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GOLDEN, GoLDEN NATURE GutoE, and GoLDEN PRess are trademarks of Western Publishing Company, Inc.



and A L E X A N D E R C . MA R T I N, P h . D . Former Sen ior B i o l o g i st, U.S. Fish a n d Wi l d l i fe Service ILLUSTRATED





2 FOREWORD Trees brighten the countryside and soften the harsh lines of city streets. Each year they increase in importance and find new uses. They are beautiful and majestic; among them are the largest and oldest of living things. Our thanks go to the many individuals and institutions who helped us with this book. Dorothea and Sy Barlowe, the artists, have given unstintingly of their time and talent to produce plates of unusual excellence. leland Prater for the U.S. Forest Service has supplied invaluable photographs. Henry K. Svenson of the American Museum of Natural History, Harold N. Moldenke and the library and herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden, and William H. Durkin and Donald G. Huttleston of the Brook­ lyn Botanic Garden helped us over many rough spots, as did the National Herbarium in Washington, D. C. In the present revision, nine pages of information have been added, including scientific names. We hope readers will find this fuller and more attractive volume more useful. H. S. Z. A. C. M.


©Copyright 1956, 1952 by Western Publishing Compan y, I nc. A l l rights re­ served, inc luding rights of reproductio n and use in any form or by a n y means, including t h e making of copies b y any photo proces�, o r by any elec:ronic or mechanica l device, printed or w ritte n o r o ral, o r recording for sound or visual reproduction o r for use in any knowledge retrieva l system or device, unl ess permission in writing is obtained from the copyright pro­ prietor. Produced in the U.S.A. by Western Publishing Company, I nc. Pub­ lished by Gol den Press, New York, N.Y. Library of Congress Cata l og Card Number: 61-8317



Trees are the most conspicuous and best-known plants in man's experience. Many are graceful and a joy to see. So it is no wonder that people want to know the different trees. This book is a guide to the most common trees in America. In addition to the 1 40 kinds pictured, the book may help you identify many more that are similar. Trees are easiest to identify by their leaves. Most of the illustrations in this book show also the form of a tree as it usually grows. By studying the forms of trees, you may soon learn to identify them at a distance. This book deals only with trees. It does not include vines or shrubs. A tree is a woody plant with a singie erect stem, growing to a height of 1 0 feet or more. While shrubs also are woody, they are usually smaller than trees and tend to have many stems growing in a clump. This country has two major groups of trees: conifers (Pines and their relatives), identified by needle-like or scaly leaves; and the broad-leaved trees (leaves broad in contrast to leaves of the Pines). Some of the latter, like Willows, have narrow leaves. Others, like Maples, have broad ones. Trees with similar types of leaves have been placed together in this book to make identification easier. One group of broad-leaved trees has simple leaves足 leaves with a single, flattened blade on a stalk or petiole. Other trees have compound leaves, in which the blade is divided into a number of leaflets. A leaflet may look a

4 good deal like a leaf, but leaflets are distinct in having no bud at their base. The leaf blade may be entire; that is, with a smooth, uncut edge. The edge may be toothed, or it may have larger projections called lobes. Sometimes a leaf is both lobed and toothed. The pattern of the leaf edge permits further classification of trees-such as used here. When you find a tree you do not know, first decide if it is a needle-leaf or a broad-leaf type. If the latter, see whether it is simple or compound, entire, or toothed or lobed. This you can tell at a glance. Then use the key (p. 5) to find where in this book the tree is likely to appear. Information in this book stresses identification. Range maps show where various trees are likely to oc­ cur. If the range of more than one tree is given, a dif­ ferent color or line pattern is used for each. Overlapping · of colors and lines means overlapping of ranges. Each species is named on, or next to, the color or line pattern it refers to, as in the sample map below. As you learn more about trees, knowledge of their sci­ entific names grows increasingly useful. Scientific names of trees illustrated in this book are on pp. 1 56- 1 57. Slip this book into your pocket or pocketbook. Use it in the park or along the street whenever you see a tree you do not know. Thumb through the book in your spare time. Become familit:�r with common trees, so you recognize them at sight. At first you will have to check details of leaf, bark, and perhaps buds and fruit to be sure of your identification. As you come to know trees by their branching and their form, you will be able to identify some kinds at ·a distance. Other, less striking or less common trees will take closer looking.

5 A




Trees with needle-like or scaly leaves


pages 18-40


Trees with flat leaves of varying breadth


(broadleaf trees)

Trees with simple leaves, not divided into leaflets



Edges of leaves neither toothed nor lobed


Edges of leaves toothed .




(some entire);


and toothed

fruit an acorn 82-107

Edges lobed, or toothed and lobed; fruit not an acorn


. 108-129

Trees with compound leaves, divided in­ to leaflets

Leaflets arranged finger-like 151-153



S EEI NG TREES Trees are with us ail year long and are as interesting in winter as in any other season. If you want to know the trees, study them month by month to see the changes that mark the seasons. Spring is a time of opening buds and flowers, some attractive, others small and easy to overlook. In spring, the pattern of opening leaves can be seen, with changing colors and textures as the leaves mature. In summer, leaf character足 istics are obvious and should be used to the full. But the summertime leafy twig is not enough, for details of buds, twigs, and bark are easier to observe later. As fall comes in, many fruits mature and the development of rich au足 tumn coloration, before the leaves drop, makes some trees brilliant. Winter is the time to study buds, twigs, and bark, and also to learn trees by their shape and form. WHEN TO LOOK

WH E R E TO LOOK Nearly every part of our country has its native trees and introduced species as well. Even the concrete canyons of great cities with their soot and fumes co.n boast of trees. Trees grow nearly everywhere. Florida leads the list with some 314 different species. Texas, Georgia, and California follow in order, but even the plains states boast of sufficient variety to make tree study worth while. To see the most kinds of trees in a region, visit as many different localities as you can.

7 look at trees in two different ways: First, see them as a pilot looks at a plane flying toward him or as you recognize your neighbor coming home from work. A glance is sufficient; details are unimportant. You recognize your neighbor so automatically that you might find it hard to describe him. learn to know common trees the same way, so you can recognize a White Oak or a ; Pitch Pine as you drive down the road. learn the tree s form and habit of growth so that you can quickly recog足 nize it even at a distance, or at night. Next, learn to look at trees as a student or scientist. Notice details that identify an unusual species or tell you about the growth and life histories of trees you know by name. There is much to learn about familiar trees that can be discovered only by close observation and detailed study. First, you get acquainted with trees. Then, as you begin to look closer, you begin to know the trees. HOW TO LOOK




Pacific fores':s


Rocky Mountain forests C

Plains and prairie




Northern forests


Central hardwood forests


Southern forests

8 WHAT TO SEE Trees are complex living things. Not

only the leaves but the flowers, fruit, seeds, bark, buds, and wood are worth studying. The structure of the tubes and ducts that make up the stems varies from tree to tree. The annual rings in the wood show the tree's age and rate of growth. . Trees have flowers, though some hardly resemble familiar flowers of the garden. Detailed study of the tiny flowers can be as interesting as the study of large flowers such as those of the Magnolia and Tuliptree. The incon­ spicuous flowers of Oaks, Willows, and Pines are usually pollinated by wind. The larger flowers are often insect­ pollinated. From the flowers develop fruits containing seeds; seeds too are worthy of study. Some are nutritious and have become foods for man and for wildlife. Some are dispersed by ingenious natural devices. Study where trees grow. See them in relation to their environment. An unfavorable environment, as a mountain peak, may so dwarf and alter the size and form of a tree that one scarcely recognizes it as the same kind of tree that is growing tall and proud a few miles away. Some trees grow only in swamps; others only in sandy soils. Some prefer sun; some shade. When you look at a tree, see it as a whole; see all its many parts; and finally, see the living tree as being in a community of plants and animals, living in close relation­ ship to them and to the soil and climate. KINDS OF TREES Trees belong to the same plant fam­ ilies as many herbs, flowers, and shrubs. Most of the 77 American families are represented by broad-leaved trees (p. 3). The needle-leaved species belong in the pine fam­ ily with the e;xception of two yews. The palm and lily families include over a dozen unusual trees, and many minor families with only a few species are known.

MAJOR KIN D S OF TREES Over 800 species of native and naturalized trees grow wild in the United States. About 75 are naturalized; the rest are native. These trees make up over 600 million acres of forest and produce about 1 0 billion dollars' worth of forest products yearly.

PALMS: Over 15 kinds, with p a r a l l e l ­ veined l eaves, in warmer regions.

BROAD LEAF TREES: Over 650 kinds, in­ cluding oaks, m a p les, c h e r ry, ash, b i r c h .


Over 100 kinds, i n c l u d i n g pine, h e m lock, spruce, fi r, cedar.


10 PARTS O F A TREE LEAVES leaves m a ke food from water a n d carbon di足 oxide, using the en ergy of su nlight. C h l o rophyll m a kes this e n ergy tra nsformation possible.

L e a f cross-section and stoma lenla rl)edl

I nside a leaf, at t h e lop, is a sheet of " p a l is a d e" cells which a bsorb s u nlig ht. G u a rd cel l s a r o u n d s;omata (ope n足 . ings on the bottom of the leaf) help retain water.

FLOWERS All trees p roduce flowers of some kind. Most flowers have both male organ (sta men) a n d fema l e organ (pistil) . Sepa足 rate male and ferr. a l e flowe rs may occ u r. Some flowers lack conspicuous petals. W i n d o r in sects carry pol l e n f r o m sta足 men to pistil. H e re ovules, fertilized, develop i nto seeds.


TREE STEMS The ca m b i u m is a layer of g rowing a n d divid i n g cel ls. C e l l s p u shed outward form ba rk; those p u shed i n form wood, w hich e n a b l e s a tree to g row l a rge. Wood cells a re long; their walls thicken and h a rden a s they mature a n d die. Wood is mainly cel l u lose a n d l i g nin. W i nter buds of Tuliptree

Wood and bark c e l l s lenlarl)ed l

F r u its




ripened ova ry. T h ey bear the seeds by w h i c h trees rep rod uce. Tree seeds vary g reatly i n size; some of the l a r g est trees have the s m a l lest seeds. Tree fruits in va rious forms a i d in t h e dispersal of seeds. F l eshy fruits a re eaten by a n i ma l s, from whose bodies the seeds may later be dropped. Win ged fruits a r e spread by win d . "Seed trees" l eft after l u m be r i n g are a quick way to reforest l a n d .

ROOTS Roots a nchor trees t o the soil and absorb water a n d soil m i n e r a l s needed for g rowth. Some trees have deep tap roots; others have a spreading system of roots. Root cap ( e nlarged )

Roots as they p u s h t h rou g h t h e soil are aided by a cap that forms ove r the lender g rowi ng point of e a c h root. Behind this point, myria ds of root h airs ex足 te n d into the soi l , i n c reas足 ing t h e root's a bsorbing su rface tremen dously. The spread of a tree's root system is at least equiv足 a lent to the spread of its crow n .

Root hairs ( e n larged )

12 HOW WOOD FORMS Twig cross-sections i l l us­ trated h e re show haw wood cells g row :

1. Tip of Shoot

2. More Mature Twig


In a young shoot, b u n d les of cells for m . These a re a primary kind of wood, knawn as pravasc u l a r tissue.


As the shoat g rows, a layer af cam­ bium forms a c ross and between the prima ry b u n d les. As the c a m b i u m di­ vides, wood a n d b a r k cells form.

3 The c a m bi u m layer continues to di­ vide as l a n g a s the tree g rows, form­ ing wood and bark. Wood cells formed i n fa l l a r e often s m a l ler; g rowth stops in w i nter, and the spring cells a re l arg er . T h i s difference ma kes the a n ­ n u a l r i n g s in m a n y stems.

TREES AS LIVING THINGS are a wonder to behold.

The oldest live for as long as three or four thousand years. Some grow almost as high as a 40-story skyscraper. The largest contain enough wood to build dozens of average­ size houses. These giants grow from seeds so small that several hundred weigh not even an ounce. Within each seed are the tiny beginnings of a tree. After the seed sprouts, years of growth follow, during which time the leaves use solar energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide and water. From sugar, by intricate chemistry, the wood of the tree is eventually built. The tree's center or heartwood is dead. But around this core is a living sheath from which all parts of the tree develop. As the cells of the tree live, grow, and reproduce, they use some of the sugar made by the leaves, minerals taken from the soil, and tremendous amounts of water.

13 TREES A N D WO O D always go together. In very young

trees and branches the growing cells develop a ring of vascular bundles. The very important cambium layer of cells forms across these bundles and soon grows to form a complete ring. As the cells of the cambium divide, those that are pushed outward form bark. Those that are pushed inward form wood. Wood is made of several types of cells; most of them are long and tubular. Wood cells are alive when young; later they die, leaving a network of vertical tubes. Each kind of wood has distinct cells. Wood of conifers (soft­ woods) contains many thick cells called tracheids. Hard­ woods contain wood fibers and vessels. New wood cells produced in spring are often larger and thinner than those formed later, and so each season is often marked by an annual ring. WOOD


W h ite Pine

Red Oak

R i v er Birch

Note t h e even-sized cells, the a n n u a l rings, a n d the few, scatte red resin canals (which a r e more n u merous i n other p i n es).

Oak is tou g h , h a rd, coa rse. often and Note the l a r g e vessels which form i n s p r i n g , making a n n u a l r i n g s disti n ct.

In this even-g rained wood, note the scat· tered vessels or pores. The a n n u a l rings a re t h i n a n d h a r d e r to distin g u is h .

14 Trees always will be one of the im­ portant natural resources of our country. Their timber, other wood products, turpentine, and resins are of great value. Trees also have values beyond reckoning in hold­ ing the soil, preventing floods, and perhaps influencing climate. In addition, the beauty of trees, the majesty of forests, and the quiet of woodlands are everyone's to en­ joy. The wooded parts of our country are the areas to which many people turn for recreation. Woods and forests are the ·homes of many kinds of wildlife, ranging from deer, elk, moose, and bear to small squirrels and even smaller songbirds. Preservation of our timberlands and the conservation of forest re­ sources are essential to a sound, farsighted national policy. Through the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and many state agencies, forest and wildlife resources are being preserved or wisely harvested so that we may use them now, yet save them for our children's children to enjoy. It is your privilege to have a share in the work of forest conservation. Do your share by being careful with fire, by helping in tree planting, and by being vigilant in pro­ tecting, through legislation, your forest and wildlife resources.


15 AMATEUR ACTIVITIES F I E L D STU DY Trees can be studied at every season, and they should be. Study the life history of a tree through the year. Each season will show features that cannot be seen at other times. Select some nearby trees to visit at least once a month. Watch the buds open in spring and the leaves unfold. See the flowers, fruit, autumn color, twigs, bark, and even the insect pests. On page 154 are suggestions of excellent places to see and study trees. Specimens are often labeled to aid identification. COLLECT I O N S are not so important in studying trees as you might believe. Field studies are best, but a collection of leaves, twigs, or fruits may be of real value if you use the collection after you make it. leaves are easiest to col足 lect. Make your collection early in the season before insects and storms have injured the leaves. Get a short twig with several leaves, to show leaf placement as well as twig and bud characteristics. Press leaves between sheets of newsprint or other soft paper. Set a board atop your press with a heavy weight on it. Turn and change the papers daily or every few days. After leaves are pressed, mount them on cardboard with strips of gummed paper. Turn some over to show the reverse side. Cover with Cellophane. label your specimen with common and scientific name, date col足 lected, locality, and notes. Collections of winter twigs can be mounted on card足 board with thin wire. Seeds and fruits can be stored in small boxes or in glass vials.

16 A census of trees can be interesting and valuable to both the census taker and to the community. Often the best argument.for conserving or improving the tree plantings in your town or in nearby forests is a re­ port on the existing conditions. Get a map of your town, neighborhood, or camp. Follow it systematically, marking down the location and name of each tree you find. Keep a count by species as you go. TRE E C E N S US

GROW I N G TREES Seeds of many common trees are easy to grow and cultivate as seedlings. A visit to a state or Forest Service nursery will show you how this is done. Collect seeds of common species. Most will not grow till the following spring and should be stored at outdoor temperatures. In spring, seeds may be set in flats or pots covered lightly with a mixture of sand and loam. learn to recognize the seedlings, for they often have leaves that differ from those of mature trees. When seedlings are several inches high, they can be set in individual pots or transplanted. FORESTS A N D FOREST TYPES Trees do not grow in an entirely haphazard pattern. Differences in soil, tem­ perature, and rainfall tend to cause certain species to grow together, forming distinct types of forests, such as the northern coniferous forests of Maine or the Oak-Hickory hardwood forests of Ohio. If you travel at all, knowing and recognizing the for­ est types will add to your enjoyment of the - _,.. �-·�· Pressed and scenery. mounted specimens.

17 FAMOUS TREES Most cities or regions have trees famous for their age, size, or historic events that took place nearby. Locate historic trees in your community; see that they get any needed attention. Search for the largest trees in your area; you may find record specimens.

Careless lumbering, fires, hastily planned agricultural programs, and plain neglect have left our forest remnants in poor shape in many places. Often where this has occurred, local groups are taking active steps to restock the land with crops of trees. Schools can sometimes obtain farms abandoned for taxes, to be used for practical conservation demonstration plots. Other school systems have their own farms and camps to teach and practice conservation.






