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M/V “VSLNAME” IMO No: 9999999

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CARGO SECURING MANUAL

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD. MARINE CONSULTANTS & SURVEYORS T: +30 210 4518717 (5 LINES), F: +30 210 4283253 mail@alphamrn.com | www.alphamrn.com


Revision Issued as Final Booklet

Date DD/MM/YY

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No. 1

TOTAL ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FIVE (155) SHEETS WITH COVER VESSEL: TITLE:

M/V “VSLNAME”

IMO NO.:

9999999

CARGO SECURING MANUAL ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD. MARINE CONSULTANTS & SURVEYORS T: +30 210 4518717 (5 LINES), F: +30 210 4283253 mail@alphamrn.com | www.alphamrn.com

DWG. NO.:

xxxx-CSM

REVISION NO.: DATE:

1

DD/MM/YY


M/V “VSLNAME” CARGO SECURING MANUAL

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REVISION HISTORY

REVISED PAGES

DESCRIPTION OF REVISION

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REVISION DATE OF NUMBER REVISION

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M/V “VSLNAME” CARGO SECURING MANUAL

PAGE 4 OF 155

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE SCOPE..................................................................................................................... 6

2.

GENERAL................................................................................................................ 7

2.1.

GENERAL PARTICULARS ...................................................................................... 7

2.2.

PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS....................................................................................... 7

2.3.

REFERENCE INFORMATION / PLANS .................................................................. 7

2.4.

ALLOWABLE UNIFORM LOAD ............................................................................... 8

2.5.

DEFINITIONS........................................................................................................... 8

2.6.

PREPARATION OF THE MANUAL ......................................................................... 9

2.7.

GENERAL INFORMATION ...................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

3.

SECURING DEVICES & ARRANGEMENTS ........................................................ 10

3.1.

SPECIFICATION FOR FIXED CARGO SECURING DEVICES............................. 10

3.2.

SPECIFICATION FOR PORTABLE CARGO SECURING DEVICES .................... 10

3.3.

INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE SCHEMES................................................... 11

4.

STOWAGE AND SECURING OF NON-STANDARDIZED AND SEMI-

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STANDARDIZED CARGO..................................................................................... 15 HANDLING AND SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS ........... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.2.

EVALUATION OF FORCES ACTING ON CARGO UNITSError! Bookmark not defined.

4.3.

APPLICATION OF PORTABLE SECURING DEVICES ON VARIOUS CARGO

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4.1.

UNITS, VEHICLES AND STOWAGE BLOCKS ..................................................... 49

5.

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF

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VESSELS............................................................................................................... 53

5.1

Ro-Ro VESSELS.................................................................................................... 53

5.2

BULK CARRIERS .................................................................................................. 58

5.3

CONTAINER CARRIERS....................................................................................... 70

6.

GUIDANCE FOR SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF NONSTANDARDIZED CARGO..................................................................................... 74

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PAGE ANNEX 1 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CONTAINERS ON DECK OF SHIPS WHICH ARE NOT SPECIALLY DESIGNED AND FITTED FOR THE PURPOSE OF CARRYING CONTAINERS.......................................... 75 ANNEX 2 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF PORTABLE TANKS .................... 80 ANNEX 3 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF PORTABLE RECEPTACLES ...... 84 ANNEX 4 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF WHEEL-BASED (ROLLING)

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CARGOES .................................................................................................... 86 ANNEX 5 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF HEAVY CARGO ITEMS

SUCH AS LOCOMOTIVES, TRANSFORMERS, ETC. ................................ 87 ANNEX 6 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF COILED SHEET STEEL .............. 92 ANNEX 7 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF HEAVY METAL PRODUCTS....... 96 ANNEX 8 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF ANCHOR CHAINS ....................... 98

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ANNEX 9 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF METAL SCRAP IN BULK ............ 99 ANNEX 10 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF FLEXIBLE INTERMEDIATE BULK CONTAINERS.................................................................................. 100

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ANNEX 11 - GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE UNDER- DECK STOWAGE OF LOGS .................................................................................................... 102

ANNEX 12 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF UNIT LOADS ............................. 105 APPENDIX A – TABLES OF CALCULATED ACCELERATIONS ................................. 108

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Accelerations for ship’s speed = 10.25 kn. ...................................................................... 109 Accelerations for ship’s speed = 10.50 kn. ...................................................................... 113 Accelerations for ship’s speed = 10.75 kn. ...................................................................... 117 Accelerations for ship’s speed = 11.00 kn. ...................................................................... 121

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Accelerations for ship’s speed = 11.25 kn. ...................................................................... 125 Accelerations for ship’s speed = 11.50 kn. ...................................................................... 129 Accelerations for ship’s speed = 11.75 kn. ...................................................................... 133 Accelerations for ship’s speed = 12.00 kn. ...................................................................... 138 Accelerations for ship’s speed = 12.25 kn. ...................................................................... 142 Accelerations for ship’s speed = 12.50 kn. ...................................................................... 146 APPENDIX B – ENTRY INTO ENCLOSED SPACES..................................................... 149 APPENDIX C – RECORD BOOK OF INSPECTIONS AND MAINTENANCE ................ 151 APPENDIX D – LIST OF PORTABLE AND FIXED CARGO SECURING DEVICES ..... 153 APPENDIX E – RELEVANT DRAWINGS ....................................................................... 155 ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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1. SCOPE

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In accordance with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS) Chapter VI and VII and the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing, cargo units, including containers, shall be stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with this Cargo Securing Manual.

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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2. GENERAL

2.1.

GENERAL PARTICULARS

Ship’s Name:

VSLNAME

Ship’s Type: Flag: Port of Registry:

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Call Sign: IMO Number: Classification: Built by: Year Built:

2.2.

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Complement:

9999999

PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS

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Length O.A.: Length B.P.:

Breadth (mld.):

Depth to Main Deck (mld.):

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Summer Load Draught (extr.): Deadweight at S.L.D.:

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Max. Speed, Vo:

2.3.

REFERENCE INFORMATION / PLANS

No.

1. 2. 3.

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.

Title

Dwg. No.


M/V “VSLNAME” CARGO SECURING MANUAL

2.4.

ALLOWABLE UNIFORM LOAD HOLD No.

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DEFINITIONS

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2.5.

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Cargo Units means vehicles (road vehicles, roll trailers, etc.), railway wagons, containers, flats, pallets, portable tanks, intermediate bulk containers (IBC), packaged units, unit loads, other cargo carrying units such as shipping cassettes, cargo entries such as steel coils and heavy cargo items such as locomotives and transformers. Loading equipment or any part thereof, transported on the ship, but which is not permanently fixed to the ship, is also considered as cargo units.

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Maximum Securing Load (MSL) is a term used to define the allowable load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. Safe Working Load (SWL) may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL.

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Fixed Securing Devices - Securing points and supports. Such devices may either be integral, i.e. welded into the hull structure or non-integral .i.e. welded onto the hull structure. Portable Securing Devices - Portable devices used for lashing, securing or support of cargo units.

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Standardized Cargo means cargo for which the ship is provided with an approved securing system based upon cargo units of specific types.

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Semi-standardized Cargo means cargo for which the ship is provided with a securing system capable of accommodating a limited variety of cargo units, such as vehicles, trailers, etc. Non-standardized Cargo means cargo, which required individual stowage and securing arrangements. Flat means 20’ or 40’ platform or platform based ISO container. Mobile means vehicle with wheels or caterpillar threads, e.g. dumpers, excavators, etc.

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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PAGE 9 OF 155

PREPARATION OF THE MANUAL

The Cargo Securing Manual should be developed, taking into account the recommendations given in these Guidelines, and should be written in the working language or languages of the ship. If the language or languages used is not English, French or Spanish, a translation into one of these languages should be included.

GENERAL INFORMATION

1.

The guidance given herein should by no means rule out the principles of good seamanship, neither can it replace experience in stowage and securing practice.

2.

The information and requirements set forth in this Manual are consistent with the requirements of the vessel’s trim and stability booklet, International Load Line Certificate (1966), the hull strength loading manual (if provided) and with the requirements of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code (if applicable).

3.

This Cargo Securing Manual specifies arrangements and cargo securing devices provided on board the ship for the correct application to and the securing of cargo units, containers, vehicles and other entities, based on transverse, longitudinal and vertical forces which may arise during adverse weather and sea conditions.

4.

It is imperative to the safety of the ship and the protection of the cargo and personnel that the securing of the cargo is carried out properly and that only appropriate securing points or fittings should be used for cargo securing.

5.

The cargo securing devices mentioned in this manual should be applied so as to be suitable and adapted to the quantity, type of packaging, and physical properties of the cargo to be carried. When new or alternative types of cargo securing devices are introduced, the Cargo Securing Manual should be revised accordingly. Alternative cargo securing devices introduced should not have less strength than the devices being replaced.

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2.7.

