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Birds Flowers


Insects Stars Reptiles and Antphihians Manunals Seashores


Weatlter Rocks and Minerals


The Anterican Southwest The Anterican Southeast IN PREPARATION:

The Anterican Northwest These books ovailable in two editions: Limp Bound



De Luxe Cloth









H E R B E R T S. Z I M , P h . D . and C L A R E N C E C O T TAM, P h . D . Director, Welder Wildlife Foundation; Formerly Asshtanl Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service



Sponsored by The Wildlife Management Institute







This book is one of the most a m bitious attem pted i n the Golden Nature Guide series. Beca use of its scope, un usu­ a l problems had to be solved a l l a long the way. The end was achieved because of the cooperation of many people who felt it im porta nt to have a reliable beg i n n er's guide to insects. The authors express their a ppreciation to all who participated. The artist, James Gordon Irving, made a su perb contri­ bution. His wife, Grace C rowe I rving, helped in field studies, co l lecting, and research. Robert T. Mitchell was most hel pful-in com piling lists from which the original selections were made; in checking data; i n prepa ring m a ps. Specimens came from the Patuxent Research Ref­ uge, the U.S. National Museum, and Melville W. Osborne, Rahway, N. J. Numerous specialists generously offered suggestions on the plates-William D. F ield, Edward A. Chapin, Will iam H. Anderson, Austin H. Clark, George B. Vogt, Reece I. Sailer, Hahn W. Capps, 0. l. Cartwrig ht, Paul W. Oman, Ashley B. Gurney, Barnard D. Burks, Kar l V . Krombein, Ross H . Arnett, Jr., Marion R . Smith, Alan Stone, John G. Franclemont, Arth ur B. Gahan, Curtis W. Sabrosky, Grace B. Gla nce, C. F. W. Muesebeck, a n d others. In the present revision, six additional pages of i nfor­ mation have been added, plus a listin g of scientific na mes. We hope readers will find this fuller and more attractive volume more usefu l . H.S.Z. REVISED EDITION


i ol e r s nc e e �f ��������ti�;1in1�i·of: � i � p�� i� ,Ainy .F���� B��ig�:d ���· ������"j �� A��?s�! and Writers Press, Inc. Printed in the U.S.A. by Wester n Printing and Lithographing Com pany. Published by Golde n Press, Inc., Rockefeller Center, New York 20, N. Y. Published Si multaneously in Canada by The Musson Book Company , Ltd., Toronto





By dea ling only with common, im porta nt, and showy insects, this book w i l l help the novice beg i n a fa scinating study. To identify a n insect, turn to the key to the i nsect groups (orders) on pages 4 and 5. This key may place your specimen within one of 16 grou ps. Thumb throug h the section indicated t o fi n d your specimen or something similar. Study all the i l l ustrations to become aware of insects you might not otherwise notice. You may thus be­ come able to identify some at fi rst sight. Don't be dis­ a p pointed with fa i l u res. It may ta ke an expert a year or more, after finding a n insect, to make a fi n a l identifica­ tion. If you can place in their proper orders a quarter of the i nsects you fi nd, you have made a good start. I n sects in this book are often shown on their food plants. Im mature forms often a ppea r with the adu lt. If you can­ not identify a n i m m ature i nsect, try to raise it to maturity. In advanced study the Latin scientific na mes of species are used for g reater precision i n designation . .Scientific names of species i l l ustrated in this book are g iven on pages 155-157. On p lates, a pproximate lengths are g iven in inches ("w." i n dicates width of wings). Range m a ps show occurrence of species with i n the Un ited States, j ust over the Mexican border, and a bout 200 miles northward into Canada. Since distribution of many species is l ittle known, ranges g iven are o n l y a p­ proximate. Where ranges of two or more insects a ppear on one m a p, each has a different color or line pattern, as i n the sam­ ple here. A red tint over a line pat­ tern indicates g reater abundance (as on page 17). Each ca ption is on or next to the color to which it refers.












large insects. Live on land. Forewings leathery. Hindwings folded fan-like (some have no wings). Development gradual. Chewing mouth- parts. EARWIGS (Dermaptera), page 29. Small insects

with typical pincer·like tail. Usually four small wings.




gradual. TERMITES (lsoptera), pages 30-31. Ant-like in­

sects, small and soft-bodied. Some have four long






"castes" for working, fighting. Chewing mouth­ parts. Development gradual. LICE (Anoplura), page 32. Small, wingless in­

sects with piercing and sucking mouth-parts. Body flattened. Legs with cla�s for clinging to warm-blooded animals. LEAFHOPPERS,





SECTS (Homoptera), pages 33-41. Small to me­

dium insects, most with two pairs of similar wings held sloping at sides of body. Jointed beak for sucking attached to base of head. Land insects. Some scale-like. TRUE BUGS (Hemiptera), pages 42-49. Range

from small to large in size. Two pairs of wings, with forewings partly thickened. Jointed beak for sucking arises from front of head. Develop­ ment is gradual. DRAGONFLIES AND THEIR KIN (Odonata),

pages 50-51. Fairly large insects with two pairs of long, equal-sized wings. Body long and slen­ der.






aquatic. Development in three stages. MAYFLIES




(Piecoptera), page 52. Both with two pairs of transparent, veined wings.

In mayflies,


wings are smaller; in stoneflies they are larger. Mayflies have long, 2- or 3-pronged tails.

NERVE-WINGED INSECTS (Neuroptera), pag­

es 53-55. The two pairs of wings, usually equal in size, are netted with veins. Four stages of de­ velopment: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Chew­ ing mouth-parts. Long antennae. SCORPIONFLIES (Mecoptera), page 56. Small

insects with two pairs of slender, generally spot­ ted







Beak-like, chewing mouth-parts. Larvae live in soil. CADDISFLIES (Trichoptera), page 57. Most lar­

vae live in fresh water. Some build or.namented case. Adults with two pairs of wings with long, silky hairs and with long antennae. Mouth-parts reduced. MOTHS




pages 58-101. Medium to large insects with two pairs of scaly wings. Sucking mouth-parts. An­ tennae knob-like or feathery. Development in four stages. FLIES AND THEIR KIN (Diptera), pages 102-

108. Two-winged, small to medium insects, with sucking mouth-parts. Antennae small, eyes large. Second pair of wings reduced to balancing or­ gans. Development in four stages. BEETLES (Coleoptera),




wings modified to thickened covers. Hind wings thin, folded. Size from small to large. Chewing mouth-parts. Antennae usually short. All have four life stages. Some aquatic. BEES,





pages 136-149. Small to medium-size insects; many social or colonial. Two pairs of thin, trans­ parent wings. Hindwings smaller. Mouth-parts for chewing or sucking. Only insects with "sting­ ers." Development in four stages.




You can't h e l p seei ng insects, for they are fou n d every­ where, even in the Antarctic. They have been on this earth some 200 m i l l ion years, and seem here to stay. More i n ­ · sects a n d more k i n d s of insects a r e known than a l l other animals visible to the naked eye. I n sects have been cal led man's worst enemy. They are. But some have economic va l ue, a n d for other reasons we wou ld be hard put to exist without them. Insects are gems of natura l bea uty, zoolog ica l mysteries, and a constant source of interest. Insects a re related to crabs a n d lobsters. Like these s e a animals they possess a kind of skel eton on the outside of their bodies. The body itse lf is com posed of three divisions: head, thorax, and abdomen. The thorax has three segments, each with a pair of jointed legs; so a n insect norma l l y has six legs. Most i nsects a lso have two pairs of wings attached to the thorax, but some have only one pair, and a few have none at a l l . Insects usua l l y have two sets of jaws, two kinds of eyes-simple and compound-and one pair of a ntennae. So m uc h for the typica l insects, but many common ones



7 are not typical. The thorax and abdomen may appear to run together. Immature stqges (larvae) of many insects are worm-like, though their six true legs and perhaps some extra false ones may be counted. Immature insects are often difficult to 1dentify. It is also hard to tell the sex of some insects. In some groups males are larger or have larger antennae or different markings. The female is sometimes marked by a spear-like ovipositor for laying eggs extending from the base of the abdomen.

INSECT RELATIVES A number of insect-like animals are confused with insects. Spiders hove only two body divisions and four pairs of legs. They hove no antennae. Some spiders do not live in webs. Other insect-like animals hove the head and thorax joined like the spiders. Crus足 taceans have at least five pairs of legs and two pairs of antennae. Most live in water (crab, lobster, shrimp), but the lowly sowbug is a land crustacean. Centipedes and millipedes have many segments to their bodies with one pair of legs (centipedes) or two pairs (millipedes) on each. Centipedes have a pair of long antennae; millipedes have a short pair. Millipedes often coil up when disturbed.

8 The insect group is by far the largest group of animals i n the world. Over 600,000 species have been identified, but one a uthority says this may be o n ly 10 percent of the insects yet to be discovered. The class of insects is divided into some 25 orders. One order encom passes the moths a n d butterfl ies; one, the term ites; a nother, the beetles. The beetles a lone i nclude some 250,000 species. There are more kinds of beetles than kinds of a l l other animals known, outside the i nsects. Butterfl ies a n d moths total over 1 1 0,000 kinds. Bees, wasps, a n d a nts number 100,000; true bugs, 55,000 or more. The student of insect l ife need never lack materia l . Over 15,000 species have been found around N e w York C ity. Anyone can find a thousa n d species in his vicinity if he l ooks for sma l l i nsects as wel l as for large, showy ones. N UMBER OF I N SECTS

I N S ECTS AND MAN Whether certa in insects are to be considered helpful to man or otherwise, depends as much on m a n as it does on insects. Our ways of farming and raising animals have provided some insects w h ic h might otherwise be rare with conditions ena b l i n g them to mul足 tiply a thousan dfold. O n ly about 1 percent of insects are harmfu l, but these destroy about 1 0 percent of our crops, causing a loss of b i l l ions of dollars a n n ua l ly. Other i nsects are parasitic on other anima ls, and some are known to carry diseases. On the other hand, this wou ld be a sorry world without insects. We. wou l d have no apples, gra pes, or c lover, much less cotton, a n d fewer oranges a n d garden vegetab l es, for these a n d many other common pla nts depend on in足 sects to pol l i nate their flowers. And there would be n o honey, o f course. Some i nsects aid t h e process o f decay, a process that is essentia l to l ife. Some insects h e l p control others, a n d a l l help maintain a bala nce in nature.

9 I n the broad view, i nsects play an i m portant natura l role, not only in ways that bene­ fit man b ut as food for many kinds of fish, a m phibia ns, birds, and mamma ls. Many of our songbirds depend a l ­ most entirely on a n insect diet. Every fisherman knows how fresh-water g a m e fish go after i nsects. Insects h e l p make our rich plant l ife a n d wi l d l ife possible. Keep this b road view in mind when people start ta lking about widesprea d insect control-someth ing that may become possible with newer chemicals. Local control may be s uccessful a n d useful t o man, but control on a large sca le m i g ht ca use more harm than it wou ld prevent, because insects are so im porta nt to m ost other kinds of l ife about us. INSECTS I N T H E I R P LACE

CONTROL O F I NSECTS There are ways to s u pplement the natura l control of insects by birds and other anima ls. We encourage those harmless insects which prey on harm­ f u l kinds. We can exclude i nsects with screens, discourage thtlm with repe l lents, tra p them or poison them. Many of the newer poisons are h i g h ly effective. But since there a re so many kinds of i nsects which l ive and feed in so many differen t ways, there is no single best method to get rid of them. Yet, with concerted effort some dangerous i n ­ sects h a v e b e e n wiped o u t over fairly l a r g e areas. A unique exa m p l e of this was the com plete destruction of the Mediterra nean fruit fly, which menaced the citrus crop in 20 F l orida counties. If you have a n im porta nt insect prob lem, consult your loca l Board of Hea lth or you r County Agent. Often ento­ molog ists (insect speci a l ists) at universities or m useums can be of assista nce. Final ly, you can turn to the U. S. Department of Agricu lture, Bureau of Entomo logy, Wash­ ington 25, D . C., where experts are worki n g on nearly every p hase of i n sect l ife and insect control . ·

FAM I LY TREE OF I N SECTS The ancestor of a l l i nsects was probably a seg mented worm-l ike creature much like primitive protura, silverfish, springtai ls, and kin. As long as 200 m i l lion years ago, roaches and other i nsects were com mon. Today there are 20 to 26 orders of i nsects (de足 pending on the classification), including over 600,000 species. Most of the 1 2,000 kinds of fossil insects identified are similar to living species. for relationsh i ps of i nsects, see "fa m i ly tree" above.

S I LVERFISH-primitive insect with direct, gradual development




.. �

C H I N C H BUG-more advanced insect, with incomplete metamorphosis or de­ velopment in three stages




H O U S E FLY-advanced, modern insect, with complete metamorphosis or devel­ opment in four growth stages

Insects fol l ow different developmenta l patterns. I n the simplest, the newly hatched insect is l ike a m i n iature adu lt. It g rows and molts (sheds its skin) t i l l it reaches adult size. In incom p l ete metamorphosis an i m mature nymph hatches, grows, deve lops wings, and by stages becomes a n adu lt. Com plete metamorphosis involves ( 1 ) egg, (2) l a rva, (3) pupa or resting stage, (4) adu lt.




I NSECT STRUCTURE is ma rked by three body divisions

(page 6), six jointed legs, one pair of a ntennae, a n d usua l l y o n e or two pairs o f wings. T h e outer covering, or exoskeleton, is often horny. Mouth-pa rts are com颅 pl icated. I nterna l ly, insects possess many of the organs which are further developed in higher anima ls. They have a digestive tract and auxiliary digestive organs. Breathing is done by air tubes spreading interna l ly from openings ca l led spiracles. The head is tube-l ike; b lood circulation is simple. Respiration, d igestion, a n d circu la颅 tion are shown in the longitudinal section (above) a n d 路 cross-section ( left) o f t h e grasshopper, a typica l insect. Digestive tract The nervous system (below) shows the simple brain, which exerts very l ittle control over the body. Ga n g l ions serve a s nerve centers for nearby parts of the body.


showing brain. nerves, and ganglions

for sucking nectar


Insect structures show vast variation. Adapted to many environments, insects l ive successf u l l y in nearly every part of the world. They have digestive sys足 tems for a l l ki nds of plant a n d a n i m a l food. They thrive on everyth ing from wood to b lood. A few species do not eat at a l l i n the adult stage. Mouth足 parts a re ada pted for chewing, suck足 ing, piercing and sucking, and lapping. Eq ually interestin g adaptations are ' seen in insect wings, body coverings, and reproductive orga ns. The typica l i nsect leg (as of a grasshopper) has five parts. Grasshopper hind l egs are specia l ized for jum ping. The house fly has pads which enable it to wa l k up windows. In honeybees, th e hind leg is adapted to store a n d carry pollen, and the foreleg to groom a n d clean antennae and body. Insect structures make a fascin ating study.