There are, in this country, several communities free of taxes because the income from community forests, planted decades ago, is enough to meet the bills. A community forest is a project which does more than provide future income from lumber. It also becomes a wildlife refuge and, if the surroundings permit, a picnic and recreation center. Areas around reservpirs, for example, where use of the land is limited, a-re excellent for this purpose. In足 terest other people, then consult the county agent, state forester, or a representative of the U.S. Forest Service to make suitable plans. WOO D A N D LUMBER The recognition of different woods by their pores, rays, and grain is an interesting hobby, especially if you like wood and use it. If you collect and study woods, remember that the names that lumbermen give trees are often different from those used in this book. White Oak lumber may come from six or eight different Oaks; Yellow Pine from several Pines.

PI N ES are widely distributed conifers, most common in cool temperate regions. Conifers lack true flowers; the seeds develop in cones. The conifers include nearly 500 species in five families. Of these, the Pine family is largest


Ponderosa Pine

Eastern White Pin"

Virginia Pine

and best known. It includes Spruce, Fir, Hemlock, and others besides those we commonly call Pines. True Pines hove long needles, usually growing two to five in a clus足 ter. The cones ore large and well formed.

EASTERN WHITE P I N E is a hardy and valuable north足 eastern conifer. Prized for its timber, it was cut ruthlessly for years. Few prime stands of White Pine remain. New plantings are slowed by several diseases. One is the white pine blister rust, a fungus disease that spreads to White Pine from currants and gooseberries. Recognize White Pine by its soft, blue-green needles, five in a cluster. Cones are long and narrow, with thin, rounded scales; bark, dark with deep cracks; wood, light and soft. Western White Pine is some足 what similar; needles heavier, cones larger and longer. Height: 50 to 1 00 ft. Pine family


SUGAR PINE, one of the ta l lest, l a rgest, a n d m ost ma­ jestic of Pines, has a stra ight, tapering tru n k topped by a fl attened crown. The thick branches spread at a l most right ang les to the trunk. Needles, growin g five i n a c l us­ ter, are heavy, b lue-green, with white tinge. They persist for two or th ree years. Cones, maturing in two years, are the la rgest known - 12 to 15 in. long, ofte n longer. The seeds are a n i m porta nt wi l d l ife food. The bark is brown, with sca ly ridges. The sugary sa p crysta l l izes at cuts into white, crisp ·-- ------------� granules. The wood is reddish brown, '{5 � l ig ht, a n d soft. -:. Heig ht: 200 to 220 ft. Pine family


· ... ...... ,



PITC H P I N E prefers rocky, sandy regions and i s tolerant of poor soil. Young trees on open ground may be rounded and symmetrical; older trees develop picturesque and ir­ regular crowns of gnarled branches. As the name indi­ cates, these Pines are rich in pitch or resin, which makes small branches and cones fine for torches or campfires. The gummy timber is brittle, of low grade, and of little economic value. Needles are in groups of three, 3 to 5 in. long, stiff and yellowish-green. The bark is reddish-brown, furrowed. The prickly, stemless cones persist on the trees for several years.

( · ·- - - - - �� \ .

Height: 40 to 70


Pine family

L O N G L EAF P I N E has, as its name impl ies, long need les - 12 to 18 in. long, dark green and shiny, th ree in a cl uster. The you n g shoots are a delight to the eye. Young long leafs a re cut for C hristmas greens. Older trees are tapped for gums that produce turpentine, resin , and other "nava l stores." Tapping may not injure the trees, which yield exce l lent a l l-purpose l u m ber. But the resin-covered cuts in the trees catch fi re easily, making the forest dangerous i n dry weather. The bark is orange-brown a n d sca ly. Cones are 5 to 10 i n . long, d u l l brown and '{5'.10 spined. Height: ! 00 to 1 20 ft. Pine fomily

{. ,

··· ···········-�,;:-'( · ··· ·-�


PON D EROSA P I N E a lso h a s l o n g (4 t o 7 i n .) needles i n clusters of three. It is a western tree, often growing larger than longleaf Pine. Ponderosa, a lso c a l led Western Yel low Pine, is prized for its l u m ber. Now the most widely used Pine for building, fencing, railroad ties, and con足 struction, it is carefully cut to insure future suppl ies. Bark on young trees is dark brown, furrowed. Older trees de足 vel o p l a rge, flat, reddish plates. The brown cones, 3 to 5 i n . long, with spiked sca les, grow on short sta lks. Young shoots, when broken, have a n odor like that of an orange. Height: 80 to 200 ft. Pine family

LO DGEPOLE P I NE has a d u a l persona l ity. In open areas of the Rockies it is a thin, tall Pine, favored by the Indians for making poles for tipis and lodges. This form of lodge ­ pole Pine gave the tree its common na me. But high in the mountains o r a long the shores, winds twist these Pines i nto gna rled, bent shapes that have earned for them the latin name contorta. Many cones on this Pine hang for years without opening. However, fi re-very destructive to this thin-barked Pine-ca uses the � ·;-···---··� _: · cones to open, reseeding the burned area. The two needles are short and '{) � � ._: twisted. 't r

\·., ·

Height: 1 5 to 80 ft. Pine family

··· .....,

VIRG I NIA P I NE is best known as a low, scrubby tree of waste places and aba ndoned farmla nds. Also known as Jersey Pine, it predomin ates in the New Jersey pine bar足 rens. On san dy, easi ly eroded land it provides cover under which more va luable trees may get started. The short, twisted, d u l l need les and sharp, prick ly cones are cha racteristic. In northern states and Ca nada, the some足 what similar Jack Pine occurs. Its two need les are shorter, and the twisted cone is smoother. ' Virginia Pine has l ittle va l ue as tim足 ber, thoug h it is occasiona l l y used for pulp. Height: 30 to 40 ft. Pine family


P I NYON P I N E produces the delicious pinyon or pine nuts, an Indian and wildlife delicacy, which we too have learned to enjoy. The low, drought-resistant tree grows on mesas and mountainsides in the Southwest. Its needles are short and stiff, in clusters of twos and threes. The wood is used for fenceposts and fuel. In late fall the Navajos and other Indians shake the nuts-which are large, wingless seeds-loose from the open cones, gather­ ing them by the bushel. Another � j. Pinyon Pine with about the same range has its needles singly instead t)'t;l of in twos or threes. .-'-> ·• · · : _. Heig h t: 1 5 to 50 ft. Pine fa m ily


, �/··-:•.- ------ ----�/f'l ) .



Y ......�


SPRUCES grow stra ight and ta l l, tapering upwa rd t o a point. The branches are horizonta l, often drooping. Since the wood is soft, fairly strong, and often free from knots, Spruce is a va luable ti mber tree. The wood is used in many kinds of construction and buildi ng. Canadian Spruce supplies m uch of our pu lpwood. Ali Spruces can be rec足 ogn ized by their need les, a rra nged in compact spirals around the twigs. Each need le is four-sided, nearly square i n cross-section. The cones, a lways hanging down, ma足 ture i n one season. Eastern Spruces (Red, Wh ite, and Black) make up much of the cool northern forests. South足 ward they fol low the higher pa rts of the A l l eg hen ies.

29 Black Spruce

Red Spruce



Cros s


Western Spruces are larger and incl ude m ore species. The B l ue S pruce is often pla nted as a n ornamenta l (as is Norway Spruce, a Europea n tree, with drooping branc hes and long cones) . Of the western Spruces, Engel m a n n a n d B l u e a r e m ost common. Sitka Spruces o f t h e Northwest become gia nts 150 to 180 ft. high and 8 to 12 ft. thick. Spruces are used by northern wild l ife during the long winter: spruce grouse and varying ha res eat the need l es, deer browse on the twigs, and cross足 b i l ls, chickadees, and other song足 b irds feed on the s m a l l winged seeds.

LARCHES or Ta ma racks are northern con ifers wh ich, l ike the Bal dcypress of the South, shed their leaves with the coming of winter. The slender, dark needles, a bout a n inch long, g row in tufts o f a dozen or more at t h e ends of stu nted branch lets. The sma l l , sca ly cones a re up足 right. Th ree species of La rch grow in this country; a!l are somewhat similar in appea rance. The wood of these ta l l , straight trees i s used f o r po les, l u m ber, a n d construction. The tough fi bers from the roots of Ta ma rack were used by some east足 ern Indians to bind sea m s of their birchba rk canoes. Height: 50 to 1 20 ft. Pine famiiy


DOUGLAS-F I R and its close relative, Bigcone Spruce, are not Firs or Spruces, but close relatives of Hemlock (p. 35). like it, they have flat, soft, short-stalked needles, growing in a flattened spiral around the twig. The red足 dish cones, 2 to 3 in. l ong, have narrow, three-pointed bracts between the scales. Next to the Giant Sequoias, Douglas-fir with its rounded, straight, regular trunk is our largest tree. Some grow over

200 ft. high, but l 00 ft. is

more common. The wood varies from coarse to fine-grained. It yields ply足 wood, construction timbers, and other lumber. Heig h t :



1 20

ft. Pine fam ily


FIRS a re a nother group o f northern con ifers . O f about 25 species, 10 are found in the United States. All a re ta l l, sym m etrica l, cone-sha ped trees with dense branches. The smooth bark of young trees is broken by blisters of resin or balsam. The bark of o l der trees is furrowed or ridged. Fir need les are without sta l ks, genera lly fl attened or grooved above. They are usua l l y b l u nt-tipped a n d leave circu lar scars when they d r o p o ff . T h e cones a r e upright a n d l o n g , and vary i n c o l o r f r o m g reen or pur足 p l ish to brown. I n the Northeast, the Balsam Fir is com足 mon. This spreading Fir is recog nized by its smooth, even cones and by the whitish l ines on the u nderside of the


needles. Fragra nt, springy, Balsam boughs a re used in making beds by many ca mpers in the N orth Woods. More importa nt is the resin obta ined by cutting the bark. This resin, used for m ounting microscopic specimens in lab颅 oratories, is known as Ca nada Ba lsa m . White, Ca l ifornia Red, Pacifi c S i lver, Grand, and other species of F i r路are fou nd i n our western mounta ins and up i nto Canada. Of 20 to 25 m i l l io n Christmas trees cut each yea r, about 30 per cent are Ba lsam Fir. Douglas-fir ranks second , with other species of Fir a n d Spruce trailing . Height: 50 to 200 ft. Pine family







trees, were once common, even in the arctic. Redwood, with leaves suggesting Hemlock, is the tallest tree (record: 364ft.). Wood reddish, soft, and brittle. Giant Sequoia, with leaves like Juniper, is the largest and old足 est living thing. Wood coarse, brown and brittle. Range lim足 ited; now protected in Nation足 al Parks. General Sherman tree is 273 ft. high, 115 ft. around, and over 3,000 years old. H e ight: 200-300 ft . Pine family



HEMLOCK, with its coa rse wood, was ignored when the prime eastern forests were cut over. Now it has become a n acceptable timber tree, used for construction, box足 ing, and pu lpwood. Hemlocks are easi ly transplanted a n d are widely used in ornamenta l hedges. The bark is rich in ta n n i n . Short, flat needles on min ute sta l ks, in two flattened rows, a re cha racteristic of Hem l ock. These needles are da rker a bove a n d si lver- lined below. There are two eastern and two western species of Hemlock. The western ones, most common i n the N orth足 west, are larger. Height: 60 to 1 00 ft. Pine fomily


J U N IPERS are found on rocky, sa n dy, or other poor soi l s in m ost pa rts o f this country. They a r e most i m portant in the West. Nine of our twe lve species are found i n the Far West. Most J u n ipers have min ute, b l unt, sca ly leaves g rowing c lose to the twig. The fruit is a modified cone, with fleshy sca les merging to form a b l uish "berry" con足 ta ining one or several seeds. J u n i per berries a re an im porta nt food of some birds and other sma l l wildlife; many I n dians like them too. The berry of the Common J u n iper furn ishes the flavor of gin. J u n ipers are genera lly stout, spreading trees, with thin, sca ly, or fi b rous bark. The Uta h J u n iper, a typica l tree of the dry Southwest, is


Alligator J u n iper

Sierra Juniper

also called Desert Juniper. Its twigs are slender, and the round berry has a single seed. The berry, either fresh or dried, is used by local Indians in flavoring their food. The Alligator Juniper differs in having its thick gray bark broken into squared plates like that of the reptile's skin. Western Junipers are common in the same range as Pinyon Pines (p. 27) and are equally resistant to drought. The wood is used for fuel, lumber, ornaments, and fence足 posts. No one will forget the pungent smell of burning Juniper in a camp足 fire under western desert skies. Height: 15 to 60 ft. Pine fa mily


EAST E R N R E D-C E DAR is a Juniper, like those o n pp. 3637. It is a well-known tree of roadsides, fields, hedge­

rows. The leaves of Red-cedar are sharp and needle-like on young shoots, scaly on older twigs. The fruit is a pur­ plish berry. The reddish wood is used for chests, pencils, posts, and shingles. Cedar oil, distilled from leaves and wood, is used in household preparations. Along the Gulf and in Florida, Southern Red-cedar, a related species, has smaller berries and thinner, drooping twigs. The name Cedar may be confusing, as it is used for several conifers not closely related. Heig h t : 20 to 60 ft. Pine family

? · - · · · - - - �­ \--


N ORT HER N WHI TE-CEDAR is closely related to West­ ern Red-cedar, a giant conifer of the Pacific Northwest. The White-cedar's twigs and short, light green, scale-like leaves are flattened into fan-like sprays. The brownish cones are very small. In contrast to the Junipers, these Cedars prefer moist or swampy soil. Varieties have been cultivated and grown for windbreaks and ornamental use. The smooth, resistant wood is used for shingles and · siding. An eastern coastal species has smaller, narrower leaves. Height: 25 to 50 ft. (Northern Wh ite­ cedar, east); 1 00 to 1 50 ft. (Western Red-cedar, west). Pine fam ily


BALDCYPRESS, l i ke the la rches, sheds its leaves in the fa l l . This ta l l , pyramidal tree prefers m oist or wet soils. It th rives i n southeastern swa m ps, where conical "knees" g row up from the roots. These may aid in providing air for submerged parts. The leaves are flattened, soft, l ight g reen, and feathery, rese m b l ing Hem lock. The fruit is a s m a l l , dark, rounded cone. The durable wood, very re足 sista nt to rotting, is prized for posts, flats for nursery pla nts, ties, and construction . Ba l dcypress ' is pla nted as an ornamental, both here a n d in E urope, wherever win足 ters are m i l d . Height: 8 0 to 1 00 lt. Pine family


BLACKGUM, Sourgum, Pepperridge, a n d Tupe l o a re various names by which this handsome, medium-sized tree is known. It is common a long moist roadsides and i n woods. O f severa l southeastern species o f Tupel o, two g row in swa mps. One has large red fruit, from which preserves are made. Blackg um leaves (2 to 5 in. long) a re smooth a n d shi ny, turning bril liant red i n fa l l . The dark blue fruit is eaten by birds and sma l l m a m m a ls. A characteristic feature of B l a ckg um is the stiff horizonta l twigs and branch­ es. Sweetg um (p. 1 1 3) is not a rela­ tive, despite its name. Height: 50 to 75ft. Dogwood family

7· · · · · · �- �\--


PERSIMMONS are common in warmer regions, where nearly 200 species are known. Only two are found in our country. One of these is confined to Texas. The Common Persimmon, a slender attractive tree of roadside, hedge足 row, and open field, is especially plentiful in the South. In the fall the glossy green leaves become tinged with yellow, and some trees are laden with dull orange fruits. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees, so only the latter bear fruit. The as, tringent fruit, edible after frost, is popular with opossums, raccoons, and foxes. Heig ht: 40 to 60 ft. Ebony family


There a re 1 7 American species of Dog­ wood, ranging from the tiny northern Bunchberry to th e Pacific Dogwood, which may grow as high as 80 ft. Other species are sh rubby or are sma l l trees. Oppositely­ DOGWO O DS

placed, simple l eaves with curved, a l most para l l e l veins a re fie l d m a rks for the Dogwood group. The slow-growi n g Flowering Dogwood is best known, both i n its w i l d a n d cultivated forms; th e latter incl ude pink-flowered vari­ eties. The "flower" is a group of e n l a rged bracts arou n d a c l uster o f sma l l true flowers. The r e d fruits are as attrac­ tive as the flowe rs, a n d serve as food for wi l d l ife as w e l l . The dense, com pact, fine-gra ined wood of Flowering Dogwood is un­ equa led for the making of sh uttles for weavi ng. (Pl ate on p. 44.) Heig ht: 10 to 80 ft. Dogwood family

CATALPA ( p l ate on p. 45) h as become increasingly com­

mon and better known as it has been pla nted more a n d more outside o f its origi n a l range. It is a h a n dsome orna­ menta l sometimes used i n street pla nting. Two species of Cata lpa grow in the Un ited States, but the fa m i l y to which they be long is prom inent i n the tropics a n d incl udes som e 500 trees, shrubs, a n d vines. The la rge, h eart-sh aped leaves, spotted white flowers, and bea n-like seed pods cha racterize Cata lpa . The bark is red-brown a n d sca ly. Leaves grow opposite or i n threes. Cata lpa is fast-g row­ i n g. Its wood is coarse but durab le, hence va l u a b l e for fences, posts, poles, a n d similar uses. Attempts have been m a de, with some success, to grow it as a wood crop. Origina � Height: 20 to 50 ft. B ignonia family

