whaling industry

of the larger species

when

began to

decline.

Threatened populations also began to receive whalers hunted the

unprotected minke. Today minke whales are

common.

Their population

between 500,000 and their

1

is

still

estimated at

million. Unfortunately,

abundance makes them vulnerable to

whalers

who want

the whaling ban

lifted

to

allow them to hunt minkes. Several thousand

area of sea, but soon escaped.

The minke whale

favor of the

quite

minke

rorqual ever to be kept

individual

years whalers tended to ignore

legal protection, so

startled

up to 19 miles per hour (30 km/h).

Although

main reason why the minke whale

is

after an

infamous 18th-century Norwegian whaler. The

are killed anyway, supposedly for scientific study, but they

still

end up

for sale as meat.

107


Southern Right

Whale

Eubalaena australis

Southern right whales are surprisingly acrobatic and Common name Scientific

name

Southern

whale % %

Eubalaena

Family

Balaenidae

Order

Cetacea

australis

playful for such rotund

ft

and stocky

sometimes be seen raising

creatures.

the water.

(14-18 m). Female larger

The origin of the name southern right whale

than male

stems from the fact that whalers believed they

were the

some

"right" whales to catch. Unlike

thinner species

whose bodies

sink after being

harpooned, the large, stocky body of the (50-56 tonnes)

when

southern right whale floats

Key features

Stocky, rotund baleen whale; large

body color black to dark brown with

irregular

white patch on

belly; large flippers

are narrow at the base; broad

Habits

Single female

is

mated by

commonly found sometimes

in

12;

swimmers and

live

3,

relatively

combination of such factors meant that they

even larger

were an

attractive target for whalers.

grounds

Knobby Growths As

mature

at

at

about 10

4-8 months; years.

May

sexually

live

to

a short, fat baleen

Diet

Tiny shrimp (copepods),

of arctic waters. Both species

have a large head that

typically a third of

is

length of the entire body. larval

whales have

in

cold antarctic seas; migrates

in

Southern Hemisphere;

mainly between 20 and 60°S

Status

Population: in total;

lUCN Vulnerable; CITES

similarities, right

a result of the (callosities)

may be fewer than 7,000

flippers.

Despite their

in

winter to warmer coastal waters to breed

Distribution Polar regions

addition, both

body coloring and

similar dark

broad flukes and Feeds

In

the

crustaceans,

and other small plankton Habitat

fin,

the southern right whale closely resembles the

bowhead whale

Burping noises and moans

whale with no dorsal

90-100

years

Voice

easy to hunt. The

but

gestation period of approximately 11-12

Weaned

meat, and

close to the shore, which

Single calf born about every 3 years after

months.

oil,

baleen. Southern right whales are also slow

makes them

groups of 2 or

at feeding

provides a plentiful supply of

fluke

several males;

groups of up to

groups may form

Breeding

in

tail

and

head

with lumpy projections: broad back, no dorsal fin;

dies

it

animals

actually

on

whales are

easily identifiable as

knobby outgrowths of hard their heads.

born with these

skin

The whales are

callosities already

formed on the upper and lower jaw, near the

I

blowhole, and above the eye. The most

prominent patch snout and

is

located on the tip of the

is

known

as the bonnet.

and barnacles inhabit the

Whale

callosities,

them appear white, orange,

lice

making

yellow, or pink.

Callosities are a useful aid to scientists, since

they are unique

in

shape and pattern. Individual

whales can therefore be recognized wherever they turn up and the

movements

of right

whales can be tracked across the oceans.

108

SEE ALSO Whale, Bowhead

3:1 10

They can

their tail flukes in the air

move through

like sails as they

46-59

Length:

Size

right


are extraordinarily

acrobatic creatures. They

can often be seen breaching up to

Although southern and northern

Š

whales are

Southern right

similar,

whales resemble

distinct species

bowhead

isolation

whales, but

they appear to be two

appearance (the southern

differences

has fewer callosities on

on

their heads.

the

The growths are inhabited by whale

and

barnacles.

lower

lice

lip).

in

its

right

head and more on

While they migrate

at the

same

in

its

time,

two populations never mix because they

always traveling

are

summer

New

feeding

in

flipper-slapping. In addition, right

whales

sail,

raising their

through the water.

might be a

It

them

In

thought that

is

move

sailing

whales can

playful activity, since the

doing

it all

over again.

waters southern right whales

Brazilian

international treaties have protected

killed in Brazil until

Right

the

waters of the Arctic and Antarctic.

Project

In

1973,

when

the

last

whaling

the early 1980s the Right

was

set

up

in Brazil

to study

and

The importance of protecting the whales was last

understood, and

in

local protection.

and elsewhere, the southern

swimmers and have

population

is

them

full

Freed from persecution here

Despite the fact that they are slow, lumbering

whales

at

1995 the government

of the state of Santa Catarina gave

Sailors

a stocky build, right

since

aid the recovery of the remaining population.

animal in

station closed.

Whale

abundance of

prey, the smaller species of

them

1935, southern right whales continued to be

to the

summers between

plankton. The greatest concentrations are

Whale

to

almost to extinction. Despite the fact that

distribution mirrors the

cool, fertile

flukes at right

the Southern Ocean.

somewhere along Cape Cod

main

tail

angles to the wind and using

have been hunted since the 18th century,

Cape Cod and southern Newfoundland.

their

out of the

Zealand, and spends the

Carolines and spend their

whale

above the

and

In

winter northern right whales are probably centered

tail

water),

coasts of southern America, South Africa,

and

their flippers

whales can

be seen returning to where they started and

opposite directions. The

southern right whale generally winters off the

Australia,

a row. Right

water, lobtailing (holding their

from each other. There are also

of hard skin, called

in

waving

also be seen

because of their geographical

have knobby outgrowths

callosities,

10 times or more

right

now showing

a

right

whale

slow increase.

109


SEA

MAMMALS

Bowhead Whale Common name Bowhead Scientific

name

The

whale

Balaena mysticetus

Family

Balaenidae

Order

Cetacea

Bowheads are

Female larger than male

Key features Stocky whale,

to 0.3 cm) long.

(0.1

such a large

body, the whales need to eat about

broad

fin,

whales that

tiny planktonic

Scientists estimate that to sustain

in

color with irregular white patch on chin;

curved head; no dorsal

and other

krill

renowned for

also

LARGE, HEAVILY BUILT

feed mainly on

0.04 to 0.1 inches

blue-black to dark gray

It is

shrimp. Most of the prey they take are only

68-1 1 4 tons (60-1 00 tonnes)

large,

around icefloes and sometimes does headstands

on the sea floor

Size Length: average

Weight

slow-moving, and placid bowhead whale

large,

lives

adult about 56 feet (17 m).

Balaena mysticetus

14 tons

1

tail

(100 tonnes) of the tiny crustaceans every flukes

and

flippers; small

jaw; largest baleen plates of

whales, about 12

Habits

Large groups

(3.6

in

Of

baleen

all

m) long

may form when

generally found

may

ft

migrating, but

numbers

feet (4.8

m) have been recorded. They are

carried within huge, arching jaws that give the

3-4 years

name. The head

gestation period of about 12-16 months.

Weaned

third of the total

May

at

9-12 months; females

at 10-1 5 years,

possibly

live

males

at

1

sexually

5-20

years.

big to

body

length.

house the huge baleen

is

—the

origin

It

actually one-

has to be so

needed to

filters

over 200 years

exploit such tiny prey.

Voice

appearance

a curved, bowlike

after

of the whale's

mature

the

(about 3.6 m) long, but lengths of nearly 16

head Single calf born every

bowhead has

to

coordinate their feeding

Breeding

the baleen whales the

all

largest baleen plates, typically over 12 feet

small parties of 3 or fewer;

also gather in large

year.

eyes set at angle of

Highly vocal, produces

many sounds

7 octaves; large selection of calls

The body looks rotund,

covering

being relatively short, only about twice the

and songs

width of the broad

tail

flukes. All

bowheads

and other invertebrates

Diet

Krill

Habitat

Arctic

have an irregular white patch on their chin with pack

and subarctic waters generally near

ice,

often

in

Distribution Lives exclusively

in

the Arctic;

known

area, north of Europe,

and

in

for their acrobatics, yet the

courtship displays of

bowhead whales can

in

the the

Okhotsk, Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas

Status

involve lifting their

tails into

the

air

as

if

they

were doing headstands.

Population: uncertain, but probably only

about 10,000 animals; lUCN Endangered; CITES

Arctic Residents

I

The only

whale that

large

and subarctic shares the

is

resident, the

same

adapted to

living close

determines

is

exclusively an Arctic

bowhead

to sea its

ice,

Living in

in

3:80; Narwhal 3:84; Whale,

fall

it

is

retreats

in

the

and

as the sea freezes over.

such cold waters, the bowheads need

insulation to

SEE ALSO Beluga

the

and

and

migratory

behavior. Migrations are northward

spring as the ice cracks

southward

often

areas as belugas and narwhals.

this factor that

It

110

it.

They are not known to

occur between Canada and Greenland

Hudson Bay

through

a "necklace" of black spots running

shallow water

keep them warm. Help

Humpback 3:102

is

provided

its longevity.


WHALES AND DOLPHINS BOWHEAD WHALE

and baleen. The proceeds from the capture of

just

one

bowhead could cover the operating

costs of

whaling ship for a whole season.

a small

In

the

middle of the 19th century there were at least

50,000 bowhead whales, but they were hunted

by their blubber,

which can be up to 28 inches

Š A bowhead whale

thick.

It

diving under ice in the

good

hearing, which they can use

Arctic Ocean.

Bowheads

is

cm)

(71

thought that bowheads have very

conjunction with their

calls

the dark, ice-covered waters

to live exclusively in

They are also renowned

in

which they

live.

for their ability to break

up to 12 inches (30 cm)

arctic distribution

and

it

was estimated

fallen to just 3,800.

ice

allowing

them

themselves to breathe,

sometimes make mistakes and can become

can

they can break through

trapped

indigenous people.

ice

subarctic

up to 12 inches

in

thick,

to breathe. However, they

do

small ice-free areas that are

surrounded by impenetrable

still

be

killed in

exclusively in the

their

body

made

difficult. Reliable

fat reserves

during the winter. They were thought to feed

live

is

manage

appears that bowheads

baleen plates. Closer studies have

and on the seabed

in

than 100 feet (30 m)

in

midwater

shallow waters of in

less

They

also provide large quantities of

a viable population.

time. Special interest

problem

live

and

However,

it

an unusually long

was aroused when

harpoon points not used since the 1870s were discovered

was found

they are slow swimmers and relatively easy to oil

in

their relative

embedded

the blubber of

in

modern

whales. Using age-determination techniques,

depth.

Whalers persecuted bowheads because

catch.

and

for conservationists trying to preserve

by skimming the water surface, allowing

their

numbers

lacking, creating a

to collect prey as they strained the water

that they also feed both

only about 6,000

information on mortality and

reproductive rates

them

shown

still

studying the species very

solely

through

to hunt

illegal

combination of the harsh environment

scarcity has

Bowheads feed almost

1969

the traditional hunts of

which the bowheads

Feeders

summer, surviving on

was made

to 12,000 animals. Nevertheless, small

A

ice fields.

(30 cm) thick.

Summer

In

that the population had

It

be recovering, there are

through

and

rather patchy.

bowheads. Although numbers are thought to

waters. To enable

Arctic

now

is

wide

result, their

they were classified by the lUCN as Endangered,

in

to navigate through

are the only large whales

almost to extinction. As a

that of

one was about the other

six

newly

90, four

killed

it

bowheads,

were 135 to 180, and

may have been

over 200 years old!

111


SEA

MAMMALS

List

of Species

The following

lists all

M. schauinslandi Hawaiian monk

species of

seal

B. bairdii Baird's

Ommatophoca

pinnipeds, sirenians, and cetaceans:

O. rossii Ross seal

Order Pinnipedia Seals and sea lions

Pagophilus P groenlandicus (Phoca groenlandica)

FAMILY OTARIIDAE

Phoca P largha Spotted

Harp Eared seals

Arctocephalus American

A. australis South

fur seal

New

Zealand fur seal A. galapagoensis Galapagos fur seal A. gazella Antarctic fur seal (Kerguelen A. forsteri

fur seal)

Cape

A. townsendi

fur seal

seal)

(Phoca) sibirica Baikal seal

(Amsterdam

seal (Alaskan fur

seal)

Mesoplodon

jubatus

E.

Steller's

sea lion (northern sea

lion)

Trichechus T inunguis Amazonian manatee (South American manatee)

manatus West

Indian

manatee

(Caribbean manatee) T senegalensis West African manatee (Senegal manatee)

Neophoca N.

dnerea Australian sea

FAMILY DUGONGIDAE Dugong

lion

Otaria

South American sea lion (southern sea Phocarctos P hookeri New Zealand sea lion O. flavescens (0. byronia)

(Hooker's sea

lion)

(sea

cow

or sea pig)

lion)

Toothed whales

FAMILY PHYSETERIDAE

Odobenus

Sperm whale

rosmarus Walrus

Physter P. catodon (macrocephalus) Sperm whale (cachalot, spermacet whale, pot whale, sea-guap)

FAMILY PHOCIDAE True seals

Cystophora

FAMILY KOGIIDAE Pygmy sperm whales

seal

Erignathus barbatus Bearded seal Halichoerus H. grypus Gray seal Histriophoca H. (Phoca) fasdata Ribbon E.

Kogia breviceps Pygmy sperm whale (lesser sperm whale or lesser cachalot) K. simus Dwarf sperm whale (Owen's

K.

seal

pygmy whale)

Hydrurga H. leptonyx

Leopard seal

FAMILY ZIPHIIDAE

Leptonychotes

L weddellii Weddell seal Lobodon L cardnophagus Crabeater Mirounga

Berardius seal

B.

seal

112

arnuxii Arnoux's

seal

beaked whale

(southern beaked whale, southern four-toothed whale, southern giant

bottlenose whale.

Monachus M. monachus Mediterranean monk

unnamed

M. bahamondi Described in 1995 and known only from cranial remains M. bidens Sowerby's beaked whale (North Sea beaked whale) M. bowdoini Andrew's beaked whale deepcrest beaked whale) M. carihubbsi Hubb's beaked whale densirostris Blainville's

beaked whale

M. europaeus Gervais's beaked whale (Antillean or Gulf-Stream beaked whale) M. ginkgodens Gingko-toothed beaked whale (Japanese beaked whale) M. grayi Gray's beaked whale (scamperdown or southern beaked whale) M. hectori Hector's beaked whale (New Zealand beaked whale, skew-beaked whale) M. layardii Strap-toothed whale (straptoothed beaked whale or Layard's beaked whale) M. mirus True's beaked whale (wonderful beaked whale) M. peruvianus Pygmy beaked whale (Peruvian or lesser beaked whale) M. stejnegeri Stejneger's beaked whale (saber-toothed, Bering Sea, or North Pacific beaked whale)

Tasmacetus

Beaked whales

M. angustirostris Northern elephant M. leonina Southern elephant seal

type specimen to compare is available, the species

(dense beaked whale)

Suborder Odontocea

Walrus

Hooded

until a

with others will remain

(arch-beaked whale)

FAMILY ODOBENIDAE

C. cristata

recovered, this remains speculation;

and

M.

Order Cetacea Whales and dolphins

californianus California sea lion

0.

dugong Dugong

lion)

(Galapagos sea

is based on about 30 sightings in the eastern tropical Pacific. They may represent living records of M. bahamondi, although until a stranded animal is

(splay-toothed, Bowdoin's, or

Dugong D.

Zalophus Z.

species "A." The

designation of this species

T.

Eumetopias

flathead)

Indopacetus pacificus Longman's beaked whale (Pacific or Indo-Pacific beaked whale)

Mesoplodon

Manatees

Island fur seal)

H. planifrons

I.

A. tropicalis Subantarctic fur seal

Callorhinus C ursinus Northern fur

whale, flathead) Southern bottlenose whale (Antarctic bottlenose whale,

seal (largha seal)

FAMILY TRICHECHIDAE

Guadeloupe

ampullatus Northern bottlenose

whale (North Atlantic bottlenose

fur seal (South African

or Australian fur seal)

whale)

Hyperoodon H.

Order Sirenia Dugongs and manatees

A. philippii Juan Fernandez fur seal A. pusillus

seal

P vitulina Harbor seal (common Pusa P (Phoca) caspica Caspian seal P. (Phoca) hispida Ringed seal P.

beaked whale

(northern or giant four-toothed whale, northern or North Pacific bottlenose

New

Zealand whale)

T shepherdi Shepherd's beaked whale (Tasman beaked whale or Tasman whale) Ziphius Z. cavirostris Cuvier's beaked whale (goose-beaked or goosebeak whale)


LIST

FAMILY

MONODONTIDAE

Pseudorca

Beluga and narwhal

killer

whale

Sousa Delphinapterus

Monodon M. monoceros Narwhal

FAMILY PHOCOENIDAE

P (Australophocaena) dioptrica Spectacled porpoise P phocoena Harbor porpoise P.

sinus Vaquita

P.

spinipinnis Burmeister's porpoise

Phocoenoides dalli Dali's

porpoise

phocaenoides

Fin less

porpoise

FAMILY DELPHINIDAE Dolphins

Cephalorhynchus C commersonii Commerson's dolphin (piebald dolphin)

hump-backed whale hump-backed dolphin

Indian

B.

musculus Blue whale Fin whale

physalus

Megaptera M. novaeangliae Humpback whale

FAMILY BALAENIDAE

Tucuxi

fluviatilis

Stenella 5. attenuate Pantropical spotted dolphin 5. dymene Clymene dolphin (shortsnouted spinner dolphin) 5. coeruleoalba Striped dolphin (euphrosyne or blue-white dolphin) 5. frontalis Atlantic spotted dolphin S. longirostris Spinner dolphin

bredanensis Rough-toothed dolphin Tursiops T aduncus Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin T. truncatus Bottlenose dolphin

Right whales

Balaena B.

mysticetus

Bowhead whale

Eubalaena E.

glacialis

E.

australis

Northern right whale Southern right whale

FAMILY NEOBALAENIDAE Pygmy right whale

S.

Caperea C.

marginata Pygmy

right

whale

FAMILY PLATANISTIDAE River dolphins

eutropia Black dolphin (Chilean or

Platanista

white-bellied dolphin) C. heavisidii

C

feuz/7 Atlantic

Steno

Neophocaena

C.

plumbea

S.

S.

Phocoena

N.

S.

B.

Sotalia

Porpoises

P.

chinensis Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin

5.

Beluga (white whale)

D. leucas

brydei Bryde's whale (formerly regarded as subspecies of B. edeni) B. edeni Bryde's whale B.

crassidens False

P.

OF SPECIES

Heaviside's dolphin

hectori Hector's dolphin

P gangetica Ganges dolphin (susu) P. minor Indus dolphin

Delphinus D. capensis

Long-beaked

common

FAMILY LIPOTIDAE Yangtze River dolphin

dolphin D. delphis

Common

dolphin

Lipotes

(saddleback dolphin) D. tropicalis

Arabian

common

vexillifer

L.

dolphin

Feresa F. attenuate Pygmy

killer whale Globicephala G. macrorhynchus Short-finned pilot whale G. melas Long-finned pilot whale

Yangtze River dolphin

(whitefin dolphin or

baiji)

FAMILY INIIDAE Amazon dolphin Inia

geoffrensis

I.

Amazon

dolphin (boto)

(pothead whale)

Grampus

FAMILY PONTOPORIIDAE

G. griseus Risso's dolphin (gray dolphin)

La Plata dolphin

Lagenodelphis L.

hosei Fraser's dolphin (Sarawak dolphin)

Pontoporia P blainvillei La

Plata dolphin

(Franciscana)

Lagenorhynchus L.

acutus* Atlantic white-sided dolphin

L.

albirostrls

L.

australis Peale's dolphin (black-

White-beaked dolphin

chinned dolphin) L. crudger Hourglass dolphin L. obliguidens Pacific white-sided

Suborder Mysticeti Toothed whales

FAMILY ESCHRICHTIIDAE Gray whale

dolphin

L obscurus Dusky dolphin Lissodelphis L. borealis Northern right whale dolphin L. peronii Southern right whale dolphin Orcaella O. brevirostris Irrawaddy dolphin

Eschrichtius E. robustus Gray whale (California gray whale or devilfish)

FAMILY BALAENOPTERIDAE Rorquals

Orcinus O. orca Killer

whale

(orca)

Peponocephala P.

electra

Melon-headed whale (many-

toothed blackfish)

Balaenoptera B.

acutorostrata Northern minke whale

B.

bonaerensis Southern minke whale

B.

borealis Sei

whale

113


SEA

MAMMALS

Glossary Words

small capitals refer to

in

other entries

in

Carnassial (teeth) opposing pair

adapted to

of teeth especially

the glossary.

shear with a cutting (scissorlike)

Adaptation features animal that adjust

to

edge;

—

e.g.,

camouflage

coloration

Adaptive radiation when group of

members

(e.g,,

a

closely related animals

of a family) have

evolved differences from each other so that they can survive

in

mammals

in living

arrangement

its

may be produced

environment;

by evolution

it

of an

grown animal

Echolocation using echoes to detect objects by bouncing

numbers

each half of the upper and

lower molar

numbers are always presented

used as a food source by

the order: incisor

scavengers

PREMOLAR

Cecum

figure

a blind sac in the

opening out from

is

13/3,

opening by a short duct either anus or on either

side of

very large;

mammals the

is

it

end of the cecum

it

Aquatic

living in

water

appendix;

Arthropod animals with

is

often

site of

on

bacterial action

it

cellulose. is

in species

The

the

number

teeth to be found

herbivorous

intestines. In

MOLAR (M). The

(P),

example

the

in

whole system

a

and

plants, animals,

Edentate

toothless, but

name

used as group

final

in

their

A

for Carnivora

is

Cl /I, P4/4, M3/3 = 44

also

is

for

and armadillos

anteaters, sloths,

Endemic found

of

skull.

in

one

small geographical area

and

nowhere

only

else

Estrus the period

when eggs

Dentition an animal's set of

are released from the female's

teeth

ovaries,

Diastema

space between the

a

teeth, usually the incisors

with a

Ecosystem

environment interact in

canine (C),

(I),

the total

in

which

lower jaw are given. The

and large

just inside the

types of tooth

Carrion dead animal matter

Anal gland

(anal sac) a gland

all

them (used by

off

whales and bats mainly)

Carnivore meat-eating animal

has reached breeding age

that

of

sounds

which the

in

PREMOLAR and

typical

fully

a convention

summarizing the dental

arrangement,

the junction between the small

Adult a

and Scats

Dental formula

involved are the fourth upper first

Feces

favorable time of year

for

Carnivora, and the teeth

digestive tract

different niches

the

unique to

is

Droppings see

completes normal pregnancy. -Births are thus delayed until a

CHEEK TEETH.