. Our knowledge of many insects is sti l l so i ncomplete that a serious am足 ateur ca n look forward to becoming a s pecia l ist doing his own scientific research. Practic a l l y everywhere: i n fields, gardens, woods, roadsides, beaches and swamps; under stones, rotted logs a n d leaves. look in flowers, on grass; o n a n ima ls, too. You' l l find insects in the a ir; in and on water; on and in the ground.


I n sects a re most com足 mon in l ate sum mer and early fa l l , b ut ex足 perienced collectors can fi n d them in a l l seasons. Some g rou ps o f in sects a r e more common at nig ht; remember that when collecting. I n winter, concentrate on protected spots, as u n der stones and bark. Watch for insects in egg cases or in the restin g stage ( p u pae). WHEN TO LOOK

Studying insects is not confined to catching them and mounting them i n collections. Ra ising l ive insects to study their habits is exciting. Anyone can have a n insect zoo i n old g lass jars. C o l lect i m m ature insects (larvae), provide them with proper food, and watch them g row.


15 Watch caterpi l lars shed their skins, spin a cocoon or chrysa lis, and finally emerge as a m oth or a b utterfly. See worm-like larvae become flies or beetles. Raise a col­ ony of ants, bees, or term ites. You will learn more from l ive insects than from dead specimens. Whatever you do with insects, you wi l l need some understanding o f what insects are and how they l ive. Use this book, then read some of the other books suggested. Most i m porta nt, go out and look at insects. Catch them if you wish, b ut watc h them fi rst. See how they m ove, how they feed and what they do. A n insect col lec­ tion can be va luable for study o r reference­ if it is used. Using a col lection means more than making a col lection, though this step m ust come first. Fortunately, beginners can col lect insects with simple, low-cost eq uipment. Not a l l insects are c hased with a net. Han g an o l d bedsheet out at night with a sma l l light i n front of it. R o l l t h e bottom into a f u n n e l , with a jar set beneath. Insects h itti n g the sheet wi l l rol l down into the jar. Similar tra ps are described in reference books. Try the easiest methods and places fi rst-as your window screens or near a large neon sig n. Just gather the insect harvest there. COLLECT I NG I NSECTS

EQUI PMENT Any large, wide­

mouthed jar wi l l serve for con­ fin ing and raising insects. Tie some g a uze or netting over the to p. To k i l l speci mens use

16 a wide-mouthed bottle with absorbent cotton o r sawdust on the bottom , wet with a ta blespoon or so of carbon tetrach loride or carbona. Cover this with a sheet of tight-fittin g ca rdboard punched fu l l of pinholes. Because cya n ide is such a dangerous poison, cyanide bottles should be made. and used only by experienced collectors. A l i g ht net wifh a long handle is good for catching insects on the wing. A heavier net is better for "sweeping" through the g rass or for catching water insects. Cigar boxes with a layer of heavy corrugated card­ board on the bottom to hold pins are fine for storing speci­ mens. Use a mothba l l to deter insect pests. Purchase and use insect pins; ordinary ones a re too heavy. lear n the tricks that make mounting neat and attractive. A book for records is essentia l; so are labels. later you may want sprea ding boa rds, pinning blocks, and other accessories. Col lecting and preserving specimens req u ires rea l ski l l . Read first; then practice with a n y insects y o u m a y fi n d i n y o u r o w n y a r d . Ski l l will c o m e with experience. FI ELD AND LIFE-H I STORY STUD I ES may prove more

i nteresting and exciting than col lecting. Instead of learn­ ing a l ittle a bout many insects, learn a lot about a few. Field studies can involve u n usual problems on which there is l ittle or no scientific information. How do a nts recog n ize one a nother? How does tem perature affect the flight of butterfl ies? How much does a caterpillar eat? Can beetles recogn ize color? Such prob lems can be investi­ gated in your own yard if you are i nterested. Ma ny insects are known only in the adult form; few facts are known about the rest of their l ife cycles. Consta nt observation of wild specimens, or detailed study of captive ones reared under natural conditions, may yield many new and inter­ estin g facts.



WALKI NGST I C KS are la rge, usua l l y wingless insects

with legs a l l about the same length, distinguishing them from the ma ntises (pp. 24-25). Walkingsticks l ive and feed on leaves of oak, locust, cherry, and wa l n ut, occasiona l ly causing damage. The fema le's 1 00 or so eggs a re dropped singly to the ground to hatch the fol l owing spri n g . As young g row, they molt or shed their 路 .. . ..... ... ... ...,_ skin five or six times; otherwise they a re similar to a d u l ts. Males are s m a l ler than fema les.


路 路...._ _,..


KATYD IDS The male of the true katydid makes the per足 sistent "katydid" ca l l , which, coming as often as once a second, is an accepted part of a summer's even i n g . Some katydids a re tree dwel lers, feeding on leaves of cherry, oak, maple, and a pple. Others live in the grass. Most are g reen, with thin, leaf- l ike wing-covers, and so have the advantage of protective coloration. However, some spe足 cies are brown or even pink. All have long a ntennae. At the base of the outer wings or wing-covers of the ma les


are rasps and ridges which, when rubbed like a fiddle a n d bow, produce the calls of the different species. Katy足 dids hear by "ea rs" on the u p per part of their front legs. The females, recog n ized by the long ovi positor, lay their ova l eggs o n leaves or twigs early i n the fa l l . About 1 00 to 1 50 are la id. When the young emerge in the sprin g , they resemble their parents, but are much sma l ler, lighter in color, and lack wings. In the South, two b roods a re produced eac h season.




These nocturn a l crick足 ets l ive under rocks in moist p laces, or mostly u nder足 groun d . The large mole cricket b urrows near the surface, eating young roots and kil ling seed l i ngs. In the South, it destroys pean uts, strawberries, and other garden crops. The pa le brown, spotted, wing less camel (or cave) cricket is identified by its high, a rched back. Though a scaven ger, it often be足 comes a n u isance around green足 houses.

21 MORMON CRICKET femal-., 1. 5"

male sma ller

This serious pest of Western MORMON CRICKET grains and other crops is partly controlled by insect para­ sites, small mammals, and birds. Gulls saved the crops of the early Mormon settlers from hordes of these crickets which descende d upon them. The large, clumsy insects devour everything in their path, including each other. Some Western Indians considered them a delicacy and ate them roast· · · ···· � '{5'1? ed. Small clusters of eggs are laid in the ground by the female.


fl ·· ....... ....


These common, large-headed, black or brown crickets are nocturnal. Their shrill musical night song is made by rubbing the forewings. Though vegetari足 ans; they may eat other insects and each other. In cap足 tivity, these crickets make fine pets. Field crickets damage crops and occasionally invade homes, even eating cloth足 ing. Eggs are laid in the ground in fall. The young nymphs emerge in the spring and develop their adult wings in several stages.



The common roach, bane of housewives, traces its ancestry back to the Coal Age. The large brown species are more common in the South. Some kinds live in houses and barns, others in fields. They eat all kinds of food and destroy books, rugs, and cloth­ ing. They prefer moist, dark places and usually come out at night. This roach differs from the smaller German roach or croton bug (pp. 152-153). The American roach , is probably native in our tropics.






These la rge, slen der, odd insects, the most fam i l iar of which is genera l ly cal led the praying ma ntis, are becoming more common. The Chi nese a n d Europea n . mantises, introduced here more than 50 years ago, have spread widely through the East. Mantises are predators, feeding m a i n ly on insect pests. If confined, m a ntises a re l ikely to turn canniba l . They are colored a protective green and brown. Hard to see on foliage, they wait in a m b ush, grasping pa ssing insects with their spiny forelegs. The wings are nearly tra nsparent.



lutz says these are the only insects that ca n look over their shoulders. In fa l l , after mating, the fem a l e may eat the �a le. She lays severa l hundred eggs in a frothy mass that dries l ike h a rdened brown foa m . Egg cases can be fo und in winter¡ a n d brought indoors to hatc h . The young, similar to a d u lts but l ight yel low, are difficult to raise. The Carolina ma ntis is smal ler than the others. It is one of 20 native species fo und most com­ monly in the South .






GRASSHOPPERS AND LOCUSTS a re a g ro u p of c lose ly related insects. Some s pecies mig rate; others do not. A l l a re si milar, with short a ntennae and large hear足 ing orga n s on the abdomen. Most a re good fl iers, though some kinds a re wingless. Locusts a n d grassho ppers destroy crops, especi a l l y in the West, where they a re more com足 mon; but they serve as food for la rger birds, sma l l mam 足 m a l s, a n d other anima ls. Fema les lay 20 to 100 eggs i n the ground or in rotted wood. See p. 28 for the l ife history of one s pecies. The nymphs mature in 2 to 3 m onths.



adult !life size) RED路LEGGED GRASSHOPPER


EARW IGS are m a rked by short, leathery forewings and

a pincer-l ike abdominal a ppendage which is more pro­ nounced in ma les. From their abdominal g l a n d s earwigs exude a liquid with a tar- like odor. They are noctu r n a l , spending t h e d a y i n crevices or damp places. The'legend is unt�ue. of their creeping into ears of sleepi ng Some kinds are carnivorous, feed ing on other insects. You n g nymphs are wing less and gradually develop adult form.


Though sometimes cal led wh ite a nts, ter足 mites are not a nts, and some a re n ot wh ite. Of some 2,000 species, only about 40 are found in this country. Ma ny more are tropica l . These highly socia l ized insects live in colonies com posed of four distinct castes. The king and the q ueen, and the winged term ites which can become kings and q ueens of new colonies, form the fi rst caste. The enlarged and a l most helpless q ueen produces thou足 sands u pon thousands of eggs. Most of these hatch into whitish, blind workers who make u p the second caste.



Soldiers with large heads a n d jaws, and nymphs which take over the task of reprod uction should the king or q ueen die, make u p the last two castes. With the aid of protozoa living in their digestive tracts term ites feed on wood and do some $40,000,000 worth of damage a n n u a l l y to bui ldings in this cou ntry. The young pass through six stages in two years as they devel o p i nto adults. Tropica l term ites b u i l d h u g e nests or m o u nds, often higher than a m a n .







0.1 +

L I C E are m i n ute, wing less, disease-ca rrying insects that

live and breed on their hosts. All are parasites. Biti ng l ice (bird l ice), a distinct group, feed on hair, feathers, and fragments of skin . The sucking l ice take the host's b lood directly, by means of sucking mouth-parts. The hog lice (1;4 in.) a re the largest of this group. The head louse in­ fects humans a n d is known to ca rry typhus, trench, and re l a psing fever. Six to 12 generations of l ice may m ature a n n u a l ly. Young, similar to adu lts, develop ra pid ly.



The common green a n d brown tree­ hoppers are sma l l , w inged, sucking insects of curious and peculiar sha pes. They l ive o n many plants, feeding on the sa p. Beca use of their protective color and form, they are usua l ly n oticed only when m oving. Near l y 200 species are known in this country, many with ������ bizarre sha pes. Eggs a re laid in stems and buds, sometimes causing m i n or damage. Eggs h atch the fol lowing spring. You n g are similar to adu lts. TREE H O P PERS



These aHractive, slender, multicolored insects are often abundant on plants where they can feed by sucking the sap. This causes wilting and injury to grape, apple, clover, beet, and other plants. Besides, leafhoppers carry virus diseases from plant to plant and thus become serious pests. Leafhoppers exude "'honeydew" as they feed. This is a somewhat sweet surplus sap which attracts ants and bees, which feed on it. Leafhoppers are well known as prodigious jumpers. They are sometimes called dodgers LEAF HOPP ERS




because of the way they slip out of sight when disturbed. The female lays eggs in stems and leaves. Two or more generations are produced each year. late eggs winter over and hatch in spring. Adults hibernate and emerge in spring also. The young that hatch resemble the adults and pass through 4 or 5 nymph stages before they mature. leafhopper populations in fields may reach as high as a million per acre. Of some 2,000 known species, about 700 are found in the United States .


C I C ADAS The cicadas, whose steady h u m fi l ls the late summer a ir, are more often heard than see n . Ma les make the sharp sound with plate- like orga ns on the thorax. Some species are ca l l ed harvestfl ies becau se of their late sum mer a p pearance; others are called 1 7-year locusts, though the 75 s pecies of cicadas d iffer widely in the time they ta ke to mature. The fem a les cut sl its in you n g twigs a n d deposit eggs in them . This habit causes damage i n n u rseries a n d orcha rds, beca use t h e slit twigs b reak easily in the wind. As the wingless, sca ly you n g hatc h , they drop


to the ground, b urrow in, and stay there 4 to 20 years (depending on the species and the latitude) as nymphs l iving on j u ices sucked from roots. The f u l l - g rown nymph climbs a tree tru n k . The skin spl its down the back; the adult emerges. "Broods" or large colonies may emerge en masse. Adu lts ordinarily live about a week- long enough to mate a n d start a n other ·------------··""-· brood. Many are eaten by birds, which gather to feast on these abun.Pe>iodi� dant insects.



� _




SPITTLEBUG Female spittlebugs make a froth on stems and grasses to cover their eggs. The young nymphs make a froth also to cover themselves while feeding. Open the small mass of bubbles and you are likely to see the small, dull, squat insect inside. Spittlebugs are also called frog路 hoppers because the adults hop about from plant to plant and seldom fly. Though spittlebugs are of minor importance, some kinds injure pine trees and various gar颅 den plants.


AP H I D S ore m i n ute sucking i nsects, wing l ess or with

tra nsparent or colored wings. They are a b u n dant on many pla nts, causing damage by sucking j u ices or tra nsmitti ng virus diseases as they feed. Some form a n d l ive i n g a l ls. Most have com pl icated l ife histories. O n l y wing less fe足 ma les emerge from the eggs i n spring. These produce generations of fema les a l l sum mer-sometimes a dozen. Winged fem a les develop i n the fa l l . Their young a re normal ma les a n d fema les, which, after mating, produce the eggs from which new a ph ids emerge in spri n g .




