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M/V “VSLNAME” IMO No: 9999999

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SOLAS TRAINING MANUAL

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SOLAS TRAINING MANUAL

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Part A L.S.A. Training Manual

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As per SOLAS Ch.III Part B Sect.V Reg.35

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Part B Fire Fighting Training Manual

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As per SOLAS Ch.II-2 Part E Reg.15.2.3.4 & 16.2 & MSC/Circ.850

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Part C Maintenance As per SOLAS Ch.II-2 Reg.14.2.2 & Ch. III Part B Sec. V Reg.36

Part D Appendices


COMPANYNAME SOLAS TRAINING MANUAL PART A – L.S.A. TRAINING MANUAL

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PART A – L.S.A. TRAINING MANUAL

Sections Common Safety

2.

Life Saving Aids & Clothing

3.

Exposure Hazards, Clothing, Protection and Survival

4.

Lifeboats

5.

Liferafts

6.

Rescue Methods and Signals

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INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW The SOLAS L.S.A. Training Manual is provided in accordance with Regulation 35 to the Chapter III of the SOLAS Convention and incorporates all the lifesaving appliances on board.

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The Master shall ensure that all Officers and ratings read and understand the contents of this manual. The Training Manual has been designed "ship specific" in order to assist Master, Officers and ratings on board and personnel ashore to become familiar with the types and whereabouts of all lifesaving equipment on board and operation thereof. The Training Manual has been also designed to meet the relevant requirement of the ISM Code and should be read in conjunction with the SMSM. Nothing in this manual removes from the Master his authority to take any steps and issue any orders, whether or not they are in accordance with the contents of this manual, which he considers are necessary for the preservation of life, the safety of vessel and her cargo or for the protection of the environment.

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CONTENTS This manual acts as a set of guidelines to saving life at sea for Masters, Officers and ratings. The Company also supplies each vessel with the latest British Merchant Shipping Notices, appropriate IMO and Flag State Publications, including MARPOL 73/78 (with annexes) and SOLAS Conventions for reference.

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AVAILABILITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAS L.S.A. TRAINING MANUAL In order to prevent personnel following obsolete/out-of-date systems, procedures or instructions, three Controlled Copies (one copy in Master’s Office and two copies in mess rooms) of this manual are held on board the vessel, in the care of the Master. The Company D.P.A. also holds a controlled copy. Unless written permission from the Company is obtained beforehand, no unauthorised or uncontrolled copies of this manual can be made or circulated.

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It is the wish of the General Manager for all personnel to become familiar with the contents of each manual in our documented CMS, thus helping the Company achieve its objectives by maintaining uniform operating procedures on board all vessels. Masters and department managers are responsible for making this manual available to all personnel and to actively encourage its use as a source of reference. This manual remains the property of the Company and must not be removed from any vessel or office without prior permission of the General Manager. UPDATING AND AMENDMENTS This manual is subject to Company procedure described in the Company’s Management System.

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REGULATION 35 SOLAS Ch. III regulation 35 describes a series of detailed items and procedures, which are to be included in training manuals on life-saving appliances. The table below indicates where the individual items described in Regulation 35 are dealt with in this training manual. Training Manual para.

SOLAS Chapter III Reg.35 Donning of lifejackets, immersion suits and thermal protective aids

2.1, 2.2, 2.3

.2

Muster at the assigned station

1.2

.3

Boarding, launching and clearing the survival craft and rescue boats, including where applicable use of marine evacuation systems.

4.2, 4.3, 5.2

.4

Method of launching from within the survival craft

4.3, 5.2

.5

Release from launching appliances

4.3, 5.2

.6

Methods and use of devices for protection in launching areas, where appropriate

4.3

.7

Illumination in launching areas

4.7

.8

Use of all survival equipment

4.5, 5.3

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Use of all detection equipment

4.9, 4.10, 4.11

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4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11

.11 Use of sea anchors

4.5.1

.12 Use of engine and accessories

4.6

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.10 With the assistance of illustrations, the use of radio lifesaving appliances

4.4

.14 Hazards of exposure and the need for warm clothing

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.15 Best use of survival craft facilities in order to survive

3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.8, 3.9, 4.3, 4.5, 5.3

.16 Methods of retrieval, including the use of helicopter gear

6.4

.17 Instructions for repair of the LSA

5.3.2

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.13 Recovery of survival craft and rescue boats including stowage and securing

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SECTION 1 COMMON SAFETY

Table of contents Page COMMON SAFETY ........................................................................................2

1.1.

ALARM SIGNALS ..........................................................................................3

1.2.

MUSTERING AND EMERGENCY STATIONS...............................................4

1.2.1.

Man overboard muster list...............................................................................5

1.2.2.

Emergency party system.................................................................................5

1.2.3.

Communications..............................................................................................6

1.2.4.

MUSTER LIST sample ....................................................................................7

1.2.5.

STATION BILL sample....................................................................................8

1.3.

SAFETY NOTICES AND SIGNS ..................................................................10

1.3.1.

Means of escape ...........................................................................................10

1.3.2.

IMO SYMBOLS sample.................................................................................12

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COMMON SAFETY

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The ship and the seafarer can encounter many different types of emergencies. Many of these can be avoided with care and by knowledge of the potential dangers. For this reason, it is important not to expose yourself or others to dangers because of sloppiness.

Emergencies can arise for a variety of reasons, for instance:

Fire/Explosion can arise due to failure or faulty operation of equipment, to self-ignition caused by carelessness with open fire or smoking in the bunk. Collision can be caused by failure of machinery or rudder, inadequate watchkeeping or by navigational errors.

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Grounding or stranding, like collision, can be caused by navigational errors, failure of machinery or rudder, bad weather or by the ship dragging its anchor.

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Leakage occurs if the ship’s hull, deck or hatches are damaged. Icing can be dangerous especially to smaller vessels. It reduces the stability of the vessel, which may result in capsizing.

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Manoverboard: To rescue a person fallen overboard safely on board again, a fast and efficient action is required by the crew.

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All the above emergencies present danger to human lives; most of them eventually can lead to the abandoning and loss of the ship. A happy ending of an emergency implies that everyone onboard perform his duties with responsibility and care.

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ALARM SIGNALS

When an emergency arises and during exercises, it is the alarm signals which normally give the first warning and at the same time indicate which type of emergency has arisen. It is therefore vital to know the meaning of the various alarm signals. Apart from the main warning signal, no requirements exist regarding the sound of the various alarm signals. Since it is considered sound practice to use the same signals on all ships, the table below indicates which signals should be used, if possible.

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As time is valuable in an emergency it is recommended that alarm signals can be sounded automatically. Signal

Alarm given by

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Type of alarm

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Whenever the above signals are heard, ALL personnel should proceed to their allotted Muster Stations. These are shown on the EMERGENCY STATION BILLS or CREW CARD and on notices posted in each cabin (usually on the inside of cabin door). All personnel must be suitably dressed when proceeding to their muster station.

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In the event the Master, or his authorised deputy, considers it necessary to muster all hands at their Boat Stations to prepare survival craft etc, the BOAT STATION SIGNAL - 7 OR MORE SHORT BLASTS FOLLOWED BY 1 LONG BLAST ON THE SHIP'S WHISTLE REPEATED ON THE ALARMS will be made. This signal will not be sounded prior to the emergency stations signal.

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MUSTERING AND EMERGENCY STATIONS

The purpose of musters and emergency drills is: 1. To ensure that in a real emergency the ship's crew will respond in a disciplined and controlled manner. 2. To familiarise crew members with the equipment provided to deal with emergency situations.

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3. To build up a shipboard organisation to deal with emergency by practising realistic situations. 4. To give confidence in, and knowledge of the use and limitations of the equipment.

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5. To provide a working check on the condition of the equipment.

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Man overboard muster list

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ASK while there is time to answer! During an emergency there is no time to answer questions

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1.2.2.

It is YOUR duty to participate in musters and drills.

Emergency party system

Training drills for emergency purposes are carried out on the basis of the Emergency party system. The theory of the system is that the ship’s staff is divided into a number of interdependent parties, depending on total crew numbers, to provide search, rescue and fire fighting services in a controlled manner, which endeavours to ensure maximum effect and maximum safety to the emergency parties. Each party has specific functions, which are detailed in the muster list and are also briefly outlined below: Issue No. 1

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Command team

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Emergency team

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Engine room team

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Back-up team

1.2.3.

Communications

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MUSTER LIST sample

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STATION BILL sample

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1.2.5.

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SAFETY NOTICES AND SIGNS

For the benefit of safety, various notices and signs are placed at various locations on board; these can be notices concerning the contents of various compartments, containers or the like. Safety signs can be separated into a system of mandatory signs, prohibition signs, warning signs, emergency signs and fire fighting signs. These signs should all be made in accordance with International standards, which often are symbols, pictures and drawings making them more easily understood by all nationalities.

Means of escape

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Maintain safety onboard and note if any escape routes are blocked – keep the escape routes free so they serve their purpose, namely ESCAPE!

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Escape routes are marked by green signs. A system of escape routes is arranged from all rooms and sections of the ship and it is important all crewmembers to be well aware of.

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IMO SYMBOLS sample

SYMBOL

IMO SYMBOL No.

DESCRIPTION

IMO 11

Lifeboat

IMO 12

Rescue boat

IMO 13

Liferaft

IMO 14

Davit launched liferaft

IMO 15

Embarkation ladder

IMO 16

Evacuation slide

IMO 17 IMO 18 IMO 19 IMO 20

Lifebuoy

Lifebuoy with line

Lifebuoy with light

Lifebuoy with light and smoke Adult’s lifejacket

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IMO 21

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1.3.2.

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Child’s lifejacket

IMO 23

Immersion suit

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IMO 22

Survival craft portable radio

IMO 25

EPIRB

IMO 26

Radar transponder

IMO 27

Survival craft pyrotechnic distress signals

IMO 28

Rocket parachute flares

IMO 29

Line throwing appliance

IMO 30

Muster station

IMO 32

Direction indicator

IMO 33

Direction indicator

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IMO 24

IMO No’s

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Imo numbers

IMO --

Embarkation lights

IMO --

Thermal protective aids

IMO 101

Fire alarm panel

IMO 102

Sprinkler installation

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IMO SYMBOL No.

DESCRIPTION

IMO 103

Space protected by sprinkler

IMO 104

Sprinkler horn

IMO 105

Sprinkler section valve

IMO 105 GEN.

General section valve

IMO 106

CO2 battery

IMO 107

Halon release station

IMO 108

Halon 1301 bottles in protected area

IMO 109 IMO 110 IMO 111 IMO 112

Powder installation

Powder monitor (gun)

Powder hose and handgun Powder release station

Flame detector

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IMO 113

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SYMBOL

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Smoke detector

IMO 115

Fire main with fire valves

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IMO 114

IMO 115 FOAM IMO 116

IMO 116 FOAM

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IMO 117

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IMO 117 CO2

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Foam main with foam valves

Hose box with spray/jet fire nozzle Hose box with foam nozzle

International shore connection

Shore connection for CO2 installation

IMO 118

Fire pump

IMO 119

Heat detector

IMO 120

Gas detector

IMO 121

Fire damper in vent duct

IMO 122

Remote controlled skylights

IMO 123

Remote controlled F.O. / L.O. valves

IMO 124

Control station

IMO 125

Locker with fireman’s outfit

IMO 126

Locker with additional breathing apparatus

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IMO SYMBOL No.

DESCRIPTION

IMO 127

Locker with additional protective equipment

IMO 128

Primary means of escape

IMO 129

Secondary means of escape

IMO 130

Closing appliance for external ventilation

IMO 131

Inert gas installation

IMO 132

High expansion foam supply trunk

IMO 133

CO2 nitrogen bulk installation

IMO 134 IMO 135 IMO 136 IMO 140 CO2

Emergency generator

Emergency switchboard

Remote ventilation shutoff

CO2 portable fire extinguisher

Dry powder portable fire extinguisher

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IMO 140 DP

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SYMBOL

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IMO 140 FOAM

Spare charges for CO2 portable fire extinguisher Spare charges for dry powder portable fire extinguisher Spare charges for foam portable fire extinguisher

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IMO140 CO2 SPARE

Foam portable fire extinguisher

IMO140 D.P. SPARE

IMO140 FOAM SPARE

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IMO 142 FOAM

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IMO 142 CO2

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Foam wheeled fire extinguisher

CO2 wheeled fire extinguisher

IMO 151

Fire plan

IMO 152

Push-button switch for fire alarm

IMO 153

Horn fire alarm

IMO 154

Bell fire alarm

IMO 155

Manually operated call point

IMO 156

Space protected by automatic fire alarm

IMO 157

Space protected by CO2

IMO 158

CO2 horn

IMO 159

CO2 release station

IMO 160

Halon 1301 battery

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SYMBOL

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IMO SYMBOL No.

DESCRIPTION

IMO 161

Space protected by halon 1301

IMO 162

Halon horn

IMO 163

Foam installation

IMO 164

Foam monitor (gun)

IMO 165

Foam nozzle CO2 nozzle

IMO 166 IMO 167 IMO 168 IMO 169 IMO 170 MFP

Foam valve

Foam release station

Emergency fire pump

Remote controlled fire pump

Remote controlled emergency fire pump

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IMO 170 EFP

Space protected by foam

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IMO 165 CO2

IMO 170 ES

Bilge pump

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IMO 171

Remote controlled emergency switches

Emergency bilge pump

IMO 173

Water monitor (gun)

IMO 174

Water fog applicator

IMO 175

Emergency telephone station

IMO 176

Fire axe

IMO 177

Drenching installation

IMO 178

Space protected by drenching system

IMO 179

Section valve drenching system

IMO 180

Fire station

IMO 181

A class bulkhead

IMO 182

A class fire door

IMO 183

A class fire door self-closing

IMO 184

A class sliding fire door

IMO 185

A class sliding fire door self-closing

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IMO 172

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IMO SYMBOL No.

DESCRIPTION

IMO 186

Portable foam applicator

IMO 187

B class bulkhead

IMO 188

B class fire door

IMO 189

B class fire door self-closing

IMO 190

B class sliding fire door

IMO 191

B class sliding fire door self-closing

IMO 192

Main fire zone

IMO -IMO -IMO -IMO --

Safety belt

Safety lamp

Sandbox Scoop

Stretcher

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IMO --

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SYMBOL

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Gloves

IMO --

Hospital

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IMO --

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SECTION 2 LIFE SAVING AIDS & CLOTHING

Table of contents Page LIFEJACKETS ..........................................................................................2

2.1.1.

General requirements for lifejackets..........................................................2

2.1.2.

Lifejackets On board..................................................................................3

2.2.

IMMERSION SUITS ..................................................................................4

2.2.1.

General requirements for immersion suits.................................................4

2.2.2.

Thermal performance requirements for immersion suits ...........................4

2.2.3.

Buoyancy requirements.............................................................................5

2.3.

THERMAL PROTECTIVE AIDS (TPAs) ...................................................6

2.4.

LIFEBUOYS, LIGHTS AND SMOKE SIGNALS .......................................7

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LIFEJACKETS

2.1.1.

General requirements for lifejackets

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Lifejackets on board

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All lifejackets on board are in compliance with the latest SOLAS regulations and flag state requirements.

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For further information regarding Lifejackets onboard see Appendix 1

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IMMERSION SUITS

2.2.1.

General requirements for immersion suits

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Thermal performance requirements for immersion suits

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Buoyancy requirements

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2.2.3.

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THERMAL PROTECTIVE AIDS (TPAs)

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LIFEBUOYS, LIGHTS AND SMOKE SIGNALS

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2.4.

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SECTION 3 EXPOSURE HAZARDS, CLOTHING, PROTECTION AND SURVIVAL Table of contents Page 3.1.

EXPOSURE HAZARDS, THE NEED FOR WARM CLOTHING, PROTECTION AND SURVIVAL.....................................................................3 PROTECTION.................................................................................................8

3.2.1.

Warm Clothing.................................................................................................8

3.2.2.

Put On Lifejacket .............................................................................................8

3.2.3.

Go to Your Muster Station...............................................................................8

3.2.4.

Leaving the Ship .............................................................................................8

3.3. 3.4.

ACTION WHEN IN THE WATER .................................................................9 BOARDING SURVIVAL CRAFT ..................................................................10

3.5.

FIRST ACTION TO TAKE AFTER BOARDING SURVIVAL CRAFT...........10

3.5.1.

Clear the Ship ...............................................................................................11

3.5.2.

Collect Together ............................................................................................11

3.5.3.

Protection ......................................................................................................11

3.5.5. 3.5.6.

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Sea-sickness .................................................................................................11

Treating Injured .............................................................................................11

Order – Leader ..............................................................................................12

SUBSEQUENT ACTIONS IN SURVIVAL CRAFT .......................................12

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3.6.

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3.5.4.

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3.2.

Survival..........................................................................................................12

3.6.2.

Roll Call and Log ...........................................................................................13

3.6.3.

Sharp Objects ...............................................................................................13

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3.6.1.

3.6.4.

Watches ........................................................................................................13

3.6.5.

Lookouts........................................................................................................13

3.6.6.

Survival Instructions ......................................................................................14

3.6.7.

Body Functions .............................................................................................14

3.7.

INJURIES, AILMENTS AND TREATMENT..................................................15

3.7.1.

Treatment of the immersion survivor.............................................................15

3.7.2.

Rescue breathing ..........................................................................................19

3.7.3.

Shock ............................................................................................................20

3.7.4.

Bleeding ........................................................................................................20

3.7.5.

Burns .............................................................................................................23

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Page 3.7.6.

Broken Bones – Fractures ............................................................................24

3.7.7.

Fuel oil Contamination ..................................................................................24

3.7.8.

Cold injury .....................................................................................................24

3.7.9.

Sunburn.........................................................................................................25

3.7.10. Salt Water Boils.............................................................................................25 3.7.11. Dry Mouth and Cracked Lips.........................................................................25 3.7.12. Swollen Legs .................................................................................................25

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3.7.13. Hypothermia ..................................................................................................26 3.7.14. Heat, Heat-stroke or Hyperthermia ...............................................................27 3.7.15. Dehydration ...................................................................................................27 3.7.16. Artificial respiration........................................................................................28 3.7.17. External cardiac massage .............................................................................29 3.7.18. Resuscitation.................................................................................................30

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3.7.19. Rescue from enclosed space ........................................................................30 LOCATION AND ATTRACTING ATTENTION .............................................32

3.9.

WATER AND FOOD ...........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.9.1.

Issue of the Water Ration..............................................................................33

3.9.2. 3.9.3. 3.9.4.

Supplementing the Water Ration ..................................................................33

Food...………………………………………………………………………………33 Issue of Food Rations ...................................................................................33

Supplementing the Food Ration....................................................................34

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3.9.5.

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3.8.

Fish……….....................................................................................................34

3.9.7.

Birds…...……………………………………………………………………………34

3.9.8.

Seaweed .......................................................................................................35

3.9.9.

Turtles ...........................................................................................................35

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3.9.6.

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EXPOSURE HAZARDS, THE NEED FOR WARM CLOTHING, PROTECTION AND SURVIVAL

Cooling as a result of stay in cold water is the most frequent cause of death by accidents at sea. Investigations of ship disasters have shown that the risk of dying from cold exposure is greater than the risk of drowning. Knowledge about the protection against cold exposure and treatment of persons who have been exposed to cold is therefore of great importance.

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0 10 15 20 25

Approximate time in hours until Exhaustion or Death unconsciousness ¼ ¼ - 1½ ½-1 1–2 2–4 6–8 3–7 20 – 30 12 more than 30

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Water temperature °C

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The temperature of the water plays an important part in the chances of survival. There is no universal rule, as the resistance of people to cold and their instinct for selfpreservation differs widely. The following table based on statistics may, however, give an indication of the possibilities.

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An understanding of how your body reacts to cold air or water exposure, and knowing the steps you can take to help your body delay the damaging effects of cold stress, will help you in your struggle to stay alive, in the event of cold water exposure. Imagine your body to consist of an inner core and an outer layer. Within the core, your body produces a great deal of heat as a result of normal body functions, such as physical exercise and digesting your food.

Nature required that your body core be kept to an ideal temperature of 37ºC. A network of blood vessels running through the core and the outer layer of your body, picks up the heat produced by the “furnace” within the core, and distributes the heat throughout the body. Nature also gives your body a very accurate system to regulate automatically the core temperature at 37ºC. For example, if the temperature around you is high, as on a warm day or in a hot boiler room, the blood vessels near the skin of your body will enlarge, allowing more blood to flow to the outer layer and increase body heat loss. This will keep you comfortable and keep the core temperature from rising. If the surroundings are cool, your body will narrow the blood vessels in the outer layer and keep that valuable body heat from being lost too rapidly.

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This regulatory system strives to keep the core temperature of the body constant despite variations in ambient temperature around you. The body can only do this within certain limits. There are levels of cold exposure when the body must have help in maintaining the core temperature at nature’s choice of 37ºC. You must give it that help by taking correct actions and wearing protective clothing. Body heat loss and insulation

The body gives off its heat to the surroundings in the following ways: Conduction is the transfer of heat by direct contact with cold water or other materials. Heat passes from your body, which is at a relatively high temperature to a substance, which is lower in temperature. Certain substances are better conductors of heat than others. Water conducts heat many times faster than air.

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Convection is the transfer of heat by air or water currents. Moving air is far cooler to the body than still air. Cooling by wind is known as the “wind-chill” effect. Similarly, disturbed or moving water around your body is more chilling than still water at the same temperature.

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Radiation is the transfer of heat by rays of energy without direct contact with other substances, such as a radiator heating a room.

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Evaporation is the vaporization or drying up of liquid, such as sweat or moisture from wet clothing. When the body gets too hot, sweating will occur and the evaporation of this sweat can be very useful in providing you with a comfortable cooling effect on a hot day, evaporation of moisture from clothing can rob you of valuable body heat on a cold day.

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In almost all parts of the world, man cannot survive without the aid of clothes. Clothes by themselves do not warm the body; the body is actually warmed by its own heat production. The body heat warms the layer of air trapped between the skin and clothing. It is this layer of air that provides insulation. If the layer of air is lost, then the insulation is diminished. This layer of trapped air between skin and clothing may be disturbed by movement or displaced by water. In either case, valuable warm air is displaced and skin temperature will fall. Heat from the body core will then be used in an endeavour to maintain skin temperature. If heat loss from the skin remains unchecked, the body core temperature will fall.

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Falling into cold water the arms and legs might very quickly be paralysed, making it difficult for the person fallen overboard to grasp and hold on to a line throwing at him. When in the water, you can do something yourself in order to survive. If the possibility exists try to get out of the water as much as possible. Water is cooling 5-6 times more than air, even at high wind velocities. If you are in cold water and can’t swim to anything near by, keep your clothes on, avoid movements and await rescue. In cold water don’t overestimate your ability to swim. If you are wearing a lifejacket, which keeps your head and neck out of the water, the cooling of the body will be slower, as the main artery to the head is less exposed to cooling at the place where it runs close to the skin.

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As you see, wearing a life jacket is not only a question of avoiding drowning, but also a question of surviving for a prolonged period. An extra help to reduce cooling can be achieved by pressing the lifejacket against the breast, keep the arms close to your body, bend the thighs up against the life jacket and keep your legs together (fig.1).

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With several people the same effect can be achieved by huddling as shown on figure 2. Besides this position, also renders psychical support. The aim of both procedures is to protect those parts of the body which are most vulnerable to cooling – the breast, the neck, the back of the head and the groin.

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It is an old and very common understanding that alcohol gives heat. This is completely wrong. Alcohol enlarges the blood vessels of the skin and gives you a false feeling of heat. It is true that the skin becomes warmer, but the heat is taken from the internal organs like the brain and the heart. Exactly the same thing will happen if you give massage to a cold-water survivor. The blood of the skin is put into circulation, but the heat is taken from the internal parts of the body, resulting in a dangerous cooling of the internal organs. Treatment of a cold-water survivor must first of all aim at preventing further loss of heat. The wet clothes should be removed and replaced by dry clothes. If this is not possible, the free water of the clothes must be wrought out. Now heat should be conveyed from the outside to the body in order to raise the temperature. This is the biggest problem in the treatment of cold-water survivors. When the skin is warmed the blood vessels will be enlarged and the same thing will happen as if you were drinking alcohol. The heat from the body is led to the surface while the blood cooled at the skin is led to the internal organs. Re-warming of a survivor can take place in various ways. You should distinguish between three different principles of re-warming:

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PROTECTION

Warm Clothing

3.2.2.

Put On Lifejacket

3.2.3.

Go to Your Muster Station

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Initial actions to be taken when the BOAT STATION SIGNAL is given.

Leaving the Ship

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ACTION WHEN IN THE WATER

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BOARDING SURVIVAL CRAFT

FIRST ACTION TO TAKE AFTER BOARDING SURVIVAL CRAFT

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Clear the Ship

3.5.2.

Collect Together

3.5.3.

Protection

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Treating Injured

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Order – Leader

3.6.

SUBSEQUENT ACTIONS IN SURVIVAL CRAFT

3.6.1.

Survival

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Roll Call and Log

3.6.3.

Sharp Objects

3.6.4.

Watches

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Survival Instructions

3.6.7.

Body Functions

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INJURIES, AILMENTS AND TREATMENT

3.7.1.

Treatment of the immersion survivor

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3.7.

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Start (rescue)

Breathing

Yes

No 1. Clear airway. Check carotid pulse and pupillary reaction. 2. Start artificial respiration immediately (mouth-to-mouth, mouth-to-nose). If a pulse cannot be detected, commence cardiac resuscitation. 3. Insulate to prevent further heat loss through exposure to wind. Avoid unnecessary manhandling – leave wet clothes on and enclose in blankets and/or plastic bag. Monitor pulse, breathing and consciousness of victim and actively re-warm if the person appears dead or if the person’s condition deteriorates. 4. Seek medical advice. If medical advice is not available, continue resuscitation until the patient is either fully re-warmed or delivered to a hospital.

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1. Insulate to prevent further heat loss through evaporation and exposure to wind. Avoid unnecessary manhandling-leave wet clothes on and enclose in blankets and/or plastic bag. Move to sheltered location. 2. Lay down in the unconscious position whenever possible. 3. Oxygen should be given if available. 4. If water was inhaled, encourage deep breathing and coughing. 5. Request medical assistance. 6. Watch person closely until shivering starts. In the absence of medical advice re-warm the person by either the “active” or “passive” method described above.

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1) 2)

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Gently shake the victim’s shoulders and shout to see if he is conscious If the victim does not respond, tilt the head and lift the chin to clear the tongue cut of the airway. Listen for the sound of breathing. Give two successive full-lung breaths (huffs) into the victim’s mouth within five seconds. Check the victim’s carotic pulse at the neck. If there is a pulse continue rescue breathing at the rate of 12 times per minute (once every five seconds). Feel for the lower and of the breastbone with 2 or 3 fingers. Place the heel of one hand just above your finger’s so that the heel rests on the lower half of the breastbone. Place the other hand on top of the first. Keep your arms straight. Compress the breastbone straight down 1½ to 2 inches (for adults).

5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

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Rescue breathing

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3.7.3.

b) c) d)

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Shock

May be caused by severe bleeding, injuries, burns, infections, heat exhaustion or may be due to nervous reaction. It results in a state of collapse due to a reduction in the volume of blood circulating in the body caused by loss of blood, serum or fluids. The pulse becomes rapid and feeble. Dizziness, fainting and unconsciousness can occur. Control bleeding and, if possible, treat to relieve pain due to injuries. Ensure maximum supply of blood (and oxygen) to the brain by raising legs with patient on his back if conscious. Reassure and encourage the patient. If unconscious, place in coma position and ensure clear airway. Prevent patient from shivering, without warming him too much.

3.7.4.

Bleeding

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Control of gross bleeding is an urgent matter. Arterial bleeding from a major blood vessel can cause the victim to bleed to death in a very short time. Rapid loss of as little as 1 quart of blood can cause shock. Bleeding from veins or capillaries may scare you even when it isn’t an urgent priority. It is important to be able to recognize gross bleeding.

Treatment of bleeding a) Use the palm of your hand to apply direct pressure over the wound. b) Clean the wound before applying the dressing if it is badly contaminated by dirt etc. Large foreign bodies can be removed gently. c) Use a thick pad of cloth as a dressing between your hand and the wound. It should be sterile, or at least as clean as possible. Use clothing, if nothing better is available. d) It is important to avoid risk of subsequent infection to the wound by applying antiseptic cream and clean dressings as the wound heals. e) Raise injured arms or legs to a level higher than the heart unless movement will cause further damage (in the case of fractures, for example).

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Never remove the dressing even if it becomes blood-soaked. Instead, add another dressing on top of the first one and continue applying direct pressure and elevating the part. A pressure bandage can replace direct hand pressure on most body parts. Center the bandage over the dressing, wrap the ends around the body part and tie the knot directly over the dressing. After bleeding has been controlled with a pressure bandage, check frequently for swelling and other indications of excessive pressure.

Be sure the pressure bandage has not become a tourniquet.

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Warning signs for excessive pressure include swelling next to the bandage site, numbness to touch, sensation of pins and needles, the limb becoming white or purple and pain beyond the site of the injury.

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Direct pressure is effective in stopping the bleeding from nearly all wounds. It almost always eliminates the need for a tourniquet.

Pressure points Using pressure points is a temporary means of controlling gross bleeding until a pressure bandage can be applied. Pressure points are specific areas where an artery passes over a bone and a pulse can be felt.

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Use pressure points in combination with direct pressure and elevation. A conscious victim can apply pressure to his own wound so that you can attend to other injuries or treat other victims. Pressure is always applied between the wound and the heart.

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Tourniquets Remember: the tourniquets are NEVER put on unless the bleeding is so severe that it cannot be stopped by any other means. Direct pressure by hand will control bleeding in nearly all cases. If it doesn’t, a tourniquet may be a last resort for saving the victim’s life. A tourniquet can only be used on an arm or leg and represents a trade-off probable loss of the limb in an attempt to save the life. -

Place the tourniquet just above the wound, if the wound is in a joint, put the tourniquet just above the joint (1) Use a wide band so it doesn’t cut into the tissue. Apply a pad over the artery to be compressed (2). Take two tight wraps around the limb and tie an overhand knot (3). Place a short, strong bar on the overhand knot and tie a second overhand knot above it (4). Twist the bar until the bleeding stops, no tighter. Issue No. 1

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Secure the bar in place (5). Record on the victim’s forehead the time when the tourniquet was applied (6). Don’t loosen the tourniquet until a doctor tells you to. Treat the victim for shock and get medical attention immediately.

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A victim wearing a tourniquet should be evacuated.

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Internal bleeding Internal bleeding is not always obvious. Suspect it if the victim has suffered a hard fall or a heavy blow to the body. -

Vomit that looks like “coffee grounds” Coughed-up blood that is bright red or bubbly. Paleness. Rapid, hard-feel pulse. Light-headedness and restlessness. Thirst. Confusion. Dizziness, weakness, fainting.

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Check the airway, breathing and circulation. Treat for shock. Seek medical advice. Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink. Look for injuries such as broken bones which may have caused the bleeding. Stay calm and measure reassure the victim.

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Symptoms:

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Immediate treatment

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Additional treatment for bleeding Shock is always present in victims who have lost blood. Even if the symptoms of shock are not visible, treat for it as a preventative measure. In all cases of bleeding, keep the victim quiet to assist blood clothing. Don’t move the victim unless it is absolutely necessary. If you must move him, handle him gently. Keep the injured part elevated as long as doing so doesn’t cause further injury or pain. Keep him as comfortable as possible.

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Burns

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Broken Bones – Fractures

3.7.7.

Fuel oil Contamination

3.7.8.

Cold injury

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Another condition which may affect individuals exposed to cold environments is acute cold injury. Such injuries usually result from exposure to low temperatures; especially in damp conditions and when wind speeds are high. Cold injuries may be of a freezing or non-freezing variety.

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Freezing cold injury (frostbite)

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Sunburn

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Non-freezing cold injury (immersion foot)

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3.7.10. Salt Water Boils

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3.7.11. Dry Mouth and Cracked Lips

3.7.12. Swollen Legs

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3.7.13. Hypothermia The loss of body heat is one of the greatest hazards to the survival of a person at sea. The rate of body heat loss depends on water and air temperature, wind speed, sea conditions, the length of time spent in the water, the protective clothing worm, the body type of the survivor, and the manner in which the survivor conducts himself. An abnormally low body core temperature can be recognized by a variety of symptoms.

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Very early during exposure, the body tries to combat the excessive heat loss both by narrowing its surface blood vessels (to reduce heat transfer by blood to surface) and by shivering (to produce more body heat). However, if the exposure is severe, the body is unable to conserve or produce enough heat. Body cover temperature begins to fall. When body core temperature is below 35°C the person is suffering from “hypothermia”.

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By then, discomfort, tiredness, poor co-ordination, numbness, impaired speech, disorientation and mental confusion are well established. As the internal temperature decreases below 31°C, unconsciousness may occur; shivering is usually replaced by muscle stiffness and the pupils of the eyes may be enlarged. The heartbeat becomes irregular and weak and the pulse is barely detectable. Although death may occur at any stage of hypothermia, when a person’s temperature is below 30°C it is very difficult to be sure whether he is alive or dead. Death by hypothermia is then defined as a failure to revive on re-warming. The treatment of hypothermia is described in para.7.1 of this chapter. Precautions: If you don’t know whether the victim is in the advanced stages of hypothermia, use a conservative approach and assume that it may be advanced. Rescue attempts should be made in such a way as to limit the amount of exertion by the victim. Even small amounts of physical activity by the victim produce further heat loss and worsen the condition. A crewman wearing an exposure suit and safety line should be ready to go into the water to assist with the rescue. Handle the victim gently. Rough treatment could cause his heart to stop. Keep the victim in a horizontal position to prevent shock.

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3.7.14. Heat, Heat-stroke or Hyperthermia

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3.7.15. Dehydration

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3.7.16. Artificial respiration

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3.7.17. External cardiac massage

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3.7.19. Rescue from enclosed space

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3.7.19.1 When a victim is still breathing

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3.7.19.2. If the victim has stopped breathing

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LOCATION AND ATTRACTING ATTENTION

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Issue of the Water Ration

3.9.2.