\�---------- -·- �� · range




p. 43)




p. 43)


REDBUDS once seen in bloom on a lawn or in a ga rden

wi l l a lways be reca l led with delig ht. The wood is of no commercia l val ue, but these sma l l trees are favorite ornamenta ls, since they beg i n b loom i n g when very you n g . They are hardy a n d colorfu l. In early spring the tree is a mass of lavender. The pale green, bea n - l ike pods that fo l low the flowers become purple in l ate sum足 mer. The thin, hea rt-shaped l eaves turn bright ye l l ow in fa l l. The deep brown bark is smooth on young trees, furrowed on older ones. Redbud g rows a lo n g streams a n d is tolerant of shade. Height: 10 to 30 ft. Leg ume family


OSAG E-ORANGE like Catalpa is planted widely out­ side its original range. It was used as one of the first "living fences" to bound prai�ie farms. Indians prized the tough wood for bows and war clubs; we use it to a lim­ ited extent for posts and ties. Osage-orange is a relative of the Mulberries (pp. 1 1 4- 1 1 5) and the Fig. It is easily identified by its shiny leaves, thorny twigs, bright orange inner bark. The unusual, wrinkled, orange-like fruit, 4 to 5 in. in diameter, has a typical citrus odor, but the inside is dry and pulpy, ·-· --- -------- - c.. � with a milky juice. It grows from a lS 'i;j ball of small green flowers. Original ••--·�-' Height: 1 5 to 50 ft. M u lberry family ·····--· range

£} , /'(




pp. 50-5 1 )




pp. 50-5 1 )


UMBRELLA MAG N O L I A is so called beca use la rge ( 1 2

to 20 i n .), smooth , b right green leaves surro u n d each flower like a n um bre l lo . The com pact tree, preferri n g rich, m o ist s o i l s, deve lops a rounded, irregula r crow n . Bra n c hes a r e thick, tw igs at sharp a ng l es. Ba rk is g ray, th in, becomin g wa rty. F l owe rs (4 to 8 i n . across), creamy wh ite, like larger Mag n o l ias smell slig htl y un­ pleasant. Fruit reddens o n r i p e n i n g . (Plate on p. 48 .) Height: 20 to 30 ft. M a g n o lia fa m ily g rows fa rther n orth a l ong the Atla ntic Coasta l Pla i n than other Ma g n o l ias. I n the N orth th ese trees are sh r u b l ike, but in southern swam ps they some­ times g row 7 5 ft. h ig h . Sweetbay is ofte n planted as an ornamenta l i n European ga rdens. The flower, sma ll for Ma g n o l ias, is wh ite a n d frag ra nt. Leaves are sma l l , too (3 to 6 i n . long); b r i g h t g reen a bove, s ilvery wh ite below. They drop late the next spri ng in the So uth, some­ times ear l ier i n the North . Ba rk is gray, smooth and th i n. (Plate o n p. 48 .) Height: 30 to 50 ft. M a g n olia fa mily CUC U M B E R MAG N O L I A is one of the la rg est a n d ha rdiest o f the s i x species o f o u r native Mag n o l ias. I t has l ight brown, sca ly ba rk, becom i n g thick a n d furrowed on ol der trees. The leaves-6 to 10 in. l o n g , th i n , light green, ha iry bel ow-typify the Cucumber Mag n o l ia. Buds a re la rge, s i l ky, pointed; fl owers g reen ish -ye l l ow, u nat­ tractive. Fru its, like sma l l cucumbers when immature, swe l l a n d o pen to revea l red seeds. (P late on p. 49.)


7·· · · · · · ·-� \·- '

Heig ht:




ft. M a g n olia .fam ily

51 SOUTHERN MAG NO LIA - or just "Magnolia" - is the

name g iven to this very h a n dsome tree, n ow used ex­ tensively as an ornamenta l . This large Ma gnolia, with thick bra nches and twigs, prefers the rich, moist soil of swa mps and river ba nks, though it is adapta b l e under cu ltivation. Its latin na me, Magnolia grandiflora, testifies to the fact that it bears large flowers, 6 to 8 in. across. These wh ite, waxlike flowers with a strong, heady frag ra nce, a re a l l the more attractive by bei n g set off by large, dark g reen, leathery leaves, 6 to 9 in. long, rusty-brown below. (Plate on p. 49.) . .I Height: 30 to 60 ft. Magnolia family

\· · -· · - · ""-·



·· . .

CULTIVATED MAG NOLIAS Our native Magnol ias, widely used a s orna menta ls and for street pla nting i n the South, are n ot hardy enough for planting i n the North. Magnolias com monly seen i n northern gardens a re horti­ cu ltura l va rieties from China and Japan, usua l ly formed by crossing a ha rdy variety with a showy one. Even ha rdy cultivated Mag n o l ias need sun ny, protected places in the North. They usua l ly b loom before their leaves come out; our native Ma g n o l ias b loom after. Their flowers a re usu­ a l ly large, some up to 10 in. across; white, crea m, or tinted with pink or l avender. Another ha lf-dozen or more i m ported kinds, widely g rown in the South, are tender species which need the sa me warm cli­ m ate as our native Magnolias. Some, l ike native species, b loom after the leaves appea r. Two have white flowers with a touch of red at the center. Some g row large; most are sma l l trees or shrubs. Cultivated Maq nolia


PAC I F I C MAD R O N E is a n attractive, low-branching western tree commo n o n s lo pes of Pacific coast ra n ges. It is a slow-growing, long-l ived tree. The leathery, ever­ g reen leaves, 3 to 5 in. long, shiny a b ove and pa l e be low, ma ke a dense fo l iage. The brick-red bar k is smooth, pee l­ ing in thin sheets from o l der trees. F l owers in w h ite c l usters give way to ora n ge-red berries, which a re eaten by pigeons and other birds. The brownish, b r ittle wood, which wa rps and checks bad l y i n drying, has l ittle use except in c ha rcoa l -m a k i n g . Pacific Madrones i n c l ude three species, a n d two of these species a r e rare. ·

Height: 20 to 50 ft. Hepth fam ily


CAL I FORNIA-LAUREL or BAY, usua l ly found in ravines a n d ca nyons, is a common evergreen tree of moist soils. The na rrow, shiny, leathery leaves, 3 to 6 in. long, remai n on t h e tree for two years o r m o r e . When crushed, they sme l l l i k e cam p h o r . The trunk often d ivides at its base. The ba rk is sm ooth, g ray-brown, becom i n g sca ly o n o l der trees. The o l ive- like fru it, ye l lowish when ri pe, has one la rge seed. Seeds a re often washed down ca nyons a n d sprout t o form dense thickets. The m ottled, fi n e-gra i n ed wood is used i n cab i n etwork and for decorative effects. Height: 20 to 50 ft. Laure l family


BLAC K WI LLOW is found a long many streams in the eastern half of the cou ntry. Its irreg u l a r, sprea ding branc hes, l a rge size, and dark tru n k make it easy to recog n ize. The thin, narrow leaves often have stipu les, like tiny hea rt-shaped col lars at their base. They are the only wil low leaves u n iform ly g reen on both sides. The flowers a re in loose catkins, less fl uffy than Pussy W i l l ows. Ma l e and fe m a l e flowers, borne on sepa rate trees, form sma l l, hairy seeds. The soft, fine­ g ra ined wood is used to make a rti­ ficia l l i m bs; a lso for boxes, caning, and baskets. Heig ht: 30 to 60 ft. Willow family

t -� \--


W E E P I NG WI L LOW, a native of C hina, was long ago i ntrod uced into E u r o pe a n d the Mid d l e East a n d later to this country. This is the Wi l l ow of the Bi b le, the o n e that g rew by the waters of Ba b y l o n . It is wi dely cu ltivated where soil is m o ist, especia l ly i n cities, as it is tole ra n t of smoke and g r ime. Wee ping Wi l l ow is now wi l d i n some a reas. The long , lim p, pendent twigs a re characteristic . The na rrowly la nce-shaped leaves, sim i la r _ to t h o s e o f other Wi l l ows, are 3 to 6 i n . long. The m i n ute seeds a re covered with white hai rs. The bark is g rayish b rown a n d fissured. li ke other Wi l l ows, i t is easily grown from stem cuttings. H e i g h t : 20 to 50 f t . W illo w fa mily


Sandbar Willow

OTHER W I L LOWS About 100 kinds of W i l l ows g row

in this country. Many a re sma l l a n d shrubby. C rack W i l 足 l ow, introduced from Euro pe, g rows l a rge. Twigs s n a p o ff , fa l l , a n d t a k e root if the soi l is m oist. S a n d b a r W i l low, sometimes la rge, more often forms riverside thickets. N ote its very n a r row leaves. Peac h leaf W i l low is more common on prairies a long watercourses. Pussy Willow is a favorite i n March and April, when opening buds mark a new g rowing seaso n . I t is c u ltivated for the flower ma rket.

AMERICAN E LM is well known, beca use it is one of the

conspicuous trees of eastern woods, fi e l ds, and town streets. Other E lm s are found in Europe, Asia, and north­ ern Africa . Widely p la nted, this E lm makes a n exce l lent shade and street tree. Now it is menaced by insect pests a n d the Dutch E lm disease. The vase-sha ped form a n d sprea d i n g , open bra n ches make America n E lm easy to identify at a d istance. N ote the uneven base and the double teeth o n the l eaf, and the -·-"'-· smooth twigs. The wood is used for · · · · -- - furn iture, conta i ners, a n d va rious sma l l a rtic les.


Height: 75 to 1 00 ft. Elm f a m ily


\.,. \\--�


W I N GED AND S L I P PERY ELMS are both eastern trees, though the latter ranges farther n orth and west. Win ged Elm o r Wa hoo has small l eaves (1 to 3 i n . long) and fruit. The corky outgrowths or wings o n the twigs g ive it its name. The bark of Sl ippery Elm is b rown and deeply furrowed. The inner bark of S l i ppery Elm twigs was for足 merly chewed for rel ief of throat a ilments. The twigs are hairy but not corky. The fruit is la rge and flattened. S l i ppery Elm wood is sim ilar to that of America n Elm . C oa rse, ha rd, and heavy, it makes fence posts. Height: 30 to 40 ft. !Winged); 40 to 60 ft. !Slippery). Elm family


ROCK AND C E DAR E LMS The hairy twigs of Rock E lm often have corky wings l i ke th ose of Winged E lm . Rock E lm has larger fruit a nd genera l ly g rows fa rther north tha n Winged Elm. The leaves are la rger, 3 to 6 i n . l o n g . Cedar E lm is at i t s best in the limestone h i l l s of Texas. The th ick, da rk g reen leaves a re sma l ler tha n th ose of any other native E lm (a bout the same size a s the c u lti­ vated S i beria n E lm ) . Its tw igs are often corky; th e bar k is light brown a nd furrowed . Th is E lm, u n l i ke others, flowers in late summer. · - - - - - - - . ...... ...... The ha iry seed s a re sim i la r to those 0�. of Rock E lm, but sma l ler. Height: 50 to 70 ft. !both). Elm fo m ily

. •,


· - - -�


H A C K B E R RY, a relative of E l m, is read i l y recog nized by its g ray, wa rty bark a n d by the witches' brooms of ta n足 gled twigs ca used by a fungus disease. There are eight species i n this cou ntry and about fifty more the wor l d over. leaves a r e thinner t h a n those o f E l m , more pointed, and-in one Hackberry-less toothed. The s m a l l , hard fruits are eaten by wildlife, being a favorite of robins a n d mockingbirds. The wood-coa rse, soft, a n d rather weak-is used occasiona l ly for fur足 n iture a n d fencing, though Hack足 berry is primarily a shade a n d shel足 ter belt tree. Heig h t : 5 to 80 ft. Elm family


S ERVIC EBERRY or Shadbush is common over most of this country. Of some 20 species, most are western a n d shrubby. Only a few a r e trees. Serviceberries a re fou n d in woods, field borders, and roadsides. They do wel l in poor soil . The fruit, ripening ea rly, is a favorite food of over 60 species of America n wildlife, including many songbirds. Deer browse on the twigs. Serviceberry is identified by its fi nely saw-toothed, a lternate leaves; grayish-brown, smooth bark; and, in spring, by its c l usters of wh ite, long足 peta led flowers, opening early be足 fore the leaves a re out. Height: 15 to 50 ft. Rose family


AM E R ICAN H O R N B EAM is known a l so as the B l ue

Beec h because of its d istinctive smooth, b l ue-gray, m us­ c l e - like ba rk. A low tree, it prefers moist soil along river ba nks, or low ground. The leaves are sim i la r to the Hop Horn beam 's, but a re sma l ler, darker, and more shiny. They turn orange a n d red i n the fa l l . The fruits are c l us­ ters of n utlets in pa i rs, eoc h set on a th ree-lobed bract. Songbirds use them as food . The lig ht brown wood is tough, ha rd, a n d heavy. It is used for ha ndles, wedges, and wherever hard wood is needed. The tree is pla nted as a moist-soil ornamenta l .

! · - - - - - - -­ \-·

Height: 2 0 t o 30 ft. Birch fam ily


HOP HORNBEAM or I ronwood is related to America n Horn bea m a n d is like it in some ways. Hop Hornbeam is mainly a n u p la n d tree, preferring open, well-drained woods. It grows taller and stra ighter tha n America n Hornbea m , a n d i s distinctive with its scaly, b rown ba rk. The na m e ref.ers to the hop- like fru its, wh ich ha n g in compact c l usters. Each seed is i n a smal l bag formed from a n inflated bract. The tough wood is used for tool ha ndl es, mal lets, a n d the like. A smaller, western s pecies is an u n u....,_ sua l ly rare tree, fQund o n l y in one , ! Arizona loca l ity. H e ight: 20 to 40 ft. Birch family

(路路- -

. . . . . . ..



AMERICAN H O L LY is the best known of a g roup of

a bout 15 native Hol l ies, most of which a re shrubby. American Hol ly, a plant of moist soil and river bottoms, reaches its best g rowth i n the So utheast. I t is widely planted where. soi l and c l imate are suitable. Recog n ize this Hol ly by its heavy, s piny, evergreen leaves a n d its smooth g ray bark. Ma le and fema l e flowers a re borne o n separate trees, and the brig ht red fruits only on the fema l e tree. In winte r and early spring they a re a favorite food of songbirds, such as the b l uebird, cat足 bird and mockingbird. Height: 20 to 50 ft. Holly family


AMERICAN BEEC H is a stately and beautiful tree. Our

native species is best known. Copper Beech a n d Weeping Beech are E u ropean varieties which a re often p l a nted as ornamenta ls i n parks. Beech prefers rich bottom l a n d or upland soils. It to lerates shade and g radua l l y dominates the forest growth. Its distinctive smooth gray bark, long, pointed buds, a n d strongly veined leaves a re cha racter颅 istic. The fruit, a tria n g u l a r n ut, is eaten by m a m m a l s a n d 路 birds. T h e wood-redd ish, close grained, a n d hard-is used for fur,.___ n itu re, woodenwa re, barrel-mak ing, and veneer. Height: 60 to 80 ft. Beech family


- - -- -- -



_ _ _ _ ______

--,v'\ r


About 14 s pecies of Wild C herry, ranging from shrubs to large trees, are found in this country. All prefer moist soi ls on slopes and botto m l a n ds. larger Cherries a re valued for their fine wood; a l l furn ish



Wild Plum

1 0 to 2 0 ft.

fruits which are eaten avidly by w i l d l ife, especia l ly by song and ga m e birds, bears, and ma ny sma l l ma m ma ls. Our c u ltivated C herries come from Europe; the F l oweri n g Cherries f r o m Asia . Plums are close relatives.


Ch oke Cherr y

Wild Black Cherr y

CHOKE CHERRY is a shrub or sma l l tree ( 10 to 20 ft. high) of irregular form. It is widely distributed through足 out its range, forming thickets in dry, upland soi l . Choke Cherry is a common constituent of hedgerows. On young trees the bark is smooth, gray, and spotted with narrow lenticels, like that of other Cherries. The leaves of Choke Cherry are shorter and more rou nded than those of Black Cherry and come to an abrupt point. The fruits, i n tight clusters, are dark red, astringent, and u n pa latable when ripe. Birds eat them neverthe less. (Plate on p. 66.) WIL D B LAC K CH ERRY is the largest mem ber of this

group, growing 40 to 80 ft. high a n d occasion a l ly higher. Its habit is a lways tree like. The tree spreads with age and deve lops drooping branches. Twigs a re thin, with slender brown buds. The smooth, brownish bark on young trees becomes c racked into rough plates as the tree matures. leaves are thick, narrow, ta pering, and shiny g reen . Com足 pared to other Cherries, this tree b looms late (in late May or J une). I ts clusters of sma l l white flowers give way to fruit, which become ta rt and black by the time they ripe n . Songbirds do not let them hang for long . Cherry wood is va l ued for furniture and cabinetwork. (Plate on p. 66.)