It

iS

and

and she becomes

available for successful mating.

Estrous females are often referred to as "in heat" or as

typical of

reduced cecum the appendix

rodents and lagomorphs,

"receptive" to

jointed outer skeleton e.g., crabs

may

although also found

Eutherian mammals that give

and

function

Digit a finger or toe

birth to babies, not eggs,

Cellulose the material that

Digitigrade method of walking

rear

on the toes without the heel

pouch on the mother's

touching the ground. See

Extinction process of dying out

a

insects

retain

an antibacterial

Baleen horny substance

forms the

commonly known

Cementum

whalebone

as

and growing as plates

mouth like

the

in

of certain whales; used

a sieve for extracting

and the

variation within

Biomass the

species

them

weight of

In

some

down

laid

that,

Biodiversity a variety of

hard material that

coats the roots of teeth. is

plankton from seawater

walls of plants

cell

in

mammalian

cementum

species

annual layers

ungulates

in

them without using

which every

Plantigrade

in

Dispersal the scattering of

dies,

young animals going

forever

to

live

males

and the

and a

belly

last individual

species

is

lost

away from where they were

under a microscope, can

be counted to estimate the age

born and brought up

Family technical term for

of individuals

Display any

group of

Cetacean

mammal

belonging

relatively

a

closely related species

conspicuous pattern of behavior

that often also look quite similar.

living material

to the order Cetacea, the

that conveys specific information

Zoological family

Biped any animal that walks on

whales, dolphins, and porpoises

to others, usually to

two

Cheek teeth

the

legs.

total

See Quadruped

Blowhole the on the head of which

it

nostril

a

opening

whale through

breathes

Breaching leaping

clear of the

water

Breeding season the

entire

a

teeth lying behind

mammals,

species;

of

displays

their offspring

International Trade

DNA

in

(deoxyribonucleic acid) the

substance that makes up the

expelled from the

agreement between nations that

main part of the chromosomes

pellets.

contains the

DNA

animals and plants are assigned

fingerprinting," a technique that

to categories: (for instance

allows scientists to see

given to a young

cetacean or sirenian (and

many

Appendix

1, 2.).

trade to

See Volume

all

living things;

is

handed

whom,

who

Congenital condition animal born with

is

tooth usually longer than the

is

for example,

taming and breeding animals to

animal

provide help and useful products

that convey blood through

egg

organs from arteries to veins

period before

for a variable

implants into

the wall of the uterus and

Flukes flattened

Flystrike

for

humans

for steering

fur seals,

tail

fins of

whales

flies

Delayed implantation when

(in

locomotion on land

Domestication process of

the development of a fertilized

it

have

where CARRiON-feeding laid their

eggs on an

Fur mass of hairs forming a continuous coat characteristic of

Dorsal relating to the back or

mammals

spinal part of the body; usually

Fused joined together

the upper surface

as

walrus, and sea lions) for

particular offspring

Capillaries tiny blood vessels

suspended

mammals used

underwater and

rest

is

body

Often accompanied by

SCENT secretions

sea

which male was the father of

Canine

and

Flippers flattened front limbs of

generation

analysis "genetic

related to

1

page 17

species of ungulates) (tooth) a sharp stabbing

of

a

Feces remains of digested food

Endangered Species. An

administrative controls. Rare

name

group within

1

word

CITES Convention on

down from each

Calf

Volume

Also used as the

species consisting of parents

system of licensing and

independence of young

.

for a social

genetic code that

through nesting to

1

threat, courtship, or greeting

consisting

permitted levels through a

territory),

1

names always

"idae." See

visual or vocal elements, as in

in

restricts international

formation

in

of PREMOLARS and MOLARS

canines

from courtship,

pair

end

page

can involve

cycle of reproductive activity

(and often establishment of

114

same

members


GLOSSARY

Gape wide-open mouth Gene the basic unit of heredity

Inbreeding breeding among

Lactation process of producing

closely related animals (e.g.,

milk

enabling one generation to pass

cousins) leading to

on characteristics to

genetic composition and

Laminar flow smooth flow

reduced

water over

its

offspring

Generalist an animal that

is

capable of a wide range of activities,

survival rates

MAMMARY glands

Natural selection when animals and plants are

for

challenged by natural processes

offspring

weather) to ensure survival of

a whale's skin,

would

Incisor (teeth) simple pointed

lacking turbulence that

teeth at the front of the jaws

normally slow

group of

used for nipping and snipping

increased friction with the water

World

Indigenous

Larynx voice box where sounds

American continents

a

SPECIES.

The 1

plural

page

closely related is

genera, see

living naturally in a

region; native

1

(i.e.,

not an

the

fittest

New World

down through

it

Niche part of

Latrine place where feces are

by an organism, defined

pregnancy between

Interbreeding breeding

left regularly,

between animals

added

Nocturnal

Leptospirosis disease caused by

Nomadic

family or strain; interbreeding

leptospiral bacteria in kidneys

fixed

can cause dilution of the gene

and transmitted

continuously

egg and

fertilization

birth of the

baby

Grazing feeding on grass

Gregarious

living

SPECIES

together

in

loose groups or herds

of different

or varieties within a single

non-

are created

introduced

species)

Americas; Old

tlie

refers to the

Gestation the period of

of the

and bad

(including predation

of

not specialized

Genus Volume

weakened

in

often with scent

of

via urine

all

a habitat

aspects of

its

occupied in

terms

lifestyle

active at night

animals that have no

home, but wander

pool

Harem in

the

a group of females living

same

territory

and

Interspecific between species

Mammary

Intraspecific between

of

same

glands

Old World non-American

characteristic

mammals, glands

continents. See

for

New World

Olfaction sense of smell

consorting with a single male

individuals of the

Herbivore an animal that eats

Invertebrates animals that have

Marine

no backbone

Matriarch senior female

almost anything, meat or

member

vegetable

plants (grazers

and browsers are

(or

species

other true

thus herbivores)

bones) inside their body,

Heterodont

mollusks, insects,

dentition specialized

into canines, incisors,

and

e.g.,

jellyfish,

and

production of milk living in

chemical

crabs

group

of a social

Metabolic rate

Omnivore an

the sea

rate at

activities

which

lUCN

having a different function. See

Conservation of Nature,

of gasses

responsible for assigning animals

liberation of

and plants to

Metabolism the chemical

Homodont

Homeothermy maintenance a high

of

and constant body

International Union for the

internationally

agreed categories of

temperature by means of

table

rarity.

See

below

internal processes; also called

Opportunistic taking advantage of every varied opportunity that

occur within

premolars, each type of tooth

animals, including the exchange

activities

respiration

in

animal that eats

arises; flexible

Order

and the

energy from food

behavior

a subdivision of a class of

animals consisting of a series of related animal families. See

Volume

within animals that

page

1

1

turn food into energy

Organism any member

Migration movement from one

animal or plant kingdom; a body

of the

"warm-blooded"

Juvenile a young animal that

place to another and back

that has

Home

has not yet reached breeding

again, usually seasonal

Ovulation

age

Molars

the female's ovary prior to

range the area that an

animal uses

in

the course of

normal periods of

activity.

its

Homodont

dentition in

the teeth are

all

which

similar in

appearance and function

Hybrid offspring of two

is

sterile

its

Kelp brown seaweeds

Molt process

which mammals

Keratin tough, fibrous material

shed

that forms hairs, feathers, and

Monogamous

on the

skin of

Krill small

hair,

in

usually seasonal

shrimp that form part

Pair

at a

in

the diet of

many whales

egg from its

behavior that keeps a

a

female together

beyond the time

time

mate; marriage

in

is

it

takes to

a "pair

bond"

genetic material

Parasite an animal or plant that

Native belonging to that area

another

or country, not introduced by

Parturition process of giving

human

birth

of marine plankton; a major item

own

bond

male and

animals that

have only one mate

release of

fertilization

Mutation random changes

vertebrate animals

closely

and cannot

product offspring of

mouth

protective plates

related species that can breed but

the hybrid

the back of the

See

Territory

large crushing teeth at

life

lives

assistance

on or within the body of

lUCN CATEGORIES EX

Extinct,

when

there

is

no reasonable doubt that the

last

VU

Vulnerable, when a species faces a high the wild in the medium-term future.

LR

Lower

individual of a species has died.

EW

when

Extinct in the Wild,

a species

is

known

only to

survive in captivity or as a naturalized population well

outside the past range.

CR

Critically

DD

Endangered, when

extremely high

risk

a species

of extinction

in

is

facing an

the wild

in

the

immediate future.

EN

Endangered, when extinction

in

Risk,

when

not satisfy the

in

been evaluated and does CR, EN, or VU.

Data Deficient, when there

is

about a species to assess the

risk

iUCN

of extinction

a species has

criteria for

NE Not Evaluated,

risk

not enough information of extinction.

species that have not been assessed by the

criteria.

a species faces a very high risk of

the wild

in

the near future.

115


1

SEA

MAMMALS

Pelage Pelagic

mammal

furry coat of a living

near or on the

Promiscuous mating often with

Social behavior interactions

Underfur

many

between

dense, woolly mass close to the

mates, not just one

open sea

Protein chemicals

Pelt furry coat; often refers to

amino

skin

removed from animal as

Pheromone

fur

scent produced by

animals to enable others to find

made up

of

acids. Essential in the diet

of animals

Pup name

given to a

young

seal

Physiology the processes and

Quadruped an

workings within plants and

walks on

animal bodies,

on two

legs)

Range

the total geographical

animal that

fours

all

walks

(a biped

is

a part of

mammal

area over which a species

physiology

Phytoplankton in

plants that float

the water, mainly algae

Placenta the structure that

an embryo to

its

links

mother during

Receptive when

a

ready to mate

estrus)

(in

female

new

Riparian

Polygamous when animals

lakes

only

male mates

a

with several females

in

one

all

beside rivers and

same

Ruminant animals

that eat it

or

the animals of that species

in

front

head

a

whale

hear

out of

vertically

the water to get a look around

Ventral the

Subspecies a

of an animal (opposite of dorsal)

locally distinct

group of animals that

appearance of the

backbone

species;

belly or

often

(e.g., fish,

reptiles), usually

live

on

its

a

mammals,

with skeleton

of bones, but sometimes

Vibrissae sensory whiskers,

together for their

than either could

underneath

Vertebrate animal with

differ

from the normal

own

Taxonomy

branch of biology

concerned with

classifying

origins, or behavior.

its

in

the

categories,

in

in

usually

on snout, but can be on

areas such as elbows,

tail,

or

their structure,

species,

FAMILY, ORDER, class,

Scats fecal

pellets, especially of

CARNIVORES. SCENT

iS

often

See Volume

1

The

Viviparous animals that give birth to active

laying

young

rather than

eggs

Vocalization making of sounds such as barking and croaking

order of increasing

broadness, are:

page

Terrestrial living

genus,

and phylum.

Zoologist person

who

Zoology the study

1

on land

Territory defended space

studies

animals

Zooplankton

of animals

small animals that

float in the water, including the

many

Thermoregulation the

larvae of

Scent chemicals produced by

maintenance of

INVERTEBRATES.

animals to leave smell messages

constant body temperature

the plant equivalents, mainly

either by adjustments to

floating algae

markers

for others to find

and

interpret

of the MOLARS, but behind the

Scrotum bag

CANINES

which the male

Primate a group of mammals

located

that includes monkeys, apes,

Siblings brothers and

and ourselves

Sirenian an animal belonging to

of skin within testicles are

a relatively

METABOLISM or by moving

between sunshine and shade Translocation transferring

sisters

the order Sirenia, the dugongs, sea cows, and manatees

116

its

to similarities

assist

territorial

prey for food

raises

"rumination") to

deposited with the pellets as

Premolars teeth found

Ultrasounds sounds that are too high-pitched for humans to

offspring

fertile

again ("chewing the cud" or

Posterior the hind end or

kills live

which embryos

in

produce

ORGANISMS into groups according

behind another structure

Predator an animal that

womb

mammals develop

look similar and can breed to

back from the stomach to chew

group of

species,

of

eyebrows

stomach

a distinct

animals of the

living

digestion by microbes

BREEDING SEASON

Population

Uterus

Species a group of animals that

mutual benefit more successfully

vegetation and later bring

mate

Polygynous when

deep

softer cartilage

ground. See Digitigrade

and horses;

mostly herbivores

Symbiosis when two or more

the back of the eye

a single

as pigs, deer, cattle,

whale dives

a

species live

feet with heels touching the

Monogamous animals have

sound

Retina

light-sensitive layer at

mammals

hairs in

for the next generation

Plantigrade walking on soles of

a

stiff

Ungulate hoofed animals such

made

chemicals between them

in

and underneath the outer

coat of

finding objects by reflected

slightly

offspring

forming a

fine hairs

called a race

breeding, creating

single mating season.

is

Reproduction the process of

pregnancy, allowing exchange of

have more than one mate

is

distributed

skin

echolocation,

Spy-hopping when

Maintaining a warm-blooded state

courtship

species, e.g.,

Sonar underwater

Sounding when

or sea lion

and recognize them

e.g., digestion.

same

individuals within the

members

of a species

location to another

from one

marine

PHYTOPLANKTON are


FURTHER READING AND WEBSITES

Further Reading Young, Z., The Life of Mammals: Anatomy and Physiology, Oxford

General King, C.

J.

M

New

The Handbook of

,

Zealand Mammals, Oxford Oxford, U.K., 1995 MacDonald, D

Mammals,

Guide to the Harper

Mann,

(and others, ed) Cetacean

J.,

Barnes and Noble,

New

Specific to this

Chicago,

volume

Payne,

The Natural History of

Bonner, W. N.,

New

2000

IL,

R.,

Among

York, NY,

1

Whales, Bantam

Press,

996

Seals, Helm, London, U.K., 1989

M

Carwardine,

York, NY,

2001

Perrin, ,

Whales, Dolphins, and

New

Porpoises, Dorling Kindersley,

York,

Marine

W., Encyclopedia of

Mammals, Academic

New

Press,

York, NY,

2002

NY, 1995

M

Nowak, R

Walker's

,

Mammals of the

World, The John Hopkins University Baltimore,

MD, 1999

Skinner,

D.,

Press,

Reynolds,

The Whale-Watcher's Guide, NorthWord Press, Minnetonka, Wl, 1994

Corrigan, P,

Donoghue, M., and Wheeler, J.

and Smithers,

Subregion, University of

The

R. H. N.,

Mammals of the Southern

Their Life

African

Whitaker,

A.,

Audubon

Reynolds,

G. H

,

The Natural History of

Whales and Dolphins, Helm, London, Society

York, NY,

U.K.,

Gaskin, D.

E.,

2000

Twiss,

J.

R.,

and Reeves,

R. R.,

Conservation

and Management of Marine Mammals, Smithsonian

Institution,

Washington, DC,

,

Institution Press,

Wilson, D.

Florida

Minnesota, MN, 2001

The Ecology of Whales and

1982

The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals, Smithsonian E

The Bottlenose Dolphin:

Ripple, J., and Perrine, D., Manatees and Dugongs of the World, Voyageur Press,

1987

Dolphins, Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH,

1996 Wilson, D.

E.,

J.

Biology and Conservation,

University Press, Tallahassee, FL, P.

Press,

Washington, DC, 1999

Stillwater,

New

Alfred A. Knopf,

Biology of Marine

Smithsonian Institution

Dolphins:

Survival, Blandford, U.K.,

Guide to North American

Mammals,

E.,

J.

Mammals,

1990 Evans,

National

0.,

J.

and

Pretoria, Pretoria,

South Africa, 1990

Field

1983

1975

University Press, Oxford, U.K.,

The Encyclopedia of

D.,

Seals of the World, Oxford

E.,

J.

Societies, University of Chicago Press,

Mammals of Britain and Europe, Collins, New York, NY, 1993 MacDonald,

King,

University Press, Oxford, U.K.,

University Press,

Collins Field

,

Their

E.,

Kaufman, G. Hawaii's

Washington, DC, 1999

and Reeder,

D. M.,

Forestell,

P.

Humpback Whales,

Foundation

1999

H.,

Whale

Pacific

Maui, HA, 1986

Press,

Leatherwood, Sierra Club

Geographic Reference, Smithsonian Institution Press,

and

Waller, C.,

Mammal

A Taxonomic and

Species of the World.

D.,

S.,

and Reeves,

Francisco,

The

Handbook of Whales and

Dolphins of the World,

Washington, DC, 1999

R. R.,

The Great Whales, Helm,

London, U.K., 2002

Sierra Club,

San

CA, 1983

Useful Websites http://www.nccnsw.org.au

General

Specific to this

volume

Website for threatened Australian species

http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/

Museum

University of Michigan

of Zoology

animal diversity websites. Search for pictures

and information about animals by family,

common name.

and

class,

by

scientific

species, or

listings.

name,

Website for threatened South African

World Wide Fund

newsroom, press Search for animals

reports,

http://home.t-online.de/home/

for Nature releases,

http://www.savethemanatee.org/ Save the manatee club; adopt one if you want

(WWF),

rothauscher/dugong.htm

government

News and

links

about dugongs

campaigns http://www.sirenian.org

order, family, genus,

common name.

wildlife

http://www.panda.org

Includes glossary

http://<www.cites.org/

lUCN and CITES

http://www.ewt.org.za

http://www.aza.org

Location by

General information about sirenians

American Zoo and Aquarium Association

country and explanation of reasons for

http://www.whalecenter.org/

http://www.wcs.org

listings

The Whale Center of

New

England

Website of the Wildlife Conservation Society

http://endangered.fws.gov

http://www.cetaceanresearch.com/

Information about threatened animals and plants

from the

U.S. Fish

and

Service, the organization in

Wildlife

charge of 94

million acres (39 million ha) of

http://www.nwf.org

sounds.html

Website of the National Wildlife Federation

Underwater sounds of

http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/

American

Mammals

list

on Smithsonian Museum

Details of species

and

their status; listings

http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/walkers

_mammals_of_the_world/prep.html by Text of basic

the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, also

lists

book

whales

http://www.acsonline.org/ site

wildlife refuges

http://www.iucn.org

killer

listing species, illustrating

American Cetacean Society; supports and reports research

and conservation

http://www.pinnipeds.org General website for seals and sea lions

almost every genus

lUCN publications

117


0

555

5

1

0

1

02 2

1

3

1

Set Index A bold number shows

the volume and

page numbers

relevant

Common names

in

bold

(e

g

the animal has an illustrated

Underlined page numbers

main entry animals

(e.g

,

A. calabarensis 4:

information

in

1

88

bandicoot

06

10; (10), eastern barred 10:

—

parentheses e.g., At-a-Glance boxes. in

1:

main

(24)

entry.

A. pusillus 3: 9, 16-17 Arctogalidia trivirgata 1

— locate

:

Animals that get main entries in the set are indexed under their common names, alternative common names, and scientific names.