Supplementing the Water Ration

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Food

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Issue of Food Rations

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Supplementing the Food Ration

3.9.6.

Fish

3.9.7.

Birds

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Seaweed

3.9.9.

Turtles

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SECTION 4 LIFEBOATS Table of contents Page LIFEBOATS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................3

4.1.1.

Construction of lifeboats ...............................................................................4

4.1.2.

Parts of lifeboats ...........................................................................................5

4.1.3.

Carrying capacity of lifeboats........................................................................7

4.1.4.

Lifeboats fittings ............................................................................................7

4.1.5.

Mechanically propelled lifeboats ...................................................................8

4.1.6.

Access into lifeboats .....................................................................................9

4.1.7.

Lifeboats buoyancy .......................................................................................9

4.1.8.

Lifeboats freeboard and stability ...................................................................9

4.1.9.

Lifeboats propulsion......................................................................................9

4.1.10.

Lifeboats markings......................................................................................10

4.1.12.

General Arrangement .................................................................................11

4.1.13.

Layout of Steering Console.........................................................................12

4.1.14.

Typical Lifeboat Installations.......................................................................13

4.2. 4.3.

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Operation ....................................................................................................14 LAUNCHING LIFEBOATS .........................................................................17

PREPARING AND LAUNCHING THE LIFEBOATS..................................17 Launching the lifeboat from inside the boat ................................................19

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Boarding......................................................................................................22

4.3.3.

Clearing the Ship. .......................................................................................22

4.3.4.

Rescuing others ..........................................................................................23

4.4.

RECOVERING THE LIFEBOATS ..............................................................24

4.4.1.

Hoisting and stowing the life boat ...............................................................25

4.4.2.

Emergency Escaping Procedure of Lifeboat...............................................28

4.5.

LIFEBOAT EQUIPMENT AND RATIONS..................................................29

4.5.1.

Use of lifeboat facilities ...............................................................................31

4.6.

L/B ENGINE USE, ACCESSORIES, OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS........34

4.7

ILLUMINATION OF SURVIVAL CRAFT AREAS ......................................35

4.8.

PYROTECHNICS .......................................................................................36

4.8.1.

The Vessel's Pyrotechnics ..........................................................................36

4.8.2.

Lifeboat Pyrotechnics..................................................................................36

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Page 4.8.3.

Liferaft Pyrotechnics ...................................................................................36

4.8.4.

Instructions for Using Pyrotechnics.............................................................37

4.8.5.

Visual signals ..............................................................................................38

4.8.6.

Disposal of Out-Of-Date Pyrotechnics ........................................................39

4.9.

EPIRB (EMERGENCY POSITION-INDICATING RADIO BEACONS) AND HAND-HELD EPIRBS ON FREQUENCIES 1215 & 243 MHz ..........45 Use of EPIRBS and hand-held EPIRBS as homing aids ............................45

4.9.2.

Limited alerting capability............................................................................45

4.9.3.

Recommendation........................................................................................46

4.9.4.

The importance of correct use and stowage...............................................46

4.9.5.

Code of practice..........................................................................................46

4.10.

SEARCH AND RESCUE RADAR TRANSPONDERS (SARTs) ................48

4.11

PORTABLE VHF (GMDSS)........................................................................48

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LIFEBOATS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Lifeboats are to be constructed with rigid sides and have ample stability in bad weather, sufficient freeboard when fully loaded and flooded and be sufficiently strong to allow them to be safely lowered into the water when fully loaded with persons and equipment. They are required to be fitted with internal buoyancy and may be manufactured from wood, aluminium alloy, galvanized steel or glass reinforced plastic. Lifeboats built of wood may be either clincher (overlapping planks) or carvel built. A wood lifeboat certified to carry 85 persons or more is required to be carvel built with the planks laid diagonally and in two thicknesses.

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Great care must be taken with aluminium alloy boats in order to avoid corrosion. The buoyancy tanks must be made of aluminium alloy or expanded plastic foam substituted. Other metals should not come in contact with the boat. All paint used should have either a zinc chromate or zinc oxide base; copper and lead paints have a detrimental effect on aluminium. In the equipment, the buckets should be made of heavy duty plastic and the gripe wires must be sheathed.

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Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) lifeboats are sometimes moulded in two halves and joined together by riveting onto an alloy keel frame, which has attachments for the lifting hooks. The bilge grab rail and all interior fittings are made of wood. In others, the boat is moulded in one piece and wood is only used for the bottom boards and thwarts. Buoyancy is supplied by blocks of expanded plastic foam and in some cases is actually built into the boat, though in older boats, alloy air tanks were fitted. These boats are not proof, fire-resistant, non-corrosive and do not sweat. Glass reinforced plastic, however, has very poor resistance to abrasion. Every effort has to be made to prevent gripes and lashings from scrubbing and the heavier gear inside the boat should be choked off as well as being lashed down so that it cannot rub with the ship's movement. Apart from this, a fibreglass lifeboat should be free of the necessity for any special care always remembering that there are some metal and wooden parts, which may require painting from time to time. Viking fibreglass lifeboats are equipped with plastic foam buoyancy, which is positioned under the side benches during construction and no attempt should be made to inspect or remove it. Authority for not removing this buoyancy is to be found above the Administration stamp situated on the bow nameplate. This form of buoyancy makes the boat unsinkable even when badly damaged. Moreover, when the boat is inspected, nothing has to be opened up or removed.

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Repairs to a fibreglass boat can be achieved by using raw fibreglass and resin materials so that the surface shows little or no sign of damage. To make such repairs requires experience in handling fibreglass and polyester resin and temperatures and humidifies by no means always found on the boat deck or quayside. Any repair kits supplied by boat builders must be kept "in date." In almost every case therefore, a far stronger and neater job can be made using ordinary skills and well-known materials. The most useful fastening for light repairs, such as a tingle, is an assortment of stainless steel self-tapping screws. For stronger fixing use ordinary through fastenings, rivets, nuts and bolts etc. Ordinary putty or sealing compounds is satisfactory for smoothing and jointing and the job can be finished off by painting in the ordinary way.

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Air tanks are normally made of muntz metal or copper and filled with either kapok contained in plastic bags or expanded plastic foam. Air tanks made of yellow metal should be wire brushed and coated with either clear varnish or linseed oil whenever the lifeboat is being overhauled. Stretchers are required to be portable in order that they can be easily removed for the purpose of paying injured survivors on the bottom boards.

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All lifeboats are required to be at least 12 inches (30cm) clear of the ship's side, when being lowered with the ship upright.

Construction of lifeboats

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Apron Bilge Bow sheets Bottom boards Breast hook Buoyancy tanks Chain plate Cleat Deadwood Forefoot Gang board Garboard strake Gunwale Hog piece Keel Keel grab rail or Bilge grab rail Keel plates Keelson Mast clamp Mast shoe Plug hole Rising Rove Rudder Rudder post Sheer strake Side benches Stem Sling plates Sternpost Stern sheets Stretchers Tabernacle Tank clearing Thwarts

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Parts of lifeboats

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Thwart knees Tiller Timbers Tingle Transom Whaler stern Yoke

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Carrying capacity of lifeboats

4.1.4.

Lifeboats fittings

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Lifeboats buoyancy

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Access into lifeboats

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Lifeboats freeboard and stability

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Lifeboats propulsion

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4.1.12. General Arrangement

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4.1.12.1. External Installation Arrangements

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4.1.13. Layout of Steering Console

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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STEERING WHEEL ENGINE CONTROL HANDLE PAINTER RELEASER HOOK RELEASER SPRINKLER CONTROL HANDLE BATTERY SWITCHES TACHOMETER SWITCH PANEL COMPASS

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4.1.14. Typical Lifeboat Installations

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4.1.15. Operation

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4.1.15.1. Release Gear Operation for launching

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LAUNCHING LIFEBOATS

PREPARING AND LAUNCHING THE LIFEBOATS

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Launching the lifeboat from inside the boat

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1. Turning out and lowering the boat from inside the boat.

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2. Turning out and lowering the boat from the shipside.

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3. Attention of Launching at the ship sea going condition.

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4. Emergency Release out of Water

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Boarding

Clearing the Ship.

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Rescuing others

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RECOVERING THE LIFEBOATS

The recovery of the lifeboat is an operation with safety concerns. A brief risk assessment should be conducted on scene in order to take the necessary precautions by highlighting to the participants the potential dangers may be encountered taking into account the prevailing circumstances (heavy swell, mechanical failure, etc).

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Bring the boat alongside and make fast using a suitable rope painter. Allow personnel to board the ship when the boat has reached embarkation level at drills. If the boat has been used to rescue survivors from the water, and the boat contains more personnel than it is certified to carry, as many able bodied persons as possible must board your ship using ladders or scrambling nets. This is to avoid overloading the davits and falls. Lower falls with sufficient slack so they can easily be hooked on. Hook on the forward block first if both cannot be hooked on at the same time, making sure that the hooks are the correct way around by looking up and ensuring that there are no twists in the falls. Start the winch motor and hoist the boat back on board, making sure that the hooks are correctly in place and not fouled. Note: Limit switches are fitted which stop the hoist motor when the lifeboat is approximately 150mm from the stowed position. The remainder of the operation must be carried out by hand, using the handle supplied, to avoid stretching or damaging the wires. When the boat is housed, refit the gripes and unship the plug.

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REMEMBER: The use of the handle should be only carried out by experienced personnel. Attention should be paid to the fact that all crewmembers have to familiar with the lowering of the lifeboats as in case of emergency they might need to perform all the actions all alone. However, the boat hoisting is a special operation which has to be carried out only by authorized personnel having the experience to do so. Apprentice officers and / or O/S without previous experience should only observe such operations and not actually participating.

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Hoisting and stowing the life boat

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4.4.1.

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Emergency Escaping Procedure of Lifeboat

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LIFEBOAT EQUIPMENT AND RATIONS

All items of lifeboat equipment, whether required by this paragraph, with the exception of boat hooks, which shall be kept free for fending off purposes, shall be secured within the lifeboat by lashings, storage in lockers or compartments, storage in brackets or similar mounting arrangements or other suitable means. The equipment shall be secured in such a manner so as not to interfere with any abandonment procedures. All items of lifeboat equipment shall be as small and of as little mass as possible and shall be packed in a suitable and compact form. Except where otherwise stated, the normal equipment of every lifeboat shall consist of: No.

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Q’TY PER BOAT

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Buoyant Oar Crutch (Rowlock) with lanyard Boat hook Buoyant Bailer Bucket Survival Manual Compass Sea anchor with hawser and tripping line Painter Hatchet with vinyl bag Freshwater container Rustproof dipper with lanyard Rustproof graduated drinking vessel Food Ration Rocket Parachute flare in container Hand Flare in Container Buoyant smoke signal in container Waterproof electric torch with 1 spare set battery and 1 spare bulb Daylight signalling mirror with instruction. Life-saving signal table prescribed by Regulation V/29 Whistle with lanyard or equivalent sound signal First- aid outfit in waterproof case Anti-seasickness medicine Seasickness bag for each person Jack-knife with lanyard Tin-opener with lanyard Buoyant rescue quoits attached 30m of buoyant line Manual pump with bilge line Set of fishing tackle Tool set Portable fire extinguisher

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MATERIAL

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ITEM

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ITEM

MATERIAL

Q’TY PER BOAT

Search light Radar reflector Thermal protective aid

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NOTES:

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Use of lifeboat facilities

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Having lowered and launched the lifeboat it is important to keep clear of the ship’s side. For that purpose use the two boathooks (remain sitting when using them). If you cannot release the painters use one of the hatchets placed at each end of the lifeboat.

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Having released the lifeboat the great thing is to get away from the ship and whether using oars or the engine you must keep cool and work determinedly. During launching or when sailing the boat may have taken in water. The lifeboat contains a manually operated bilge pump, a buoyant bailer an two buckets. (Later the buckets can be used for catching the rain water). If there are people around in the water you can use the two buoyant rescue quoits attached to not less than 30 metres of buoyant line. Throw the quoits towards the people, but do not hit them. Try to stay together with the other rafts and boats. When the boat is quite clear of the ship you can use the sea anchor (drogue). The use of a drogue serves two purposes: to keep the stern of the boat against the sea and to prevent drifting from the position where the accident took place. Search and Issue No. 1

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rescue operations will normally start at that position. Lifeboats should be to windward if possible and other craft streamed astern. The sea anchor in lifeboats has superior holding power.

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Note: The sea anchor can be rigged either over the bow or stern of the boat. It is preferable to use it over the bow if the boat can be turned into the weather and sea. When used this way, the steering oar or rudder can also be used to assist in steering the boat into the weather and reduce any tendency to sheer on the sea anchor line.

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The lifeboat is equipped with watertight receptacles containing 3 litres of fresh water for each of the persons that the boat is permitted to accommodate. When rationing use the following rule – no water for the first 24 hours and thereafter ½ litre per person per day. If you expect many days to pass before being rescued the ration of ½ litre can be reduced to ¼ litre.

This means a supply of fresh water for 12 days. For distribution of water you will find a dipper with lanyard and a graduated drinking vessel. It is advisable to distribute the daily ration in such a way that water is given 2 or 3 times daily. Never drink seawater.

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The food ration consists of dry food with not less than 10.000 KJ for each person corresponding to approximately 20 ordinary open sandwiches. It is not much, but enough to prevent you from starving to death. As long as the ration lasts you should not eat anything else. When it is used you have to try your luck as an angler and there is a set of fishing tackles on board. As a rule you can normally eat fish with scales. Eating fish however does not substitute fresh water. On board you will find a jackknife. The food ration is contained in tins or plastic and there are 3 tin openers. The possibilities of getting hurt are many, for instance when abandoning the ship, when in the boat, when operating the engine etc. and that is why a first-aid outfit (medicine chest) is placed onboard.

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L/B ENGINE USE, ACCESSORIES, OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

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ILLUMINATION OF SURVIVAL CRAFT AREAS

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4.7

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4.8. PYROTECHNICS These consist of rocket parachute flares, hand flares and buoyant smoke signals. These are shown in detail in the attached manufacturer's instructions. 4.8.1.

Parachute Rockets Line Throwing Apparatus Buoyant Smoke Signals

4.8.2. a) b) c)

Parachute Rockets Red Hand Flares Buoyant Smoke Signals

4.8.3.

Liferaft Pyrotechnics

Parachute Rockets Red Hand Flares Buoyant Smoke Signals

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Lifeboat Pyrotechnics

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Instructions for Using Pyrotechnics

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Visual signals

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Disposal of Out-Of-Date Pyrotechnics

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Pull and of ignition lever from body for about one (1) centimetre and turn it to opposite side of gutter by finger tips.

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Red hand flares with hand flare:

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Self – Activating Smoke Signal:

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Buoyant Smoke Signal

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EPIRB (EMERGENCY POSITION-INDICATING RADIO BEACONS) AND HAND-HELD EPIRBs ON FREQUENCIES 1215 & 243 MHz

The vessel carries at least one float-free EPIRB. In addition, some vessels may carry extra EPIRBs for use with survival craft. These differences are due to the choices available to the industry before the carriage of this equipment became mandatory in July 1991. If an EPIRB is carried, start operating the equipment as soon as possible and keep sending distress signals. Leave it on, don't switch it on and off or work the switch unnecessarily.

Use of EPIRBs and hand-held EPIRBs as homing aids

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If you have a hand-held VHF radio, transmit distress messages to help rescuers home in on the signal. Any portable two-way radio available should be taken aboard the raft.

Limited alerting capability

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Recommendation

4.9.4.

The importance of correct use and stowage

Code of practice

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SEARCH AND RESCUE RADAR TRANSPONDERS (SARTs)

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PORTABLE VHF (GMDSS)

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SECTION 5 LIFERAFTS Table of contents Page LIFERAFTS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS..................................................2

5.1.1.

Construction of liferafts .................................................................................2

5.1.2.

Minimum carrying capacity and mass of life rafts .........................................2

5.1.3.

Liferaft fittings................................................................................................3

5.1.4.

Davit launched liferafts..................................................................................3

5.1.5.

Float free arrangements for liferafts..............................................................3

5.1.6.

Requirements for inflatable life rafts .............Error! Bookmark not defined.

5.1.7.

Construction of inflatable life rafts.................................................................3

5.1.8.

Carrying capacity of inflatable life rafts .........................................................4

5.1.9.

Access into inflatable liferafts........................................................................4

5.1.10.

Stability of inflatable liferafts .........................................................................5

5.1.11.

Inflatable life raft fittings ................................................................................5

5.1.12.

Containers for inflatable life rafts ..................................................................5

5.1.13.

Markings on inflatable life rafts .....................................................................6

5.1.15. 5.2.

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LAUNCHING INSTRUCTIONS.....................................................................7 LIFERAFT EQUIPMENT AND RATIONS ....................................................8

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Immediate precautions when entering the liferaft .......................................12

5.3.2.

Further instructions .....................................................................................12

5.4.

LIFERAFT MAINTENANCE .......................................................................14

5.4.1.

Onboard maintenance .................................................................................14

5.5.

HYDROSTATIC RELEASE UNIT (HRU)....................................................14

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LIFERAFTS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

5.1.1.

Construction of liferafts

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Float free arrangements for liferafts

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Construction of inflatable life rafts

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5.1.9.

Access into inflatable liferafts

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5.1.12. Containers for inflatable life rafts

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5.1.13. Markings on inflatable life rafts

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LAUNCHING INSTRUCTIONS

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LIFERAFT EQUIPMENT AND RATIONS The normal equipment of every life raft shall consist of: 1. 2.

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One buoyant rescue quoit, attached to not less than 30m. (97.5 ft.) of buoyant line; One knife of the non-folding type having a buoyant handle and a lanyard attached and stowed in a pocket on the exterior of the canopy near the point at which the painter is attached to the life raft. In addition, a life raft which is permitted to accommodate 13 persons or more shall be provided with a second knife which need not be of a non-folding type; for a life raft which is permitted to accommodate not more than 12 persons, one buoyant bailer. For a life raft which is permitted to accommodate 13 persons or more, two buoyant bailers; two sponges; two sea anchors each with a shock resistant hawser and tripping line, one being spare and the other permanently attached to the life raft in such a way that when the life raft inflates or is waterborne it will cause the life raft to lie oriented to the wind in the most stable manner. The strength of each sea anchor and its hawser and tripping line shall be adequate for all sea conditions. The sea anchors shall have means to prevent twisting of the line and shall be of a type which is unlikely to turn inside out between its shroud lines. The sea anchors permanently attached to davit launched liferafts and liferafts fitted on passenger ships shall be arranged for manual deployment only. All other liferafts are to have the sea anchor deployed automatically when liferaft inflates; two buoyant paddles; three tin openers and a pair of scissors. (Safety knives containing special tinopener blades are satisfactory for this requirement); one first-aid outfit in a waterproof case capable of being closed tightly after use; one whistle or equivalent sound signal; four rocket parachute flares; six hand flares; two buoyant smoke signals; one waterproof electric torch suitable for Morse signalling together with one spare set of batteries and one spare bulb in a waterproof container; an efficient radar reflector; one daylight signalling mirror with instructions on its use for signalling to ships and aircraft; one copy of the life-saving signals on a waterproof card or in a waterproof container; one set of fishing tackle; a food ration totalling not less than 10,000 kj for each person the life raft is permitted to accommodate; these rations shall be kept in airtight packaging and be stowed in a watertight container; watertight receptacles containing a total of 1.5 litres (2.7 pints) of fresh water for each person the life raft is permitted to accommodate, of which 0.5 litres (0.9 pints) per person may be replaced by a de-salting apparatus capable of producing an equal amount of fresh water in 2 days. one rustproof drinking vessel; six doses of anti-seasickness medicine and one seasickness bag for each person the life raft is permitted to accommodate;

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17. 18. 19.

20. 21.

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22. instructions on how to survive; 23. instructions for immediate action; 24. thermal protective aids for 10% of the number of persons the life raft is permitted to accommodate or two, whichever is the greater. b) The marking required on life rafts equipped in accordance with sub-paragraph (a) above shall be "SOLAS A PACK" in block capitals of the Roman alphabet.

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c) In the case of passenger ships engaged on short international voyages of such a nature and duration that, in the opinion of the Administration, not alt the items specified in sub-paragraph (a) above are necessary, the Administration may allow the life rafts carried on any such ships to be provided with the equipment specified in sub-paragraphs (a)1 to 6 inclusive, (a)8, (a)9, (a)13 to 16 inclusive and (a)21 to 24 inclusive and one half of the equipment specified in sub-paragraphs (a)10 to 12 inclusive. The marking required on such life rafts shall be "SOLAS B PACK" in block capitals of the Roman alphabet.

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d) Where appropriate the equipment shall be stowed in a container which, if it is not an integral part of, or permanently attached to, the life raft, shall be stowed and secured inside the life raft and be capable of floating in water for at least 30 minutes without damage to its contents.

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Many features concerning the stay in a lifeboat, as mentioned in the previous section, is also valid when staying in an inflatable liferaft. However there are special conditions relating to the liferaft and you should carefully read the instructions found in any liferaft.

a) b) c) d)

Cut the painter, using the knife placed on the upper tube. Use the paddles to get away from ship. Look out for and pick up other survivors using the rescue line and quoit. Throw out the drogue. Safety valve whistling. Close the safety valve with the rubber plug, as soon as the overpressure has declined. Further instructions

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Immediate precautions when entering the liferaft

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LIFERAFT MAINTENANCE

5.4.1.

Onboard maintenance

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5.4.

Servicing

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HYDROSTATIC RELEASE UNIT (HRU)

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HRU FUNCTION STEP BY STEP

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SECTION 6 RESCUE METHODS AND SIGNALS Table of contents Page FURTHER INFORMATION ...........................................................................2

6.2.

USE OF ROCKET LINE THROWING APPARATUS & SHORE BREECHES BUOY.......................................................................................2

6.2.1.

Aiming with the line throwing appliance.........................................................2

6.3.

SHIP TO SHIP USE OF LINE THROWING APPARATUS ...........................4

6.4.

HELICOPTER RESCUE OPERATIONS.......................................................5

6.5.

MAN-OVER-BOARD SITUATION ................................................................7

6.6.

RESCUE SIGNALS.......................................................................................7

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FURTHER INFORMATION

Detailed procedures for various survival methods are given in Notice No.4 of the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. 6.2.

USE OF ROCKET LINE THROWING APPARATUS & SHORE BREECHES BUOY

Every ship is provided with a line-throwing appliance, which must: Be capable of throwing a line with reasonable accuracy. Include not less than four projectiles, each capable of carrying the line at least 203m in calm weather. Include not less than four lines, each having a breaking strength of not less than 2 kN, Have brief instructions or diagrams clearly illustrating the use of the line-throwing appliance.

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There are two main types of approved line-throwing appliances:

Line and rocket in one container. Pistol or rifle fired rocket with the line in a separate container.

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The line throwing appliance is used: 1. during rescue operations for establishing connection between the rescue vessel and the ship in distress for : a) towage assistance b) evacuation of persons c) rigging of breeches buoy 2. When mooring under difficult circumstances. 3. In man-over-board situations. The rocket is fired in such a way that the line will fall very close to the person in the water. Aiming with the line throwing appliance

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1.

In calm weather or in following wind or headwind you should aim straight at the target. You have to calculate with some increase or decrease of the distance in case of following wind or headwind respectively.

In strong side wind you should aim at the leeward side of the target as the wind pressure on the line will steer the rocket towards the wind. If the distance to the target is close to the maximum range of the rocket – 230 m – you should aim at the windward of the target as the wind pressure will affect the rocket when its speed decreases and draws it to leeward.

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If a ship has run aground or has been stranded near the coast the crew can be rescued from the shore if conditions are favourable. Should your vessel carry a line-throwing appliance, it may be preferable to use this and fire a line ashore, but this should not be done without first consulting the rescue company on shore.

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If this method is used, the rocket line may not be of sufficient strength to haul out the whip and jackstay and those on shore will secure it to a stouter rocket line. When this is done, they will signal as indicated in the life-saving signals table. On seeing the signal, haul in the line, which was fired from the vessel, until the stouter line is on board. Then, when the rocket line is held, make the appropriate signal to the shore and proceed as follows:

When you see the appropriate signal, i.e. 'haul away', made from the shore, haul in the line until you get hold of a tail block with an in-and-out runner attached to it. ii. Fasten the tail block in a safe position well above the deck. When the tail block has been fastened and the rocket line has been loosened from it, make sure that the in-andout runner runs freely through the block and give the affirmative signal to the shore as before. iii. A hawser is attached to the runner on the shore and hauled out to the ship. Fasten the end of the hawser half a meter above the tail block. Then loosen the outhaul from the hawser and give the signal as before. iv. A breeches buoy fastened to the hawser is hauled from the shore to the ship. Place one person in the breeches buoy and give the signal as before, and now those ashore can haul in the breeches buoy. This operation will be repeated until all persons are landed. v. If the hawser cannot be used the breeches buoy is hauled in and out by means only of the runner.

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If the life saving station is using a rubber life raft this is hauled to and from between the ship and the coast by means of the in and outhaul line until all have been saved. In addition it may, of course, be possible to dispatch a rescue vessel from land to the ship in distress.

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SHIP TO SHIP USE OF LINE THROWING APPARATUS

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HELICOPTER RESCUE OPERATIONS

Further information and checklists can be obtained from the ICS publication “Guide to helicopter/ship operations”. Rescue by helicopter is used both when rescuing badly injured persons and when rescuing the whole crew from the ship or the survival crafts. A helicopter might use singlelift, doublelift, basketlift or stretcherlift.

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Single lift is typical rescue sling. Approach the sling in a way so that it always is between you and the hoist. The sling is to be put under the armpits and the straps to be tightened. Double lift. When using doublelift the helicopter sends a rescuer down to put the sling around the person to be rescued.

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Basket lift: When using a basketlift, the person has to sit down, with arms and legs inside the basket. The head to be bended towards the knees, the hands around the knees. Keep still till the basketlift is onboard the helicopter.

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Stretcherlift: When rescuing badly injured persons stretcher lifts are used. A tiller rope is often used for as well stretcher as basket lifts in order to keep the stretcher or the basket clear of obstacles. The tiller rope must never be made fast onboard the ship. In big ships the injured persons most often can be rescued from the deck. In small ships a raft is put out aft. If practicable a member of the crew should be in the raft besides the patient in order to assist during the picking up. When the rescuing is carried out from a liferaft the roof must be deflated and all on board must sit down on the roof. When rescuing from lifeboats, masts, antennas, etc. should be laid down.

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Remember, it is always for the pilot of the helicopter to decide how the operation has to be carried out.

Under good weather conditions the helicopter can land on the water and the rescuing can be made from here.

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The following signals are used for communication with the crew of the helicopter: Hoist: Arms raised above horizontally – thumbs up.

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Do not hoist: Arms extended horizontally – fists clenched – thumbs down.

Special precautions during night operations It is very important to switch on as much light as possible onboard the ship in order to facilitate the identification of the ship and illuminate the pick-up area and possible obstacles. Under no circumstances must lights be directed towards the helicopter as this will blind the crew.

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The Master should ensure that the vessel is steady on a course such that the relative wind is 30° on the bow.

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The following are basic guidelines for use in such operations.

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DO NOT touch the winchman, stretcher or winch hook until it has been earthed. DO NOT secure any lines passed down from helicopter. DO NOT fire rockets or use line throwing appliances in vicinity of helicopter. DO NOT transmit on the vessel's main radio whilst winching is in progress DO NOT shine light at the helicopter at night. DO

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steer with wind 30° on: Port bow if rescue area is aft. Starboard bow if rescue area is forward. clear rescue area, secure all loose gear and remove all aerials. fly flag (illuminated at night) to indicate wind direction. illuminate rescue area at night. wear rubber gloves when handling winch wire.

One of the following rescue methods may be employed: i) ii)

The helicopter may land on deck. A helicopter crewman may be lowered on a wire with a strιp, which is the secured to the survivor - both are then winched back to the helicopter. iii) The strip only may be lowered for the survivor to don himself.

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MAN-OVER-BOARD SITUATION

6.6.

RESCUE SIGNALS

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PART B – FIRE FIGHTING TRAINING MANUAL

Sections Theory of fire / explosion

2.

Sources of ignition

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Types of fire and extinction methods

4.

General fire precautions

5.

Alarms, fire drills and fire control plans

6.

Actions in the event of fire

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Fire extinguishing media

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Fire extinguishers

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Fireman’s outfit

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Breathing apparatus

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Fire hoses, hydrants, nozzles and accessories

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Fire doors, flaps/dampers, electrical stops & quick closing devices

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INTRODUCTION

Purpose of the Fire Fighting Training Manual The first consideration of the Master, Officers and crew members must be the safety of the lives on board and of the avoidance of property loss. It is well known that the fire consists a very serious risk for all ships and therefore Officers and crew members must be well trained and at every time ready to deal immediately and effectively with the fire.

− − − − −

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The main fire safety objectives are to: Prevent the occurrence of fire and explosion. Reduce the risk to life caused by fire. Reduce the risk of damage caused by fire to the ship, its cargo and the environment. Contain, control and suppress fire and explosion in the compartment of origin. Provide adequate and readily accessible means of escape for crew.

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In order to attain the highest possible fire safety standards, apart from the adequate and proper equipment and means, precondition is the participation of well-trained crew.

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SOLAS/Ch.II-2/Part E/Reg.15.2.3.4 and MSC/Circ.850 recognizing that the training is the most important parameter in the fire protection requires the provision of a training manual in each crew mess room and re-creation room or in each crew cabin. According to the SOLAS Convention requirements, the training manual shall explain the following in detail: Training Manual para.

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SOLAS Chapter II-2 Reg.15.2.3.4

2, 3, 4

2. General instructions on fire-fighting activities and fire-fighting procedures including procedures for notification of a fire and use of manually operated call points.

5, 6, 5.1.2

3. Identification of the ship’s alarms.

5.1

4. Operation and use of fire-fighting systems and appliances.

7, 8, 11

5. Operation and use of fire doors.

12.1

6. Operation and use of fire and smoke dampers

12.2

7. Escape systems and appliances.

9, 10

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1. General fire safety practices and precautions related to the dangers of smoking, electrical hazards, flammable liquids, cargo handling operations and similar common shipboard hazards.

Furthermore cargo operational information and instructions in relation to fire safety, as required by SOLAS Ch. II-2 Reg.16.2, are set out in Chapter 4 of this part. Issue No. 1

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Regulations and publications This Fire Fighting Training Manual is to be read in conjunction with the latest editions of following publications:

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Company’s Safe Management System (S.M.S) Manual and fleet circulars (if any) on the subjects of fire safety, safe operation of the ship and cargo handling operations in relation to fire safety, crew’s responsibilities for the general fire safety of the ship while loading and discharging cargo and while under way, fire safety precautions for handling general cargoes. SOLAS as amended. International Code for Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code). MARPOL as amended. International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code) International Bulk Chemical Code. International Gas Carrier Code Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations. Relevant Marine Notices issued by Flag Administration (if any).

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

fire mains, fire pumps and hydrants, including hoses, nozzles and international shore connections; fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems; fixed fire-extinguishing systems and other fire-extinguishing appliances; automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm systems; ventilation system, including fire and smoke dampers, fans and their controls; emergency shutdown of fuel supply; fire doors, including their controls; general emergency alarm systems; emergency escape breathing devices; portable fire extinguishers, including spare charges; and fire-fighter’s outfits

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Maintenance Maintenance, testing and inspections as described in Company’s S.M.S Manual and Forms are to be carried out in order to ensure the reliability of fire-fighting systems and appliances and include the following fire protection systems and fire-fighting systems and appliances (where installed) :

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Availability of fire safety training manual This Manual is to be made available to all Officers and crew. According to SOLAS/Ch.II-2/Part. E/Reg 15.2.3 copies are to be kept at each crew mess room. An extra copy is available in Master’s Office. All newly joined crew should be instructed to familiarize themselves with the contents as soon as possible after joining the ship. It is pointed out that the reading of this Manual must be supplemented with practical, thorough drills, familiarization by using the relevant means and equipment available on board.

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Training Avoidance of fire accidents and successful response to an emergency situation is entirely dependent on the level of training achieved and the Master is to personally concern himself with all aspects of Shipboard training in fire safety procedures and in the use of fire safety equipment. Exercises and drills should be conducted in a realistic manner against imaginary or simulated situations.

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SECTION 1 THEORY OF FIRE / EXPLOSION

Table of contents Page GENERAL .......................................................................................................2

1.1.

EVAPORATION ..............................................................................................2

1.2.

COMBUSTION ................................................................................................2

1.3.

THE FIRE TRIANGLE.....................................................................................2

1.3.1.

The fire tetrahedron.........................................................................................3

1.3.2.

Destroying the fire tetrahedron ........................................................................3

1.4.

EXPLOSION....................................................................................................5

1.5.

FLASH POINT.................................................................................................5

1.6.

THE AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE.........................................................5

1.7.

EXPLOSIVE COMBUSTION OF GASES AND VAPOURS............................6

1.8.

FIRE SPREADING ..........................................................................................7

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GENERAL

This section is dealing with fire/explosion theory the knowledge of which is considered useful for seafarers, in order to make them able to take all necessary preventing and fighting measures and above of all to protect their own lives and the ship. 1.1.

EVAPORATION

1.2.

COMBUSTION

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Is the process during which a substance or mixture turns from the liquid state into the gaseous state (vapour). This change needs energy consumption. So, for evaporation heat is necessary.

Is the reaction of a combustible (inflammable) substance or mixture with oxygen under development of fire and heat. Consequently, it is an exothermic reaction whereby the inflammable substance combines with oxygen and other substances are generated.