PIN CHERRY or Bird Cherry is a sma l l slender tree of the

East and North. It is a fast-growing tree, common on hil lsides, i n the mountains, and a long field borders. Pin Cherry rarely g rows more than 30 ft. high, with smooth, rusty brown bark ma rked with large lenticels. The sma l l brown buds tend t o c l uster on t h e t h i n twigs. T h e leaves are even more narrow than Wild Black Cherry. They ta per to a long point and a re finely toothed. This tree is a lso called Red Cherry, since the fruits, eaten by many birds, are red when ripe. (Plate on p. 67 .) WILD PLUMS, s o m e 1 6 s pecies o f them, a r e mostly shrubs. One becomes a sma l l tree 1 0 to 20 ft. high, with short, thorny bra nches a n d twigs. Wild Plums form thickets throughout the Midwest. Early settlers counted on the fruit as part of their winter supply of preserves. leaves of Wild Plums are more rounded a n d coarser-toothed than those of C herries. The fruit is larger, grows singly instead of in c l usters, a n d is orange or red when ripe. Though the fruits a re more attractive to us, they a re not eaten as much by wildlife as are the Wild C herries. However, many birds and sma l l mamma ls make plum thickets their favorite retreat. Foxes eat the fruit occasiona l ly. (Plate on p. 67 .)


BIRC H ES (text


pp. 72-7 4)





pp. 72-74)

72 PAPER BIRCH or Canoe Birch is the White Birch of the

North-the tree used by I ndians to make their birchbark canoes. Its bark was a lso used to make baskets, dishes, and trays. Paper Birch is a tree of open woods and river­ banks, common and wel l known throughout the North. It g rows ta l l (occasion a l ly 1 00 ft.), with a rounded top and numerous large horizonta l branches. Twigs are thin and droop slig htly. The smooth, chalk-white bark is spotted with hori­ zonta l openings (lenticels). lt becomes sca ly with age. The leaves are ova l, 2 to 4 in. long, coarsely toothed, darker a bove. (Plate on p. 70.) Height: 50 to 70 ft. Birch family GRAY B I RCH is often cal led White Birch, but this name confuses the tree with several others. This is a sma l l northern tree, often growing in clusters or thickets. It never atta ins the stature of either our Paper Birch or the Europea n Wh ite Birch, which it resemb les mainly in the color of its bark. While its thin bark is something like that of Pa per Birch, the triangular leaves a re dis­ tinctly different. like a l l Birches, it bears fruit in a narrow · cone with many small, winged seeds. Flowers are catkins. Wood-heavy, close­ grained, and reddish-brown in color -is used for spools, clothespins, and hoops. (Plate on p. 70.)

Height: 20 to 40 ft. Birch family

73 YELLOW B I RCH like Pa per Birch is a northern or moun­

ta in tree with bark that eventua l ly pee ls into thin, curly, silvery-yel low strips. It is one of the larger Birches, g row­ ing occasion a l l y 100 ft. high, with rounded top a n d typica l drooping twigs. leaves a r e nea rly ova l, doub le­ toothed, 3 to 4 in. long, pa ler below, with a wintergreen odor. Yellow Birch prefers rich open woods, well­ drained soi l . The wood of Ye l l ow a n d similar Birches is good for furniture, woodenware, boxes, better plywood. (Plate on p. 7 1 .) Height: 50 to 75 ft. l\ ··-Birch family �\


··· ·


·· · · · · · ·-·

RIVER BI RCH, or RED B I RCH, is the only Birch common

in the South. It grows 50 to 80 ft. ta l l , with short, hanging branches a n d thin twigs. It prefers moist, swa m py soi l and river banks. The leaves, 1 to 3 in., double-tooth ed as in Yellow Birch, are more irreg u l a r, and more deep­ ly indented, turning d u l l yel low in a utum n . F l owers are catkins, 2 to 3 in. long, open ing before the leaves. The bark, a warm, reddish-brown, curls into thin sheets on young trees and breaks into sha l low plates on older trun ks. The fruit, a n erect cone sim i l a r to that of Yel low Birch, is somewhat more pointed. (Plate on P·

7 1 .)

Height: 50 to 80 ft. Birch family

74 WHITE B I RC H is even more commo n in n orthern E urope tha n our Canoe Birch is here. During the early pa rt of the century it was im ported into this country as an orna­ mental and is sti l l widely used for home and pa rk pla nt­ ings. White Birch is a spreading, short- l ived tree with drooping branc hes, somewhat like Gray Birch but with bark thicker, less smooth. From it Europea n s ma de bowls, spoons, shoes, and brooms (from twigs). Among horticultura l varieties, o n e has pen d u l ous, wi l l ow­ like bra n c hes; a n other, leaves deep­ cut and divided. (Plate o n p. 70.)

Height: 50 to 75 ft. Birch family

SWEET B I RC H , or Black or Cherry Birch, g rows up to 75 ft. h i g h . G raceful a n d symmetrical , it prefers rich, well-drained u pla n d soil . The a ro­ matic twigs are tasty to chew. The sa p, which flows steadily from a cut i n spring, was once used to make b irch beer. The leaves, 2 to 6 in. long, a re more regula r, more fi n e l y toothed tha n in Yell o w or River Birc h . The da rk, blackish ba rk, which g ives the tree one of its common names, b reaks into flat, sq uare plates. It is n ot pa pery like oth e r native Bi rches. The fine wood is prized for furniture and ca binetwork. Once used to imi­ tate ma hoga ny, it is n ow va l ued for itself. ( P late on p. 7 1 .)

Height: 40 to 60 ft. Birch family


AL DERS a re c l ose relatives of the Birches, with similar

flowers, fruits, a n d seeds. Their bark is ma rked with hori足 zonta l lentice ls as in Birches. Alders, however, are m ostly shrubs. Of about nine species in this country, only two become good-sized trees: the Red and Wh ite Alders of the Pacific Coast. The short-stemmed, a lternate leaves vary from species to species, but a l l are cha racterized by strong feather veins. F lowers are greenish or ye l l owish catkins. The fru its are small, woody cones. A lders a re fast-growing and prefer moist soi l a long strea m s or i n swa m ps. Height: 20 to 80 ft. Birch family


S O U RWOO D is a n interesting tree related to the Pacific

Madrone (p. 52). In late spring the rows of wh ite, b e l l 足 sha pe d fl owers a d d t o its bea uty. T h e s i m p l e, a lternate l eaves are shiny da rk g reen, turning a rich sca r let with the coming of cold weather. Because of its attractive a ppear足 a nce, Sourwood is sometimes used as a n ornamental, especia l ly in the South. The na me refers to the sour taste of the twigs, which are chewed by woodsmen as a thirst q uencher. The bark is reddish gray, smooth at fi rst, becoming sca l y with age. The fruit is a sma l l hairy ca p足 sule with ma ny seeds. Height: 15 to 40 ft. Heath family


BUCKTHORNS are widely d istributed . O n l y a few of the

1 0 to 15 American species are tree like. All have simple leaves g rowi ng a l ternately on the twigs. I n some, the leaves have smooth edges; in others they are finely toothed. The fruit, similar to that of Wild C herry, is red or b lack when ripe. It is eaten by songbirds i n the West and South. Wood peckers a re fond of the fruits; so are catbirds a n d m ockingbirds. Buckthorns are too sma l l to have timber va l ue. Some are used as ornamentals. The bark of a west足 ern species produces cascara, a laxative drug. Height: 1 5 to 25 ft. Buckthorn family ,


Q U A K I N G ASPEN is one of the sma l ler Poplars and one of the best known. The sim p l e , a lternate, a lmost round leaves, on thin, flattened sta l ks, stir i n the faintest b reeze, giving the tree its nome. The bark on young trees is o po le g reenish wh ite, becoming darker a n d rougher with age. Twigs ore thick; buds waxy and sca ly. Quaking Aspen is o q u ick-growi ng, u p l a n d tree of sandy or rocky soi ls and burnt-over land. It looks its best agai nst the dark conifers i n the Rockies. It is known a lso as Trem b l i n g or Ameri足 can Aspen. The soft, white wood is used for p u l p, exce lsior, m atches. Height: 20 to 40 ft. Willow family


B I G T O O T H A S P E N or Large-tooth Aspen is named for the la rge, rounded teeth o n the ma rgins of its hea rt-sha ped leaves. I t is a northeastern tree, sim i la r i n form and g rowth to Qua k i n g Aspen, but with heavier twigs a n d larger, coarser leaves. As i n other Poplars, the fl ower is a droop­ ing catkin wh ich opens before the leaves a re out. The catkin deve lops into a c l uster of fru its with sma l l , ha iry seeds that a re easily d istributed by the wind. All Popla rs are q u ick-growing a n d produce a q u ick cover in b u r n t-over a reas. The soft, l i ght wood is used for p u l p, boxes, excelsior, a n d matches. Height: 30 to 60 ft. Willow fam ily

� ·

·- ·-

- - - -- ---

··· . . .__ _ _

COTTONWOODS are common, widely distributed Pop足

lars which are appreciated most i n their native open prairies, where they fo l low the watercourses. They a re planted for shade nea r ranchers' homes, a long streets, and as windbreaks. Cottonwoods are l a rge trees with pale bark which becomes deeply furrowed on older trees. The twigs are heavy; the buds large, pointed, and gummy. The wood is used for l u m ber and boxes as wel l a s pulp. About a dozen species occur in this country, some with narrow, wil low足 l ike leaves, but m ost with l eaves similar to those i l l ustrated. Height: 60 to 1 00 ft. Willow family


AM E RICAN BASSWOO D or Linden, a handsome shade tree, spreads broa dly when space permits. Severa l other species occur. Grayish-brown twigs bear p l u m p, rounded winter buds. The large, heart-sha ped, veiny leaves are easy to identify. Basswood bark is dark and deeply fur­ rowed. &Jropean Lindens, with their sma l ler leaves a n d more compact crowns, a r e used in street pla nting. T h e wood o f o u r species is light and fi ne-grained, used i n woodenware, cabinetwork a n d for � toys. The flowers, which yield an excel lent honey, perfume the a i r on :Amari a n . warm June mg h ts. BOssw Height: 60 to 1 00 ft. Linden family

�- - - - ·

· ......,


Beec h

Chestn u t




White Oaks Spring

Sum mer


Win er

Black Oaks

T H E OAKS ra n k with the wor l d 's most importa nt trees.

Venerated by a n cient peop les, they are sti l l sym bols of strength. These mem bers of the Beech fa m i ly a re related to the once-common Chestn ut. This i m porta nt forest tree was a l m ost completely destroyed by a ra m pant fungus d isease; only a few scattered sucker g rowths remai n . Ta nba rk-oa k resem bles both Oak a n d C hestn ut; it bears acorns. Oaks m a ke up one of the largest groups of native trees in the U n ited States. At l east 50, perhaps 75, species occur i n this country, m a i n l y in the East. They a re our most im porta nt ha rdwood tim ber for l umber, fuel, barrels, rail足 road ties, a n d other uses. A l l Oaks have the distin ctive fruit-the acorn. Al l have a ltern ate s i m p l e leaves, some entire and others toothed or lobed. Nearly all Oaks can






OAKS Aeorns Ripen i n One Season

Spr i n g

S u m mer


Winter i n Two Seasons

be put in the White Oak or the Black Oak group. The Wh ite Oaks (pp. 84-95) mature their acorns i n a sing l e yea r; t h e l eaves have rounded l obes a n d usua l l y lack teeth; the bark is genera l l y pale. The Black Oaks (pp. 96- 1 07) fa ke two years to mature acorns; leaves have sha rper lobes and bristle-pointed teeth; the bark is usu足 a l ly dark. Some Oaks are hard to identify; use l eaves, tree form, bark, buds, a n d acorns as g u id es. O a ks a re i m por足 tant sources of food for many kinds of w i l d l ife, and i n years when the mast crop (acorns) fails, the deer, sq u irrels, a n d raccoons may have trouble fi n d i n g enoug h to eat.



POST OAK 4" to 6"

B U R OAK 5" to 7 "

OV E RC U P OAK 5" to 7"


C H E ST N U T OAK 6" to 8 "

.�; �/

CH I N KA P I N OAK 4" to 6"

rSWAM P W H I T E OAK 5" to 7"

L I V E OAK 3" to 4"

GAM B E L OAK 3" to 5 "

CAL I FORN I A L I V E OAK 2 11 to 3"





POST OAK lf.a" to 1 " W H I T E OAK 3/• " to 1 "

OVE R C U P OAK 'll " to 1 112 "

C H I N KAPI N OAK 112" to l/4 "

C H E ST N U T OAK 1 " to l 1f2 "

L I V E OAK 3/• " to 1 "

SWA M P W H I T E OAK 3/• " to I 'll "

CALI FORN I A L I V E OAK 3/• " to l 'il " G AM B E L OAK lfl " to l/4 "


WH ITE OAK is the best known Oak of a l l . Common

throughout New Engla nd, its bea uty attracted the atten足 tion of early colon ists. I n open places Wh ite Oak develops a broad, symmetrical crown and ma jestic appearance. The light g ray, sca ly bark is cha racteristic; so are the leaves, with five to nine rounded lobes. Young opening leaves are pin kish or red, as are the leaves i n a utumn . Wh ite Oak prefers rich soil but g rows slowly. The large, poi nted acorns in shal low cups were eaten by I ndians. It is a n outsta nding lum足 ber tree, used for furn iture, boats, and barrels. Height: 60 to 1 20 ft. Beech family


POST O A K is sma l l er than W h ite Oak but in open a reas they both deve l o p the same rou n ded form . Post Oak's bark is g rayish, with broad , sca ly ridges. The oblong l eaves, c l ustered at ends of twigs, a re thicker, hairy beneath, a n d m o re l eathery tha n in White Oak. They have three to seven broad lobes, the m i d d l e ones being the l a rgest. The leaf is wedge-sha ped at its base. Occasion足 a l ly trees with th ree- l obed l eaves are fou nd. The acorns are sim i l a r to W h ite Oak, but sma l l c, er. The wood is used for roug h con足 struction, for ra i l road ties , and, as its n a m e indicates, for posts. Height: 40 to 60 ft. Beech family

BUR OAK has a top-heavy leaf, broad toward the tip and abruptly narrowed towa rd the center. The indenta足 tion or sinus sometimes cuts close to the midrib. The lower lobes are sha l l ow, and the tapering leafbase is wedge足 shaped. The scaly, hairy, deep cup of its large acorn g ives this Oak its name. The cup covers about h a lf the nut. The deeply furrowed bark is g rayish-brown . Bur Oak is a rugged tree with thick spreading branches a n d an irregu足 l a r, rou nded crow n . It p refers moist loca l ities, but to lera tes poor, dry soil in fields, a long roadsides, a n d even i n the prairies. Height: 50 to 80 ft. Beech family


OVERCUP OAK com pa red to Bur Oak has a narrower

leaf, which is more hairy beneath . Fa l l colors vary from yel l ow to red . The medium-sized acorns are a l most en­ tirely enclosed by the cup. They are sma l ler than the acorns of Bur Oak and lack the ragged fringe. Overcup is a medium-sized to large Oak , which is restricted to bottom lands a n d wet soi l . Thoug h widely distributed i n t h e Southeast, it is n ot very common. The ba rk is like Bur Oak but d a rker. The wood - dark . brown, hard, heavy, close-g roaned, � and durable-is used and often mar· tl' � keted as White Oak. Height: 50 to 70 ft. Beech family

�· · · ·- · ·....... ,



C H EST N U T OAK is m a i n l y a mountain tree of the Ap­

palachians. It g rows up to 100 ft. high with a n irregu l a r crown . Chestn ut O a k thrives i n d ry, rocky soi l , often o n h i l lsides a n d ravines. Its dark brown b a r k , until recently harvested as a source of ta nbark for ta n n ing leather, is very deeply furrowed. The tree's name refers to its C hest­ n ut-like leaf. But the leaf is broader a n d has rounded teeth, while that of Chestn ut is more poi nted and has sharppointed teeth. Acorns of C h estnut Oak often sprout i n the fa l l , soon ·- - - - - - - - · ·"'--· after dropping. The wood is hard, strong, a n d c lose-gra ined. Heig ht: 60 to 80 ft. Beech fa mily

t _.



C H I N KAPI N OAK has a l eaf somewhat rese m b l i n g t h a t of C hest n u t O a k , though it is slig htly irreg u l a r, more na rrow and more pointed. I t is h a iry beneath. C h i n ka pi n Oak p refers richer soi l t h a n C h estnut O a k a n d g rows over a much wider range. It exten ds, in isolated sta n ds, as fa r west as New Mexico. The bark is like that of White Oak足 gray a n d sca ly. The acorns a re sma l ler ( Y2 in.) t h a n i n any c losely rel ated Oak. They a re rounded and about h a l f enc losed by t h e i r c u p . T h e wood, l i ke that of other W h ite Oaks, is used i n construction a n d for l u mber. The name is I n d i a n , m e a n i n g " l a rge." Heig h t : 30 to 80 ft. B e e c h family


SWAMP WHITE OAK is an irregular, somewhat shaggy oak foun d in swam ps and other moist a reas. The bark, though gray, has more brown than in White Oak, and is ridged a n d sca ly, even on twigs. The leaf edges are wavy rather than deeply lobed, and a re hairy beneath. Swa m p White O a k acorns a re borne in pairs on a sta lk, 2 to 4 i n . long. Farther south, in the same kind of moist habitat, one finds the closely related Swa m p C hestnut or Basket Oak. These and most other trees i n the Wh ite Oak group do not develop brilliant autumn colors. lumber from 1'(5- � a l l is sold as White Oak.