Arjin

88

98

Shan Lop Nur Nature (102)

5:

armadillo

9:

common

9:

64-67 65

giant 9: 65

A

A. palliata 4: 72

aardvark

10: 5: (10), (12);

1;

9: 64, 65, (66), 67,

78-79

African 9: 65 aardwolf 2: 102, 103, 110-111 Abrocoma bennetti 8: 30 Abrocomidae 8: 31 acacia 6: 87

Aconaemys fuscus acouchi

Acrobates pygmaeus

84-85

10; 74,

marsupial see numbat short-nosed spiny see echidna, short-beaked

Acrobatidae 10: (76)

addax

6:

62

Addax nasomaculatus 6: 62 Aepyceros melampus 6: 62, 86-87 Aepyprymnus rufescens 10: 48 Aeromys tephromelas 7: 34, 36

66 Antechinomys laniger 10: 27 antechinus 10: 11, 25, 20, (25), 27 silky 9:

2: 16, 31: 5:

34

Afrotheres 5: (10) Afrotheria 9: 1 10, 12, 14; 8: 28 8-9 Central American 8: 30 common 8: 42-43 spotted (common) 8: 42-43

agouti

7; 8,

black 8:

Agouti A. paca

Agoutidae

I:

pygmy

12

1: 46; 2: 21, 28, 44, 69, 77, 79 Ailuridae 2; (99) 1:

royal 6; 60,

6: 62,

98-101

Ailurops ursinus 10: 74 Ailurus fulgens 1: 20, 30-3 calls 4;

46, 57, 89, 100;

6: 79; 7: 53, 111; 8: 51,

55, 99 see also communication

A

6:

alces 6: 10, 14-19 A. alces alces 6: 1

1

40

Allocebus trichotis 4: 96 Alopex lagopus see Vulpes lagopus Alouatta

118

fusca 4: 72,

74-75

:

32

A. africanus 8:

ape ape family

Amblonyx

1

Atilax paludinosus 1:

98

63

6:

mammals

Australia,

into 2: 80, 5:

introduced

(97,), 8:

72

Avahi

96

A. laniger 4:

A. occidentalis 4:

96

Axis 1

A pordnus

6:

1

4: 96, 97,

102-103

5: 74, 75,

olive 4:

12-13

Aplodontia rufa Aplodontidae 7:

Apodemus

7:

12, 28,

sylvaticus

78-79

Appaloosa

5;

archaeocetes

59 3:

29

American 9: 86 American American

false

vampire

84

little

brown 84

9:

87

80-81 84-85,

108-109 Daubenton's 9: 87 diadem roundleaf 9: 86 disk-winged 9: 87 Egyptian fruit 9: 86 Egyptian rousette 9: 92-93

vampire 9: 82, 98-99 fisherman 9: 108-109 free-tailed 9: 87 fruit 9: 58, 80, 81, 86 funnel-eared 9: 87, 87 greater false vampire (false vampire) 9: 82,

1;

guano (Mexican

86

29.

80,

86

98-99

9:

long-nosed

brown

104-105 long-eared

Mexican (83),

9: 83,

9;

long-tongued

1

9:

10-1

see coypu

dung

2:

76-77

62

3: 55,

80-83

bettong burrowing 10: 48, 57 Tasmanian 10: S Bettongia lesueur 10: 48 bilby 10: 44-45

45

binturong 1: 88, 89, 90, 91 biomedical research see medical research bipedalism 4: 10

bison

American European 6:

6: 60, 62,

6: 62, (66),

64-69 67

68

Bison B bison 6: 62, 64-69 B. bison athabascae 6: 68

84-85

little

swamp

wood

horseshoe 106-107

lesser

9:

7: 72, 14, 28, (29)

greater 10: 27, 44, lesser 10: 27, 44

vampire)

(false

28,

28-29

beluga

85

9:

7:

30-33

beira 6: 60,

hog-nosed 1:7?, (11), 9: 38, 80, 86 lesser bulldog 9: 108

honey

106-107

Canadian (American)

beetles,

Kitti's

lesser

acutorostrata 3: 55,

beaver 7: 8, 9, 70, 11, 72, 1 American 7: 28, 29, 30-33 beaver family 7: 28-29

mountain beaver family

94

78-81 hog 1: 32

Palawan stink 1: 32 Balaena mysticetus 3: 55, 110-111 Balaenoptera

spectacled 2: 82, 83 sun 2: 82, 83 Beatragus hunteri 6: 62

mountain

free-

hairy big-eyed 9:

83

sloth 2; 82,

7:

greater horseshoe 9:

9: 82,

32, 34, 35,

panda see panda, giant polar 2; 9, 82, 84-89: 3: 83 skunk see wolverine

Eurasian 7: 28, 29

84-85, 86, 100-103 Indian greater false

2: (60)

94-97 koala see koala Malaysian sun 2: 82 native Australian see koala

98-99

vampire

98

grizzly 2: 82, 83, 92,

tailed) 9: 82, (83),

:

1;

American black 2: 82, 90-93 Andean 2: 82, 83 Asian black 2: 82, 83 bear family 2: 82-83 big brown (brown) 2: 82, 83, 92, 94-97 brown 2: 82, 83, 92, 94-97

Brazilian (Mexican) free-

9:

crassicauda

dancing 2: (97) "dawn bear" 2: 82

pallid 9;

horseshoe 9: 80, 87 house (Mexican free-

42-43,

42-43, 54-57 Babyrousa babyrussa

B.

56

,

20

14, 7: 12, (37);

hammerheaded

4: 40,

1: 32, 82-83 Indian ferret 1: 32

28

8 10, 80-87

hairy-legged vampire

10-1

sacred (hamadryas) 4: 40,

9

:

84-85, 86, 100-103

mangabey

8:

B jacksoni 1 98 bear 2: 9; 5: 9

tailed) 9: 82, (83),

4: 40, 43,

long-tailed see

European 4:

B.

false

A. axis 6:

84-85

20 20

86, 100-103 bulldog (fisherman) 9: 87,

1

8:

5: 74, 86-87 badger 1: 34 American 1: 32, 76-77

1:32

Barbary see macaque. Barbary red see orangutan

7:

macrourus

yellow (savanna) 4: 40,

A. trivirgatus 4: 72,

5

A. alces gigas 6: 1 A. alces shirasi 6: 1 Allenopithecus nigroviridis

A

1

1;

tailed 9: 82, (83),

savanna

A. nigriceps 4: 72 1

76-77

A. geoffroyi 4: 72,

94

56

6. suillus 8:

Bechstein's 9:

43, 58-59

Aotus

A

belzebuth A: 72

9;

fox;

pipistrelle

bat families 9: 86-87

54-57

A. congicus

Alces

A. alces andersoni 6:

24-25,

dnereus

A. alces americanus 6:

A. frontalis 9: 21

58-59

34, 38, 40, 60 ants 9: 64, 66, 69, 76

A. dnereus see

62 62

20-21

94-97

Bdeogale

astutus 1: 20 sumichrasti 1: 9:

87

9:

9: 84, (85),

Bathyergidae 7: 72, Bathyergus B. Janetta 8: 56

92, 102,

3: 57,

gabbii

1:

spectacled 9: 87

thumbless

see also flying

African slit-faced 9; 82,

Ateles

aurochs

B.

8.

A. algirus 9; 12, 13

A.

27

Bassaricyon

B.

A. albiventris 9; 12,

A

27

Island 10:

spear-nosed 9: 84, 87

9:

western barred 10: 27 banteng 6: 62 bark stripping 8: 24

bat

Atelerix

1

antlers 6: 9, 12, (15),

A. capensis

lichtensteinii 6:

4;

110-1

110-111 white-winged vampire

87

whispering (long-eared)

Bassarlscus

hamadryas

Antilocapridae 6: 63, 110 Antilope cervicapra 6: 62

rufous spiny 10: 27

B. alleni 1:

Asian wild 5: 56-57 Asiatic 5: 42 domestic 5: 57

87

vampire

108

5:

86

rabbit-eared see bilby Raffray's 10: 27

barnacles

98-99

87

slit-faced 9:

102

42, (44) African 5: 42

Aonyx

albino 8: (84)

Alcelaphus A. buselaphus

64

86-87 baboon 4: 8, 40, 42, 42-43 Chacma 4: 56-57 gelada 4: 40, 42, 43, 62-63

96-97

6: 62, :

9:

10, 5: (10), 12,

B

Antilocapra americana

2: (99)

1:

66, 6: 52 Arvicola terrestris 7:

babirusa

62

Tibetan 6: 62 Antidorcas marsupialis

20

Artiodactyla

aye-aye 62

sable 6: 62

Ailuropoda melanoleuca 2: 82,

6; 60, 62, (63),

6: 60,

roan 6: 62

agriculture

alarm

A swainsonii 10: 27 antelope 5: 10, 11, 12, 13; 6: 60-63 American pronghorn 2: 26, 6: 63 four-horned 6: 60, 62 110-111

30

three-banded

artiodactyl 1:8, 8:

Atherurus

brown 10: 27, 40-41 dusky 10: 27 sandstone 10: 27 Antechinus A. stuartii 10: 27, 40-41

pronghorn 30

8:

A. taczanowskii 8:

Ailurinae

65,

agile 10: 41

Africa, national parks/reserves

66

9:

27

northern 10: 46-47 northern brown (northern) 10: 27, 46-47 pig-footed 10: 27

striped 10:

ass

46-47

rousette 9:

Seram

southern naked-tailed 9: 65,

87

sheath-tailed 9:

74-77 nine-banded 9: 65, 74-77 9: 65,

87

Old World leaf-nosed 9: 87 Old World sucker-footed

mouse

10:

9;

Zealand short-tailed

86-87 Old World false vampire 9:

long-nosed 10: 27

long-nosed (nine-banded)

Aspilia 4: (29)

Anomaluridae 7: 12, (19) anteater 1:9, 14, 9: 64-67 banded see numbat giant 9: 64, 65, 68-71

30

red 8;

32,

1:

animal farming 2: (97) anoa, lowland 6: 62

30

12

7;

89

70-71 American Sign Language 4: 13, (16), 27 Ammodorcas clarkei 6; 62 Ammotragus lervia 6: 62 angwantibo 4: 106, 106

26-29 8:

3:

Amblonyx dnereus

Adnonyx A. jubatus 2: 10, A. rex 2: 29

A. seniculus 4; 72 alpaca 5: 92, 93, 105, (106)

ambergris

65

lesser fairy 9:

New

9: 82,

(northern) 10:

Reserve

8-9

golden 10: 27 large short-nosed

Arctonyx collaris 1: 32 Argentinosaurus huinculensis 3:

mustached 9: 87 New World leaf-nosed

97 24, 25,27 4;

giant 10: 27

A. gazella 3: 9

2; 103) point to illustrations of

bonaerensis

6.

Arctocephalus

,

mouse-tailed 9: 86

3: 1 07 musculus 3: 55, 98-101 bamboo 2: 98-99, 100, B.

1:

Arctocebus 4: 106, A. aureus 4; 1 06

aardwolf' mean that main entry in the set. g 9: 78-79) refer to the ,

parts of the set other than the

in

Page numbers

8

Archaeonycteris 1: binturong

Arctictis

for that animal.

page numbers

Italic

(e

followed by the

is

52, 74).

(e.g., 1:

6.

1

86

free-tailed 9: 82,

84-85, 86, 100-103

bonasus

6: 62,

66

blackbuck 6: 61, 62 Blarina brevicauda 9: 28,

30-33 Blastocerus dichotomus 6:

10


SET INDEX

blubber

85,

3: 34, 58, 72, 84,

89, 91, (101)

bluebuck 6: 63 boar, wild 5: 74, 76-79 boat traffic 3: 50, 51, 65, 79, 103 bobcat 2: 10. 38-39. 40 body temperature 1: 9-12

Caenolestidae 10: 16

weeper

Calllcebus

white-faced 4: 72

C C. C.

C C. C.

C.

34-35

C.

4: 12,

C 6:

62

torquatus 9: 65 6. variegatus 9: 65, 72-73 branding, freeze branding

C.

8: (84)

90-91 96, 96-97, 103, in 4:

prevosti 7:

derblanus 10: 14 philander 10: 14 Caluromysiops Irrupta 10: 14 camel 5: 8, 9, 12 Arabian (dromedary) 5: 92, C,

93, 94-99.

Bactrian

02

1

92, 93, (98),

5:

100-103 camel family

5:

domestication

5: (98)

dromedary

92-93

63

20-21,

3:

83, 88, 7: 57, 8: 79;

10:41

5: 92,

camelids

(Bactrian)

93, (98),

5:

100-103

bactrianus

92,

5:

100-103

C

7:

18

dromedarlus

92,

5:

C, fetus (bactrianus) 5: 92,

100-103 1: 20

brocket, red 6: 10, 11, 13

bromeliads 4: (90) browsing 5: 12, 13, 38, 6: 9 brumby see mustang Bubalus B. depressKornis 6: 62 B. mindorensis 6: 62 Bubastis 2: (12)

bubble netting 3: 104 bubonic plague 7: 14, 76-77 Bubulcus Ibis 6: (73) Budorcas taxicolor 6: 62, 108 buffalo 1: 15 African 6: 60, 62, 70-73 see also bison, American Bunolagus monticularis 8: 64

Buphagus africanus

6: (73)

Burramys parvus 10: 74 burrows 7: 26-27, 9: 44-45,

dingo

80-81

2: 50,

58-61 C. lupus 2: 50, 54-57 C. lupus dingo (C dingo) 2: 50, 80-81

mesomelas

2: 50,

106

C

ibex nubiana 6:

ground destabilization

C.

66-67,

9: 77, 10:

99

53, 61, 85; 5: 87, 6: 59,

66,

72 5: 74,

75

1

06 ibex sibirica 6: 1 06 ibex walle 6: 1 06

38-39

C

crispus 6:

C. sumatraensis 6: 62, 108 Caprolagus hispidus 8: 64

39

chipmunk

yellow-toothed

domestic see guinea pig Patagonian see mara

southern mountain 8: 70-7 7, 30 cavylike rodents 8: 8-1 4: 72,

Cebuella

pygmaea

Cebus

72

6: 62,

dorsalis 6:

monticola Ceratotherium

59, 100, 4: (17), 87,

26, 65;

15

captivity 1: 22, 29, 65, 3: 59,

65, 71, 74, 4: 27, 78; 6 42 -43 58 66 91 :

,

9: 21, 10:

capuchin

brown

,

,

83

4: 10, 72, 4: 72,

73

;

80

48-49

simum

5:

C. 1 0:

1

28,

109,

65

65 hoffmanni 9: 65 chozchori 8: 29 Chrotogale owstoni 1 88 Chrysochloridae 9: 9 Chrysocyon brachyurus 2: 50 didactylus 9:

Chrysospalax trevelyani 9:

40 109

concinnus 10: 74

Citellus tridecemllneatus see

C.

nanus 10: 74

Spermophilus thdecemlineatus CITES see Convention on International Trade in

40 C torquatus 4: 40 Cercopithecidae 4: 40 cercopithecines 4: 40, 40-41 42, 43

Cercopithecus C. aethiops 4: 44-47

cephus

4:

40

neglectus 4: 40 Cervidae 6: 9, 10, 12 C.

communication

Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora civet 1: 98 African 1: 88 African palm

banded palm 91 civet family

1: 1:

7:

14

1: (23);

3: (83), 4: (56), 74, 79, 85, 5: 13, 15, 19,

(24), 44, (49), 79, 7: 53,

101, 8: 16, 42, 51, 9: 61, 10: 80

alarm

calls 4: 46, 57, 89, 100, 6: 79; 7: 53, 111;

8: 51, 55,

99

American Sign Language 4: 13, (16), 27 see also songs Condylura

5:

C.

C. galeritus 4:

no

99-100,

40

C.

chulengo

colugo 1: 10, 7: (37), 8: 108-111 Malayan 8: 109, 109, 10, 110-111

commensal animals

4:

68-69

1

45

Chlorocebus aethiops Choloepus

C

40

Philippine 8: 108-109,

62 13,

4:

angolensis 4: 40, satanus 4: 40

C.

:

62

30-35

C.

83

49

62 6:

68-69 42 black-and-white 4: 40, 68-69 red 4: 41-42, 68 Satanic black 4: 40 western red 4: 40 4: 40, black 4:

68-69

Chiroptera 1: 70, 9: (86) Chlroptes C albinasus 4: 72 C. satanas 4: 72

9:

Cercocebus

45, 47, 54,

5:

86

70, 6: 8, 7: 103; 8:

4: 10, 40, 40-42, 68-69, 69, 75 Angola (black-and-white)

Colobus

Chlamydia psittaa 10: 95 Chlamyphorus truncatus

apella 4: 72

captive breeding

6: 91, 7:

4:

colobus

(black-and-white) 4: 40,

7: 34,

chital 6: 10,

1

41-42

white-epauleted black

18

7: 15,

48 Chironectes minimus

chiru 6:

84

Cebidae 4:

eastern

prehensilis 8:

colobines 4: 40,

30

Siberian 7:

Cercartetus 10: 74

1:

Chilean 8: 30, 31

30

8: 28,

37

tree

8: 12,

26-27 C.

Chinchillidae 7: 72

28-31

28

mexicanus

C.

12, 13,

chinchilla rat 8: 31

8:

5:

coendou see porcupine, Coendou 8: 1

9 common 4: 12 pygmy see bonobo China, Imperial Hunting Park 6: 44, 45 chinchilla 7: 72, 8: 10, 28,

common

relatives

20 28-29

1:

ringtailed

8

7 7,

20, 21 1:

Coelodonta

Chinchilla lanigera 8: 30, 8: 28, 31

1: 19,

30

8:

white-nosed 1: 20, 29 coatimundi see coati,

5:

short-tailed 8:

88

:

28

ringtailed

36-37

Capromyidae 7: 72, 8: 31 Capromys pilorldes 8: 30, 52-53

90-91, 98, 101,

fullginosus 10: 14

and

common

C C

62

c

C,

tschudii 8:

Cephalophus

Capricornis

4:

88, 91

94-95

mountain

fur 8: (10)

capucinus 4: 72 C. ollvaceus 4: 72 cellulose 4:41, 75; 5: 11-12,

Cabassous unicinctus 9: 65 Cacajao 4: 72 C. calvus 4: 72, 80-81 C melanocephalus 4: 72 :

C.

8:

C.

1

(55), (59), 71, 2: (23), (29),

cacomistle 1 20, 21 Caenolestes 10: 14 C. caniventer 10: 14

porcellus 8: 30, 38-41

Capreolus capreolus 6:10,

see also tunnels

bush baby 4: 106-107 Demidoff's 4: 106, 110-111 bushbuck 6: 62 bushmeat trade 4: 27, 32, 40,

39

aperaea

C.

8:

coati

36-37

C.

C

06

99

C.

6:

Peruvian 8: 39

ibex cylindricornis 6:

Ibex ibex 6:

7: 49, 50, 59, 8: 29, 57,

62 63 humpless 6: 63 79 cattle rearing 4: 8:

28-33:

7:

clompers 5: 58 Clyomis laticeps

chevrotain 5: 8, 6: 10 greater Malay see deer, greater mouse Indian spotted 6: 10

chimpanzee

60-63.

79

pollution

catarrhines 4:

6:

9:

major 4: 96 medius 4: 96

6:

1:

88

1:

Cladonia rangiferina 6: 23 Clethrionomys gapped

chemical poisoning see

water 6: 10 chewing the cud

1

88, 91

1:

Owston's banded palm 1: 90, 91

coalitions 2:

Catagonus wagneri 5: 88 catamount see puma catatonia 10: (20) cattle 1: 15, 5: 9, 77, 12;

otter

Civettictis civetta 1

king 2: 29

C.

:

civet oil 1: (91)

Cheirogaleus C.

88, 90,

1:

94-95 golden palm 1: 88 Hose's palm 1: 88 Indian 1: 90 Jerdon's palm 1: 88 large Indian 1: 88 large spotted 1: 88 Lowe's otter 1 88 Malayan 1: 88, 90 masked palm 1: 88 Oriental 1: 88, 90 90,

small-toothed palm 1: 88 Sulawesi palm 1: 88

26-29

2: 9, 10,

common palm

small Indian

71

5:

chamois 6: 62 European 6: 108 Pyrenean 6: 62 charms 3: 61, 8: 67,

cheetah

rock 8: 30

Ibex 6: 62, 106-107 ibex caucasica 6: 1 06

C.

67, 10:

62-63

C. simensis 2: 50 Caperea marginata 3: 55 Capra C. aegagrus 6: 62

C,

73

2: 10,

1

C. latrans 2: 50,

C

chain chorusing

domestic 2: 9, 10, (12), 49 European wildcat 2: 72 jungle 2: 10, 73 leopard 2: 10, 73 miner's see raccoon, ringtail saber-toothed 2: 10 sand 2: 10, 73 tiger 2: 10, 72 wildcat 2: 10, 3,

cavies

C. familiaris 2: 50, (53)

C,

golden

Caviomorpha 7: (8), cavy7: 11, 72,(14) Brazilian 8: 39, 4 7

Canis

C.

28

7: (31)

Caviidae 7: 72

Canidae

C

22-23 Chaetomys subspinosus 8: 30 Chaga's disease 8: 27

Cavia

94-99

interbreeding

30-33

7: 28,

humped zebu

92-93

Camelus C.

see also captive breeding; reproduction; inbreeding;

mound

93, 94-99. 102

27 elaphusB: 10, 26. 30-33 Cetacea 1: 10, 5: (10) cetaceans 3: 54-59 Chaeropus ecaudatus 10: 27 Chaetodipus penicillatus 7:

48-49

92, 93,

5:

two-humped

selective 5: (43), 74, 6:

synchronized

75

blackfooted 2: 10, 73 cat family 2: 10-13

one-humped (dromedary)

R strategists 7: 14

bushpig

Asiatic

48

5: 92,

1:

Carter odon sulcidens 8: 30

Castoridae 7: 72, 28 cat 2: 9 African wildcat 2: 72

C.

strategists 7: 14, 8: 21

breeding

36

36 36

94-99. 102

breeding

teeth

27

canadensis nelsoni 6: 26 canadensis roosevelti

C,

8^2 18-19

1:

C

6:

70

1:

C, fiber 7:

Caluromys

104, 109

2:

castoreum

nigrovittatus 7:

10:

large small

8

70, 18, 2:

1:

Castor 7: 28 C. canadensis

Caloprymnus campestrls

6.

6:

jacchus 4: 86, 92-93 see Cebuella

C.