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The combustion takes place on the interface of the inflammable substance and air, mostly in the form of a flame. For maintaining the combustion a certain relation between inflammable substance and oxygen is required. The quantity of energy or heat, which is set free, varies. To start combustion, the inflammable substance must be ignited. For this purpose a certain temperature is necessary (minimum ignition or combustion temperature) as well as sufficient energy. The three elements involved (fuel, heat and oxygen) are often shown as the three sides of a triangle. These three components are inter-dependent on each other and therefore if any one of the components is removed combustion cannot take place. THE FIRE TRIANGLE

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1.3.

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The fuel for a fire can be in the form of flammable solids, liquids or gases. Liquid fuels burn more intensely than solid fuels because they are more easily vaporised. The vapour from a liquid fuel is also heavier than air. It is extremely dangerous because it will seek low places, dissipate slowly and travel to distant sources of ignition. Flammable gases are already in the vapour state required for combustion or explosion. All they require for ignition is intermixing with oxygen and a source of heat. Air contains the oxygen necessary for burning, and ignition heat is present in many forms aboard vessels, including flame, spark, friction and spontaneous or internal combustion.

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The fire tetrahedron

Destroying the fire tetrahedron

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There is a fourth ingredient necessary for fire, however, and the "fire tetrahedron" more accurately demonstrates the combustion process. A tetrahedron is a solid figure with four triangular faces. It shows the four things required for combustion: fuel (to vaporise and burn), oxygen (to combine with the fuel vapour), heat (to raise the vapour to its ignition temperature) and the chain reaction (the chemical reaction among the fuel, oxygen and heat).

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A fire can be put out by destroying the fire tetrahedron. If the fuel, oxygen or heat is removed, the fire will die out, if the chain reactions is broken, the reduction in vapour and heat will put out the fire, although cooling with water may be needed where smouldering or reflash is a possibility.

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Removing the fuel. Theoretically, you could put out a fire by physically dragging the fuel away from the source of the heat, like some one pulling a log out of a campfire. While this may be rarely practical, it is often possible to move nearby sources of fuel so the fire cannot expand beyond what is already being consumed. In fire fuelled by liquids or gases, it may be possible to extinguish the fire by cutting off the fuel supply. When a leaky hydraulic or diesel line is feeding a fire, for example, closing the proper valve can put it out. If a pump is supplying liquid fuel to a fire in the engine room, the pump can be shut down. Both ways the source of the fuel is removed and the fire is extinguished. Fire in a defective fuel burner can be brought under control and put out by closing the supply valve. Fire involving acetylene or propane can often be put out by shutting the valve on the cylinder. Removing the oxygen. A fire can be put out by removing its oxygen, or by lowering the oxygen level in the air to less than 16%. For example, extinguishing agents like carbon dioxide or foam smother a fire by depriving it of oxygen.

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In open areas, smothering a fire is hard (but not impossible) because the smothering agents are quickly scattered. Carbon dioxide is rapidly blown away from an open deck, for example, especially if the vessel is underway. On the other hand, fire in a galley trash can be snuffed out simply by placing a cover tightly over the can, thus blocking the flow of air to the fire. As the fire consumes the oxygen in the can, it becomes starved for oxygen and puts itself out. To put out a fire in an enclosed compartment, engine room or cargo tanks, the space can be flooded with carbon dioxide. When the carbon dioxide enters the space and mixes with the air, the percentage of oxygen in the air is reduced below 16%, and the fire goes out. For this method to work, however, the space must be completely sealed to keep fresh air out.

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Removing the heat. The most common method of putting out fires is to remove the heat by attacking the firebase with water. An excellent heat absorber, water destroys the ability of a fire to sustain itself by cooling the fuel and by absorbing radiant heat from flame. The chain reaction is indirectly attacked both on the fuel surface and at the flames. The production of vapour and radiant heat is reduced and continued water rill control and put out the fire.

Stability hazard: the use of large quantities of water to fight fire may jeopardise the stability of the vessel. "Dewatering techniques", discussed later, must be commenced immediately when large quantities of water are used. When the fire is attacked with hose line, water must first be sprayed onto the main body of the fire to achieve the quickest possible heat reduction, and water spray can be a highly effective cooling agent. To put out the fire completely, water must then be applied to the seat or base of the fire. Breaking the chain reaction. Breaking the chain reaction permits a fire to be put out rapidly. The extinguishing agents most often used to attack the chain reaction and stop combustion are dry chemicals and Halon substitutes. These agents attack the Issue No. 1

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molecular structure of compounds formed during the chain reaction and reduce the flame-producing capability of the fire. Keep in mind that these agents do not cool a smouldering fire or a liquid whose container has been heated above the liquid's ignition temperature. In these cases, the extinguishing agent must be maintained on the fire until the fuel has cooled down or the fire will re-ignite. Otherwise, a cooling medium such as water must be used on the smouldering embers or the sides of the container.

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Warning: the use of water on electrical fires is not recommended. On electrical fires, water creates a shock hazard. On oil fires a solid stream will splash the oil, possible spreading the fire. Water fog may be used on oil fires. EXPLOSION

An explosion can be described as a sudden, violent event accompanied with noise, fire and high pressure, which has a destructive effect as follows: Physical explosion: a sudden expansion, mostly of a gas, whereby pressure increase can no longer be contained by the closed drum (steam boiler explosion, explosion of a cylinder with compressed oxygen etc).

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Chemical explosion: a rapid, exothermic chemical reaction, mostly accompanied with temperature and pressure increase and the setting free of gases, whereby energy is supplied by the reaction itself.

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Is the lowest temperature at which vapours given off by a volatile substance can be ignited in air when exposed to a flame or spark. (The lower the flash point, the greater the risk of fire). Thus for example, a liquid, which has a flash point of 35°C, is highly flammable on a hot summer day or in a hot working environment when its vapours come into contact with an open flame or spark. Two major test methods exist for the determination of the flash point of an inflammable liquid (e.g. oil product), the closedcup method, (c.c), in other words near the surface of the liquid and the open cup method. As a rule the value obtained by the open-cup method is a few degrees higher than obtained by the closed cup one. 1.6.

THE AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE

Indicates the temperature at which spontaneous combustion may occur in the absence of any flame or spark. This datum should not be confused with the flash point and there is no relationship between the flash point and the ignition temperature. The closer the auto-ignition temperature is to ambient temperature, the greater the risk of fire. In essence the auto-ignition temperature signifies the temperature at which materials must be heated in order to cause them to explode or ignite. It is therefore important to realize that ignition can be caused by hot surfaces such as cookers or steam pipes in addition to an exposed flame, sparks or static electricity. Therefore consideration to the presence of flammable material must be given before any hot work (work requiring the use of welding, burning or soldering equipment, blow torches, power-driven tools, portable electrical equipment etc.) is approved. Issue No. 1

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EXPLOSIVE COMBUSTION OF GASES AND VAPOURS

Explosive limits: As regards the explosion hazards of liquid petroleum or other flammable products in bulk we are especially interested in the explosive reactions which may occur in gas mixtures consisting of vapour (gas) and air.

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When an inflammable gas (vapour) is mixed with air, an explosive mixture may develop. However, this is not always the case. At very low vapour concentrations no fast reaction will take place, although sufficient oxygen is present for this reaction. The quantity of heat, which is developed, is so small that it cannot ignite the next gas zone. This means that the reaction stops by itself and no explosion takes place: the mixture is too “poor”. When the vapour concentration is increased, there will be an explosion at a certain critical vapour/air ratio. This is the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). The lowest concentration at which a gas (vapour) can still just be brought to explosion. At very high vapour concentrations (too “rich” mixtures) the quantity of oxygen will be too small to maintain the combustion; the reaction cannot propagate through the whole mixture.

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Consequently, there are two explosion limits as follows:

Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) The concentration of a flammable gas (e.g hydrocarbon) in air above which there is insufficient oxygen to support and propagate combustion. Sometimes referred to as upper flammable limit (UFL).

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Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) The concentration of a flammable gas (e.g hydrocarbon) in air below which there is insufficient flammable gas to support and propagate combustion. Sometimes referred to as lower flammable limit (LFL).

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The explosive limits are usually expressed in volume per cents (%) in air or in gr (of gas) per m3 air or in gr (of gas) per kg air. From the (LEL) explosion is getting more violent as the gas concentration increases, when the (UEL) is approached the violence of the explosion decreases.

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It is noted that if the initial pressure is one atmosphere (1 atm) during the explosion the pressure is 7-8 times more e.g. about 7-8 atm. Although at vapour concentrations above the Upper Explosive Limit no explosions can take place, special attention has to be paid to vapour/air mixtures of high concentrations. In the first place, these will behave as an inflammable gas while, secondly, on the supply of air a dilution develops, as a result of which the vapour concentration may lie again within the explosive range. Above a tank filled with an inflammable liquid, (e.g. crude oil), which is in open contact with its surroundings, a situation will arise. The Fig.3, 4 and 5 in the end of this section contain some diagrams referred to explosive limits, explosion areas, in relation to various gas concentrations. The explosive range in air of the various products is dependent on the chemical properties of them, and in particular of:

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1) The quantity of oxygen needed for combustion. 2) The energy of the source of ignition. 3) The energy set free on the reaction.

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FIRE/EXPLOSION TRIANGLE

FIRE SPREADING

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If a fire is attacked quickly and effectively, it can usually be contained and extinguished. If it is allowed to burn freely, however, it will generate great amounts of heat that can spread throughout the vessel and ignite new fires wherever fuel and oxygen are present.

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Additionally, the heat, flame, smoke and gases associated with the pose many health hazards. Crewmen fighting a fire should utilise all available protective clothing and respiratory equipment, and should stay low and retreat to fresh air before they are overcome.

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Every fire has in effect six sides and may be spread by conduction, convection, radiation or direct burning. Fire may also be spread via air-conditioning and heating ducts, ceiling voids and circuits.

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Conduction: Occurs most readily in solids. A steel bulkhead, for example, will readily conduct heat and fire on one side may quickly ignite paint or other materials in contact with the other side of the bulkhead.

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Convection: a) Currents can circulate in liquids or gases due to density differences as a result of heating. b) In fire, convection currents can convey hot gases produced by combustion upwards e.g., through liftshafts and stairwells. Radiation: Radiation may be regarded as rays of heat travelling through space without necessarily heating anything during their transmission until the rays are absorbed by something that they strike e.g., the heating effect of the sun. Prevention of fire spread can be achieved by any, or a combination of the following ‫׃‬ a) Surrounding the firewater curtains. This technique is more applicable to fire in large spaces or open locations. b) Cooling the adjacent surfaces such as bulkheads, decks and deckheads. c) Removing combustible materials from adjacent areas or compartments.

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Direct burning: Occurs where combustible materials give off sufficient vapour to encourage combustion to continue when coming into contact with naked flame e.g. mattress being exposed to a lighted cigarette.

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EXPLOSIVE RANGE

-100

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INFLAMMABLE GAS

U. E. L.

EXPLOSION

L.E.L SAFE

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VAPOUR CONCENTRATIONS ABOVE A TANK

100 % AIR

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UNDER L.E.L.

EXPLOSIVE RANGE

SATURATED VAPOUR

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ABOVE U.E.L

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LIQUID

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SECTION 2 SOURCES OF IGNITION Table of contents Page GENERAL .......................................................................................................2

2.2

OPEN FIRE .....................................................................................................2

2.3

HOT SURFACES ............................................................................................2

2.4

MECHANICAL SPARKS ................................................................................2

2.5

ELECTRIC SPARKS AND STRAY CURRENTS............................................2

2.6

STATIC ELECTRICITY ...................................................................................3

2.7

SPACE HEATERS ..........................................................................................4

2.8

STOWAGE ......................................................................................................4

2.9

UNSAFE BURNING AND WELDING PRACTICES........................................5

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GENERAL

For igniting a combustible material or a vapour/air mixture, so that an explosive combustion starts, very little energy is needed. This energy must be supplied in a suitable form from the outside and, besides, must have a certain temperature level. The energy, which is needed, can be compared with the energy necessary to let a small bicycle lamp burn during a fraction of a second!! A short review of the various sources of ignition is given below. 2.2

OPEN FIRE

2.3

HOT SURFACES

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This does not need any further explanation. Examples: cigarette, matches, burners, stoves, flame, welding-sparks, glowing particles from exhaust pipes and chimneys.

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An explosive mixture will ignite of itself when heated to the auto-ignition temperature. For most products this is 400-600 0C, however, for some this temperature is much lower. Sources: not insulated steam-pipes, electric bulbs, engine hot parts. MECHANICAL SPARKS

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At the mutual dragging and rubbing of hard materials, but especially of metals, heat and sparks develop, because small, hot metal parts spring loose. Examples: grinding, tacks in shoes, metal to metal contact, metal to stone contact, steel doors, nonsparkless tools, etc. With light metals (aluminium, magnesium) sparks will not easily develop, as these metals are too soft. However, at the rubbing of such light metals across rusty iron, very easily sparks with a big igniting power develop (also in case the rusty steel is covered with aluminium paint). Sparkless material (copper alloys and high alloy steel) can form so-called low-energetic sparks which do not have sufficient igniting power; under certain circumstances they can strike sparks out of another metal. 2.5

ELECTRIC SPARKS AND STRAY CURRENTS

During the closing or breaking of an electric circuit, sparks develop. Examples: switch, loose lamp, breakage of cables, short-circuit, bad contacts, earthing, non-explosion proof engines, lighting, etc. The breaking of connections in case of a so-called impressed current for cathodic protection can involve the risk of sparks, while uncontrolled electric stray currents can develop in the case of cathodic protection of jetties or ship.

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STATIC ELECTRICITY

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SPACE HEATERS

2.8

STOWAGE

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UNSAFE BURNING AND WELDING PRACTICES

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2.9

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SECTION 3 TYPES OF FIRE AND EXTINCTION METHODS

Table of contents Page COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL FIRES .................................................................2

3.2

LIQUID PETROLEUM FIRES ...........................................................................2

3.3

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) FIRES.................................................3

3.4

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FIRES..................................................................3

3.5

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES...........................................................................3

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3.1

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The most common types of fire are as follows: COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL FIRES

3.2

LIQUID PETROLEUM FIRES

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LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) FIRES

3.4

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FIRES

3.5

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES

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To put out a fire successfully, you need to use the most suitable type of extinguishing agent -one that will do the job in the least amount of time, cause the least amount of damage and result in the least danger to crew members. The job of picking the proper agent has been made easier by the classification of fires into four types, or classes, lettered A through D. Within each class are all fires involving materials with similar burning properties and requiring similar extinguishing agents. However, most fuels are found in combinations, and electrical fires always involve some solid fuel. Thus, for fire fighting purposes, there are actually seven possible fire classes. Knowledge of these classes is essential to fire fighting, as well as knowing the burning characteristics of materials found aboard vessels. CLASS “A” FIRES Fires involving solid materials normally of an organic nature, in which combustion generally occur with the formation of glowing embers. Fires of common combustible solids such as wood, paper, cloth and plastic are best put out by water or a cooling agent. Foam and certain dry chemicals, which act mainly as smothering or chain breaking agents, may also be used.

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CLASS "B” FIRES Fires involving liquids which produce flammable vapours such as paints, oils and spirits, and includes liquefiable solids such as fats and waxes. For oil, grease and gas fires, and other substances that give off large amounts of flammable vapours, a smothering agent is best for the job. Water, dry chemical, foam and carbon dioxide (CO2) may be used. However, if the fire is being supplied with fuel by an open valve or a broken pipe, a valve on the supply side must be shut down to stop the fuel supply. This may put the fire out by itself, or at least make it easier to put out and allow the use of much less extinguishing agent.

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In a gas fire, it is imperative to shut down the control valve before you extinguish the fire. Attempting to put the fire out without shutting down the valve permits flammable gas to continue escaping and creates an explosive hazard that is more dangerous than the fire itself. It may be necessary to put out a gas fire before shutting down the fuel supply in order to save a life or to reach the control valve, but these are the only exceptions.

CLASS “C” FIRES

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Combination Class A and B fires - Water fog and foam may be used to smother fires involving both solid fuels and flammable liquids or gases: These agents also have some cooling effect on the fire. In closed spaces, carbon dioxide may also be used to put out such fires.

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Certain chemicals are included in this class of fire and many of these give off highly toxic product of combustion. For fires involving energised electrical equipment, conductors or appliances, no conducting extinguishing agents (CO2, Halon substitutes and dry chemical) must be used, although dry chemical will ruin electronic equipment. Always try to de-energise the circuit to remove the chance of shock and the source of ignition.

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Combination Class A and C fires - Because energised electrical equipment is involved in these fires, no conducting extinguishing agents must be used. Carbon dioxide, Halon substitutes and dry chemicals are the best. Dioxide reduces the oxygen supply, while the others break the chain reaction. Always try to de-energise the circuit. Combination Class B and C fires - Here again, a no conducting agent is required. Fires involving flammable liquids or gases and electrical equipment may be extinguished with Halon substitutes or dry chemical acting as a chain reaction breaker. In closed spaces, they may be extinguished with CO2.

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CLASS “D” FIRES Fires involving metals. Sodium, potassium and magnesium are ignitable and burn vigorously. Electrical fires, do not constitute a class, since any fire involving or started by electrical equipment must be class A, B or D. These fires may involve combustible metals such as potassium, sodium, and their alloys, and magnesium, zinc, zirconium, titanium and powdered aluminium. They burn on the metal surface at a very high temperature, often with a brilliant flame.

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Water should not be used on Class D fires. It may add to the intensity or cause the molten metal to splatter. This, in turn, can extend the fire and inflict serious burns on those near by.

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Fires in combustible metals can be smothered and controlled with special agents known as dry powders. Dry powders are not the same as dry chemicals, although many people use the terms interchangeably. The agents are used on entirely different types of fires: dry powders are used only to put out combustible-metal fires; dry chemicals may be used on other fires, but not on Class D fires.

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SECTION 4 GENERAL FIRE PRECAUTIONS

Table of contents Page

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GENERAL .....................................................................................................3 AWARENESS ...............................................................................................3 SMOKING .....................................................................................................4 MACHINERY.................................................................................................5 ELECTRICAL................................................................................................6 Faulty electric circuits and equipment...........................................................6 Exposed light bulbs.......................................................................................8 Charging storage batteries............................................................................9 Electric motors ..............................................................................................9 Engine rooms................................................................................................9 SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION ...............................................................10 GALLEYS....................................................................................................11 EXPLOSION PREVENTION .......................................................................12 Elimination of sources of ignition ...................Error! Bookmark not defined. Explosive mixtures made non-flammable......Error! Bookmark not defined. Technical measures to restrict the effect of an explosion. ..........................13 GOOD HOUSEKEEPING............................................................................13 CARGO HANDLING OPERATIONS IN RELATION TO FIRE SAFETY ....14 Dangerous cargoes .....................................................................................14 Stowage.......................................................................................................16 OTHER FIRE PRECAUTIONS....................................................................19 Paint and Paint Stores.................................................................................19 Auto-Ignition ................................................................................................19 Electrical Storms (Lightning)........................................................................19 Impact Sparks..............................................................................................19 Friction.........................................................................................................20 Pyrophoric Ignition.......................................................................................20 Tumble Dryers .............................................................................................20 Oxygen and Acetylene Cylinders ................................................................21 Funnel Sparks .............................................................................................21 FIRE PRECAUTIONS WHEN VESSEL IS UNDER REPAIR .....................21 Patrol System ..............................................................................................21 Time Clocks.................................................................................................21 Hazardous Work..........................................................................................21 Water Supply to Ship's Main .......................................................................21

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4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.5.1. 4.5.2. 4.5.3. 4.5.4 4.5.5 4.6. 4.7. 4.8. 4.8.1. 4.8.2. 4.8.3. 4.9. 4.10. 4.10.1. 4.10.2. 4.11. 4.11.1. 4.11.2. 4.11.3. 4.11.4. 4.11.5. 4.11.6. 4.11.7. 4.11.8. 4.11.9. 4.12. 4.12.1. 4.12.2. 4.12.3. 4.12.4.

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4.14. 4.14.1. 4.14.2. 4.14.3. 4.14.4. 4.14.5. 4.14.6. 4.14.7. 4.15. 4.15.1. 4.15.2. 4.15.3. 4.15.4. 4.15.5. 4.15.6. 4.16. 4.16.1. 4.16.2. 4.16.3. 4.16.4. 4.16.5. 4.16.6. 4.16.7. 4.16.8. 4.17. 4.17.1. 4.17.2. 4.17.3. 4.17.4. 4.17.5. 4.17.6. 4.17.7. 4.17.8. 4.17.9.

FIRE PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN WHEN VESSEL IS NOT IN COMMISSION ............................................................................................22 HOT WORK.................................................................................................22 General........................................................................................................22 Hazard appreciation ....................................................................................22 General restrictions .....................................................................................23 Responsibilities ...........................................................................................23 Special precautions .....................................................................................23 Gas detection ..............................................................................................24 General Precautions during Welding & Cutting Procedures........................24 GAS DETECTION .......................................................................................25 Instruments .................................................................................................25 Instrument calibration..................................................................................26 Oxygen analysers .......................................................................................26 Limits of flammability...................................................................................26 Catalytic filament combustible gas indicator ...............................................26 Non-catalytic heated filament gas indicator ................................................26 ENTRY INTO ENCLOSED SPACES ..........................................................27 Responsibility..............................................................................................27 Oxygen deficiency.......................................................................................27 Gas tests for entry.......................................................................................27 Ventilation ...................................................................................................28 Entry procedures.........................................................................................28 Enclosed space entry check list..................................................................28 Opening up equipment and pipelines .........................................................29 Entry into non-gas free spaces ...................................................................29 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ..................................................29 Master and officers duties...........................................................................29 Crew member duties...................................................................................30 Routes of exposure.....................................................................................30 Types of equipment ....................................................................................31 Head protection. (Safety Helmets)..............................................................31 Hearing protection.......................................................................................32 Face and eye protection .............................................................................32 Respiratory protective equipment ...............................................................33 Breathing apparatus....................................................................................34

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GENERAL

The prevention of the fire on board ship is of utmost importance. Below, you can find some useful instructions and organizational measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of fire. The following instructions are addressed to all crew members. 4.2.

AWARENESS

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Constant awareness of the danger of fire is the responsibility of each and every crewman. Stated differently, carelessness is a chief cause of vessel fires. Each crewman should be alerted to common fire hazards and taught how to eliminate them. Each crewman should be advised as to his duties in the event of fire, and should be aware of all means of escape from interior spaces in case a fire occurs.

Most important - Identify hazards to all concerned and know the safety and emergency procedures associated with them. - The Duty Officer or other person when carrying out rounds must be observant and report suspicious smells, leaks from pipes or tanks, any electrical machinery that appears to be overheating and any wrongly stowed flammables. - Check for items wrongly stowed in places such as mast houses, funnel uptakes, small machinery compartments and other convenient places. - Report any fire fighting or safety equipment that is missing.

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Some main areas of concern are the following: - Bottom of lift shafts. - Stores. - Near incinerators. - Laundries and drying rooms. - Oil spills. - Wastepaper baskets not emptied. - Galley exhaust ducts. - Combustible material near heat sources. - Clothes hanging over cookers or heaters

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SMOKING

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Smoking must be prohibited throughout the ship whenever there is the probability of high concentration of flammable gas in the vicinity of the accommodation areas. The Master should give careful consideration to those places in which smoking is normally permitted and exclude any with doors or ports which open directly onto or over a tank deck.

There may however, be occasions when due to the nature of the cargo being transferred or other factors, a total prohibition of smoking may be necessary.

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The heat from a cigarette can cause decomposition of some chemical vapours and produce vapour more harmful than the original. Smoking in bed is strictly forbidden. All Officers and crew must strictly comply with Company’s Smoking policy.

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Conspicuous warning notices should be displayed in every part of the ship where smoking is forbidden (permanently or temporarily) and observance of them should be strictly enforced. Ashtrays or other suitable containers should be provided. Careless smoking is a key fire hazard. Cigarettes and matches must be properly disposed of, in non-combustible receptacles. Ashtrays should be emptied into metal containers with lids, not cardboard boxes used as trash containers. Smoking in bed should be prohibited and used at places where smoking is authorized.

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MACHINERY

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4.5.1. Faulty electric circuits and equipment

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For properly insulated and wired equipment, electricity is a safe and convenient source of power. When electrical equipment wears out, is misused or is poorly wired, electrical energy can turn to heat, and fire may be the result.

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Especially in the harsh environment at sea, electrical equipment must be installed, maintained, tested and repaired by qualified personnel. Standard home or industrial electrical equipment has no place on the ocean. The salt air causes corrosion, and a steel hull can cause erratic operation or short-circuiting. The result may be overheating or arcing in equipment or wiring and the ignition of flammable materials nearby. Approved marine electrical equipment is specially made for shipboard use. Given the right maintenance, it will withstand the hard life at sea. Thus, only approved equipment and replacement parts should be used aboard your vessel, and only in the manner for which they have been approved. The insulation on electrical wiring, like that used for appliances, electric hand tools and drop lights, does not last forever. With age and use, it can become brittle and crack. Or, it may be rubbed-through or broken by abuse or vibration. No matter how it happens, the result of damaged insulation is dangerous bare wire. A single exposed wire can arc to any metal object. Two exposed wires can touch and cause a short

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circuit. Either circumstance can produce enough heat to ignite the insulation on the wiring or set fire to some other nearby material. Further, if the fuse or circuit breaker is oversize, the circuit won't be broken. Instead, an increased current will flow and the entire circuit will overheat. In time, the insulation will begin to burn and ignite combustible material nearby.

All electrical appliances should be firmly secured and equipped with permanent connections whenever possible. Flexible leads should be as short as practicable and so arranged as to prevent their being chafed or cut in service. Makeshift plugs, sockets and fuses should not be used. Circuits should not be overloaded since this causes the wires to overheat, destroying insulation and thus resulting in a possible short-circuit which could start a fire. Notices should be displayed warning that approval should be obtained from a responsible Officer to connect any personal electrical appliances to the ship’s supply. All portable electrical appliances, lights etc should have insulation readings taken before initial use. If not in use appliances should be disconnected from the supply. Electrical equipment, which is to be used in any cargo area, should be of an approved design (intrinsically safe or explosion proof etc) and be properly maintained. It is important that all fixed electric heaters are fitted with suitable guards securely attached to the heater and that the guards are maintained in position at all times. Drying clothing on or above the heaters should not be permitted. Suitably designed drying equipment should be supplied, at areas designated. When using drying cabinets or similar appliances, the ventilation openings should not be obstructed by overfilling of the drying space. Any screens or fine mesh

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You can avoid this type of fire by making frequent inspections and replacing wires that are obviously defective, and by using only fuses and circuit breakers of the proper size for their circuits. Crewmen should avoid "jury-rigging" electric outlets or circuits to serve additional appliances, and should avoid overloading electric receptacles.

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4.5.2. Exposed light bulbs

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covers around the ventilation should be regularly inspected and cleaned, so that they do not become blocked by accumulated fluff or lint from clothing. 9. The use of portable heaters should be avoided wherever possible. However, if they are required while the ship is in port (as temporary heating during repairs and as additional heating during severe weather), a protective sheet of a noncombustible material should be provided to stand them on to protect wooden floors or bulkheads, carpets or linoleum. Portable heaters should be provided with suitable guards and should not be positioned close to furniture or other fittings. These heaters should never be used for drying clothes etc. 10. Personal portable space-heating appliances of any sort should not be used at sea and notices to this effect should be displayed. 11. The construction and installation of electric heaters should always be carried out in accordance with the relevant regulations and instructions or guidance supplied by the manufacturer.

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An exposed light bulb can ignite combustible material by direct contact. Numerous vessel fires have started when a crewmember left a lamp lit in unoccupied quarters. As the snip rolled, curtains or other combustible material came in direct contact with the hot bulb and ignited. Crewmen should use no unauthorised lighting on wandering leads, and should utilise guards provided with drop lights.

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Engine room lights should be covered by vapour globes and screens.

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4.5.3. Charging storage batteries

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When storage batteries are being charged, they emit hydrogen, a highly flammable gas. A mixture of air and between 4.1% to 74.2% hydrogen by volume can be explosive. Hydrogen is lighter than air and will rise as it is produced. If ventilation is not provided at the highest point in the battery charging space, the hydrogen will collect at the overhead. Then, any source of ignition can cause an explosion

and fire. 4.5.4

Electric motors

4.5.5

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Faulty electric motors are prime causes of fire. Problems may result when a motor is overloaded, isn't properly maintained or is used beyond its safe working life. Motors require regular inspection, testing, lubrication, cleaning and ultimately replacement. Sparks and arcing may result if a winding becomes short-circuited or grounded, or if the brushes do not operate smoothly. If a spark or an arc is strong enough, it can ignite nearby material. Lack of lubrication may cause the motor bearings to overheat, with the same results. Engine rooms

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Engine rooms are full of fire hazards. Water dripping from ruptured sea water lines can cause severe short-circuiting and arcing in electric motors, switchboards and other exposed electrical equipment. This, in turn can ignite insulation and nearby combustible materials. More serious are ruptured fuel and lubrication lines above and near electrical equipment, or near hot engine exhausts. Not insulated engine exhausts have also started fires where they come in contact with other combustible materials.

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Care should be taken to prevent kinks in 'fuel and lubricating lines. Hard piping runs should be used wherever possible in place of hose that will fail under high heat or impact. All connections should be tight. Pipes should be arranged so they don't rub against structural members. Drip trays should be emptied frequently, and oil accumulation in the bilges should be kept to a minimum. Where hose must be used to accommodate vibration, it should be frequently inspected and replaced if cracked brittle or otherwise damaged.

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SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION

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GALLEYS

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EXPLOSION PREVENTION

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4.8.

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4.8.1. Technical measures to restrict the effect of an explosion. (Excess) pressure relief valves, flame arresters, breaking plates. GOOD HOUSEKEEPING

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4.9.

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CARGO HANDLING OPERATIONS IN RELATION TO FIRE SAFETY

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4.10.

4.10.1. Dangerous cargoes

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4.10.2. Stowage

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Fire precautions The prevention of fire in a cargo of dangerous goods is achieved by practising good seamanship, observing in particular the following precautions: By:

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Precautionary measures to be taken :

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Procedures for cargo tank purging and/or gas freeing

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Safety devices in venting systems

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Vent outlets for cargo handling and ballasting

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OTHER FIRE PRECAUTIONS

4.11.1. Paint and Paint Stores Most paints contain high levels of solvents and other volatile materials. If paint drums are left unsealed or become damaged, flammable vapours can readily accumulate. The amount of paint and similar materials carried should be only that necessary for the immediate maintenance needs. Such materials should be securely stowed away from any source of ignition. Smoking or the carriage of smoking materials into paint stores is prohibited.

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4.11.2. Auto-Ignition

Many serious shipboard fires have occurred as a result of oil dripping or spraying onto hot surfaces or lagged steam pipes in engine rooms. These outbreaks of fire have usually been caused by lubricating or hydraulic oils which have relatively low auto-ignition temperatures.

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By comparison, many of the more volatile, low flash point oils have much higher autoignition temperatures. 4.11.3. Electrical Storms (Lightning)

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A number of serious fires and explosions have occurred as a result of lightning striking ships and igniting cargo vapours.

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Cargo, tank cleaning and gas freeing operations must be suspended when electrical storms are in the vicinity. All openings to cargo tanks must be securely closed and cargo tank vent by-pass valves closed.

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Should an upriser fire occur during loading, ballasting or gas freeing, it is essential NOT to stop the outward flow of gas through the riser as this could draw the flames into the cargo tanks and result in an explosion. If possible, the fire should be extinguished by inert gas or steam (if a suitable connection is fitted) while the riser and surrounding areas are kept cool with water spray. 4.11.4. Impact Sparks The risk of ignition of petroleum vapours from impact sparks created by hand tools is only slight, however an incentive spark can be produced by impurities, such as sand or grit, being present between the impacting surfaces. Tools made of non-ferrous materials such as phosphor bronze can create dangerous sparks because, due to the softness of the alloy, foreign particles become readily imbedded. Use of such tools is prohibited. Power tools such as pneumatic scaling hammers and wire brushes will, because of the high energy output, create sparks of sufficient intensity to ignite flammable vapours.

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Aluminium, magnesium and their alloys will readily produce sparks of high intensity if struck by or against steel. These sparks are known as "Thermite" sparks and will readily ignite flammable vapours. Thermite sparks can also be produced if rust smeared with aluminium, or even aluminium based paint, are struck. For this reason, care must be taken to avoid dragging aluminium fittings, such as gangways, across steel decks. Similarly, the use of aluminium based paints is prohibited anywhere outside of the engine room in Tankers.

4.11.5. Friction

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Hammering, chipping, sandblasting or the use of power tools outside of the engine room is only permitted if there is no tank cleaning or gas-freeing in progress and provided that the area is gas-free throughout the period of work. Any holds or tanks that are not gasfree must be inerted.

The overheating of cargo pump bearings and seals can cause pumproom fires. Overgreasing can often be as dangerous as insufficient grease and the pump manufacturers' recommendations should always be observed. 4.11.6. Pyrophoric Ignition

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Rust in the ullage spaces of crude oil cargo tanks can react with the hydrogen sulphide contained in "Sour" crudes to form a material that, on exposure to air, undergoes pyrophoric oxidation. The material becomes incandescent during this process and if the atmosphere in the ullage space lies within the flammable range, fire or explosion will result. 4.11.7. Tumble Dryers

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The accumulation of fluff in blocked tumble dryer filters can cause a serious fire hazard. A routine for checking and cleaning these filters should be established and the following notice must be posted in a suitable position.

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4.11.8. Oxygen and Acetylene Cylinders Oxygen and Acetylene cylinders must be stowed in the special lockers provided. Care must be taken to ensure that the cylinders and fittings in these lockers are kept free of oil and grease at all times. 4.11.9. Funnel Sparks

4.12.