There should be sufficient quantity of reverse cargo securing devices on board the ship.

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Information on the strength and instructions for the use and maintenance of each specific type of cargo securing device, where applicable, is provided in this manual. The cargo securing devices should be maintained in a satisfactory condition. Items worn or damaged to such an extent that their quality is impaired should be replaced.

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Any equipment supplied by stevedoring companies for the securing of specific cargoes shall be appropriately certified in accordance with national or international standards.

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3. SECURING DEVICES & ARRANGEMENTS

3.1.

SPECIFICATION FOR FIXED CARGO SECURING DEVICES

1.

Cargo securing devices on deck No

Type / Designation

MSL (kN)

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Cargo securing devices in cargo holds No

Type / Designation

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MSL (kN)

SPECIFICATION FOR PORTABLE CARGO SECURING DEVICES

No

Type / Designation

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MSL (kN)

Quantity


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3.3.

PAGE 11 OF 155

INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE SCHEMES

Inspection and maintenance of both fixed and portable securing devices should be carried out under the responsibility of the Master. Procedures and records Accepting procedure:

2.

Maintaining procedure:

3.

Repairing procedure:

4.

Rejecting procedure:

5.

Record of inspections:

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Routine & Periodic Examinations

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Requirements for the Examination & Maintenance of Securing Devices

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Each device should be checked for damage and wear which could affect the ability of the device to adequately and safely perform its designated function or which could lead to physical injury of persons handling the device. Devices should also be examined prior to being used for a particular purpose to determine that they are suitable for that purpose, with regard to both strength and efficiency.

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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INSPECTION/PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS Cargo Securing Device/Type

Inspection

Maintenance

Actions to be taken

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Portable securing devices

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Fixed securing devices / on-deck / in-holds

Information regarding inspections and adjustments of securing arrangements during the voyage

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3.3.4.

The integrity of the securing arrangements should be maintained throughout the voyage. Inspection and adjustment of securing arrangements during the voyage is limited to moderately re-tensioning turnbuckles of lashings. Particular attention should be paid to lashings when heavy weather or swell is expected. Lashings may also become slack when cargoes are loaded and secured in conditions of low ambient temperature and the vessel then proceeds to areas of significantly higher ambient temperature. Particular attention should be paid to the need for tight lashings, grips and clips to prevent weakening through chafing.

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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Timber cradles, bedding and shoring should be checked, in so far as practicable and accessible. Care should be taken for the crewmembers if inspection and adjustment is to be carried out under adverse weather and sea conditions. Actions, which may be taken in heavy weather: The purpose of this section is not to usurp the responsibilities of the Master, but rather to offer some advice on how stresses induced by excessive accelerations caused by bad weather conditions can be avoided.

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Measures to avoid excessive accelerations are: Alteration of course or speed, or a combination of both. Heaving to.

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Early avoidance of areas of adverse weather and sea conditions. One way of reducing excessive accelerations is for the master, as far as possible and practicable, to plan the voyage of the ship carefully so as to avoid areas with severe weather and sea conditions. The master should always consult the latest available weather information.

3.

Timely ballasting or de-ballasting to improve the behaviour of the ship, taking into account the actual stability conditions.

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When severe weather conditions (e.g. sea state conditions equal to or worse than those associated with Beaufort Scale 6) are likely to be experienced in service the following principles should be observed in the design of the deck cargo securing arrangements: Suitable physical means (e.g. cross bracing at sides and ends using chain lashings fitted with rigging-screws) to prevent the cargo, especially wheeled vehicles, from sliding or tipping should be provided.

2.

Where practicable on vehicles having leaf type springs the total weight carried by the springs should be transferred from the axles on to deck jacks.

3.

When cargo is carried on vehicles or trailers it should be securely attached to the chassis of the vehicle/trailer. The means for securing the cargo should include cross bracing at the ends to prevent tipping when subject to racking action.

4.

Lashings used to secure cargo or vehicles should have a breaking load of at least 3 times the design load the design load being the total weight of the cargo or cargo plus vehicle subjected to an acceleration of:

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0.7 ‘g’ athwart ships, 1.0 ‘g’ vertically and 0.3 ‘g’ longitudinally, relative to the principal axis of the ship.

Actions which may be taken once cargo has shifted:

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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4. STOWAGE AND SECURING OF NON-STANDARDIZED AND SEMISTANDARDIZED CARGO

4.1.

HANDLING AND SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

Material for stowage and securing of non-standardized cargo will either be permanently carried on board or provided when required. 4.1.1

General Principles of Cargo Securing

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General elements to be considered by the Master

Having evaluated the risk of cargo-shifting as set out above the Master should ensure, prior to loading of any cargo, cargo transport unit or vehicle that: the deck area for their stowage is, as for as practicable, clean, dry and free from oil and grease;

2.

The cargo, cargo transport unit or vehicle appears to be in suitable condition for transport, and can be effectively secured;

3.

All necessary cargo securing equipment is on board and in good working condition;

4.

Cargo in or on cargo transport units and vehicles is to the extent practicable, properly stowed on to the unit or vehicle.

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All cargoes should be stowed and secured in such a way that the ship and persons on board are not put at risk. The safe stowage and securing of cargoes depends on proper planning, execution and supervision.

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Personnel commissioned to tasks of cargo stowage and securing should be properly qualified and experienced. Personnel planning and supervision the stowage and securing of cargo should have a sound practical knowledge of the application and content of this Manual.

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In all cases, improper stowage and securing of cargo will be potentially hazardous to the securing of other cargoes and to the ship itself. The securing equipment should be: -

available in sufficient quantity including reserves

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suitable for the purpose**

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of adequate strength*

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practical and well maintained**

*The required strength, which depends on the lashing forces, can be calculated based on methods for evaluating forces as outlined in this manual. **Specific handling and safety instructions are provided in Sections 4.1.1-4.1.3 along with instructions to suitable areas, while inspection and maintenance are dealt with in Section 3.3.

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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Securing operations shall be completed before the ship leaves the berth and the securing should be based on proper planning, execution and supervision. Relevant personnel should be properly qualified and experienced and should have a sound practical knowledge of the application and content of this Cargo Securing Manual. Excessive accelerations are expected to occur in the far forward and aft part of the ship, but can also occur in general as a result of a high GM value. The securing arrangements shall be adequate to ensure that there will be no movement, which will endanger the ship. Slackening of the securing gear due to cargoes which have a tendency to deform or to compact during voyage shall be avoided. Cargoes with low friction coefficient should be tightly stowed across the ship to avoid sliding. Suitable material such as soft boards or dunnage should be used to increase friction.

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Cargo units containing hanging loads (e.g. chilled meat, floated glass) and very high cargo units are, because of the relatively high position of the centre of gravity, particularly prone to tipping. Whenever possible they should be located in positions of least movement i.e. on the centre line, towards amidships and on a deck near the waterline. Safe means of access to securing arrangements, safety equipment, and operational controls shall be provided and properly maintained. Stairways and escape routes from spaces below the vehicle deck shall be kept clear. The cargo spaces should be, as far as practicable, regularly inspected during voyage.

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Lashings shall not be released for unloading before the ship is secured at the berth, without the Master’s express permission.

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Cargo shall not obstruct the operating controls of stern doors, entrances to accommodation and/or fire fighting equipment. The ship may only carry dangerous goods according to the Certificate of Compliance for Dangerous Goods. Dangerous goods shall be segregated, stowed and secured according to the IMDG code and valid instructions for this ship.

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Special cargo transport units

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The shipowner and the ship operator should, when necessary, make use of relevant expertise when considering the shipment of a cargo with unusual characteristics which may require special attention to be given to its location on board vis-a-vis the structural strength of the ship, its stowage and securing, and the weather conditions which may be expected during the intended voyage. Cargo information Prior to shipment the shipper should provide all necessary information about the cargo to enable the shipowner or ship operator to ensure that: 1.

the different commodities to be carried are compatible with

2.

each other or suitably separated;

3.

the cargo is suitable for the ship;

4.

the ship is suitable for the cargo; and

5.

the cargo can be safely stowed and secured on board the ship and transported under all expected conditions during the intended voyage.

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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The Master should be provided with adequate information regarding the cargo to be carried so that its stowage may be properly planned. Cargo distribution The cargo should be disturbed so as to ensure that the stability of the ship throughout the entire voyage remains within the acceptable limits so that the hazards of excessive accelerations are reduced as far as practicable.

Cargo securing arrangements

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Cargo distribution should be such that the structural strength of the ship is not adversely affected.

Particular care should be taken to distribute forces as evenly as practicable between the cargo securing devices. If this is not feasible, the arrangements should be upgraded accordingly.

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If, due to the complex structure of a securing arrangement or other circumstances the person in charge is unable to assess the suitability of the arrangement from experience and knowledge of good seamanship, the arrangement should be verified by using an acceptable calculation method. The cargo securing gear should be adapted to the quantity and properties of the cargo to be carried and, when required, additional gear should be provided.