20-25

27

canadensis nannodes 6:

7 7

39

9:

carnivores

pygmaea pygmaea

6:

C

8: (50)

6: 10, 12,

Carnivora

86 humilis see M/co

geoffroyi 4:

C. notatusisi 7:

Bradypus

K

caribou

14-15

8: 64, (93) Brachyteles arachnoldes 4: 72

breaching 3:

caravaning

Callosdurus

:

forestation

caracal 2: 10,

Callorhinus ursinus 3: 9,

boto see dolphin, Amazon Bovidae 6: 9, 60-63 bovine tuberculosis 1 81 brachiation 4: 38, 72 Brachylagus idahoensis

Brazil,

86

argentata see Mico argentata

Cervus C. canadensis 6: 1 0, 26-29 C. canadensis manitobensis

48-51

10, 28,

humilis

bontebok 6: 62 Borhyaenidae 10: 26, 36 Bos B. frontalis 6: 62 B. grunniens 6: 74-75 B. javanicus 6: 62 Boselaphus tragocamelus

72, 28, 8: 8, 9,

7: 8,

capybara farms

Callithrix

see also hibernation; torpor

bonobo

capybara

72 personatus 4: 72 torquatus 4: 72 4:

Calllmico goeldii 4:

control of 5; (17), 9; 24, 67,

72, 82, (90), 10: 69 desert animals 5: 95-96

moloch

72

4:

cristata 9: 40,

48-51 Conepatus C. chinga 1: 32 C. mesoleucus 1: 32 coney see pika, American Connochaetes C. gnou 6: 62, 82 C. taurinus 6: 62, 82-85 conservation 1: 47, (59), 75; 2: 33, 55, (88), 100, 3: 15,

88

19, 4: 35; 5: 26, 39, 63;

88, 90, 90,

6: 25, 64, 7: 45, 77, 9: 85,

10: (77), (95), (101) 1:

88-91

see also protection

119


0

20

SET INDEX

D. lunatus jimela 6:

Flora (CITES) 1: 17 convergent evolution 9: 10,

D,

D.

D.

6:

1;

(23)

pygargus 6: 62 dassie, rock see hyrax, rock Dasycercus cristicauda 10: 27

7:

106

Dasykaluta rosamondae

coon hunting coonskins coppiLMig

88 lunatus lunatus 6: 88 lunatus tiang 6: 88 lunatus topi 6: 88 korrigum

D. lunatus

D.

40, 10: 36, (52)

coprophagy

26

1:

62

8: 51,

10:

27

42-^3 Dasyproctidae

Dasypus novemcinctus

desert 8: 64, 67, (93)

9: 65,

74-77

Dice's 8: (93)

dasyure

swamp

short-furred 10: 25, 27 Dasyuridae 10: 24, 36

cougar see

puma

coyote 1 77; 2: 50, 58-61 coypu 7: 12: 8: 9, 11,31, 44-47 South American 8: (46) Craseonycteridae 9: 86 :

Craseonycteris thonglongyai 9:

38

107 Crocuta crocuta

cria 5:

2: 102,

108-109 crop raiding

23-24, 41, 72,

5:

Crossarchus C. alexandn C ansorgei

1; 1

:

C

Ctenodactylidae Ctenodactylus

1

:

7: 12,

108

110-111

7: 108,

8:

9

black-tailed (mule) 6: 10,

34-37 Chinese water

10

6:

mouse

lesser

mouse

marsh

6: 10,

6: 10,

6:

0,

1

48

12 see chevrotain

mouse mule 6:

34-37

10,

50

30-33 38-39. 60

6: 10, 12, 13,

tufted 6:

white-tailed 6: 10, 13, 18,

10: 12- 13, 82-83 ground 10: 74 mountain 10: 74 peleng 10: 74 small Sulawesi 10: 74 spotted 10: 12-13, 82-83 waigeou 10: 74

cuy see guinea pig

Cyanophenus

9:

86

1

21, 31, 48,

1:

58-59,

51, 71, 2:

: (17), 27, 32, 37, 61, 69, 73, 75, 81, 90, 5: 20;

91 see also habitat destruction 6: 49, 51, 9: 23,

8: 29,

31

Cyclopes didactylus 9: 65 Cyniais penicillata 1: 98 Cynocephalidae 8: 108

30 mountain 8: 30 dehydration 5: 95-96

Cynocephalus

Delphinapterus leucas

C. variegatus 8:

C

1

Cynogale 1

:

88 7: 34,

8:

30

D. tatei 10:

74

D. trivirgata 10:

74

6: 10,

40-43

D. lunatus 6: 62,

88-89

Damaliscus

102

:

:

102 102

common

dugong

3: 55,

68-69

102 46-47,

.

1: 10, 3:

52-53: 5 (12)

71

3: 55, (61)

76-77

common

common

69

common

6: 62,

80-81

80-81

27

38-39 27 38

10:

Risso's 3: 71

Duplicidentata 8: 61

rollover (spinner) 3: 55,

Dusicyon australis

102 1 03 03 1 03 1

76-77

D. bennettianus 10:

66-67 Dermoptera

desman

1

48

0: 48,

short-beaked common 3: 69 short-snouted spinner 3: 76

spinner 1: 70, 8:

108

40-43 Pyrenean 9: 11, 40, 52-53 Russian 9: 40, 42, 43, 53 9: 9, 11,

3: 55,

76-77

spotted 3: 56-57, 77

white-beaked

3: 71

white-sided 3: 71

Yangtze

river 3: 55, (61)

Kangaroo

Island 10:

Tule 6:

85

Enhydra lutris 1: 32, 72-75 Eohippus 5 42 Eomanis waldi 9: 64 Equidae 5 42 Equus E. asinus 5 42, 57 E. burchelh 5 42, 46-51 E. caballus 5 42, 58-61 :

2:

:

:

:

E.

caballus przewalskii (E.

50

E. E. E.

105 long-nosed 10: 105, 110 short-beaked 10: 105, 110-111 1:

27

see also moose Nino 3: 22 Emballonuridae 9: 87 embryonic diapause

przewalskii) 5 42, :

54-55

E echidna

10

:

fat-tailed 10: 25,

white-sided 3: 55, 70-71 pink (Amazon) 3: 55, 60-61

102 102

10: 12- 13, 57, 63, 69,

6: 62,

10:

6:

71, 73,

80

forest 6:

dunnart

47, 52-53

3:

duiker bay 6: 62 blue 6: 62 bush (common)

7: 7:

El

:

Dugong dugon

3: 71

Fraser's 3: 71

quercinus

Siberian 6: 15

D. nitedula 7:

76

melanurus

E.

Manitoba 6: 27 Merriman 6: 26 North American 6: 12 Rocky Mountain 6: 26-27 Roosevelt's 6: 27

D. sichuanensis 7: 3:

E.

Irish

:

D. laniger 7:

,

elk 6: 10, 26-29 eastern 6: 26

4 40, 42 dromedary see camel, dromedary

:

72-75

9: 59,

22-27

Draculin 9: 97

:

3: 55, 66,

59

Eliomys

Dromiciops ghroides 10: 14 drought 4 63, 5 34, 94 drug testing 4 13, 93

60-61

3: 55,

bottlenose

58-59, 59

9:

North African 9: 59, 59 short-eared 9: 59, 59 Elephantulus rozeti 9: 59 Elephas maximus 5 14

Setzer's mouse-tailed

Dryomys

Amazon

14, 15

:

62-63

102

river 3: (61)

8:

savanna 5

15

:

14-15

14,

golden-rumped

D. dorsalis 8:

D. goodfellowi

Dactylopsila

8: 30,

:

checkered

D. arboreus 8:

68-69

Dendrolagus

Dactylomys dactylinus

patagonum

forest 5

four-toed 9: 59,

drill

Dologale dybowskii 1 98 dolphin 1: 70; 3: 54-59;

3: 55,

102

7: 102,

38 little long-tailed 10: 38 red-cheeked 10: 27

D. validus 8:

D

raccoon 2: 50 see also prairie dog

Ganges

family units 5

elephant shrew 1: /O, 9: 10, 58-59 black and rufous 9: 59, 59

woolly 7: 102 douroucouli see monkey. Northern night

78-79

wild) 2: 9, 50, 53,

clymene

:

:

Gilbert's 10:

Dendrohyrax

:

50-53

2:

22-27

14, 15, 16,

:

circus elephants 5 24, (24)

Roach's mouse-tailed

7:

16-21.

elephant family 5 14-15

Pacific

D. delphis 3: 55,

lowe: 1 88 Cynomys ludovicianus 56-59

Dama dama

69

26 Asian 5

102,

spectacled 7: 102 spiny 7: 103

domestic 2: 9, 50, (53) painted hunting (African

10: 5: 8, (10),

5: 14, 15,

Oriental 7: 103 7:

1

0,

:

1: 10,

African

102

7:

1

11 ,( 12 )

masked mouse-tailed

2: 9, 50, 53,

53

2: 50,

long-beaked

D. capensis 3:

""

78-79

wild) 2: 9, 50, 53,

3:

elephant

102 garden 7: 102, 102-103 hazel 7: 102, 103, Japanese

6:

4 67

electrocution

102-103 7: (14),

6:

44-45

(hazel) 7: 102,

106-107

La Plata 3: 55, (61)

Delphinus

Elaphurus davidianus

103, 106-107 desert 7: 102, 103

26, 87

1:

rodent-borne 7: 14 distemper 3: 41 canine 2: 79 Distoechurus pennatus 10: 74 dog 1: 15, 5: 9 African hunting (African

dusky

76-77

104-105

Diprotodontia 10: 25, 75, (94)

76-77

Elaphodus cephalophus

forest 7:

24-25

76

6: 60, 62,

6: 62,

Lord Derby's (giant) 6: 62,

fat (edible) 7: (14), 102,

ordii 7:

32

1:

13

:

common

104-105

28

diseases

common

edible

:

barbara

eland 5

garden 7: 102 Chinese 7: 102 Chinese pygmy 7: 103

7:

long-beaked (spinner) 3: 55,

80-83

09

dinosaur 3: 98 Diplogale hosei 1 88 Diplomesodon pulchellum

104-105

giant

dormouse family

30

branickii 8:

Eira

12, 13, 15,

Dinomys

hourglass 3: 71 Indus 3: 55, (61)

Bridge's 8:

volansS: 109

C. bennettii

3: 61;

4

7: 11,

,

19

Asiatic

:

deforestation

10:

62 62 dimorphism, sexual 3: 87 dingo 2: 50, 80-81; 10: (30), 37 Dinomyidae 7: 72 Kirk's 6: 60,

Salt's 6:

rufescens 10: 27

Eimer's organs 9: 45, (50)

48 vanheurni 10: 48

17,

Clara 10:

E.

10:

African 7: 103

:

see also brocket deer parks 6: 13, 42-43, 47

degu

18-23

27

E.

egret 6: (73) Eidolon 9: 86

48

0:

28, 32, 37,

8,

ecotones 6: 86 Edentates 9: 64, 64 egg-laying mammals

48

dik-dik

5 (10)

(36)

1

madeayi

dormouse

14

D. virginiana 10: 14,

62

6:

hageni 10: 48

D. luctuosa

32-35

bear 10: 74

44-45

Dorcopsulus D.

Dolichotis

spotted 6: 10, 13

spotted (spotted)

D.

Didelphis D. albivenths 10:

:

dorcopsis gray 10: 48 white-striped 10: Dorcopsis

D.

dog family

12

admiralty 10: 74

common

:

dicoumarol 7: 75 Didelphidae 10: 14, 16 common see opossum,

78-79

6: 10, 13,

donkey

Dorcatragus megalotis

Dicerorhinus sumatrensis 5 28 Diceros bicornis 5 28, 36-39

22-23 80-81, 92-93, 99, 106, 109, 110-111 echymipera, Clara's 10: 27 Echymipera

:

pampas

6: 10,

see also cat, domestic; dog, domestic

wild 5

Echinoprocta rufescens 8: 1 Echinops telfain 9: 24 Echinosorex gymnura 9: 12, echolocation 9:

domestic 5 (45)

diastema 7: 10, 7 7, 8: 60 see also reproduction dibatag 6: 67, 62

bush

sika 6: 12

cuscus 10: 76, (77)

85

African wild

6: 10, 12, Siberian musk 6: 10

alpinus 2: 50

10: 12-13, 57, 63, 69, 71,

muntjac see muntjac musk 6: 10

red roe

63

3:

Diplomys labilis 8: 30 Dipodidae 7: 72

40^3

(43),

:

(72)

whale pods diapause, embryonic

Dipodomys

6: 10,

:

105-106, 107; 25, 63; 8: 38-39, 40,

(45), (98),

6:

dialects of

9:

44-45

43, 45, 67, 6: 32,

cursorial animals 2:

10

6:

Pere David’s

66, 8: 81; 10: (95)

Cuon

musk

50-51 hog 6: 10

88,

28

vah 7: 108 Ctenomyidae 7: 12, Ctenomys C frater 8: 30 C validus 8: 30 culls 3: 15,

:

48-49 Himalayan musk

96-97

gundi

Daubentonia madagascariensis 4 96, 102-103 DDT 9: 103 deer 5: S, 9, 10, 12 barking see muntjac

greater

56 hottentotus 8; 56 mechowi 8: 56

Cryptotis parva 9:

32-33

D. hallucatus 10: 27,

:

8:

Cryptoprocta ferox

C C

Dasyuromorphia 10: 24 Dasyurus D. albopunctatus 10: 27

domestication 2 53, 5

51

Virginia

deer and relatives 6 10-13 dwarf musk 6: 10 fallow 6: 10, 12, 13,

98 98

Cryptomys C. damarensis

27

red-bellied 10:

black

91. 6: 13, 78, 81; 7: 100, 105, 8: 18-19. 9; 85, 91

C.

broad-striped 10: 27 narrow-striped 10: 25, 27

dolphinaria 3: 71, 74

28-31

2; 50,

:

eastern 8: 64, 90-93 Mexican Guerrero 8: (93) Nev\' England 8: (93) Omilteneor 8: (93) 8: (93)

27,

dhole

dibbler 10: 27

12

7:

Desmana moschata 9: 40 Desmodus rotundus 9: 94-97 devil, Tasmanian 10: (24),

73,

Dasyprocta punctata 8: 30,

ofuro 8: 29, 30 cotton bollworms 9: 103 cottontail 8: 62

.

120

88

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and

14, 8: 12, 10:

Echimyidae 7: 12, 8: 31 Echimys pictus 8: 30

E.

grevyi 5 42, 52-53 hemionus 5 42, 56-57 :

:

przewalskii 5 42, quagga 5 48 :

54-55

:

E. zebra 5 42 Eremitalpa grand 9: 40, :

56-57 Erethizon dorsatum 8: 12,

20-25


SET INDEX

Erethizontidae 7: 12, 8: 12

Erinaceldae 9: 9, Erinaceus

concolor

E.

9;

1

E. europaeus 9; 1 2, 14-19 ermine 1:112 see also stoat Erythrocebus patas 4: 40 Eschrichtidae 3 92 Eschrichtius robustus 3 55, :

:

92-97 estivation 7: 19, 9: 13, 21

63

Ethiopia, geladas in 4: australis 3

E.

glacialls

4:

Fossa fossa 1 88 fossorial animals 7: 18, 65 Fouchia 5: 28 fovea 4: 1 07 :

pallidus 4:

1

fennec

9,

:

1

06

1

9:

Eutheria 10; (10)

evolution 9: 10,

red

50,

swift 2: 50, 52, 68-69 white Arctic 2: 71, 72 freeze branding 8: (84)

10

expression 4: (56), falanouc 1: 88, 91 fanaloka 1: 88 facial

1:

1

00

15-16

1:

10 £ bengalensis 2: 1 £ caracal 2: 1 £ catus 2: 1 £ chaus 2 £ concolor 2: 1 0, 42-43 £ lynx 2: 10, 40-41 £ lynx canadensis 2: 40, 41 £ lynx lynx 2: 40, 41 £ lynx pardinus 2: 40, 41 £ margarlta 2: 1 £ nigripes 2: 1 £ pardalis 2 10, 44^5 £ rufus 2: 10, 38-39 £ serval 2: 1 0, 46-47 £ sllvestris 2: 0, 48-49 £ temmincki 2: 1 £ tigrinus 2:10 £ yaguarondi 2: 1 Felovla vae 7: 108 Fennecus zerda see 1/u/pes zerda fermentation 5: 1 Fells 2:

1

:

1

45 1: 32,

34, 35,

46-47 see implantation/ reproduction fisher 1: 50-51. 8: 20 fish farms 3 65 fertilization

:

105

22, 30, 50, 59, 69, 71, 77, 79, 105 :

flehmen 5; (11), 62, 65 flood water 4: 80 flying fox 9: 80, 86 Indian 9; 88-91 food poisoning 7: 74 food sharing 9; (96) forestry operations 5:

26

36

gibbon family

4;

kloss 4; 36, 37,

37

4: 36,

37

106

4:

4: 36,

38-39

107

thick-tailed 4: 106, 4:

Zanzibar 4:

Galago G. gabonensis G. gallarum 4:

1

G. zanzibaricus 4:

G. cuja 1:

Galldia elegans 1 G. fasclata

98

:

1

:

Giraffidae 6:

98

G. grandidleri 1

6:

:

98

National Park 5:

62

dama

6:

62

6. subguttarosa 6; G.

54-57.

thomsoni

6:

62

94-95

snowshoe

26

56

6:

2,

7:

102

30, 31;

gundi

38-39, 39, 40

8:

wild 8: 28,

Gulo gulo

1;

39-40 32, 56-57

13 desert 7: 108, 109 felou 7: 108, 109, 109 7:

12,

gundi family

7;

(pygmy) 10: 74,

84-85

hedgehog

7: 108, 109, 7:

109 108,

9: 12, 13 Flalnan 9; 12, 13 short-tailed 9: 12, 12 9: 12,

JO, 14, 8: 12;

1; 9,

9: 8, 9,

1

African 9: 12, 13

pygmy

9; 12,

Asian

12

9:

12

collared 9: 12

Daurian 9: 12 desert 9; 12, 13 dwarf (African pygmy) 9: 12,

20-21

eastern European 9: 12 four-toed (African pygmy) 9: 12,

20-21 22

hairy 9: 12,

hedgehog family

9:

12-13

Hugh's 9: 12, 13 long-eared 9: 12, 12-13

Madagascan

9:

North African

25

9: 12,

13

western European 9; 12,

14-19

white-bellied (African

20-21 malayanus 2: 82 Fleliophobius 7: 9 FI. argenteocinereus 8: 56

pygmy)

9: 12,

Flelarctos

Speke's 7; 108, 109, 109 Gymnobelldeus leadbeateri 10: 74, 88-89

shrew

1

Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge 3; 31 hawks, bat 9; 84

Flelogale parvula

1

:

98,

106-107 Flemibelldeus lemuroldes 10:

74

Flemicentetes semispinosus 9;

gymnure

10: 74, (77)

10: 74, 77,

108-109

109

North African 110-111 Saharan 7: 108

gleaning 9: 84 glider

62

harvesting 3: 28, 6: 18 controlled 3; 12, 16

20-21

99 groundhog see woodchuck guanaco 5: 92, 108-109 wild 5: 93 guenon 4: 8, 10, 40, 42, 43, 44 guiara 8: 30 guinea pig 8: 10, 30, 38-41

Lataste's 7:

60-61

hare hunting 8: (89) hartebeest 6: 62 Lichtenstein's 6:

1

32, 34 destabilization 7: 49,

domestic

54

8: 62, 64,

74-79 1

African

mzab

pygmy

2, (2

32

Glaucomys

mahogany

1

black 8: 41

77, 84-85 greater 10: 74

62

G. leptoceros 6:

2,

103

Gir Forest Reserve 2: (15)

feathertail

1

50, 59, 8: 29, 57, 66-67,

G. sabrinus 7: 61

34

polar (Arctic) 8: 74, 82-85 Smith's red rockhare 8; 64

1

89 Great Gobi Strictly Protected 1:

American

pika,

Patagonian see mara

9: 77, 10:

54

8: 64 mouse see

1

5: 12, 13,

5:

64-67 66

8:

Jameson's red rockhare 4; 8, 12,

little 1:

54

hare family

hispid 8: 63, 64,

sustainable 3:

0;

1

(Arctic) 8: 74,

82-85

6: 67,

ground

52-53

G. volans 7: 34,

Gazella G.

54

52 Thornicroft's 6: 52, 53 West African 6: 52 giraffe-gazelle see gerenuk

32 1; 32

grazing

grison

5: 11, 12, 6:

southern African

64 Greenland

26-27

Area

Rothschild's 6: 52, 54,

Gallctis

Garamba

52

reticulated 6; 52, 53,

Galeopithecidae 8: 108

greater red rockhare 8: 63,

1

G. gorilla diehli 4: 12,(21),

Graphiurus ocularis

kordofan 6: 52 Masai 6: 52, 54 nubian 6: 52

52-53

8: 80 European 8: 64

20-25 22-23

2, (2

1

grass see sea grass

giraffe family 6: 52-53

Galea musteloldes 8: Galemys pyrenaicus 9: 40,

G. beringei 4:

Camelopardalis 6: 52 G. Camelopardalis capensis 6: 52 G. Camelopardalis peralta

60

06 30

1

2, (2

G. Camelopardalis

giraffe

demidoff^: 106, 110-111 G. thomasi 4: 1 06 G.

1

86-89

8: 62,

see pika, American

Cape

G- dryas 10: 14

tippelskirchi 6: 52,

Galagoldes

4:

G. agilis

52

6:

simus 4:

brown

Gracllinanus

G. Camelopardalis

06

1

4: 12,

96 96 96

4:

haplorhines see primates, higher hare 8: 61 Arctic 8: 74, 82-85 calling

silverback 4: 13, 22,

(21),

thornicrofti 6: 52

06

G. senegalensis 4:

gaur

antiquorum

reticulata 6: 52,

06

26-27

7:

pocket 7: 12, 18 western pocket (northern

G. gorilla gorilla 4:

rothschildi 6: 52,

1

18

7: 17,

G. gorilla 4: 12, (21)

angolensis 6: 52

aureus

H. griseus 4; FI.

gopher

GIraffa

G. Camelopardalis 4;

9: 10; 10: (1 1),

20-25

G. Camelopardalis

Hapalemur FI.