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Sparks or hot soot from the funnel or from the funnel of a nearby ship may act as a source of ignition. The risk can be reduced by blowing boiler tubes shortly before arrival at port, However, Engineers should always request permission from the Bridge Watchkeeping Officer before commencing this operation. FIRE PRECAUTIONS WHEN VESSEL IS UNDER REPAIR

Where ships are undergoing major repair under contractors, fire precautions by contractors labours are to be as detailed below: 4.12.1. Patrol System

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Two fire patrolmen are to be provided by contractors to attend continuously for constant patrolling of all spaces for fire hazard from commencement of work daily until two hours following completion of work daily or on a twenty four hour per day basis depending on extent of work and as agreed by superintendent in charge of repairs (Inclusive of sub contractors employed on owners direct order.) The vessel is to be thoroughly inspected at that time jointly with the ship's Duty Officer who will endorse the fire patrolman's daily record book to the effect that all is in order and that fire fighting equipment is available for the ship's duty officer as necessary during the night. 4.12.2. Time Clocks

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Contractors are to provide time clocks with recording equipment and these are to be placed at various locations throughout the vessel as instructed. Fire patrolmen will be required to visit these spaces at given intervals and daily recording of time cards will be handed to ships senior officer.

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4.12.3. Hazardous Work

Where work is to be carried out involving burning, welding or of a hazardous nature the personnel engaged in this work shall be supplemented by a fire precaution watcher who will be fully equipped with all necessary fire fighting equipment and especially detailed to guard against fire outbreak. Individual fire hoses must be attached to the fire mains and lead to the spaces in question, charged with water for immediate availability if required. Where structural work, involving two or more tanks, is being carried out it may be necessary to provide more than one fire prevention watcher for adequate protection. 4.12.4. Water Supply to Ship's Main The vessels fire mains are to be connected to adequate shore supply at all times.

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Where port regulations do not permit these hoses to be charged the necessary tools for opening the supply cocks shall be available on a 24 hour basis, in the charge of the fire patrolmen during their duty hours or owners Duty Officers during the night. Special precautions must be taken where dismantling of any sections of the vessel's fire mains is necessary during the course of repairs and alternative arrangements must be made as necessary. When it is essential to shut down the mains for repairs, etc. the ship's senior officer must be kept fully informed along with the fire patrol staff. FIRE PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN WHEN VESSEL IS NOT IN COMMISSION

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4.13.

4.14.

HOT WORK

4.14.1. General

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On laid up vessels no naked lights are to be used in any part of the vessel. A boiler is to be kept ready for lighting up. Fire hoses, buckets of water, portable chemical extinguishers, smoke helmets should be ready for use. On the outbreak of fire being discovered notice is to be passed immediately to the nearest shore fire service and to the local agent.

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Hot work repairs to ships in service have been the cause of a number of major fires and explosions often resulting in loss of life or serious injury and in several instances leading to the total loss of the ship.

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The safe conduct of hot work repairs while in operational service is feasible provided that potential hazards are clearly defined, specific instructions issued, and the operation is controlled and monitored by a responsible person on board. 4.14.2. Hazard appreciation

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Ballast tanks, void spaces, duct keels and pipelines must always be considered to contain residual pockets of hydrocarbon gas. Explosion hazards may also be present in bulk carriers. The relatively high incidence of explosions in coal carriers serves as an example of this. Certain potential hazards are present in all ships and will require particular precautions to be taken. Serious fires and explosions have resulted from: hot work in the vicinity of fuel tanks, hydrogen emission from cathodically protected ballast tanks, or in storage batteries room, ignition of flammable materials of all types, ignition of flammable vapours in paint stores, conduction of heat through steel from safe unsafe areas.

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4.14.3. General restrictions Master’s approval must be obtained before any hot work is permitted outside the engine room/accommodation block unless the ship has been fully gas freed. No hot work is permitted anywhere during the loading or discharging of cargoes, during ballasting, tank cleaning or gas freeing, or when the ship is alongside a terminal or berth. 4.14.4. Responsibilities

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The responsibility for ensuring that hot work is conducted safely rests with the Master. He will personally ensure that the correct procedures are understood and followed by all concerned. The Chief Officer or Chief Engineer will normally be responsible to the Master for executing the necessary tests and procedures. The hot work permit’s duration is to be specified and must be renewed at maximum every 8 hours.

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Please refer to “Hot Work permit checklist” in the Company’s Safety Management System which must be satisfactory completed before start of hot work.

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When work is being carried out over a period of days, the person in charge of the hot work must obtain the Chief officer’s or Chief Engineer’s permission before each daily commencement and must report to him on the completion of each day’s work. Hot work within the machinery spaces will also be subject to the approval of the Master. The Chief Officer or the Chief Engineer will personally satisfy himself that all necessary safety precautions are being observed and inform the Master.

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4.14.5. Special precautions

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The following precautions must be observed on every occasion when hot work is intended: 1. Fire fighting equipment laid out ready for use. If welding or cutting on compartment boundary, equipment to be in readiness on both sides. 2. Fire watchmen to be posted and briefed in their duties. Walkie-Talkie link to be set up between fire watchmen and Bridge. 3. Area to be checked for cleanliness. All combustible material to be cleared from area. (Both sides of boundary where applicable).

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If hot work in or adjacent to any tank that has contained fuel, all grease or oil impregnated residues to be removed. Check that area adjacent compartments and tanks are gas free (Explosimeter reading not to exceed). Emergency plan drawn up and discussed. No hot work is to commence until approval has been obtained from the Master.

4.14.6. Gas detection

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The gas free status of an area or a compartment is only confirmed at the time of testing and a zero reading obtained on a properly calibrated combustible gas indicator or explosimeter. Hydrocarbon gas is generally heavier than air and may be in pockets even in compartments that have been ventilated for some time. It is therefore most important that tests should be made throughout any compartment and at different levels. 4.14.7. General Precautions during Welding & Cutting Procedures.

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The welding, brazing and cutting processes require energy in form of high temperature to melt or burn the materials being cut or welded. The electric arc welding and the oxyacetylene flame produce a very high temperature, radiation, fumes and gases. Thus, the application of these processes as well as the servicing and charging of refrigeration system create many potentially serious hazards to the health and safety of the user and bystander. Examples are: 1. A high pressure gas cylinder subjected to heat or surface damage may fail by bursting causing considerable damage. 2. Oxygen, suddenly compressed to high pressure will combine very violently (explode) with many common combustibles such as oil, grease, rubber, clothes etc. 3. Argon and nitrogen along with refrigerant gas, normally considered can cause death by asphyxiation of allowed to displace the oxygen containing air in poorly ventilated area. 4. Acetylene is highly flammable gas and quite unstable as well. Since the mixture of acetylene in air as low as 3% acetylene is flammable and above 4% explosive. It is extremely important to prevent or eliminate all leaks. Under certain conditions acetylene may react with metals such as cooper, silver and lead to form acetylines which are very shock sensitive and explosive. 5. When using the oxygen cutting process on steel, large quantities of molten slag are produced and blown about in the vicinity of the cutting. The gobbles of the slag are capable of igniting combustibles such as grease, oil, rags, woods, etc. 6. Containers or storage tanks that have previously have contained flammable liquids are extremely hazardous when subjected to any cutting or welding process. Many lives have been lost as a result of explosions during welding or cutting tanks that were thought to be free of combustible vapour. 7. Zinc coated steel or cadmium-bearing non ferrous alloys will emit dangerous or fatally poisonous vapours if heated sufficiently by a welding torch. Serious consequences, even death are possible. Brazing fluxes emit vapours upon heating that are very corrosive and irritating. 8. Damaged or leaking hoses of fitting may result in an explosive atmosphere in a poorly ventilated or confined working area. Oxygen leaking from hose close to a person’s clothes may saturate the cloth and a spark may start an intense fire, severely burning the person. 9. Electric welding sets for shipboard use should operate on direct current supply. Issue No. 1

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10. Where the direct current is obtained from rectified alternating current or where an alternating current set has to be employed, a voltage reduction device should be used to limit the idling voltage (before an arc is struck between electrode and workpiece) to 42 volts or 25 volts respectively. The proper functioning of the device (which may be affected by dust or humidity) should be checked each time the set is used. 11. A ‘go and return’ system utilizing two cables from the welding set should be adopted; the welding return cable should be firmly clamped to the workpiece, or as close to it as practicable. The welding set must not be grounded. 12. The use of a single cable with hull return is not acceptable. 13. To avoid voltage drop in transmissions, the lead and return cables should be of minimum length practicable for the job and of an appropriate cross section. 14. Cables should be inspected before use; if the insulation is impaired or conductivity is reduced, they should not be used. 15. Any cable connectors should be fully insulated and so designed that live terminals are not exposed on disconnection. 16. Electrode holders should be fully insulated so that no live part of the holder is exposed to touch. 17. A local switching arrangement should be provided for isolating the holder when electrodes are changed. 18. The operator should wear protective clothing, leather gloves and no-conducting safety footwear, also a welding helmet with suitably coloured transparent eye piece. Eye goggles or a hand-held shield may be suitable alternatives to the latter. 19. An assistant should be in attendance. He should be alert to the risk of accidental shock to the welder, ready to cut off power instantly, raise the alarm and apply artificial respiration without delay. 20. In restricted spaces the operator should be protected from contact with the ship’s structure by the provision of dry insulating mats or boards. 21. Welding operations should be avoided in hot or humid conditions when body sweat and damp clothing increase the risk of electric shock. Under no circumstances should a welder work while standing in water or with any part of his body immersed. 4.15.

GAS DETECTION

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Detection and measurement of certain gases is important for the safe conduct of ship΄s operations and for the safety of personnel. The main requirements are as follows: Checking safe oxygen levels in enclosed spaces. Measuring hydrocarbon levels for flammability. Checking for hydrocarbon gas prior to entering enclosed spaces. Detection and measurement of other toxic gases. 4.15.1. Instruments A wide range of instruments, both fixed and portable, is available for shipboard use. Individual units are usually calibrated for specific gases and some have a dual function, for example, combustible gas and oxygen. It is important to understand the limitations of the instruments as well as their function and methods of use. Manufacturers’ handbooks should be consulted for full details. Issue No. 1

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4.15.2. Instrument calibration Regular calibration and testing of gas detection equipment and oxygen analysers is essential if readings are to be considered reliable. Fixed and portable instruments must be properly checked before use and a record kept of these checks. An adequate supply of calibration gas must be held on board for testing hydrocarbon gas detection equipment and a supply of high purity nitrogen for checking oxygen analysers 4.15.3. Oxygen analysers

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A portable oxygen analyzer is supplied for the purpose of checking that the atmosphere inside the tanks (or holds) remain below 8% by volume. All ships will carry a portable oxygen analyzer for the purpose of checking oxygen levels prior to entry into enclosed spaces. 4.15.4. Limits of flammability

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The flammable ranges of hydrocarbon gases vary, but with most common petroleums are considered to be between 1 and 10% by volume, referred as the Lower and the Upper Flammable (or explosive) Limits respectively.

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Below the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) the mixture will be too weak to burn and above the Upper Flammable Limit (UFL) it will be over rich. A further limiting factor is the amount of oxygen present to support combustion. 4.15.5. Catalytic filament combustible gas indicator

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This type of instrument, often referred to as an explosimeter, is used for measuring concentrations of gas below the LFL.

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The instrument has a scale from 0 to 100 which represents % LFL or % LEL, and some models have a second scale reading 0 to 10% LFL to allow for more accurate measurement of lower ranges. Instruments of this type will only read accurately in the presence of fresh air. 4.15.6. Non-catalytic heated filament gas indicator

This type of instrument is a well-known example, measures hydrocarbon gas as % volume. The presence of air is not a requirement and the instrument can therefore be used in inert gas. Its purpose is for determining that hydrocarbon gas levels have been reduced to below the Critical Dilution Line to avoid passing through the flammable zone when gas freeing.

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ENTRY INTO ENCLOSED SPACES

The contents of this Section apply to all types of ships. It is of the utmost importance that the precautions applying to entry into enclosed spaces are understood by every member of the crew. Enclosed spaces include cargo holds, ballast tanks, void spaces, peak tanks, cofferdams, duct keels, bunker tanks, fresh water tanks and any spaces that are normally kept closed. If in doubt, a compartment should be regarded as an enclosed space.

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Further information on safe entry into enclosed/confined spaces is contained in the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen and the ICS/OCIMF ISGOTT and in the ship’s Company Management System (CMS) Manual and in the Company’s relevant circulars (if any). 4.16.1. Responsibility

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Responsibility for safety, both before entry into an enclosed or confined space and during the entire operation, rests with the Master or a Responsible Officer. He must undertake a proper assessment of risk prior to entry. He must also make sure that adequate steps are taken to eliminate or control the hazards and that all personnel understand the nature of any hazards, which remain and the precautions to be followed. The responsibility covers conditions of work for shore based employees as well as for members of the ship’s crew.

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4.16.2. Oxygen deficiency

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Lack of oxygen should always be suspected in tanks and other compartments that have been closed for some time, particularly if they have been contained water or have been subjected to damp or humid conditions. Low levels of oxygen may also exist in cargo holds as a result of oxidation processes in the cargo. Iron ore, particularly if damp, coal, grain and tapioca have all been known to consume oxygen in the atmosphere or to displace it by the evolution of other gases. 4.16.3. Gas tests for entry

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No entry will be permitted into any enclosed space unless the atmosphere inside has been tested and found to contain sufficient oxygen and is free of hydrocarbon and toxic gases where applicable. The first test in all ships, will be to ensure that the atmosphere throughout the space contains 21% oxygen by volume as determined by representative samples (at different levels, where applicable) with a properly calibrated oxygen meter. The second test will be to ensure that no hydrocarbon gases are present and zero readings on properly calibrated explosimeter must be obtained throughout (at different levels, where applicable).

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4.16.4. Ventilation Ventilation must be carried out before entry is permitted into any enclosed space and continued throughout the period of entry. Ventilation should, however, be suspended during pre-entry atmosphere sampling in order not to affect the readings obtained. If forced ventilation is used at least four air-changes must take place before entry is allowed. Where only natural ventilation is possible the space must be allowed to ‘breath’ for least 24 hours.

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In certain spaces, such as double bottom tanks, the most effective way of ensuring full ventilation may be to fill the compartment with clean sea water and then pump it out allowing fresh air to be drawn in. Regardless of the method employed no entry will be allowed until tests have shown that a safe, breathable atmosphere exists. Duct keels in bulk carriers are provided with fixed ventilation systems, which must be in operation for at least 15 minutes before any entry is permitted.

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4.16.5. Entry procedures

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No one may enter enclosed space without the permission of the Officer in charge who will first ensure that the necessary tests have been completed and that the requirements of the ENCLOSED SPARE ENTRY CHECK LIST are complied with in full. Normally not more than one senior officer from any department will enter an enclosed space at one time.

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4.16.6. Enclosed space entry check list

The Check List will be completed by the officer in charge of entry and approved by the Master. A separate Check List will be completed for each entry operation and will include details of the following: Spaces to be entered. Reason for entry-inspection, maintenance, repairs etc. Entry and exit points. Results of atmosphere checks as applicable to type of ship and cargo. Names of persons entering. Times of entry and expected duration. Method and frequency of communication, e.g. walkie-talkies. Name of link man. It is important to position a man outside the entrance to the space to act as a communications link. 9. The Officer on the Bridge (if ship at sea) will maintain communications with the link man as he will be able to sound the emergency alarm without delay if a problem occurs. 10. Details of ventilation methods and, where appropriate, checks that inert gas has been isolated. 11. Use of personal oxygen meters is recommended & where used, their function should be tested first.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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12. Use of ELSA’s is recommended. Check condition and gauge before use. 13. At least one compressed air breathing apparatus with fully charged air cylinder must be positioned outside the point of entry, together with resuscitation and rescue equipment. 4.16.7. Opening up equipment and pipelines There is always a risk that cargo liquid or vapour may be released when opening up equipment and piping. The associated sections of the system should first be flushed through with clean seawater, localized ventilation arranged as necessary. Breathing apparatus or escape sets should be kept in the vicinity of the work continuous gas monitoring conducted while opening up lines, valves or equipment.

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4.16.8. Entry into non-gas free spaces

4.17.

Risks to the health and safety of crew must be identified and assessed. It will often not be possible to remove all risks, but attention should be given to control measures which make the working environment and working methods as safe as reasonably practicable. Personal protective equipment should provided for protection against the risks that are not practicable to be removed. This is chiefly because personal protective equipment does nothing to reduce the hazard. It can only protect the person wearing it, leaving others vulnerable. It should be noted that the use of personal protective equipment might in itself cause a hazard-for example, through reduced field of vision, loss of quickness or easy movement.

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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

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Entry into a space that is NOT GAS FREE OR DOES NOT CONTAIN 21% OXYGEN WILL BE NOT PERMITTED. The number of persons entering will be kept to a minimum but will not be less than two, and each will wear a breathing apparatus and be connected by lifeline to handlers outside the space. Under these circumstances entry will be considered an emergency and rescue team fully equipped with breathing apparatus and with rescue equipment will be standing by.

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4.17.1. Master and officers duties

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It is the responsibility of the master to ensure that crew members are provided with suitable personal protective equipment where it is needed.

2.

Master or responsible officer should assess the equipment required to ensure that it is suitable and effective for the task in question, and meets the necessary standards of design and manufacture.

3.

Suitable equipment should: be appropriate for the risks involved, and the task being performed, without itself leading to any significant increased risk; (see above paragraph 1.3). correspond to existing conditions at the workplace; take account of ergonomic requirements and the worker’s state of health; fit the crew member correctly after any necessary adjustment.

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The master is required to ensure that the users of personal protective equipment are familiar with checking and maintaining of their personal equipment.

5.

All crew members who may be required to use protective equipment must be properly trained in its use. This should include being advised of its limitations. A record should be kept of who has received training.

6.

Defective or ineffective protective equipment provides no defence. It is therefore essential that the correct items of equipment are selected and that they are properly maintained at all times. The manufacturer’s instructions should be kept safe with the relevant apparatus and if necessary referred to before use and when maintenance is carried out. Personal protective equipment should be kept clean and should be disinfected as and when necessary for health reasons.

4.17.2. Crew member duties

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4.

Crew members must wear the protective equipment or clothing supplied when they are carrying out a task for which it is provided, and follow appropriate instructions for use.

2.

Personal protective equipment should always be checked by the wearer each time before use. Crew should comply with the training they have received in the use of protective items, and follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use.

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4.17.3. Routes of exposure

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The way a hazardous substance expresses its effects on the body is, in part, determined by the route of exposure. A brief description of the potential routes of exposure of personnel during response operations is thus warranted. There are four ways a hazardous substance can enter the body: inhalation: this is the route of entry for gases (e.g. hydrogen sulphide, chlorine vapours (e.g. acetone and trichloromethane vapours) and particulate matter (e.g. coal dust, asbestos, silica). Exposure via this route can lead to an irritation of the respiratory tract lining, causing lesions in the flung tissues. It can also lead to the absorption of the substance into the systematic system via the alveoli, causing damage to other parts of the body which are at a distance from the point of entry.

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dermal contact: this is the lowest route of entry into the body but is a common problem encountered during response to hazardous chemical spills. Some substances can pass through the skin into the bloodstream causing internal damage (e.g. aniline, phenol). Others can cause surface damage on contact due to their corrosivity (e.g. caustic soda, hydrofluoric acid). In this regard the eyes deserve special mention due to their particular vulnerability to damage from corrosive and toxic vapours or gases.

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ingestion: this is the route of entry for substances which are present in food and liquids. Once a toxic substance is absorbed through the digestive system, it is usually stored in the liver where it may be detoxified. Damage to the liver cells can however take place, if the concentration of the substance reaches a certain threshold limit. Provided that proper protective clothing is worn and good

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decontamination practices are followed to prevent secondary contamination, this route of exposure should not be a major concern for response personnel. injection: the last route of entry is when the skin is punctured or broken (e.g. cuts, lesions, wounds) by objects contaminated with the toxic material. Once this has taken place, the systemic system will deliver the substance to other parts of the body.

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4.17.4. Types of equipment

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The concentration (or dilution) of the substances together with the length of exposure are two other factors which determine the extent of damage which an individual experience on exposure to a particular hazardous substance. To this end, all response personnel who use protective equipment should be familiar with both its use and its limitations.

Overalls, gloves and suitable footwear are the proper working dress for most work about ship but these may not give adequate protection against particular hazards in particular jobs. Specific recommendations for the use of special personal protective equipment will also be available on board. But there will be other occasions when the need for such special protection will be identified by the risk assessment carried out by the officer in charge at that particular time. Personal protective equipment must always be selected according to the hazard being faced and the kind of work being undertaken.

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Personal protective equipment can be classified as follows:

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Examples Safety helmets, bump caps hair protection Ear muffs, ear plugs Goggles and spectacles, facial shields Dust masks, respirators, breathing apparatus

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Type Head protection Hearing protection Face and eye protection Respiratory protective equipment Hand and foot protection Body protection

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Gloves, safety boots and safety shoes Safety suits, safety belts, harnesses, aprons high visibility clothing. Protection against drowning Lifejackets, buoyancy aids and lifebuoys Protection against Immersion suits and anti-exposure suits hypothermia

4.17.5. Head protection. (Safety Helmets) 1.

Safety helmets are most commonly provided as protection against falling objects. They can also protect against crushing or a sideways blow, and chemical splashes.

2.

Since the hazards may vary, it will be appreciated that no one type of helmet would be ideal as protection in every case. Design details are normally decided by the manufacturer whose primary consideration will be compliance with an appropriate standard.

3.

The shell of a helmet should be of one piece seamless construction designed to resist impact. The harness or suspension when properly adjusted forms a cradle

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for supporting the protector on the wearer’s head. The crown straps help absorb the force of impact. They are designed to permit a clearance of approximately 25mm between the shell and the skull of the wearer. The harness or suspension should be properly adjusted before a helmet is worn. Safety equipment should be used in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

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Bump caps. 4. A bump cap is simply an ordinary cap with hard penetration resistant shell. They are useful as protection against bruising and abrasion when working in confined spaces such as a main engine crankcase or a double bottom tank. They do not, however, afford the same protection as safety helmets and are intended only to protect against minor knocks. Hairnets and safety caps. 5. Personnel working on or near to moving machinery have always to be on their guard against the possibility of their hair becoming entangled in the machinery. Long hair should always be covered by a hair net or safety cap when working with or near moving machinery. 4.17.6. Hearing protection

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1. All persons exposed to high levels of noise, eg in machinery spaces, should wear ear protection of a type recommended as suitable for the particular circumstances. Protectors are for three types-ear plugs, disposable or permanent, and ear muffs.

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2. The simplest form of ear protection is the earplug. This type however has the disadvantage of limited capability of noise level reduction. Ear plugs of rubber or plastic also have only limited effect, in that extremes of high or low frequency cause the plug to vibrate in the ear canal causing a consequential loss in protection. It may be difficult to keep re-useable earplugs clean on a ship, and disposable earplugs are recommended. Earplugs should never be used by anyone with ear-trouble, without medical advice.

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3. In general, earmuffs provide a more effective form of hearing protection. They consist of a pair of rigid cups designed to completely envelope the ears, fitted with soft sealing rings to fit closely against the head around the ears. The ear cups are connected by a spring loaded headband (or neck band) which ensures that the sound seals around the ears are maintained. Different types are available and provision should be made according to the circumstances of use and expert advice. 4.17.7. Face and eye protection 1.

The main causes of eye injury are: a) infra-red rays-gas welding; b) ultra-violet rays-electric welding; c) exposure to chemicals; exposure to particles and foreign bodies. Protectors are available in a wide variety, designed to international standard specifications, to protect against these different types of hazard.

2.

Ordinary prescription (corrective) spectacles, unless manufactured to a safety standard, do not afford protection. Certain box-type goggles are designed so that they can be worn over ordinary spectacles.

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4.17.8. Respiratory protective equipment 1. Respiratory protective equipment is essential for protection when work has to be done in conditions of irritating, dangerous or poisonous dust, fumes or gases. There are two main types of equipment which perform different functions: a) a respirator filters the air before it is inhaled; b) breathing apparatus supplies air or oxygen from an uncontaminated source. 2. Advice on selection, use and maintenance of the equipment is contained in the relevant Standard. This should be available to all those concerned with the use of respiratory protective equipment on board ship.

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3. It is most important that the face-piece of respirators and breathing apparatus is fitted correctly to avoid leakage. The wearing of spectacles, unless adequately designed for that purpose, or of beards is likely to adversely affect the face seal. This is a particularly important consideration in emergency situations. Respirators

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4. The respirator selected must be of a type designed to protect against the hazards being met. a) The dust respirator gives protection against dusts and aerosol sprays but not against gases. There are many types of dust respirator available but they are generally of the ori-nasal type, i.e. half-masks covering the nose and the mouth. Many types of light, simple face masks are also available and are extremely useful for protecting against dust nuisance and non-toxic sprays but should never be used in place of proper protection against harmful dust or sprays. b) The positive pressure powered dust respirator incorporates a battery-powered blower unit, connected by a tube to the face-mask to create a positive pressure in the face-piece. This makes breathing easier and reduces faceseal leakage. c) The cartridge-type of respirator consists of a full face-piece or half mask connected to a replaceable cartridge containing absorbent or adsorbent material and a particulate filter. It is designed to provide protection against low concentrations of certain relatively non-toxic gases and vapours. d) The canister-type of respirator incorporates a full face-piece connected to an absorbent material contained in a replaceable canister carried in a sling on the back or side of the wearer. This type gives considerably more protection than the cartridge type.

5. The filters, canisters and cartridges incorporated in respirators are designed to provide protection against certain specified dusts or gases. Different types are available to provide protection against different hazards and it is therefore important that the appropriate type is selected for the particular circumstances or conditions being encountered. It must be remembered, however, that they have limited effective life and must be replaced or renewed at intervals in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. 6. RESPIRATORS PROVIDE NO PROTECTION AGAINST OXYGEN DEFICIENT ATMOSPHERE. They should never be used to provide protection in confined spaces such as tanks, cofferdams, double bottoms or other similar spaces against dangerous fumes, gases or vapours. Only breathing apparatus (self-contained or airline) is capable of giving protection in such circumstances.

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4.17.9. Breathing apparatus (See section 10)

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SECTION 5 ALARMS, FIRE DRILLS AND FIRE CONTROL PLANS

Table of contents Page RAISING THE ALARM ...................................................................................2

5.1.1.

Raising the alarm ............................................................................................2

5.1.2

Manually Operated Call Points........................................................................3

5.1.3.

If the fire is behind closed doors......................................................................4

5.1.4.

If the door of the compartment on fire is open.................................................4

5.2.

FIRE DRILLS ..................................................................................................5

5.2.1.

Contingency plans ...........................................................................................6

5.2.2.

Muster .............................................................................................................6

5.3.

FIRE CONTROL PLANS ................................................................................7

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5.1.

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RAISING THE ALARM

Taking the correct initial actions in the early stages of a fire, whilst is still small, will maximise the chances of successfully extinguishing it. Remember, even the biggest fires started as a single flame. Large fires will probably have once been small, but grew because they were not tackled, or were not tackled correctly, in the early stages.

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No person on board should be in any doubt about the following: - Action to be taken on discovering a fire. - Action to be taken on hearing the alarm. - Knowing where fire fighting equipment is kept. - Knowing how to use it effectively. - Awareness of your own and others’ safety during fire fighting. Very often it is the actions of the person discovering a fire that can make the difference between a small blaze quickly extinguished and a catastrophic fire, which could lead to the loss of the ship, or even to loss of life. “Fires always happen to others, never to me”, is a very common misconception.

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The first reaction when discovering a fire is usually one of shock or disbelief. Without training this can lead to actions which are instinctive and other incorrect.

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Common instinctive actions are to: - Run away leaving doors open. - Run into the compartment without fire fighting equipment and attempt to stamp out the burning material. If the discoverer becomes a casualty, effectively no one has discovered the fire, which will continue to grow and spread unchecked until someone else responds in a correct manner.

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You may discover a fire anywhere by seeing, smelling or hearing it. If you do find a fire: 1. 2.

think about the correct procedure for raising the alarm. stay calm.

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Panic will affect your ability to act effectively and may frighten others unnecessarily. 5.1.1. -

Raising the alarm

Shout “FIRE, FIRE, FIRE” and give its location. Bang on doors in case people are asleep, but do not open them as this may allow smoke in unnecessarily. Operate a near-by Fire Alarm Call-Point. If available use an internal telephone to inform the bridge or other control centre.

When informing control centre state: • The fire location. • The type of fire. • The size of fire. • Details of casualties. • What actions, if any, are being taken. Issue No. 1

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Do not attempt to fight the fire until others have been informed. When another person appears one should carry on raising the alarm whilst the other, providing it is safe to do so, commences first-aid fire fighting. 5.1.2

Manually Operated Call Points

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Alarms can be raised by means of manually operated call points, automatic smoke detectors and a wide range of heat detectors.

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A manually operated device which upon breaking causes a circuit to be made or broken signalling a fire alarm. There are two basic types each containing a breakable front plate of either glass or plastic. The call point for use in open circuit systems contains contacts held open by the pressure of the front plate. Breaking the plate closes the contacts and initiates an alarm. Call points for closed circuit systems operate in the reverse manner, the contacts being held in the closed position and open upon the breaking of the Front plate. Alarm testing facilities are normally provided for open circuit points. Closed circuit points do not necessarily require this facility since the circuits are continuously under test. Flameproof call points are available, also handle operated points for use in areas where broken glass may cause a hazard. In certain instances internal telephone systems may be used.

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The break glass call point is a device to enable personnel to raise the alarm in the event of a fire, by simply breaking a frangible element and thus activating the alarm system. The following notes give guidance for the correct sitting and positioning of break glass call points:

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2.

Break glass call points should be located on exit routes and in particular on the floor landings of staircases and at all exits to the open air. Break glass call points should be located so that no person needs travel more than 30 m from any position within the premises in order to raise the alarm. Generally, call points should be fixed at a height of 1.4 m above the floor, at easily accessible, well-illuminated and conspicuous positions free from obstruction. The method of operation of all call points in an installation should be identical unless there is a special reason for differentiation. Manual and automatic devices may be installed on the same system although it may be advisable to install the manual call points on separate zones for speed of identification.

3.

4. 5.

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If the fire is behind closed doors

If smoke is seen coming from behind a closed door there is no indication of the size or type of fire. • • • • •

DO NOT OPEN THE DOOR Raise the alarm in the way previously described. DO NOT TACKLE THE FIRE. Prepare fire fighting equipment. When the Fire Attack Party arrives, advise the leader about what you have observed and what you know about the situation.

• •

If the door of the compartment on fire is open

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5.1.4.

Raise the alarm as described above. If you are fully clothed, and it is safe to do so, attack the fire using appropriate first-aid appliances. Keep low. Do not let the fire or smoke get between you and your way of escape. If you are beaten back CLOSE THE DOOR. Start preparing fire fighting equipment, ready for the Fire Attack Party. Move casualties to a place of safety. Consider ways of preventing the fire from spreading, e.g. Boundary cooling. Removing flammable items from the path of the fire. Isolate local ventilation. Switch off local electrical circuits.

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• • • • •

Stay in the vicinity of fire, but at a safe distance, to brief whoever is in charge. The information required is: Where the fire is situated. What is burning. Any hazardous substances. Number and position of casualties. What has already happened (e.g. hoses prepared). Details of ventilation and electrical circuits already isolated.

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Any training must ensure that all personnel know the location of the nearest extinguisher to their place of work and their accommodation. They must also know how to use the extinguisher and be aware of any limitations that it might have. Remember the correct type of extinguisher should have been sited with regard to the type of risk in any particular area of the vessel. Familiarity with all fire fighting equipment, and its effective and safe use in a real emergency will save vital minutes and seconds, which can make the difference between an incident and a tragedy. F I R E

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Find Inform Restrict Extinguish

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FIRE DRILLS

Fire drills should, as far as possible, be conducted with a degree of realism but not of course to the extent that there is danger of injury to any person or the vessel.

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The purpose of conducting fire drills includes the following: • To provide the equipment What is available? Where is it stowed? How is it used? Does it work? • To test the organisation Does everyone know what to do? Can it actually be done? Is it flexible? What happens if various persons are removed (e.g. through injury)? • To build confidence In the equipment and in the system. Learn leadership skills. Develop an understanding of problems that might be encountered. To enable commanders and party leaders to manage the “whole” situation.

Efficient fire fighting needs the full co-operation of personnel in all departments of the ship. A fire drill should be held simultaneously with the first stage of the abandon ship drill. Fire-fighting parties should assemble at their designated stations. Engine room personnel should start the fire pumps in machinery spaces and see that full pressure is put on fire mains. Any emergency pump situated outside machinery spaces should also be started; all members of the crew should know how to start and operate the emergency fire pump. The fire parties should be sent from their designated stations to the selected site of the supposed fire, taking with them emergency equipment such as axes, lamps, and breathing apparatus. The locations should be changed in successive drills to give practice in differing conditions and in dealing with different types of fire so that accommodation, machinery spaces store rooms, galleys and cargo tanks or areas of high fire hazard are all covered from time to time. An adequate number of hoses to deal with the assumed fire should be realistically deployed. At some stage in the drill, they should be tested by bringing them into use, firstly with water provided by the machinery space pump and secondly with water provided by the emergency pump alone. The drill should extend, where practicable, to the testing and demonstration of the remote controls (closing) for ventilating fans, fuel pumps and fuel tank valves, and the appropriate isolation of electrical equipment. Fixed fire extinguishing installations should be demonstrated and, tested to the extent practicable. Portable fire extinguishers should be available for demonstration of the manner of their use. They should include the different types applicable to different kinds of fire. At each drill, one extinguisher or more should be operated by a member of

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The training in the practical aspects of fire fighting should be supplemented by giving instructions concerning fire theory, fire prevention, details about the design and use individual items of equipment, organisational considerations, matters peculiar to the particular vessel, etc. The following should constitute drill action elements as a minimum.

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4. 5. 6.

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9.

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the fire party, a different member in each occasion. Extinguishers so used should be recharged before being returned to their normal location or, sufficient spares should otherwise be carried for demonstration purposes. Breathing apparatus should be worn by members of the fire-fighting parties so each member in turn has experience of its use. Search and rescue exercises should be undertaken in various parts of the ship. The apparatus should be cleaned and verified to be in good order before it is stowed; cylinders of selfcontained breathing apparatus should be recharged or sufficient spare cylinders otherwise carried for this purpose. In addition to the statutory inspection, fire appliances, fire and watertight doors, other closing appliances, and fire detection and alarm systems which have not been included in the drill should be inspected, either at the time of the drill or immediately afterwards. Upon completion of drills all equipment should be returned to the designated position and/or placed in a stand-by mode as applicable.