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Lashings should be kept as short as possible. Long lashings are difficult to tighten and difficult to keep taut. Securing of cargo on or inside a load carrier

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Cargo carried in containers, road vehicles, shipborne barges, railway wagons and other transport units should be packed and secured within these units so as to prevent, throughout the voyage, damage or hazard to the ship, to the persons on board and to the marine environment. Cargo shall be secured inside or onto cargo units according to recognized principles, taking into account the dynamic forces that may occur during sea transport.

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If the Master or duty officer considers that a cargo is not safely secured to a cargo unit, measures shall be taken to avoid shifting of the cargo. If adequate measures are not possible due to the nature of the cargo or lack of securing points, the cargo unit shall not be taken on board. Securing of wheeled cargo Road vehicles and semi-trailers shall be stowed so that the chassis are kept as static as possible by not allowing free play in the suspension. This can be done by securing the vehicle to the deck or tightly as the lashing-tensioning device will permit and, in the case of compressed air suspension systems, by first releasing the air pressure where this facility is provided. Lashings shall be under equal tension. Only one lashing shall be attached to any one aperture, loop or lashing ring at each vehicle or container securing point. ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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Friction forces Where friction between the cargo and the ship’s deck or structure or between cargo transport units is insufficient to avoid the risk of sliding, suitable material such as soft boards or dunnage should be used to increase friction. Residual strength after wear and tear Cargo securing arrangements and equipment should have sufficient residual strength to allow for normal wear and tear during their lifetime.

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Criteria for estimating the risk of cargo shifting

When estimating the risk of cargo shifting, the following should be considered: Dimensional and physical properties of the cargo;

2.

Location of the cargo and its stowage on board;

3.

Suitability of the ship for the particular cargo;

4.

Suitability of the securing arrangements for the particular cargo

5.

Expected seasonal weather and sea conditions;

6.

Expected ship behavior during the intended voyage;

7.

Stability of the ship;

8.

Geographical area of the voyage;

9.

Duration of the voyage.

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These criteria should be taken into account when selecting suitable stowage and securing methods and whenever reviewing the forces to be absorbed by the securing equipment.

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Bearing in mind the above criteria, the Master should accept the cargo on board his ship only if he is satisfied that it can be safely transported. Shipboard supervision

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The principal means of preventing the improper stowage and securing of cargoes is through proper supervision of the loading operation and inspections of the stowage. As far as practicable, cargo spaces should be regularly inspected throughout the voyage to ensure that the cargo, vehicles and cargo transport units remain safely secured. Entering enclosed spaces The atmosphere in any enclosed space may be incapable of supporting human life through lack of oxygen or it may contain flammable or toxic gases. The master should ensure that it is safe to enter any enclosed space. A safety checklist for practical use by shipboard personnel along with a poster is attached herewith in APPENDIX B for display on board ships in accommodation and in cargo hold entrances.

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


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Cargo stowage and securing declaration Where there is reason to suspect that a container or vehicle into which dangerous goods have been packed or loaded is not in compliance with the provisions of sections 12 or 17, of regulation VII/5.2 or 5.3 of SOLAS 1974, as amended, or with the provisions as appropriate of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code, or where a container packing certificate/vehicle packing declaration is not available, the unit should not be acceptable for shipment.

Causes of Cargo loss

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Where practicable and feasible, road vehicles should be provided with a cargo stowage and securing declaration stating that the cargo on the road vehicle has been properly stowed and secured for the intended sea voyage, taking into account the IMO/ILO Guidelines for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or Vehicles. The vehicle packing declaration recommended by the IMDG Code may be acceptable for this purpose.

Some of the most common causes of cargo loss, which should be given careful consideration when securing cargoes, are as follows: Severe adverse weather

2.

Insufficient or ineffective use of dunnage

3.

Lashings inadequate in number or strength

4.

Port and starboard or forward and aft lashings ill-balanced

5.

Wire attachment eyes or loops badly formed

6.

Incorrect use of bulldog grips

7.

Lack of strength continuity as between wire, attachment eyes, chain, turnbuckles, lashing webbing, shackles and fixed terminal points.

8.

Lashings secured around sharp or unprotected edges.

9.

Failure to appreciate the forces generated on a sea-going vessel

10.

Failure to provide sufficient personnel or time to effectively complete the work before sailing

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4.1.2

PAGE 20 OF 155

Conventional wire lashings

Conventional wire lashings principally consist of shackles, turnbuckles and length of wire rope assembled by wire clips as shown in Fig. 4.1. As the MSL of the securing points usually will not exceed 50 kN it is not advisable to use wire rope of a breaking strength of more than 80 kN and shackles or turnbuckles of a breaking strength of more than 100 kN. The manufacturer or chandler should supply information on the breaking strength of the material in the form of suitable documents. These documents should be kept with the Cargo Securing Manual for the duration of the use of this material on board. When assembling and applying conventional wire lashing the following principles should be observed: Ends of cut off lengths of wire rope should be secured by suitable adhesive tape.

2.

The size of wire clips should match the diameter of the wire rope.

3.

The number of wire clips should be as shown in Fig. 4.1.

4.

The U-bolt of wire clips should sit on the dead end of the wire rope.

5.

The distance of wire clips to each other should be about six times the wire diameter.

6.

Threads of wire clips should be greased and nuts tightened until the dead end of the wire rope is visibly dented.

7.

Turnbuckle threads should be greased as well. Turn sticks should be secured against reserve turning after tightening the lashing.

8.

After the first tightening of the lashing the nuts of wire clips should be re-tightened.

9.

Doubling the wire rope as shown in Fig. 4.1b is normally not providing a doubling of MSL due to loss of strength at the bend on the side.

10.

However, MSL will be doubled if the top bend has a radius of at least three times the wire diameter. Nevertheless the version in Fig. 4.1a may be more convenient to assemble than the version in Fig. 4.1b.

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Fig. 4.1 Conventional Lashings Warning: The expected MSL of a conventional wire lashing will only be obtained if all of the above mentioned principles are observed. A major source of failure of conventional wire lashing is insufficient number of clips and insufficient tightening of clips.

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4.1.3

PAGE 21 OF 155

Chain lashings

Chain lashings principally consist of a length of chain which can be adjusted in length, together with a turnbuckle or a lever tightener. If such equipment is chosen for securing the cargo on deck or tank top the following principles should be observed: Tightening lever should be used and secured as described in the manufacturer’s or chandler information leaflet.

2.

If the chain is fitted with hooks at the ends, these hooks should be attached to rings or other suitable fittings in a way that inadvertent release is avoided.

3.

MSL of such chain-lashings is either provided by the manufacturer or chandler or can be assumed as 50% of the breaking strength.

4.

If the MSL of the chain-lashing is higher than the MSL of the securing point on the platform or flatrack the required number of lashing should be guided by the latter MSL valued.

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Fig. 4.2 Chain lashing-lever / Hook-up unit

Insert hook tip A of lever into two links of the lashing chain placed opposite each other. (Fig.1).

2.

Pull level handle down for tension. (Fig.1).

3.

Secure lever handle in position by locking in place securing chain B in main lashing chain. (Fig.2).

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For continuous take-up and tightening 4.

Ensure chain is tensioned as much as possible (as in Fig.2).

5.

Loosen chain B and hook-up lever adjustment hook C in the appropriate link. (Fig.3).

6.

Remove hook tip A of level from easier position (Fig.1) and take up slack in the chain.

7.

Repeat operations (Figs.1, 2, 3 & 4) by moving hook C to the next link along the chain.

8.

These operations to be repeated until the required tension is achieved.

9.

The lashing is then tightened and locked in position (as in Fig.2)

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4.1.4

PAGE 22 OF 155

Timber

Timber squares for applying shores or beddings should at least have a 10 by 10 cm crosssection. It should be born in mind that the MSL of conifer timber is 0,3 kN per cm2 normal (transverse) to the grain. If timber is used for increasing surface friction only then are dunnage planks of 2 or 3 cm thickness sufficient. When carrying out stowage and securing of non-standardized cargo units the following safety instructions should be observed: The working area should be sufficiently illuminated.

2.

If ladders are to be used they should be adequately secured against sliding and tipping.

3.

People at work should wear head and foot protection.

4.

If wire ropes are to be cut to length by a cold chisel the men at work should wear eye protection.

4.2.

EVALUATION OF FORCES ACTING ON CARGO UNITS

P

4.2.1. General

LE

1.

M

Lashing forces are caused by accelerations of the cargo due to ship motions. The largest accelerations and therefore the most severe forces can be expected in the forward most, the aftmost and the highest stowage positions on each side of the ship. Special consideration should be given to the securing of cargo units stowed in these positions. Generally, the forces which have to be taken by the securing devices are composed of components acting relative to the axes of the ship, i.e. longitudinal, transverse and vertical direction. The two first are the most important to consider with respect to lashing since the main function of lashings are to prevent cargo units from tipping and/or sliding in the transverse or longitudinal direction.