SCALE INSECTS are a large group of sma l l sucki n g insects. I ndividua l ly min ute, these insects live in colonies which often cover branches, twigs, and leaves of the pla nts on which they feed by sucking juices. S pecies differ markedly in a p pearance. Many have a sca le-l ike cover足 ing and are immobile when mature. Other s pecies lack sca l es, but a re covered with a "honeydew" secretion eaten by bees a n d a nts. These species m ove very little. legs are poorly developed. Males a re sma l ler a n d differ from the fema les; when mature they h ave sma l l wings.


Scale insects attack and injure citrus, apple, and other fruit trees, and greenhouse and ornamental plants. Scales are difficult to control. ladybugs, certain small wasps, and other natural enemies are used in fighting them. Reproduction is complicated. Most scale insects spend the winter as eggs, which the female deposits under her shell before she dies. The eggs hatch in spring and the young move to fresh growth before they settle down under a scale. Some species produce several generations of females before normal sexual reproduction takes place.


There are several h u n dred species of stinkbugs and sh ield bugs i n this coun足 try. A l l have the flattened, shield-sha ped body. Most suck plant ju ices but some feed on other insects. Most are col足 ored green or brown, to match their environment, and are not easily n oticed. A black species common o n b l ack足 berries and raspberries is so we l l concealed it is sometimes eaten. The colorful harleq u i n bug is a n exception, even to its u n usual eggs. The young, hatchi ng from the eggs, pass through a series of g rowth sta ges t i l l the nym phs STINKB UGS AND S H I ELDBUGS


become adu lts. The odor, which comes from two g la n ds on the thorax a n d which gives sti nkbugs their name, is a lso cha racteristic of a n u m ber of other bugs. Birds are not bothered by the odor and commonly feed on the in­ sects. The harleq u i n bug and severa l other species a re de­ structive to garden crops. The shieldbugs are very similar to stinkbugs. In these species, the shield, � . which develops from the thorax, is so large that it covers a good part of the abdomen. · ·...


SQUASHBUGS cause considerable damage to squash, pumpkins, gourds, and related crops by sucking juices from leaves and stems of young plants. The bugs have a strong, offensive odor. Eggs, laid in late spring, hatch in about


weeks. The attractive nymph is green, soon turn足

ing brown or gray. Adults hibernate over the winter. The tachinid fly, which lays its eggs in nymphs and adult squashbugs, par足 asitizes these pests and helps reduce .

their numbers.



These black a n d red or orange bugs are sim i l a r and c l osely related to the tiny destructive chinch bug (p. 47). About 200 species are grou ped in the sam ·e family with the m i lkweed bugs, but m ost are much smal ler and less attractive in color and pattern. Mil kweed bugs feed on a l l varieties of m i l kweed and a re of no economic im porta nce. Adu lts which ·- ·--��:j1--"' hibernate over the winter produce young in l ate spring. The nymphs mature and breed by late sum mer.


\ ..

· �.... ,




feeding on aphid

AMBUSH BUG These small, oddly shaped predators form a minor group of some 25 species. Their habit is to l i e concea l ed in flowers, grasping any sma l l i nsects which may come by. Their front legs are modified for holding their victims; the mouth, for tea ring and sucking. Interest足 i n g because of their bizarre forms and feed ing hab its, the a m bush bugs lack economic im por足 ta nce. Not common enough to con足 trol i n j urious i nsects, they do eat beneficial ones a lso.


Though small, almost minute, chinch bugs reproduce so. rapidly they overrun grain fields, destroying the crops as they feed on plant juices. The annual damage in this country runs into millions. About 500 eggs are deposited in grass or grain. Nymphs are red, becoming gray or brown with age. Two or three gen足 erations may develop in one season. The tarnished plant bug, somewhat larger, and of a related family, is destructive to many kinds of fruits. CHINCH BUG


AQU AT I C BUGS are found in nearly every pond and

stream. A few species are marine a l so. A l l are remark. able for their adaptations to l ife on or below the surface. Nearly a l l are predaceous, attacking other insects, sna ils, sma l l fish,' etc. In turn, these insects are food for larger fish and water birds. The water striders, ta king adva ntage of surface tension o n water, stay on the surface without breaking thro u g h . They skate along with remarkable speed. Other water bugs spend most of their time under water. Some ca rry down air on the su rface of their bodies


and use this for respiration. Other species breathe air that is dissolved in the water. I n most cases, the young resemble the adu lts a n d mature after a series of nym phal stages. The water-boatmen have an erratic swi m m i n g pattern. The backswimmers, as their name indicates, swi m on their backs, but can a lso fly. The giant water bugs, sometimes 2 inches or more in length, prefer q uiet water. Since their b ite can produce a painful swe l l ing, the a mateur col lector should exercise ca ution. When abundant these giant water bugs are harmful in fish hatcheries.


These are seen near ponds and moist meadows. The former, also known as darning needles or stingers, are reputed to be dangerous. They are, but only to small insects which they eat on the wing. Dragonflies, larger than damselflies, rest with wings outstretched. The smalle r, more delicate damselfly rests with wings folded. Both lay eggs on water plants or in water, and the nymphs develop there. These leave the water after several growing stages; the skin splits and the adult emerges.




MAYF L I ES AND STO N E F L I ES are unrelated (p. 4) yet are similarly adapted to aquatic environments. The 100 or so species of mayflies have transparent, veined wings and a long, forked tail. Myriads of short-lived adults are seen on mating flights or near lights. The stoneflies include some 200 species. The nymphs, like those of mayflies, live in water and are important food of fresh-water fish. Both nymphs take several years to reach the adult stage. Adult stoneflies have transparent wings, but do not fly very much or very often.


LAC EWI NGS serve a double natural function. The adults are sometimes eaten by birds. The larvae feed on aphids and other destructive insects, earning the name aphid足 lions. Many of the larvae of the 20 or more kinds of brown lacewings cover themselves with remains of aphids and other debris. Golden-eye lacewings (some 50 ies) stalked eggs which the larvae some足 times eat. larvae spin silky cocoons from which they emerge as delicate, thin-winged adults.


The ferocious-looking adult male is harmless. The long mandibles are used in the mating, which ends its short life. The female lacks these exag­ gerated mouth-parts. She lays a mass of thousands of eggs on plants overhanging a pond or stream. The lar­ vae emerge, drop into the water, and spend the next three years feeding on smaller water life. Fishermen prize the largl'! lar· �·-··· - ···...,� i5'il vae, called hellgrammites, as live ba it. DO BSON FLY

·· ·



ANT L I O N S are so named because the larvae of mem足 bers of this family have odd feeding habits. Eggs are laid on the ground. When one hatches, the larva digs a pit in sand or sandy soil and lives almost completely buried at the bottom. Should an ant or other small insect tumble in, it is seized in powerful jaws and sucked dry. As the larva matures, it builds a silken cocoon, in which it pupates. The adult resem足 bles a miniature, drab damselfly with short antennae.


SCO R PIO N F L Y 0.6"







scorpions only in the modified tips of their abdomens. Eggs are deposited in the soil, where they develop into larvae. After the larvae pupate, the fly-like adults emerge to live as scavengers, feeding on dead or disabled insects. Adults are found on plants. They do not fly well or often.

· · -· ··----·�,

'{5' �

One group of small, almost wing-· ·



in winter. --




woods and are active even on snow




families and over



The unusual larvae, so common in fresh water, are best known. These build cases of sand or plant debris, cement­ ed together by silk. Cases built by different species are distinctive. After the adults mate in flights over the water, the female lays several hundred eggs on submerged rocks or plants. Larvae feed on small water plants and animals, and in turn are food of many fish. larvae pupate in the larval case.




,. "' .?,;··-- ···""-

···-....(.. ,


antennae of butterfly ( l eft) a n d moth

BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS The largest, most attrac­ tive, and best-known insects are grouped together in the order Lepidoptera, the butterflies and moths. The order includes 75 families of moths and 5 of butterflies. About 7,000 species are known in North America. All, except very few, have two pairs of wings. These and the body scales of butterflies are covered with scales or modified hairs, which give moths and butterflies their color. The mouth-parts of adults are modified into a suck­ ing tube which is rolled into a tight coil when not in use. Lepidoptera have four stages of development: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (cocoon or chrysalis), and adult. Most butterfly eggs are laid singly or a few at a time and are unprotected. Many moths lay a large num­ ber of eggs in one place and may cover the egg mass with a protective coat­ ing which includes hairs and scales from the female's body. There is no rule of thumb for distinguish­ ing caterpillars of ..


GIANT SWALLOWTAIL c aterpi l l a r

moths from those of butterflies. Both have chewing mouth­ parts and some kinds do tremendous damage to crops. Most caterpillars have 6 true legs on the thorax, and from 4 to 1 0 unjointed false legs on the abdomen. A few have irritating hairs or spines. Many caterpillars spin a silken cocoon, some­ t i mes covered w ith hairs, in which they pupate. The butterfly larvae make no co­ coon but form a less protected chrysalis. Some Lepi doptera w inter as pupae; some emerge in a short time. The adult moth and butterfly are usually q u i t e d i ff e r e n t, though one group, the skippers, shows intermediate char­ acteristics. Butterflies usually fly by day; moths ordinarily fly by night. The former customarily rest with their wings folded back; moths rest with their wings in a horizontal position. The antennae of butterflies are thin, ending in a knob. Those of moths never end in knobs and are often feathery. Though some butterflies are more attractive, the moths form a larger, more diverse, and more im­ portant group.


M O NARC H This common, attractive butterfly has spread i nto Asia a n d Austra lia. Ma les are identified by a b lack spot on the third vein of the h i n dwing. Two or three generations grow in one summer. I n fa l l . swa rms of a d u lts migrate southward, covering entire trees when they stop to rest. They do n ot hibernate, as is sometimes be l ieved. T e pa l e green, conical ... . eggs hatch m 3 to 5 days mto lar­ vae which feed on m i l kweed. The la rvae are not often eaten by birds . · · ·-



V I C EROY This b utterfly is noted because i n color, pat­ tern, flight, and habits it m imics the monarch. Like the monarch it is a b undant i n late summer. But the viceroy is smal ler and has curved black l ines crossing the veins of the hindwings: Its eggs, and the l a rvae which feed on poplar a n d w i l l ow, resemble those of the purples (p. 62), to which the viceroy i s related. The larvae hibernate i n rol led leaves for � the winter. There are two generations or more a year.

� :! - - - - - - - - , �----

··· .. .




PUR P LES The ban ded purple has a conspicuous white ba n d across its wings with a border of red and blue spots on the hindwings. Eggs are laid on leaves of willow, birch, a n d po plar, on which the larvae feed. The red-s potted purple is so na med for its red spots on the under side along the wing borders and at the base of the hindwings. The larvae feed on wild cherry, w i l l ow, a n d other trees, preferring shaded woods. 路


Though it is most common in the South a n d West, t h e buckeye is occasiona l l y fou nd i n t h e N orth . The eye-spots make identification of the b utterfly easy. The b uckeye l ays its green, ribbed eggs on planta i n , stonecrops, or gerardia, a n d it is on these pla nts t h a t its , la rvae feed. The la rva forms a brown c hrysa l is from which the adult eventu a l l y e merges. Buckeyes are medium-sized butter足 fl ies. They are often foun d i n open fi elds. In the South there a re two similar s pecies, with sma l ler eye足 spots on the h i ndwings.




1 . 7"


1 .0"


3. 5"

65 G U L F FRITI L LARY 0.9" w . 2.9"

66 The friti llaries, one of the largest groups of b utterfl ies, a re found not on ly in this country but in many other pa rts of the world as we l l . The fa mily of which they are the most im porta nt members h as front legs which are reduced in size and held c l ose to the body. O n l y 4 of the 6 legs are used i n wa lking. Fritilla ries are m ostly medium-sized butterfl ies, ora nge or reddish a bove, with silvery or light spots on the under side of the h i ndwings. Sometimes the ma les are a brig hter red on to p tha n the females. The different spec ies of friti l l a ries are distinct enough to make general statements a bout them difficu lt. The eggs are genera l ly conica l in sha pe a n d ornamented with ridges. A l l the caterpi l l a rs are spiny, with the spines on the head a bit longer than the others. Most feed at night on such pla nts as violets, goldenrods, and other com posites. While the ea rly stages of the common frit足 i l laries are known, there are many less common species, and i nformation on the egg and caterpi l la r of these species is incomplete. The ch rysa lis of friti l laries is usua l ly a n g u l a r, forked at the top, and bordered with knobs. It is often brownish . Of the many friti l l a ries, those i l l ustrated are among the most common and best known. The Gulf friti l la ry belongs to a different group from the others and is not considered a "true" friti l lary. F R I T I LLARI ES



67 C H E C K E R SPOT w . 1 . 6"

C H E C K E R S P O T S A N D B A LT I M O R E S Of this group of small, attractive butterfl ies, the two i l l u strated are we l l known. The Baltimore caterpillar is black, with orange bands and b lack bristles. It feeds on turtlehead and re­ lated plants. Baltimores a re common loca l ly, often i n moist areas. T h e checkerspot lacks t h e bri l liant ora nge of the Baltimore. The caterpi l l a r is en- � tirely b lack, with longer bristles. I t . . . . . ... ... '?;"; ' feeds on painted cups a n d monkey , Bo 1 t1mor '-" ' flowers, which are common in the West. ·---


�, _



W, 2 , $H

ANG L E WI NGS This group of sma l l a n d medium­ sized b utterfl ies has angular, notched forewings. The h i n dwings often have short tails. Of 25 species found in this country, the q uestion mark (also cal led the vio l et-tip), comma, and the mourning c loak (p. 69) a re best known. The brownish l a rvae of the q uestion mark feed on hop, elm, and nettle. The greenish, often pa l e com ma caterpillar feeds on n ettles. Both caterpil lars have branched Mark spines on each body segment. ·• . . . ...



•· ·



C LOAK This b utterfly, l ike the other angle wi ngs, h ibernates as a n adult a n d hence m a kes its appearance very early in sprin g . Dark, barrel-shape d eggs a r e soon laid on twigs o f poplar, e l m , hackberry, or willow. The gregarious caterpil lars occasi�nally i n jure a tree by stripping the fo l iage. The mourning c l oa k is com mon a n d widely distrib uted over the entire northern hemisphere. In ' " ·----- -- -- -- 4 ' he North it has one brood a year; ,; m the South, two.