Gondwanaland

G. beringei diehli 4:

1

G. Camelopardalis

106 106

108-109

6: 62,

apes in 4: 50 Gigantopithecus 4:

G. Camelopardalis

Thomas's

63

6:

mountain

G. beringei beringei 4:

Gibraltar,

6:

106

domestic

19

18,

84-85

Syrian (golden) 7:

Gorilla

54-57

4:

hamster 7: 11, 15, golden 7: 84-85

60-63

6:

western lowland (21), 26-27

G, Camelopardalis

Senegal 4; 1 06 Somali 4: 106 southern needle-clawed

goat

31-32, (31)

4:

white-tailed 6: 82

see also wildebeest, blue

western

38-39

G 06

habituation 4: (23) Halichoerus grypus 3: 42-43 hammer stones 1: (74);

64

9;

16-17, 64

7: 10,

mountain 36-37

galago Demidoff's dwarf see bush baby, Demidoff's Gabon 4: 106 1

gnawing gnu

Cross River 4: 12, (21), 26 eastern 4: 12, (21) eastern lowland 4: 12, 13, ( 21 )

G. Camelopardalis 6: 52,

gallery forests 4; 101

fleas 9; (18)

crested black 4:

(lar)

northern needle-clawed

10: 27, (77), (95)

see also deforestation habitat preservation 4: 51

goral 6: 62, 108 gorilla 4: S, 10, 12, 13

crested 4: 37

white-handed

Galldictls

3: (74)

fishing nets 3

56

4: 36,

37

G. vittata

cooperative, by dolphins

(lar)

Muller's 4: 36,

Garnett's 4:

9: 33, 62. 63, 85, 91;

3: 55,

pocket) 7: 26-27

12-13, 35, 41, 44, 69, (72), 75, 3: 12, 16, 4:40, 36, 37, 46, 61, 90; 9: 43; 10: 22, 65, (80) see also skin trade

59, (66); 7: 25, 63, 107;

Globicephala melas

horned 7: 12 northern pocket

gerbil 7: 13, 15 bushveld 7: 13

lar 4: 36,

GUsgUsl: 102. 104-105

108

30

8;

8:

moloch

fertilization;

12, 15, 19, 37, 43,

92-93

88,

:

64, 68-69, 87, 93, 2;

85; 7: 33, 41, 97, 8: (10),

91, 91

farmland, expanding

:

34

46-47 9: 87

Furipteridae

1

38-39

fur trade 1: 22, (23), 51, 54,

F

black-footed

7:

,

65, 91, 6: 20, 47, 49, 51,

wild 6: 62

Ceorychus capensis

common

2: (72); 8:

of rodents 7: 12 extermination 6: 64-66

:

64

2;

88,

Mongolian 7; 88-89 gerenuk 6; 62, 98-99 gibbon 4: S, 10, 12

53

Ruppell's 2: 50,

Samson

fur farming 1; 22, 35, 54, 55;

1:

Madagascan

1: 9; 2:

70

Funambulus pennantii

40;

10: 36, (52)

mammals

50, 52,

40

Eurotamandua 1: 9 Euryzygomatomys spinosus 8: 30

68-69 (59), 64-67

kit (swift) 2:

:

102 see dormouse, edible

Glirulus japonicus 7:

Glyptodon 9: 66 6. panochthus

:

50

35, 87, 96, 101; 5 26, 63,

66-67

G. tigrina 1 88 Geocapromys brownit Geogale aurlta 9: 24 Geomyidae 7: 12

53

island gray 2:

88

:

Euroscaptor parvidens

convergent

65 74-75

2: 50, 52,

1:

62, 64;

1:

2: 35, 44, 79; 3: 83; 4: 24,

Glironia venusta 10: 14

glutton see wolverine

88, 91

1:

Genetta G. genetta

gray 2: 50, 52

06

Eupleres goudotii

fishing 3

53 50, 53

Indian 2: 50,

elegantulus 4:

76-77 53

"cross fox" 2: 64,

4: 40, 42, 43,

92-93 European (common) 1: 88, 92-93 genet family 1: 88-91 large-spotted 1: 88 small-spotted (common) 1: 88, 92-93

2: 50,

corsac 2:

Euoticus

1;

aguatic

common

Cape

Eumetopias jubatus 3 18-19

ferret

Tibetan 6: 61, 62

Blanford's 2: 50, blue Arctic 2: 71, (72)

96

97,

habitat destruction

gliding marsupials 10: (76)

glis

gelada baboon 62-63 gemsbok 6: 62 genet 1: 18, 98

100

2: 50,

.

no

7: (14)

:

£ coronatus 4: 96 £ macaco 4: 96 £ mongoz 4: 96

of

4:

94-95

6:

H

10: 74, 76, (76),

86-87. 88

62

6; 67,

Thomson's

26

gorillas in 4:

see also deforestation fossa 1: 88, 90.91, 96-97:

bat-eared

3 55

eucalyptus 10; 95-96, 96

£ £

gallery forests 4: 101

goitered 6: 61, 62 slender-horned 6: 61, 62

108-109

:

sugar

dama

Arctic 2: 50, 70-73. 87;

E.

47

5;

in Brazil 4:

fox

Eubalaena

Eulemur

gazelle

forests

90-91 elephants in 5: 22

1

24

Flemiechinus Ft. aethlopicus H. auritus 9: Ft.

collaris

9;

1

M, 12-13

9:12

121


1

2 0

1

2

1

1

1

SET INDEX

Hemigdius derbyanus 1 88 Hemitragus jemlahicus 6: 62 herding, predator avoidance :

10 Herpestes 5;

Hydrochaeridae 7: 12 Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris

108-109 1 ichneumon 1 98 H. naso 1: 98 Herpestidae 1 88 H. edwardsii

:

H.

8: 30,

:

:

58-59

Heterohyrax 8; 1 02 H. antineae 8: 1 03

H

bnjcei 8;

1

H. chapini 8:

03 1 03

Heteromyidae 7; 12 Hexaprotodon liberiensis 5: 66 hibernation 2: 87-88, 93, 97, 100, 7; 19, 51, 54-55,

1: 8, ?0; 9: 8-1 interbreeding 2: 59, 6: 75, 107, 10: 41 International Union for the

1: 18,

lomys horsfieldi Isoodon

macrourus 10: 27, 46-47 pagurus 8: 30 lUCN see International Union /.

for the Conservation of

Nature see also tusks ivory

poaching

20

5:

Hippocamelus

H.

jaca see guinea pig

H. antisensis

H.

6:10

common

5:

H.

5: 8, 9, 10;

5: 74,

66, 66, 67,

H. lepidus 7:

H. niger 6:

5: 74,

sapiens

1:

29, 31, 36-37, (37), 40, 41; 6: 9, 56, 60, 1 1 5:

1: 15; 5: S, 9, 10, 11,

11. 12, 62 ancestral 1: 8

dav.

^ 5:

domestic

5:

Bruce's yellow-spotted

103, 104-105 Cape rock (rock) 8: 103, 8:

104-105. 105, 106-107

42, 45, 54-55 wild (mustang) see

(8),

72;

mustang

60-63 Goodfellow's tree 10: 48, 6-67 gray 10: 48, 53, 60-63 red 10: 11, 48, 54-59 60, .

63

H H

8:

1

16-19

1 6: 62,

walia 6: 106, 106-107 Ichneumia albicauda 1 98

hutia 7: 12. 8:11,31,37 Brown's 8: 30

Cuban

8: 30,

Desmarest's 8: 30,

52-53

Cuban (Cuban)

6: 62, .

prehensile-tailed 8:

Indian 8:

42, 49, 57, 81; 2: 82, (86), 93, 3: 34, 6: 39, 8: 109; 9: 61, 77, 83, 1:

105, 107 see also reproduction

inbreeding 1: (59), 2: 29, 33, 109, 4: 22, 81, 90, 93, 7: 10: 101

1

96, 97 Indricothehum 5: Indri indn 4: 96 indri 4:

30

8,

28

5:

92, (106)

5:

Langorchestes L.

conspicillatus 10:

L.

hirsutus 10:

langur

4:

48

92-93

ellipsiprymnus defassa

K.

6:

92-93

ellipsyprymnus 6: 92-93

62

K.

kob

K.

leche 6: 92

6:

12-13, 4: 40,

1:

1:

spotted

1

K. vardonii 6:

llama

6:

Caribbean ground 109

92

K.

breviceps

3:

55

simus 3: 55 korrigum 6: 88 Kruger National Park 2: 31 kudu, greater 6: 78-79 kulan see ass, Asian wild kultarr 10: 25, 27 K.

lemming

2: 72; 7: 13, 17,

65

collared 7: 9

Norway

7: 66,

90-91

lemmus lemmus 7: 90-91 lemur 1: 96, 4: 96-97 bamboo 4: 96, 97 black 4: 96, 96

locomotion, plantigrade 9: 8, 12 22 68 logging 1: 51, 77, 2: 21, 6: 20 Lonchothrix emillae 8: 30 Lontra 64-67 L. canadensis 1: 32, ,

L felina 1: 32 Lophiomys imhausi Lophocebus

black-and-white ruffed

L.

loris 4:

96

4:

crowned dwarf

4:

slow

4: 96, 97 mongoose 4: 96, 96 mouse 4: 97, 97 pygmy mouse 4: 8, 96, 97

red ruffed 4: 104, 705 ringtailed 4: 9, 96, 97,

97

96 96 98-101

4: 4:

catta 4: 96,

Leontopithecus

88

chrysomelas chrysopygus

108-109 1 06

4: 106,

Loris tardigradus 4:

96 eastern woolly fat-tailed dwarf 4: 96 flying 8: 108 fork-marked 4: 96 giant sloth 4: 96 golden bamboo 4: 96 gray mouse 4: 96 greater bamboo 4: 96 greater dwarf 4: 96 hairy-eared dwarf 4: 96 indri 4: 96, 97 4:

caissara 4:

106-107 4: 1 06

slender 4: 106, 106

96 97, 97

sportive 4:

66

pygmy

4:

weasel sportive western woolly

7:

albigena 4: 40 aterrimus 4: 40

L,

705

4: 104,

brown 4: 97 brown mouse

92, 93, 93,

5: 12,

104-107 Lobodon carcinophagus 3: 9, 36-37 lobtailing 3: 96, 109

14

lassa fever 7:

L.

62

88 88

98-99 1:

36

10: 74, (101) latifrons 10: 74, (10-1)

L.

:

1: 75, 2: 8-9, 9, 10, 13, 14-19. 6: 82, 8: 18-19 Asian 2: (15) Barbary 2: 17 mountain see puma

lizard,

L. krefftii

L.

90

88,

1:

banded

Lipotyphia 9: 10 Litocranius walleri 6: 62,

42

Hanuman

Lemur

K- ellipsiprymnus

98

:

Lipotes vexillifer 3: 55, (61)

48

98-101

Kogia

imprinting 6: 83

pacos

104-107 92, 108-109

ruffed 4: 96, 104-105

K. ellipsiprymnus 5: 75;

32

86-87 97

13, 66, 70, 8: 57, 59;

52-53

eared 8: 30 Hispanolan 8: 30

(10), 77, (77),

kob 6: 62 Kobus

implantation/fertilization,

delayed

62

1

lion

92,

5:

Milne-Edwards's sportive

Asian wild khur see kiang see ass, Asian wild kinkajou 1: 20, 27

92-97

nubian 6: 106

1:

5: 26, 6: (68);

93

ass,

koala 10:

alpine 6: 106, 107

6: 62,

keystone species

30

klipspringer 5: 8, 6: 60,

106-107

Ictonyz striatus

rupestris 8:

7: 32,

1

H. cristata 8: 12,

ibex

bannertail 7:

Kerodon

brachyura

impala

Chilean 6: 10 Peruvian 6: 10, 12-13 human 4: 10-1 1,12 lunting partnerships 2: (60)

rat 7: 13, 17

kangaroo

:

africaeaustralis 8:

88

African

82-83

Coquerel's dwarf 4: 96

10: 48, 51, 52, 66-67 western gray 10: 60, (62)

8 20

8-11, 28, 55

:

huemul

122

103

8:

Siberian 6: 106, 107

48

eastern gray (gray) 10: 48,

keratin 5: 10, 29, (37), 6: 60;

5: (43)

5:

48

Hystricognathi 7:

04

Hystrix

racehorses 5: (43) wild (Mongolian wild)

kangaroo 48-53

yellow-spotted 8: 105 Hystricidae 7: 12. 8: 12

1

western tree

8:

58 feral see mustang horse family 5: 42-45 Mongolian wild 5: 42, 45, 54-55 Przewalski's (Mongolian vVild) 5: 42, 45, 54—55

red 10: 25, 27 8: 62, 10: 8, (10),

little

80-81

86-89

8: 64,

kuhni

,

kaluta,

18-19 Ord's 7: 24-25 Kannabateomys amblyonyx 8: 30 Karroo desert 2: 77

tree 8:

californicus 8: 64,

74-79

linsang 1: 89, 90, 91

glama

lechwe

tree (Goodfellow's tree)

103

Matadi rock 8: 105, 106-107 southern tree 8: 102-103. 103 8:

L.

8: 64,

82-85

whale 3: 57, 92, 102, 108 Limnogale mergulus 9: 24

Laurasia 9: 10

53,

103

8:

arcticus 8:

lice,

Lasiorhinus

Bennett's tree 10:

102-105

Ahaggar

draft 5: (43),

West

14

10. 5: (10), (12), 14,

8: 68,

60-67

42

hot springs 4:

1:

(12),

K

L.

Liberiictis

48

Lagothrix L. flavicauda 4: 72 L. lagotricha 4: 72,

L.

americanus

leverets 8:

Lagostrophus fasciatus

Lariscus insignis 7:

see gerbil

jird

eastern tree 8: 103

83 hoofed mammals 5: 8-13 30 Hoplomys gymnurus 8: nornbill 1: 107

Camargue

hyrax

12

1: 14, 4:

honeybees 7: 13 honey guide, African

horse

36

Hyracoidea 1: 10, 5: Hyracotherium 5: 42

75,

36-37

2: 10,

alleni 8:

L

Lestodelphys halli 10: 14 Lestoros inca 10: 14

Lagidium peruanum 8: 30 lagomorphs 1: 70, 8: 61-63 Lagostomus maximus 8: 30 10:

64

L.

L europaeus

64-67 Malabar 4: 40

jaguarundi 2: 10, 72 javelina see peccary, collared jerboa 7: 72, 17

90-91 Hypsiprymnodon moschatus 10: 48, 72 Hypsiprymnodontidae 10: 48

84-85 pygmy 5: 74 red river 5: 74 see also warthog homeothermy 1: 9-10, 14 Hominidae 4: 10

cruciger 3:71 obliquidens 3: 55, 70-71 obscurus 3: 71

41.

black 2: 37

12

3: 55,

62

giant forest

jaguar

spadiceus 7: 34, 36 Hyperoodon ampullatus

62

80-81

65

5: (11),

H-

hog

83;

antelope 8: 62, 64, 66, 66

13

Hylopetes

Hippotragus H. equinus 6: 62 H leucophaeus 6: 63

1:

Jacobson's organ 2: 12;

H. suillus 9: 12,

albirostrls 3: 7

L.

black-backed 50, 62-63

black-tailed 8: 64,

84-85

H. sinensis 9: 12, 12

hippotigres 5: 52

horns

2:

H. hainanensis 9: 12,

5: 66-67 pygmy 5: 66, 66-67, 67 Hippopotamus amphibius 5: 66, 68-73

L.

Lama

jackrabbit

Hylomys

hippopotamus family

Homo

H.

acutus

L guanicoe

jackal,

Hylochoerus meinertzhageni

68-73

hirola 6:

36 lar 4: 36, 38-39 moloch 4: 36 muelleri 4: 36 syndactylus 4: 36

Lepus

3: 71

L.

L.

J

H. bisculus 6: 10

72

8

1:

leptospirosis 1: 87, 7: 14

Lagenorhynchus

L.

Isothrix

Lepticidium

8: (41)

L.

auratus 10: 27

I.

leprosy 9: (76)

see also medical research Lagenodelphis hosel 3: 7

L.

H. klossii 4:

hippopotamus 8: 48

43

22,

36

7:

ivory 3: 26, 5: 14, 20, 26,

Hylobates H. concolor 4: 36

104, 105, 111, 10: 111

laboratory animals 4: 40, 87; 7: 15, 66, (75), 83, 86;

insectivores

104-107

Himalaya Mountains 1: 30 hippo see hippopotamus

60-61

Inia geoffrensis 3: 55,

introductions

103,

2: 102,

67

4: (10)

spotted 2: 102, 102-103. 103, 108-109 striped

Leporidae (leporids) 8: 60, 64,

infanticide 1: (13); 2: 24;

Conservation of Nature (lUCN) 1: 16

38-39 Hyemoschus aquaticus 6: 10 hyena brown 2: 102, 103, 103 hyena family 2: 102-103

9: 13, 18, 27, 82,

107

48-51

Hydrodamalis gigas 3: 47 Hydromys chrysogaster 7: 9 Hydropotes inermis 6: 1 Hydrurga leptonyx 3: 9,

Heterocephalus glaber 8: 56,

Hyaena H. brunnea 2: 1 02 H. hyaena 2: 102, 104-107 hybridization 2: 59

4:

88

4: 86,

3:

L

africana

L

cyclotis 5:

lucky

61

5:

charms

1

4,

16-21

14

8: 67, 9:

79

Lutra

58-63

L.

lutra 1: 32,

L.

maculicollis 1:

L.

sumatrana

1:

32 32

Lutreolina crassicaudata 10: 14

Lutrogale perspicillata 1: 32 Lycaon pictus 2: 50, 78-79

Lyncodon patagonicus 1: 32 lynx 2: 10, 12, 38, 40-41 ;

76-77

8:

Canadian 2: 40, 41 Eurasian 2.40 2: 41 Iberian 2: 40, 41

M Macaca

M

fuscata 4; 40,

48-49

M. nigra 4: 40, 52-53 M- silenus 4: 40 M. sylvanus 4: 40, 50-51

macaque 88

88-91 L. rosalla 4: 86, leopard 2: 9, 10, 13, 30-33 black 2: 30, 31 clouded 2: 9, 10 melanistic 2: 30, 31 snow 2: 10, 13, 34-35 Lepilemur L. edwardsi 4: 96 L. mustelinus 4: 96

love charms Loxodonta

Barbary

4: 8, 40, 42, 43, 4: 40, 42,

66

50-51

black 4: 40, 52-53 Celebes (black) 4: 40, 52-53

Japanese

4: 40, 42,

lion-tailed 4: 40,

48-49

41

Sulawesi crested (black) 4: 40, 52-53 Macrogalidia musschenbroekii 1

:

88


SET INDEX

Macropodidae Macropus

M. mantes 1: 32 M. pennant! 1: 50-51 masseter muscles 7: 16-17, 64, 8: 12, 72 Massoutiera mzabi 7: 108 Mazama americana 6: 1 meat trade see bushmeat

50

10; 48,

M. fuliginosus 10: (62) M. giganteus 10; 48,

60-63 M. parryi 10: 48 M. robustus 10: 48 M. rufogriseus 10: 48,

trade medical research 4: 13, 32, 63,

64-65 M. rufus 10; 48, 54-59 Macroscelidea 1; 70, 9: 58 Macroscelides probosddeus

59

9:

Macrostylus 9: 86 Macrotis

M. kirkii 6: 62 M. saltiana 6: 62 Makalata armata 8: 30 mammals 1: 8-1 changing species 1: 15-16 diversity of 1: (1 1), 14-15 70

major groups 1:11 8 reproduction 1: 12-14 mammoth 5: 8 Mammuthus 5: 8 manatee 1: 10 3 46-47 origin 1:

:

,

47

3:

Caribbean (West Indian)

48-51 West African 3: 47 3: 46, 47,

West Indian

5:

37

100-105

mandrill 4: 40, 42, 60-61 Mandrillus

98, 99, 100-105 Megachiroptera 9: 80, 86 Megaderma lyra 9: 98-99 Megadermatidae 9: 87, 98 Megaptera novaeangliae 3: 55, 102-105 Megatherium 9: 64 Meles meles 1: 32, 78-81 1: 19,

Melogale personata 1: 32 Melursus ursinus 2: 82 Menotyphla 9; 10, 58 Mephitidae 1: 32, 84

Mesocapromys

gray-cheeked 4: 40, 40, 42 white 4: 40, 42

mangrove swamps 4: 71 Manis M. gigantea 9: 65 M. temminckii 9: 65 M. tricuspis 9: 65 mara 8; 8, 30, 32-35

Marmosa M. mexicana 10: 14 M. murina 10: 14

marmoset

common 4:

4:

86, 92-93

86

87

Geoffrey's 4; 86,

marmoset family pygmy

4:

silvery 4;

4:

86-87

86 86

Marmosops M. dcfrothea 10: 14 M. fuscatus 10: 14

marmot

36

7: 76, 35,

alpine (European) 7: 34,

52-53 European

52-53

7: 34,

Marmota 7: 34 M. marmota 7; 34, 52-53 M. monax 7; 34, 50-51 marsupials 1: 10, 10: 8-13 Australian carnivorous 10: 24-27 other plant-eating 10: 74-77 marten 7; 36 American 1: 48-49