A

The transverse accelerations increase directly with the GM value and care should be taken when stowing and distributing cargo to avoid excessive accelerations, ref. Section 4.1.1 "General principles of cargo securing".

S

If cargo is stowed in positions where loads from wind pressure and/or sea sloshing may be expected, this shall be taken into consideration when securing the cargo. Due to uncertainties as to the actual weights and locations of the center of gravity of cargo units, the lashing forces may vary considerably. It is not possible to specify exactly the maximum forces which may be exerted in the most severe conditions. A general rule is that an adequate number of lashings of sufficient strength to meet the worst weather that could be encountered during the voyage should always be fitted. If very heavy weather is expected, appropriate measures, such as delaying sailing of altering course or speed, should be taken to minimize the forces. Due to the difficulty in predicting dynamic accelerations and the complexity of dynamic calculations, the lashing forces apply to rigid and unsprung cargo. Additional lashings will be required to resist dynamic forces due to sprung or non-rigid cargoes.

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The lashings are in general most effective on a cargo unit when at an angle with the deck of between 30 and 60 degrees. When these optimum angles cannot be achieved additional lashings may be required. The forces can be estimated based on the calculation methods outlined in this Cargo Securing Manual. The effect of antiroll devices should not be taken into account when planning the stowage and securing of cargoes. 4.2.2. Lashing evaluation methods as presented in Annex 13 to the CSS Code .1

Scope of application

LE

The methods described in this Section should be applied to non-standardised cargoes, but not to containers on containerships. Very heavy units as carried under the provisions of chapter 1.8 of the CSS Code and those items for which exhaustive advice on stowage and securing is given in the annexes to this Manual should be excluded.

P

All lashings assemblies used in the application of the methods described in this Section must be attached to fixed securing points or strong supporting structures marked on the cargo unit or advised as being suitable, or taken as a loop around the unit with both ends secured to the same side as shown in Annex 5, Fig.2 in this Manual. Lashings going over the top of the cargo unit, which have no defined securing direction but only act to increase friction by their pretension, cannot be credited in the evaluation of securing arrangements under this Section.

M

Nothing in this Section should be read to exclude the use of computer software, provided the output achieves design parameters, which meet the minimum safety factors applied in this Section.

A

The application of the methods described in this Section is supplementary to the principles of good seamanship and shall not replace experience in stowage and securing practice. .2

Purpose of the methods

The methods should:

provide guidance for the preparation of this Manual and the examples herein; assist ship's staff in assessing the securing of cargo units not covered by this Manual. assist qualified shore personnel in assessing the securing of cargo units not covered by this Manual. serve as a reference for maritime and port-related education and training.

S

1.

2.

3. 4.

Calculated examples for securing of cargo for this specific ship are illustrated at the end of this Section. A calculation example with fill-in table with blank forms is also presented.

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M/V “VSLNAME� CARGO SECURING MANUAL

.3

PAGE 24 OF 155

Strength of securing equipment

Manufacturers of securing equipment should at least supply information on the nominal breaking strength of the equipment in kilo-Newton's (kN) (1kN=100 kg). Maximum securing load (MSL) is a term used to define the load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. Safe Working Load (SWL) may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL. The MSL for different securing devices are given in table below. The MSL of timber should be taken as 0.3 kN/cm2 normal to the grain.

Material

LE

Table 1 - Determination of MSL from breaking strength MSL

shackles, rings, deck-eyes, turnbuckles of mild steel fibre rope

50% of breaking strength 33% of breaking strength 80% of breaking strength

P

wire rope (single use)

30% of breaking strength

steel band (single use)

70% of breaking strength

chains

50% of breaking strength

web lashings

50% of breaking strength

A

M

wire rope (re-useable)

For particular securing devices (e.g. fibre straps with tensioners or special equipment for securing containers), a permissible working load may be prescribed and marked by authority. This should be taken as the MSL.

S

When the components of a lashing device are connected in series (for example, a wire to a shackle to a deckeye), the minimum MSL in the series shall apply to that device.

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PAGE 25 OF 155

“Rule-Of-Thumb” method

The rule-of-thumb method is a simplified method for evaluation of required lashing strength for safe securing of a cargo unit. The method by no means optimizes an arrangement but may be used as a first approach to define the arrangement. A later control with the advanced calculation method is advisable. The total of the MSL values of securing devices on each side of a unit of cargo (port as well as starboard) should equal the weight of the unit.

LE

This method that implies a transverse acceleration of 1g (9.81 m/s2) applies to nearly any size of ship, regardless of the location of stowage stability and loading condition, season area of operation. The method, however, takes into account neither the adverse effects of lashing angles and non-homogeneous distribution of forces among the securing devices nor the favourable effect of friction.

.5

P

Transverse lashing angles to the deck shall not be greater than 60o and it is important that adequate friction is provided by the use of suitable material. Additional lashings at angles of greater that 60o may be desirable to prevent tipping, but are not to be counted in the number of lashings under the rule-ofthumb. Safety factor

M

When using balance calculation methods for assessing the strength of the securing devices, a safety factor is used to take account of the possibility of uneven distribution of forces among the devices or reduced capability due to the improper assembly of the devices or other reasons. This safety factor is used in the formula to derive the calculated strength (CS) from the MSL and shown in the relevant method used.

A

CS = MSL / safety factor

S

Notwithstanding the introduction of such a safety factor, care should be taken to use securing elements of similar material and length in order to provide a uniform elastic behaviour within the arrangement.

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Advanced calculation method

In this manual the method is also presented by means of fill-in-tables. Calculation examples are given after the blank form tables. .6/1

Assumption of external forces

External forces to a cargo unit in longitudinal, transverse and vertical directions should be obtained using the formula : F (x,y,z) = m * a (x.y.z) + Fw (x,y) + F sloshing (x,y)

LE

where: F (x,y,z) m a (x,y,z) F w (x,y) F sloshing (x.y)

is longitudinal, transverse and vertical forces is mass of the unit is longitudinal, transverse and vertical accelerations is longitudinal and transverse forces by wind pressure is longitudinal and transverse forces by sea sloshing

P

The basic acceleration data are presented in table 2.

S

A

M

Table 2 - Basic acceleration data

Remarks: The given transverse acceleration figures include components of gravity, pitch and heave parallel to the deck. The given vertical acceleration figures do not include the static weight component. The basic acceleration data are to be considered as valid under the following operational conditions: 1. Operation in unrestricted area; 2. Operation during the whole year; 3. Duration of the voyage is 25 days; 4. Length of ship is 100 m; 5. Service speed is 15 knots; 6. B/GM ≥ 13 (B: breadth of ship, GM: metacentric height).

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For operation in a restricted area, reduction of these figures may be considered, taking into account the season of the year and the duration of the voyage. For ships of a length other than 100 m and a service speed other than 15 knots, the acceleration figures should be corrected by a factor given in table 3. Table 3 - Correction factors for Length and Speed 50

60

70

80

90

100

120

140

160

180

200

9

1.20

1.09

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.79

0.70

0.63

0.57

0.53

0.49

12

1.34

1.22

1.12

1.03

0.96

0.90

0.79

0.72

0.65

0.60

0.56

15

1.49

1.36

1.24

1.15

1.07

1.00

0.89

0.80

0.73

0.68

0.63

18

1.64

1.49

1.37

1.27

1.18

1.10

0.98

0.89

0.82

0.76

0.71

21

1.78

1.62

1.49

1.38

1.29

1.21

1.08

0.98

0.90

0.83

0.78

24

1.93

1.76

1.62

1.50

1.40

1.31

1.17

1.07

0.98

0.91

0.85

LE

Length [m] Speed [kN]

P

For length/speed combinations not directly tabulated, the following formula may be used to obtain the correction factor with V = speed in knots and L = length between perpendiculars in meters.

M

⎛ 0.345 ⋅ V ⎞ ⎟⎟ + (58.62 ⋅ L − 1034.5) / L2 Correction factor = ⎜⎜ L ⎠ ⎝

A

In addition, for ships with B/GM less than 13, the transverse acceleration figures should be corrected by a factor given in Table 4. Table 4 - Correction factors for B/GM <13

S

B / GM on deck, high on deck, low tween-deck lower hold

7 1.56 1.42 1.26 1.15

8 1.40 1.30 1.19 1.12

9 1.27 1.21 1.14 1.09

10 1.19 1.14 1.09 1.06

11 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.04

12 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.02

13 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

The following cautions should be observed: In the case of marked roll resonance with amplitudes above + 30°, the given figures of transverse acceleration may be exceeded. Effective measures should be taken to avoid this condition. In the case of heading into the seas at high speed with marked slamming shocks, the given figures of longitudinal and vertical acceleration may be exceeded. An appropriate reduction of speed should be considered.