\·· -· � · - - � _. •

Height: 60 to 80 f t . Beech family


LIVE OAK has become a symbol of the South. The l ow,

sprea ding tree, ofte n covered with Spanish Moss, ma rks old pla ntations and roadside plantings. The e l l iptica l, b l u nt-tip ped, leathery leaves are everg ree n -that is, they rema i n green and on the tree throughout t h e year. The acorns a re sma l l but edible; wood is used for furn iture. Two other southeastern Oaks (la u rel and W i l l ow) have l eaves of somewhat similar shape, but they are t h i n n e r a n d m o r e pointed than l i v e O a k . Several western Oaks are evergreen . Bota n ---------------� ists a p p l y the unqua lified n a m e live '{) � Oak o n l y t o this species. Height: 40 to 60 f t. Beech family




GAMBEL OAK or Uta h Wh ite Oak is common in the

Rockies, where it is a shrub or sma l l - to medium -sized tree. Thickets of Gambel Oak are common in h i g h, dry p laces, where they offer she lter to deer and other wild life. The leaf resembles that of Wh ite Oak but is thicker and hairy beneath. The sca ly bark is grayish brown . The acorns are sma l l , with the c u p covering about a third of the n ut. Other western Wh ite Oaks include the Oregon Wh ite Oak, with l a rge rounded acorns, ' and the C a l ifornia White Oak, with very long pointed ones i n a sha l low cup. Height: 20 to 70 ft. Beech family

;:·\ -·{··- - - - - - � 't�:;


CAL I F OR N I A LIVE OAK or Coast live O a k is a n at­ tractive everg reen Oak fou n d in open groves a n d as a shade tree. It is a broa d tree with a low, sprea d i n g c rown freq uently branching near the ground. The H o l l y l ike leaves a re evergreen, tough, shiny green a bove a n d hairy below. They a r e ova l or oblong, with sh ort spiny teeth. The acorn is long and poi n ted, with a scaly cup (com pare with Ca nyon live Oak, p . 1 07). B l ue Oak or 1 n h e n ° d e , i h s n t evergree n . The rounded acorn is i n \)"� a s h a l low c u p .

� ��:�� :;�: �:� �� ; � �=� Height: 30 t o 50 ft. Beech fa mily

�-- - - - -·�t· · · - - �,





N O RTH E R N RED OAK 5" to 7 "

SOU T H E RN RED OAK 6" to 8"

P I N OAK 5" to 7"

SCARLET OAK 4" to 6"


WAT E R OAK 3" to 5"

SH I N G LE OAK 4" to 6 "

W I L LOW OAK 3" to 5"

C A N Y O N L I V E OAl< 2 " to 3"


ACORNS BLACK OA K 112 " to 3/• "

N ORT H E R N R E D OAK lfl " to 1 1/4 "

S O U T H E R N RED OAK lfl " P I N OAK 1/4 " to 1f2 "

SCARLET OAK lfl " to 3/4 "


WAT E R OAK 1/4 11 to 3/4 " SH I N G L E OAK lfz " to 3/4 "

W I L LOW OAK 1f4 " to 1/:z "

CANYON L I V E OAK 1 " to 2 "


B LAC K OAK is one of the most common eastern Oaks. It sets the pattern for Oaks with spiny leaves, dark bark, and acorns which take two years to ripen. Black Oak leaves are varia b l e, dark a n d shiny with hairy veins. Those on the lower part of the tree a re b roader a n d have s h a l lower lobes than the leaves higher on the trees. The orange inner bark is a n im porta nt identifying cha racter足 istic even though you have to gouge with a k n ife to see it. Acorns are medium-sized, with a broadly rounded, downy n ut, a bout h a lf enc losed in a deep cup. The wood is coarse, hard, a n d h eavy. Height: 60 to 90 ft. Beech family

N ORTHERN RE D OAK is a widesprea d, common Oak of open woods. I t is one of the largest Oa ks, occasio n a l l y 1 25 ft. h i g h . I t s d a r k b a r k has conspicuous long, smooth p lates between the furrows. The leaves ten d to hang vertic a l l y on the sta l ks, a n d the lobes ten d to be more tria n g u l a r tha n i n other species. The leaves a re smooth or o n l y l ightly h a iry a lo n g the veins. The middle lobes are largest. Acorns are large and rounded i n a s h a l l ow c u p . Red O a k , w i t h its c l ose-grained, reddish-brown wood, is regarded as the most im porta n t timber tree of the Black Oaks. It is a l so a shade tree. Height: 60 to 90 ft. Beech family


路-- -


- - - - - - - -- -


SOUTHERN RED OAK is often cal led Spanish Oak. There a re two principa l stra ins: one with three-lobed leaves, the other with leaves having five deep lobes. Some of the three- lobed leaves are a l m ost tria ngular. Both kinds have ta pering, wedge-sha ped bases, and ore rusty or ha iry beneath. The dark bark furrows into narrow ridges. The acorns a re sma l l ( Y2 in. long) a n d roun ded, in sha l low, scaly cups. The brown, coa rse wood is valuable for flooring, construction, a n d mill足 work. I n the Southeast this Oak is often planted for shade a n d as an ornamenta l tree. Height: 70 to 80 ft. Beech fa m ily

1 01

P I N OAK ta kes its name . from the many short, pin like

twigs that c l utter the horizonta l or downward-sloping branches. These make identification easy i n winter. The leaf has five to seven deep lobes with long teeth ; it is dark g reen above, lig hter a n d smooth below. The gray­ brown bark remains smooth for some time, gradu a l l y breaking into sca ly ridges. Pin O a k is partia l t o m oist soi l . It is a hardy tree, widely used i n street a n d ornamenta l planti n g . P i n O a k i s widely cultivoted in E urope. Acorns are sma l l (about Y2 i n . long), rounded, with . a sha l low cup. Height: 70 to 80 ft. Beech family

�"- . . . ... �


.. ... ...�

1 02

SCARLET OAK is so ca l l ed beca use of the b ri l l iant

color of its autu m n leaves. It is a common, rob ust, ta per足 ing, open- crowned tree of forest and roadside, preferring d ry, sandy soils. The dark bark is stron g l y fi ssu red. The l eaf, 3 to 6 i n . long, is smooth, shiny, with few or no hairs b e l ow, somewhat rese m b l i n g Pin Oak. H owever, it is l a rg e r tha n that of Pin Oak, with five to seven d ee p l obes. The sinuses b etween them are broadly rounded. The , acorn , medium-sized, is a bout half covered by a deep cup. The reddish足 brown wood, though coarse and heavy, is someti mes sold as Red Oak. H e ig h t : 7 0 to 80 ft. B e e c h family

B LAC KJACK OAK is a sma l l tree, growing in wel l ­ drained sandy s o i l and wastelands. The l eaves, 3 t o 7 i n . long, a r e coarse a n d leathery, dark g reen a b ove, covered below with brown ish hair and turn d u l l ye l l ow o r brown in the fa l l . Their b road, rou nded tip, sha l low lobes, and short l eafsta l ks a re cha racteristic, though the shape of the leaf is somewhat variable. Bla ckjack acorns are sma l l, a bout h a lf enclosed in a cup. The bark is b lack, thick, rough, and broken into nearly square p lates. The wood is of very � l i mited va l u e and is used mainly for '() '1? fuel o r charcoa l . Height: 20 to 30 ft. Beech family

\. ·


- -


·· ·-....

/{< ?,

- - - - - - -- -


,\.., .-�--..

1 04

WAT E R OAK is a common southern Oak; a tree of river­

banks, marshes, and flood plains. It is sometimes p l a n ted as a southern shade tree. Despite its n a m e, it a lso grows in dryer woods w ith other Oa ks, H ickories, Ash, a n d Gum. Leaves are somewhat similar to those of Blackjack Oak but sm a l ler (2 to 5 i n . long), thin ner; narrower, a n d with less hair beneath. They a re a d u l l b l u e-green, tuming yel low i n the fa l l . The bark is dark gray , smooth when young, later becoming broken i nto i rreg u l a r ridges. The a corn, sma l l a n d broa d l y rounded; usua l l y has two d istinct color zones.

�-- - - - - - -� · \- v

Height: 50 to 80 ft. Beech family

1 05

SHI NGLE OAK is a h a n dsome tree with slen der branches

and a ta l l , pyra midal, rounded crown . It rese m b les Wi l l ow Oak but has broader, coarser leaves. leaves (3 to 6 i n . l o n g ) are d a r k g reen a bove, paler a n d h a i ry beneath, with wavy margins and a spiny tip. They look as if they should be evergreen, but are n ot. A few of the autumn leaves turn dull brown a n d h a n g on the twigs all winter. The bark is dark b rown, smooth, becom ing dee p l y cracked with age. The wood is hard a n d heavy. Acorns are s m a l l , somewhat flattened, a n d about half covered by a reddish-brown, sca ly cup. ·· Height: 50 t o 60 ft. Beech family

· - - - - - - - - - - · · · ·"---

. . . ___ __



1 06

WILLOW OAK has sma l l l eaves s h a p ed l i ke the Wil足

l ows, but here the sim i larity ends. The l eaves are fairly thick, b l u n t, lack teeth, a n d have a smooth edge. They are shiny green above, pa ler beneath. The stra ight tru n k and n umerous side bra n c h es are characteristic of th is Oak. The medium-sized Wil l ow Oak is widely planted a n d has become a popu lar shade tree i n the South. It prefers rich, m oist soi l . The a corns, g rowing on very short sta l ks, are . sma l l and rounded, in shal l ow cups. The wood is red dish brown, similar to wood of other Black Oaks but of somewhat inferior q u a l ity. Height: 50 to 90 ft. Beech family

1 07

CANYO N LIVE OAK has acorns ripening i n two years;

the somewhat s i m i l a r C a l ifornia Live Oak (p. 95) acorns ripen i n one. Both are l ow, spreading trees, but the m o re varia b l e leaves of Ca nyon L ive Oak have a ye l l owish fuzz beneath. Some have coa rse teeth; some are nearly sm ooth. Canyon Live Oak is a sma l l tree (occasion a l l y u p to 1 00 ft. ta l l ) of h i l l sides a n d mounta i n va l l eys. Severa l shrubby forms have been described. Acorns va ry in size a n d form, but have a thick, yel l owish, wooly cu � . C a l ifornia L ive Oak h a s long .. pomted acorns. l5 'l7 Height: 40 to 50 ft. Beech family

�· -

_ _ _ _ __ _ __ _


-- " - ... ... '

p, ..._�/'(

1 08

SASSAFRAS, c a l led Green Stick by the Indians beca use

of its bright g reen twigs, is a common eastern tree or shrub with pec u l i a r, m itten-shaped, th ree- lobed leaves. Some a re entire, a few have two lobes, but a l l turn a rich orange and red in the autu m n . C h i l dren c hew the aromatic twigs. O l der peo ple � eca l l the teas and ton ics made from Sas­ safras roots. Birds, i n c l uding q u a i l , feed o n the purple fru its. The warm brown bark of o l der trees is dee ply furrowed. Sassafra s g rows a l ong _ _ __ ___ _ ___ ,___ roadsides and fencerows, and in open fi e l ds, in wel l-drained, acid soi ls. _,


Height: 25 to SO ft. Laurel family

1 09




p. 1 1 0)

1 10 T U LI PT R E E or Yel low-poplar is a tree of a ncient l ineage.

C losely related to the prim itive Mag n o l ia s (pp. 48-5 1 ), the T u l iptrees go back over fifty m i l lion yea rs. Fossil l eaves have been fou n d in rocks of E u rope and Gree n l a n d . The Tuli ptree grows ta l l , its stra ight trunk free of branches near the g ro u n d . A bea utifu l tree i n a U seasons, it is pla nted as an orna menta l but not as a shade tree. The pec u l ia r sq uari sh leaves, broad a n d n otched, m a ke iden­ tification easy. The tree is n a m ed from the g reenish-yellow t u l i p - l ike flowers, ope n i n g in May a n d June. B uds, c l osed by two purse- like sca les, are uniq ue. The fruit is a cone of many s m a l l , winged seeds. The bark is thick, g rayish, ridged. The · - - - - ----··""-· . crea my ye l low wood, soft, easi l y ­ worked, is used f o r p u l p a n d m a n u ­ factured a rticles. (Plate o n p . 1 09.) - · \.

Height: 80 to 1 20 ft. M a g n o lia family

HAWT HORNS or H aws are a thorn in the bota n ist's side. Their identification and c lassification a re comp lex. Some a uthorities set the n u m ber of Am erica n species at 1 65; others at over 1 ,200. While species such as Sca r l et Haw ( p. 1 1 2) are distinct enough to be recog n ized without much d ifficu lty, it is genera l l y sufficient to identify one of these trees as "a Hawthorn . " H awthorns are sma l l trees or shrubs, some with irreg u l a r, thorny bra n c hes. The smooth, brownish bark breaks into th in, sca ly plates with age. Hawthorn l eaves are simp le, toothed, a n d some­ times l obed, a lternating on the twigs. The fl owers a re white or pink, in c l u sters. Fruits, like ' min iature a p p les, are orange, yel­ l ow, or red, and n ot as v a l ua b le to w i l d l ife as a ppea ra nce suggests. Height: I 0 to 25 ft. Rose family


English Hawthorn

Cockspur Haw


(text on

pp. 1 1 0 a n d 1 1 2)

1 12

SCARLET HAW is one of the more common eastern How足 thorns. It is on attractive tree which is a lso cu ltivated as o n ornamenta l . This How is a sma l l tree with many straight thorns, o n inch or so long. The leaf is toothed, with sma l l , rounded lobes. Flowers appear in M a y a n d deve lop into hanging fruit, fi rst green a n d downy, becoming red i n fa l l . The b a r k is t h i n , gray, a n d sca ly. Scar let How is a tree of dry soils, found in fencerows, old fi elds, and open woods. It and other Hawthorns pro足 vide some food and a lot of thorny, __ _ _ _ ______ ,.___ protective shelter for songbirds a n d other wildlife. Height: !5 to 20 ft. Rose family _,


1 13

SWEETGUM, a lso ca l led Liq uidamber, is often pla nted as a shade tree because of bri l l iant fa l l coloring i n its foliage. It is a ta l l , stra ight tree of l ow, m oist places. Its short, g ray, h orizonta l branches bear thick twigs with corky ridges. The star-sha ped leaves are somewhat l ike those of Ma ple but g row a lternate on the twigs. The hang­ ing, dry fruit, a ball covered with tiny horns, opens to rel ease sma l l winged seeds, which a re eaten by b irds. The bark is thick, g ray, a n d sca ly. The soft, weak, brownish wood is used for furniture, cabinetwork, and \)'ij veneer. ·Height: 80 to 1 20 ft. Witch Hazel family

p, _ __ _ ___ ____ .._�J�(

�� · --.

.. . _ _ ,

1 14

M U L B E R R I ES a re sma l l or mediu m-sized trees c lose ly re足

lated to Hackberry (p. 60) and Osage-ora nge (p. 47). The leaves and twigs yie ld a m i l ky ju ice. We have native a n d i m ported s pecies. The leaves of a l l are a lternate, hea rt-sha ped or lobed, with s m a l l , b l u n t teeth . The Red M u l berry, native a n d common throug hout the East, gave early settlers hope of esta b l ishing a s i l k i n d u stry i n this cou ntry. It is a tree of roa dsi des and botto m l a n ds. The leaves, in contrast to those of Wh ite M u l berry, are some足 what h a iry beneath and ro ugh. The berry- like fru it, ripe in m idsum mer, is a p u r p l ish red. Red M u l be rry is some足 times p l a nted a s a shade tree. Wh ite M u l berry is a some足 what s i m i l a r tree from Asia. It was b rought from C h i n a

1 15

and J a p a n in a n effort to start an American s i l k ind ustry. Wh ite M u l berry has sm ooth leaves and wh itish or l aven­ der fruit. These, and the fruit of Red M u l berry, a re favor­ ites of songb irds. The Black M u l berry from Persia is some­ times cu ltivated i n the warmer pa rts of this country. I t has la rge, da rk-colored fru its. Pa per- m u l berry is an orienta l species p l a nted as an ornam enta l in the South, where it occasion a l ly esca pes a n d becomes natura l ized. The leaves a re �ery rough a n d hairy, lobed or ent1 re, 3 to 8 _m. long. I n � C h i n a a n d J a pa n pa per was made .TJ.-"Y from its inner bark. Heig h t : 30 to 50 ft. M ulberry fa m ily


· - - - - - -- - ---



'-" ·""'-..r-""'\

MAPLES, next to Oa ks, are the best-known broad-leaved trees. Map les have world-wide d istribution in tem perate l a n ds. Some 60 to 80 species are known; a bout a quarter of them are fou n d in North America. Some are shrubby,

1 17

Rock y Mountain M a ple

b ut m ost are medium to large trees. All have pa l m -shaped, sim ple, o pposite leaves, exce pt Boxe l ders ( p . 1 38). Their typica l paired, winged fruits are eaten by birds, by squ ir足 rels, and by other sma l l anima ls.