American pine (American) 1:

pine

48-49 1:

32,

35

M

flavigula 1:

1

1;

:

32

48-49

32

10-11,

40, 41, 42, (42)

30

100-101

slender 1: 98 white-tailed 1: 98, yellow 1: 98, 101

monito

monte

del

Moschidae 6; 10 Moschlola meminna

99

swamp

4; 40,

76-77

4: 72,

72

Bolivian squirrel 4:

mouse

8:

4: 72,

74-75

57

common

1

12

cheek-pouch 4: 40, 42 cloaked see colugo squirrel 4: 72,

common

78

woolly

(Humboldt's woolly) 4: 72,

42-43

4: 40,

40 4: 40

golden leaf golden snub-nosed 4: 40 green (vervet) 4: 40, 42,

Cozumel Island harvest 7; 80 deer 7: 64, 82-83 desert 7; 65 desert pocket 7: 22-23 field (wood) 7: 13, 78-79 hairy harvest 7: 80 harvest 7: 64

house

7: 13,

14-15, 65-66,

68-71 jumping 7: 17, 19 kangaroo 7: 17

grivet (vervet) 4: 40, 42,

long-clawed marsupial

44-47 guenon (vervet) 44-47

long-tailed field

Hanuman

10: 4: 40, 42,

83

Humboldt's woolly 82-83 leaf 4: 40, 40-42

4: 72,

(wood)

78-79

7: 13,

langur 6: 13

4: 10, 72,

27

marsupial 10: (25), 27, 40 meadow jumping 7: 16

mole

65

7:

mouse family 7: 64-67 New World 7: 14, 64, 65

long-haired spider 4; 72

Nicaraguan harvest 7: 80 Old World 7: 14, 65, 65

mesonychids

3: 56 Messelobunodon 1: 8

Damara 8; 56, 57 dune 8: 57

mantled howler 4: 72 mustached 4: 40, 41

pencil-tailed tree 7:

Ehrenberg's

18

New World monkey

plains 7:

7:

family

giant 8: 57

Angolan

57 lesser blind 7: 100-101 Mechow's 8: 56, 57 mole rat family 8: 56-57

giant

Mico M. argentata 4: 86 M. humilis 4: 86

naked

Micoureus M. alstoni 10: 14 M. constantiae 10: 14 Microcavia australis 8: 30 Microcebus M. coquereli see Mirza

silvery 7: 9, 8:

8; 56,

1: (11), 14, 7: 13;

58-59

8: 10, 56, 57,

Namaqua dune

8:

56

56

southern dune 8: 56 mollusks 3: 25 Molossidae 9: 87 Monachus schauinslandi 3: 9,

30-31

Alexander's

1:

Angolan

1:

98

M

banded

1:

18-19, 98,

Microchiroptera 9: 80, 86 Microgale M. melanorrachis 9: 24 M. parvula 9: 24 Microperoryctes M. longicauda 10: 27

98

18

64

4: 72, 73, 84-85 northern night 4: 72 73, 84-85 Old World monkey family 4: 40-43. 72 owl (northern night) 4; 72, 73, 84-85 patas 4: 40, 41, 42, 43 proboscis 4: 40, 41, 70-71 ,

(vervet) 4: 40, 42,

44-47

7: (69) singing 7: (69) spiny 7:65, 8: 11, 12 three-striped marsupial

27

10: 25,

waltzing

7: (69)

western harvest 7: 80-81 West Indian key 8: 1

white-footed (deer)

7: 64,

82-83

wood

7:

1

3,

78-79

mouse-hare see pika mouselike rodents muktuk 3: 85 mulgara 10: 27

7:

multituberculates 7: 10

Mungos

brown

spider 4: 8, 72, 75 squirrel 4: 72, 78-79

1:

98

bushy-tailed

common gray)

1:

dwarf

1:

98,

99

Bengal (Indian

108-109 gray (Indian gray)

108-109

common 1:

1:

Indian (Indian gray)

108-109 1:

Egyptian

Gambian

1: 1:

98,

giant-striped 1:

swingers 4: 72 thumbless 4: 40 vervet 4; 40, 42, 44-47 woolly 4: 72 yellow-tailed woolly 4: 72

98

84-85 Monotremata 1: 10 10: 104 monotremes, spiny 8; 12

Indian (Indian gray) 1: 108-109 Indian gray 1: 108-109

3: 55,

\

moonrat Dinagat

9: 9, 11, 12, 9:

12

1:

98

Muntiacus M. crinifrons 6: M. muntjak 6: 1 M, reeves! 6; 46-47 1

6:

Chinese

Monodon monoceros

106-107

Mungotictis decemlineata

muntjac

domestica 10: 14 kunsi 10: 14

99

98

16-19

M. gambianus 1: 98 M, mungo 1: 18-19, 98, 110-111

72

4:

Monodelphis

98, 99, 99,

106-107. Ill

9; (83), 102, (103),

milu see deer, Pere David's

7:

shaker

northern (northern night)

savanna

7: 12,

pygmy

Japanese southern night

Microtus agrestis 7: 92-93 migration 3: 82, 85, 87, 93-94, 103, (105), 109; 7: 91;

84-85

pocket

103-104, 110-111 broad-striped 1: 98

common

84-85, 96, 101;

73,

65

mouse 8: 38 65

snow see macaque,

M. murina 10; 27 Micropotamogale M, lamottei 9; 24 M. ruwenzorii 9: 24

109, 6: 17, 23, 37,

72-73

4:

night (northern night) 4: 72,

rhesus 4: 42

M. murinus 4: 96 M, myoxinus 4: 96 rufus 4: 96

pig

red howler 4: 72

mongoose

coquereli

64

coarse-haired pocket (desertpocket) 7; 22-23 Costa Rican harvest 7: 80

leapers 4: 72

57

8: 56,

7: 10,

0,

1

birch 7: 17

76-77

common

1

1

African climbing 7:

(black-handed spider) 4: 72,

M. berezovskii 6:

M. chrysogaster 6: 50-51 M. fuscus 6:10 M. moschiferus 6: mosquitoes 6: (22) mouflon 6; 62, 63

41 black-handed spider

Allen's

6:

Moschus

10: 11, 16,

(16)

howler

Cape 7: 10, 8: 56 Cape dune 8: 56

hispidus 8: 30

99 99

44-47

blind 7: 12-13, 15, 18,

auritus 8;

morrillo 8: 51

98,

dusky-leaf 4:

43

1

Selous'

82-83 De Brazza's

molehills 9:

6:

shiras 6: 15

ringtailed 1: 98,

northern marsupial 10: 43 northwestern marsupial

7:

1

1

northwestern

Central American spider

48-51

1

moose disease 6: 18 Mormoopidae 9: 87

1:

.

14-15, 17

6:

eastern 6:

40 Grant's golden 9: 56-57 hairy-tailed 9: 40, 42 Japanese 9: 54 Juliana's golden 9: 40, 43 marsupial 10: (10), 26, 27, 42-43 mole family 9: 40-43

see also shrew mole

14-19

6: 10, 12,

Alaskan

brown howler

27

13

9: 12,

21-22

golden mole family 9: 40-43 Grant's desert golden 9;

1

Metachirus nudicaudatus 10: 14 Metatheria 10: (10) miacid 1: 9 Miacoidea 1: 88, 98 mice see mouse

5: 18,

yellow-throated

Mantes M. americana

40

5: (10), 9: 9,

Balkan blind (lesser blind) 9:

86-87

Mesomys

44-47

9: 40, 42,

rat 7: 15, 18, 65, 8: 9 African 7; 12, 8: 56

Mesocricetus auratus 7:

golden

Mindanao

moose

22-23

9: 12,

lesser 9:

long-nosed

monkey

56-57

mole

88-89 mermaids 3: 53

black 4:

42 40, 42

coast 9: 40, 41 desert (Grant's) golden

Persian 9: 40, 43 small-toothed 9: 40, 43 star-nosed 9: 40, 42,

:

Mesechinus M. dauricus M. hughi 9:

43

4: 40, 42,

10, 9: 9, (10), 11

1:

10:

M. macroura 1 32 M. mephitis 1: 32, 84-87 Meriones unguiculatus

agile 4: 40,

mangabey

dwarf

32,

1:

82-83

7:

M. leucophaeus 4: 40 M. sphinx 4: 40, 60-61

European

mole

greater

1:

Liberian 1;

narrow-striped 1: 98, 99 Pousargues' 1: 98

3: 9,

Mirza coquereli 4: 96 moldewarp see mole,

n,

slender-tailed (meerkat)

Mephitis 47,

3: 46,

48-51

Mirounga M. angustirostris 32-35 M. leonina 3: 32

giant golden 9:

gray (meerkat) 1:19, 98, 99,

52-55. 62, 7; 99, 9: 53 European 1: 54, (55) Miopithecus talapoin 4: 40

European

98, 99,

32, 35, 35,

1:

98 98 1: 98 Madagascan 1: 98 marsh 1: 98, 99 Meller's 1: 98 mongoose family 1; 98-99

Jackson's

ringtail

mink 1: 35 American

9:

Mellivora capensis :

5: (10), (12)

Amazonian

(97), 100, 6: 107, 7: 63, 8:

meerkat 1: 19, 100-105

Madoqua

1:

for 2: 21, 33,

41; 9: 91

Chinese

in

96-97

evolution

97

body parts

M. lagotis 10; 27, M. leucura 10: 27 Madagascar, carnivores 90,

9: 77,

see also laboratory animals; surgery medicine 6: 51 7: (31) ,

44-45

1:

78,

93; 7: 15, (75); 8: (41);

miner's cat see raccoon,

13

1

6:

2, 46-47 46-47

hairy-fronted 6: Indian 6:

1

1

Reeves's 6:

46-47

Murexia M. longicaudata 10: 27 M. rothschildi 10: 27

123


SET INDEX

Muridae Murinae

munqui

14

pygmaeus

N.

M. musculus musculus

Nesolagus N. netschen

68-71

7:

brevirostris M 7: 71 M musculus domesticus 7: 71 M musculus musculus

62

6:

common 8:

64 64

9:

Zealand, mammals introduced into 1: 43; 10: (80)

membrane

27

Pilbara 10: 25,

102, 106-107 musk 85, 6: 51 muskox 6: 62, 104-105

southern 10: 27 Ningaui

7:

1;

96-97 96-97

7: 13, 65,

common mustang

7:

5:

42, 58-61

Mustela M. erminea

40-43 M. M. M. M. M. M.

frenata

1:

lutreola

1:

36

32,

54, (55)

46-47 nivalis 1: 32, 36-39 putorius 1: 32, 44-45 vison 1; 32, 52-55 mustelids 1: 32-35 Mydaus nigripes

1:

32,

M. javanensis 1: 32 M. marchei 1; 32 Myocastor coypus 8: 30,

44^7 Myocastoridae 7: 72, 8: 31 myoglobin 3; 1 1, 87 Myoictis melas 10: 27

Myomimus

Myomorpha

9:

Myoxidae 7: 72 Myrmecobiidae 10: 24 Myrmecobius iasaatus 10: 27, 34-35

Myrmecophaga

tridactyla

8:

30

54 myxomatosis 8: 72, 93 Myzopodidae 9: 87 Mysticeti 3:

N Nandinia binotata 1 88 Nannosciuris exilis 7: 36 Nannospalax leucodon :

100-101 3: 55,

84-85

34-35 coypu nyala, mountain 6: 62 Nyctereutes procyonoides 2: 50 Nycteridae 9: 87 nutria see

1

70-71

Nasua N. narica 1:

nasua

20

20, Nasuella olivacea 1

:

28-29 1: 20

Natalldae 9: 87 national parks/nature reserves 2: (15), 16, 31, 5: 34,

(102),

103

nectar 4: 105

Nectogale elegans

9:

Nemorhaedus goral

28

6: 62,

1:

77, 2: 10,

72,

44-45

98 94 O. princeps 8: 94, 98-101 O, pusilla 8: 94 Ochotonidae 8: 60 Octodon bridges! 8: 30 O. collaris 8: 94,

Octodontidae (octodonts) 7: 72, 8: 29-31

Octodontomys 8: 30 octodonts

gliroides

7: 72, 8:

29-31 30

Octomys mimax 8: Odobenidae 3: 8 Odobenus rosmarus 24-29

3: 9,

Odocoileus

hemionus

Odontoceti

6:

1

0,

34-37

3:

54

1:

20, 21

onager see ass, Asian wild Ondatra zibethicus 7: 96-97 Onychogalea O,

opossum

1:

87

lorentzi

6: 62, 90-91 scimitar-horned 6: 62 white (Arabian) 6: 62,

10: 14 10:

14-17

black-shouldered 10: 14, 16,

77

brown four-eyed

bushy-tailed 10: 14

14

3:

<

44-45

Paguma

larvata 1:

88

2, 34-35 4: 12, 28-33 1

panda bear see panda, giant pangolin 1: 70, 9: 64-67 African 9: 66 armored 9: 64 Asian 9: 66 giant 9: 65, 66 ground 9: 64-65, 65 tree 9: 65 panther black 2: 30, 3

7

puma

see also leopard; Panthera

14-19

2: 10,

P leo persica 2: (1 5) P onca 2: 0, 36-37 P pardus 2: 10, 30-33 P tigris 2: 1 0, 20-25 P uncia 2: 0, 34-35 Pantholops hodgsoni 6: 62 1

68-69

1:

32

1

:

1

:

88,

27 27 7: 44

virus

Parascalops breweri 9: 40

35

32

river

bilarni 10:

parasites 9:

84

Paroodectes

1:

patagium 86

8: 108, 10: (76), 84,

(North

river) 1:

32,

25

Ruwenzori 9: 24, 25 ounce see leopard, snow

54-55

1: 22, 29, 35, 45, 95, 109, 2: 75, 4: 53, 78, 81, 83, 85, 87, 88, 101; 7: 15,

(69), 83, 86, 8: 39, 42, (72), 9: 13, 21

see also cat, domestic; dog, domestic

Phacochoerus P aethiopicus 5: 74 P africanus 5: 74, 80-83 Phalanger 10: 82 Pcarmeiitae 10: 74 Pgymnotis 10: 74 Phalangeridae 10: 76 Phaner furdfer 4: 96 phascogale 10: (25) brush-tailed 10: 26, 27 red-tailed 10: 25, 27 Phascogale P calura 10: 27 P tapoatafa 10: 27 Phascolorarctos cinereus

92-97

Phascolosorex P doriae 10: 27

P dorsalis 10: 27 pheromones 7: 66, 70 P andersoni 10: 14 P opossum 10: 14 Phoca P groenlandica 3: 9, 44-45 P sibirica see Pusa sibirica P vitulina 3: 9, 40-41 Phocarctos hooken 3: 9 3:

8

Phocoena phocoena 78-79 Pholldocercus

1:

3: 55,

9

Pholidota 1: 10 9: 64 Phyllostomidae 9: 87

Chacoan

5:

collared

5:

88, 89, 89 88, 89, 90-91

peccary family 5:

Physeter catodon 3: 55, 86-89 pig 5: S, 10, 12

bearded bushpig

12

5: S,

white-lipped

sea 1: 19, 32, 72-75 short-clawed 1: 32, 70-71 smooth-coated 1: 32 spot-necked 1: 32, 35 otter shrew 9: 1 1, 24, 25

8: 30,

\

Patagonia 5: 108 Pecan 5: 88 P tajacu see Tayassu

peccary

31

7: 72, 8:

pets

Phocidae

9

tajacu

river

Petromuridae

Petromus typicus

Philander

Pasteurella tularense 8: 81

1:

P gracilis 10: 74 crinitus 7: 34 Petrodomus tetradactylus 9: 59

10: 74,

58-59 98

4: 40,

aplicalis 10:

parapox

1:

Petauroides volans 10: 74 Petaurus P breviceps 10: 74, 86-87

Petropseudes dahli 10: 74

2: (99)

:

32

P elegans 7: 36 P petaurista 7: 36

P persephone 10: 48 P xanthopus 10: 48, 70-71

94-95

48

Petauridae 10: (76) Petaurista

Petrogale

98-101

2: 82,

lesser (red) 1: 20, 21,

P P

P broadbenti 10: 27 P raffrayana 10: 27 Peroryctidae 10: 24

Petinomys

Pan P paniscus 4: P troglodytes

P jerdoni 1 88 P zeylonensis 1 88

06

Indian smooth-coated

giant 9: 24, 10:

1

hairy-nosed

Alston's

red-legged 10: 48, 57 red-necked 10: 48 Pagophilus groenlandica

Parantechinus

giant river

64-67

pademelon

88

:

2: 50,

19, 35, 54, 8:

American

mouse 10: 14 woolly mouse

1

Cape clawless 1: 32 Congo clawless 1: 32 European 1: 58-63 European river 1: 60

1:

paca 7: 72, 8: 11, 28, 30, 30 mountain 8: 30 pacarana 7: 72, 8: 28, 31

Paradoxurus P hermaphroditus

crassicaudatus 4: 106

marine

P

:

Otocyon megalotis 76-77 Otolemur

1: 18,

Peroryctes

:

Paracynictis selousi

Otariidae 3: 8

giant

1 06 Peromyscus P leucopus 7: 83 P maniculatus 7: 82-83

7: (14)

54-57 P hamadryas

62 62

6:

24

1:

43 Perodicticus potto 4:

pantotheres 7: 10, 11 Papio P cynocephalus 4: 40,

leucoryx 6: 62, 90-91 Oryzorictes tetradactylus

otter

33

snowy

1: (91);

Perissodactyla 1: 70; 5: 10, 12,

1

90-91 Oryx

9:

7: (37); 9:

P leo

9: 65,

68-73 oryx Arabian

agile gracile

black four-eyed 10: 14

Neophoca cinerea 3: 9 Neotoma lepida 7: 84-85

Orycteropus afer

northern

Neomys

Neophascogale 10: 27

6: 62,

106-109

North American 1: 32, 64-67

48 unguifera 1 0: 48

bare-tailed woolly 10: 14

28

,

orca 3: 55, (57), 62-65 Orcinus orca 3: 55, 62-65

gazella 6:

100-103 62

oxpeckers 5: 38; 6: (73) Ozotocerus bezoarticus 6 10

10, 12, 13,

14-19 0. Bornean 4: 12, 14-15, 18, 0. 18-19 0. Sumatran 4: 12, 14-15, 18

dammah

6:

30-31: 2: (99) red 1: 20, 21. 30-31:

O. garnettii 4:

okapi 6: 52, 52-53, 58-59 Okapia johnstoni 6: 52, 58-59 Olallamys edax 8: 30 olingo

8

4:

Osbornictis piscivora

Neofelis nebulosa 2: 10

fodiens 9:

10: 14 woolly 10: 16

orangutan

Oryctolagus cuniculus 8: 64,

94

O. alpina 8:

O,

mouse

spirit gracile

musimon

giant

78-79

Ochotona

American

108

wood

owl

27

7: (31)

panda

77

13, 14, 16,

white-eared 10: 14

10:

ocelot

18-23

0.

O. fraenata 10:

Neamblysomus julianae 9: 40

16, 17,

Oreotragus oreotragus 6: 62 oribi 5: 7 7, 6: 67, 62 Ornithorhynchus anatinus

22, 34, 52, 58, 85, 89, 91, 101

N. larvatus 4: 40,

elegant fat-tailed 10: 14 gray-bellied shrew 10: 14 gray-bellied slender mouse 10: 14, 75 gray four-eyed 10: 14, 77 gray short-tailed 10: 14 Incan shrew 10: 14 lutrine 10: 14 Mexican mouse 10: 14, 77 murine mouse 10: 14 pale-bellied woolly mouse 10: 14 pallid fat-tailed 10: 14 Patagonian 10: 14 pygmy short-tailed 10: 14 shrew 10: 16 silky shrew 10: 14 Virginia 10: S, 13, 14, 15,

water 10:

O. aries 6: 62 O.

Oreamnos americanus 108-109

Nycticebus

oil 3:

40

N. concolor 4:

124

10: 13, 24, 25, 26,

O. virginianus 6: 10, (36)

Nasalis

N.

numbat

O. himalayana 8:

68-71

Mysateles prehensilis Mystacinidae 9: 87

narwhal

Notoryctes N. caurinus 10: 27, 43 N. typhlops 10: 27, 42-43 Notoryctidae 10: 24, 26

o

30 7: 34 28 104-105

exilis 8:

varlus 9:

Myotis ludfugus

7:

08 N. leporinus 9: 108-109 Noctilionidae 9: 87 noise pollution 3: 88, 95 noolbenger see possum, honey Notoryctemorphia 10: 24 1

1

7: (8)

Myosciurus pumilio

9: 65,

Noctilio

coucang 4: 06, 108-109 N. pygmaeus 4: 06

I

Myosorex

N.

N.