-- -- .. ..2

/ � ' ,.D #1':



R E D ADM I RAL, AMERICAN P A I N T E D LADY, a n d P A I N T E D LADY Two of these three closely related but足 terflies are difficult to distinguish. But the red admiral is clear and unmistakable because of the red bands on its forewings and red borders on its hindwings. The red ad足 miral is found the world around in the northern hemi足 sphere. The light green eggs are barrel-shaped. The cater足 pillar feeds on hops, ramie, and nettles. American painted lady is restricted to North America. Its upper side is very similar to that of the painted lady. The under side is distinct

71 PA INTED LADY 0.8" w. 2.2"

in having two large "eye-spots" which the painted lady lacks. The American's larvae are spiny and black, with rows of white spots. It feeds on arrowweed, cudweed, and other everlastings. The painted lady or thistle butterfly is reported to be the most widely distributed of all known butterflies. This may be because burdock, thistles, sunflow­ ers, nettles, and other plants which larvae eat are widely distributed also. R inted Loay---� '{S� Caterpillar is greenish, with black spots and light, branched spines.

�da �Jmira l



NYMPHS AND SATYRS About 60 species make u p t h i s l a rge group o f sma l l t o medium -sized b utterfl ies, most of which are d u l l brownish or gray i n color. Their charac足 teristic ma rkings a re eye-spots on the under sides of the wings. Most prefer open woods and mountai n areas, gen足 era l ly i n the north. The caterpil lars of these species are smooth, a n d taper toward both the head and the tai l , w h i c h is a lways forked. T h e larvae o f t h e eyed brown have a pair of red horns at each end. Their food is g rass and sedge. The pearly-eye is slig htly l a rger in size, a n d its


l a rvae similar m a p pearance. The common wood nymph has a pair of yel l ow patches on each forewing surround­ i n g the purplish eye-spots. The male has two sma l l eye­ s pots on the h i ndwings. Markings vary a good dea l . The l a rvae lack the horns of the fi rst two species. The l ittle wood satyr is s m a l ler, with eye-spots on both fore- and h i n dwings. It prefers open forests · _ · · --- -------<>-.. . · a n d thickets. The larva has no red at a l l ; its color varies from greenish to wood N pale brown. It, too, feeds on grasses. y m ph P ear 1 y E ye ··


� -·





w . 1 . 0"



1 . 5"

C O P P E R S A N D B L U ES This large family of small but足 terflies includes over 2,000 species, but not many species are found in this country. These butterflies are common. The family has three groups. The hairstreaks are usually brownish or bluish, with hair-like tails at the tip of the hindwings. About 60 species of hairstreaks live in the United States. The second group, the coppers, are nearly all a copper-red color with black markings. There are some 1 8 species. The American copper is proba,bly our most common butterfly. It is found everywhere east of the Rockies. The last group, the blues, are very small. Western

75 EAST E R N TA I LE D BLUE 0.4" w. 1 . 0"

S P R I N G AZURE 0.4"

w. 1 . 1 "


WESTERN PYGMY B L U E 0 . 2 " w . 0 . 6"

pyg my b l ue, with a wingspread of a bit over Y2 inch, is our smal lest butterfly. B l ues a re more com mon in the West. Some 40 species, variable in form a n d difficult to identify, a re listed for the U n ited States. The spring azure has over 1 3 different variations. The caterpi l lars of a l l this family are short, thick, a n d s l ug-like. Some are fl attened and covered with ti ne hair. They feed o n a variety of plants including oak, h ickory, hops, a n d sorrel . O n e species has a car足 n ivorous caterpi l l a r which devours plant lice.

76 CABBAGE BUTTERFLY 0 . 7" w . 1 . 8"

BUTTERFLY This a l l -too-common species ranges over most of the northern hemisphere. It fi rst en­ tered this cou ntry i n 1 868 and within 20 years had spread to the Rockies. N ow these insects are found i n every cab­ bage field; the green caterpi l l a rs feed a lso on m ustard and related wild Ie nts. Two or th ree broods mature each year, the l ast brood hibernating as � � �� the chrysa l i s a n d emerg ing i n early spri n g . Adu lts often fly i n flocks of a dozen or two.



Dozens of common or clouded sul phurs hover as a yel low cloud over roadside puddles. Their color is va riable; fema les a re paler, with ye l l ow spots in borders of forewings. There are two generations a n n u a l ly. The a lfalfa butterfly, a lso varying. i n color, is someti mes pale. It a l so is common a long roadsi des, in fields a n d ga rdens. The larva is similar to the common ďż˝ sulph ur's, but has pink stripes. Both these larvae feed on clover, a lfa lfa, ButterAy and other legu mes. SULPHURS



80 Here are our l argest and most attractive b utterflies. Over 20 species occ u r in the Un ited States and many others a re found elsewhere, making the swa l lowta i l s a grou p that is widely known, admired, col足


lected, a n d studied. C losely related to the swa l l owtails are the pa rnassians, more com mon i n the West. These lack the "ta i l " o n the hindwings that g ives the swa l lowtails their name. The caterpil lars pu pate on the ground. The mountai n butterfly is a n exa m ple of this group. The swa l l owtails are predomina ntly black or yel l ow. Some species occur i n severa l forms. The female tiger swa l l owta i l may be either yel l ow or black, the black form being more common in the South. Swa l l owta i l eggs a re usua l ly round, flattened at the base. The caterpi l l a rs a re genera l l y smooth, lacking spines, though the pipevi ne swa l l owtails have fleshy horns (p. 8 1). All the larvae can emit a rather strong, m usky odor which may protect them. The chrysa lis rests on its ta il end, supported by a loop of silk at the m iddle. There a re often two b roods a year. The swa l l owtails i l l ustrated here are easy to identify in spite of variations in col or. Their caterpi l la rs and food pla nts are shown on the next page. The zebra swa l l owta i l h a s t h e longest t a i l o f any native species. T h e g i a n t swa l足 lowtail is the la rgest, with a spread of 4 to 5 Y2 inches. It is most common i n the Southeast. Its larvae are occa足 sion a l ly destructive to c itrus orchards. Both male a n d fem a le black swa l lowta i l have a double row o f yel l ow spots, but th ose of the female are sma l ler. Yel low spots on the forewings and g reenish h i n dwings mark the spicebush swa l lowta i l . The pipevine swa l lowta i l lacks the yel l ow spots.


S P I C E B U S H on sassafras

P I PEVI N E on plpevlne

G IANT on orange

ZEBRA o n pawpaw

BLACK on parsley

T I G E R o n wild c herry

SWAL LOWTA I L CAT E R P I L LA R S a nd t h e i r food pla nts

82 A RCT I C S K I P P E R 0.3" w . 0.9"

SKI P P E R S About 200 kinds of skippers are native, and this is only one-tenth of the total number. Their rapid, darting flight gives them their name. These small butter­ flies have characteristics of moths. Some rest with the hindwings or both wings horizontal as moths do. The smooth caterpillars have large heads and thin "necks. " They feed o n locust, clover, and / other plants. The silver-spotted skipper is the most common of the large � � Silve !>s ed'S PI"' sk "1ppers. Many are much sma 1 1 er �� g· �;, than this.

�4-ff·-,�4" Z�

� d@ �Aif-






resent a fa m i l y of some 200 American species. Acrea is one of the most common eastern moths, easily identified by the spotted a bdomen . The male is i l l ustrated. The fe­ ma le's hindwings a re wh ite. Caterpi l lars feed on g rasses and garden p l a nts. The ba nded wool or Isabe l l moth caterpi l l a r, abundant i n a utumn, f e ed s on planta in a n d re­ lated plants. It h ibernates as larva V//������@�W..� a n d pu pates in sprin g . Both larvae use hair in making cocoons.


S P H I N X MOTHS Some 100 species of these th ick足 bodied, n a rrow-winged moths l ive in this cou ntry. Their common names, as tomato worm and tobacco worm, in足 dicate the foods sought by some l a rvae. leaves, and sometimes fruits, a re eaten. Some la rvae feed on potatoes a n d on wild mem bers of the potato fa m i ly. Other species eat birch, w i l low, cata l pa, gra pe, and other pla nts, occasiona l l y damaging n u rseries and vineyards. The larvae are large a n d usua l ly have a ta i l or horn. Some rear back into a b e l l igerent attitude when m o lested, but none a re poisonous, a s is sometimes bel ieved. Braconid


c ocoons of braconld wasp on sphinx lorva

wasps lay their eggs in the l iving caterpi l l a rs, w h ich the wasp larvae eat. Caterpil la-rs of Sphinx m oths covered with wasp cocoons are often seen. Caterp i l l a rs pu pate in the ground, and some may be recogn ized by the free tongue case, which forms a loop at one end. The com ­ mon adu lts a re identified by abdom i n a l or wing � ;£{:_ ." ma rkings. The sucking-tube mouth �'1 '?' � 0 / is long, e n a b l i n g Sphinx moths to ''l'. , "; get nectar a n d pol linate tub u l a r ,., N ) oif�o!9, 'e n � flowers, such as n icotine, petu nia, ·�, honeysuckle, a n d trum pet vine.

";:f''J:$-� :4,%


a2�.,,te-; .il'ed":fb; �' ·




w. 4.2"

SILK MOTH This m oth was im ported from China, where a coa rse grade of silk is obtained from its cocoons. Since 186 1 it has become fir m l y esta b lished in the East. The silk i n d ustry, which it was hoped this m oth wou l d start, never materia l ized. The large cater­ pillars are control led by natura l enem ies, and si nce they feed ch iefly on a i l a nth us, a weed tree, they are not harmfu l . These a re � t5 'Y the only large moths with white tufts on the a bdomen.



- - - -- - - - -


p /'(



The large, tubercle-studded cecro­ pia l arvae feed o n cherry, maple, willow, and many other p l a nts. The l a rge, tough, brown cocoons are fi r m l y attached t o branches and are ea sily f o u n d in winter. Out­ d oors, the huge m oths emerge in l ate spring or s u m m er, but when cocoon s are brought indoors they hatch earl ier. The emergence of the a d u l t is a sight to see. The wri n k led, velvety wings unfold ti l l they are 5 or 6 i nches across-something worth watching! C EC R O P I A MOTH


//� ----------�iJf;jf �1f1('�

· .. ___



88 PROM ETHEA MOTH 1 . 0" w . 3 . 4 "

c ocoon

This moth, sometimes cal led the spicebush si lk moth, has a b l u ish-green larva with twa pairs of short red horns near the head. It feeds on sassa­ fras, wild cherry, t u l i p tree, and sweet g u m , as we l l as on spicebush. Col lect the com pact cocoons, each wra pped in a dry leaf, and watch the adu lts emerge in spri ng. Recog n ize the male by its darker maroon color. The fem a l e is a it · · ··· ··· - -· � ts 'f1 larger, lig hter, a n d browner, w1th slightly different markings. PROMET HEA





w. 5 . 3 "

POLYP H EM U S M O T H Because of its giga ntic size and the "eye-spots" on the wings, this nig ht-flying silk moth was named after the o ne-eyed giant, Polyphem us, of Greek mythology. The green larvae, sometimes over 3 inches long, feed on oak, hickory, elm, m a p le, birch, a n d other trees a n d shrubs. They s p i n their p l u m p cocoons either on the ground or attached to a twig. These moths are more com足 mon i n the South, where there a re two broods a year.

90 10 MOTH 1 .1"


w. 2 . 8"

10 MOTHS Three very similar species are found in this country. The larvae are of partic u l a r interest, for their sharp spines a re m i l d l y poisonous. Recogn ize them by their horizonta l red-and-wh ite stripe. H a n d l e them with care when you find them-on corn and other garden and wild p l a nts. Ichneumon flies (p. 1 37) often attack the larvae. The cocoon is found on the · · · ········ � ground in dead leaves. The a dult i5 ':9 male i s smal ler than the female and has bright yel low forewings . -· ·



MOT H This h a ndsome m oth, with its stri king long tai l s a n d del icate green color, ma kes a lasting im­ pression o n those who see it for the fi rst time. It is a favorite with collectors of moths a n d butterfl ies. The la rvae, smal ler than the other nig ht-fl iers, feed on sweet gum, wa l n ut, hickory, a n d persimmon. The cocoons are usua l ly spun on the ground. Ma le � ; / a n d fem a l e a re similar in a ppeara nce. Some have more purple on the borders of the wings than others. LUNA

· · · · · · · · ·· · ·i,






;�,-� -�

�/ ,� � ·



UN DERWING MOTHS There a re over 1 00 species of these attractive moths in the U n ited States, a n d a variety of u n derwings can be found in every local ity. Col lect them i n woods at night after painting tree trunks and stum ps with a m ixture of brown sugar a n d fermented fruit juice as bait. When the adult rests on bark with its wings folded, it can scarcely be see n . In fl ig ht, the bright colors of the u nder足 wings are in sharp contrast to the drab pattern of the forewings.

93 I M PE R I A L MOTH 1 . 8" w . 4 . 6"

larva o n white oak

AND REGAL MOTHS These moths are c l ose ly related to the la rge silk moths. The h a iry i m perial caterp i l l a r, with short horns near the head, varies from g reen to brown. It feeds o n pine, hickory, oak, m a ple, and other trees. No cocoon i s formed, the pupa resti n g in the ground. The forewi ngs of the male a re purplish; those of the fem a l e a re richer i n ye l l o ':" s. <>--. The la rvae of regal moths, wh1ch feed on wa l n uts, have la rge, red, ::Y l, 0-z-r� �e curved horns. IMPERIAL

___ _ __ _

\ __

· ·........

- - ------





CORN EARWORM AND BORERS Everyone who has husked sweet corn has seen the greenish or brown larva of the corn ea rworm, found a l most everywhere. It ·feeds on other garden crops, too, and pupates underground. The E uropean corn borer became esta b l ished near Boston in 1 9 1 7 and has spread widely since, doing mil l ions of doll a rs' damage to corn. The larvae - - - - - - --�-o.... . bore into sta l ks, weakening and breaking them. Control is difficu lt, as borers live in wild plants a lso. <


<:=orn ...

. �




The larvae, often seen in late summer, are recog n ized by their tufted white hairs a n d attractive contrasting colors. They are pests of most shade a n d ornamenta l trees a n d are best control led by destroying cocoon s in winter. The egg masses are laid by the wingless fema les on the surface of their cocoons. Eggs hatch in spri ng, but the l arvae are not noticeable 0· til l su � mer. Adu lts are sma l l and inconSpiCUOUS.