5.2.1.

Contingency plans

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Know where chemicals (cleaning fluids, boiler chemicals, etc), paints and compressed gases are stowed. Pre-determine the preferred entry route for various compartments and various situations. In a given situation will you attack the fire, batten down and contain the fire, or use a fixed flooding system? Do not develop plans that rely on a single person completing a specific act.

5.2.2.

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Muster

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At muster all persons must be accounted for. Thereafter each group leader must, at all times, be aware of the safe situation of each member of his team.

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FIRE CONTROL PLANS

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SECTION 6 ACTIONS IN THE EVENT OF FIRE Table of contents Page GENERAL .....................................................................................................2

6.1.

HIDDEN FIRES .............................................................................................2

6.2.

DISCOVERY OF A FIRE...............................................................................3

6.2.1.

Accommodation fire.......................................................................................3

6.2.2.

Engine room fire ............................................................................................4

6.2.3.

Engine room lagging fires..............................................................................6

6.2.6.

Petroleum oil fires..........................................................................................7

6.2.7.

Galley fires and oil .........................................................................................7

6.3.

SIZE-UP ........................................................................................................8

6.4.

FIRE CONTROL............................................................................................9

6.4.1.

Boundary cooling...........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

6.4.2.

Boundary starvation.......................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

6.4.3.

Ventilation......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

6.5.1. 6.5.2. 6.5.3.

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FIRE APPROACH.......................................................................................11 Fire fighting on the same level.....................................................................11

Fire fighting from above...............................................................................12

Fire fighting from below ...............................................................................15

PREVENTING FIRE SPREAD ....................................................................16

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6.0.

OVERHAUL ................................................................................................16

6.8.

DEWATERING ............................................................................................16

6.9.

WHEN THE FIRE IS OUT ...........................................................................16

6.10.

FIRES IN PORT ..........................................................................................17

6.10.1.

Local fire brigades .......................................................................................17

6.11.

LEADERSHIP .............................................................................................18

6.12.

COMMAND TEAM ......................................................................................19

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3. 4.

5. 6.

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The risk of fire breaking out on board a ship cannot be fully eliminated but its effects can be much reduced. Training in fire-fighting procedures and maintenance of equipment should be assured by regular drills. Access to fire-fighting equipment should be kept clear at all times and emergency escapes and passageways should never be obstructed. A fire can usually be put out most easily in the first few minutes. Prompt and correct action is essential. The alarm should be raised (following the procedure described in the previous section) and the bridge informed immediately. If the ship is in port, the local fire authority or the port/terminal authority should be called. If possible, an attempt should be made to extinguish or limit the fire, by any appropriate means readily available. This can be done by either using suitable portable extinguishers or by smothering the fire as in the instance of a fat or oil fire in the galley. The different types of portable fire extinguishers on board are appropriate to different types of fire. Water extinguishers should not be used on oil or electric fires. Openings to the space should be shut to reduce the supply of air to the fire and to prevent it spreading. Any fuel lines feeding the fire or threatened by it should be isolated. If practicable combustible materials adjacent to the fire should be removed. If a space is filled with smoke and fumes, any personnel not properly equipped with breathing apparatus should get out of the space without delay; if necessary, escape should be effected by crawling on hands and knees because air close to deck level is likely to be more clear and clean. After a fire has been extinguished, precautions should be taken against its spontaneous re-ignition. Personnel should not re-enter a space in which a fire has occurred without wearing breathing apparatus, until it has been fully ventilated.

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HIDDEN FIRES

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Before a compartment or bulkhead door is opened to check for fire, the door should be examined.

If flames can be seen, the location of the fire is obvious. However, if only smoke is evident, the fire may be hidden behind a bulkhead or a compartment door. If so, certain precautions must be taken. Issue No. 1

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Discoloured or blistered paint indicates fire directly behind the door. Smoke puffing from cracks at door seals or where wiring passes through the bulkhead is also an indication of fire. The bulkhead or door should be touched with the back of a bare hand. If it is hotter than normal, it is probably hiding a fire. Do not open a door hiding a fire until help and a charged hose line are at hand. A fire burning in a closed compartment consumes the oxygen within that space. Opening the door will feed additional oxygen to the fire, and usually means that the fire will grow in size with explosive force.

6.2.

DISCOVERY OF A FIRE

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Flames and superheated gases are then forced out through the door, and anyone standing in the path could be severely burned. Therefore, before opening it, cool the door with water and have everyone stand clear.

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Most fires are small to start with and can often be extinguished by rapid application of a portable extinguisher or other appliance. Where it is possible to do this without risk of becoming trapped by flames or smoke, the person discovering the fire should take such action while sending someone else to raise the alarm.

Accommodation fire

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Greater caution is necessary where smoke is seen passing a closed door. Opening the door could cause the fire to flare up and spread rapidly making it impossible to close the door again. This action should therefore be avoided unless it is believed that there may be someone trapped inside. In this case the door should only be opened, very carefully, after first feeling it to make sure it is not hot. If the compartment is thought to be unoccupied or if the door is hot, it is much safer to keep it closed until the Fire party is ready with the charged hoses.

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Accommodation fires may present some serious problems. In most vessels deckhead and bulkhead voids, which carry electrical cables and plumbing services, provide a channel for an unrestricted air supply, which may feed a fire. Additionally, each cabin and compartment may have a ventilation trunk linking it with other compartments and providing a mean of air supply and smoke distribution. Alleyways, stairwells and lift shafts promote the spread of fire, smoke, fumes and heat to areas remote from their source. The use of plastics and other synthetic materials in furniture, curtains, bulkhead panels and other décor may, in a short space of time and from even a small fire, produce large volumes of toxic fumes and thick smoke. These are life threatening to anyone in the vicinity or connected via a conduit or ventilation route. Even large areas may quickly become smokes filled. The fire may be contained by boundary cooling and boundary starvation. Give careful consideration to ventilation control and seek to remove heat, smoke and fumes without feeding air to the fire. Check remote areas for the spread of heat, smoke and fumes via ventilation ducts, voids and liftshafts, etc.

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Except in storerooms, water spray is often effective in tackling accommodation fires, but care must be taken with respect to the isolation of electrical circuits and stability.

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The following must be considered by the Fire Party when tackling an Accommodation, Storeroom or Gallery fire: 1. The speed with which the fire is tackled is of the utmost importance. 2. The accommodation will probably fill with smoke; breathing apparatus will be necessary, as will protective clothing. 3. Dual purpose nozzles will be used to provide water spray and/or jets. 4. Knowledge of the accommodation layout is essential; the fire fighters will be operating “blind”. 5. Ventilation fans should be stopped and fire flaps closed in the immediate area of the fire. 6. Electrical currents should be isolated to avoid the danger of water acting as a conductor on “live” circuits. 7. Fire fighters will always operate in pairs. 8. Remember every fire has six sides, close observation of these sides must be carried out, hoses prepared and boundary cooling carried out as necessary. The Chief Officer will keep the Master informed of the situation and of progress in fighting the fire. Engine room fire

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Engine rooms are full of fire hazards. Water dripping from ruptured sea water lines can cause severe short-circuiting and arcing in electric motors, switch-boards and other exposed electrical equipment. This, in turn can ignite insulation and nearby combustible materials. More serious are ruptured fuel and lubrication lines above and near electrical equipment, or near hot engine exhausts. Not insulated engine exhausts have also started fires where they come in contact with other combustible materials.

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6.2.4.

Pump room fires

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Petroleum oil fires

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6.2.7.

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SIZE-UP

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FIRE CONTROL

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FIRE APPROACH

Often the direction of approach to a fire is determined by its location and the layout of the vessel. If there are alternative approaches that may be made, then the fire fighters must be aware of the limitations of each. Fire fighting on the same level

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Fire fighting from above

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Fire fighting from below

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PREVENTING FIRE SPREAD

6.7.

OVERHAUL

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DEWATERING

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6.9.

WHEN THE FIRE IS OUT

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FIRES IN PORT

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6.10.

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LEADERSHIP

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COMMAND TEAM

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SECTION 7 FIRE EXTINGUISHING MEDIA

Table of contents Page FIRE FIGHTING TACTICS..............................................................................2

7.2.

EXTINGUISHMENT ........................................................................................2

7.3.

EXTINGUISHING MEDIA................................................................................3

7.3.1.

Water...............................................................................................................3

7.3.2.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)......................................................................................3

7.3.3.

Foam ...............................................................................................................3

7.3.4.

Dry powder ......................................................................................................3

7.3.5.

Halon substitutes.............................................................................................3

7.4.

COOLING AGENTS........................................................................................4

7.4.1.

Water...............................................................................................................4

7.4.2.

Foam ...............................................................................................................5

7.5.

SMOTHERING AGENTS ................................................................................5

7.5.1.

Foam ...............................................................................................................5

7.5.3. 7.5.4.

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Carbon Dioxide................................................................................................5 Steam ..............................................................................................................6 Sand ................................................................................................................6 FLAME INHIBITORS ......................................................................................6

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7.1.

DRY CHEMICAL POWDER............................................................................6

7.8.

FIRE BUCKETS ..............................................................................................7

7.9.

FIRE BLANKETS............................................................................................7

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7.7.

ANNEX

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FIRE FIGHTING TACTICS

The scope of this Chapter is to aid crewmembers in picking the right extinguishing agent. However, it is not enough to know that water is best for putting out Class A fire because it tolls, or that dry chemical works well in knocking down the flames of a burning liquid. The extinguishing agent must be applied properly, and sound fire fighting techniques must be used. 7.2.

EXTINGUISHMENT

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The principles of fire extinguishment, as was described in section 1, can be most easily understood by referring to the FIRE TRIANGLE.

2. 3.

REMOVAL OF HEAT by cooling to below the Flash Point of the substance. REDUCTION OF OXYGEN to 11½% by volume or less by smothering. REMOVAL OF FUEL, which might entail shutting of a liquid or gas source or the removal of solid combustible material from the fire area.

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OXYGEN, of which there is an adequate supply in the surrounding air, HEAT, in the form of an ignition source, and FUEL, which can be any combustible material. Extinguishment of a fire can be accomplished by the removal of one or more of the sides of the triangle as follows:

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A fourth method extinguishment is the interruption of the chemical process of combustion and can be accomplished by the use of chemical dry powder.

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7.3.

EXTINGUISHING MEDIA

7.3.1.

Water

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Principally a cooling agent, with the added advantage that where sufficient quantities of steam are evolved the oxygen in displaced. Water is the ideal agent for cooling many fuels. Advantages 1. Readily available at sea 2. Large capacity to absorb heat

- jet for penetration - spray for cooling large areas of boundary cooling 7.3.2.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

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3. Versatile

Disadvantages 1. The possible effect on stability 2. Liquid fires may be spread through use of water 3. Not suitable for fires involving electronics or if live cables are adjacent 4. Reacts with certain substances to produce toxic fumes 5. Causes some cargoes to swell

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A medium that “smothers” the fire, thus displacing the air (with its oxygen content). Advantages 1. Inert

Foam

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2. Relatively cheap 3. Does not harm cargo 4. Does not form toxic or explosive gases When in contact with most substances

Disadvantages 1. Only a limited supply will be available 2. No cooling effect 3. Danger of asphyxiation

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Foam smothers a fire by forming an airtight seal. Foam also has the property of preventing vapours escaping through the blanket, thus inhibiting a fire igniting above the foam blanket. Foam has some cooling effect, but it must not be used on electrical equipment. There are different types of foam, details of which are given in the following paragraphs. 7.3.4.

Dry powder

Commonly dry powder is Sodium Bicarbonate with various additives to improve flow, foam compatibility, water resistance and shelf life. Other powders include monoammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, etc. Modern dry powder extinguishers fire mainly by interference although with some there is also smothering effect. Dry powder gives fast flame knock-down but no cooling effect. 7.3.5.

Halon substitutes

The prohibition on the supply of new halon fire extinguishers and systems has led manufacturers to try various alternatives. They fall into three broad categories.

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Halocarbons (e.g. FM 200 and FE 13) Like halon these are clean, non-conductive gases which extinguish through the anticatalytic effect of breaking the chemical chain reaction which sustains a fire. Required concentrations are low, although not as low as halon 1301, and extinguishing is swift. Storage capacity required to protect a given volume is nearly twice that of halon 1301.

b) Inert gases (e.g. Argon) Argon and inert argon compound gases require a storage volume ten times that of halon 1301 and about 60% that of CO2. The extinguishing time for a total flood system is in excess of one minute. Water mist These systems are similar to water spray systems but are engineered to produce very fine water droplets which extinguish fires because of their capacity to absorb large quantities of heat. COOLING AGENTS

7.4.1.

Water

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c)

Water is the most common cooling agent. This is because water possesses very good heat absorbing qualities and is available in ample quantities at terminals and in ships.

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A water jet, although excellent for fighting fires involving combustible materials, should not be used on burning oil, or on burning cooking oil or fat in galleys, because of the danger of spreading the fire. Water spray and water fog may be used effectively against oil fires and for making a screen between the fire fighter and the fire.

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Owing to the danger of electrical shock, water should not be directed towards any electrical equipment. A wetting agent may be added to water when it is to be used on tightly packed combustible materials. This has the effect of lowering its surface tension and thus increasing its effective penetration.

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Foam

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Foam has a limited heat absorbing effect and should not normally be used for cooling. SMOTHERING AGENTS Foam

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Foam is an aggregation of small bubbles of lower specific gravity than oil or water, which flows across the surface of a burning liquid and forms a coherent smothering blanket. It will also reduce the surface temperature of the liquid by the absorption of some heat.

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Foam applicators should be directed away from liquid petroleum fires until any water in the system has been flushed clear. Foam should not come into contact with any electrical equipment. Foam concentrates may deteriorate with time depending on the storage conditions. Storage at high temperatures and in contact with air will cause sludge and sediment to form. This may affect the extinguishing ability of the expanded foam. Samples of the foam concentrate should therefore be returned periodically to the manufacturer for testing and evaluation. 7.5.2.

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is an excellent smothering agent for extinguishing fires, when used in conditions where it will not be widely diffused. Carbon dioxide is therefore effective in enclosed areas such as machinery spaces and electrical switch rooms where it can

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penetrate into places that cannot be reached by other means. On an open deck or jetty area carbon dioxide is comparatively ineffective. Carbon dioxide does not damage delicate machinery or instruments and, being a nonconductor, can be used safely on or around electrical equipment. Due to the possibility of static electricity generation, carbon dioxide should not be injected into any space containing a flammable atmosphere, which is not on fire. Carbon dioxide is asphyxiating and cannot be detected by sight or smell. No one should enter confined or partially confined spaces when carbon dioxide has been injected. The space must be fully ventilated before entry without breathing apparatus. Steam

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7.5.3.

Steam is inefficient as a smothering agent because of the substantial delay that may occur before sufficient air is displaced to render the atmosphere incapable of supporting combustion. Steam should not be injected into any space containing an unignited flammable atmosphere due to the possibility of static electricity generation. 7.5.4.

Sand

FLAME INHIBITORS

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Sand is relatively ineffective as an extinguishing agent and is only useful on small fires on hard surface. Its basic use is to dry up small spills.

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Flame inhibitors are materials, which interfere chemically with the combustion process, and thereby extinguish the flames. However cooling or removal of fuel is necessary if re-ignition is to be prevented. 7.7.

DRY CHEMICAL POWDER

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Dry chemical powder is discharged from an extinguisher as a free flowing cloud. It is most effective in dealing initially with a fire resulting from an oil spill on a jetty or on the deck of tanker but can also be used in confined spaces. It is especially useful on burning liquids escaping from leaking pipelines and joints. It is a non-conductor and therefore suitable for dealing with electrical fires. It must be directed into flames. Dry chemical powder has a negligible cooling effect and affords no protection against re-ignition arising, for example, from the presence of hot metal surfaces. Certain types of dry chemical powder can cause a breakdown of a foam blanket and only those labelled “foam compatible” should be used in conjunction with foam. Dry Chemical Powder is difficult to be removed from equipment with many moving parts or sensitive parts after the fire has been extinguished.

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F I R E

Water

7.8.

XX Best

FIRE BUCKETS

Foam

X

AFFF

X

XX

X

XX

C H A R T CO2

Chemical powder X

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A Paper, wood, fabrics etc B Flammable liquids C Flammable Gases D Metals E Electrical Hazards Suitable,

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E X T I N G U I S H I N G

Class of fire risk

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7.9.

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Where fire buckets are provided they should be painted red and clearly marked “FIRE”. Fire buckets should be filled with sand or water. They should be approximately nine litre capacity, easy to handle and made of a material which is not readily flammable. FIRE BLANKETS

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Fire blankets are often found in galleys and pantries and are suitable for contained fat fires (e.g. chip pan), contained liquid fires, and other small fires.

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If the fire blanket does not have specific protected hand holds, fold back the top edge over the hands to protect them. Allow the blanket to afford protection by letting it hang in front of you. This is achieved by holding your hands up and apart. Hold the blanket so as to keep heat and flame off your face and body, but do not obscure your vision. Advance and lay the blanket over the fire. If it is a liquid fire, make sure that blanket is stretched so that it does not dip into the liquid. Do not throw the blanket down, as this may drive air into the fire and cause it to be more intense or cause a plume of flame. Once the fire has been extinguished do not remove the blanket until the previously burning item has had time to cool. Removing the blanket too soon may allow reignition. A person with burning clothes should be laid on the floor and wrapped in the blanket, but do not leave them within the blanket as this may trap heat and so cause more injury.

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ANNEX

REVISED GUIDELINES FOR MARINE PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

THE ASSEMBLY,

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RECALLING Article 15(j) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organisation concerning the functions of the Assembly in relation to regulations and guidelines concerning maritime safety, RECALLING FURTHER that it adopted by resolution A.518 (13) the Guidelines for Marine Portable Fire Extinguishers to supplement the requirements of chapter II-2 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended, as well as chapter V of the Torremolinos International Convention for the Safety of Fishing Vessels, 1977,

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RECOGNISING the need to improve these Guidelines in the light of experience gained, HAVING CONSIDERED the recommendation made by the Maritime Safety Committee at its fifty-third session, ADOPTS the Revised Guidelines for Marine Portable Fire Extinguishers, the text of which is annexed to the present resolution and which supersedes the Guidelines annexed to resolution A.518(13)

2.

RECOMMENDS Governments concerned to apply the Revised Guidelines set out in the Annex, in conjunction with the appropriate requirements of the above instruments.

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REVISED GUIDELINES FOR MARINE PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 1.

SCOPE

These Guidelines have been developed to supplement the requirements for marine portable fire extinguishers" in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, and the Torremolinos International Convention for the Safety of Fishing Vessels, 1977. The Guidelines are offered to Administrations to assist them in determining appropriate design and construction parameters. The status of the Guidelines is advisory. Their content is based on current practices and does not exclude the use of designs and materials other than those indicated below. ` DEFINITIONS

2.1.

An extinguisher is an appliance containing an extinguishing medium, which can be expelled by the action of internal pressure and be directed into a fire. This pressure may be stored pressure, or be obtained by a chemical reaction, or be obtained by release of gas from a cartridge.

2.2.

A portable extinguisher is one which is designed to be carried and operated by hand and which in working order has a total weight of not more that 23 kg.

2.3.

Extinguishing medium is the substance contained in the extinguisher the action of which causes extinction of fire.

2.4.

Charge of an extinguisher is the mass or volume of the extinguishing medium contained in the extinguisher. The quantity of the charge of water or foam extinguishers is normally expressed in volume (litres) and that of other types of extinguishers in mass (kg):

3.

CLASSIFICATION

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Extinguishers are classified according to the type of extinguishing medium they contain. At present the types of extinguishers and the uses for which they are recommended are as follows:

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Extinguishing medium Water Foam Dry powder /dry chemical (standard) Dry powder/dry chemical (multiple general purpose) Dry powder/dry chemical (metal) Carbon dioxide Halogenated hydrocarbons (Halons)

Recommended for use on fires involving Wood, paper, textiles and similar materials Wood, paper, textiles and flammable liquids Flammable liquids, electrical equipment and flammable gases Wood, paper, textiles flammable liquids, electrical equipment and flammable gases Combustible metals Flammable liquids, electrical equipment and flammable gases Flammable liquids, electrical equipment and flammable gases

A table is provided in the appendix, which describes the general characteristics of each type of extinguisher. Issue No. 1

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CONSTRUCTION

4.1.

The construction of an extinguisher should be designed and manufactured for simple and rapid operation, and ease of handling.

4.2.

Extinguishers should be manufactured to a national or other recognised standard which includes a requirement that the body, and all other parts subject to internal pressure, be tested 'to a pressure above the maximum expected during the service life of the extinguisher. In the design of components, selection of materials and determination of maximum filling ratios and densities, consideration should be given to the temperature extremes to which extinguishers may be exposed on board ships.

4.3.

The materials of construction of exposed parts and adjoining dissimilar metals should be carefully selected to function properly in the marine environment.

5.

FIRE CLASSIFICATIONS

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4.

Fire classifications are generally A, B, C and D. There are currently two standards; defining classes of fires according to the nature of the material undergoing combustion, as follows: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 10)

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International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO standard 3941)

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Class A: Fires involving solid materials, usually of an organic nature, in which combustion Normally takes place with the formation of glowing embers.

A

Class B: Fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids.

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Class C: Fires involving gases.

Class D: Fires involving metals.

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Class A: Fires in ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and many plastics. Class B: Fires in flammable liquids, oils, greases, tars, oil base paints, lacquers and flammable gases Class C: Fires which involve energised electrical equipment where the electrical non-conductivity of the extinguishing medium is of importance (When electrical equipment is de-energised extinguishers for class A or B fires may be used safely) Class D: Fires in combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium, and potassium.

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TEST SPECIFICATIONS

Construction, performance and fire-extinguishing test specifications should be to the satisfaction of the Administration. CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING COMPLIANCE WITH REGULATION ll-2 16.1.1 OF THE 1974 SOLAS CONVENTION AND REGULATION 81 (1) OF THE 1977 TORREMOLINOS CONVENTION

7.1.

Reg. II-216.1.1 requires that extinguishers have a fire extinguishing capability at least equivalent to that of a 9 litre fluid extinguishers which may be water or foam as required by the Administration. This equivalence may be demonstrated by fire test ratings determined according to an international, national or other recognized standard.

7.2.

The size and type of extinguishers should be dependent upon the potential fire hazards in the protected spaces. Care should also be taken to ensure that the quantity of extinguishing medium released in small spaces does not endanger personnel.

8.

MARKING OF EXTINGUISHERS

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Each extinguisher should be clearly marked with the following minimum information: 1. name of the manufacturer; 2. types of fire for which the extinguisher is suitable; 3. type and quantity, of extinguishing medium; 4. approval details; 5. instructions for use and recharge (it is recommended that operating instructions be given in pictorial form); 6. year of manufacture; 7. temperature range over which the extinguisher will operate satisfactorily; 8. test pressure; PERIODICAL INSPECTIONS AND MAINTENANCE

9.1.

Extinguishers should be subject to periodical inspections and maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The periods between such inspections and maintenance should not exceed the period between safety equipment surveys.

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9.2.

Records of inspections should be maintained. The records should show the date of inspection, the type of maintenance carried out, and whether or not a pressure test was performed.

9.3.

Instructions for recharging extinguishers should manufacturer and be available for use on board.

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Opening of the valve. Action of pressurised gas opening of the (cartridge)

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Mechanical foam Water solution containing foam generating substances Carbon dioxide or other pressurized inert gases or compressed air (stored pressure or separate cartridge)

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Solution of sulphuric or hydrochloric acid or aluminium sulphate

Basic water solution with foam generating substances Water solution and acid reagent (e.g. solution of aluminium sulphate)

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Carbon dioxide of sulphuric or hydrochloric acid or aluminium sulphate

Basic water solution

Opening of the valve. Generation of carbon dioxide (chemical reaction between the acid solution in the cartridge and the basic solution of the charge)

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One basic and one acid reagent in general the basic reagent is a solution of sodium bicarbonate and the acid reagent is a solution of sulphuric or hydrochloric acid or of aluminium sulphate Opening of the valve Generation of carbon dioxide (chemical reaction which develops inside the extinguisher)

Chemical foam

Powder

Carbon dioxide

Halogenated hydrocarbons

Dry chemical powders

Pressurized carbon dioxide

Halogenated hydrocarbons

Opening of the valve of the container constituting the extinguisher

Opening of the valve of the container constituting the extinguisher

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Water Water, with possible salts in solution

The discharge of the extinguisher is achieved by:

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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHER

Extinguishing medium used

Expelling charge of the extinguisher (stored pressure or cartridge as indicated)

M/V “VSLNAME”

Opening of the valve. Generation of carbon dioxide (chemical reaction between the acid solution in the cartridge & the basic solution of the charge)

Approved by:

Opening of the valve. Action of pressurized gas (opening of the cartridge)

Carbon dioxide or other inert gases or dry air (stored pressure or separate cartridge)

Opening of the valve. Action of pressurized gas (opening of the cartridge)


COMPANYNAME SOLAS TRAINING MANUAL PART B – Section 7 Fire Extinguishing Media - Annex

Water, with salts in solution Cooling of the burning materials. Water evaporation (water/steam) which isolates the burning products from the surrounding air and consequent formation of s local atmosphere Water, with possible salts in solution

Chemical foam

Mechanical foam

Foam containing carbon dioxide

Foam contain the gas used

Very Low

Formation of a foam layer which isolates the burning products from the surrounding air

Low

Low

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Powder

Carbon dioxide

Halogenated hydrocarbons

Carbon dioxide

Halogenated hydrocarbons

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Water

A

The electrical resistance of the discharged extinguishing medium is:

TYPES OF EXTINGUISHER

Dry chemical powders and carbon dioxide or other gas Inhibition of the combustion process by interrupting the chemical reaction Some separation of burning materials from surrounding air

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The discharged extinguishing medium causes the extinction of fire by:

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The discharged extinguishing solution medium consists of:

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Very high Under intense heat some ' powders may be electrically conductive

Formation of a local inert atmosphere (carbon dioxide) which isolates the burning materials from the surrounding air Smothering and cooling action of carbon dioxide Very high

Inhibition of the combustion process by interrupting the chemical reaction.

Very high


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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHER

Operating peculiarities and limitations

Chemical foam

Mechanical foam

Powder

Carbon Dioxide

Halogenated hydrocarbons

Powder mixture windage; they may therefore have reduced effectiveness in the open air or in ventilated spaces.

Gas, subject to windage; they therefore have limited effectiveness in the open air or in ventilated spaces

Halon 1211 and2402 normally discharged, as are liquids whereas halon 1301 normally discharged as a gas. When discharged as a gas. subject to windage, it has limited effectiveness in the open or in ventilated spaces. Caution should be exercised in selection of type of halogenated hydrocarbons and size of unit particularly if used in accommodation space. Avoid use in small enclosed spaces when persons are present inside the spaces. Halogenated hydrocarbons may be toxic at the concentration higher than limitation stated in regulation II2/5 of the SOLAS Conv. as amended or when decomposed by pyrolysis

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Water

The jet of the extinguisher is to be directed towards the base of the fire

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The extinction of the fire is achieved when the burning surface is covered by foam

Not to be used where there are electrical hazards

Malfunctioning of the reducing arrangements may result in dangerous overpressures.

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Disadvantages and dangers:

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Generated powder mixtures may be suffocating Powder can damage electrical contacts.

Carbon dioxide may be suffocating


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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHER Mechanical foam

The charge can freeze at about-5°C. The charge can be altered by elevated temperatures (about 40°C or more). Therefore, the extinguisher should not be installed in positions where it may be exposed to high or temperatures

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Carbon Dioxide

Some types of powder may be altered by humidity therefore, avoid the refilling of extinguisher in humid locations.

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Extinguishers with copper or copper alloy body should not be polished with products of corrosive nature, which may cause wall thickness reduction. Such extinguishers should preferably be painted externally. The charge can freeze at temperatures of about 0°C (unless the charge is made non-freezable chemically) A void installing the extinguisher in excessively warm locations, where the internal of the carbon dioxide in the cartridge might rise to very high values

Powder

When a carbon dioxide container is provided, avoid the installation of the extinguisher in excessively warm locations where the internal pressure the carbon dioxide in the container might rise very high values

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Maintenance

Chemical foam

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Water

Approved by:

Halogenated hydrocarbons


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SECTION 8 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS & FIXED FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS Table of contents Page GENERAL .....................................................................................................2

8.1.

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ...........................................................2

8.1.1.

Classes of fire extinguishers .........................................................................2

8.1.2.

Fire extinguishers colour coding ...................................................................3

8.1.3.

Sitting of fire extinguishers............................................................................3

8.1.4.

Fire extinguishers operation and maintenance .............................................4

8.1.5.

Inspection & testing portable extinguishers ................................................10

8.2.

EXTINGUISHERS (FIXED & WHEELED UNITS) .......................................15

8.2.1.

Inspection of foam and powder units ..........................................................15

8.2.2.

Inspection of CO2 units ...............................................................................15

8.3.

Foam making equipment ..........................................................................16

8.3.1.

Foam...........................................................................................................16

8.3.2.

Foam concentrate .......................................................................................17

8.3.3.

Protein foam................................................................................................17

8.3.5. 8.3.6.

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Fluoroprotein foam......................................................................................17

Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF).............................................................17 Alcohol resistant foam.................................................................................17 Production of foam......................................................................................18

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8.3.7.

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8.3.4.

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8.0.

Induction .....................................................................................................18

8.3.9.

Branch-pipes...............................................................................................19

8.3.10.

Hoses and couplings...................................................................................19

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8.3.8.

8.3.11.

Mobile foam units........................................................................................19

8.4.

Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems ...........................................................20

8.4.1.

Gas .............................................................................................................20

8.4.2.

Fixed foam fire extinguishing system..........................................................26

8.4.3.

Fixed powder fire extinguishing system ......................................................31

8.4.4.

Fixed water fire extinguishing systems .......................................................33

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8.0.

GENERAL

A fire extinguisher is a pressurised vessel designed to attack a fire in the early stage. Pressure inside the extinguisher is used to expel the extinguishant, which will either smother, cool or chemically interfere with the fire; or fight the fire by combining two or more of these effects. Taking into account the requirements provided by SOLAS or national regulations the ship depending from its type, size etc. must be fitted with both portable and fixed fire extinguishing apparatus. 8.1.

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

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Portable extinguishers can be carried to the fire area for a fast attack, but they contain a limited supply of extinguishing agent. The agent is quickly used up, and continuous application can exhaust the extinguisher in as little as 8 seconds. For this reason, it is important to back up the lead extinguisher with additional extinguishers of a hose line. Then, if the first extinguisher fails or does not have enough agents to put the fire out completely, the additional extinguishers of the hose line can be used to finish the job.

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A crewmember using an extinguisher cannot advance a hose line at the same time. The first step in fighting a fire is to sound the alarm and alert the Captain and crew so the fire can be fought as a team. Vessels have been lost because someone tried to fight a fire by himself without sounding the alarm. By the time the rest of the crew knew what was happening, the fire was out of control.

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There is a right way to use a portable fire extinguisher, and there are wrong ways. Untrained crewmen often waste extinguishing agent through improper application. At the same time, untrained personnel tend to overestimate their ability to put out fires. Training, including practice with the types of extinguishers carried on board, is the best insurance against inefficient use of this equipment. Extinguishers that are due to be emptied and recharged are put to excellent use in training sessions.

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All crew members are required to become familiar with every type of portable fire extinguisher carried on board the vessel, which are listed below. The Master must also ensure that all crew members receive the appropriate training in the operation of each type of extinguisher on board. 8.1.1.

Classes of fire extinguishers

Every portable and semi-portable extinguisher is classified in two ways, with one or more letters and a numeral. The letter or letters indicate the classes of fires on which it may be used. These letters correspond to the four classes of fires. For example, Class A extinguishers may be used only on Class A fires - those involving common combustible materials. Class AB extinguishers may be used on fires involving wood, diesel oil or both. The numeral indicates the relative size or efficiency of the extinguisher. For example, a 4-A extinguisher will extinguish twice, as much Class A fire as a 2-A model. The Coast Guard has its own classification system, which uses Roman numerals to indicate the sizes of portable and semi portable extinguishers. The numeral I indicates the smallest size and V the largest. Thus, a B-III Coast Guard rating indicates a medium-size extinguisher good for fires involving flammable liquids and gases. Issue No. 1

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The most appropriate extinguisher should be found near any risk, but this may not always be the case, especially where there is more than one risk in the same area. For instance, in a Control Room there may be hydraulics, computers and other electrical equipment, papers and books. If the wrong type of extinguisher is used on a fire the already serious situation may be made considerably worse. Using a water extinguisher on a chip-pan fire could result in a contained, controllable situation becoming a catastrophe, as the effect of directing water into burning hot fat is to cause the fire to spread. It is important that every crew member is familiar with the advantages and limitations of each fire extinguishing medium. 8.1.2.

Fire extinguishers colour coding BLUE = Dry Powder

BLACK = CO2

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RED = Water

GREEN = Halon substitutes

YELLOW = Foam

8.1.3.