M. personatus 7: 102 M. roach 7: 102 M. setzeri 7: 102

Myoprocta

27 yvonneae 10: 27

N. timealeyi 10:

N. albiventris 9:

32, 36,

1:

28

ningaui 10: (24)

Muscardinus avellanarius

muskrat

7:

62

nilgai 6:

perfume industry

Ovis O. canadensis 6:

10: 14

54-55

nictitating

,

mouse

Dorothy's slender

New

71

M musculus wagneri 7: 71 M porcellus 8; 38

8 18-23

(Virginia) 10:

10:

P nasuta 10: 27 Peramelidae 10: 24

104-105

13, 14, 15, 16, 17,

N. timminsi 8: Neurotrichus gibbsii

P bougainville

Ourebia ourebi 6: 62 Ovibos moschatus 6: 62,

10: 14, 77 Chilean shrew 10: 14

62

N. batesi 6:

72

Mas

7:

Central American woolly

Neotragus

65

7: 12,

7:

4:

88-89 88, 89, 89 5:

Pectinator spekei 7: 108

Pedetes capensis 7: 20-21 Pedetidae 7: 72 Pelea capreolus 6: 62 penguin 3: 38-39 Pentalagus furnessi 8: 64

Peramelemorphia 10: 24 Perameles

5: 74, 5: 74,

75 75

lard pig 5: (78)

pig family 5: 74-75 pig fish 3: pig

mouse

78

38

8:

pika 8: 60, 62 Alpine 8: 94

American

8: 67, 94, 96,

98-101 Asian 8: 97 collared 8: 94, 97,

common 96,

98

(American)

98-101

8: 94,


SET INDEX

North American

Eurasian 8: 98, 100

Himalayan 8: 94, 96 pika family 8; 94-97 Rocky Mountain (American)

98-101

8: 94, 96,

Russian steppe 8; 94,

97

tree

8-13

1: 10, 3;

mammals

aedium 14, 76-77

8:

possum

Propitheous

74, 76,

common copper

27

10: 25,

78-81

maculata 10: 27 P novaeguineae 10: 27 P.

green

P gangetica 3: 55, (61) P minor 3: 55, (61) platypus 1:14

honey

duck-billed 10: 105,

77,

74 74, 75-76,

102-103

88-89

10-1

1

Phohippus 5: 42 poaching 4: 24, 27, ( 102 )

1

7: (37)

76, 77, (77) ringtail 10: (77)

5: 39,

74 10: 74 74, 76

rock ringtail 10:

Podogymnura P aureospinula 9:12 P truei 9: 12, 13

scaly-tailed

striped 10:

western pygmy 10: 74

Weyland

32 Poedlogale alblnucha 1: 32 Poelagus marjonta 8: 64 Poland hchardsoni 1: 88 polecat 1: 44-45 European 1: 32, 34, 35, 35 marbled 1: 32, 34, 34

Potamochoerus P larvatus 5: 74 P porous 5: 74 Potamogale velox

9:

pollution 1: 61, 62, 64, 69,

Potamogalidae

1

Poedllctis libyca 1:

71, 75, 2: (88), 3: 12, 41,

59, 61, 65, 67, 74, 79,

83

42-43 mustang porcupine 1: 50-51, 8: 10, 12-15

pouches 10:

African

prairie

7: 8;

15, 18,

12-13,

8: 10, 12,

Utah

Brazilian tree 8: 12

,

dwarf 8: 12 brush-tailed 8: 14 16

lower

15 ,

12

14 16-19 Europe 8: (19) dwarf 8: 12 ,

long-tailed 8: 12 ,

,

,

tree (tree) 8: 12

New World

7:

106-107 maximus 9: 65 1 1

,

Prionodon :

88 1

:

88 ,

,

106-107 Procaviidae 8: 102

,

12

:

12-15

North African (African) 8: 10, 12, 12-13, 14,

59

Pusa

Procolobus 4: 4 1 -42 P badius 4: 40 Procyon

P cancrivorus P gloverellani

1:

1:

20 26

6:

Q

5:

9

45,

40

48

American 16-17, (21)

quills 8: 12, (14),

see also spines 10: 48, 52,

68-69

quoll 10: (25), 27

New

Guinea 10: 25, 27 northern 10: 27, 32-33

R 1:

20, 21,

ringtail 1: 20,

22-27 26

43, 8: 61, 62 8: 62,

64

American swamp 8: 66 annamite 8: 64 brush 8: 64 bunyoro 8: 63, 64 bush see hare, snowshoe chocolate Dutch 8: 72-73 cottontail 1: 87 desert 8: 66

desert 10:

musky

Rangifer tarandus 6:

R.

giant

1

African marsh 7:

65

Amazon bamboo

8:

62

6:

indica 7: 34, 62-63 recolonization 3: 14, 35;

33 ape see orangutan Red Lists of Threatened red

Species (lUCN)

Redunca R. arundinum R.

31

black (ship) 7: 11, 13,

14-15, 72, 75, 76-77

30

reestablishment 3: 31, 93

broad-headed spiny 8: 30 brown 7: 14-15, 72-75.

reforestation 4: 91

regeneration, of land 10: 89

reindeers: 10, 12. 20-25 reindeer moss 6: 22-23

65

31

reintroduction

64

5: 34, 6:

64

46, 2: 41,

90-91;

45, (66), 91;

107 Reithrodontomys 7: 29,

Chilean rock 8: 30 chinchilla 7: 12

(brown)

R.

14-15,

7:

72-75. 77, 8: 10, 10: 11 dassie 7: 12, 8: 31. 54-55 desert wood 7: 84-85 golden-backed tree 7: 67 greater cane 8: 30 greedy olalla 8: 30 house (ship) 7: 11, 13, 14-15, 72, 75, 76-77 Indonesian key-footed

7:

64

Kenyan crested 7: 66 cane 8: 30

lesser

multimammate 7: 65 7: 64 Norway (brown) 7: 14-1 5, Natal

World

72-75. 77, 8: 10, 10: 11 Old World 7: 14, 65 Owl's spiny 8: 30 pack (desert wood)

84-85

plague (ship) 7: 11, 13, 14-15, 72, 75, 76-77 plain brush-tailed 8:

plains viscacha 8: 7:

hirsutus 7: 81

R.

megalotis

R,

paradoxus

R.

rodriguez

R.

7: 7:

80-81 81

81 spectabilis 7: 81

religious

7:

ceremonies

relocation 5:

5:

25

34

75 12-14 see also embryonic diapause,

repopulation reproduction

1:

61,

1:

implantation/fertilization:

breeding rhebok, gray 6: 62 Rheithrosciurus macrotis 7:

36

rhinoceros 5: 8, S, 9, 11, 12 black 5: 28, 33, (34), 36-39 giraffe 5: 8 grass (white) 5: 28, 29,

30-35 greater Indian (Indian) 5: 28,

painted tree 8: 30 Panama spiny 8: 30, 31

pouched

1:

(56), 69, 4: 87, 88,

Central American vesper

7:

29

refection 9: 29,

77, 8: 10, 10: 11

New

62 62

6:

fulvorufula 6:

R.

65

common

16

1:

redunca 6: 62 reedbuck bohor 6: 62 mountain 6: 62 southern 6: 62

Australian water 7: 9, 17,

7:

bicolor 7: 36

R.

7:

30

30 64 Atlantic bamboo 8: 30 Australasian water 7: 65

7: 12, 8:

36

R. affinisi 7:

0,

R.

8:

76-77

rattus 7:

Ratufa

20-25

7:

72

rufous 10: 48, 57 see also potoroo Rattus R. norvegicus 7: 72-75

20-21

Raphicerus campestris rat 1: 15, 7: 12

8:

48

10: 48,

ratufa see squirrel, Indian

1:

Asian climbing

74

see badger, honey rat-kangaroo 10: 51, 52

20, 21, 21

armored 8: 30 armored spiny

rat;

ratel

20

1:

raccoon family

7:

see porcupine. North

Amami

26

1:

mole

rat;

rat-bite fever 7:

Central American climbing 12

Pygathrix roxellana 4:

quagga

1:

Island 1:

brush-furred 7:

1

6: 10,

sibirica 3:

rabbit

kangaroo viscacha

rabies 1: 26, 87; 2: (67), 77,

bamboo

30

65

water see vole, water see also chinchilla rat;

62

8:

84-85

viscacha rat 8: 29, 30

volcano 8: 63, 64 see also cottontail rabbit hemorrhagic disease 8: 72 rabbit warrens 8: 70-71

cane

12

Pudu P mephistophiles 6: P pudu 6: puku 6: 62 puma 2: 10, 13, 42-43 punare 8: 30

quokka

1

1

northern southern

quillpig

Proboscidea 1: 10 5: 14 Procapra picticaudata 6: 62 Procavia capensis 8: 103,

16

14

14 26-27

6-19

56-59

4

P pardicolor

14,

12

,

P linsang

,

hairy

12

4:

Priodontes

crested (African) 8: 10

8:

34,

7:

58

higher 4:

,

Malayan Mexican

36

P comata 4: 40 P femoralis 4: 40 primates 1: 10, 4: 8-1

13

hairy

,

7:

Presbytis 4:

bicolored tree 8: 27

12 - 13

7: 13,

white-tailed 7: 58

Asian brush-tailed 8: 12 bahia hairy dwarf 8: 12

12

46-47,

1:

6: 10,

1

56-59

American 8: 10 American tree 8: 9

8:

106

7:

64-66

bristle-spined 8:

1

plains (black-tailed) 7: 34,

Africail brush-tailed 8: 12

,

pudu

(10)

black-tailed

16-19

brown

dog

32,

Pteropodidae 9: 86 Pteropus 9: 86 P giganteus 9: 88-91 Ptilocercus lowii 9:

Martin's false 4:

5:

wild see

1:

68-69

Potos flavus 1: 20 potto 4: 106, 106-107 golden 4: 106

see mustang

Pseudopotto martini 4: 1 06 pseudoruminants 5: 70 Pseudoryx nghetinhensis 6: 62 Pteronura brasiliensis

72-73

viei 7:

crab-eating

Pseudantechinus P macdonnellensis 10: 27 P woolleyae 10: 27 Pseudocheiridae 10: (76) Pseudocheirus peregrinus 10: 74 Pseudochirops P arohen 10: 74 P cupreus 10: 74, 90-91 Pseudochirulus P caroli 10: 74

wood)

Sumatran short-eared

Cozumel

Woolley's 10: 27

73

P tridactylus 10: 48, 72-73

Welsh

8:

48, 50, 51,

P longipes 10: 48

(61)

Cape

24

Potorous

blainvillei 3: 55,

Falabella 5: (43)

13

potoroo 10: 72-73

9:

64

tuft-tailed spiny tree 8:

common 27

P cinereus 10: 74 Pseudois nayaur 6: 62

10: 48, 50, 51,

pony

in

Virginia

long-footed 10: 48 long-nosed (potoroo)

95

Pongo PabelnA: 12. 14-19 P pygmaeus 4: 12, 14-19

14,

74

ringtail 10:

see also opossum,

Gilbert's 10:

noise pollution 3: 88,

104

fat-tailed 10: 25,

mountain brushtail 10: 74 mountain pygmy 10: 74,

1

110-111 Prototheria 10:

pseudantechinus

64

trade (desert

103 raccoon Barbados

Proteles cristata 2: 102,

76-77

spiny 7: 72, 8: 31 spiny tree 8: 30

79, 7: 14, 74; 9: 84, 97,

(95)

ringtail 10:

marsupial gliding

Plecotus auritus 9:

100, 3: 12, 19, 59, 74, 107, 5:41, 60; 9: 85; 10: 28, 32, 37, 43, 71,

14-15, 72,

7: 11, 13,

75,

smooth-tailed giant 7: 65 South American climbing

snowshoe see hare, snowshoe Sumatran 8: 63, 64 8:

35, 39, 44, 49, 55, (97),

ship

rock see pika

swamp

62, 69, 74, 2: 21, 28, 33,

74

Leadbeater's 10: 74, 76,

106-109

feral

76

ringtail 10: 74,

10: 8,

4:

protection, legal 1: 35, 47, 51,

ringtail 10: 74,

feathertail 10:

Platanista

Pontoporia

96 P tattersalli 4: 96 P verreauxi 4: 96

Daintree River ringtail 10: 74 eastern pygmy 10: 74

Planigale

platyrrhines 4:

P diadema

90-91

27

10:

10: (10), 75-77 10: 80

76-77

rufous tree 8: 30

7:

porpoising 3: 69

78-79

55,

roof (ship) 7: 71, 13, 14-15,

8: 64, (93)

riverine 8: 62,

,

planigale 10: (24)

pygmy

P crassicaudatus 8: 64 P randensis 8: 64 P rupestris 8: 64 Propaleotherium 1: 8

(harbor) 3: 55,

brush-tipped ringtail 10: 74 common brushtail 10: 10

30

63

6:

rabbit family 8: 64-67

Arnhemland

10: 8,

9-11, 13

Papuan

78

3:

6: 60, 62, (63),

110-111 American 2: 26; pronking 6: 97 Pronolagus

78-79 harbor 3:

Plagiodontia

common

pronghorn

rock 8: 29 72, 75,

66 marsh 8: 65 Mexican volcano 8: 64 Old World (European) 8: 60-61, 62, 64, 68-73

64-67

rat family 7:

68-73 forest 8:

Prolagus 8: (96)

porpoise

common

7:

26-27

8: 12, 13, 14,

30

8:

:

P albicans 4: 72 P irrorata 4: 72 P monachus 4: 72 R pitheda 4; 72

plague

19

8:

8 8-1

87

domestic (European) 8: 60-61, 62, 64, 68-73 European 8: 60-61, 62, 64,

Proechimys semispinosus

Porous piscus

Pitheda

placental

,

upper Amazon 8: 12 porcupinelike rodents

pinto 5; 59 pipistrelle 9:

20-25

12 8:

7:

South African

Sardinian 8: (96) pingers 3: 79 Pinnipedia

Old World 12-15

P lotor 1: 20, 22-27 P pygmaeus 1: 26 Procyonidae 1: 20-21

7: (8);

8: 10, 12, 13, 14,

18

30

30

40-41 Indian 5: 28, 40-41 Javan 5: 28 northern white 5: 34 rhinoceros family 5:

28-29

southern white

5: 34,

35

125


5

1

1

1

1

1

2 2

1

5

SET INDEX

square-lipped (white)

5: 28,

30-35 Sumatran 5: 28, 29 white 5: 28, 29. 30-35 woolly 5: 28 29.

Rhinoceros R. sondaicus

5:

28

S.

R. unicornis 5: 28, 40-41 Rhinocerotidae 5: 28 Rhinolophidae 9: 87

Rhfnopithecus roxellana see F^athrix roxellana

sea

Cape

Rhyncholestes raphanurus 10: 14 Rhynchomeles prattorum

common 40^1

see under possum; raccoon rockhare see hare, greater red rockhare Rocky Mountain tick fever 7: 14 rodents 1: 10 7: 8-1 cavylike 8: 8-11 evolution 7: 12 expansion 7: 1 ringtail

.

11-12 mouselike 7: 16-19 porcupinelike 8: 8-1 squirrel-like 7: 16-19 Romerolagus diazi 8: 64 rorquals 3: 55, 106, 107 extinct 7:

30-31 leopard

3: 9,

monk

9

3:

9-10,

ringed 2:

86-87

Rupicapra R. pyrenaica

70

32

fur) 3: 8,

sea leopard see seal, leopard 1:

10.

3 8-13 64 :

.

62

California 3:

9,

s

13, 18,

3:

Zealand

111,3: 12

102 Semnopithecus

4:

40 64-67

Saguinus

5.

fusciollis 4: 86 imperator 4: 86, 94-95 S imperator imperator 4: 94 S imperator subgrisescens 4: 94 S Oedipus 4: 86 saiga 6: 62 Saiga tartarlca 6: 62

S. geei see Trachypithecus geei

S.

Saimiri

S.

sclureus 4: 72,

78-79

bald-faced 4: 72

serow

6:

1

08

Japanese mainland

6:

6:

62 62

sewellel 7: (29)

Guianan

sheep

73 72 white-nosed 4: 72 Salanoia concolor 1 98

monk

4: 72,

21

poisonous 9:8, 11, sand puppy see mole naked saola 6:

(32), rat,

10: 27,

28-31

10: 27,

7/;

,

S.

5,

S.

barbary 6: 62 blue 6: 62

snakes

snowshoes

63 Soay

solenodon 6:

Cuban

63

28-31 1:

/O, 9:

Scapanus orarius

9:

shrew

1:

58

40

9:

1

30-33 9:

36-37

3:

9: 8, 9, (10),

9

Solenodon S. cubanus 9: 9 S. paradoxus 9: 9 Solenodontidae 9: 9 sonar 3: 83

1

27

Strigocuscus S. celebensis 10: 74 S. pelengensis 10: 74

black-striped 7:

Cape ground

5: (12)

7:

10

1:

40 40

4:

human

animal parts for surgery 5: 79

testing surgical techniques 4: 13

Suricata suricatta suricate see

meerkat

36

7:

5.

barbatus

5.

scrofa

suslik, thii

74

5:

74, 76-79 teen-lined see 5:

squirrel, thirteen-lined

60-61

ground

eastern fox 7: 34, 46-47 Eurasian red 7: 42-45 European red 7: 34

swimming therapy

flying 7: 8, 13, 17, 34, 37,

Sylvilagus

(37), 10: (76) 7: 34, 36,

38-41.

flying 7:

36

36 8-9

7:

36

Indian giant 7: 34, 62-63 Javanese flying 7: 36 Low's 7: 36

Malabar (Indian giant)

62-63 Mindanao

flying 7:

Sylvicapra

7: 34,

3:

grimmia

S.

aquaticus 8: (93)

5.

audubonii

8: 64, (93)

S,

bachmani

8:

64

(93)

90-93

S.

floridanus 8: 64,

S.

insonus 8: (93)

5.

palustris hefneri 8:

S,

transitionalis 8: (93)

64

symbiosis 6: (73) 6: 62, 70-73 syndactyly 10: 75, (94)

Syncerus caffer

T

34

northern flying 7: 61 northern striped palm 7: 34,

Tachyglossus aculeatus 10:

110-111

Tadarida brasillensis

36 plantain 7: 36 Prevost's 7: 36 pygmy 7: 36 pale giant 7:

9: tahr,

100-103

Himalayan

wild

108

takin 6: 62, flying 7: 34,

36

36

slender 7: 36 South African ground 7: 10,

tree 7: 17, 34, 35, 7:

36

36

9:

southern

spotted giant flying 7: 36 squirrel family 7: 34-37 thirteen-lined ground

ground

T europaea 9: 40, 44-47 T streeti 9: 40 Talpidae 9: 9

tamandua 7: 34,

7: 34, 54-55 three-striped ground 7:

43

talapoin 4: 40, 41, Talpa

scaly-tailed 7: 12, 17, (19)

southern flying 60-61

62

6:

takh see horse, Mongolian

red 7: 41

9:

68 65

Tamandua tetradactyla 9: 65 tamaraw 6: 62 tamarin 4: 8 bearded emperor 4: 94 black-chinned emperor

36

4:

94

black-faced lion 4: 88 black lion 4: 86,

88

squirrel-like rodents

cotton-top 4: 86,

16-19 stances 5: 9-10

emperor

7:

74

6: 62,

80-81

5. dicei 8:

19, 34,

antelope

98,

1:

100-105 Sus

36 36-37

ground

banded

eastern flying (southern flying) 7: 34,

36

tenuis 7:

Supercohort 41

sureli 4:

grizzled 4:

36

black flying 7: 34, black giant 7: 36

tufted

3: (59),

surgery

36-37

109, 9: 16

on shore 66, 67, 96

strandings,

5,

20-21 71, 96, 107

red giant flying 7:

8: (78)

Hispaniola 9: 9

10, 9: 8, 9, (10),

American water

9:

8-9, 67, 62,

7: 12, 18,

red-cheeked

snares 4: 24, 53

6: 62,

Island

65

10:

1: (102),

springhare

colonial

32

slotting 6: 35, 97, 8:

Sundasduris S. hippurus 7: 36 5. lowii 7: 36

35 9:

38 murina 10: 38-39 virginiae 10: 27

desert bighorn 6: 100

domestic

72-73

crassicaudata 10: 27 dolichura 10: 38

S. gilberti

African forest 9: 28 American short-tailed

S. laniarius (harrisii)

Scandentia

brown-throated three-toed

5. 1

)

Sminthopsis S aitkeni 10: 38

wild 6: 63

Sarcophilus S. harrisii

39

Orkney

62

15, 5:

66

three-toed 9: 65, 72-73 Smilodon fatalis 2: 10

6:

:

saliva 9: 17,

1:

32

western hog-nosed 1: 32 western spotted 1: 32 sloth 9: 64-65, 65-66, 66, (

6:

horse-tailed 7: 1:

84-87

maned three-toed 9: 65 southern two-toed 9: 65

60-63 American bighorn 6: 100-103

4:

32,

1:

1: (74);

31-32, (31)

the stomach 3: (27), 91

bottom" see whale, blue Suncus etruscus 9: 28, 38-39

8: 12

43-44, 47 gray-cheeked ground 7: 18,

Hoffmann's two-toed

68-69

buffy 4: 72

striped

mammals

Harris'

(three-toed) 9: 65, giant ground 9: 64

Setonix brachyurus 10: 48,

72

4:

Serengeti Plains 6: 84, (85)

46-47 servalines 2: 46 Setifer setosus 9: 24

saki

bearded

hypoleucos 4: 40 S. obscurus see Trachypithecus obscurus sengi 9: 58 5.

serval 2: 10,

72

boliviensis A:

entellus 4: 40,

4: in

"sulfur

32 15, 16-17

spines 9: 13, see also quills

gray

12, 15, 5: 91;

skunk 1: 34 Andes 1: 32 hooded 1: 32 pygmy spotted

7:

S

96

91 see also fur trade

Selvinia betpakdalaensis

American 1: 48, 50 sacred animals 4: 59, (66); 9: 91

4:

6: 66, 10: 56,

18-19

32 1:

American gray (gray) 7: 34, 36, 38-41, 43-44, 47 American red 7: 42 Arctic ground 2: 65

Simias concolor see Nasalis concolor Sirenia 1: 10 3: 47, 5: (12) sitting patches 4: 39, 52, 58 skin trade 1: (23), 69, 72, 74;

9 3: 9,

Steller's 3: 9, 12,

sable,

37 104

2: 33, 36, 37, 39, 47, 100,

Galapagos

New

4: 8, 36,

hammers

as

subungulates

pygmaea

,

Sigmoceros lichtensteinii see Alcelaphus lichtensteinii Sign Language, American 4: 13, (16), 27 simakobu 4: 40

20-23

R. rupicapra 6: 62, 108 Rupicaprim 6: 108

S.

variable 8:

91

3: (27),

styloglossus 5: (12)

squid 3: 87, (88), 91 squirrel 7: 1 1 72, 1 3, 1 African ground 1: 101 African pygmy 7: 34

.