1 18

NORWAY MAP LE is the tree sometimes m ista ken for

Sugar Ma ple. This tree, of European orig in, is commonly planted a long city streets because of its resista nce to smoke, dust, a n d insect pests. While the leaf is somewhat s i m i l a r to that of Sugar Maple, it is broader-usua l ly wider than it is long. Norway Ma ple is a medium-sized, fast-g rowi ng tree, developing a roun ded crown and dense foliage. The g reen ish-ye l low fl owers, in drooping c l us足 ters, and the winged seeds which deve lop from them are large for Ma ples. Norway Maple yie lds a m i l ky j uice when fruit or leaf stem is broken . Sugar Maple d oes not. One va riety of Norway Maple has purplish leaves. Heig h t : 40 to 70 ft. Maple family

1 19

SUGAR MAPLE needs no introduction. Everyone knows

of its sugary sa p, from which maple syru p a n d m a p l e s u g a r are made. But, in addition, S u g a r Ma ple is a fine shade a n d ornamenta l tree used for street a n d home plantings. The wood is exce l lent for furniture, cab inet­ work, and wood turning. Its leaves, with stra ight-sided lobes, are not so wide or thick as those of Norway Ma ple. The teeth are l a rge and few in nu mber. Leaves turn a rich ye l low, ora nge, or scarlet in fa l l . The gray bark forms p lates which · - - --- . . . .. . ... _, become flaky with age. The fruit ripens in late s u m mer. Heig h t : 75 to 1 00 ft. Maple family

� If ·· ·- ...,.


\.,. ,


1 20


B LACK MAPLE is considered by some a species d istinct from Sugar Ma ple. Others ra n k it simply as a variety with m ore s h a l low l obes a n d even fewer teeth. The bark is si m i l a r to that of Sugar Ma ple: dark gray, b rea king into thin plates. Black Maple leaves are somewhat sma l ler than Sugar Ma p l e, bright green above, yel l owish a n d ha iry beneath. The wood is reputed h a rder than Sugar Ma ple. Both Black a n d Sugar Ma ple are ta pped in early spring when the sap fl ows. About 30 g a l "'Ions of the watery, slightly sweet sap are boiled down to yie l d a g a l lon of golden b rown syrup. Height: 60 to 1 00 ft. Maple family

· · · ·- · ·

· ·---··



RED MAPLE l ives u p to its name in every season. In early spring, before the leaves a p pear, the b l u nt, red buds o pen, a n d c l u sters of red a n d orange fl owers h a n g from the reddish twigs. As the leaves unfold, they too are reddish, grad u a l l y turning to green, paler underneath, with tria n g u l a r lobes a n d sma l l teeth. But the veins a n d t h e leafsta l k kee p their reddish tint a l l s u m m e r . T h e ripen­ ing fruit is red a lso. Red Ma p l e is a widespread tree of swa m ps, river b a n ks, a n d moist hill s l o pes. The soft, c lose-grained, light� brown wood is used for boxes, n ov'[S 'f:j elties, a n d woodenware. Height: 60 to 80 ft. Maple family

�·- - - - - ·




· - - - -�

_. ·

1 22

S I LV E R MAPLE or Soft Ma ple has large, deeply lobed

leaves that are pale green above and wh itish below, with some hairs along the veins. One form has leaves deeply cut and in dented. I n fa l l they lack the brilliant colors of Red and Sugar Map les, turning d u l l ye l l ow instea d . The g rayish bark is sm ooth, becoming furrowed a n d sca ly with age. Si lver Maple is a tree of river b a n ks a n d bottom­ l a n ds. It g rows rapidly and is planted a long streets for shade. It is a lso used as an ornamenta l . The wh ite, soft wood is su ited for m i l lwork, spools, a n d sma l l a rti­ cles. Height: 80 to 1 00 ft. Maple family

! · - - - - - - -� \--

1 23

MOU NTAI N MAPLE, a lso ca l led Dwarf Ma p le, is a sma l l , shrubby tree of eastern mountains. Leaves, usua l l y three- lobed, with sma l l teeth, turn bri l l i a nt ye l l ow a n d red in fa l l . The c l uster of s m a l l greenish fl owers with na rrow peta ls forms an erect spike- un usua l i n Maples. Fruits, in hanging c l usters, are red. The bark is sm ooth, thin, green when young, becoming reddish-brown with age. Another sma l l Maple of eastern mounta ins is Stri ped Maple or Moosewood. Its smooth, greenish bark has thin, wh ite stripes; the leaves are la rge, broad, and round足 ed at the base. Height: 15 to 20 ft. Maple fa m ily

BROADLEAF MAPLE has the la rgest leaf of a n y Maple. The leaf itse lf is 8 to 12 i n . a cross a n d the petiole or leaf足 sta l k is 1 0 to 1 2 in. long. The thick leaf is five-lobed a n d deeply c ut, d a r k green above a n d pa ler beneath. The Broadleaf Ma ple prefers botto m l a n d soi l , but grows in footh i l l s and low m o u n tains into Ca n a d a and A laska where there is enough water. The bark is brownish and rough, with sca ly ridges. The wood is light brown, similar to that of Sugar Maple. It is va l ued i n the West, where h a rdwoods are relative l y scarce, for veneer, furni足 ture, and woodenware. Height: 80 to 1 00 ft. Maple family

1 25

ROCKY MOUNTA I N MAPLE is a lso ca l led Dwarf Ma ple a n d rightly so, for it is more typica l ly a shrub than a tree. It shou l d not be confused with Mountain Maple ( p. 1 23), which is a lso cal led Dwarf Maple. The leaves a re q u ite varia b l e . Some look like a coa rse Red Maple leaf; some h ave only three lobes a n d an a l most straight base. Occasio n a l ly, leaves a re cut so dee ply that they a p pear to be com poun d . The veins a re yel low a n d prom i n e nt. Rocky Mounta i n Ma ple is fou n d where t h e s o i l is moist. It prefers h i g her a ltitudes i n the southern part of its range. Height: 10 to 20 ft. M '! p/e family

SYCAMORES or P l a n e Trees bea utify stream banks a l l

through the East a n d i n some o f t h e va l l eys o f t h e South足 west. The three native spec ies a re characterized by bark which pee ls off i n large brown sheets, revea l i n g the crea m足 col ored fresh bark beneath a n d g iving the tru n k a n attrac足 tive mottled a ppea rance. Of the n ative species, the Amer足 ican Syca more is best known and most com m o n . The leaves a re a l most hea rt-shaped, th ree- to five- lobed, thick, l ight g reen above, paler and hairy below. The base of the l eafsta l k is hol low, concea ling the winter bud. Fruits are the typical "b uttonba lls." The hard, ye l l owish to brown, coarse-grained wood is used for furn iture, boxes, a n d woodenware.

The C a l ifornia a n d Arizona Sycamores a re more l i m ited i n ra nge. The C a l ifornia tree is very m uc h l i ke the eastern Syca more but the fruits are not single, but i n a string of th ree or four b a l ls. The Arizona Syc a more is similar, with l a rger leaves a n d longer lobes. A l o n g c ity streets and in parks, the Orienta l a n d london P l a n es a re often p l a nted as orna menta ls a n d for shade. These trees do well in the u nfavora ble environment of cities. The seeds of these Syc a mores rese m b l e those of our wester n species. The leaves of the london P l a n e are less lobed t�10 n our com m o n Syc a more. Height: 60 to 1 00 ft. Pla n e Tree fa mily

1 28

PALMS A N D PALM ETTOS form a group q u ite separate from other trees. They are related more to Lilies, Bananas, Bam boo, and Grasses tha n to ordinary trees such as Oaks a n d Ma ples. Their leaves have para l l e l veins a n d the wood deve lops differently. I n t h e tropics, this large and a n cient group of plants is very i m porta nt. The Roya l P a l m of Central America, most m a jestic of the Pal ms, occurs sparingly in F lorida . Here a lso we find the Cabbage or Sabol Palmetto, with its c l uster of la rge, fan-shaped leaves to pping a thick base sta lk, 2 0 to 30 ft. hig h . This reaches its la rgest size along the West Coast, where it is common near the beac hes. Cabbage Pa l metto is named for the large, edible bud or "cabbage" crowning the ste m .

1 29

Wash i ngton Pal m

Our n ative western Palm, the Washington Pa l m , is very restricted in its natura l range, but has been widely pla nted here and a broad . It is our l a rgest native s pecies. This is a Pa l m of the desert, and g rows i n canyons and near waterholes. The fan-sha ped leaves, 4 to 5 ft. a cross, are usua l l y s p l it and frayed by the wind. The sma l l white fl owers deve l o p into round black fru its which were used as food by desert I n dians. The western Yucca or Joshua Tree is a mem ber of the Lily fa m i l y and is related to the Palms. Height: 20 to 30 ft. (Cabbage Palmetto); 40 to 60 ft. (Washington Palm). ngton Palm family Cabbage lm

-. : . . . .� ¡ --



HIC KORIES and their relatives constitute an im portant group of n ut-bearing trees. Some have been natura lized and cultivated to produce im portant crops. As wild trees of open forests, Hickories are at thei r best: l a rge, well足 shaped trees with straight trun ks and heavy l imbs. Hick-

1 31

ories have alternate, compound, fragrant leaves. The fi rst pair of leaflets, from the tip of the leaf, is usua l l y l argest. Hickory wood is prized as fuel for outdoor cooking a n d smoking meats. It is used f o r tool handles a n d a rticles which ca l l for tough, light wood.

1 32

S HAGBARK UICKORY has gray bark with long, l oose sca les-even shagg ier a n d looser than those of Syca more. The leaves are a lternate and compound, with five or seven rather broad, toothed leaflets. The stout twigs bear l a rge brown buds. The n uts have thick h u sks, but the she l l is thin a n d the meat is edible and sweet. These a re the h ickory nuts occasiona l ly seen in stores. Shagbark Hickory prefers rich, moist soil and is often foun d with Oaks in open woods. In spring the opening of Hickory buds, with their greatly en la rged bud scales, is a sig ht worth seeing. Height: 60 to 80 ft. Walnut family

7··- - - - - - -�­ \-

1 33

MOC K E R N U T is i n deed a mockery: the n ut has a thick

h usk and l ittle or n o meat i nside the heavy, h a rd s he l l . The bark o f this u p l a n d tree i s g ray, thick, a n d fu rrowe d . The ridges between the furrows a r e typic a l l y rounded . The leafl ets (seven or nine to a leaf) are n a rrower than those of Shagbark. The reddish- brown twigs and the paler buds are hairy-a point that h e l ps in wi nter identificati o n . Mockernut has large, ova l buds with over l a p ping scales. The fl ower, as i n other H ickories, is - - - - - - - - 路- -b-.. a greenish catk in. The toug h , dark颅 brown, e lastic wood is similar to that of Shagbark. Height: 40 to 60 ft. Waln ut family --


1 34

B I TTERNUT is sometimes cal led Swa m p H ickory because of its preference for wet soi ls. The bark is grayish brown, sca ly, with s h a l low furrows. Twigs are ye l l owish brown and dotted. The bright, su lfur-ye l l ow buds of Bitternut are a sure means of identification. Note the seven to nine leaflets to each leaf-na rrow, pointed, a n d fi nely toothed, bright green a bove, pa le beneath. The n ut is s m a l l , thi n-she l l ed, and in a pointed husk. Perhaps because of its very bitter n ut, people a n d a n i m a l s leave more seeds of Bitternut to grow, giving the tree a better chance to survive. At any rate, the tree is com m o n .

? - - - - - - - - �­ \--

Height: 6 0 to 80 ft. Walnut family

1 35

PECAN is a native southern H ickory w h ich has been tra nsformed into an im portant, c u ltivated crop tree. It is a lso pla nted as a n ornamenta l . The long, pointed n uts, developed in new thin-she l led varieties, are a sta ple l uxury food. They g row in a thin, slig htly winged h usk. Pecan has a g ray-brown, deeply furrowed bark. Twigs are somewhat ha iry, the bud ye l l owish. The leaf is long and pendent, with 1 1 to 1 7 narrow, finely toothed, s l ig htly curved leaflets. Peca n is a large tree-the largest of the Hic kories. Its wood is more '() '17 On g m a l b rittle a n d h a s less uses than other ra n g e very similar s pecies. ···Height: 80 to 1 00 ft. Walnut family

£. , ···----.- -:-----.._� �,)'-'( . . _ _ __



BLAC K WALNUT is a prized hardwood . The b rown, fi ne-grained wood is used for g u nstocks, furn iture, and cabinets. Black Wa l n ut is a tree of rich, open woods and roa dsides and has often been used as a shade tree. The la rge, fragrant leaves h ave 1 5 or more leaflets, ea c h fi nely toothed and ending in a long point. They are s mooth a bove, hairy below. The rou n d n ut g rows in a thick green h usk, from which the pioneers made a brown dye. I t has a dark, irre g u l a r, hard s he l l that is � hard to crack, but the sweet, edible, very distinctly flavored kernel ma kes '{) '1:5 the effort worth w h i l e . · · - · · · - - -- -


p, ,/'( ,

Height: 80 to 1 00 ft. Walnut fa mily

BUTT ERNUT or W h ite Wa l n ut is a spreading tree, sma l l ­ er t h a n B l a c k Wa l n ut, with lig ht g ray b a r k t h a t b reaks into e longated flat ridges. It is a tree of strea m ban ks, _ roadsides , a n d open woods, preferring rich, wel l- d rained soil. The leaf; similar to that of Black Wa l nut, has fewer (7 to 1 7) a n d slig htly broader, m ore ha iry leaflets. The edible n ut, i n a g reenish, gummy husk, is long and pointed. Other species of Wa l n ut are cu ltivated i n the West. The Eng lis or Persia n a l n ut (nati � e of the M1d d l e East) IS g rown m orcha rds to produce the thin-shel led 't l\ � commercial Wa l n uts. ··Height: 30 to 50 ft. Walnut family

�--- - -

\··- - - �ff-(i ..._ _ ,


1 38

BOX E L D E R is an exceptional Ma ple, the o n l y one with compound leaves. Its leaves g row opposite ly on thick g reen twigs, with three to five la rge, coarsely toothed leafl ets. The g rayish-brown bark is thin, cracking into interlacing fi ssures. The fruits, typical paired keys of Maple, g row i n drooping c l usters. Boxe lder i s widespread thro u g h the Centra l States a long streams, roads, a n d fi e l ds. It g rows rapidly a n d h a s been used as a shade tree i n prairie towns, though it is n ot nearly so attractive as other Ma ples. I t is a l so used in shelterbelt. pla ntings. Height: 40 to 60 ft. Mople fo mi/y

1 39

A I LA N T H U S or Tree of Heaven is a n ative of C h i n a , brought to this country as food for sil kworms. It h a s spread rapidly, growin g m a i n ly i n moist locations. It thrives i n city ba ckya rds and l ots, and seem s invincible against smoke, d i rt, a n d insects. Aila nthus is a short- l ived "weed " tree which may tem porarily crowd out more desir足 able species. The long, compound, fern -li k e l eaves have from 1 5 to 3 1 leafl ets, each l a n ce-shaped with sm ooth edges. At the base of each leaflet is a sma l l tooth, with a swol len , scent g la n d . The i l l -sme l l ing m a l e fl owers a n d t h e sma l l fema l e fl owers a re b o r n e on separate trees. T h e smooth, striped, g ray-brown b a rk cracks with ag e . Heig ht: 5 0 t o 80 ft. Quassia family

1 40

S UMACS a re a group of thick, pithy-twigged shrubs a n d sma l l trees. Even t h e la rgest rarely grow more t h a n 20 ft. h i g h ; most are smal ler. The.y g row in open fields a n d roa d­ sides, sprea ding rapidly in m ost we l l -drained soils to form thickets. Staghorn Sumac, the most com mon, is recog n ized by the hairy ·twigs and leaves, which are a l m ost w hite beneath. leaves turn red in the fa l l . Smooth Sumac is s i m i l a r but, as its name indicates, lacks the hairy twigs. s�:gmh o:n The leaves are genera l l y l ike those of Staghorn Sumac, though leaflets · ' may be a l m ost entire or deeply cut on the margins. s;nc£i


· · · · -·····

. Su mac


�r •

Poison .. s u m a c

Dwarf Sumac

The Dwarf Sumac is not much sma l ler than other species. Its leaves are d istinctly different, with edges entire and leafl ets a bright, shiny g reen. The l eafsta l k between the leafl ets is winged . Fruits, red when ripe, form fa irly com­ pact c l usters. Poison-sumac is a swamp-loving, attractive species. leafl ets are shiny g reen , with entire edges turn ing bri l liant orange and red in fa l l . Woe u nto a nyone who picks them! They are m ore poisonous to the touch than � ois� n ivy. The yel l owi sh-:V h te b � r- � . ...__ nes m l oose c l u sters a1d m 1dent1fiDwarf Sumo cation during winter. (bl ue) Height: 10 to 30 ft. Cashew family

�PI· - _

. . ......