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Fire extinguishers may be colour coded to indicate the extinguishing medium they contain. Older extinguishers may have the entire body of the extinguisher appropriately coloured; more recent extinguishers will be red with a block of colour placed above the operating instructions. Some vessels may have extinguishers that are red without any colour coding; in this case it is necessary to read the instructions to determine the extinguisher contents. In addition to fire extinguishers normally having some form of colour coding to indicate their contents, modern fire extinguishers will also bear graphic symbols to show the types of fire for which the contents are suitable. The symbol for electrical hazard will be shown on those extinguishers whose contents are safe to use on fires involving all types of electrical equipment. Sitting of fire extinguishers

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LOCATION Normally, extinguishers should be located in conspicuous positions on brackets or stands where they will be readily seen by persons following an escape route. The carrying handle of larger, heavier extinguishers should be about 1m from the deck but smaller extinguishers handles should be about 1,5m from the deck. Sitting positions near to room exits, alleyways, stairways, lobbies and landings are most suitable. Attention should be drawn to the position by photoluminescent signs. The extinguishers, type and size, should be shown on the vessel’s fire plan, or in the case of smaller craft, on some other suitably arranged diagram. ACCESSIBILITY Extinguishers should be available for immediate use at all times. The number of extinguishers required will vary depending on the type of vessel and the risk.

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Typically: −

On passenger vessels and ferries:

On cargo vessels and tankers:

Below the bulkhead deck and in every vertical zone, there shall be at least two extinguishers available in every accommodation space, service space and control station. In enclosed accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations above the bulkhead deck there should be at least one extinguisher on each side of the ship. One extinguisher should be provided in each of the spaces given above.

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Additionally there will be a minimum number of extinguishers required and portable and semi portable extinguishers are also required in machinery spaces, ro-ro spaces and ro-ro space accesses. Where possible it is advisable to side extinguishers at similar positions on each deck. It is not advisable to place extinguishers in positions in rooms or alleyways away from exit points unless they are necessary to cover a particular hazard.

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Extinguishers should not be placed in concealed positions, behind doors, in cupboards or deep recesses, unless their position is indicated by a suitable photoluminescent sign. They should not be in positions where they might cause obstruction to exit routes or be damaged by general movement around the vessel, or be close to heating appliances.

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PROXIMITY TO SPECIAL FIRE RISKS Extinguishers provided to deal with special risks should be sited near the risk concerned, but not so near as to be inaccessible or place the operation in unnecessary danger in case of fire. If the risk is in a confined space it is generally advisable to position the extinguisher immediately outside that space.

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AVOIDANCE OF EXPOSURE AND CORROSION Extinguishers should not be exposed to storage temperatures outside of the designed range. Neither should they, unless specially treated by the manufacturer or protected by a specific housing, be located in places where they may be exposed to a corrosive atmosphere or corrosive fluids. Extinguishers, which stand on the deck where dampness may cause corrosion, should be of a suitable type and carefully monitored as to their condition. 8.1.4.

Fire extinguishers operation and maintenance

Extinguishers containing water, foam or dry powder will be similar in appearance, except that they may be colour coded so that the content may be easily identified, and they all operate on the same principal. In each case the medium is stored in a welded container. When the valve is opened CO2 gas exerts a downward pressure on the water, foam or dry powder, forcing it up a siphon tube and out through the delivery hose. The discharge will be controlled by either squeezing and releasing the operating head valve or by a control lever at the end of the discharge hose.

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Stored pressure or cartridge operated: The CO2 used to expel the medium may either be applying permanent pressure within the extinguisher or stored in a small cartridge found inside the extinguisher and connected to the operating head. In the latter case when the operating head is depressed CO2 from the cartridge fills the main body of the extinguisher in order to expel the medium.

A

Carbon Dioxide (CO2): When the medium is itself CO2 the gas is stored as a liquid under pressure. Because of the pressures involved CO2 extinguishers are not welded containers but solid draw. Upon discharge the liquid expands into CO2 gas.

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A. WATER FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Suitable for use on wood, paper, plastics and textiles (Class A fires). DO NOT USE on fires involving liquid (oils, paints, fats, cleaning fluids, etc). DO NOT USE on fire where there is live electricity in the vicinity. •

Operation of water fire extinguishers Direct the jet into the heart of the fire and low down. Start at the base of the fire nearest you and using a horizontal sweeping action work upwards and away from yourself. If possible break up the burning material to dissipate the heat and make sure that it is thoroughly wetted.

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B. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) EXTINGUISHERS Carbon dioxide extinguishers are used mainly on Class B and C fires. Among portables, the most common sizes contain from 5-20 Ibs. of CO2. The CO2 is mostly in the liquid state, at a pressure of 850 psi. The 5-Ibs. size has a rating of 5-B-C. Its range varies between 3-8 feet, and its duration extends from 8 to 30 seconds. Operation of CO2 Extinguishers The extinguisher is carried to the fire in an upright position. Its short range means that the operator must get fairly close to the fire. 1. The extinguisher placed on the deck, and the locking pin is removed. 2. The discharge is controlled either opening a valve or by squeezing two handles together. 3. The operator must grasp the hose and not the discharge horn. The CO2 expands and cools very quickly as it leaves the extinguisher. The horn gets cold enough to frost over and cause severe frostbite.

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Remember that CO2 displaces oxygen. When a CO2 extinguisher is used in a confined space, the operator must guard against suffocation by wearing breathing apparatus, or by immediate evacuation.

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Class B fires: The horn should be aimed first at the base of the fire nearest the operator. The discharge should be moved slowly back and forth across the fire, being careful not to disturb the liquid. At the same time, the operator should move forward as quickly as his safety permits.

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The result should be a "sweeping" of the flames off the burning surface, with some carbon dioxide "snow" left behind. You've got to sweep all of the flame away or the fire will simply re-ignite itself as soon as your extinguishing agent runs out. Always beware of the possibility of reflash and the need to maintain an escape route. The fire is your enemy -never turn your back on it. When your extinguisher runs out or you are forced to retreat, back away quickly and carefully, always keeping your eyes on the fire. Warning: a liquid fire can flank an operator who moves in too fast, or reflash around an operator who is too close.

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Whenever possible, a fire on a weather deck should be attacked from the windward side. This will allow the wind to blow the heat away from the operator and to carry the CO2 to the fire. Generally, CO2 extinguishers do not perform well in the wind. The blanket of CO2 gas does not remain on the fire long enough to permit the fuel to cool down. Fighting a fire successfully with portable extinguishers depends largely on how fast you can get to the scene, and how aggressively you attack it. At the same time, you've got to keep in mind the need for teamwork and adequate backup. It doesn't do any good to rush into a fire by yourself and expend your extinguisher if the fire is simply going to re-ignite itself the instant you're done. Class C fires: The discharge should be aimed at the source of a fire that involves electrical equipment. There are no fire extinguishers rated only for Class C fires; all are also rated for Class A or B.

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Maintenance CO2 extinguishers need not be protected against freezing. However, they should be stowed at temperatures below 130ºF to keep internal pressure at a safe level. Regularly, CO2 extinguishers should be checked for damage and to ensure that they are not empty. At annual inspections, these extinguishers should be weighed. Any extinguisher that has lost more than 10% of its CO2 weight should be recharged by the manufacturer. A CO2 extinguisher should also be recharged after each use, even if it has been only partly discharged.

o

o o

Hold only the insulated parts of the discharge hose and horn. With the expansion and evaporation of the CO2 there are cooling processes and a danger of frost burn if the discharge horn is not correctly held. If using a CO2 extinguisher in an explosive atmosphere stand it on the ground to ensure any electrostatic charge is dissipated. Do not use without a discharge horn as the discharge will then entrain air and cause an increase in the intensity of the fire. Do not remain in the area after the discharge as CO2 is asphyxiating.

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IMPORTANT

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Ö

C. DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS

Cartridge-operated Dry Chemical Extinguishers Portable cartridge-operated dry chemical extinguishers range in size from 2-30 Ibs; semi-portable models contain up to 50 Ibs. of extinguishing agent. A small cylinder of inert gas is used as the propellant. Cartridge-operated dry chemical extinguishers have a range of 10-30 feet. Units under 10 Ibs. have a discharge duration of 8-10 seconds, while the larger extinguishers provide up to 30 seconds of discharge.

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Dry chemical extinguishers are available in several sizes and may contain any of five extinguishing agents. All have at least a BC rating.

Operation The Extinguisher is carried and used at an angle slightly forward of the vertical. The ring pin is removed, and the puncturing lever is depressed with a blow from the palm of the hand.

S

Be sure the screw cap at the top of the extinguisher is pointed away from you when you activate the extinguisher. In case it has been improperly secured, it could blow up in your face. Depressing the puncturing lever releases the propellant gas, which forces the extinguishing agent up to the nozzle. The flow of dry chemical is controlled with the squeeze-grip On/Off nozzle at the end of the hose. Test the discharge momentarily before you approach the fire -extinguishers don't always work. Stay low and direct the discharge at the seat of the fire, starting at the near edge. The stream should be moved from side to side with rapid motion, to sweep the fire off the fuel. On a weather deck, the fire should be approached from the windward side if at all possible.

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Don't shoot the initial discharge directly onto the fire from close range (3-8 feet) because the force of the stream may scatter burning material or splash a burning liquid. The agent may be applied in short bursts by opening and closing the nozzle with the squeeze grips. If the propellant gas cylinder is punctured but the extinguisher is not put into use or is only partially discharged, the remaining gas may leak away in a few hours. Thus, the extinguisher must be recharged attar each use or activation.

LE

Dry chemical extinguishers put out Class B fires by breaking the chain reaction, with little or no cooling. Thus, a reflash is possible if the surrounding surfaces are hot. More dry chemical or another appropriate extinguishing agent must be ready as a backup, until all sources of ignition are removed. Dry chemical may be used along with water. Some dry chemical extinguishers are filled with an extinguishing agent that can be used with foam. Stored-pressured Dry Chemical Extinguishers: Stored-pressure dry chemical extinguishers come in the same sizes as cartridge-operated types. They have the same ranges and duration’s of discharge and are used in the same way. The only differences are that the propellant gas is mixed in with the dry chemical in the stored-pressure type, and the extinguisher is controlled with a squeeze-grip trigger on the top of the container. A pressure gauge indicates the condition of the charge.

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Class A - extinguishment using ABC Dry Chemical: Only one dry chemicalextinguishing agent, mono-ammonium phosphate, is approved for use on Class A fires. This agent puts fires out by chain breaking, as do the other dry chemical agents. In addition, it clings to the surfaces of burning materials to form a coating that deprives the fuel of air. As with the other agents, this dry chemical should be directed at the seat of the fire and swept from side to side to knock down the flames. However, once the fire has been knocked down, you should move close to the burning debris. Then all fuel surfaces should be thoroughly coated with the chemical agent using short, intermittent bursts.

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Class B - extinguishment using BC or ABC Dry Chemical: A flammable-liquid fire should be attacked as noted above. The agent should first be directed at the edge nearest the operator. The nozzle should be moved from side to side with a wrist action to cover the width of the fire. The operator should maintain the maximum continuous discharge rate, remembering that the extinguisher has a range of from 10-30 feet. The operator must be very cautious and move in toward the fire very slowly. Remember, a liquid fire can flank an operator who moves in too fast, or reflash around an operator who is too close. When all the flames are out, the operator should back away from the fire very slowly, remaining alert for possible reflash. A hot spot that is missed can reflash and recreate the original fire. When you fight this type of fire, always have backup units on hand and ready to assist. If you must use dry chemical to approach a pressure gas fire in order to close off the fuel flow, the heat shield afforded by the dry chemical should be maintained in front of your face. Water fog may also be used to provide an effective heat shield. When you are ready to put the fire out, the dry chemical stream must be directed into the gas stream nearly parallel to the gas flow, at about 10 degrees to the right or left of entry. If dry chemicals are directed into the stream at too great an angle, the dry chemical will not penetrate the full stream and won't put out the fire. On the

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other hand, if the chemical stream does not have a slight right or left angle, the dry chemical will be deflected by the gas pipe. Once the gas is shut off or the fire is out, the operator should slowly back away always keeping an eye on the fire. Class C - extinguishment using BC or ABC Dry Chemical: When electrical equipment is involved in a fire, the stream of dry chemical should be aimed at the source of the flames. If the fire involves e.g. an electrical panel, you may have to direct the extinguisher behind the panel to reach the source. In small spaces, the cloud produced by the dry chemical will limit visibility and may cause choking.

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The chance of electric shock is also increased when you can't see.

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If at all possible, electrical equipment that may be involved in a fire should be deenergised at the source before any attempt is made to put the fire out. Dry chemical extinguishing agents leave a coating or residue that must be cleaned off of electrical equipment before it can be used. Monoammonium phosphate (ABC) dry chemical leaves a sticky coating that is very hard to remove. This coating also enters and sticks to circuit breakers and switching components, making them almost useless. For that reason, ABC dry chemical should not be used on electrical fires if there is any other alternative.

Maintenance of Dry Chemical Extinguishers Dry chemical agents and their propellants are unaffected by temperature extremes and may be stored anywhere aboard the vessel. They do not break down or evaporate, so periodic recharging is not needed. However, the cartridges in cartridge-operated extinguishers should be inspected and weighed every six months. Cartridges that are punctured or weigh 1/4 oz. less than the indicated weight should be replaced: At the same time, hoses and nozzles should be checked to ensure that they are not clogged. Stored-pressure extinguishers have pressure gauges that show whether the internal pressure is within the operating range. These should be checked visually at frequent intervals. Stored-pressure extinguishers should be inverted and shaken frequently. Otherwise, the extinguishing agent may cake at the bottom of the extinguisher, especially after heavy pounding at sea.

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Dry chemical agents that contain sodium can contaminate or corrode brass and copper electrical fittings. Electric fires are best put out with carbon dioxide and Halon substitutes, which are "clean" extinguishing agents.

If you can't feel the extinguishing agent move when you invert the cylinder and shake it, the extinguisher may be useless.

D. FOAM EXTINGUISHERS Foam produces a blanket of bubbles that smothers a fire. The bubbles are formed by mixing water and foam concentrate. The various foam solutions are lighter than flammable oils and form a blanket on the surface that interrupts the supply of oxygen to the fire, while it prevents flammable vapours from escaping. The water in foam also has a cooling effect. Because they contain water, foams should not be used on live electrical equipment. Issue No. 1

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The most common foam extinguishers carry NFPA ratings of 2A: 4B. They can thus be used on both Class A and Class B fires, with ranges of 30-40 feet and discharge duration’s of slightly less than a minute. The extinguisher is charged by filling it with two solutions that are kept separate until it is to be used. •

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IMPORTANT

8.1.5.

Inspection & testing portable extinguishers

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External inspection

Ensure that the safety pin is in place and operating freely. Examine the exterior, including the base for signs of corrosion. Ensure that all instructions are legible and in appropriate languages. If the unit is of the stored pressure type and has a gauge, ensure that it is showing an acceptable reading. Examine the hose and/or horn and their securing clips for signs of cracking or damage. Inspect the bracket for damage and ensure that it is securely attached. Ensure that the appropriate sings and instructions are displayed adjacent to the extinguisher. Stored pressure units should be weighed and this compared against the weight stamped into the extinguisher body (solid drawn cylinders) or marked on the service label. If there has been a loss of more than 10% of the content weight the cylinder should be recharged by a competent person. Note that some manufacturers recommend that only authorised service engineers recharge their stored pressure extinguishers. It is not practicable to recharge CO2 onboard. If there are found to have lost more than 10% of their content weight they should be replaced and returned to an appropriate recharging facility.

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Do not use on fires where there is live electricity in the vicinity.

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− − − −

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Operation Foam extinguishers are carried to the fire right side up, then inverted to mix the solution and form liquid foam plus CO2 gas. The CO2 acts as the propellant and fills the foam bubbles, and the liquid foam expands to about 8 times its original volume. To avoid scattering the foam or the liquid, foam should be applied gently on burning liquids by "bouncing" it off a nearby surface and allowing it to run down onto the liquid until the entire surface is covered. If the fire involves ordinary combustibles, apply the foam as a blanket, or use the force of the stream to cover the seat of the fire.

− −

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Internal inspection (cartridge operated units) − − −

Discharge or empty the cylinder completely. Internal inspection of dry powder extinguishers must not be undertaken in a damp or moist atmosphere. Remove the cap slowly and carefully to vent any residual pressure.

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− −

− − − − −

Empty the contents in to a clean bucket. Water (from Water or Foam extinguishers) should be clean and shown no signs of colour through rusting. Powder must be kept dry. If there is any sign of caking, lumps, foreign matter, or the free-flow of the powder is inhibited, it should be disposed of. Use an inspection light to check for internal corrosion or deterioration of any protective lining. Remove the CO2 cartridge and check its condition and date. If date expired it should be replaced. If in-date check the weight against the full weight as marked on the cartridge: if there has been a weight loss of more than 10% of the contents the cartridge should be replaced. Note that the weight loss of 10% refers to the contents not to the total weight. Check the operating mechanism. Ensure that hoses, siphon tubes, pressure relief ports and other orifices are not obstructed. Check that all washers, ‘O’ rings and seals are in good condition. Refill and reassemble the extinguisher. Lightly lubricate threads. Some dry powder extinguishers have a burst disc fitted in the discharge hose to prevent moisture entering and affecting the extinguisher contents.

LE

Test discharge

P

Extinguishers must be hydraulically tested at intervals acceptable to the flag authority of the vessel.

M

It is recommended that all extinguishers are test discharged at the intervals indicated below: • Carbon Dioxide – After ten years and subsequently after ten years. Thereafter every five years • Water, Foam and Dry Powder – Every four years.

S

A

If every year 25% of the water, foam and dry powder extinguishers and 10% of the CO2 extinguishers are test discharged on a rotation basis, then all extinguishers will be test discharged over the required period.

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Each extinguisher should be clearly marked with the following minimum information: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Name of the manufacturer Types of the fire and rating for which the extinguisher is suitable Type and quantity of extinguishing medium. Approval details Instructions for the use and recharge (it is recommended that operating instructions be given in pictorial form, in addition to explanatory text in language understand by the likely user). Years of manufacture. Temperature range over which the extinguisher will operate satisfactorily, and Test pressure.

S

A

M

P

LE

For further information regarding Fire Extinguishers onboard see Appendix 12

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8.2.

EXTINGUISHERS (FIXED & WHEELED UNITS)

Machinery spaces may be provided with larger fire extinguishers. These may be fixed or wheeled of either Foam, Dry Powder or CO2. The principal differences between these extinguishers and fully portable units is that they contain much more of the extinguishing medium but they are eight fixed at one location or with a limited portability.

8.2.1.

45 litres or 135 litres 23 – 75 kg 9 – 45 kg

Inspection of foam and powder units

Check the trolley or frame for damage or corrosion. Ensure that the safety pin and seal are in place. Disconnect the CO2 cylinder – if it is corroded or more than 10% below content weight it must be changed. Disconnect the discharge hose and horn and carefully inspect them. Ensure any nozzle operates freely. Slowly unscrew the headcap, not more than two turns. If any residual pressure begins to escape allow the unit to slowly depressurise before completely removing the headcap. Ensure any pressure relief holes in the headcap and pressure relief valve are clear. Examine all washers and seals. Replace if necessary. Use a thin smear of petroleum jelly on any threads. In foam extinguishers check the level of the solution. In powder extinguishers take sample scoops of powder; ensure any lumps break up immediately when lightly pressed. If the powder is caking the entire contents should be replaced. Restore the unit to a ready-use condition.

A

− − −

Foam units: Powder units: CO2 units:

M

− − −

Ö Ö Ö

P

CAPACITIES

LE

On the Foam (and Powder) units the pressuring CO2 used to expel the extinguishant is contained in a cylinder mounted on outside.

S

− − − − −

Every five years the units should be subject to discharge test. This should be followed by a thorough inspection, including internal inspection and recharge all according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 8.2.2. − −

Inspection of CO2 units

Ensure that the safety pins and seals are in place. Examine the hose and horn assembly.

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− −

Remove the cylinder(s) and weight them. If the content weight has fallen by more than 10% the cylinder must be recharged or replaced. Check the trolley or frame for corrosion and its general condition. Grease wheel hubs as necessary.

If CO2 extinguisher has not been used it should be hydraulically tested not more than twenty years from the date of manufacturer. If the extinguisher has been used after it is ten years old it must be hydraulically tested before refilling. 8.3.

Foam making equipment

8.3.1.

Foam

P

LE

Fire fighting foam is a stable collection of small bubbles of lower density than oil or water. It has a tenacious quality enabling it to seal horizontal surfaces. Air foam is made by mixing air into a water tenacious quality enabling it to seal horizontal surfaces. Air foam is made by mixing air into a water solution containing a foam concentrate. Foam flows freely over a burning liquid surface and forms a tough, airexcluding continuous blanket to isolate volatile, combustible vapours from the air. It resists disruption due to wind and draught, or heat and flame attack, and the foam ‘blanket’ is capable of resealing after an incursion. Fire fighting foams retain these properties for relatively long periods. Foams are arbitrarily divided into Low, Medium and High ranges of Expansion. Expansion in volume of up to 20 times the quantity of water used. Log range jet. For tank protection, either over the top or sub-surface. High cooling effect even on vertical surface due to its ‘sticking’ capability 20-200 times. Limited range of jet. Layers up to 3m. Capable of pushing well forward and going round corners. Expansion 200-1000 times. For rapid filling of large spaces. Layers up to 30m. Capable of pushing well forward. Effective vaporization control within bounded areas

M

Low Expansion

A

Medium expansion

S

High expansion

Fixed foam flooding systems for machinery spaces may use high expansion systems, but deck foam systems and portable marine systems use low expansion systems having an expansion ratio of seven or eight times the volume of the water supplied. The maximum permitted expansion ratio for a deck marine system is twelve times.

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8.3.2.

Foam concentrate

Foam concentrates are concentrated liquid foaming agents. In use they are diluted with water in ratios of between 1% and 6%, depending on the concentrate and risk. The solution of water and foam concentrate is then aerated and allowed to expand as required. When using portable foam making equipment the concentrate is usually introduced to the system directly from the 25 litre storage drums. 8.3.3.

Protein foam

8.3.4.

Fluoroprotein foam

LE

These consists primarily of protein hyrolysate, stabilizing additives and inhibitors to protect against freezing, corrosion of equipment, bacterial decomposition, and to control viscosity. Some of the fire fighting properties of protein foam may be lost in storage.

8.3.5.

P

Similar to protein foam but with synthetic fluorinated surfactant activities which give an improved performance and make it suitable for a wider variety of risks. It flows better than protein foam and gives a quicker flame knockdown. Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)

Alcohol resistant foam

A

8.3.6.

M

In addition to excluding air and oxygen AFFF develops a water film on the fuel surface capable of suppressing the evolution of fuel vapours. AFFF gives very rapid flame knockdown. It also has better penetration on carbonaceous (Class A) fires than the two foams mentioned above. The foam produced with AFFF concentrate is usually compatible with dry chemical extinguishants. Thus the two may usually be used together without the danger of one limiting the extinguishing effect of the other.

S

Used on water soluble materials and other fuels destructive to regular AFFF foams. One type is based on water soluble natural polymers and an alcohol insoluble material. Another type is based on synthetic concentrates and a gelling agent, which surrounds the foam bubbles and forms a protective raft on the surface of water soluble fuels.

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8.3.7.

Production of foam

8.3.8.

LE

Portable foam producing appliances consist of a foam making branch-pipe, an in-line inductor and a supply of foam concentrate. The inductor mixes the foam concentrate with water at the right percentage and the branch-pipe mixes the resultant foam solution with air. The inductor and branch-pipe may be parts of the same unit, as schematically shown in the smaller diagram below.

Induction

S

A

M

P

The foam concentrate is introduced into the water flow via a pick-up hose and by means of Venturi suction caused by the pressure drop across the inductor.

In-line inductors may be fitted with an on/off valve and a means to vary the amount of concentrate that is introduced to the system; typically this will be between 1% and 6% depending on the concentrate in use. The induction may either occur directly at the branch-pipe or, by use of a separate in-line inductor, at or near the

fire hydrant. This latter arrangement allows the fire-fighter greater mobility as he is no longer inhibited by the foam concentrate containers and pick-up tube. Inducting foam concentrate from a drum directly into the branch-pipe is especially limiting for the operator should he need to use ladders or stairs or negotiate through watertight doors.

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8.3.9.

Branch-pipes

8.3.10. Hoses and couplings

LE

The mixed water and foam concentrate is passed to the branch-pipe which entrains air into the solution and delivers foam.

P

The hoses and couplings used for portable foam equipment will normally be of the same type as those used for the vessel’s water fire fighting system, and a described previously in this section. 8.3.11. Mobile foam units

S

A

M

A mobile foam unit comprises a foam concentrate storage tank, usually of about 120 litres, an in-line inductor, hoses and a branch-pipe, all assembled on a trolley. Operation of the unit only requires connection to a suitable pressurized water supply. If necessary the unit may be operated by one person.

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8.4.

Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems

Spaces that are usually protected by fixed systems are Engine Room spaces or other high risk spaces. A description of how to operate the above systems on board and a plan for each system should be posted by the release points. All Officers are required to become fully conversant with the operation procedures for fixed fire extinguishing systems to Engine Room. 8.4.1.

Gas

LE

Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems are used to protect large high risk areas such as machinery spaces and cargo holds and small specific risks such as paint stores and galley exhaust ducts. Any gas used must not evolve toxic vapours. It is conveyed to the risk through fixed piping and nozzles sized and arranged to give a uniform distribution of the gas within the required discharge time. Where the extinguishing gas is stored outside of the protected space the conveying pipes are to be fitted with isolating valves clearly marked to indicate the space to which the pipe leads.

P

If the space protected is accessible to personnel there is to be an automatic audible warning of the imminent release of the extinguishant. In order to give time to commence evacuation there is, because of the sequence of operation, a short delay between the alarm sounding and release of the extinguishing gas. Some systems incorporate a more positive time delay in the discharge sequence, although this is not permitted by all administrations.

M

Locally automatically operated fixed systems using Halon or Halon substitutes are permitted in enclosed areas of high fire risk within machinery spaces (e.g. a purifier room).

A

Carbon dioxide is always stored outside of the protected space. Some other gases such as Halon 1301 and FM200 may be stored outside or inside the space. Type

Extinguishing concentration

Exting. time (Sec)

Storage pressure (Bar)

Carbon Dioxide

Inert Gas

30%

120

52

Relative storage volume (assuming Halon=1) 17

5%

10

25

1

S

Extinguishant

Halon 1301 FM200

Halocarbon

7%

7

25

1.7

FE13

Halocarbon

16%

5

42

1.7

Argon

Inert Gas

42%

75

164

10

Argonite

Inert Gas

40%

100

15

10

Inergen

Inert Gas

30%

60

150

10

All figures given above are approximate only. Flooding concentration for machinery spaces and pump rooms of chemical tankers and gas carriers are excess of those shown above.

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A)

Central bank systems

LE

Where an extinguishing system comprises a number of gas cylinders located outside of the protected space they must be stored in a dedicated compartment, which has direct access to the open deck. The system locally consist of a battery of cylinders filled with liquefied CO2 or other extinguishant, each connected to a discharge manifold. The manifold incorporates a non-return valve at each cylinder connection so that any cylinder may be disconnected without impairing the integrity of the systems and so that when released extinguishing gas will not feed back into empty cylinders.

M

P

Other components that may be found in the system include a pressure relief valve vented to atmosphere, a pressure switch to activate audible warning of gas pressure on the manifold and shut down ventilation fans, an air line connection for checking that the lines and nozzles are clear, main compartment isolating valves (which may include an electrical connection to give audible warning and shut down fans when opened) and a release system. There will also be a means of preventing accidental or inadvertent discharge to the protected space particularly when the system is be3ing serviced.

S

A

If the system is used to protect more than one space it is only necessary to have available the quantity of gas required to flood the largest space. The smaller spaces are protected by using an appropriate proportion of the extinguishant. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that if the system were used to flood the largest space there would not be any remaining protection for the smaller spaces. If a proportion of the gas were used to extinguish a fire in one of the smaller spaces then there would be insufficient gas left for full protection of the largest space. Release of the extinguishant to a space afire is often by use of CO2 or nitrogen gas from small pilot cylinders. Opening the locker containing the pilot gas cylinders will active the warning alarms; release of the pilot gas will cause the main compartment isolating valve and the requisite number of cylinders to open. The system must be capable of manual operation from the cylinder stowage position in case of malfunction of the pilot gas system. There may also be a remote release position at any distance from the cylinder bank provided the pilot gas tube run does not exceed the pilot gas volume. Smaller systems may use a manual valve and pull-wire release as might some older systems. Larger older systems sometimes use pilot gas taken from one of the extinguishing gas (CO2) cylinders and/or a drop-weight and wire pull system.

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B) Small systems

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A

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LE

Systems comprising only one or two cylinders, such as may be used for the protection of a paint store or galley exhaust duct, may not require a dedicated stowage compartment but may be located directly adjacent to the risk and operated by manual release only.

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C) Modular systems

P

LE

Cylinders containing Halon 1301 and some halon substitutes (e.g. FM200) may be stored within the space protected provided they are individually distributed throughout the space. Each modular cylinder would be fitted with a short length of distribution pipe and a maximum of two discharge nozzles. An alarm system is provided to indicate if the cylinders have lost pressure due to leakage or discharge and the cylinders themselves are fitted with an over-pressure release device which, in the event of fire and the system not being operated, will discharge the extinguishant into the protected space. Manually operated power releases (e.g. pneumatic, hydraulic or electric) with duplicate sources of power, are to be located outside of the space protected. The release systems are to be so arranged that in the event of a single point failure at least two-thirds of the extinguishant can still be released. The release systems are to be monitored for fault or loss of power and alarms provided to indicate this.

M

D) Low pressure CO2 systems

S

A

With this type of system the CO2 extinguishant is contained within one or two insulated, refrigerated bulk storage tanks instead of in pressurised cylinders. Each of two refrigeration units must be able to maintain the liquid CO2 at the appropriate operating temperature and pressure (about 20 bar). Thus, should one refrigeration unit fail the integrity of the system is not impaired. There are two relief valves with a threeway change over valve in the system so that either relief valve may be isolated for inspection and maintenance. There is a continuous readout of the contents level in the tank and a back-up system to determining the tank contents. Alarms indicate a fall of 2% in the contents of the tank.

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Other components of the system include a pressure switch, main compartment isolating valves, discharge warning alarms, etc all similar to the component parts of a central bank cylinder system. E) Steam smothering systems In general steam smothering installations are not allowed in newer buildings but may still be found in older vessels. Where some administrations still permit steam smothering to be fitted it is only to be in addition to the required fixed fire fighting system and providing that the ship’s boilers can develop a specific quantity of steam within a given time.

LE

Where such systems are found in older ships the steam is to be always immediately available and in sufficient quantities. If blank flanges are used to isolate a hold pipe (and so prevent accidental damage to cargo or if the compartment is used as a passenger space) then a ‘spectacle- type flange is required so that is use may be easily seen.

P

In tankers the steam smothering gas is to be distributed over the surface of the cargo. In other cargo spaces, except coal spaces, the pipe outlets shall be low down in the space. Explosives should never be carried in a compartment fitted with steam fire smothering. Steam smothering is not as effective as other gas extinguishants. If used the space must be kept securely closed to some considerable time to ensure that there is no flash-over when opening up.

M

F) Combined CO2 extinguishing

A

It is usual to combine an extraction smoke detection system for cargo holds with the CO2 flooding system. When smoke has been detected and ventilators closed and the hold secured, operation of a three-way valve, found at the inspection cabinet or in the CO2 cylinder room, isolates the smoke sampling line from the sight For CO2 fixed fire extinguishing systems certain precautions must be followed. Locate the activation device outside of the protected space.

2.

Evacuate the space before activating the system. Coast Guard regulations require that CO2 systems include a minimum 20 seconds delay between activation of the system and the release of the gas to enable crewmen to escape.

3.

Close the space tightly, it is essential to curtail the flow of oxygen to the space, and to contain the extinguishing agent by closing doors, ventilators and exhausts. If there are no closures on ventilators or exhausts, you may have to seal them with blankets, pillows, mattresses or other materials.

4.

Shut off main and auxiliary machinery and allow them to wind down before the system is triggered, or the gas may be expelled through the exhaust system and rendered ineffective. If the system is triggered automatically by a heat or smoke sensor, be sure the sensors are adjusted so that the vessel's fire alarm sounds before the fixed fire extinguishing system is activated. Otherwise, the

S

1.

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gas may be expelled before you are aware of the fire and have had a chance to isolate the space and shut off the machinery. Don't reopen sealed compartments prematurely. The fire must be permitted to cool sufficiently to prevent reflash, or you may find yourself with a new fire and no more extinguishing agent. Monitor the temperatures of adjacent bulkheads for at least half-an-hour before reopening or restarting machinery. If bulkhead temperatures haven't dropped substantially, don't reopen. If necessary, request a tow and leave the compartment sealed until you have reached port and help has arrived.

6.

Before entering a space that has been flooded with CO2, be sure it has been ventilated sufficiently to prevent asphyxiation.

LE

5.

Fixed CO2 extinguishing systems should be tested annually by a qualified service facility. CO2 cylinders should be recharged if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of the weight of the charge. In addition, alarms, release mechanisms and automatic shutdowns should be tested and all flexible connections should be pressure tested. CO2 displaces oxygen and would rapidly suffocate anyone remaining in the space after release. Fixed foam fire extinguishing system

P

8.4.2.

S

A

M

Fixed low and high expansion foam systems are permitted in machinery spaces and fixed low expansion systems are required on cargo tank decks of tankers. A description of different types of foam and their properties is given in the chapter where foam making equipment are referred.

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G)

Deck foam system for tankers

It is a requirement that tankers of over 4000 tonnes are provided with a fixed deck foam system capable of delivering foam to the entire cargo tanks deckhand into any cargo tank the deck of which has been ruptured. The foam is to be applied at a specified rate per square meter of deck but at not less than 1250 litres per minute. On oil tankers there is to be sufficient foam concentrate to ensure that least twenty minutes of foam generation and should there still be any vessels without an inert gas system then thirty minutes foam generation is required. On Chemical tankers there is to be sufficient foam for thirty minutes.

Chemical tankers

LE

Oil tankers

The rate of supply of foam to the cargo tank deck should not be less than the greatest of the following

2.0 litre/min per m2 of cargo tanks deck area.

6 litre/min per m2 of the horizontal sectional area of the tank having the largest such area.

20 litre/min per m2 of the horizontal sectional area of the tank having the largest such area.