Australian 3: 9, 11 6:

102

diademed 4: 96 golden-crowned Verreaux's 4: 96

16-17

sea lion

8:

02 102

1

,

Spilogale

spy-hopping

sifaka

3: 9, 12,

3:

8:

40

stomach stones

lower

maculatus 10: 82-83 papuensis 10: 74

springbok 96-97 54-55

32, 34, 36,

1: 19,

40-43

stridulation 9:

Spllocuscus 5. kraemeri 10: 74

spiny

stoat

1

1

springhaas see springhare

Siebenschlafer 7:

9,

1

44-45 southern elephant 9,

5:

shrew mouse

siamang

saddleback (harp)

8-9

inquisitive 9:

northern elephant 3: 12, 32-35 northern fur 3: 9, 1 2, 14-15

vestitus 8:

S.

42

Gibb's (American) 9:

38-39

11, 37,

28-29 28

shrew mole 9: 40, 41 American 9: 54-55

branch

3:

9:

Tibetan water 9: see also elephant shrew; otter shrew; tree shrew

Asiatic 9:

3: 9,

southern fur (Cape

pseudoruminants

126

gray 3: 42-43 harbor 3: 8, 9, 40-41 harp 3: 9, 12, 44^5

phocid

Rousettus aegyptiacus

13

1,

1

.

insidiosus 8:

S. gracilis 1:

shrew family

36-37

9, 9, 10,

Hawaiian monk

9: 8,

76-77

strepsirhines see primates,

S.

S.

62

6: 6/,

Stenella longirostris 3: 55,

54-55

5,

S.

28

3: 9, 11.

eared 3: S, fur 1:(11)

30-33

28

pygmy white-toothed

(harbor) 3: 8, 9,

crabeater 38

rinderpest 6: 73, 77, 85 ringing of trees 7: 37

11, 12, 6:

northern (American) shortpiebald 9:

9

3:

28

28

least 9:

circus tricks 3: (23)

27

9: 92-93 rumen 6: 8 ruminants 5:

9:

Indian house 9:

steenbok

stones

Sphiggurus

8-9

tailed 9: 28,

16-17

S, 9,

monk

7: 34,

greater white-toothed

10-11

fur 3:

Caribbean

98

:

28

forest 9:

36-37

palustrls 9:

Soricidae 9: 9, 58 Spalacopus cyanus 8: 30 Speothos venaticus 2: 50 spermaceti 3: 86, 87, 89, 91 Spermophilus tridecemlineatus

9: 28,

29

46, 47, 47, 53

songs gibbons 4: 36, 39 whale songs 3: 99-100, 105 Sorex S. araneus 9: 34-35 S. minutus 9: 28 S.

Eurasian water 9: 28,

cow

Baikal 3: 9,

1

34-35 Eurasian pygmy 29

:

R. cirnei 9:

common

Eurasian 9:

see also dugong sea grass 3: 46, 52 seal 1: 10, 3 8-13. 64, 7: 12 Antarctic fur 3:9, 12

62-63

38-39

9: 28,

34, 46-47 7: 34, 42-45

Steller's 3:

Rhinopomatidae 9: 86 Rhynchocyon R. chrysopygus 9: 59,

10:

vulgaris

Etruscan white-toothed

:

106-107

59 R. petersi 9: 59 Rhynchogale mellen

niger 7:

S.

elephant 9: 10 Etruscan 1:(11), 9: 28

scorpion 1 (102) Scutisorex somereni 9: 28 sea canary see beluga

Rhinolophus hipposideros 9:

S.

9: 28, desert 9: 29

38-41

carolinensis 7: 34,

29

armored

Scelidotherium 9: 64 Sciuridae 7: 12 Sciurognathi (sciurognaths) 7: (8), 12. 16-19; 8: 8 Sciuromorpha 7: 8 Sciurus

4: 86,

golden-headed

87

94-95 lion 4:

88


SET INDEX

golden

lion 4: 86, 87,

88-91 lion 4: 86

thylacine 28,

saddleback 4; 86, 95 tamarin family 4: 86-87 Tamias

48

T.

sibiricus 7;

T.

striatus 7: 34,

48-49

tapetum lucidum 2: 10-12; 4: 85, 106, 107

10: 27,

Baird's 5: 62, 62,

63

36-37

Thyropteridae ticks 6: 18, 7:

mountain 5: 62, 63 South American (Brazilian)

tiger 2: 10, Ball 2: 21

64-65 tapir family 5: 62-63 5: 62, 63,

Tapirus

62 T. indicus 5: 62 T pinchaque 5: 62 T

bairdii 5:

pygmy

4; 106,

spectral 4: 106,

western

107 107

4: 106, 107,

107

Tarsipes rostratus 10: 74,

102-103 Tarsius

T bancanus 4: 1 06 T pumilus 4: 1 06 T spectrum 4: 1 06

Tasmanian devil

10: (24), 27,

28-31 Taurotragus T derbianus 6: 62, 76-77 T derbianus derbianus

76

6:

T derbianus gigas 6: 76 T. oryx 6: 62, 76 Taxidea taxus 1: 32, 76-77 Tayassu

T pecan T tajacu

5:

88

5:

88, 90-91

Tayassuidae

5:

tayra 1: 32; 4:

88 89

aardvark 9: 65, (66), 78-79 bats 9: (85), (95) 6:

8: 12, 9: 8, 9,

1 1

25 9: 24, 26-27 four-toed rice 9: 24 greater (common) 9: 24, 26-27 greater hedgehog 9: 24, 25 large-eared 9: 24, 25 lesser hedgehog 9: 24, 25 long-tailed 9: 24, 25 pygmy shrew 9: 24 rice 9: 24, 25 spiny 9: 25 strealfed 9: 24, 24-25 tailless (common) 9: 24, 26-27 tenrec family 9: 24-25 aquatic 9: 24, 25,

common

Tenrec 9: 9 T.

26-27 24

9: 24,

Tenrecidae 9: 9, 1 1, termite mounds, as vantage points 6: 88, 88-89 termites 2: 50, 76, 110-111; 6: 87, 9: 64, 66, 69;

10:

34

6:

62

62-63 7:

topi 6: 62, (85), 88-89 torpor 7: 80, 9: 20-21, 29, 38, 82, 102, 10: 40, 85, 103 tourism 3: 51, 71, (94), 95; 5: 39, 9: 53, 101

whale watching 71, 95, 104

3: (57),

Trachypithecus

talpoides

26-27

Thrichomys apereoides

8: 30 Thryonomyidae 7: 72, 8: 31 Thryonomys T gregorianus 8: 30 T. swinderianus 8: 30

87

17

zerda

Tragulidae 6: 10 Tragulus 6: 48 T javanicus 6:

napu

T.

6: 10,

shrew

9: 10,

8-13 70, 5: 10,

40

59

9: 58,

Trichechus

T inunguis T. manatus

47 3: 48-51 senegalensis 3: 47 3:

90-93

triok, Tate's 10: 74, (77)

79 Trypanosoma

truffles 5:

cruzi 8:

1

27 :

81;

Tubulidentata

1:

10, 5: (12);

65 7: 72, 8:

9-10, 11,

28-29, 37 forest 8: 30 strong 8: 30 tularemia 8: 81

warfarin

,

93

3: 69, 77 tunnels, foraging 7: 15,

100-101 see also burrows

10: 48, 50,

2: (67)

Vampyrum spectrum

9:

86

Varecia

variegata 4: 96,

5:

variegata rubra 4:

1/

variegata variegata

1

04

104

98-101

desert 5: 74 washing bears 1: (24) Washington Convention see Convention on

European

viscacha 7: 72, 8: 28

mountain

28 northern 8: 30 plains 8: 28, 30

least

32,

34

(least)

36-39

1:

32,

34

V.

megaspila 1 88 tangalunga 1 88

17

zibetha

short-tailed see stoat

:

weasel family

:

:

webbed

88

88 88, 98 vole 7: 13, 17, 65 bank 7: 74-75 field 7: 92-93 north European water (water) 7: 9, 98-99 short-tailed (field) 7: 92-93 southern red-backed 7: 94-95 Viverricula indica

1

:

1: 18,

54, 7: 9,

Vombatiformes 10: 75

Vombatus ursinus 98-101

74

Weil's disease 7: 14,

wetlands

whale

1:

1:

24

10, (11), 14;

54-59: 5: (10), 66; 7: 12 baleen 3: 54-55, 56, 58 blue 1:(11); 3: 54, 55, 3:

(57), 58,

98-101

bowhead

3: 55,

108,

110-111 dwarf sperm 3: 55 gray 3: 55, 57, (57), 59, 92-97 3: 55, (57), 58,

102-105 5: 62, 1

:

32

65

X Y

killer 3: 37, 39, 55,

62-65. 83, 94, 96

1: 10, 9:

64-66

yak 6: 74-75 wild 6: 75 yapok see opossum, water Yellowstone National Park

32-35

1:

fingers 4: 71

humpback

10: 74,

vomeronasal organ Vormela peregusna

34

32,

9: (46)

Xenarthra

36

North African banded 1:

104, 105,

5:

Wyuida squamicaudata 10: 74

32, 34, 35,

long-tailed 1: 32,

Patagonian

1

worms

36-39

30

87, 7: 34,

Conservation of Nature

common

1: 19,

1:

World Conservation Union see International Union for the

96

5:

32, 34, 35,

1: 19,

8:

1:

10: 74, 101, (101)

woodchuck

(106), 108, 111

weasel African striped

10: 74, (101)

southern hairy-nosed

50-51 wool production

in

Endangered Species of

defassa 6: 93 water reabsorption

92,

18, 32, 35,

1:

northern hairy-nosed

,

5:

timber (gray) 2: 50, 53, 54-57. 59

80-83

74

92-93

56

53

2: 50,

Mexican 2: 54 red 2: 59 Tasmanian see thylacine

wolverine 56-57

Wild Fauna and Flora waterbuck 5: 75 6: 62,

Vespertilionidae 9: 87

54-57.

wombat 10: (10), 77, 93 common 10: 74, 75,

International Trade

17

95

marsupial see thylacine

50

5: 75,

common

2: 50, 53,

maned 60

75

7:

warthog

6:

59

wapiti see elk

water 1: 98-99

tuna

yellow-footed rock 10: 48, 70-71 wallaroo 10: 60-61

thibetanus 2: 82

:

8: (84)

48-49

(53)

U.

U,

mammals

African 2: 12

gray

whiptail 10: 48, 57

10: 48,

in

2: 10, 13,

Falkland Island 2: 50, 53,

U.

Viverridae

tsessebe 6: 88 tuberculosis, bovine

49

walrus 3: 8, 9, 10, 11, 24-29 want see mole, European

V

8:12

rock 10: 51 rufous hare 10: 48, 57 spectacled hare 10: 48

94-97 maritimus 2 82, 84-89 melanoleuca 2: 98

U. arctos 2: 82, 92,

plains 8:

caninus 10: 74

70-71

10: 48,

wildcat

European 2: 12 wildebeest 5: 12, 47, black 6: 62 blue 6: 62, 82-85 wolf 2: 9 Ethiopean 2: 50, 52

ringtailed rock (yellow-

hill

Viverra

Trichys fasciculata

10:

50 48, 64-65

wallowing 5: 38, 69, 71, 77, 76-77, 83

:

viscacha rat 8: 29, 30

Trichosurus

red-necked

3: 58, 89, 91, 93, 101, 105, 107, 108 whistlepig see woodchuck

whiteness

prettyface 10: 48, 57 Proserpine rock 10: 48,

common

americanus 2 82,

pygmy

tuco-tuco

50

2:

Ursus

110-111 vicuna 5: 92, 93, 110-111

Tremarctos ornatus 2: 82 warfare 4: 30

48

forest 10:

55, 57, 58,

whale meat 3: 59, 67 whale songs 3: 99-100, 105 whale watching 3: (57), 71, 95, 104

toolache 10: 53

Uropsilus Investigator 9: Urotrichus 9: 54

Vicugna vicugna

tribal

Papuan

66

whaling industry

northern nail-tailed 10: 48

swamp

European Urocyon U. dnereoargenteus U. littoralis 2: 50 Urogale everetti 9: 59

vibrissae 8:

9: 59, 60-61 pen-tailed 9: 58, 58, 59 Philippine 9: 58

T.

7 7,

43

common

T.

88

70; 5: 10,

urchin see hedgehog,

U,

50

footed rock) 10: 48,

even-toed 1: odd-toed 1:

4:

10, 5: (10);

1:

58-59

sperm 3: 86-89

3:

3: 55,

white see beluga

48

lesser forest 10:

black-headed 4: 80 red 4: 72, 80-81 white (red) 4: 72, 80-81 Umfolozi park 5: 34 Uncia uncia 2: 34-35 ungulates (hoofed mammals)

tree dwelling 2: 31

tree

southern right 108-109

bridled nail-tailed 10: 48,

104-105 1

74-75

64-65

10: 48,

bald (red) 4: 72, 80-81 black 4: 9, 72

\7,

0, 48 48-49

right 3: 55 short-finned pilot

Bennett's (red-necked)

uakari

109

3:

pygmy right 3: 54, 55 pygmy sperm 3: 55

Wallabla bicolor 10: 48 wallaby 10: 48-53 banded hare 10: 48, 57

vaccination, against rabies

6: 62 scriptus 6: 62 T strepsiceros 6: 78-79

2: 50,

3: 55,

northern right

w

V

Tragelaphus T buxtoni

9:

Theropithecus gelada 4: 40,

Thomomys

72 masked 4: 72 yellow-handed 4: 72 toddy 1: 95 toddy cat see civet, common palm tommie see gazelle, Thomson's tool users 1: (74); 4: 10-11, (16), 31-32, (31) 4:

10: (80)

Tetracerus quadricornis

vulpes 2: 50, 64-67

5:

dusky

T vulpecula 10: 74, 78-81

ecaudatus

17

u

titi

T.

9

teledu 1: 32 Telicomys 7: 11-12

tenrec

Sumatran 2: 21 Tasmanian see thylacine white 2: 23, (23) tiger-horses 5: 52

T geei 4: 40 T obscurus 4: 40

teeth

selenodont

22-23

Siberian 2: 20, 21,

T terrestris 5: 62, 64-65 tarsier4; 11, 106, 107

17

26, 66, 72, 74, 80-81, 86,

see also ivory

Bengal 2: 21, 27, 22, 23 Caspian 2: 21 Chinese 2: 20, 21 Indochinese 2: 21 Javan 2: 21

106-107 northern bottlenose 3: 55. 90-91

2:

velox 2: 50, 68-69 velox herbes 2: 69

Tympanoctomys barrerae 8: 30 typhus 7: 14, 74

20-25

17 17

tusks 3: 26, 84-85; 5: 14, 17,

14

V.

\7

3: 55,

66-67

minke

50 chama 2: 50 corsac 2: 50 lagopus 2: 50, 70-73 ruppelli 2: 50

V.

72-75

87

9:

cana

V.

west Caucasian 6: 106, 107 Tursiops truncatus 3: 55,

88

6:

9:

tur

48

1 0:

Brazilian 5: 62, 63, 64-65 Malayan 5: 62, 63, 63

bang

T minor

long-finned pilot

Vulpes V. bengalensis 2: 50

60-61 59

glis 9: 59,

east Caucasian 6: 106, 107

Thylamis T. elegans 10: 14 T. pailidior 10: 14 Thylogale T stigmatica 10: 48 thetis

Tupaia

T

Thyladnidae 10: 24, 26 Thylacinus cynocephalus

T

tapir 5: 8, 11, 12

2: 80, 10: 24, 26,

36-37

6: 66,

67

Yersinia pestls 7:

76

z Zalophus californianus

20-23 zebra 2: 8-9; 6: (85), 95

5: 12,

3: 9,

12-13;

Burchell's (plains) 5: 42,

46-51

common

(plains) 5: 42,

46-51 Grevy's 5: 42, (44), 52-53 mountain 5: 42 plains 5: 42, 46-51 zebra family 5: 42-45 zokor

7:

zorilla 1:

1

32, 34,

34

127


SEA

MAMMALS

Picture Credits Abbreviations

A

Ardea Frank Lane Picture Agency

FLPA

NHPA

Natural History Photographic

Agency

naturepl.com

NPL Oxford

OSF

Scientific Films

Doug

Allan/OSF;

46

Daniel

Pictures/FLPA;

52-53 Tobias Bernhard/OSF; 55t

Kenneth W. Fink/A; 55b Silvestris/FLPA;

Jeff

= top; b = bottom;

c

= center;

I

=

left;

r

=

Hall/OSF;

60-61

&

E.

D.

Parer-Cook/A; 64-65 Minden Pictures/FLPA;

66-67 Dave Watts/NHPA; 68-69 Gerard Soury/OSF;

Jacket caracal, Pete Oxford/naturepl.com;

tr

70-71

group of

dolphins, Robert Harding Picture Library; gorilla,

Howard

Andrea Florence/A; 62-63 Franpois Gohier/A; 64

right

Parer

tl

Foott/Okapia/OSF; 56-57

57 Franpois Gohier/A; 58

Brake/Sunset/FLPA; 58-59 t

Cox/OSF; 48-49 Mark

J.

Newman/FLPA; 50 Norbert Wu/NHPA; 50-51 Minden

bl

Van Nostrand/FLPA; 72-73

Dr.

Eckart

Pott/NHPA; 74-75 Robert Harding Picture Library;

lowland

76-77

Martin Rugner/Naturphotographie; br

Rothchild's giraffe,

R.

S.

Sinclair/Earthviews/FLPA;

Tasker/ICC E; 80-81

Gerard Lacz/FLPA

Doug

78-79 Mark

Allan/OSF; 82 Norbert

Rosing/OSF; 84-85 Doc White/NPL; 86-87 Howard

88-89 Shane Moore/Animals Animals/OSF;

9 Martin Harvey/NHPA, 10-11 Martyn Colbeck/OSF; 11

Hall/OSF;

Martin Harvey/NHPA; 12 Doc White/NPL; 13 Norbert

89 Bettmann/Corbis; 90-91 Godfrey Merlen/OSF;

Wu/NHPA, 14-15 W. Wisniewski/FLPA; 16-17

92-93 David Fleetham/OSF; 94-95t

Franpois Gohier/A;

96-97

Franpois Gohier/A;

Dennis/NHPA; 18-19

Ian

Newman/FLPA; 22-23

Tui

Nigel

J.

Beames/A; 20-21 Mark

94-95b

de Roy/OSF; 23 Corbis;

24-25 Doc White/NPL; 27 Norbert Rosing/OSF; 28-29 Jeff Foott/NPL,

30-31 Kevin Schafer/NHPA; 32-33 Tony

Rich Kirchner/NHPA;

98-99, 100 Doc White/NPL; 100-101

Tui

102-103

Franpois

Daniel

J.

Cox/OSF; 104-105

Gohier/A; 105 The Marine

Mammal

de Roy/OSF;

Center;

106-107

Martin/OSF; 34, 34-35 Frangois Gohier/A; 36-37

Ben Osborne/OSF; 108-109 Howard Hall/OSF;

Hamish Laird/ICC E; 38-39 Peter Reese/NPL; 40-41

110-111 Martha Holmes/NPL

Franpois Gohier/A;

42-43 Andy Rouse/NHPA; 44-45

Artists Denys Ovenden,

While every effort has been

made

Priscilla

Barrett with Michael Long,

to trace the copyright holders rectify

128

of

illustrations

any omissions or

Graham

Allen,

reproduced

inaccuracies.

in this

Malcolm McGregor

book, the publishers

will

be pleased

to



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY

3 9999 04390 228


mammalsworldofanOSpatm


MAMMALS 1

SMALL CARNIVORES Raccoons, Weasels, Otters, Skunks

LARGE CARNIVORES Big Cats, Dogs, Bears, Hyenas

SEA Seals,

...

MAMMALS

Sea Lions, Whales, Dolphins, Manatees

PRIMATES Apes, Monkeys, Marmosets,

Lemurs

LARGE HERBIVORES Elephants, Rhinos, Horses, Pigs

...

RUMINANT (HORNED) HERBIVORES Deer, Cattle, Antelope, Goats,

RODENTS Squirrels, Rats,

Sheep

...

1

Mice

...

8

RODENTS

2

AND LAGOMORPHS

Porcupines, Cavies, Rabbits

...

INSECTIVORES AND BATS Hedgehogs, Moles, Anteaters, Bats

m

...

10

MARSUPIALS Kangaroos, Possums, Koala

90 Sherman Turnpike Danbury, CT 06816 GROUER

...

SET ISBN 0 - 7172 - 5742-8

VOLUME

ISBN

0 - 7172 - 5745-2