�·- -.ffjf'u.,, if 4tj"

····---. ...


The gypsy a n d the brown -tai l moth are Europea n relatives of the wh ite-ma rked tus�ock moth which, unfortunately, have become esta b l ished i n this cou ntry. The larvae, somewhat similar to tussock moths, without tussocks, eat the leaves of most shade and forest trees. They tend to feed at nig ht. Larvae pu pate in midsummer and a d u lts em erge shortly. The fe male flies but l ittle. She lays a � mass of eggs, covering them with lS 'f9 hair and sca les. These h atch in spring. GYPSY MOTH

- - - - - - - - ---



-· ·







These two pests of forest, shade, and ornamental trees are not closely related, but are often confused. Both build webs, but that of the fall webworm covers the leaves. The tent caterpillar web, built only in spring, is usually at the crotch of branches. Adult webworms, with variable black spots on forewi ngs, lay eggs on leaves. Tent caterpillar egg masses �.? Y are found on twigs. Remove them in ;_, � Z d IEe nt Coterptllar . wrnter to controI th .ts .r n sect . . a:»f. ali Web�rm <:%;' /.7 .

. Q

�·w··. ·--7%


: :·f/ '/.. ��J!



0 . 5"

w. 1 . 2"

wingless female

C A N K ERWO RMS These pests of a pple, other fru it, and shade trees are worth watching as they lope a l ong on their true and false legs. Sometimes they spin a silken thread and hang suspended in mid-air. Fall and spring cankerworms are eq ually obnoxious. The wing less females lay their eggs on bark. After feasting on leaves, the larvae pu pate u n derground. The adu lts emerge late in fa l l a n d can be tra pped by bands of sticky pa per around tree trunks.



9 u m o n +run•


P E AC H T R E E B O R E R l a rvae enter the tree a s soon as

they hatch from the eggs, which have been laid on the ba rk. The larvae b urrows can be recog nized by exuding g u m on the surface. After spending the winter as a larva, the borer pu pates i n a crude cocoon. The a d u lt emerges in about a month and m ates. The female lays a new m ass of severa l h u ndred eggs. This pest is a n ative i n sect which is believed to have fed on wild p l u m a n d cherry before peaches were introduced.


1 00

MOTH This pest is so widespread that spraying a pple trees for its control is a routine operation. I ntroduced from Europe, the codling moth is n ow widely d istributed. Tiny eggs are deposited on l eaves. As they hatch, the larvae enter the new fruit. Later, l a rvae hatch from eggs laid on the a p ples. After feedi n g i n the fru it, l a rvae pupate on the bark. There are often several generations a year. >::. ·;;.-.;;:, Late larvae h i bernate a n d p u pate the fo l l owing spring.



-- '




1 01

larva i n ba9

arborvita e

BAGWORMS ore common b ut become serious pests only

loca lly. Their l ife history is strange. The wing less and footless fem a le, after mating, crawls bock i nto her "bog" a n d lays h u ndreds of yel l ow eggs, which hatch i n spring. The young l a rvae feed on leaves of m a ny kinds of trees, b u i lding their conical bogs as they feed. later they bind their bogs to twigs a n d pupate. The mole emerges, seeks the fema le, a n d motes. Severa l related moths make bogs which o re sim ilar i n desig n .

1 02



This large group o f small but important

insects has been amply studied as part of public-health campaigns against malaria and ye l low fever. The con足 q u est of malaria is a scientific milestone. The common carriers of the disease, the anopheles mosquitoes, are recognized by the "three-pronged" beak of the female and by the ti lted position they assume when resting. The aedes mosquitoes, one of which carries yellow fever, are more like the common house and swamp mosq uito in appearance. The disease carrier is limited to tropics and

1 03 larvae ancl PIIINI•

I adult


subtropics. F emale culex mosquitoes lay rafts of several

h � ndred eggs, which hatch in a few days into larval wrig­

glers. In a week or so these pupate, and the adults soon emerge. Male mosquitoes are harmless. Their beaks are not fi tted for piercing. F emales bite and hen ce can trans­ mit disease. They are the only ones which buzz. Mosqui­ toes have been controlled by draining swamps and by the wide use of insecticides. The possibility of long-range dange rs in these methods, particularly when applied by inadequately informed persons, needs further study.

1 04

C RA N E F L I E S Adult crane fl ies are sometimes mista ken for giant mosq u itoes. But the adu lts, often seen around electric lig hts, may not eat at a l l . Some are apparently predaceous. The fema le lays severa l h u ndred eggs on damp soi l. The larvae burrow into the ground or decaying wood. Only a few attack plants. In a few weeks they pu pate, and in a bout a week appear as adu lts. Crane fl ies form a large '·;··--·o.... group, with over 1 000 species in this �-/ country.

� �?;'

1 05 ROBBE R FLY 0.8"



FLIES include serious pests of plants and animals wh ich cause losses running into m i l lions. The vast majority ore harm less; some species o re beneficia l . The robber fly preys on insects, some larger than itself. The deer fl y and the block fl y con make a camper miserab le. March fl ies (which o re more common late in spring) ore often seen on flowers. The b lock horse fly, sometimes a full inch long, bites severely. Ma ny fl ies tra nsmit disease as they bite in足 fected animals a n d then others. I nsect repe l lents and in足 secticides ore useful in contro l l i n g them.

1 06

B L U E B O T T L E AN D G R E E N BO TT L E F L I ES are attrac足

tive insects, but thorou ghly obnoxious otherwise. Eggs are laid on dead a n i ma ls, ga rbage, sewage, or i n open wounds of a n imals. Some re lated species parasitize and k i l l a n i m a l s a n d even m a n . Eggs hatch very soon after being laid; larvae a re mature in less than 2 weeks. The short l ife cycle means several gen足 erations a season; only contin ual spraying wi l l kee p these pests under control .

A N D O T H E R F L I E S Tachinid flies are beneficial insects which help control injurious ones. More than 1 ,400 species have been described. Because these flies are prolific, their value as parasites is increased. Syrphid flies, known as flower or drone flies, are similar insects. They are often seen approaching a flower, coming to an abrupt stop and hovering in mid-air. The larvae eat aphids and scales. The fuzzy, squat bee fly lives in hives, and its larvae often attack and feed on larvae of bees and other insects.


1 08




v estigial路wing

F R U I T FLY These sma l l and rather i m porta nt fl ies are often seen around rotting or fermenting fruit. Their claim to fa m e rests on scientific uses to which they have been put. Fruit fl ies have been used i n h u ndreds of experim ents dea ling with inheritance. They have probably been stud颅 ied from this a n g l e more intense ly than any other animaL The fact that their l ife cyc le is less than 2 weeks enha nces their value i n this work. They are easily g rown 路 i n the laboratory, where interestin g forms have a p peared n atu颅 ra l l y or from exposure to experimenta l radiatio n .

1 09

T I G E R B E ETLES These handsome beetles are often seen on summer afternoons darting in and out of paths. They are widely distributed and quite common, but agile, swift, and difficult to catch. Eggs are laid in the soil. The preda­ tory larvae, locally called "doodlebugs," dig deep bur­ rows and wait at the openings to catch passing insects in their powerful jaws. Some tiger beetles living on beaches or other sandy areas are protectively colored gray. ····- ----��'7ffi


1 10


When these Ja panese insects were fi rst discovered on pla nts in New Jersey i n 1 9 1 6, ex足 perts could scarce ly find a doze n . Now thousands can be collected dai ly, a n d control is a serious prob lem. The sma ll, wh ite g rubs feed on the roots of grasses, damag足 ing lawns. The la rvae dig deep for winter and pupate the following spring. The adu lts emerge in midsum mer and feed on cu ltivated plants and fruits. After mating, eggs are deposited in soi l .


1 12

C A R R I O N A N D R O V E B E E T L E S form a fam i ly of over

1 00 species, i n two groups: the carrion a n d the b u rying beetles. The former a re sma l ler, fl attened i nsects which, as scavengers, feed on decaying a n ima l matter. Some kinds are predators, feeding on worms a n d i n sects; a few eat plants. Both larvae and a d u lts h ave similar feeding habi s. It is reported that he larger Beetle• burymg beetles, some brrg htly col'{5 'V ored, dig u n der the ca rcass of a sma l l a n im a l til l it fa l l s i nto the hole __


fj B�ng 'M'<�/ l

- - --

R � a ted

s pecies


1 13


0 . 7"



and is actu a l ly buried to serve as food for the l a rvae. The eggs are deposited on t h e corpse. The l a rvae of some species deve lop rapidly, reaching maturity i n a bout a week. Rove beetles, which a re a lso scaven g � rs or pred­ ators, have sh ort wing-covers and superficia l ly resemble the earwigs (p. 29). They are a larger grou p-over 1 ,000 species are reported for this country. Some l ive in fungi or i n a nts' nests. Some sq uirt a ma lodorous m ist or droplet at enemies.

1 14


CLICK B E ETLES form a fa mily of some 500 America n species. The eyed e later is a striking exa m ple. If it fa lls or lands on its back, it l ies q u ietly for perh a ps a min ute. Then, with a loud c l ick, it fl i ps into the air. If it is lucky, it lands on its feet and runs away; otherwise it tries again. The larvae of cl ick beetles, known as wireworms, l ive in the ground or i n rotten wood. Most c lick足 beetle larvae feed on roots, i n j uring potatoes a n d other crops. Some eat other insects.

1 15

H U N T E R S are a group of fairly l a rge a n d very attractive beetles. The fa m i l y to which they belong is a l so large (some 2 ,000 American species) a n d i s related t o the tiger beetles ( p . 1 09). These beetles a re a l l predaceous, feeding on insects a n d other sma l l a ni足 mals. Larvae of the caterpi l la r h unters attac k a n d feed on caterp i l l a rs of the gypsy moth a n d tent caterp i l lars. S o m e adu lts sq uirt an acrid fl u i d on their victims or on unwary collectors. C AT E R P I LLAR

1 16

F I R E F L I ES are not flies at a l l , but soft- bodied beet les, and most unusual insects. A bout


species are known in

this country, and many more, even more marvelous, ore found widely distributed in the tropics. The light-giving property, or luminescence, is not confined to the adults. In some species the eggs and larvae glow also. The females of some species are wingless: these ore known as glowworms. Fireflies are of little economic importance. They add to the pleasure of a summer's night: the tropical display of thousands of these insects flashing in unison is breathtaking. Fireflies have posed a prob lem which scientists have not yet solved -that of "cold " light. The study of this phenomenon may have wide practical ap-

1 17

plications. In the species shown, it is the last segment of the abdomen which contains the light-producing tissue. This is very fatty and includes a network of nerves and airtubes. Through the latter, oxygen for the light-produc­ ing process is obtained. In ordinary rapid oxidation much more heat · than light is produced; here, heat production is negligible. The larvae live underground or in rotted wood or rubbish. They feed on small insects. The adults are re­ ported to eat the same food, but some of the common fireflies may not �� feed at all in the adult stage. Put Glowworm some in a iar and watch the action.



· · - · · · ·- - - · ·

p �'(

· Ot er F t refltes


1 18

LADYB I R D B E ETLES are proba bly the best known and

most val ued of our beetles. We have some 350 species in this cou ntry, though the fa m i l y is world-wide i n dis足 tribution. Lutz says the name can be traced back to the Middle Ages, when these beetles were ded icated to the Virgin -hence the name ladybird or ladybug. Both l a rvae and adu lts of many species feed on a phids. In California, where these pests and sca le insects cause serious damage to citrus trees, native and i m ported ladybird beetles have been successfully used to hold the pests in check. When the cottony-cushion sca le from Austra lia (pp. 40-4 1 ) be足 gan to spread throug h California orange groves, the e ntire industry was threatened. An Austra lian ladybug

1 19

which feeds entirely on the scal e was imported and within a few years the scale was under control. About


beetles will protect an acre of trees. The common species are generally similar in appearance but differ in the num­ ber of spots. All have very short legs, which distinguish these beetles from other garden beetles (pp.

1 20-1 25).

ladybird beetles lay their eggs on plants infected with aphids or scales. The larvae feed on the aphids and pass through four growth stages. When mature, they pupate in the remains of the last larval skin. Adults assemble by the thousands before cold weather sets in and hiber nate under fallen branches or rocks.

.· · · · - - . . . . . . . . .




ladyb i rds .


1 5- s p otted Ladybird


1 20 G A R DE N


Garden beetles are pests of the garden as wel l as the farm. They are the ones we spray, dust, and pick. Other beetles are destructive i n the garden a l so, as the May beetle, Ja panese beetle, a n d severa l weevils. These beetles i l l u strate the point that any cultivated crop is a banq uet for the right plant-eating insects. It takes etern a l vigilance t o keep o u r cultivated pla nts healthy a n d u n 足 spoiled for our own use. MEXICAN B EAN B E ETLE is related to the common la dy足

b ird, a n d is one of the fairly large group of the ladybird fami ly that feed on plants. Eggs are laid o n the u ndersides of leaves. Spi ny, yel low larvae eat the soft leaf tissue, leavin g the vei ns behind. They eat pods too, stri pping a plant in short order. Adu lts have similar feedi n g habits. Bean beetles feed on mem bers of the pea fa m i ly, wild a n d c ultivated-peas, beans, a lfa lfa, a n d soybea ns. C O LORADO POTATO B E ETLE is a n exa m p l e of how a

relatively u n i m portant i nsect can change its role as the environment changes. This beetle was once native to the Rockies, l iving on nig htshade and other wild mem bers of the potato fam i ly. When settlers began to grow potatoes, this new food gave the beetles a fresh start. They pros足 pered a n d spread, ti l l they now exist in practica l ly a l l of the 48 states. Eggs are laid in c l usters on the leaves, which larvae eat. larvae pupate in the ground. The a d u lts e merge a n d continue to feed on potatoes. STR I P E D B L I STER B E ETLE or striped potato beetle has

interesting relatives that parasitize bees. This species has a complex l ife 揃 history with u n usua l l a rvae. It feeds on potatoes, tomatoes, and related plants. Other species feed on goldenrod, a lfa lfa, clover, and other wild pla nts . :



1 22


0. 7"

1 23

larva in roots of corn


The striped and spotted cucum­ ber beetles are common ga rden pests. The larvae of the former attack roots, and the adu lts eat leaves of cucum­ ber, sq uash, and related pla nts. The 1 2-spotted cucumber beetle is a n even worse pest, feeding on many other plants besides those of the squash fa mily. It a ppears early in the season and stays l ate. I n the South, the larvae attack the roots of corn, oats, and other g rasses. ASPARAG US B EETL ES, two species of them, ravage the asparagus crop. Adu lts h ibernate in the ground, emerg­ ing i n spring to feed on young shoots. Eggs a re soon laid and larvae attack shoots, "leaves," and fruit, strip­ ping the pla nt. The l ife cycle takes only about a month, so there a re severa l broods a year. Both species, the common asparagus beetle and the spotted asparagus beetle, were introduced from Europe, one about 90, and the other about 70, years ago.