Po1son-su ·· · ...... , (red

1 42

ASHES a re to baseba l l what Maples are to bowling. Bats a n d other sporting goods are made from their toug h , fi ne足 g rained, elastic wood, which has other uses too. Of about 20 s pecies of native Ash, most a re eastern trees. All have o pposite, compound leaves, catki n - l ike fl owers, and winged seeds in drooping c l usters.

1 43

W H I T E ASH is the most common a n d best-known eastern Ash . I t is a forest tree of rich, moist soils, often found with Oaks, Hickories, and Maples. Wh ite Ash g rows ta l l , with a broad crow n . The bark is g ray, with interlacing fi ssures a n d ridges. Leaves a n d twigs are opposite. The com pou n d leaves usua l l y have seven ova l leafl ets, dark green a bove, paler a n d silvery beneath, each with a few irreg u l a r b l u nt teeth. They turn yel low or purplish in autu m n . Fruits are single "keys" with a long na rrow �;; wing. They form in spring a n d h a n g in drooping c l usters ti l l they drop ' '{5� off in late fa l l . Height: 6 0 t o 9 0 ft. Olive family

� ...

· · - · · · · · · · ·· · · ·

__ __


� -

' ·

1 44

BLAC K ASH is a northern tree, common in swa m ps and i n moist soils. Its dark g reen leaves look black i n the forest shade. The bark is dark gray, with s h a l low, i nter locking cracks. The twigs a re smooth, g ray, with light le nticels and dark buds. The 7 to 1 1 leafl ets a re fi nely toothed, hairy a l o n g the large veins, a n d without a sta l k . The winged fru its of Black Ash have a conspicuous n otch at the base. So do fru its of the angular-twigged Blue Ash of the Centra l States. The l atter, h owever, are shorter a n d wider than Black Ash fruits. The wood of - Black Ash is . heavy, brown, a n d toug h . Height: 50 to 80 ft. Olive fa mily

�·' . ![ •

· · · · ··---·






1 45

R E D ASH is a s m a l l , s prea ding tree with typica l Ash bark a n d bra n c h i n g . The leaf is like that of Wh ite Ash but is sometimes hairy a long the leaf ste m . The fruit is nar­ rower tha n in other ashes. I n the East a variety of it, known as Green Ash, i s identified by sm ooth twigs and shoots. Typical Red Ash twigs a re velvety. Farther west, these two forms-the Green and Red-seem to merge. Red Ash is someti mes p l a nted as a shade or she lterbelt tree, espe­ cia l l y west of the Mississippi. The wood, light brown in color and simi·······= lar to White Ash, is used for tool han­ d les, baskets, and sporting goods. - ------Height: 40 to 60 ft. Olive family

· - - - -- -

M O U NTAI N-ASH, in spite of its name, is not a n Ash at

all but is in the sa me fa m i l y as H awthorns and Apples. Several s pecies, a l l northern and preferring rich m o u n 足 tain soi l, h a v e s m a l l wh ite flowers i n fl atte ned c l u sters. The compound, Ash-like l eaves g row a lternately on the stem and have a bout 1 3 to 1 5 leaflets, even ly toothed. The bark is s mooth, g ray-brown, s i m i l a r to C herry. The showy red berries a re a favorite winter food of song and game bi rds. A E uropean species, Rowan Tree, with ora nge fru it, is widely c u ltivated i n northern states as a lawn ornam enta l . Height: 1 5 t o 2 5 ft. Rose family

1 47 BLACK LOCUST is a tree valued as an ornamenta l for

street p lanting and as a soi l b inder in sta b i l izing eroded land. It is a ta l l, somewhat slen der, irreg u lar tree with short branches. The smooth twigs are distinctive in having a pair of sma l l thorns at the base of each l eaf. Leaves a re a lternate a n d compound, with sma l l , ova l leaflets, 1 3 to 1 5 to a l eaf. The leafl ets have sm ooth edges and a re s i l ­ v e r y below. The fl owers o f Black Locust, crea my wh ite and fragrant, unfo l d in long c l u sters before the l eaves a re wel l developed . The bark i s a dark g ray , roug h, and broken into bra nching ridges. Black Locust is bothered by borers and fungus pests, · - - - -- - - - - - - -· ·"-.. but the wood, resista nt to rotting, makes exce l l ent fenceposts (Plate on � Ori �naJ l"r . .· p. 1 48 . ) ra nge · Heig ht: 30 to 50 ft. Pea family


�A _.


..___ ,

H O N EY L O C U ST, l i ke Black Locust, is widely pla nted outside of its natural range. It is la rger than Black Locust a n d thornier. Sometimes the e ntire tru n k is encircled by long, bra n c h i n g thorns. The bark, nearly black, is sm ooth on young trees, breaking into long, sca l y ridges. The leaves are sim i l a r to those of Black locust but more na rrow, a n d may b e twice c o m pou nded with each leaflet l i k e a com­ pound leaf. The flowers are greenish a n d sma l l . They h a n g i n c l usters 2 to 3 inches long from the base of the leaves. The flat, reddish-brown seed pods g row about a foot long a n d contain a sweet, sticky p u l p i n a d d ition to t e hard seeds. These pods a re some- � .(. t1mes fed to cattle. The wood of Honey Locust is used for fence posts, construction, a n d ties. ( P l ate on p. 1 49.) Height: 60 to J OO ft. Pea family


\-- - - - �r-· _rs_;f/







1 48




p. 1 47)




on, p. 1 47)

1 50

K E N T U C KY C O F F E E-T R E E is so n a m e d because pion eers

in that state made a bitter drink from its seeds. This odd tree, which has o n l y one relative-a C h i nese s pecies-has a wide ran ge, but nowhere is it com m o n . The dark tru n k, with furrows a n d ridges, a n d the scaly, thick twigs identify the tree in wi nter and spring. Kentucky Coffee-tree does not leaf out t i l l very late. leaves a re l a rge, twice com­ pounded, with ova l, poi nted, widely spaced l eaflets. The fru it, a l a rge heavy bea n , is si m i l a r to but thicker than that of Honey loc ust. The soft, b rown, coa rse wood -{5-� is too scarce to be of use. � Height: 75 to 1 00 ft. Pea family


·- - - - - r· /-l

-- �

1 51 B U C K EYES are a sma l l group of native trees with several

relatives south of the Mexican border. They are u n us u a l in severa l ways. T h e i r fru its, t h o u g h l a r g e a n d attractive, are inedible. (It is the wh ite spot on the b rown nut that gives the Buckeye its name.) The com pou n d leaves g row opposite on thick twigs, but the leaflets, instead of spread­ ing feather-like as they do in Ash or Ailanth us, radiate out l ike the fi n gers of your hand. These distinctive leaves identify Buckeyes and Horsechestn ut. Eastern Buckeyes have yel l ow or pink fl owers in l oose c l usters. The C a l ifornia spe cies has � smooth, pea � . sha ped fru lt and wh1te fl owers. The1r . � nectar, po1sonous to bees, creates a _'{L'b.l serious problem. (Plate on p. 1 52.) Heig.ht: 20 to 40 ft. Horsechestn ut family

\- ·- - - - -

_. ·


·· .. _ _ _ _

HORSEC H ESTNUT has been carried from the Balkans north into E u rope a n d thence westwa rd to this country. It is planted a long streets and in parks, and is an old favorite with its spreading, rounded shape a n d its m assive c l usters of fl owers. The Horsechestnut twig is a n ide a l one to study i n winter. The la rge, resinous b u d s on its sides a n d end a re easily exa mined. Place a twig indoors i n water a n d watc h t h e b u d s s l owly swe l l a n d b u rst. N ote the scars left by last yea r's bud sca les. See how m u c h the tree has g rown by tracing b a c k f r o m one group o f b ud-sca le scars to a n other. Recog nize Horsechestn ut by its o pposite, compound leaves, like those of Buckeye but coarser and with leaflets wider near the a pex. The large nuts, which fa l l a s the spiny h usks open, are attractive to see but a re bitter a n d inedib le, as any boy w h o has been tem pted by them can testify. (Plate on p. 1 53 .) Height: 50 to 80 ft. Horsechestn ut family

1 52

B U C K EYE (text


p. 1 5 1 )

1 53



on p. 1 5 1 )

1 54 N AT I O N A L


Nationa l forests a re rec reation areas a n d excel lent places to study trees a n d forestry. Our mai n nationa l fo rest a reas are shown in gree n on the ma p above. These a re your recreationa l a reas; use them for visits or longer vacations. I nformation a bout specifi c forests may be ob­ ta i n ed from the fo l l owi n g regiona l offices: N o rt h e r n



Reg i o n : Misso u l a ,

Rocky M o u n t a i n


Re g i o n :

e ra l C e nter, B u i l d i n g


v e r 7, C o l o r a d o .

S o u thweste r n Re g i o n : ond




Fed­ Den­



A l b u q u e r­

R e g io n :


7 Eastern

Region :

Portl a n d

68 1 6


vania. Southern

Regio n :


St reet, N . E . , A t l a nta F o rest

S e rvice B u i l d i n g , O g d e n , U ta h . Region: 6 3 0 Son­

5 C a l ifo r n i a

s o m e Street, S a n F r a n c isco C a l i fo r n i a .

O ffi c e




Street, U p p e r D a rby, Pen n s yl­

q u e , N e w Mexico.

4 I nt e r m o u n ta i n

6 P a c i fi c N o rthwest R e g io n : Post

Monta n a .


Seve n t h


g ia .

9 N o rth


Reg i o n :



N o rt h Seco n d Street, M i l w a u ­ k e e , Wisco n s i n .

1 55 BOOKS O N T R E E S l isted below i n c l u d e a variety of

informatio n a l g u ides a n d manua ls. These a n d m a n y others w i l l help y o u toward a better u n dersta n d i n g o f trees and m o r e ski l l i n identifying them . A l s o ava i l a b l e a r e many Federa l a n d state p u b l ications o n trees, forestry, and related sub jects. U. S. Department of Agricu lture : T R E E S, THE Y E A R B O O K O F A G R I C U LT U R E, 1 949, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Wash ington 25, D . C . A top refer足 ence vo l u m e on trees, forests, ond forestry. Petrides, George A.: A F I ELD G u i D E TO TREES A N D S H R U BS, Houghton

Mifflin Co., Boston, 1 958. Another u sefu l guide i n the Peterson series cove ring trees, s h r u bs a n d vines of northeastern and central North America. H a rlow, Wi l l i a m M. : TREES O F EASTERN U N ITED STATE S AND C A N A DA, McGraw- H i l l Book Co., New Yo rk, 1942. A h a n dy, nan-tech nical g u i d e to the region i n d icated. Ha rrar, E. S., and H a rrar, J . G.: G u i D E TO S o U T H E R N T R E ES, McG raw 足 H i l l Book Co. , New Yo rk, 1946. This is a h a n dy, well-i l l u strated field g u i d e to southern trees. E l iot, W. A., and Mclea n , G. B.: FOREST TREES OF THE PAC I F I C CoAST, G. P. Putn a m ' s Sons, New Yo rk, 1938. A comp lete g u ide to the principal western species. U. S . Department of Agriculture: A G R I C U LT U R E H A N D BO O k L I S T O F NATIVE A N D NAT U RA L I Z E D T R E E S O F T H E U . S.,

#4 1 , C H EC K 1 953, U . S. Govt.

Printing Office, Washington 25, D . C. P r i n ci p a l sou rce of scientific a n d common n a m es.


p laces to st udy trees. Museums may have exh i b its of leaves, twigs, wood, fru its, or system atic groupings of trees. loca l m useums, not l isted below, m a y a lso conta i n interesti ng exhib its. Stu dy l a beled g rowi n g trees i n parks, bota n ica l gardens, or special tree col lection s (arboretums). Don't forget N a tion a l Pa rks, Mon uments, and Forests, a n d state parks a n d forests for protected sta n d s of native species. M U S E UMS Albany,

N. Y.:

N ew York State

Museu m C h ic a g o :

New Yo r k : A m e r ica n M u s e u m of N a t u r a l H istory

C h ic a g o

tory M u s e u m


H is足

Wash i n g to n : seu m


N a t io n a l


1 56 PAR KS, BOTAN ICAL GARD ENS, AND ARBORETUMS A n n Arbor, Mic h . : Nicholls Ar­ boretum Berkeley, C a l if. : U n iv. of C a l if. Bota nical Garden Bosto n : Bosto n P u b l ic Ga rdens C h ica g o : Brookfi eld Zoo C h icago: lincoln Park Coco n u t G rove, F l a . : Fairchild Tropical Gardens I l l i n ois: Cook C o u nty Forest Pre­ serves J a maica P l a i n , Mass . : Arnold Ar­ boret u m Kenn ett S q u a re, Pa . : longwood Gardens lisle, I l l . : Mo rto n Arboretu m

M i a m i : U.S.D.A. P l a n t Station Mu ncie, I n d . : H u ntington Arbo­ retum New Haven, C on n . : Marsh Bota ni­ cal Garden, Yale U n iv. New london, C o n n . : C o n n . Col­ lege for Women Arboretum Peters h a m , Mass . : H a rvard Forest St. louis: St. louis Bota n i c a l G a rden St. Paul, M i n n . : Como Park S a n F r a n cisco: G o l d e n Gale Park Was h i n g to n : St. E l i za beth's Hospital Grounds Was h i n g to n : U.S. National Arbo­ retum



Following is a cross refe rence to the scientific names of species i l l u strated o n i n d i cated pages i n this book. If the fi rst ( genus) nome is a b b reviated, it is the same as the o n e mentioned j u st before it.

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

30 31 32 33 34 35

Pinus strobus. P i n u s lambertiana. Pinus rigida. P i n u s p a l u stris. P i n u s ponderosa. P i n u s contorto. P i n u s virginiana. Pinus e d u l i s . Picea e n g e l ma n n i i . Black: P icea mariana. White: P. g l a uco. Red : P . rube ns. Tamarack : Larix laricina. Wester n : L. occidento l i s . Pseudotsuga menziesii. Abies concolor. Abies balsamea. G i a n t : Sequoia g i gantea. Redwood : S . sempervirens. Tsuga ca nadensis.

3 6 J u n iperus osteosperma. 37 A l l i gator: J u n i perus deppeana. 38 39 40 41 42 44 45 46 47 48 49 51 52 53 54

S i e r r a : J . occidento l i s . J u n iperus v i r g i n i a n a . Thuja occidenta l i s . Taxod i u m d i stich u m . N y ssa s y l votica. Diospyros virginiono. C o r n u s florida. Catalpa speciosa. Cercis canadensis. Madura pom ifero. U m b re l l a : M a g n o l i a tri peta l a . Sweetbo y : M . v i r g i n i a n a . Cucumber: Magno l i a acumin ate. Southern : M . grandiflora. M a g n o l i a soulangeana. Arbutus m e n ziesi i . U m be l l u laria californica. S a l i x nigra.


( continued I

5 5 S a l i x bob y l o n i c o . 56 Crack : Sa l i x frag i l i s .

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 70



76 77 78 79 so 81 82 83 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 98 99 1 00 1 01

Peoch l eof: S. omygdoloides. S a n d b a r : S. i nterior. Pussy: S. d iscolor. U l m u s americana. Winged: U l m u s o loto. S l i ppery : U . rubro. Roc k : U l m u s thomo s i i . Cedar: U . crassifo l i a . C e l t i s occ identa l i s . Amelanchier canadensis. Carpinus caro l i n i a n a . Ostrya v i r g i n i a n a . l lex opaca . Fagus grand ifo l i a . Choke: P r u n u s v i r g i n i a n o . Wild B lock: P. serot i n o . Pin: Prunus pensylvanica. W i l d P l u m : P. america na. Paper: Betu l a papyrifera. G r a y : B . popu l i f o l i o . White: B . pendu l o . Yellow: B. a l leghaniensis. River: B. n i g r a . S w e e t : B . Iento. Red: A l n u s r u b r a . Speck led : A. rugosa. White: A . rhombifo l i o . Oxydendru m a rboreum . Cascara: R h a m n u s purshiono. C a r o l i n a : R. coro l i ni o n o . Popu l u s tre m u l o ides. Pop u l u s grondid entota. Popu l u s deltoides. T i l i a america n a . Chestnut: Castanea dentota . Ton bark -oak: Lith ocarpus densiflorus. Quercus a l b a . Quercus stel late. Quercus macroca rpa. Quercus l y rata. Quercus p r i n u s . Q uercus m u e h le n berg i i . Quercus bicolor. Quercus v i rg i n i a n a . Quercus gambel i i . Quercus agrifo l i a . Quercus v e l u t i n a . Quercus rubra. Quercus fa leota. Quercus p a l u stris.