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In the case of running before large stern or quartering seas with stability which does not amply exceed the accepted minimum requirements, large roll amplitudes must be expected with transverse accelerations greater than the figures given. An appropriate change of heading should be considered. Forces by wind and sea to cargo units above the weather deck should be accounted for by simple approach: Force by wind pressure =

1 kN/m²

Force by sea sloshing =

1 kN/m²

LE

Sloshing by sea can induce forces much greater than the figure given above. This figure should be considered as remaining unavoidable after adequate measures to prevent overcoming seas. Sea sloshing forces need only be applied to height of deck cargo up to 2m above the weather deck or hatch top. For voyages in a restricted area, sea-sloshing forces may be neglected. .6/2

Balance of forces and moments

P

The balance calculation should preferably be carried out for: Transverse sliding in port and starboard directions;

-

Transverse tipping in port and starboard directions;

-

Longitudinal sliding under conditions of reduced friction in forward and aft directions.

M

-

In the case of symmetrical securing arrangements, one appropriate calculation is sufficient.

S

A

Friction contributes towards prevention of sliding. The following friction coefficients (μ) should be applied: Table 5 – Friction coefficients Friction coefficient (μ) Materials in contact Timber-timber, wet or dry 0.4 0.3 Steel-timber or steel-rubber 0.1 Steel-steel, dry 0.0 Steel-steel, wet

.6/2-1 Transverse sliding The balance calculation should meet the following condition (see Fig.1): Fy ≤ μ * m * g + CS1 * f1 + CS2 * f2 + .... + CSn * fn where: n is the number of lashings being calculated is transverse force from load assumption (kN) Fy ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.


M/V “VSLNAME” CARGO SECURING MANUAL

μ m g CS

is friction coefficient (see table 5) is mass of the cargo unit (t) is gravity acceleration of earth = 9.81 m/s2 is calculated strength of transverse securing devices (kN) CS = MSL / 1.5 is a function of μ and the vertical securing angle α. (See Table 6)

P

LE

f

PAGE 29 OF 155

Fig.1 – Balance of transverse forces

M

A vertical securing angle a greater than 60o will reduce the effectiveness of this particular securing device in respect to sliding of the unit.

A

Disregarding of such devices from the balance of forces should be considered, unless the necessary load is gained by the imminent tendency to tipping or by a reliable pre-tensioning of the securing device and maintaining the pretension throughout the voyage. Any horizontal securing angle, i.e. deviation from the transverse direction, should not exceed 30o, otherwise an exclusion of this securing device from the transverse sliding balance should be considered.

S

Table 6 - f-values as a function of α and μ

α μ 0.3

0.72 0.84 0.93 1.00 1.04 1.04 1.02 0.96 0.87 0.76 0.62 0.47 0.30

0.1

0.82 0.91 0.97 1.00 1.00 0.97 0.92 0.83 0.72 0.59 0.44 0.27 0.10

0.0

0.87 0.94 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.77 0.64 0.50 0.34 0.17 0.00

-300

-200

-100

00

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Remark: f = μsinα + cosα As an alternative to using Table 6 to determine the forces in a securing arrangement, the method outlined in paragraph 7.3 can be used to take account of transverse and longitudinal components of lashing forces.

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.6/2-2 Transverse tipping This balance calculation should meet the following condition: Fy*a ≤ b* m* g + 0.9(CS1* c1 + CS2*c2 +.....+ CSn*cn) are as explained is lever-arm of tipping (m) is lever-arm of stableness (m) is lever-arm of securing force (m) (see Fig.2)

M

P

LE

where: Fy, m, g, CS, n a b c

Fig.2 – Balance of transverse moments

A

.6/2-3 Longitudinal sliding

S

Under normal conditions the transverse securing devices provide sufficient longitudinal components to prevent longitudinal sliding. If in doubt, a balance calculation should meet the following condition: Fx ≤ μ * (m* g-Fz)+CS1 * f1 + CS2 * f2 + ... +CSn * fn

where m,g,f,n Fx Fz CS

are as explained is longitudinal force from load assumption (kN) is vertical force from load assumption (kN) is calculated strength of longitudinal securing devices (kN) CS = MSL / 1.5

Remark: Longitudinal components of transverse securing devices should not be assumed greater than 0.5·CS. A calculated example is shown in Appendix 1.

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.6/3

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Balance of forces – Alternative method

The balance of forces described in the previous paragraph will normally furnish a sufficiently accurate determination of the adequacy of the securing arrangement. However, this alternative method (introduced by IMO resolution MSC/Circ.1026) allows a more precise consideration of horizontal securing angles.

P

LE

Securing devices usually do not have a pure longitudinal or transverse direction in practice but have an angle β in the horizontal plane. This horizontal securing angle β is defined as the angle of deviation from the transverse direction. The angle β is to be scaled in the quadrantal mode (i.e. between 0º and 90º).

(Definition of the vertical and horizontal securing angles α and β)

M

A securing device with an angle β develops securing effects both in longitudinal and transverse direction, which can be expressed by multiplying the calculated strength CS with the appropriate values of fx or fy. The values of fx and fy can be obtained from following tables.

A

Table 7.1 for μ = 0.4 -20 0.80 0.79 0.75 0.68 0.58 0.47 0.33 0.18 0.03 -0.14

S

β for fy -30 0.67 0 0.65 10 0.61 20 0.55 30 0.46 40 0.36 50 0.23 60 70 0.10 80 -0.05 90 -0.20

-10 0.92 0.90 0.86 0.78 0.68 0.56 0.42 0.27 0.10 -0.07

0 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.77 0.64 0.50 0.34 0.17 0.00

10 1.05 1.04 0.99 0.92 0.82 0.70 0.56 0.41 0.24 0.07

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20 1.08 1.06 1.02 0.95 0.86 0.74 0.61 0.46 0.30 0.14

α 30 1.07 1.05 1.01 0.95 0.86 0.76 0.63 0.50 0.35 0.20

40 1.02 1.01 0.98 0.92 0.84 0.75 0.64 0.52 0.39 0.26

45 0.99 0.98 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.74 0.64 0.52 0.41 0.28

50 0.95 0.94 0.91 0.86 0.80 0.72 0.63 0.53 0.42 0.31

60 0.85 0.84 0.82 0.78 0.73 0.67 0.60 0.52 0.43 0.35

70 0.72 0.71 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.60 0.55 0.49 0.44 0.38

80 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.51 0.48 0.45 0.42 0.39

90 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40

β for fx 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0


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Table 7.2 for μ = 0.3 -30 0.72 0.70 0.66 0.60 0.51 0.41 0.28 0.15 0.00 -0.15

-20 0.84 0.82 0.78 0.71 0.62 0.50 0.37 0.22 0.06 -0.10

-10 0.93 0.92 0.87 0.80 0.70 0.58 0.44 0.28 0.12 -0.05

0 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.77 0.64 0.50 0.34 0.17 0.00

-10 0.95 0.94 0.89 0.82 0.72 0.60 0.46 0.30 0.14 -0.03

0 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.77 0.64 0.50 0.34 0.17 0.00

45 0.92 0.91 0.88 0.82 0.75 0.67 0.57 0.45 0.33 0.21

10 1.02 1.00 0.96 0.89 0.79 0.67 0.53 0.37 0.21 0.03

20 1.01 0.99 0.95 0.88 0.79 0.67 0.54 0.39 0.23 0.07

α 30 0.97 0.95 0.91 0.85 0.76 0.66 0.53 0.40 0.25 0.10

40 0.89 0.88 0.85 0.79 0.72 0.62 0.51 0.39 0.26 0.13

45 0.85 0.84 0.81 0.75 0.68 0.60 0.49 0.38 0.26 0.14

50 0.80 0.79 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.57 0.47 0.37 0.26 0.15

60 0.67 0.67 0.64 0.61 0.56 0.49 0.42 0.34 0.26 0.17

70 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.48 0.45 0.41 0.36 0.30 0.25 0.19

80 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.33 0.31 0.28 0.26 0.23 0.20

90 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20

β for fx 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

10 1.00 0.99 0.94 0.87 0.77 0.65 0.51 0.35 0.19 0.02

20 0.97 0.96 0.92 0.85 0.75 0.64 0.50 0.36 0.20 0.03

α 30 0.92 0.90 0.86 0.80 0.71 0.61 0.48 0.35 0.20 0.05

40 0.83 0.82 0.78 0.73 0.65 0.56 0.45 0.33 0.20 0.06

45 0.78 0.77 0.74 0.68 0.61 0.53 0.42 0.31 0.19 0.07

50 0.72 0.71 0.68 0.63 0.57 0.49 0.40 0.30 0.19 0.08

60 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.52 0.47 0.41 0.34 0.26 0.17 0.09