3 litres/min per m2 of the (forward) area protected by the largest monitor.

10 litres/min per m2 of the (forward) area protected by the largest monitor.

1250 litres/min.

1250 litres/min.

Duration – not less than 20 minutes.

Duration – not less than 30 minutes.

S

A

M

P

0.6 litre/min per m2 of cargo tanks deck area.

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LE

The foam concentrate is contained within a tank and usually introduced into the system by means of a foam pump and venturi proportioner. Water is pumped through the proportioner which containers a venturi restriction. The pressure drop caused by the venturi draws the correct amount of foam compound into the system. The water and foam compound is termed the foam solution. At the discharge monitor or branch pipe or nozzles air is entrained to expand the solution into foam.

A

M

P

An alternative arrangement is to provide separate foam concentrate and water lines to each monitor together with a proportioner at each monitor together with a proportioner at each monitor.

S

There are to be foam monitors and foam hose connections both port and starboard at the forward end of the poop or accommodation spaces facing the cargo tank decks. The rest of the cargo tank deck is normally provided with monitors situated along the centreline. Vessels with stern and bow loading / discharge arrangements are to have suitable foam protection in those areas. Each monitor will be provided with an isolating/control valve and in the foam main line immediately forward of each monitor there will be a valve to isolate damaged sections of the main. Foam monitors are normally manually operated by lever or geared hand wheel, but may be remotely controlled either electrically or hydraulically. The discharge rate may be up to 12,000 litres per minute and the expansion ration not more than 12:1. The system will include hand held foam applications and hoses and foam Issue No. 1

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hydrants. The number of and position of these must allow for at least two applicators to direct foam at any part of the cargo tank deck area; but there must not be less than four applicators and hoses. Vessels of less than 4000 tonnes may be provided with a foam system that uses applicators only. The type of foam used in the system must be effective for the type of cargo carried.

H)

LE

Larger monitors of up to 30,000 litres per minute are available to meet the requirements of Fire Fighter vessels. Sometimes these are arranged on telescopic masts so as to enable Fire Fighter vessels to raise their monitors above the deck level of a larger casualty vessel and to extend the range of the monitors. High expansion foam systems for machinery space

Fixed high expansion foam systems for machinery spaces may have an expansion ration of up to 1000:1. The foam is to be delivered through fixed ducting and outlets at a rate of at least one meter depth per minute and the quantity of foam concentrate required must be sufficient to produce a volume equal to at least five times the volume of the largest space to be protected.

P

The high expansion foam generators are installed outside of the protected space. The foam concentrate is mixed with water by means of inductors and driven by a fan through trunking to the protected space.

I)

M

High expansion foam takes a long time to clear and thus could immobilise a vessel for an extended period. Low expansion foam systems for machinery spaces

A

Low expansion foam systems are permitted in machinery spaces put only in addition to a fixed gas, high expansion foam, or water spray system. It is not permitted to rely solely on a low expansion foam system for the protection of a machinery space. The foam must be delivered through fixed outlets, and should cover the protected area to a depth of 150mm in five minutes.

S

Typically low expansion foam systems are directed at save-alls in the region of the boiler front, purifiers, diesel generators, etc. although it is emphasised that such savealls cannot guarantee to prevent fire spreading (e.g. oil spraying from a pipe fracture). So in determining the quantity of foam required and nozzle distribution the area protected by the installation must include the adjacent flats and tank top.

Induction / Proportioner Systems – the application rate to the largest single protected area is, as stated above, 150mm in five minutes. But there must be sufficient foam compound carried to cover all protected areas and the application rate to cover all protected areas in 150mm in ten minutes. Pre-mix systems – in these systems water/foam solution is contained within a tank which, when pressurised by a gas, is distributed to be protected areas.

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P

The initial foam charge (water/foam solution) need only be sufficient to cover the largest protected area to a depth of 150mm in five minutes. But there must be sufficient foam compound onboard to cover all remaining areas to a depth of 150mm. The size of the foam solution storage tank must be the required for the protection of the largest single area or that required for the protection of all remaining areas, whichever is larger. There are to be sufficient spare gas cylinders so that the second charge (for all remaining areas) may be effected in five minutes. Recharging the system must be through permanent fittings and not take more than fifteen minutes. 8.4.3. Fixed powder fire extinguishing system

A

M

Vessels carrying liquefied gases in bulk must be provided with a dry chemical powder system for the fire protection of the cargo deck area and any bow and stern loading areas. It must be possible to deliver powder to any part of the cargo deck from at least two monitors and/or hand held hose/pistols. An inert gas, usually nitrogen, stored in pressurised cylinders located adjacent to the powder storage, is used to energise the system. There are to be at least two independent, self-container powder units, each with their own controls, pressurizing gas, piping monitors and hand hoses/pistols. Vessels of under 1000m3 cargo capacity require only one unit.

S

A monitor is required to protect the areas around the loading and discharge manifolds. It is must e capable of being operated locally and remotely, although remote aiming is not required if the entire area is covered from its fixed position. At least one hand hose line and pistol or monitor should be situated at the after end of the cargo area. All hand hose lines and monitors should be capable of actuation at the hose storage reel or monitor. The minimum permitted discharge rate for monitors is 10 kg/second and for hand hoses 3,5 kg/second. The required capacity is increased with the distance each monitor is required to cover: Capacity (kg/second) 10 25 45 Maximum distance of coverage (m) 10 30 40

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S

A

M

P

LE

Each container is to have sufficient powder to provide 45 seconds of discharge for all monitors and hand hoses fed by it.

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8.4.4. Fixed water fire extinguishing systems Water is a cheap readily available fire fighting medium that has a large capacity to absorb heat. Water systems are not usually complex; they are relatively simple to install and maintain, and are immediately available. As an extinguishing agent, water's chief effectiveness is in its ability to cool burning material. Water initially absorbs heat as it is heated towards its boiling point. As water reaches its boiling point, a big increase in heat input is necessary to cause the water to flash to steam. The ability to absorb huge amounts of heat and the ready availability of water at sea make it an ideal extinguishing agent for use aboard ship.

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There are some additional side-benefits that water has as an extinguishing-agent. When water flashes to steam it expands approximately 1,700 times its original liquid volume. The expanding steam acts to reduce the oxygen content in the flame area. This steam smothering effect is temporary since the velocity of the gases in the flame area tend to pull the steam upward with the escaping gases. Water also has the ability of being able to soak and quench material, and when it is applied as a solid stream, water has the ability to penetrate and break-up solid substances.

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Water can be used as a protection against the heat of the flame. By spraying the water in a fine mist in a circular pattern in front of the fire fighters, a heat shield can be formed. The mist of water will fall back on the fire fighters and cool them off, while it absorbs much of the heat coming from the fire. Even a deck wash-down hose, with the spray formed by holding your finger over the end, can be an effective fire fighting tool. Water is normally considered as being rated for Class A and B fires. For Class A fire fighting, water is used as a solid stream to penetrate and break up the material as well as to cool and soak.

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For class B fires, water is used as a fog or high-volume spray and the action is one of cooling the fire below its flash point. A)

Sprinkler systems

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Ideally automatic sprinkler systems detect, control and extinguish a fire in its early stages. The system consists of a permanently pressurised network of water pipes terminating in several sprinkler heads. The sprinkler head, which comprises a glass bulb filled with a liquid seals the end of the water pipe. When heated to a predetermined temperature the liquid expands and so shatters the bulb. The pipe is now open-ended and thus extinguishing water is allowed to flow. A sensor detects the charge in water pressure and activates the necessary alarms and pumps.

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The sprinkler head is fitted with a deflector plate so that the water is distributed in small droplets evenly over the fire area. The fire fighting is selective in that water will only be emitted from pipes in the fire area where the sealing bulb has shattered, and so water damage to surrounding area not affected by fire is avoided. The temperature at which a sprinkler bulb will shatter will be dependant on the normal ambient and maximum temperatures of the compartment. Normally it will be approximately 30°C above the maximum ambient temperature. Sprinkler heads may be fitted with bulbs of various operating temperatures. So, the branch of a system protecting a drying-room would be fitted with bulb activated at a higher temperature than those fitted in accommodation alleyways. The operating temperature of the bulb is indicated by the colour of the liquid it contains.

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Normally fixed automatic sprinkler systems are of the ‘wet pipe’ type. That is the pipes feeding each sprinkler cutlet are permanently charged with water. Some small sections, e.g. where it may be impossible to insulate against freezing, may be of the ‘dry pipe’ type. The system is kept continuously under pressure so as to be always ready for immediate use and must function immediately without it being necessary for a crew member to activate the system. Alarms are given whenever any sprinkler comes into operation or when there is a fault in the system. In passenger ships the alarm must also indicate the area in which the system has been activated. Sprinkler systems are arranged in zones with a maximum of 200 sprinkler heads to each zone. An isolation stop-valve is provided for each zone. The system is served from a fresh water tank pressurised with air, and it must be possible to replenish the tank with fresh water and air pressure.

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The water pumps for the sprinkler system are dedicated for use with the system and must not be used for any other purpose. It is brought into action automatically by the pressure drop in the system. It takes its supply from the sea. The water pumps for the sprinkler system are dedicated for use with the system and must not be used for any other purpose. It is brought into action automatically by the pressure drop in the system. It takes its supply from the sea. The sprinkler system will have a connection to the ship’s fire main which is protected by a stop valve and non-return valve, and possibly, a coupling suitable for connecting to a shore supply.

The pressure tank containing fresh water must be twice the size of the required capacity. The minimum area that must be allowed for is 280m2 and the discharge rate is to be at least 5 litres per m2 per minute. Therefore the minimum permitted tank size is: 280 x 5 x 2 = 2800 litres.

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Once a bulb has shattered pressurised water is sprayed into the area of the fire. Initially the extinguishing water is expelled because of the gas pressure being maintained on the system, but immediate loss of water pressure caused by the breaking sprinkler bulb is detected by a sensor which is used start the water pump and flow switches which are used to operate the alarms. The pump delivers water from the storage tank to the sprinkler outlets. Should the fire require more water than is available from the fresh water storage tank there is an automatic charge over to allow the system to take filtered sea water through a sea suction and deliver it via a strainer to the sprinkler system.

B)

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The water supply to any ‘dry’ section in the system is hold back by an isolating valve and the pipework downstream of this is filled with compressed air. If a sprinkler shatters and opens the line the drop in air pressure is detected by a sensor, which is used to open the isolating valve and so allow water to the sprinkler heads. After use the system must be reinstated to its full protective working order. 1. Stop the pump. 2. Drain down any sea water or unclean water that has been introduced to the system. Ensure that the system is clean. 3. Replace spent sprinkler heads by new heads of the same temperature rating. 4. Charge the system and fill the pressure tank to the correct level. 5. Pressurize the system. Deluge systems

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Deluge systems are similar to sprinkler systems except that the pipes terminate in open nozzles. In the event of a fire the nozzles distribute large quantities of water over the entire protected area, not just in a confined location as occurs when the bulb of a sprinkler systems shatters. The water application is uniformly distributed throughout the risk area. Areas that may be protected by deluge systems are ro-ro car decks and tank decks on gas and chemical tankers. The deluge systems are usually arranged in a manner very similar to that described above for the sprinkler system. The system is charged with clean fresh water, kept under pressure, up to the main stop valve known as the deluge valve. The pipework downstream of the deluge valve is dry. The deluge valve may be opened automatically when detectors indicate a fire or it may be opened manually. When the deluge valve is opened the fall in water pressure is detected and system pumps activated. There is a pressurised storage tank and a pump connected to a sea suction similar to the arrangement described for the sprinkler system. On ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk a water spray system for cooling, fire prevention and crew protection in installed to cover: - Exposed cargo tank domes and exposed parts cargo tanks. - Exposed on deck flammable or toxic product storage containers. - Cargo discharge manifolds and the area of their control valves and the area of the other control valves. - Boundaries of the following area facing the cargo area – superstructure and deckhouses normally manned, cargo compressor rooms, storerooms containing high risk fire items, cargo control rooms.

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surfaces at rate of at least 4 l/m2 per minute. The system may comprise two or more completely independent sections or it must be provided with valves for isolating damaged sections. Pumps and normally close valves are to be operated remotely from a suitable position outside of the cargo area. C)

Water mist systems

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The fire extinguishing ability of water can be enhanced by decreasing the size of the water droplets. Fire water spray systems, known as water mist reduce the water droplet size and the total quantity of water required. When compared to standard sprinkler and deluge systems a water mist system has the following advantages: - Small pipe sizes give ease of pipe run, minimum weight and reduced cost. - Pump size reduced. - Minimal secondary damage caused by the use of water. - Less adverse effect on stability.

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The superior effectiveness of a water system using filter droplets is a result of the ratio of the droplet surface area to its mass. As this ratio increases the area through which heat transfer can occur (for a given volume of water) also increases. In simpler terms, small water droplets absorb heat faster than big droplets and so the cooling effect in the fire area is greater. However if the droplets are too small they may not meet their target because they are not heavy enough to overcome the hot air currents of the fire. Water mist systems also have a suffocating effect in that they reduce the concentration of oxygen in the air. However even in enclosed spaces this effect is limited both in its duration and the area affected. The suffocation effect is greatest when the droplets are extremely fine and the fire has a high heat content. Consequently a large amount of vapour is formed in a short time. In practice water mist systems extinguish primarily through cooling.

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Water mist systems have to be carefully designed, give even coverage of the protected area and, when protecting a specific item, arranged so as to be as close as possible to the risk. The general design is a previously described for a (wet) sprinkler system, except that it works on a higher pressure – say 40 bars – and uses specially designed nozzles to produce the required droplet size. Another advantage of water mist systems is that they give excellent protection for people as the fine droplets reflect radiated heat and bind smoke gasses, thus allowing personnel engaged in fire fighting and rescue to get closer to the seat of the fire.

For further information regarding Fixed Extinguishing Systems see Appendix 13

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SECTION 9 FIREMAN’S OUTFIT

Table of contents Page GENERAL .....................................................................................................2

9.2.

FIREMAN’S OUTFIT – AXES .......................................................................3

9.3.

FIREMAN’S OUTFIT – SAFETY LAMP .......................................................3

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GENERAL

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FIREMAN’S OUTFIT – AXES

9.3.

FIREMAN’S OUTFIT – SAFETY LAMP

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9.2.

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SECTION 10 BREATHING APPARATUS Table of contents Page Different types of equipment......................................................................2

10.2.

Breathing apparatus....................................................................................2

10.3.

Smoke helmet ..............................................................................................2

10.3.1.

Smoke helmet maintenance ..........................................................................4

10.4.

Self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus (CBA or SCBA)....4

10.4.1.

Working duration of C.B.A. ............................................................................5

10.4.2.

Demand type C.B.A.......................................................................................6

10.4.3.

Positive pressure C.B.A.................................................................................7

10.4.4.

Face masks ...................................................................................................8

10.4.5.

CABA face seal checks .................................................................................8

10.4.6.

Air compressor ..............................................................................................8

10.4.7.

Pressure gauge .............................................................................................8

10.4.8.

Low pressure warning ...................................................................................9

10.4.9.

Air line cylinder pack .....................................................................................9

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10.1.

10.4.10. CBA wearer’ test..........................................................................................10 10.5. 10.6.

Distress signal unit ...................................................................................11 Emergency Escape Breathing Devices (EEBD)......................................11

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10.7.

Air line filter unit (AFU) .............................................................................10

Emergency life support apparatus (ELSA) .............................................12

10.9.

Filter respirators ........................................................................................12

10.10.

Resuscitation equipment..........................................................................13

10.11.

Maintenance...............................................................................................13

10.12.

After use .....................................................................................................13

10.13.

BA attendant – BA controller ...................................................................14

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10.8.

10.13.1. BA Attendant ...............................................................................................14 10.13.2. BA Controller ...............................................................................................14 10.14.

Training ......................................................................................................15

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF EQUIPMENT

Air may be used in several different ways to provide life support and consequently breathing, rescue and resuscitation equipment is available in many different forms depending on the particular requirement, and is produced by a number of manufacturers. The main basic types may be listed as follows: self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus, both demand and positive pressure types,

b)

air line breathing equipment served by cylinder pack,

c)

air line equipment from ship’s air main supply,

d)

short duration escape breathing apparatus,

e)

emergency life apparatus,

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filter canisters,

g)

resuscitation equipment

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BREATHING APPARATUS

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10.2.

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a)

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Breathing apparatus may be of the Smoke Helmet type or of the Self-contained type. Correct and efficient use of this apparatus requires a degree of practice and familiarity on the part of the user, so it is important that adequate training is provided. When the apparatus is used, either in training or in an emergency, the recommendations of the Code of Safe Working Practices should be followed.

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As with other Firemen’s equipment the breathing apparatus must be stored in readily accessible positions which are not likely to be out off in the event of fire. They should also be stowed in widely separated positions, except that in passenger vessels two fireman’s outfits are to be available at each storage position. Breathing apparatus will be needed to fight a fire in an enclosed space and in an open space when toxic or suffocating fumes are present. The equipment may also be needed to search for a missing person subsequent to a fire or other incident. 10.3.

SMOKE HELMET

A smoke helmet or smoke mask consists of a sealed helmet or mask, a suitable pump and a length of air hose sufficient to reach from the open deck, well removed from the hatch or doorway, to any part of the vessel. The pump (bellows) is used to manually pump air through the hose to the mask. The complete set of equipment will consist of: − A helmet or mask which forms an airtight seal around the face, and which incorporates a speech diaphragm and some design feature to prevent misting. − A flexible tube extending from the mask to the harness worn by the fire fighter. − A safety harness incorporating attachments for the lifeline and air hose. The attachment of the lifeline must be arranged so that it may be easily removed by Issue No. 1

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the wearer. Any snap hooks should be made of materials resistant to sparking on impact. An air hose of 19mm internal diameter with a smooth bore lining. The hose is so constructed that it does not collapse. Where lengths of hose are coupled together, and at the connections to the bellows and harness, sealing washers are used. The hose must be long enough to reach from the open deck to any part of the vessel. However, it will not normally be permitted to provide an air hose of less than 18m, nor required to provide an air hose in excess of 36m. A lifeline of flexible galvanised steel wire covered in plaited rope. The lifeline must be 3m longer than the air hose. Double action foot bellows. The double action ensures that air is supplied to the fire fighter on both the up stoke and down stoke of the bellows. There will be a filter arrangement to prevent foreign bodies being transmitted along the air line. Two signal plates are provided: one screwed to the bellows and one attached to the harness. It is anticipated that communication between the wearer and the bellows operator will be giving short, sharp pulls on the lifeline. For example: 1 pull = more air required 2 pulls = give more slack on lifeline 3 pulls = help me out immediately / come out immediately. All members of the fire fighting parties should be thoroughly familiar with the signals. A safety helmet. This is often part of the fireman’s protective clothing. The entire apparatus should be carefully stowed in a suitably sized container.

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The smoke mask wearer, witnessed by his attendant, must ensure that the mask is properly sealed around the face. − Before donning the mask clean air must be pumped through the hose to clear any debris and stale air. − Don the facemask and adjust it correctly whilst the operator is still pumping. − Breathe deeply to ensure that the demand and exhalation valves are working correctly and that the hose is clear. − Take and hold a deep breath, then tell the operator to stop pumping. − Try to resume breathing. Check the air cannot be drawn in from around the face seal. − Signal for the operator to resume pumping.

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SMOKE HELMET Advantages

Disadvantages

No time limit

At least two men required

Cool in use

Distance from bellows limited

Minimal training required

Air tube may be heavy to drag

Easy to maintain and test

Air tube lifeline and hoses liable to entangle

Positive pressure providing pumping rate sufficient

Air line may get trapped or damaged.

Smoke helmet maintenance

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All equipment must be inspected at regular intervals, and always after use in practice or in an emergency. It should never be stowed, when wet or dirty. − The mask must be cleaned according to the manufacturer’s instruction. This will usually be with warm soapy water, and disinfected. Check that the fastenings are in good order. − The safety harness and attachments must not be damaged or scuffed. Adjusting buckles must run freely and lock securely. − The lifeline should be treated in the same manner as other ropes and wires. Ensure that the outer covering is in good order and that there are no signs of deformity. − The air hose must not be crushed. Frequently connect the hose to the bellows and blow through to remove dust or insects that may have accumulated. Make sure that the seals between hose sections are in good order. − If the bellows are made of leather a suitable lubricant must be applied every six months or when the leathers appear dry. Lightly apply and allow the lubricant to soak into the leather. If the leather is allowed to dry it will harden and crack, and may cause the pins securing the leather to shear. 10.4.

SELF-CONTAINED COMPRESSED AIR BREATHING APPARATUS (CBA OR SCBA)

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The self-contained breathing apparatus is the most versatile and commonly used item of safety equipment found aboard ship. It comprises a facemask assembly, a frame (backplate) and harness assembly, an air cylinder and valve, a high pressure reducing valve, a warning whistle and a pressure gauge. The face mask, which forms an air-tight seal around the face, has an exhalation valve, a demand valve, a voice diaphragm and some method of preventing misting. The demand valve permits the use of the equipment as a positive pressure set. This ensures that the air pressure inside the face mask is higher than atmospheric pressure and so any leaks in the seals are outwards. That is, smoke or foul air cannot be drawn into the mask. The backplate is attached to the harness and includes a method of securing the air cylinders. There may be provision to enable an alternative air supply to be connected. Issue No. 1

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Each cylinder is to contain not less than 1200 litres of fresh breathing air. The supply of air to the wearer is via an automatic regulator, but there will be a means of bypassing or over-riding the regulator to increase the volume of air available to the wearer should the need arise. Some sets are additionally capable of being fed by an air line thus enabling the wearer to work for longer periods while having the security of a reserve air supply in his own cylinder should things go wrong. It is required that spare charged breathing air cylinders are also carried. A pressure gauge enables the wearer to ascertain the pressure of air remaining in the cylinder at any time.

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A warning whistle indicates to the wearer that the cylinder capacity is low and that he should remove himself from any unsafe atmosphere. A lifeline of flexible galvanised steel wire is plaited rope is also provided. The lifeline must be at least 3m longer than is required to reach from the open deck in clean air to any part of the vessel.

The weight of the apparatus must not exceed 16kg (excluding the lifeline). Working duration of C.B.A.

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The work duration of a self-contained breathing apparatus will vary considerably from one wearer to another and will also depend on the amount of effort being expended. As a rough guide, it can be assumed that a trained wearer in fit condition and working reasonably hard will consume about 40 litres of free air per minute; Compressed air cylinders are of various sizes, usually of either 9 or 6 litres water capacity. Twin cylinder often have 4 litre cylinders, totalling 8 litre water capacity.

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The fully charged pressure of cylinders also varies. Some types are charged as high as 300 bars (4500 psi) but 200 bars / atmospheres / kg/cm2 is more common for shipboard use. The maximum charging pressure is always stamped on either the neck or the shoulder of a cylinder.

To obtain the approximate quantity of free air a cylinder simply multiply the water capacity in litres by the pressure in either bars, atmospheres or Kg/cm2. For example, a 6 litres cylinder charged to 200 bars. 6 X 200= 1200 litres (approximately) On the basis of a consumption of 40 litres/minute the rated total duration of such a cylinder would be 1200 / 40 = 30 min. However, the working duration normally allows for a safety reserve of approximately 10 minutes and in this case it will therefore be approximately 20 minutes.

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Using the same simple calculation, the working duration of 9 litre and twin 4 litre 200 bar cylinders will be found to be approximately 35 minutes and 30 minutes respectively. It must, however, be stressed that these times should be regarded as guidelines only and individuals should obtain an assessment of their own endurance capabilities by practicing under differing conditions.

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Every set of self-contained breathing apparatus must be provided with spares cylinders having a total free air capacity of 2400 litres. In practice this usually means that each set has two spare charged cylinders. There are however two exceptions: 1) in ships with five or more sets the total spare capacity (for the whole ship) need not exceed 9600 litres. 2) If the ship is able to re-charge the air cylinders with suitable breathing air, then it is necessary to carry only 1200 litres of spare breathing air per set; however the total spare storage capacity of free air provided (for the whole ship) need not exceed 4800 litres. Where ultra lightweight cylinders are carried there are restrictions concerning who may recharge the cylinders, the moisture content of the air used to recharge them, and the attention that must be given to the external cylinder protection and its condition.

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In order to minimise the amount of air used: - Train frequently, including wearing the mask in difficult circumstances. - Be very familiar with the use of the equipment. - Control breathing so that it is steady. Panting and ‘panic’ breathing will reduce the available time. - Use clean shaven personnel as a beard will often inhibit a good seal around the mask. - Do not use air unnecessarily (e.g. while waiting to enter a compartment). - Be familiar with the area to be entered.

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Other factors affecting the amount of air consumed include age, fitness, state of health, smoke/non-smoker, state of mind and overall work rate. 10.4.2.

Demand type C.B.A.

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In most types of CBA, the air passes from the cylinder to a pressure reducer where the pressure is reduced to about 10 bars (varies with type and maker) before passing to the demand regulator which is attached to the facemask. These sets are often referred to as twin-stage. In some other types, the air is led at full cylinder pressure direct to the demand regulator. These sets are known as single-stage. Essentially, from the wearer’s point of view, both types meet the same requirements though the single-stage sets are perhaps simpler to maintain. The air supply hose is attached to a demand regulator, which is often attached or screwed direct into the facemask. The flow into the mask is controlled by a tilt valve, which is actuated by a diaphragm in the demand regulator. When the wearer is not breathing, no air flows into the mask. When inhaling, however, a slight vacuum is created in the mask causing inward movement of the diaphragm, which pushes

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against and opens the tilt valve resulting in air supply mask. During exhalation, the diaphragm returns to its normal position and the tilt valve closes. The exhaled air exhausts to atmosphere through a separate non-return exhalation valve. Correct wearing of the facemask is very important. An incorrect fitted mask will allow outside atmosphere to be drawn in during the vacuum stage; a similar danger exists if the wearer has a beard or heavy side burns. Spectacles should not be worn wearing a facemask for the same reason. 10.4.3.

Positive pressure C.B.A.

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This type of breathing apparatus is usually twin-stage though single stage sets are being developed by some manufacturers. The equipment is designed to ensure that a positive pressure (i.e., above atmospheric) is maintained in the facemask at all times. The essential difference from the Demand Type lies in the demand regulator and in the exhalation valve.

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The demand regulator is fitted with a simple spring-loaded piston, usually controlled by an ON/OFF switch on the front of the regulator. When switched ON, the piston is released and in the spring causes it to push against the diaphragm, which in turn opens the tilt valve allowing air to flow into the mask. In order to maintain slight positive pressure in the mask the exhale valve is also spring-loaded and only opens when the wearer further increases the pressure by breathing out. The additional pressure during exhalation also pushes out the diaphragm temporarily stopping the air supply.

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In the case of a badly fitted face mask or beard air, will leak outwards thus providing protection at all times. It must, however, be stressed that in any of these eventualities the loss of air would reduce the normal working duration of the set. Spectacles should never be worn, as the loss of air would be prohibitive to the wearer.

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The fitting of an ON/OFF switch is to enable the face mask to be properly adjusted without loss of air and must not be regarded as providing optional modes of use. Not all positive pressure sets are fitted with this switch. Because of the increased resistance in the exhalation valve breathing difficulties and consequent loss of efficiency will result if the positive pressure switch is not put in the ON position for use. POSITIVE PRESSURE SWITCH MUST ALWAYS BE “ON” WHEN IN USE.

Positive pressure CBA offers much greater protection particularly when operating in a toxic environment, and is recommended for tanker vessels. Contrary to popular supposition, it does not result in increased air consumption; in fact tests have shown that, as breathing is easier, consumption is slightly more economical.

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Face masks

Most modern face masks are made of neoprene or similar durable and chemical resistant materials. There are, however, a good many in existence which are made of rubber based materials. Regardless of type, face masks should always be washed in soapy (not detergent) water after use and then rinsed in clean fresh water, wiped with a clean cloth and allowed to dry gently. Rubber based masks should periodically be treated with paraffin wax to prevent perishing. Visors should be protected against scratching. Minor scratched and marks are sometimes unavoidable but most can be easily removed by gently polishing with brass polish.

CABA face seal checks

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Exhale valves, which are allowed to become dirty, will not seal properly and toxic atmosphere may then enter the mask. Rubber valves found in the Demand type sets will become stretched or perished after a while and it is important to renew them in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Many masks are fitted with an inner or ori-nasal mask, the purpose of which is twofold. All exhaled air is confined to the space in this inner mask before it is exhausted to atmosphere. This not only reduces the possibility of a build-up of CO2 within the mask as a whole but it effectively minimizes misting of the visor.

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Don the facemask and adjust it correctly. Choose positive pressure mode (if both positive and negative options available). Breath deeply to ensure that the demand and exhalation valves are working correctly. Observe the pressure gauge, close the cylinder valve and then open it a half turn. Take and hold a deep breath, then close the valve. Check that the pressure gauge reading does not drop by more than 5 bar in 10 seconds. Open the cylinder valve fully.

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The CABA wearer, witnessed by his attendant, must ensure that the mask is properly sealed around the face.

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Air compressor

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10.4.6.

Special air compressors intended solely for recharging compressed breathing air cylinders may be carried. They may be either portable or fixed. The air intakes must be sited so that the ingress of water or noxious fumes is avoided, even in the most adverse circumstances. 10.4.7.

Pressure gauge

Every CBA is fitted with a pressure gauge so positioned that it can be easily read by the user when wearing the face mask. Pressure is usually indicated in one of the following units: Atmospheres Bars Kg/cm2

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Low pressure warning

All breathing sets, whether of the Demand type or Positive Pressure is required to have a device, which gives adequate warning when the cylinder pressure is getting low.

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Most devices are designed to give approximately 10 minutes warning based on a consumption of 40 litres / minute but the time interval must be relied upon and the prudent wearer will always check the pressure gauge regularly. There are three main types of warning devices: whistle bell or gong reserve air valve. The type of device is often dictated by the National Flag Administration. For example, the British Department of Trade insist on an approved audible alarm whereas some Scandinavian countries argue that this might not always be heard and insist on an alternative such as the reserve air valve.

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The latter device operates by markedly reducing the airflow when the pressure reaches a certain minimum level. Normal flow is restored by the wearer pulling a toggle or pushing a button. WHICHEVER IS FITTED NEVER DEPEND SOLELY UPON IT.

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CHECK THE REMAINING SUPPLY REGULARLY AND OFTEN AND ENSURE SUFFICIENT AIR REMAINS TO RETURN TO A FRESH AIR ATMOSPHERE

10.4.9.

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Air line cylinder pack

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Basic versions usually comprise either 2 or 4 cylinders mounted on a trolley or suitable carrying frame. Cylinders are normally of the larger 1800 litre size but can vary.

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The air pressure is reduced to about 100 psi (about 7 Bars) and then fed to the operator through an air hose, generally between 60 and 120 metres in length and stowed on a reel. The air supply can be taken either direct to the demand regulator of a face mask or to the belt manifold connection of CBA. In the former case, it is advisable that the operator has a back-up life support system (CABA with belt manifold), particularly if he is penetrating the compartment to any depth. This is, of course, a precaution against failure of the air supply. Air cylinder packs are fitted with both high and low pressure gauges and low pressure warning devices, and it is possible to change empty cylinders for full ones while the equipment is in use. The unit must always be tended by a trained and competent person.

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10.4.10. CBA wearer test

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Before using a self-contained breathing apparatus the following tests should be carried out by the wearer: 1. Open cylinder valve and listen for audible leaks (with positive pressure sets, the positive pressure switch to be OFF). 2. Check pressure gauge and ensure air cylinder full. 3. Close cylinder valve and observe pressure gauge; pressure should not drop by more than 10 atmospheres (or bars) in one minute. 4. Slowly bleed off air pressure and check that low level warning device operates at correct gauge pressure. 5. Re-open cylinder valve and put on face mask. 6. Close cylinder valve and breathe normally until air is exhausted from the system. Face mask should then pull onto the face, indicating that the seal is effective. 7. If all correct, reopen cylinder valve and proceed. 8. If a Positive Pressure type apparatus is used ensure that the positive pressure switch is in the ON position. For further information regarding Self contained Breathing Apparatus Onboard see Appendix 14 AIR LINE FILTER UNIT (AFU)

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10.5.

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The AFU supplies air to the wearer in the same way as the cylinder pack but the source of air is the ship’s compressed air main. As the air is usually wet and contaminated with oil and other impurities it is passed through a system of water traps and filters before entering the water’s air line. Maintenance of the equipment is simple but important if the right quality of air is to be produced and the maker’s instructions should be carefully observed.

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Two pressure gauges are normally fitted, one for inlet air and one indicating the supply pressure to the wearer. If the system is in good working order there should be little difference between the readings of both gauges but a pressure drop of 10% or more will usually indicate that filters should be changed.

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As with the cylinder pack, the wearer should be provided with a back-up air supply in the form of a CBA. It is important the air filters are kept in a good clean condition, and that the purity of the delivered air is regularly checked. Air line breathing systems should not be used when there is a fire in the machinery space or in other circumstances that may affect the air supply.

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DISTRESS SIGNAL UNIT

BA wearers may have clipped to the harness, a Distress Signal Unit (SDW). The unit is battery operated and in its simplest form may be used by a BA wearer to indicate the immediate assistance is required.

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Location flashes which enhance the visibility of BA wearers to each other and to rescuers. Movement or non-movement detection gives a pre-alarm, which the wearer may cancel by movement, after about thirty seconds and a full alarm should the wearer become immobile for a longer period. Duration timer to give a timed warning in addition to the BA low pressure alarm. Evacuation whistle which is initiated from outside of the incident or by another BA wearer to command evacuation. Low battery warning light. Temperature sensor monitors the internal temperature of the DSU and tracks the short term exposure of DSU circuits to hotsports of long term exposure to excessive temperatures.