Control of garden insects fi rst req uires a knowledge of which pests are in­ volved and something of their eating habits. If you cannot identify the insect, seek aid of your county agent, col lege of agricu lture, museum, or the U.S. Depart­ ment of Agricu lture. Once you know the i nsect, proper control measures can be learned from the same sources. State and Federa l agricu ltura l agencies have pamph lets on control of garden pests. The pamph lets a re available (usual ly free or at a nomina l cost) u pon req uest. Methods of pest control are being consta ntly cha nged to meet new cond itions. CONTROL O F GARDEN P ESTS

1 25

1 26


0 . 6"

WAT E R B E ETLES are n ot to be confused with water bugs

{pp. 48-49), though they are found i n the same ha bitat. The whirligig beetles, true to their name, whi r l or swim at the surface. They dive when disturbed and are good fl iers a lso. Eggs are laid on water pla nts; larvae feed on water anima ls. Eggs of diving beetles are de posited i n the tissues of water pla nts. They hatch i nto l a rvae commonly known as water tigers, which attack water i n sects, sma l l fi s h , a n d even one a nother. After a month or so, larvae pu pate in the grou nd. Adu lts are active all year. Their

method of carrying a bubble of air down with them at the tip of their a b domen is interesti ng to watc h . These a n d other water insects can be kept i n a n a q ua足 rium and fed b its of meat. The water scavengers, the largest water beetles, are sometimes over 3 inches long. Eggs are laid i n a silken wra pping, attached to a fl oating leaf. The predaceous larvae feed l i ke those of diving beetles. P u pae form i n soi l by late summer, a n d emerge i n about 2 weeks. Adu lts a lso are active in a l l seasons. They carry air as a film on the u nderside of the body.

1 28

MAY B E ETLES or June bugs form a group of over 1 00

American species, widely d istributed a n d d ifficult to con足 trol . Wh ite eggs are laid in a n earth-covered ball amid roots on which the wh ite grubs feed for 2 or 3 years. These pu pate underground in fa l l , and adu lts appear the fol lowing spring. Adu lts feed on leaves of many common trees. They a re attracted to electric lights. Birds and sma l l m a m m a l s, such as skunks a n d even pigs, root out grubs and eat them.

1 29

Often cal led the figeater, this beetle feeds on many pla nts, eating roots, stems, a n d leaves. La rvae a r e found in soi l or man ure. They move by bristles on their backs instead of by their short legs. Adu lts fly i n large n u m bers, making a loud buzzing which is somewhat similar to the buzzing of bumblebees. These insects are more common in the South, where the adu lts damage a pricots, figs, gra pes, melons, and other fl eshy fruits. G R E EN J UNE B E ETLE

1 30

SCARAB B E ETLES, including the rose c hafer, J a pa nese

beetle, a n d May beetle, form a la rge fa m i l y tota l l ing m ore than 30,000 species, of which well over 900 are found in this cou ntry. Many a re scavengers, adapted for l iving in or on the ground. larvae a re usua l ly large wh ite grubs found i n the soi l . Of the many scarabs, the dung beetles or tumblebugs are outsta nding. These a re the beetles held sacred by the Egyptia ns. The adu lts form b a l l s of dung and roll them about g iving the i m pression

1 31

of being i n d ustrious workers. Eggs are laid in the b a l l , w h i c h is buried. T h e ferocious- l ooking r hi noceros beetles and their relatives, the ox beetles, a re the largest of the scarabs. A l l a re harmless. Some are 2 inches long; m u c h larger tropica l forms occur. Ma les h a v e m o r e prominent horns than fema l es. The larvae are found i n rotted wood or rich soi l . C o l l ectors prize the curious adu lts.

1 32 H O RN BEETLE 1 . 4"

STAG AND H O R N B E ETLES are related to scarabs. The

large stags are so named because the huge mandibles of the males resemble the antlers of stags. Mouth-parts of the females are much smaller. large white grubs are found in rotted wood-more commonly in the South than elsewhere. Horned-beetle larvae and adults are often found in large colonies in burrows in rotted logs. These beetles make noise by rubbing wing-covers or legs. The adults are harmless.

1 33

T I LE - H O R N E D P R I O N U S

1 . 6"

Darkling beetle larvae are the "mea lworms" used for feeding birds a n d other sma l l pets. T h e y feed on stored g r a i n a n d h e n c e a r e serious pests. There a re a la rge n u mber o f c l osely related species. The larvae of prion us beetles a re known as round足 headed borers. These attack roots of fruit a n d ornamental trees, g ra pe, a n d other pla nts. The antennae, with overlapping plates, slightly longer in the ma le, identify the prionus beetles. DAR K L I N G AND P R I O N U S B E ETLES

1 34

FLAT-HEADED AND LONG HORNED BOR ERS Larvae of many beetles bore into wood, but flat-headed borers (Bu prestids), like example above, and longhorned borers (Ceram bycids), represented by the locust and elder borers and the pine sawyer, are vicious pests of orcha rd, shade and forest trees. la rvae of flat-hea ded borers (at least 500 species in this cou ntry) feed mostly just beneath the bark, whereas long horned borers (over 1 ,000 species) usua lly channel far into the trunk. The attractive locust borer adult is often found o n goldenrod.



1 35

W E EVI LS are small beetles with mouth-parts modified

into a downward-curving beak or snout. Many are impor足 tant pests of grain. The damage done by weevils is esti足 mated at over $500,000,000 annually. For years, as the cotton boll weevil spread north from Mexico, warnings of the danger went unheeded. The plum curculio damages peach, cherry, and plum trees. Nut weevils are found in acorns and all other edible nuts. The granary weevils, found in grain, are prolific, with a life cycle of only 4 weeks. Some feed on the roots, others on stored grain.

1 36



H O R NTAILS A N D SAWFLI ES, c l osely related, belong

with the bees and wasps but lack the constricted ab足 domen. Hornta i l s lay their eggs on dead or dyin g trees. The l a rvae are borers, which pu pate in their deep tun足 nels. Most sawfly larvae feed on l eaves. Horntails a re hosts to the ichneumon flies ( next page), which parasitize the larvae. The fema l e ichneumon fly can locate a hornta i l b urrow u n 足 der severa l inches of wood and de足 posit her eggs therein.

1 37 I C H,N E U M O N FLY

1 . 4"

I C H N EUMON F L I ES, of which there are over 3,000

America n species, play an im porta nt role in contro l ling many harmfu l insects. They are more c lose ly reloted to wasps than to fl ies. Their larvae are parasites of cater足 pil lars and of l a rvae of beetles, fl ies, and othe r pests. The fema l e ichneumon fly, with her u n usua l ly long ovi positor, attracts a ttention and is sometimes feared by those who do , not know she is harm less. This ovi positor can pierce severa l inches of wood.

1 38


Of over

known, a l l are social animals,

2,500 species of ants living and working to­

gether in ways that have astonish ed laymen and natural ­ ists alike. Among t h e most familiar of insects, t h e y have inspired many a comparison with human society. Car­ penter ants and their relatives form one of the l argest groups of ants. They bui ld nests and burrows in dead wood, logs, and the ti mbers of buildings, where they may


do considerabl e damage if a l l owed to spread. Carpenter ants are found t h e wor l d over in

���W����W temperate which


regions. inferti l e



fema les,

among the largest known ants.


1 39

F I R E A N D C O R N F I E L D ANTS The fire a nts of the Southeast h ave been known to attack baby birds and sting them to death. Cornfield a nts are less ferocious a n d more interesting. These a nts eat the sweet secretions of corn­ root aphids. A phids lay eggs in the ant burrows. When these hatch i n spring, the a nts place the a phids on kn ot­ weed roots ti l l the corn is planted and growin g . Then the a nts tra nsfer the aphids to the corn roots, thus insuring a consta nt food supply. Cornfield ants are widel y distributed and very abundant. Lutz states '\i that they are the most abunda nt of a l l our insects, a fact which makes iS 'i:i these sma l l a nts importa nt. . _

·--- ---- --- ---c..�J-f � '(ff

Cornfi� eld •

1 40

Pharaoh's a nts are sma l l but nu足 merous. They are common invaders of homes, feeding on a n y sweet foodstuffs. The Argentine a nt, native to that cou ntry a n d Brazil, was fi rst found in New Orleans i n 1 89 1 , and has since become a serious household and garden pest 1 n the South. They may invade nests of other a nts and hives of bees. Fortunately they a re semitropica l a n d are l i m ited in their m ovement n orthwa rd. These a nts protect a phids to secure the honey-dew they produce. Little black a nts are found outdoors more than withi n .


1 41

_I NS ECT GALLS are not wel l understood . Sma l l , wasp足

l ike insects (Cyni pids), fl ies, and others lay eggs i n plant tissues. Each insect selects a specific plant. As eggs hatch, the plant tissues around the larvae begin to swe l l , form足 ing a cha racteristic g a l l . The larvae feed o n plant j uices and pu pate i n the g a l l . The adult emerges by burrowin g through the s i d e . S o m e g a l ls a re l a r g e a n d woody, some soft, some knobby a n d spiny. Best-known g a l l s are the oak a pples a n d the galls commonly seen on roses, b lack足 berry, a n d golden rods.

1 42


0 . 5"

Severa l fa mil ies of wasps are repre足 sented among those bui lding their n ests with m u d . Potter足 wasps are sol ita ry, each building a vase-sha ped nest of mud o n pla nts. These wasps prey on caterpi l l a rs a n d beetle larvae. Most mason wasps, in t h e s a m e fa mily a s the potters, nest in burrows in t h e s o i l , but t h e species i l l ustrated makes a clay nest on a branch. Best- known mud wasps are the mud daubers, which make large nests on wa l ls in attics or deserted buil dings. The fema l e b u i l ds the nest of many mud cells. I n each she places several


1 43

para lyzed spiders or other i nsects before she lays the egg and sea ls the cel l . The b l ue mud dauber uses nests made by the common m u d dauber. The fem a l e moistens the cell wa l l , digs through, removes the contents, and refi l ls the cel l with her own spiders and egg. The c uckoo wasp, named after the Europea n cuckoo, awa its its oppor 足 tunity a n d l ays its eggs in the nest of a m u d dauber while the l atter is off searching for a victim . The cuckoo wasp larvae feed on insects provided for the youn g m u d dauber.

r -

1 44

Velvet a nts are so named beca use the wingless fema les are a nt- like. They a re parasites of wasps and bees, especia l l y of the sol ita ry species. The female wasp can rea l ly sting, but the m a l es do not. The fem a le crawls down the burrow and kills the owner with a pow足 erful sting. She then lays her egg on the owner's larva, which her own larvae l ater eat. The solitary, thread-waist was p i l l us足 trated below is one of severa l kinds parasitized by velvet a nts. VELVET ANTS

This large sol itary wasp digs a bur足 row a foot or so deep. I n side passages the female stores adult cicadas which she has pa ralyzed by stinging. The heavy cicadas a re dragged u p a tree by the kil ler ti ll she can get enough a ltitude to _fly back to her burrow. When the egg hatches, the la rva feeds on the h e l pless cicada. In a week it is f u l l grown a n d pu pates in a l oose cocoon. It emerges the fo l lowing sum mer, com足 pleting its l ife cyc le.


1 46

PAPER WASPS are the common wasps everyon e learns

to know sooner or l ater by painful experience. The com足 mon paper wasp bui lds a n u n protected pa per n est out of wood it chews up. The nest is h u n g under eaves or in ba rns, or i n other she ltered sites. No food is placed in these n ests. After the eggs hatch, the young a re fed daily ti l l they pu pate. The ba ld-faced or white-faced hornet builds an ova l, covered nest; some nests can accommo足 date over 1 0,000 hornets. U nferti l ized eggs devel o p into drones or ma les. Ferti l ized eggs g row i nto workers or q ueens, depen ding on the food eaten. Queens make sma l l brood nests i n early spring. Ye l l ow jackets, which a re c l osely related, b u i l d n ests of varying size, some u n der足 ground, some hidden i n rock wa l l s or under logs. An em pty fleld mouse n est is often used.

1 47


1 48


1 . 0"

B E E S are d istinguished from wasps in a n u m ber of mi nor

ways. Their legs have " po l len baskets" of stiff hairs, a n d t h e body is hairy a lso. Bumb lebees a r e larger tha n most others. Their elongated mouth-pa rts enable them to pol足 l inate red c l over, which no other bee can do. N ests are made underground by the ferti le fema les (queens), which survive the winter. The colony consists of a q ueen, work足 ers, and drones. Sweat bees, sma l l and bri l l ia ntly colored, nest in the ground. They are attracted to perspiration; hence their name. leaf-cutting bees are larger and brig ht-



ly colored a lso. Their nests, made underground, are l ined and divided with leaves which the bees have cut i n ova ls or circles from roses a n d other pla nts. The honeybee is probably the best known of all i nsects. Honey has been obta ined from wild and from kept colon ies far back into h istory. I n making honey, bees pol l inate fruit trees and other pla nts. A normal colony of a q ueen, workers, a n d drones may conta i n u p t o 50,000 bees. Periodica l ly bees swarm, and the old q ueen goes off to found a new colony, leaving a young q ueen behind.

1 50

OF CLOTH AND C LOTH I N G The carpet beetles are closely related to larder beetles and to other s pecies which destroy specimens in m useums. They eat a l l kinds of a n i m a l matter, thriving on rugs, woolens, fur, leather, and hair. The larvae which do the damage can be control led by chemica l repe l lents, poisons, and sprays. Adult clothes moths do no harm. Fema les lay wh ite ova l eggs on clothing, leather, etc. These hatch in a bout a week into larvae, which may feed for a year on your prized possessions before they pupate. PESTS


P ESTS OF A N I MALS are many and cause severe losses.