70 0.44 0.43 0.42 0.39 0.36 0.31 0.26 0.21 0.15 0.09

80 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.21 0.19 0.16 0.13 0.10

90 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10

β for fx 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

P

-20 0.87 0.86 0.81 0.75 0.65 0.54 0.40 0.25 0.09 -0.07

M

-30 0.77 0.75 0.71 0.65 0.56 0.46 0.33 0.20 0.05 -0.10

40 0.96 0.95 0.91 0.86 0.78 0.69 0.58 0.45 0.33 0.19

50 0.87 0.86 0.83 0.79 0.72 0.64 0.55 0.45 0.34 0.23

60 0.76 0.75 0.73 0.69 0.64 0.58 0.51 0.43 0.35 0.26

70 0.62 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.54 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.34 0.28

80 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.43 0.41 0.38 0.35 0.33 0.30

90 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30

β for fx 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

20 1.04 1.03 0.99 0.92 0.82 0.71 0.57 0.42 0.27 0.10

Table 7.3 for μ = 0.2 β for fy 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

α 30 1.02 1.00 0.96 0.90 0.81 0.71 0.58 0.45 0.30 0.15

10 1.04 1.02 0.98 0.90 0.81 0.69 0.54 0.39 0.22 0.05

LE

β for fy 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Table 7.4 for μ = 0.1 -30 0.82 0.80 0.76 0.70 0.61 0.51 0.38 0.25 0.10 -0.05

-20 0.91 0.89 0.85 0.78 0.69 0.57 0.44 0.29 0.13 -0.03

-10 0.97 0.95 0.91 0.84 0.74 0.62 0.48 0.32 0.15 -0.02

0 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.77 0.64 0.50 0.34 0.17 0.00

S

A

β for fy 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

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Table 7.5 for μ = 0.0 -20 0.94 0.93 0.88 0.81 0.72 0.60 0.47 0.32 0.16 0.00

-10 0.98 0.97 0.93 0.85 0.75 0.63 0.49 0.34 0.17 0.00

0 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.77 0.64 0.50 0.34 0.17 0.00

10 0.98 0.97 0.93 0.85 0.75 0.63 0.49 0.34 0.17 0.00

20 0.94 0.93 0.88 0.81 0.72 0.60 0.47 0.32 0.16 0.00

α 30 0.87 0.85 0.81 0.75 0.66 0.56 0.43 0.30 0.15 0.00

40 0.77 0.75 0.72 0.66 0.59 0.49 0.38 0.26 0.13 0.00

45 0.71 0.70 0.66 0.61 0.54 0.45 0.35 0.24 0.12 0.00

50 0.64 0.63 0.60 0.56 0.49 0.41 0.32 0.22 0.11 0.00

60 0.50 0.49 0.47 0.43 0.38 0.32 0.25 0.17 0.09 0.00

70 0.34 0.34 0.32 0.30 0.26 0.22 0.17 0.12 0.06 0.00

80 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.09 0.06 0.03 0.00

90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

β for fx 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

LE

β for fy -30 0.87 0 10 0.85 0.81 20 30 0.75 40 0.66 50 0.56 0.43 60 70 0.30 80 0.15 90 0.00

Remark: fx = cosα · sinβ + μ · sinα fy = cosα · cosβ + μ · sinα

P

These tables consist of five sets of figures, one each for the friction coefficients μ = 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1 and 0. Each set of figures is obtained by using the vertical angle α and horizontal angle β. The value of fx is obtained when entering the table with β from the right while fy is obtained when entering with β from the left, using the nearest tabular value for α and β. Interpolation is not required but may be used.

The balance calculations are made in accordance with the following formulae: : Fy ≤ μ·m·g + fy1·CS1 + ... + fyn·CSn : Fx ≤ μ(m·g - Fz) + fx1·CS1 + ... + fxn·CSn, : Fy·a ≤ b·m·g + 0.9(CS1·c1+ CS2·c2 +...+ CSn·cn)

M

Transverse sliding Longitudinal sliding Transverse tipping Caution:

A

Securing devices, which have a vertical angle α of less than 45° in combination with horizontal angle β greater than 45°, should not be used in the balance of transverse tipping in the above formula.

S

All symbols used in these formulae have the same meaning as defined in previous paragraph (balance of forces and moments) except fy and fx, obtained from above five (5) tables, and CS is as follows: CS =

MSL 1.35

A calculated example is shown in Appendix 1.

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APPENDIX 1 Calculated Example 1:

(refer to paragraph .6/2, Balance of forces and moments) A cargo unit of 62 t mass is stowed on timber (μ=0.3) on the Deck at 0.7L of a vessel with L=120m, B=20m, V=15kn and GM=1.4m. Dimensions of the cargo unit are 6 x 4 x 4 m. Securing Material: Wire Rope

Side STBD PORT PORT

n 4 2 2

CS 60kN 60kN 60kN

a 40° 40° 10°

P

Securing arrangement:

LE

Shackles, Turnbuckles, deck rings

Breaking Strength = 125 kN MSL = 100 kN Breaking Strength = 180 kN MSL = 90 kN

M

External forces: Fx = 2.9 x 0.89 x 62 + 16 + 8 = 184 kN, Fy = 6.3 x 0.89 x 62 + 24 + 12 = 384 kN, Fz = 6.2 x 0.89 x 62 = 342kN.

A

Balance of forces (STBD arrangement): 384 < 0.3 x 62 x 9.81 + 4 x 60 x 0.96 384 < 412 this is OK!

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Balance of forces (PORT arrangement): 384 < 0.3 x 62 x 9.81 +2 x 60 x 0.96 + 2 x 60 x 1.04 384 < 422 this is OK! Balance of moments: 384 x 1.8 < 2 x 62 x 9.81 691 < 1216 no tipping, even without lashings!

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f 0.96 0.96 1.04

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Calculated Example 2:

(refer to paragraph .6/3, Balance of forces – alternative method)

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A cargo unit of 68 t mass is stowed on timber (μ=0.3) in the Tweendeck at 0.7L of a vessel with L=160m, B=24m, V=18kn and GM=1.5m. Dimensions of the cargo unit are height=2.4m and width=1.8m. The external forces are Fx=112 kN, Fy=312 kN, Fz=346 kN. The top view shows the overall securing arrangement with eight lashings.

M

Calculation of balance of forces: No.

MSL (kN)

CS (kN)

α

β

fy

CS*fy

Fx

CS*fx

1

108

80

40o stbd

30o fwd

0.86

68.8 stbd

0.58

46.4 fwd

o

0.83

55.6 stbd

0.45

30.2 aft

2

90

67

o

50 stbd o

20 aft o

90

67

50 stbd

20 fwd

0.83

55.6 stbd

0.45

30.2 fwd

4

108

80

40o stbd

40o aft

0.78

62.4 stbd

0.69

55.2 aft

A

3 5 6

90 90

S

7

108

8

108

80

67 67

80

o

o

30 aft

0.86

68.8 port

0.58

46.4 aft

o

o

40 port

20 port o

20 port o

40 port

30 aft

0.92

61.6 port

0.57

38.2 aft

o

1.03

69.0 port

0.27

18.1 fwd

o

0.86

68.8 port

0.58

46.4 fwd

10 fwd 30 fwd

Transverse balance of forces (STBD arrangement) Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4: 312 < 0.3 · 68 · 9.81 + 68.8 + 55.6 + 55.6 + 62.4 312 < 443 this is OK! Transverse balance of forces (PORT arrangement) Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 8: 312 < 0.3 · 68 · 9.81 + 68.8 + 61.6 + 69.0 + 68.8 312 < 468 this is OK! Longitudinal balance of forces (FWD arrangement) Nos, 1, 3, 7, 8: 112 < 0.3 (68 · 9,81 – 346) + ) + 46.4 + 30.2 + 18. 1 + 46.4 112 < 237 this is OK!

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Longitude balance of forces (AFT arrangement) Nos. 2, 4, 5, 6: 112 < 0.3 (68 · 9.81 – 346) + 30.2+ 55.2+ 46.4+ 38.2 112 < 266 this is OK!

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Transverse Tipping Unless specific information is provided, the vertical center of gravity of the cargo unit can be assumed to be at one half the height and the transverse center of gravity at one half the width. Also, if the lashing is connected as shown in the sketch, instead of measuring c, the length of the lever from the tipping axis to the lashing CS, it is conservative to assume that it is equal to the width of the cargo unit.

Fy ≤ b·m·g + 0.9·(CS1·c1 + CS2·c2+CS3·c3+CS4·c4)

S

1.8/2 x 68 x 9.81 + 0.9 x 1.8 x (80 + 67 + 67 + 80) 374 < 600 + 476 374 < 1076 this is OK!

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APPENDIX 2 Explanations and interpretation of “Methods to assess the efficiency of securing arrangements for non-standardized cargo”:

The exclusion of very heavy units as carried under the provisions of chapter 1.8 of the Code from the scope of application of the methods should be understood to accommodate the possibility of adapting the stowage and securing of such units to specifically determined weather conditions and sea conditions during transport. The exclusion should not be understood as being a restriction of the methods to units up to a certain mass or dimension.