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Before entering an incident the wearer primes the unit by turning and removing a key; this key is placed at the appropriate position on the BA control board, outside of the incident. Should the wearer experience difficulty and require immediate evacuation he presses the audible alarm button on the DSU. The penetrating alarm emitted by the unit may only be silence by inserting the key held by the BA control party. Thus once activated assistance must be rendered in order to silence the alarm. Distress signal units are also available in more elaborate forms and may include some or all of the following features:

EMERGENCY ESCAPE BREATHING DEVICES (EEBD)

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This equipment is more commonly found aboard gas and chemical tankers where spillage or escape of cargo could result in a large quantity of toxic vapour being evolved. It is pointed out that according to SOLAS/Ch.II-2/Reg.13 as recently entirely amended such equipment shall be carried within accommodation and machinery spaces in all ships. Sets normally have a total duration of at least 15 minutes to meet IMO requirements and, as they will be worn until either the air has been exhausted or the wearer is clear of the dangerous area, warning whistles are not always fitted. The pressure gauge is normally fitted to the cylinder in order to register continuously thus enabling easy checking of sets in storage without having to open the cylinder valve. The exact number and location of the Emergency Escape Breathing Devices onboard are contained in the vessel’s fire control and safety plan. For further information regarding EEBD see Appendix 16

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EMERGENCY LIFE SUPPORT APPARATUS (ELSA)

This equipment comprises either a small (240 or 400 litres) air cylinder which is contained in a specially designed jerkin. On opening the cylinder valve, air is supplied to a clear polythene hood, which the wearer puts over his head. Air is supplied at a constant flow of 40 litres/minute thus giving a total duration of either 6 minutes or 10 minutes. When not in use, the hood is stowed in a pouch in front of the jerkin.

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The equipment is designed for use in enclosed spaces, which have been tested and are believed to be gas free and containing 21% oxygen. Such testing cannot, however, guarantee the atmosphere in some remote parts of tanks and double bottoms and the ELSA helps to safeguard against the discovery of gassy or oxygen deficient pockets. A pouch for an oxygen alarm is incorporated in the jerkin.

10.9.

FILTER RESPIRATORS

Filter canisters are available for a wide range of chemical and noxious substances and are generally used in conjunction with either or half face masks. In most cases, protection is only offered against lower concentrations of vapours and manufacturers’ instructions should always be consulted before use. Canisters are supplied sealed at both ends and have a shelf life expiry date marked on them. Once the seals have been broken the life of the filter is immediately reduced, normally to about 6 months, even if it is not exposed to a contaminant.

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Filter canisters offer no real protection against some chemicals, which have threshold limit values, which are lower than the limits of smell as the first indication of filter expiry is, in most cases, when the contaminant can be smelled in the mask. Filter canisters afford no protection against oxygen deficiency and must therefore never be worn in enclosed spaces. 10.10.

RESUSCITATION EQUIPMENT

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Resuscitation equipment is available in various forms ranging from a simple handoperated bellows pump to sophisticated equipment that will give automatic resuscitation for periods of 30 minutes and upwards and which will function even when a victim is in the process of being hoisted out of a compartment. The media being used for resuscitation are either oxygen or air. If oxygen is used, the resuscitation equipment must not be taken into a potentially flammable atmosphere unless it is approved for that purpose-oxygen escaping under pressure can cause a spontaneous explosion in such conditions.

10.11.

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Air has the advantage of being readily available and where the equipment is fed by cylinders these can be readily recharged if there is a medical air compressor on board or, alternatively, can be charged by decanting from a larger cylinder. MAINTENANCE

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It is clearly of utmost importance that breathing and resuscitation equipment be maintained in efficient working condition at all times. It should be checked by a responsible Officer at least once a month and after every occasion when it has been used. Annual servicing should be carried out by the manufacturers or by some other competent person. A record should be kept of all servicing and renewal of parts. Only the manufacturers’ spares should be used.

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Cylinders should be inspected for scratches or other breakdown of the painted surface and repainted as necessary. They are required to be hydraulically tested and recertificated every five years. Cylinders should not be left empty with their valves open as this allow moist air to enter and corrosion of the internal walls result AFTER USE

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10.12.

After each use of BA set it is necessary to ensure that it is stowed in a condition whereby it is ready again for immediate use. Follow the detailed instructions given by the manufacturer; they will generally include the following: − − − − − − −

Clean the set thoroughly. Clean the face mask and harness (this may be in warm soapy water). Inspect the complete set for damage and any loose fittings. Fit a fully charged cylinder. Complete high pressure and low pressure tests. Disinfect the facemask. Re-stow the equipment in a ready-to-use condition and complete all use and test records.

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BA ATTENDANT – BA CONTROLLER

The BA wearer must recognise that he is responsible for his own safety and that of others. The following guidelines must be followed to minimise any risk:

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Do not commence with a CABA cylinder which is less than 80% full, unless permitted to do so by the BA Controller (this would only be to complete a simple task). The set must be donned in fresh air. BA wearers should work in teams of not less than two: if one has to withdraw he must be accompanied out of the space by another BA wearer. All BA wearers not engaged in vital work should proceed towards the sound of a Distress Signal Unit to render assistance. Helmets are always worn with BA sets. On entering an incident tallies must be left with the BA controller and collected on return.

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Note: When air line breathing apparatus is used there is no duration limit to the provision of air, but there will be a limit to the time that the wearer is able to endure the effects of heat, humidity and toil.

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10.13.1. BA Attendant

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Each BA wearer should have an attendant to check the set is properly donned and tested before entry. The attendant also tends the lifeline. Because of limited personnel it may be necessary that one person attends two BA wearers. Checks to be completed by the Attendant: - Is the facemask correctly fitted and adjusted? Use the prescribed procedure to check the face mask is sealing properly. - Does the CABA low pressure alarm operate correctly? - Does the personal distress signal unit (if supplied) operate correctly? - Is the CABA wearer able to read his gauge? - Does the wearer have lamp, axe, hard hat, signal card, suitable clothing and footwear, gloves, visor, neck-curtain, radio communication (if appropriate), fire extinguisher or hose? - REMIND the wearer to keep low, read his gauge, come out when the whistle sounds. - State the mission “locate the fire and report”, “locate and attaché the fire”, “search for and retrieve missing persons”, limit to the extent of penetration. 10.13.2. BA Controller The BA Controller plays an important part in overseeing the safety of the BA wearers. He must be fully conversant with the use and limitations of BA equipment. On vessels with limited crew he may also be acting as the BA attendant whose duties are detailed above. The BA Controller must: - Assist with the donning of the set. - Observe the operational and face seal checks. - Make entries on the control board and ensure that the tally system is being correctly operated. - Determine the point of securing any guide line (if used). Issue No. 1

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Listen for any signal from a distress signal unit (if used) or other possible signs of the BA wearers experiencing difficult. On vessels with sufficient crew and BA sets have men standing by for relief, at least five minutes before the due time. When a wearer has not returned at the appointed time inform the Officer in command and initiate the emergency recovery plan. On vessels with sufficient crew and BA sets have at least two BA wearers standing by in case of emergency. Keep the commander fully informed of the situation. TRAINING

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Effective and efficient use of breathing apparatus may only be achieved by frequent regular training in its use and care. It is important that any crew member designed to wear the breathing apparatus is confident and comfortable with its use.

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SECTION 11 FIRE HOSES, HYDRANTS, NOZZLES AND ACCESSORIES Table of contents Page FIRE HOSES AND HYDRANTS ...................................................................2

11.1.1.

Stowage.........................................................................................................2

11.1.2.

Care...............................................................................................................2

11.1.3.

Pressure testing ............................................................................................2

11.1.6.

Water wall / full shield....................................................................................4

11.1.7.

Wide spray.....................................................................................................4

11.1.8.

Narrow spray .................................................................................................5

11.1.9.

Broken spray .................................................................................................5

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11.1.

11.1.10. Jet..................................................................................................................5 11.1.11. Inspection and maintenance .........................................................................5 FIRE HOSE NOZZLES .................................................................................6

11.2.1.

Discharge rates .............................................................................................6

11.2.2.

Types of nozzles ...........................................................................................6

11.2.3.

Care...............................................................................................................7

11.3.1.

HOSES REELS .............................................................................................7 Inspection ......................................................................................................7 INTERNATIONAL SHORE FIRE CONNECTION .........................................8

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11.2.

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FIRE HOSES AND HYDRANTS

Standard Fire Hoses are constructed from woven polyester internally lined with a synthetic rubber to give a smooth, low friction bore. This type of hose may be polyurethane coated to provide additional abrasion resistance. Other higher quality hoses comprise an all-synthetic woven textile reinforcement encased in a PVC/Nitrile rubber, which forms a unified lining and outer cover.

11.1.1.

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In passenger ships there should be at least one hose for each hydrant and these hoses shall be used only for fire fighting or fire fighting training. Cargo ships of over 1000 gross tonnes must have one hose for each 30m length of the vessel, plus one spare, but not less than five hoses (this number does not include any hoses that are required in the engine room or boiler room). In some cases the Authority may increase the number of hoses required. The number of hoses required in vessels of less than 1000 gross tonnes will be determined by the Administration. Stowage

Hoses may be stowed rolled, Dutch rolled (i.e. rolled from the centre with both couplings accessible) or flaked. Care

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Hoses may chafe due to vibration; therefore they should be stowed with minimum contact with the locker interiors. Ideally their storage should be in dry, well ventilated conditions. They may also kink, especially adjacent to the hydrant. Careful leads should be made so that kinking, which reduces water flow, is avoided and the hose must be protected by being wrapped in rags or similar where it passes over sharp edges such as door sills, hatch coamings, etc. When avoidable do not drag charged hoses over rough surfaces.

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Avoid subjecting hoses to sudden shock loads by opening valves and hydrants slowly. Similarly avoid sudden closure of nozzles. After contact with oils and grease and after use with foam hoses should be washed and flushed through.

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Drain and wipe down before stowing. To drain the hose, lay it flat along the deck and “under-run” it at shoulder height. If a hose is kept flaked the position of the folds should be shifted when restowing. 11.1.3.

Pressure testing

Each hose assembly should be tested according to the manufacturer instructions. Typically this will be annually at 50% above the working pressure. Damaged and suspect hoses must be removed from service until an efficient repair can be effected.

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11.1.4. Hose couplings Fire fighting hoses are joined together and connected to the hydrants by coupling. There are many different types of coupling all of which are incompatible unless a suitable adapter is available.

Dm 45 70

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Size 38 mm 65 mm

Df 48 75

Size 25 (D) 32 38 45 52 (C) 65 75 (B)

ka 31 44 52 59 66 81 89

C 55 68 78 88 98 118 126

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Most commonly on British vessels are found 2½ inch (65mm) Instantaneous couplings. Instantaneous couplings are also available in 50, 70 and 100mm.

On other European vessels, Storz couplings are mainly used. Storz ‘C’ is a commonly used size. Other sized are shown in the adjacent table.

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Couplings of the same size may have different diameter tails to suit various hose sized (e.g. a 2½ inch instantaneous coupling may be provided with 25, 38, 45, 50 or 65mm tails).

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Some couplings consist of a male and female section of different on compatible designs. With this type of coupling each hose would have a male coupling at one end and a female coupling at the other. Couplings that have male and female parts that are identical are known as Hermaphrodite couplings.

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11.1.5. Use of hoses

11.1.6.

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Crew members who may be called upon to handle fire hoses should be instructed in the use of and practice working and moving with, a fully charged hose. They must also be familiar with the various water patterns which may be delivered by adjustable nozzles. It is recommended that three people are designated for each hose however this may prove difficult in vessels with small crews. Ideally one will handle and control the nozzle; a second will be positioned immediately behind the first and assist by taking the weight of the hose; the third person will handle the bight of the hose. At least the first two members of the team should be wearing firemen’s outfits, and if appropriate, breathing apparatus. When bringing a hose into use the spray pattern should be set to Water well and directed downwards before giving the order to open the hydrant. Once the flow is established the fire fighter may change the discharge stream to that required and direct it as appropriate. Broader streams produce more water droplets and thus a grater cooling effect, but they also reduce the range. Water wall / full shield

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This shields the fire fighters from radiant heat by producing a water curtain immediately before them. The water wall may be used in combination with other means of attack e.g. another hose set to spray or jet, or foam. When using a water wall in close proximity to the fire some caution must be exercised, for if the water wall is too close the flames may be ‘sucked’ towards the nozzle. 11.1.7.

Wide spray

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For close attacks and indirect application. Indirect application is the use of very short bursts of water into the heat layer above the fire. It is used where a direct attack (onto the fire) may cause sufficient air movement to force the heat collected at the deckhead back down round the fire fighters.

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Narrow spray

This may be used to control a fire and also to push it away. Additionally, by directing the narrow spray across an opening (e.g. a port) or through an opening a Venturi effect is created, which may assist in dispersing smoke, fumes and heat. 11.1.9.

Broken spray

This is used from a distance when cooling is required. 11.1.10. Jet

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The jet gives the greatest reach and so enables the fire fighters to keep a safe distance from the fire. It is used to penetrate and, where required, to break up debris. A jet should not be used during interior attacks until the heat has been controlled and dissipated. The jet is not to be used on oil or liquid fires. 11.1.11. Inspection and maintenance

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After use flush with clean fresh water. Inspect after use or at intervals of not greater than one month. Check any release mechanism (e.g. the lugs on instantaneous couplings) for free movement. Inspect the sealing rings. Use lubricants as recommended by the manufacturer. For the bolt and spring in an instantaneous connection this may be lithium grease.

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The Master shall ensure that the vessel has the correct number on board and ready for immediate use at all times.

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Every fire hose on board must be inspected and tested under pressure at regular intervals and a record of each inspection/test maintained as provided in the CMS. Similar tests inspections and record keeping is required for spare hoses and couplings.

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FIRE HOSE NOZZLES

When in use the discharge end of the hose will be fitted with a nozzle so that the operator may control the manner in which water is projected at a fire. Standard nozzle sizes are 12mm, 16mm and 19mm. Spray nozzles must be capable of producing a plain jet without spread and have a throw of at least 12m. The spray must produce a reasonably fine spray, which can form a curtain, from behind which it is possible to approach a fire. The spray pattern would have a diameter of, say 5m at a distance of 2m from the nozzle.

11.2.1.

Discharge rates

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Every hose/hydrant shall be fitted with a three positions type nozzle. All crew members are required to be familiar with the use of this type of nozzle and drilled in the application of fit.

When large volumes of water are used for fire fighting consideration must be given to the stability of the vessel.

11.2.2.

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Discharge rate at m3/hour = approx. tonnes/hour 12mm 16mm 19mm 9 14 20.5 10 15 22.5 10.5 16 23.5 11 17 25

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Pressure drop bar 2.1 2.5 2.7 3.1

Types of nozzles

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Diffuser nozzle A standard type of nozzle, which by a twist-grip operation, is able to shut off the hose discharge or deliver it as a jet or spray, according to the operator’s desire. Some diffuser nozzles also have a water curtain capability.

Ball valve nozzle As the name suggests these are controlled by a lever operated ball valve. Again, they may be with or without the water curtain facility.

Turbo nozzle A jet/fog nozzle with spinning teeth. The flow rate is selected by means of a lever.

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High performance nozzle A spray, jet shut-off nozzle with ‘teeth’ in the discharge and to give a good spray pattern.

11.2.3.

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Fog applicator or lance nozzle These are often found on vehicle carrying vessels as the long reach enables them to be used to extinguish fires beneath vehicles.

Care

Nozzles should not be dragged along the deck or subjected to knocks and blows, and they must be stowed in a manner that prevents movement. Mechanisms should be lightly greased according to the manufacturers instructions, always ensuring that the operation of the nozzle does not become impaired by a build up of old grease.

1.3.

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The Safety Officer shall ensure that each hose has the appropriate coupling to ensure that all nozzles and hoses are compatible with one another. HOSES REELS

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Hose reel units may be found through the accommodation alleyways and in some service spaces. They may be fixed or hinged (swinging). Often they are recessed in to alleyway bulkhead and may be concealed behind a door. In any event their locations should be clearly identified by the appropriate signs.

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The water supply to the hose may be automatic or manual. In the automatic version the water supply valve is opened as the hose is withdrawn from the reel and the delivery controlled by use of the nozzle. Hoses are 19mm or 25mm bore and may be from 2050m in length. 11.3.1.

Inspection

Hose reel units must be inspected according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Typically the procedure is as follows: -

Ensure the water supply to the hose is turned off. Completely run out the hose and check its general condition. Check that all couplings are tight. Turn on the water and open the nozzle. Check that its operation is free. All nozzle modes (e.g. spray and jet) must be checked. Issue No. 1

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Close the nozzle so that the hose is subject to the full line pressure and check couplings, pipe work and valves for leaks. Turn off the water and restow the hose. For automatic hose reels turn the water on again after showing. On automatic models follow the manufacturers’ instructions when inspecting the automatic valve.

11.4.

INTERNATIONAL SHORE FIRE CONNECTION

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Vessels of over 500 tons must carry at least one International Shore Connection to enable water to be supplied from another vessel, or from the shore, to the fire main. It must be possible to use the connection on either side of the vessel.

Dimension 178 mm 64 mm 132 mm Four holes 19mm in diameter, spaced equidistantly on a bolt circle of the above diameter, slotted to the flange periphery 14,5mm minimum Four. Each of 16mm diameter, 50mm in length

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Description Outside diameter: Inside diameter: Bolt circle diameter: Slots in flange:

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The international shore connection has a flat face flange on one side, whilst the other side consists of a coupling that will fit the ship’s hydrant and hose.

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Flange thickness: Bolts and nuts:

A suitable gasket, four 16mm x 50mm long bolts, and eight washers are required to be kept with each International shore connection.

For further information regarding Fire Hoses, Hydrants, Nozzles & Accessories see Appendix 17

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SECTION 12 FIRE DOORS, FLAPS/DAMPERS, ELECTRICAL STOPS & QUICK CLOSING DEVICES

Table of contents Page FIRE DOORS ................................................................................................2

12.2.

FIRE FLAPS/DAMPERS...............................................................................3

12.2.1.

Training .........................................................................................................4

12.2.2.

Inspections / maintenance.............................................................................4

12.3.

ELECTRICAL STOPS AND QUICK CLOSING DEVICES ...........................4

12.4.

EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP...........................................................................4

12.4.1.

Fire Pumps ....................................................................................................4

12.5.

EMERGENCY GENERATOR .......................................................................6

12.5.1.

Emergency Source of Electrical Power in Cargo Ships.................................6

12.5.2.

Starting arrangements for emergency generating sets .................................9

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12.1.

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FIRE DOORS

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FIRE FLAPS/DAMPERS

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12.2.1.

Training

All Officers are required to be familiar with the instructions detailing which flaps and/or dampers must be closed in the event of fire in specified compartments or zones. 12.2.2.

Inspections / maintenance

All fire flaps and dampers shall be operated at maximum intervals of one month and their maintenance is incorporated into the vessel’s maintenance system.

ELECTRICAL STOPS AND QUICK CLOSING DEVICES

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12.3.

All Officers are required to be familiar with the location and purpose of these devices. The crew must be given appropriate training in this regard and warned of the effects of unauthorized operation. For further information regarding Electrical Stops and Quick Closing Devices see Appendix 18

EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP

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All Officers and Ratings are required to be conversant with the starting and operating procedures for the emergency fire pump. Procedures, including necessary diagrams must be posted in the space containing the emergency fire pump. The Emergency Fire pump must be weekly inspected and tested. Appropriate records should be maintained.

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For further information regarding Emergency Fire Pump see Appendix 19 12.4.1.

Fire Pumps

12.4.1.1. Pumps Accepted as fire pumps

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Sanitary, ballast, bilge or general service pumps may be accepted as fire pumps, provided that they are not normally used for pumping oil and that if they are subject to occasionally duty for the transfer or pumping of oil fuel, suitable change – over arrangements are fitted. 12.4.1.2. Arrangement of fire pumps and fire mains

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12.5.

EMERGENCY GENERATOR

All crew members are required to be familiar with the starting and operating procedures for the Emergency Generator. Procedures, including appropriate diagrams must be posted in the Emergency Generator Room. The Emergency Generator must be tested every week to check that it operates satisfactorily including load test at certain time intervals. Records of tests should be maintained. For further information regarding Emergency Generator see Appendix 20 Emergency Source of Electrical Power in Cargo Ships

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12.5.1.

A self-contained emergency source of electrical power shall be provided:

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- The emergency source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, transitional source of emergency power, emergency switchboard and emergency lighting switchboard shall be located above the uppermost continuous deck and shall be readily accessible from the open deck. They shall not be located forward of the collision bulkhead, except where permitted by the administration in exceptional circumstances.

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- The location of the emergency source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, the transitional source of emergency power, the emergency switchboard and the emergency lighting switchboard in relation to the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, and the main switchboard shall be such as to ensure to the satisfaction of the Administration that a fire or other casualty in the space containing the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, and the main switchboard, or in any machinery space of category “A” will not interfere with the supply, control and distribution of emergency electrical power. As far as practicable the space containing the emergency source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, the transitional source of emergency electrical power and the emergency switchboard shall not be contiguous to the boundaries of machinery spaces of category “A” or those spaces containing the main source of electrical power, associated transforming equipment, if any, and the main switchboard. - Provided that suitable measures are taken for safeguarding independent emergency operation under all circumstances, the emergency generator may be used, exceptionally, and for short periods, to supply non-emergency circuits. For a period of 3 hours, emergency lighting at every muster and embarkation station and over the sides.

For a period of 18 hours, emergency lighting: - In all service and accommodation alleyways, stairways and exits. - In the machinery spaces and main generating stations including their control positions. - In all control stations, machinery control rooms, and at each main and emergency switchboard. - At all stowage positions for firemen’s outfits. - At the steering gear. Issue No. 1

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- At the fire pump, at the sprinkler pump, if any, and at the emergency bilge pump, if any, and at the starting positions of their motors, and - In all cargo pump-rooms of tankers constructed on or after 1st July 2002. For a period of 18 hours: - The navigation lights and other lights required by the International Regulations for preventing Collisions at Sea in force. - On ships constructed on or after 1st February 1995 the VHF radio installation required by the regulations, and if applicable : i. The MF radio installation required by the regulations. ii. The ship earth station required by the regulations. iii. The MF/HF radio installation required by the regulations.

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For a period of 18 hours: - All internal communication equipment as required in an emergency. - The shipborne navigational equipment as required by SOLAS regulation V/12, where such provision is unreasonable or impracticable the Administration may waive this requirements for ships of less than 5.000 gross tonnage. - The fire detection and fire alarm system, and - Intermittent operation of the daylight signaling lamp, the ship’s whistle, the manually operated call points and all internal signal that are required in an emergency. Unless such service has an independent supply for the period of 18hours from an accumulator battery suitably located for use in an emergency.

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For a period of 18 hours one of the fire pumps required by SOLAS regulation if dependent upon the emergency generator for its source of power. For the period of time required by SOLAS regulations, the steering gear where it is required to be so supplied by that regulation.

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The emergency source of electrical power may be either a generator or an accumulator battery, which shall comply with the following: - Driven by suitable prime mover with an independent supply of fuel, having a flashpoint (closed cup test) of not less than 43ºC. - Started automatically upon failure of the main source of electrical power supply unless a transitional source of emergency electrical power is provided. Where the emergency generator is automatically started, it shall be automatically connected to the emergency switchboard, those services shall then be connected automatically to the emergency generator, and unless a second independent means of starting the emergency generator is provided the single source of stored energy shall be protected to preclude its complete depletion by the automatic starting system, and - Provided with a transitional source of emergency electrical power, unless an emergency generator is provided capable both of supplying the services mentioned in that paragraph and of being automatically started and supplying the required load as quickly as is safe and practicable subject to a maximum of 45 seconds. Where the emergency source of electrical power is an accumulator battery it shall be capable of: - Carrying the emergency electrical load without recharging while maintaining the voltage of the battery throughout the discharge period within 12% above or below its normal voltage.

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- Automatically connecting to the emergency switchboard in the event of failure of the main source of electrical power. For the ships constructed on or after 1st July 1998, where electrical power is necessary to restore propulsion the capacity shall be sufficient to restore propulsion to the ship in conjunction with other machinery, as appropriate, from a deal ship condition within 30 min. after blackout.

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The transitional source of emergency electrical power shall consist of an accumulator battery suitably located for use in an emergency which shall operate without recharging while maintaining the voltage of the battery throughout the discharge period within 12% above or below its nominal voltage and be of sufficient capacity and shall be so arranged as to supply automatically in the event of failure of either the main or the emergency source of electrical power for half an hour at least the following services if they depend upon an electrical source for their operation : - The lighting required. For this transitional phase, the required emergency electric lighting, in respect of the machinery space and accommodation and service spaces may be provided by permanently fixed, individual, automatically charged, relay operated accumulator lamps, and - All services required, unless such services have an independent supply for the period specified from an accumulator battery suitably located for use in an emergency. The emergency switchboard shall be installed as near as is practicable to the emergency source of electrical power. Where the emergency source of electrical power is a generator, the emergency switchboard shall be located in the same space unless the operation of the emergency switchboard would thereby be impaired. No accumulator battery fitted in accordance with this regulation shall be installed in the same as the emergency switchboard. An indicator shall be mounted in a suitable place on the main switchboard or in the machinery control room to indicate when the batteries constituting either the emergency source of electrical power or the transitional source of electrical power are being discharged. The emergency switchboard shall be supplied during normal operation from the main switchboard by an interconnector feeder which is to be adequately protected at the main switchboard against overload and short circuit and which is to be disconnected automatically at the emergency switchboard upon failure of the main source of electrical power. Where the system is arranged for feedback operation, the interconnector feeder is also to be protected at the emergency switchboard at least against short circuit. In order to ensure ready availability of the emergency source of electrical power, arrangements shall be made where necessary to disconnect automatically nonemergency circuits from the emergency switchboard to ensure that electrical power shall be available automatically to the emergency circuits. The emergency generator and its prime mover and any emergency accumulator battery shall be so designed and arranged as to ensure that they will function at full rated power when the ship is upright and when inclined at any angle of list up to 22.5º or when inclined up to 10º either in the fore or aft direction, or is in any combination of angles within those limits. Provision shall be made for the periodic testing of the complete emergency system and shall include the testing of automatic starting arrangements.

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12.5.2.

Starting arrangements for emergency generating sets

Emergency generating sets shall be capable of being readily started in their cold condition at a temperature of 0ºC. if this is impracticable, or if lower temperatures are likely to be encountered, provision acceptable to the Administration shall be made for the maintenance of heating arrangements, to ensure ready starting of the generating sets.

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Each emergency generating set arranged to be automatically started shall be equipped with starting devices approved by the Administration with a stored energy capability of at least three consecutive starts. A second source of energy shall be provided for an additional three starts within 30 min. unless manual starting can be demonstrated to be effective. Ships constructed on or after 1st October 1994, shall comply with the following requirements: The source of stored energy shall be protected to preclude critical depletion by the automatic starting system, unless a second independent means of starting is provided. In addition, a second source of energy shall be provided for an additional three starts within 30 min. unless manual starting can be demonstrated to be effective.

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The stored energy shall be maintained at all times, as follows: - Electrical and hydraulic starting systems shall be maintained from the emergency switchboard. - Compressed air starting systems may be maintained by the main or auxiliary compressed air receivers through a suitable non-return valve or by an emergency air compressor which, if electrically driven, is supplied from the emergency switchboard. - All of these starting, charging and energy storing devices shall be located in the emergency generator space, these devices are not to be used for any purpose other than the operation of the emergency generating set. This does not preclude the supply to the air receiver of the emergency generating set from the main or auxiliary compressed air system through the non-return valve fitted in the emergency generator space.

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Where automatic starting is not required, manual starting is permissible, such as manual cracking, inertia starters, manually charged hydraulic accumulators, or powder charge cartridges, where they can be demonstrated as being effective.

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PART C – MAINTENANCE OF LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES AND FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT

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INTRODUCTION

The following maintenance schedule for the vessel’s life saving appliances and fire fighting is included in this Training Manual as reference only.

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PART D – APPENDICES

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INDEX APPENDIX 1: LIFEJACKETS ONBOARD

APPENDIX 2: IMMERSION SUITS ONBOARD

APPENDIX 3: THERMAL PROTECTIVE AIDS (TPAs)

APPENDIX 4: LIFEBUOYS, LIGHTS AND SMOKE SIGNALS APPENDIX 5: LIFEBOATS ON BOARD

APPENDIX 7: EPIRBs

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APPENDIX 6: L/B ENGINE USE, ACCESSORIES, OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

APPENDIX 8: SEARCH AND RESCUE RADAR TRANSPONDERS (SARTs)

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APPENDIX 9: PORTABLE VHF (GMDSS)

APPENDIX 10: LIFERAFT PARTICULARS APPENDIX 11: SHIP TO SHIP USE OF LINE THROWING APPARATUS APPENDIX 12: FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ONBOARD

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APPENDIX 13: FIXED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS APPENDIX 14: FIREMAN’S OUTFIT APPENDIX 15: SELF CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS ONBOARD APPENDIX 16: EMERGENCY ESCAPE BREATHING DEVICES (EEBD)

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APPENDIX 17: FIRE HOSES, HYDRANTS, NOZZLES & ACCESSORIES APPENDIX 18: ELECTRICAL STOPS AND QUICK CLOSING DEVICES APPENDIX 19: EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP APPENDIX 20: EMERGENCY GENERATOR APPENDIX 21: FORWARD SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

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APPENDIX 1: LIFEJACKETS ONBOARD All lifejackets on board in compliance with the latest SOLAS regulations and flag state requirements. There is a total of

lifejackets on board.

Adults lifejackets are stowed as follows:

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Pilot Cabin

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Bridge

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FWD Store

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ECR

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New Accommodation

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There are total of

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Cabins

Manufacturer

manufactured by

and are stowed at:

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There are total of manufactured by

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and are stowed at:

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LIFEJACKETS DONNING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 2: IMMERSION SUITS ONBOARD There is a total of

immersion suits on board. Their type and manufacturer is:

Immersion suits are stowed on board in the following locations: Location

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Number

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IMMERSION SUITS DONNING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 3: THERMAL PROTECTIVE AIDS (TPAs) Thermal protective aids on board, manufactured by:

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There is a total of

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TPAs DONNING INSTRUCTIONS

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COMPANYNAME SOLAS TRAINING MANUAL PART D – APPENDIX 4: LIFEBUOYS, LIGHTS AND SMOKE SIGNALS

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APPENDIX 4: LIFEBUOYS, LIGHTS AND SMOKE SIGNALS This vessel carries

Lifebuoys.

The lifebuoys with the above attachments must be distributed in equal numbers on both sides of the ship. No.

Position

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Type

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LIFEBUOYS, LIGHTS AND SMOKE SIGNALS DONNING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 5: LIFEBOATS ON BOARD Lifeboat details

Lifeboats:

Location:

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Type:

Manufacturer:

Capacity:

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Release Gear:

Davits:

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Engine Type:

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Manufacturer:

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LIFEBOAT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 6: L/B ENGINE USE, ACCESSORIES, OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 7: EPIRBs Manufacturer: Frequencies: Position onboard: Type:

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MMSI No.:

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EPIRB OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 8: SEARCH AND RESCUE RADAR TRANSPONDERS (SART'S) No. of SART onboard: SART No.: Position of each one onboard: Manufacturer:

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Type:

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SART OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 9: PORTABLE VHF (GMDSS) Number on board: Position onboard:

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Manufacturer:

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GMDSS OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 10: LIFERAFT PARTICULARS Instructions for launching liferafts appear in the following pages. These instructions must be displayed adjacent to the stowage position for each liferaft. Total number of liferafts: Liferaft particulars No. of persons

Place onboard

Manufacturer

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L/R No.

HRU type:

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Liferaft No.:

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LIFERAFTS LAUNCHING INSTRUCTIONS

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HRU OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 11: SHIP TO SHIP USE OF LINE THROWING APPARATUS

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Type / Manufacturer:

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LINE THROWING APPARATUS OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 12: FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ONBOARD The following list includes the types of fire extinguishers onboard, the number of each type and their location. No. onboard

Location

Manufacturer

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Type of extinguisher

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APPENDIX 13: FIXED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 1. CO2 fixed fire extinguishing systems Spaces protected by fixed systems: Type of medium: Location of release points: Description of alarms sounded before release:

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2. Fixed foam fire extinguishing system Spaces protected by fixed systems: Type of medium : Location of release points:

Description of alarms sounded before release:

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3. Fixed water fire extinguishing systems Spaces protected by fixed systems: Type of medium (Water):

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Location of release points:

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Description of alarms sounded before release:

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DESCRIPTION OF HOW TO OPERATE THE FIXED FIRE FIGHTING EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM

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PIPING DIAGRAM OF FOAM PUMP

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APPENDIX 14: FIREMAN’S OUTFIT No.

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Location onboard

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FIREMAN’S OUTFIT DONNING / INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 15: SELF CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS ONBOARD Type / manufacturer

No.

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Location onboard

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BREATHING APPARATUS OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 16: EMERGENCY ESCAPE BREATHING DEVICES (EEBD) Emergency escape breathing devices onboard : Location onboard

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No.

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EEBD MANUFACTURER DONNING / MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 17: FIRE HOSES, HYDRANTS, NOZZLES & ACCESSORIES 1.

Hydrants

Number of hydrants on board: Size of hydrants: Number of hoses on board: Size of hoses:

2.

Fire hose nozzles

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Type of coupling:

Manufacturer

Total number of fire nozzles on board:

Jet/spray/shut off nozzles:

Foam Branch Applicator:

3.

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Gallons Of Foam Compound:

International shore fire connection

Total number of International Shore Fire Connections onboard:

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The stowage position is:

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APPENDIX 18: ELECTRICAL STOPS AND QUICK CLOSING DEVICES

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Location of the devices on board:

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APPENDIX 19: EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP Location of emergency fire pump: Engine manufacturer: Engine details: Pump manufacturer:

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Pump details:

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APPENDIX 20: EMERGENCY GENERATOR Location of Emerg. Generator: Engine manufacturer: Engine details: Generator manufacturer:

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Generator details:

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EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

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APPENDIX 21: FORWARD SUBMERSIBLE PUMP Forward submersible pump location: Engine manufacturer: Engine details: Pump details:

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High:

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