1 02 1 03 1 04 1 05 1 06 1 07 1 08 1 09 111

112 113 1 14 1 18 1 19 1 20 121 1 22 123 1 24 1 25 1 26

1 28 1 29 1 32 1 33 1 34 1 35 1 36 1 37 1 38 1 39 1 40 141 1 43 1 44 145 1 46 1 48 1 49 1 50 1 52 1 53

Quercus cocc i n e a . Quercus m a r i l a nd ica. Quercus n i g r a . Quercus i mbricaria. Quercus p h e l l o s . Quercus c h r y s o l e p i s . Sassafras a l b i d u m . l i r i odendron t u l i pfera. Ashe: C rataeg u s a s h e i . E n g l i s h : C. oxyacantho. l i t t l e H i p : C . s poth u l oto. Cockspur: C . crus-go l l i . C rataegus ped ice l late. l i q u idombar styrac i fl u a . White: Morus a l b a . Red : M. rubro. ďż˝ cer platanoides. Acer saccharum. Acer n i g r u m . Acer rubrum. Acer sacchari n u m . A c e r spicatum. Acer macrophy l l u m . Acer g l ab r u m . America n : P l a t a n u s occidental i s . Ca iiforn i a : P . racemose. Arizon a : P. w r i g h t i i . Orienta l : P. orienta l i s . Sob o l p a l metto. Woshingtonio fi l ifero. Carya ovoto. Corya tomentoso. Carya cordiform i s . Carya i l l i n o e n s i s . J u g l a n s n igra. J u g l a n s cinerea. Acer negundo. Ailanthus altissima. Stogh o r n : R h u s t y p h i n o . Smooth : R. g lobro. Dwarf: R h u s copa l l i n a . Poison : Toxicodendron v e r n i x . Frax i n u s americana. Frax i n us n i g r a . Frax i n u s pen n s y l v a n i c a . Sorb us americana. Rob i n i a pseudoacacia. G leditsia triacanthos. Gymnocladus dioica. Aescu l u s g lobro. Aesc u l u s h i ppoca sto n u m .

1 58

I N D EX An asterisk

Bold type




: .,...

; ..






.. .. � ...

; j i ;!;

� J

( * ) de notes pages that i l l ustrate t h e tree or its p a rts. desig nates pages containing more extensive i n formation.

Acorns, 82-83, *85, ·*97 A i lanthus, * 1 39 A lders, *75 A l l igator J un iper, *37 American Aspen, *78 American B a sswood, *81 American Beech, *65 American E l m , * 57 American H o l l y , *64 American Hornbeam, *62 American Sycamore, * 1 26· * 1 27 A n n u a l rings, * 1 3 Arboretums, 1 56 Arizona Sycamore, * 1 26, 1 27 Ashe H a wthorn, * 1 1 1 Ashes: B l a c k , * 1 42, * 1 44 B l ue, 1 44 Green, 1 45 Mounta i n - , * 1 46 Red, * 1 42 , * 1 4 5 White, * 1 42 , * 1 43 Aspens, *78- *79


� Ba ldcy press, *40

<> B a l s a m Fir, 3 2 - *33

Bark, * 1 0 1 2 - 1 3 ;;: Basket Oak, 9 2 ""' <II( Basswood, * 8 1 ; Bay, �53 Beeches, *65 B l ue , *62 B igcone Spruce, 31 B i g tooth Aspen, *79 Birches: B l a c k , * 7 1 , *74 Canoe, *70, 72 N C herry, *71 , *74 Gray, *70, *72 Paper, *70, *72 Red, *71 , *73 R i ver, *71 , * 7 3 Sweet, * 7 1 , *74 W h i te, *70, *72, *74 Yellow, *71 , *73

Bitternut, * 1 3 1 , * 1 34 B lack Ash, * 1 42 , * 1 44 B l ack Birch, *71 , *74 B l ackgum, *41 Black jack Oak, *96, *97, * 1 0 3 B l ack Locust, 1 47, * 1 48 Black Maple, * 1 20 B l ack Oak, *96- *98 Black Spruce, 28, *29 Black Wa l n ut, * 1 36 B l ack W i l low, *54 Bota n i c a l gardens, 1 56 Boxe lder, 1 1 7, * 1 38 8roadleaf Maple, * 1 24 Broad leaf trees, 3, *9, 41 - 1 53 Buckeyes, 1 5 1 , * 1 52 B uckthorns, *77 Buds, * 1 1 Bun chberry, 43 B u r Oak, *84, *85, * 8 8 Butternut, * 1 37

Chestnut Oak, *84, '*85,

Cabbage Pal metto, * 1 28. 1 29 C a l iforn i a - l a u r e l , *53 C a l iforn i a Live Oak, *84, *85, * 9 5 C a l ifor n i a Red F i r, 33 C a l ifornia Sycamore, * 1 26- * 1 27 C a l i forn i a White Oak, 94 Canadian Spruce, 28 Canoe B i rch, '*70, *72 Canyon live Oak, *96,

Eastern Buckeye, 1 5 1 Eastern Red-cedar, *38 Eastern White P i n e , * 1 9, * 2 0 E l m s : A m e r i c a n , * 57 Cedar, *59 Rock, *59 S l i ppery, *58 Winged, *58 E n g e l mann Spruce, *28, 2� E n g l i s h Hawthorn, * 1 1 1 E n g l i s h Wa l n ut, 1 37

*97, * 1 0 7

Carolina Buckthorn, * 77 Cascara Buckthorn, '*77 Catalpa, 43 , *45 Cedar Elm, * 59 Cedars, *38- *39 Cherries: Bird, 69 Choke, *66, *68 Pin, *67, *69 Red, * 69 Wild, *66-*69 C h e rry B i rch, '*71 , *74 C hestnut, *82, 90


C h i n k a p i n Oak, *84, * 8 5, * 9 1 C h o k e C h e r r y , * 66, * 6 8 C h ristmas trees, 33 Coast live Oak, *84, *85, *95 Cockspur Haw, * 1 1 1 C offee-tree, Kentucky, * 1 50 C o n i fers, 3, *9, 1 8 -40 Conservation, 1 4, 1 6 Cotton woods, *80 Crack W i l low, *56 Cucu mber Magnolia, *49, 50 C y p ress, B a l d - , *40 Desert J u n iper, 36-37 Dogwoods, 43 - *44 Dougla s-fir, *3 1 , 33 Dwarf Sumac, * 1 4 1

Firs, *32- *33 D o u g l a s - , * 3 1 , 33 F l owering Cherry, 67 F l owering Dogwood, 43, *44 F l owers, * 1 0- * 1 1 Forests, U . S . , 1 54 Fruits, * 1 0- * 1 1 G a m b e l Oak, *84, *85, *94

Giant Sequoia, *34 Gray B i rch, *70, *72 Green Stick, 1 08

1 59 I N DEX

( eontinued l

Hackberry, *60 Haws, 1 1 0- * 1 1 2 Hawth o r n s : Ashe, * 1 1 1 Cockspur H o w , * 1 1 1 English, * 1 1 1 Little H i p , * 1 1 1 Scarlet Haw, * 1 1 2 H e m l ock, *35 H ickories: Bitternut, * 1 3 1 , * 1 34 Mockernut, * 1 30, *133

Pecan, * 1 3 1 , * 1 3 5 Shagbark, * 1 30, * 1 3 2 Swamp H ickory, 1 34 H o l ly, A m e r i c a n , *64 Honey locust, 1 47, * 1 49 H o p Hornbeam, * 63 Hornbeoms, *62 - * 63 H orsech estnut, 1 5 1 , * 1 .53 I ronwood, *63 Jack Pine, 26 Jersey P i n e , 26 J oshua Tree, 1 29 J u n ipers, * 3 6路 * 3 7 Kentucky C offee-tree, * 1 50 larches, *30 large-tooth Aspen, *79 Laurel Oak, 93 leaves, * 1 0- * 1 1 col lecting, 1 5 linden, * 8 1 Little Hip H a wthorn, *1 1 1 I ive Oak, *84, *85, * 9 3 Locusts, 1 47, * 1 48 - * 1 49 lodgepole P i n e , * 1 8 , *25

London P l a n e , 1 27 Longleaf P i n e , * 1 8, * 2 3 Madrone, Pacific, *52 Mag n o l i a s : Cucumber, *49, 50 C u l tivated, * 5 1 South ern, *49, 51 Sweetbay, *48, 50 Umbre l la, *48, 50

Maples: B lock, * 1 1 6, * 1 20 Boxelder, 1 1 7, * 1 38 Brood leaf, * 1 1 7, * 1 24

Dwarf, 1 23 , 1 25 Moosewood, 1 23 Mounta i n , * 1 1 6, *123

Norway, * 1 1 7, * 1 1 8 Red, * 1 1 7, * 1 2 1 Rocky Mounta i n , * 1 1 7, * 1 2 5 Si lver, * 1 1 6, * 1 2 2 Soft, * l 2 2 Striped, 1 23 Sugar, * 1 1 6, * 1 1 9 , 1 20 Mockern u t H ickory, * 1 30, * 1 3 3 Moosewood, 1 23 Mounta i n -a s h , * 1 46 Mountain Maple, * 1 23 Mountain W h i te Oak, 95 M u l berries, * 1 1 4- * 1 1 5 Museums, 1 5.5 Northern Red Oak, *96, *97, *99 N orthern White-cedar, *39 N orway Maple, * 1 1 8 N orway Spruce, 29 Oaks: acorns, 83, * 8 5 , * 9 7 Basket, 92 B l ack, *96, *97, *98 B l ack g roup, 82-83, *96- * 1 07 B l ackjack, *96, *97, * 1 03

B l ue, 9 5 Bur, * 8 4 , * 85, * 8 8 C a l iforn ia live, *84, *85, *95 C a l ifor n i a Wh ite, 94 Canyon live, *96, *97, * 1 0 7 C h e stnut, * 84, *85, *90

O a k s (con t . ) : C h i nkopin, *84, *85, *91

C oast Live, *84, *85, *95

Gombe l , *84, *85, *94

L a u r e l , 93 leaves, *82 - *84 , *96 Live, *84, *85, * 9 3 Mountain W h ite, 95 N orthern Red, *96, *97, *99 Oregon White, 94 O v e r c u p , *84, * 8 5 , *89

P i n , *96, *97, * 1 0 1 Post, *84, *85, * 8 7 Scarlet, *96, *97, * 1 02

S h i n g l e , *96, *97, * 1 05

Southern Red, *96, *97, * 1 00 S p a n i s h , * 1 00 Swamp Chestnut, 92 Swamp Wh ite, *84, * 8 5, *92 Tanbark-, 82 , *83 Utah W h i te, *94 Water, *96, *97, * 1 04

W h ite, *84, *85, * 8 6 Wh ite group, 82-83 , *84- *95 W i l low, 93, * 9 6 , *97, * 1 06

Oregon W h i te O a k , 94 Oriental P lane, * 1 26 Osage-orange, *47 Overc u p Oak, *84, *85, *89

Pacific Dogwood, 43 P a c i fi c M a d r o n e , * 5 2 Pacific Si lver Fir, 33 P a l mettos, * 1 2 8 - 1 29 P a l m s , *9, 1 28 - * 1 29 Paper B i r c h , *70, * 7 2 Pape r - m u l berry, 1 1 5 Peach leaf Wi l l ow, * 56 Pecan, * 1 3 1 , * 1 3 5 Pepperridge, *41


1 60 "'




u !

..., ..z ...

0 �

� !! !


.. ;l � ..z ;; ;: .. ;

( c o ntinued )

Pers i a n W a l n ut, 1 37 Persi m m o n s , *42 P i n C h erry, * 67, *69 Pines: Eastern W h i te , * 1 9, *20 Jack, 26 Jersey, 2 6 Lodgepole, * 1 8 , *25 Long leaf, * 1 8 , *23 Pinyon, * 1 8, *27 Pitch, * 1 8, *22 Ponderosa, * 1 9, *24 Sugar, * 1 9, * 2 1 V i r g i n i a , * 1 9, *26 Western White, 20 Western Ye l l ow, 24 Pin Oak, *96, *97, *1 0 1 P i n y o n Pine, * 1 8 , *27 Pitch Pine, * 1 8 , *22 P l a n e Trees, * 1 26- 1 27 P l u m s , W i l d , *67, *69 Poison-sumac, * 1 4 1 Ponderosa Pine, * 1 9, *24 Pop l a rs, *78 - * B O Ye l l ow-, * 1 09, 1 1 0 Post Oak, *84, *85, *87 Pussy W i l low, * 56 Quaking Aspen, *78 Red Alder, *75 Red Ash, * 1 42 , * 1 45 Red Birch, *71 , *73 Redbud, *46 Red-cedar, *38-39 Red Cherry, 69 Red Maple, * 1 1 7, * 1 2 1 Red Mu lberry, * 1 1 4 · Red Spruce, 2 8 , *29 Redwood, *34 River B i r c h , * 7 1 , *73 Rock E l m , * 59 Rocky Mountai n Maple, * 1 1 7, * 1 2 5 Royal P a l m , 1 28 Saba! P a l metto, * 1 28 Sandbar W i l low, * 56 Sassafras, * 1 08

Scarlet Haw, 1 1 0, * 1 1 2 Scarlet Oak, *96, *97, * 1 02 Scientific names, 1 561 57 Seeds, 1 0, * 1 1 Sequoia, G i a nt, *34 Serviceberry, * 6 1 Shadbush, * 6 1 Shagbark H ickory, * 1 30, * 1 32 Shingle Oak, *96, *97, * 1 05 Sierra J un i per, * 3 7 Si lver Maple, * 1 22 Sitka Spruce, 29 S l i ppe<y E l m , *58 Smooth Sumac, * 1 40 Soft Maple, * 1 22 Sourgum, *41 Sourwood, *76 Southern Mag n o l i a , *49, 51 Southern Red-cedar, 3B Southern Red Oak, *96, * 9 7 , * 1 00 Spa n i s h Oak, * 1 00 Speckled Alder, *75 Spruces, *28- *29 Bigcone, 3 1 Stag h orn Sumac, * 1 40 Striped Ma p l e , 1 23 Sugar Maple, * 1 1 9 Sugar Pine, * 1 9, *21 Sumacs, * 1 40- * 1 4 1 Swamp C h e stnut Oak, 92 Swamp H i c k ory, * 1 34 Swamp Wh ite Oak, *84, * 8 5, *92 Sweetbay, *48, 50 Sweet Birch , *71 , *74 Sweetgum, 4 1 , * 1 1 3 Sycamores, * 1 26- * 1 27 Tamarack, *30 Tanbark-oak , 82, *83 Trees: major k i n d s of, *9 parts of, * 1 0- * 1 1 Tre m b l i n g Aspen, 78 LL

T u l i ptree, * 1 0� * 1 1 , * 1 09 , 1 1 0 Tupelo, *41 Twigs, * 1 2 U m b r e l l a Mag n o l i a , *48, 50 Utah J u n i per, * 3 6 -37 Utah W h i te O a k , *94 V i r g i n i a Pine, * 1 9, *26 Wahoo, * 58 , 59 Wa l n u ts, * 1 36- * 1 37 Washi ngton P a l m , * 1 29 Water Oak, *96, *97, * 1 04 Weeping Beech, 65 Weeping W i l low, *55 Western Larch, *30 Western Red-cedar, 39 Western W h i te Pine, 20 Western Ye l l ow Pine, 24 Wh ite A lder, *75 W h i te A s h , * 1 42 , * 1 43 Wh ite B i rch, *70, *72, *74 Wh i te -cedar, *39 Wh ite Fir, *32, 33 White M u l berry, * 1 1 4 White Oak, *84-*86 W h i te Pine, Eastern, * 1 9, *20 White Spruce, 28, *29 W h ite Wa l n ut, * 1 37 W i l d C h e rry, *66-*69 W i ld P l u ms, * 67, *69 W i l l ow s : B lack, *54 C rack, *56 Peach leaf, *56 Pussy, * 56 Sandbar, * 56 Weep i n g , *55 W i l low Oak, *96, * 97, * 1 06 Winged E l m, *58 Wood, * 1 0- * 1 3 Ye l l o w B i r c h , *71 , *73 Y e l l ow-poplar, * 1 09 Yucca, 1 29 MM





H ERBERT S. ZIM, Ph.D., Sc.D., outstanding authority on science education is Ad j u nct Pro足 fessor at the University of Mia m i . A Fel low of Science, he works with national a n d i nterna足 tion a l orga n izations on education, population, and ecology. He is Educationa l Consultant for the American Friends Service Committee a n d Western Publishing Company. A w i d e readi n g publ ic knows him as the author and ed itor o f nearly 200 books.

ALEXANDER C. MARTIN, Ph.D., was formerly sen ior biologist of the U.S. Fish and Wi l d l ife Service at the Patuxent Research Refuge i n Laurel, Maryland. An a uthority on plants used by wildlife, and on the identification of p l a nts by seeds a n d fruits, he is the a uthor a lso of the Golden Nature Guide Flowers. DOROTHEA a n d SY BARLOWE have contrib足 uted i l l ustrations of nature subj ects to many magazin es, as we l l as to Collier's Encyclope足 dia, the Encyclop edia A m ericana, and the Golden Nature Guides Trees and Seashores.





an introduc tion to the world of nature, a guide to the most common, most easily seen, and most in足 teresting aspects of the world around us. Each guide combines the authority of an eminent scientist and of an expert in science edncation-Dr. Herbert S. Zim. These 160 page books overflow with accurate full color illustrations and concise , double-checked information which makes identification and under足 standing the subject easy and enjoyable .. are

Profile for Ana C. Ponticelli

TREES - A Guide to Familiar American Trees - (A Golden Nature Guide)  

TREES - A Guide to Familiar American Trees - (A Golden Nature Guide)