2.

The acceleration figures given in table 2, in combination with the correction factors, represent peak values on a 25-day voyage. This does not imply that peak values in x, y and z directions occur simultaneously with the same probability. It can be generally assumed that peak values in the transverse direction will appear in combination with less than 60% of the peak values in longitudinal and vertical directions.

LE

1.

Peak values in longitudinal and vertical directions may be associated more closely because they have the common source of pitching and heaving.

P

The advanced calculation method uses the "worst case approach". That is expressed clearly by the transverse acceleration figures, which increase to forward and aft in the ship and thereby show the influence of transverse components of simultaneous vertical accelerations. Consequently there is no need to consider vertical accelerations separately in the balances of transverse forces and moments. These simultaneously acting vertical accelerations create an apparent increase of weight of the unit and thus increase the effect of the friction in the balance of forces and the moment of stableness in the balance of moments. For this reason there is no reduction of the force m.g normal to the deck due to the presence of an angle of heel.

M

3.

A

The situation is different for the longitudinal sliding balance. The worst case would be a peak value of the longitudinal force Fx accompanied by an extreme reduction of weight through the vertical force Fz.

The friction coefficients shown in the methods are somewhat reduced against appropriate figures in other publications. The reason for this should be seen in various influences which may appear in practical shipping, as: moisture, grease, oil, dust and other residues, vibration of the ship.

S

4.

There are certain stowage materials available which are said to increase friction considerably. Extended experience with these materials may bring additional coefficients into practical use.

5.

The principal way of calculating forces within the securing elements of a complex securing arrangement should necessarily include the consideration of: -

load-elongation behaviour (elasticity),

-

geometrical arrangement (angles, length),

-

pre-tension of each individual securing element.

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This approach would require a large volume of information and a complex, iterative calculation. The results would still be doubtful due to uncertain parameters. Therefore the simplified approach was chosen with the assumption that the elements take an even load of CS (calculated strength) which is reduced against the MSL (maximum securing load) by the safety factor 1.5. When employing the advanced calculation method, the way of collecting data should be followed as shown in the calculated example. It is acceptable to estimate securing angles, to take average angles for a set of lashings and similarly to arrive at reasonable figures of the levers a, b and c for the balance of moments.

7.

It should be borne in mind that meeting or missing the balance calculation just by a tiny change of one or the other parameters indicates to be near the goal anyway. There is no clear-cut borderline between safety and non-safety. If in doubt, the arrangement should be improved.

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6.

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BLANK FORMS

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Ship-specific Calculated Example 1

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Securing arrangement nj

MSL

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f

c

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Breaking strength (kN)

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Type designation

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Ship-specific Calculated Example 2

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Acceleration data table

MSL (kN)

CS(kN)

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No.

Securing arrangement

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Securing material Breaking strength (kN)

MSL (kN)

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Type designation

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4.3.

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APPLICATION OF PORTABLE SECURING DEVICES ON VARIOUS CARGO UNITS, VEHICLES AND STOWAGE BLOCKS

4.3.1. Considerations for the layout of securing arrangements and the application of securing devices When deciding on the layout of securing arrangements and the application of securing devices to a non-standardized cargo unit the Master should bear in mind the following factors: Duration of the voyage

Geographical area of the voyage

LE

A long voyage bears a greater risk to encounter adverse weather and sea conditions than a short voyage. Short term weather forecasts are more reliable than long term predictions.

P

Certain geographical areas are known for a higher probability of adverse weather and rough sea conditions. Appropriate information should be sought from ocean handbooks or other sources. Particular care should be taken in that securing arrangements need to be upgraded if air temperatures of less than -10oC are to be expected during the voyage due to the risk of brittle fracture. Sea condition which may be expected

M

All available information from weather forecasts and statistical data are to be evaluated before sailing. Dimensions, design and characteristics of the ship

A

Dimension, design and characteristics of the ships are to a great extent reflected in the method of estimating accelerations in Annex 13 of the CSS-Code. It should be born in mind that high speed and a high value of GM will lead to increased accelerations. Expected static and dynamic forces during the voyage

S

Expected static and dynamic forces may be estimated as shown in Section 4. The cautions with regard to roll resonance, slamming in head seas or running before large stern or quartering seas as outlined in Annex 13 to the CSS-Code should be observed. Type, packaging, mass and dimensions of cargo units Type, packaging, mass and dimension of cargo units and the intended stowage pattern should be taken into account in deciding on proper stowage and securing of nonstandardized cargo units. If the packaging of a heavy unit is of a weak nature, e.g. heavy machinery on skids in a wooden casing, either block stowage with similar units should be effected or the packaging has to be reinforced or supported by suitable timberwork in order to withstand the securing forces.

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4.3.2. The principles for an appropriate stowage and securing arrangement When deciding on an appropriate stowage and securing arrangement in the context of this Section the following principles should be considered: Bedding and distribution of weight

Securing against transverse sliding

LE

The bedding of the unit should provide a fairly even distribution of weight of the unit over the full length and width of the supporting surface if applicable. This can be achieved by means of a floor of timber squares or double T-profile steel girders (Fig. 4.3.2.1). If steel girders are used for weight distribution intermediate layers of dunnage planks or other suitable material should be used to increase friction. If the bottom of the unit is not flat but somehow shaped the bedding should be prepared and stacked up in a way to support the unit to the greatest reasonable extent.

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P

The provision of good friction between the unit the stowage surface is of utmost importance to avoid sliding, either transverse or longitudinal. The use of timber, special rubber mats or other suitable material has therefore highest priority. It is also important to avoid any mess up with oil, grease or dirt in the stowage area. Lashings used against transverse sliding should preferably point to the transverse direction with a deviation to the fore or aft direction of more than 30o. The vertical lashing angle should preferably be around 20o but not more than 60o (Fig. 4.3.2.1). An effective method to secure heavy units against transverse sliding is the stowage on steel girders with welded-on stoppers. Stoppers must sit on top of the girders to be wedged against the unit and on the bottom of the girders to lock against the platform or flat rack (Fig.4.3.2.2). The appropriate girders must be prepared ashore and any welding onboard in the vicinity of other cargo must be avoided.

A

Securing against transverse tipping

S

Securing against transverse by means of pre-tensioned vertical or near vertical lashings only is not a save method for the transport of heavy units. The provision of a sufficient width of the effective bottom area of the unit is of great importance to avoid tipping of a unit. This can be achieved by a suitable bedding construction. Lashing used against transverse tipping should preferably point to the transverse direction with a deviation to the force or aft direction of not more than 30o. The vertical lashing angle should preferably be around 60o, but also vertical lashings are acceptable (Fig. 4.3.2.3). Securing against longitudinal sliding As extreme longitudinal accelerations will be concurrent with extreme upward vertical accelerations under certain sea conditions the friction may be temporarily reduced. For this reason longitudinal sliding may occur. Normally transverse lashings provide sufficient longitudinal components to withstand longitudinal forces. If in doubt, additional longitudinal lashings should be applied to the forward and aft directions. The vertical lashing angle of such, lashings should follow the same principle as with lashings against transverse sliding.

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Suitable timber shores directed against the lower edges of the corner posts of flat racks may be used to secure against longitudinal sliding. Number of lashings

LE

The required number of lashings depends on various parameters and should be estimated in the first place by using the Rule of Thumb Method as given in paragraph .2.2.4 in this Section. Normally the required number will be less than given by that rule because of more favourable conditions than underlayed in the Rule of Thumb. In any case the decided number of lashings must be checked using the Advanced Calculation Method as given in paragraph .2.2.6 in this Section, unless there is reference to similar shipments available. It should be noted that these balance calculations have to be done using the calculated strength (CS) which is reduced against the MSL by a factor of 1.5 for safety reasons. CS = MSL / 1.5 Pretension in lashings

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Pretension of wire or chain lashings by man power will generally be not more 20 kN. This pretension drops after some hours to 10 kN or less depending on ship’s movements. Re-tensioning of lashings should be carried out regularly but moderately.

Fig. 4.3.2.1 Timber beddings on platform and lashing angles to prevent transverse sliding

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Fig. 4.3.2.2 Stoppers on steel girders to prevent transverse sliding

Fig. 4.3.2.3 Lashings angles to prevent tipping

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5. SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF VESSELS

Ro-Ro VESSELS

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5.1

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BULK CARRIERS

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5.2.2 SECURING

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5.2.3 ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN DURING VOYAGE

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5.2.4 ADVICE ON STOWAGE PRACTICES

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CONTAINER CARRIERS

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5.3

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EXAMPLE:

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6. GUIDANCE FOR SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF NONSTANDARDIZED CARGO

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ANNEX 1 -

SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CONTAINERS ON DECK OF SHIPS WHICH ARE NOT SPECIALLY DESIGNED AND FITTED FOR THE PURPOSE OF CARRYING CONTAINERS

Stowage

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Securing

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ANNEX 2 -

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SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF PORTABLE TANKS

Introduction

2.