Dog fleas spread from dogs to people and may, in some a reas, ca rry plague. They a lso infest other domestic ani足 ma ls. Control by dusti ng. Other species a re similar. The sheep tick, a species of fly, feeds by sucking b lood. The eggs hatch i n the body of the female, a n d the larvae develop to maturity before being deposited. Control is ach ieved by shearing and dipping the sheep. The sq ualid duck louse is typical of bird l ice (not related to species on page 32) which live on wild and domestic bi rds.

1 52


I n sects that do us harm have been free ly scattered th rough the pages of this book. Some have said that these six­ legged creatures are man's worst enem ies. Here are more we should know to be forewa rned and so forea rmed. The m ost prim itive i nsect, yet sti l l ca pable of eati n g sta rch from book bindings, wa l l pa per, a n d c lothing. C o m m o n i n doors, especia l l y i n w a r m places.


AME R I CAN DOG TICK No i nsect th is: n ote its 4 pa irs of legs. Common enough and often brought i ndoors after a wa l k through fields and woods. C heck clothing a n d body im mediately. If attached to skin, remove by touching tick with a lcohol . Ticks may transmit serious virus diseases.

This flat-bodied household pest, once estab­ l ished, may spread rapidly. May have 3 or 4 generations a n n u a l ly. Female lays wh ite eggs i n cracks; eggs hatch in a week or so. Destroy with DDT or other spray. BEDBUG

LARD E R B E ETLE (Dermestes)

These sma l l beetles can be serious pests wherever food is stored . The active, hairy larvae feed on a l l kinds of meat, leather, a n d othe r a n i­ m a l products. Four or more generation s are produced an­ nual ly. Widely distributed in the o l d world and the new. HOUSE FLY This is the most common and most de­ spised of a l l the fl ies. Public health campaigns have n ot destroyed it. Associated with garbage a n d fi lth, fl ies can reproduce a generation a month when tem peratures are favora ble. Screening, s praying with Lindane resid ual spray, swQtting, and san itation are recommended.

GERMAN COC KROAC H or croton bug, native of Eu­ rope, has become widely establ ished i n cities. l ike the silverfish it is omn ivorous and damages books. Its presence does not necessarily i ndicate unclea n l in ess, and it is not a proved carrier of d isease l ike fl ies. Lindane residual spray and C h lorda n e are recommen ded for control of roaches.

1 53

1 54 FOR



The study of i nsects requ ires a careful bala nce of what you can learn fi rst-hand and what you can learn from others. Books and m useum exhibits refl ect years of re­ search and experience of experts. Col l ections and field studies must be supplemented by what you read. M U S E UMS often have systematic, habitat, a n d local ex­

hibits. Curators are glad to help you identify specimens. C heck col leges and universities, a s we l l a s large city a n d state museums. loca l inquiries are a lways best. The U.S. Dept. of Agricu lture a n d many state departments publish b u l leti n s on insects of economic im porta nce. Write to Supt. of Documents, Washington 25, D.C., for price l ist of insect b u l l etins. Make loca l inqu iry for state publ ications. Some genera l books are listed below. Try them fi rst before turn ing to more deta iled volu mes and technical reports. BOOKS TO READ

Comstock, J . H., A N I NTRODUCT I O N TO ENTOMOLOGY, C o m stock P u b l ishing C o . , I thaca , N ew Yor k , 1 947. A tech n ica l c o l l ege text b u t a g ood system· otic g u id e . A book for the student who wants to "get his teet h " into the subj ect. J a q ues, H. E . , H o w To KNoW THE I NSECTS, W m . C . Brown Co., D u b u q ue, I owa, 1 94 1 . An i l l ustra ied g u ide to the more com m o n ord ers of i n s ects, with h el p ful hints o n m a ki n g col l ections. A g ood book for the serious amateur. K l ots, A . B . , A F I E L D G u i D E TO T H E Bu"EOFLI ES, H o u g hton M i ffl i n C o . , Boston, 1 95 1 . B utterfl ies a r e such a wel l - known a n d attra ctive g ro u p of i n s e cts that a book on them b e l o n g s i n a general l ist. This is the best m o d ern g u i d e ; a cc u rate, a n d with color i l l ustrations. L u t1, Fra n k E . , F I E L D B o o K OF I �SECTS, G . P. P u t n a m ' s Sons, New York, 1 935. T h i s o l d sta nd-by wi l l a i d i n th e id entification of about 1 ,400 s pecies . A b o u t h a l f are i l l ustrated. S w a i n , R a l p h , THE I NsECT G u i DE, D o u b l e d a y a n d Co., N e w York, 1 948. A n excel l e n t , fi n e l y I l l u strated b o o k that d e scribes the o r d e r s a n d p r i n c i p a l fa m i l i es of i n s ects . U rq u h a rt, F. A . , I NTRODU C I N G THE I NS ECT, H e n ry H o l t a n d Co., N ew York, 1 949. A sound " fi rst refe rence. " ' sim p l e a n d n on-techn i c a l , but i n c l u d i n g a l l com m o n ord ers a n d fa m i l ies. H a s easy-to-use k e y s a s a n aid t o iden­ tification. Ample b l a ck-and-white i l l ustrations.



1 55

Heavy type indicates page where species are illustrated. In scientific names the genus nome is first, then the species. If the genus nome is ab颅 breviated, it is the some as the genus nome preceding. The abbreviation "sp." indicates that the description applies to more than one species. 1 7 Diapheromera femorata. 1 8 Bush : Scudderia sp.

19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26


28 29 30 32

33 34


36 37 38 39 40

True: Peteroph y l l a camellifolia. Microcentrum sp. Mol e : Gry l l otalpa hexadacty la. Came l : Ceuthophilus sp. Anabrus simplex. Acheta assimi lis. Periplaneta americana. Stagmomantis carolina. Paratenodera sinensis. American: Schistocerca americana. Carolina: Di ssosteira carolina. Lubber: Brachy stola magna. Migratory: Me lanop lus mex icanus. Melanop lus femur-rubrum. Dermaptera. l soptera. Head : Pedicu lus humanus humanus. Short-nosed: Haematopinus eurysternus. Crab: Phthirus pubis. Body: Pedicu l u s h umanus corporis. Ceresa bubalus. Red-banded : Graphocephala coccinea. Latera l : Cuerna costa l i s. Potato: Em poasca fabae. 3-banded: Erythroneura tricincta. Rose: Typh l ocyba rosae. Magicicada septendecim. Tibicen sp. Phi laenus sp. Aph idae. San J ose : Aspidiotus perniciosus. Terrapin: Lecan ium nigrofasciatum.

4 1 C ottony 路cushion : l cerya



44 45 46 47

48 49

50 51

52 53

54 55 56 57 60 61 62 63 64

purchasi. Mealy Bug: Pseud ococcus sp. Oystersh e l l : Lepidosaphes u l mi. Harlequin: Murgantia h i strionica. Eusch istus: Euschistus sp. Shieldbug: E urygaster alternate. Green Stinkbug: Acrosternum hilare. Anasa tristis. Sma l l : Lygaeus kal mii. Large: Oncopeltus fasciatus. Phy mata pennsy lvanica. C h inch: B l i ssus leucopterus. Tarnished Plant: Lygus l ineolaris. Water Boatman: Corixa sp. Backswimmer: N otonecta sp. Water Strider: Gerris sp. Giant Water : Lethocerus americanus. Anax junius. Ten-spot: L i b e l l u l a pulchella. B lackwing: Calopteryx maculate. Mayfly: Ephemerida. Stonefly: Plecoptera. Golden-eye: Chrysopa ocu lata. Brown: Hemerobius sp. Coryda lus cornutus. Myrmel ionidae. Panorpa sp. Trichoptera. Danaus plexippus. Li menitis arch ippus. Banded : Limenitis arthemis. Red -spotted : L. astyanax. Precis coenia. Great Spangled: Speyeria cybele. Meadow: Bo loria todd i . Var iegated: Euptoieta c laudia. Rega l : Speyaria idalia.

1 56

S C I E N T I F I C NAMES ( continued l 65 Gulf: Agra u l i s van i l lae. 83 Acrea: E stigmene acrea .

Si lver-bordered : Boloria myrina. Rega l : Speyeria idalia. 66 Speyeria cybele. 67 C heckerspot: Euphydryas sp. Ba ltimore: E. phaeton . 68 Question Mark: Polygonia i nterrogation is. Comma: P. comma. 69 Nymphalis antiopa. 70 Amer. Painted Lady: Vanessa virginiensis. Red Admira l : V. atalanta. 7 1 Vanessa cardui. 72 Eyed Brown: Lethe eurydice. Pear ly Eye: L. portlandia. 73 Common Wood Nymph: Minois a lope. Little Wood Satyr: Euptychia cyme Ia. 74 Gray Hairstreak : Strymon me lin us. Purplish C . : Lycaena h e l l oides. America n : L. americana. Bronze: L. thoe. 75 Eastern-ta i led: Everes comyntas. Marine: Leptotes marinus. Spring: Lycaenopsis argiolus. Western Pygmy: Brephidium exilis. 76 Pieris rapae. 77 Common : Col ias phi Iodice. Alfalfa: C . eurytheme. 78 Spicebush: Papi l i o troilus. Parnassius: Parnassius smi ntheus. Giant: Papi l i o cresphontes. 79 Zebra: Papilio marce llus. B lack : P. asterius. Tiger: P. g laucus. 81 Spicebush: Papilio troi lus. Zebra : P. marce l l us. Pipev ine: P. phi lenor. Black: P. asterius. Giant: P. cresphontes. Tiger: P. g l aucus. 82 Arctic: Carterocephalus palaemon. Silver-spotted: Epargyreus clarus. C loudy Wing: Thorybes bathyl lus.

84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92

93 94

95 96 97

98 99 1 00 101 1 02 1 03 1 04 1 05

1 06 1 07

1 08 1 09

110 111 112 113

Banded Woollybear: I sla isabe l l a . Protoparce quinquemaculata. Celerio l i neata. Samia walkeri. Hyalophora cecropia. Cal losamia promethea. Antheraea polyphemus. Automeris io. Actias luna. U l tron ia: C atoca la u l tronia. Clouded Locust: E uparthenos nubilis. Eades imperialis. Corn Earworm : H eli othis umbrosus. Eur. Borer: Pyro usta nub i l a l i s . Hemerocampa leucostigma. Porthetria d i spar. Fall Webworm: Hyphantrla cunea. Tent: Malacosoma sp. Alsophila pometaria. Sann inoidea exitiosa. pomone l l a . Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis. Anopheles: Anopheles sp. Aedes: Aedes sp. Culex sp. Tipul idae. Robber: Asil idae. Deer: Chrysops sp. March: B i bionidae. Black H orse: Tabanus atratus. Bluebottle: C a l l i phora sp. Greenbott le: Phoenicia sp. Syrphid: Syrphidae. Tach i ni d: Tach in idae. Bee: Bomby lius major. Drosoph i l a mela nogaster. Six-spotted : Cicindela sexguttata. Purple: C . purpurea. Macrodactylus subspinosus. Popi l l i a japonica. Carrion : S i l pha americana. Black Carrion : S. ramosa. Amer. Burying: Necrophorus americanus. Hairy Burying: N. tomentosus. Hairy Rove: C reophilus vil losus.

,....---- - -

S C I E N T I F I C NAMES l contlnued l 1 1 4 Alaus oculatus. 1 1 5 Calasoma scrutator. 1 1 6 lampyridae. 1 1 8 N ine-spotted: Coccine lla


121 1 22


1 25

1 26

1 27 1 28 1 29 1 30

131 1 32

1 33

1 34


1 36 1 37 1 38

novemnotata. Convergent: H i p podamia convergens. Two-spotted: Adalia bi punctata. Fifteen-spotte d : Anatis quindecimpunctata. Epilachna varivestis. Colo. Potato: leptinotarsa decem l i neata. Striped B lister: Epicauta vittata. Twelve- spotted : Diabrotica undecimpunctata. Stri ped : Aca lymma vittata. Common: Crioceris asparagi. Spotted: C. duodecimpunctata. Wh i r l i g i g : Gyrinidae. Water Scavenger: Hydroph i lus triangu laris. Dytiscus sp. Phy l lophaga sp. Cotinus nitida. Dung : Phanaeus vindex. Rhinoceros: Xyl aryctes satyrus. Tumblebugs: C anthon laevis. Unicorn : Dynastes tityus. Ox : Strategus antaneus. Horn: Passa lus cornutus. Sta g : Pseudolucanus capreolus. Darkling : E leodes sp. Mea lworm: Tenebrio molitor. Tile-horned: Prionus imbricornis. locust: Megacy l l ene robiniae. Elder: Desmocerus pa l l iatus. Flat-h&aded : Buprestis rufipes. Pine Sawyer: Monochamus sp. Cotton Bol l : Anthonomus g rand is. Plum: Conotrachelus nenuphar. Nut: Balaninus sp. B i l lbug: Sphenophorus sp. Tremex calumba. Megarhyssa atrata. Camponotus herculeanus.

1 3 9 Fire: Solenopsis geminata. 1 40


1 42

1 43

1 44

1 45 1 46 1 47 1 48 1 49

1 50

1 51

1 53

1 57

Cornfield: Lasius niger. little Black: Monomorium minimum. Pharaoh 's: M. pharaonis. Argentine : l ridomyrmex hum i l i s. Oak Apple: Amphibolips sp. E l liptical Goldenrod : Gnori足 moshema g a l laesolidagini s. Goldenrod : Eurasia sol idag inis. B lackberry : Diastrophus sp. Potter-: Eumenes fraternus. Mason: Ancistrocerus birenemaculatus. Mud Dauber: Sce liphron caementarium. Cuckoo: C h rysis sp. B lue Mud: C h a lybion californicum. Velvet Ant: Dasymutilla sp. Cow K i l ler: D. occidentalis. Solitary Wasp : Ammophila aureonotata. Sphecius speciosus. Polistes annularis. Bald-fa ced : Vespula maculata. Yel low J acket: V. sp. Bumb lebee : Bombus sp. Sweat Bee: H a l ictus sp. leaf-cutting: Megachile sp. Honeybee: Apis mel lifera. Flower: Augoch lora sp. Carpel: Anthrenus scrophulariae. Block Carpel: Attagenus piceus. C lothes: Tinea pe llione lla. Dog Flea: Ctenocepha lides canis. Sheep Tick: Melophagus ovinus. Duck louse: l ipeurus squa l idus. Silverfish : lepisma sacch arine. Amer. Dog Tick: Dermacentor variabi l is. Bedbug : C imex loctularis. Larder: Dermestes lardarius. House F l y : Musca domestica. Ger. Cockroach : B late l l a germanica.