General Provisions for Portable Tanks

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3.

Portable Tank Arrangements

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Cargo Information

5.

Stowage

6.

Securing against Sliding and Tipping

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4.

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Maintenance of securing arrangements

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SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF PORTABLE RECEPTACLES

Introduction

2.

Portable receptacles can be divided into:

3.

Cargo Information

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Stowage

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Securing Against Sliding and Shifting

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SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF WHEEL-BASED (ROLLING) CARGOES

Introduction

2.

General Recommendations

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SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF HEAVY CARGO ITEMS SUCH AS LOCOMOTIVES, TRANSFORMERS, ETC.

Cargo Information

2.

Location of Stowage

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3.

Distribution of Weight

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Cargo Stowed In Open Containers, On Platforms or Platform - Based Containers

5.

Securing Against Sliding and Tipping

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Securing Against Heavy Seas on Deck

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7.

Heavy Cargo Items Projecting over the Ship’s Side

8.

Attachment of Lashings to Heavy Cargo Items

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Compositions and Application of Securing Devices

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Maintenance of Securing Arrangements

11.

Securing Calculation

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10.

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SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF COILED SHEET STEEL

General

2.

Coils

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Lashings

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SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF HEAVY METAL PRODUCTS

General

2.

Recommendations

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Wire Coils

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SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF ANCHOR CHAINS

General

2.

Recommendations

3.

Stowage And Securing Of Chains In Bundles

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4.

Stowage and Securing of Chains which are Stowed Longitudinally

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SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF METAL SCRAP IN BULK

Introduction

2.

Recommendations

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ANNEX 9 -

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Introduction

2.

Cargo Information

3.

Recommendations

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ANNEX 10 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF FLEXIBLE INTERMEDIATE BULK CONTAINERS

4.

Stowage

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5.

Securing

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ANNEX 11 - GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE UNDER- DECK STOWAGE OF LOGS Introduction

2.

Prior to loading:

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During loading operations:

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During the voyage:

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Introduction

2.

Cargo Information

3.

Recommendations

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ANNEX 12 - SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF UNIT LOADS

4.

Stowage

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Securing

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Securing when stowed Athwart ships

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Stowage in a Wing of a Cargo Space and Free at Two Sides

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Stowage Free at Three Sides

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General

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APPENDIX A – TABLES OF CALCULATED ACCELERATIONS

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kn. 10.25

kn

0.9 L 7.90 7.15 6.62 6.30

1.0 L 8.22 7.36 6.94 6.72

9.82

11.53

GM = 0.95 m & Speed = Transverse acceleration Ay 0.3 L 0.4 L 0.5 L 0.6 L 0.7 L 0.8 L 7.31 7.21 7.21 7.31 7.42 7.64 6.55 6.55 6.55 6.55 6.77 6.98 5.90 5.79 5.79 5.90 6.00 6.33 5.46 5.35 5.35 5.46 5.67 5.89 Vertical acceleration Az 5.34 4.59 4.59 5.34 6.62 8.11

10.25

GM = 1.00 m & Speed = Transverse acceleration Ay 0.3 L 0.4 L 0.5 L 0.6 L 0.7 L 0.8 L 7.55 7.44 7.44 7.55 7.66 7.88 6.72 6.72 6.72 6.72 6.94 7.16 6.01 5.90 5.90 6.01 6.12 6.45 5.53 5.42 5.42 5.53 5.75 5.96 Vertical acceleration Az 5.34 4.59 4.59 5.34 6.62 8.11

10.25

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0.9 L 8.21 7.38 6.78 6.40

1.0 L 8.55 7.60 7.10 6.83

9.82

11.53

10.25

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0.2 L 7.90 7.12 6.22 5.81

GM = 1.05 m & Speed = Transverse acceleration Ay 0.3 L 0.4 L 0.5 L 0.6 L 0.7 L 0.8 L 7.79 7.67 7.67 7.79 7.90 8.13 6.89 6.89 6.89 6.89 7.12 7.35 6.11 6.00 6.00 6.11 6.22 6.56 5.59 5.48 5.48 5.59 5.81 6.03 Vertical acceleration Az 5.34 4.59 4.59 5.34 6.62 8.11

0.9 L 8.47 7.57 6.89 6.47

1.0 L 8.82 7.80 7.22 6.91

9.82

11.53

GM = 1.10 m & Speed = Transverse acceleration Ay 0.3 L 0.4 L 0.5 L 0.6 L 0.7 L 0.8 L 8.02 7.90 7.90 8.02 8.13 8.37 7.07 7.07 7.07 7.07 7.30 7.53 6.21 6.09 6.09 6.21 6.32 6.66 5.65 5.54 5.54 5.65 5.87 6.09 Vertical acceleration Az 5.34 4.59 4.59 5.34 6.62 8.11

10.25

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0.9 L 8.72 7.76 7.00 6.54

1.0 L 9.08 7.99 7.33 6.98

9.82

11.53

8.11

Accelerations in m/s2 for Longitudinal position 0.0 L 0.1 L On deck,high 7.85 7.64 On deck, low 7.20 6.98 Tweendeck 6.65 6.33 Lower hold 6.10 5.89 9.60

8.11

Accelerations in m/s2 for Longitudinal position 0.0 L 0.1 L On deck,high 8.10 7.88 On deck, low 7.38 7.16 Tweendeck 6.78 6.45 Lower hold 6.18 5.96 9.60

8.11

0.2 L 7.42 6.77 6.00 5.67 6.62

0.2 L 7.66 6.94 6.12 5.75

6.62

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Accelerations in m/s2 for Longitudinal position 0.0 L 0.1 L On deck,high 8.36 8.13 On deck, low 7.57 7.35 Tweendeck 6.89 6.56 Lower hold 6.25 6.03

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0.2 L 7.36 6.72 5.98 5.66

9.60

8.11

Accelerations in m/s2 for Longitudinal position 0.0 L 0.1 L On deck,high 8.60 8.37 On deck, low 7.76 7.53 Tweendeck 7.00 6.66 Lower hold 6.32 6.09 9.60

8.11

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GM = 0.94 m & Speed = Transverse acceleration Ay 0.3 L 0.4 L 0.5 L 0.6 L 0.7 L 0.8 L 7.26 7.15 7.15 7.26 7.36 7.58 6.51 6.51 6.51 6.51 6.72 6.94 5.87 5.76 5.76 5.87 5.98 6.30 5.44 5.34 5.34 5.44 5.66 5.87 Vertical acceleration Az 5.34 4.59 4.59 5.34 6.62 8.11

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Accelerations for ship’s speed = Accelerations in m/s2 for Longitudinal position 0.0 L 0.1 L On deck,high 7.79 7.58 On deck, low 7.15 6.94 Tweendeck 6.62 6.30 Lower hold 6.08 5.87

6.62

0.2 L 8.13 7.30 6.32 5.87 6.62

ALPHA MARINE CONSULTING LTD.

Long. acc. Ax 4.06 3.09 2.13 1.60

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0.9 L 7.96 7.20 6.65 6.32

1.0 L 8.28 7.41 6.97 6.74

9.82

11.53

Long. acc. Ax 4.06 3.09 2.13 1.60

Long. acc. Ax 4.06 3.09 2.13 1.60

Long. acc. Ax 4.06 3.09 2.13 1.60

Long. acc. Ax 4.06 3.09 2.13 1.60


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Accelerations for ship’s speed =.

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Accelerations for ship’s speed =

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Accelerations for ship’s speed =

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Accelerations for ship’s speed =

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Accelerations for ship’s speed =

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Accelerations for ship’s speed =

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Accelerations for ship’s speed =

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Accelerations for ship’s speed =

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Accelerations for ship’s speed =

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APPENDIX B – ENTRY INTO ENCLOSED SPACES SAFETY CHECK LIST

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Section 3

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APPENDIX C – RECORD BOOK OF INSPECTIONS AND MAINTENANCE

Date

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Actions of inspection & maintenance

Signature

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No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

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No. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.

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APPENDIX D – LIST OF PORTABLE AND FIXED CARGO SECURING DEVICES

LIST OF PORTABLE CARGO SECURING DEVICES – UPDATE ITEM

IDENTIF. MARK

NAME OF MANUF.

MATERIAL

ULTIM. TENSILE STR. kN

MSL PCS. kN

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LIST OF FIXED CARGO SECURING DEVICES – UPDATE ITEM

IDENTIF. MARK

NAME OF MANUF.

MATERIAL

ULTIM. TENSILE STR. kN

MSL PCS. kN

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APPENDIX E – RELEVANT DRAWINGS

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Cargo Securing Manuals (CSM)