1 58 INDEX Asterisks

(*) denote pages on which illustrations appear.

B i l lbug, * 1 35 Acrea moth , *83 B lackberry knot g a l l , Aedes mosquito, * 1 02 * 1 41 Ail anthus silk moth, B lack carpet beetle, *86 * 1 50 A lfa lfa butterfly, â&#x20AC;˘n B lack carrion beetle, Ambush bug, *46 *112 American burying B lack fl y , 1 05 beetle, * 1 1 3 B l ack swa l lowta i l , *79, American cockroach, 80, *81 . *23 B lackwing damse lfly, American copper, *74 *51 American dog tick, B luebottle fly, * 1 06 1 52- * 1 53 American grasshopper, Blue butterflies, 74- *75 Blue mud dauber, * 1 43 *26 American painted lady, Body louse, *32 Books, reference, 1 54 *70-71 Borers, *94, * 1 34 Ang le wings, *68-*69 Bronze copper, *74 Angular-winged katyd id, * 1 9 Brown lacew ing, *53 Brown-ta i l moth, 96 Annual cicada, *37 Anopheles mosquito, Buckeye butterfly, *63 * 1 02 Buffa lo treehopper, *33 Antennae, *58 Bugs, *42-*49, * 1 28 ; Ant lions, *55 see also specific Ants, * 1 38- * 1 40; see names specific also names Bumb lebee, * 1 48 Aphid-l ion, 53 Bush katyd id, * l B Aphids, *39 Butterflies, â&#x20AC;˘58_.82 Aquatic bugs, *48- *49 see also names Arctic skipper, *82 Cabbage butterfly, *76 Argentine ant, * 1 40 Caddisflies, *57 Asparagus beetles, Camel cricket, *20 1 24-* 1 25 Cankerworms, *98 Backswimmer, *48 -49 Carolina grasshopper, Bagworm, * 1 0 1 *26 B a ld-faced hornet, Carol ina mantis, 1 46-* 1 47 *24-25 Ba ltimore, *67 Carpenter ants, * 1 38 Ba nded purple, *62 Carpel beetle, * 1 50 Banded woo l l ybear, Carrion beetles, * 1 1 2 *83 Caterpi l lar hunter, * 1 1 5 Bean beetles, 1 20- * 1 2 1 Caterpi l lars, *59, *64Bedbug, 1 52 - * 1 53 *66, * 8 1 Bee fly, * 1 07 Bees, * 1 48-* 1 49 C a v e cricket, *20 Beetles, * 1 09 - * 1 35, Cecropia moth, *87 * 1 50, * 1 52-* 1 53; Ch eckerspols, *67 see also names C h inch bug, * 1 1 ,. *47

C icada k i l ler, * 1 45 C icadas, *36-*37 C lick beetles, * 1 1 4 C l othes moth, * 1 50 C l ouded locust underwing moth, *92 C l oudy wing skipper, *82 Cockroaches, *23, 1 52 - * 1 53 Cocoon, *59 Cod l ing moth, * 1 00 Collecting, 1 4- 1 6 Co lorado potato beetle, 1 20, * 1 22 Comma, *68 Com mon a sparagus beetle, 1 24-* 1 25 Common mud dauber, 1 42- * 1 43 Common s u lphur, *77 C ommon wood nymph, *73 Convergent ladyb ird beetle, * 1 1 8 Copper butterflies, *74 Corn borer, *94 Corn earworm, *94 Cornfield ants, * 1 39 Cotton boll weevil, * 1 35 Cottony-cushion sca le, *41 Cow k i l ler wasp, * 1 44 Crab louse, *32 Crane fly, * 1 04 Crickets, *20-*22 Croton bug, 23, 1 52 Cuckoo wasp, * 1 43 Cucumber beetles, * 1 23, 1 2 4 Culex mosqu ito, 1 03 Damselflies, 50-*51 Darkling beetles, * 1 33 Darning need les, * 50 Deer fly, * 1 05 Diving beetle, * 1 27 Dobson fly, * 54 Dog flea, * 1 51

159 I N DEX l c:ontlnued l

Doodlebugs, * 1 09 Dragonflies, 50- • 5 1 Drone fly, 1 07 Duck louse, * 1 5 1 Dung beetle, * 1 30- 1 3 1

Gulf fritil lary, *65, 66 Gypsy moth, *96

Earwig, *29, 1 1 3 Eastern tailed b l ue, *75 E lder borer, * 1 34 Euschistus, *42 Eyed brown butterfly,

H airy rove beetle, * 1 1 3 Harlequin bug, *42--43 H arvestfly, 36 Head l ouse, *32 H e l l grammites, *54 H oneybee, * 1 49 Horn beetle, * 1 32 Hornets, 1 46 - * 1 47 Hornta i ls, * 1 36 H orse fly, b lack, * 1 05 H ouse fly, * 1 1 , 1 52 - * 1 53 Househ old ants, * 1 40 Household pests, * 1 40,


Eyed e later, * 1 1 4 F a l l cankerworm, *98 Field cricket, · *22 Fifteen-spotted ladybird beetle, * 1 1 9 Figeater, 1 29 Fire ants, * 1 39 Fireflies, * 1 1 6- * 1 1 7 F l at-headed borer, * 1 34

Flea, dog, * 1 51 F lies, * 1 1 , * 1 04-* 1 08 , * 1 37, * 1 5 1 - * 1 53

F l ower bee, * 1 49 Flower fl y , 1 07 Fritil laries, *64-*65, 66 Froghoppers, 38 Fruit fly, * 1 08 Gal ls, insect, * 1 41 Gorden beetles, 1 1 9, 1 20- 1 25

German cockroach, 23, 1 52 - * 1 ,53

Giant swa l l owtail, *78, 80, * 8 f

G iant waterbug, *49 G lowworms, 1 1 6 - 1 1 7 Golden-eye lacewing, * 53

Goldenrod gal ls, * 1 41 Granary weevils, 1 3 5 Grasshoppers, *26-*28 Gray hairstreak, *74 Great spang led friti l lory, *64, *66 Greenbottle fly, * 1 06 Green darner, *.50 Green June beetle, * 1 29


H airstreaks, *74 Hairy burying beetle, *113

* 1 50, 1 52 - * 1 53

H ouse mosquito, 1 02 * 1 03

Ichneumon fly, 1 36, * 1 37

I m peria l m oth, *93 Insect g a l ls, * 1 41 Insects: col lecting, 1 4- 1 6 control, 9, 1 24, 1 52 deve lopment of, * 1 1 family tree, * 1 0 parts of; *6, * 1 2- * 1 3 relatives of, *7 l o moth, *90 I sabella moth, *83 J a panese beetle, * 1 1 1 J une bugs, * 1 28 Katydids, * 1 8- * 1 9 lacewings, *53 LCJdybird beetles,

* 1 1 8 - * 1 1 9, 1 20 Larder beetle, 1 52 * 1 53

Latera l leafhopper, *34 Leaf-culling bee, 1 48 * 1 49

Leafhoppers, *34-*35 Lice, *32, * 1 51 Little black ant, * 1 40 Little wood satyr, *73

Locust borer, * 1 3-4 Locusts, 26 Longhorn beetles, 1 34 Lubber grasshopper, *27

Luna moth, *91 Mantises, :"�ti March fly, * 1 05 Marine b lue, *75 Mason wasp, * l 42 May beetle, 1 20, * 1 28, 1 30

Mayflies, • 52 Meadow fritil lary, *64 Mea lworm beetle, * 1 33 Mea ly bug, *41 Melon aphid, *39 Metamorphosis, 1 1 Mexican bean beetle, 1 20-* 1 2 1

Migratory grasshopper, *27

Milkweed bugs, *45 Mole cricket, *20 Monarch butterfly, *60 Mormon cricket, * 2 1 Mosquitoes, * 1 02 -* 1 03 Moths, *82- * 1 0 1 characteristics of, 58-59

Mountain butterfly, 80 Mourning cloak, 68, *69 Mud wasps, * 1 42 - * 1 43 Museums, 1 54 Nine-spotted ladybird beetle, * 1 1 8 Nut weevil, * 1 35 Nymphs, *72-*73 Oak apple g a l l , * 1 41 Ox beetle, * 1 3 1 Oystershe l l sca le, *41 Painted lady, 70-*71 Paper wasp, * 1 46 Parnassius, *78, 8 0 Peachtree borer, *99 Pearly eye butterfly, *72-73

Periodica l cicada, *3637

1 60 I N D EX ( continued )

Pests: animal, * 1 5 1 , 1 52 * 1 53

garden, 1 24 household, * 1 40, * 1 50, 1 52 - * 1 53

Pharaoh ' s ant, * 1 40 Pigeon hornta i l , * 1 36 Pine sawyer, * 1 3.4 P ipevine swal lowta i l , 80, * 8 1

Plum curcu lio, * 1 35 Polyphemus moth, *89 Potato beetles, 1 20, * 1 22

Potato leafhopper, *35 Potter-wasp, * 1 42 Praying mantis, 24- *25 " Prionus beetles, * 1 33 u ! Promethea moth, *88 • Pu P a, *59 "' .. ... Purples, *62 0 Purple tiger beetle, � "

� ! ..

* 1 09

Purplish copper, *74 Question mark, *6a

:: Range maps, use of, 3 � Red admiral, *70

., • N ;;

Red-banded leafhopper, *34 ;: Red -legged grasshop.. per, *28 ; Red-spotted purple, *62 Regal frit i l lary, *64*65

Regal moth, 93 Rhinoceros beetle, * 1 30 131

Robber fly, * 1 05 Rose chafer, * 1 1 0, 1 30 Rose leafhcpper, *35 Round-headed borers, * 1 33

Rove beetles, 1 1 2 -* 1 1 3 San J ose scale, *40 Satyrs, *72- *73 Sawflies, 1 36 Sca le insects, *40- *41 Scorab beetles, 1 1 0, * 1 30- * 1 3 1 , 1 32

Scientific names, 1 55 Scorpionfl ies, *56 Seventeen·yeor locust, 36

Sheep tick, * 1 51 Shieldbugs, 42- *43 Short-nosed cattle louse, *32 Silk moth, *86 Silver-bordered fritillory, *65 Si lverfish, 1 52 - * 1 53 development of, * 1 1 Si lver·spotted skipper, *82

Six- spotted tiger beetle, *1 09 Skipper butterfl ies, *82 Solitary wasps, * 1 44, * 1 45

Sphinx moths, •a4-*a5 SpicebuJh moth, 8a Spicebush swal lowta i l , •1a, ao, • a t

Spiders, 7 Spittlebug, *3a Spotted asparagus beetle, 1 24-* 1 25 Spring azure, *75 Squashbugs, *44 Stag beetles, * 1 32 Stinkbugs, 42-*43 Stoneflies, *52 Striped b l i ster beetle, 1 20, * 1 22

Striped cucumber beetle, * 1 23, 1 24 Sulph urs, *77 Swa l l owtai l s, * 7 a -• a 1 Swamp mosquito, 1 02 Sweat bee, * 1 48 Syrphid fly, * 1 07 Tachinid fly, *44, * 1 07 Tarnished plant bug, *47

Ticks, * 1 51 - * 1 53 Tiger beetles, *I 09 Tiger swal lowta il, *79, 80, * 8 1

Tile·horned prionus, * 1 33

Tobacco worm, 84 Tomato hornworm, *84

Treehoppers, '*33 Tumblebug, * 1 30- 1 3 1 Tussock moth, *95, 96 Twelve-spotted cucu mber beetle, * 1 23 , 1 24

Two-spotted ladybird beetle, * 1 1 9 U ltronia underwing moth, *92 Underwing moths, *92 Unicorn beetle, * 1 3 1 Va riegated friti l lary, *64

Velvet ant, * 1 44 Viceroy butterfly, * 6 1 Vio let-tip, 6a Walkingsticks, * 1 7 Wasps, * 1 42 - * 1 47 Water beetles, * 1 26 * 1 27

Water boatman, *48-49 Water bugs, *48-*49 Water scavenger, * 1 26 Water strider, *49 Water tigers, 1 26-* 1 27 Webworm, fa l l , *97 Weevils, * 1 35 Western b l ues, *75 Whirligig beetles, * 1 26-* 1 27

White ants, 30 White-faced hornet, 1 46- * 1 47

Ten-spot d ragonfly, *51 Tent coterpi l iar, *97 Termites, *30- * 3 1 Terrapin sca le, *40 Thistle butterfly, 71

Wi reworms, * 1 1 4 Wool lybear, •a3

Three-banded leaf hopper, *35

Zebra swa l l owtail ,

Yel low jackets, 1 46* 1 47

*79, ao, •at





H ERBERT S. ZIM, Ph.D., outsta nding a uthority on science education a n d formerly Professor of Education, U n iversity of I l l inois; is we l l足 known in professional circles a n d to a wide reading p u bl ic. He is co-author of the Golden Nature Guides: B irds, Flowers, Insects, Stars, Trees, Reptiles and Amph ibians, M a m m a ls, Seashores, Fishes, Weath er,

and Rocks a n d


CLARE N C E COTTAM, Ph.D., is assista nt di足 rector of the U.S. Fish a n d Wildlife Service. A national a uthority on wildl ife, he has to his credit nearly 200 publ ications.

JAMES GORDON I RV I N G has exhibited paintings at the America n Museum of Natura l History a n d the Natio n a l Audubon Society. I n the Golden Nature Guide series h e h a s i l l us足 trated M a m m a ls, B irds, Insects, Reptiles and Amphibians, Sta rs, and Fishes.





are an introduction to the world of n ature, presenting those things which are most common and most easily seen. Each guide has been written by an outstanding authority on science education-Dr. Herbert

S. Zim,

University of Illinois-in cooperation w ith a n oted specialist . I dentification is made easy by over 1 00 full·color paintings in each book. These are rendered mostly from life b y an outstanding a rtist and have been checked, corrected, and rechecked b y speci alists. B I RDS













INSECTS - A Guide to Familiar American Insects - (A Golden Nature Guide)