The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook South Africa Vol.8

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The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

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South Africa Volume 8 The essential guide to resource efficiency in South Africa

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2015 Long-Term WC/WDM Strategy Aim: To outline measurable objectives and action programs to ensure: • Achievement of economic efficiency objectives, • reduction of non-revenue water and • deferment of the need for new water resources development Implementation objectives sub-divided into: • Institutional Arrangements, • Alternative Water Resource Development, • Water Resource Conservation Measures; and • Water Demand Reduction Measures. Implementation: Alternative Water Resources Options Aim is to have an 80:20 resource mix (80% Rand Water: 20% Alternative Supply) • Rainwater and stormwater harvesting • Pilot sites in 3 depots • Rainwater harvesting included in revised by-law (currently with Legal for comments) • Treated Effluent Reuse • Pre-feasibility study has been concluded – final report by end November 2017 • Reuse of additional +/-100Ml/d of treated effluent feasible (10% of current water demand) • Treated effluent reuse included in revised by-law (currently with Legal for comments)


WATER AND SANITATION DEPARTMENT • Ground Water use • 53 boreholes have been drilled to determine yield and quality of underground in Ekurhuleni • Acid Mine Drainage • Early stage talks are ongoing with DWS and TCTA to secure water from Central (Germiston) and Eastern (Springs) AMD treatment plants. Progress since June 2013: • 2.4% reduction in water demand. • 5.6% reduction in non-revenue water. • EMM has met the Vaal Reconciliation Strategy Tar gets but the current momentum and traction has to be maintained. Way Forward: • Low hanging fruits have been reaped with limited funding. • The programme should be adequately funded to continue reducing NRW to meet the target of 20% NRW by 2023. • Collaboration with DBSA/JICA on a bankable feasi bility study that should enable improved planning, project prioritisation, program management and means of accessing alternative funding sources. Tel: +27 (0)11 999 0111 Web: www.ekurhuleni.gov.za Postal: Private Bag X1060, Germiston 1400 Physical: Office 814, SAAME Building, Cnr Queen & Spilsbury Streets




What the Inkomati-Usuthu Catchment Management Agency is all about Water Resource Management is all about balance, sharing and fairness South African law says that water needs to be shared fairly among everyone who needs it and that it should be protected for our children and their children and so on. To do this, everyone must work together to manage water resources in a Sustainable, Equitable, and Efficient way.

1. WHO ARE WE? The Inkomati-Usuthu Catchment Management Agency (IUCMA) is the water resource management agency in the Inkomati-Usuthu Water Management Area (WMA). It is established in terms of Section 78 of the National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998) to perform water resource management at local level. The management of the resources entails protection, use, development, conservation, management, and control of water resources within the WMA as contemplated in the National Water Act (NWA). It is also listed as a national public entity in Schedule 3A of the Public Finance Management Act (Act 1 of 1999). The National Water Act has 3 pillars i.e. Equity, Sustainability, and Efficiency. 2. HOW DO WE DO IT? A) INVOLVING THE COMMUNITY Everyone must take part in planning and making decisions about water resource issues that affect their lives. The IUCMA must create groups and processes to manage different factors affecting the catchment. Such a group or process must include everyone who may be affected, must be open and honest about its intentions and must be democratic, whereby everyone’s voice counts. To ensure fairness, historically disadvantaged individuals must be trained and empowered to make informed decisions about water issues. The diversity of people and cultures in the Inkomati-Usuthu catchment must be embraced so that a shared understanding of water resources can be built.


B) MAKING SURE THAT THE WATER STAYS HEALTHY Checking that all the plants and animals usually found around a river are still there is a good way to make sure the water is still safe and plentiful. If the natural life seems normal, the river is said to be “healthy” and it must be sustained this way for future generations. This is done through a dedicated unit “River health” equipped with a team of suitably qualified individuals under the directorate of Water Utilisation. C) REGULATING WATER To make sure that there is enough healthy water for everyone who needs it, the IUCMA has to make sure that everyone follows the rules about water use. Stakeholder empowerment workshops are held to make sure that all concerned individuals are equipped with knowledge needed for taking part in water resources management regardless of their historical or educational background. Systems have been put in place to make sure that all data collected is analysed and made available to water users in a user- friendly manner. To make sure that all water users adhere to the NWA, they need be in possession of a valid water use licence to be able to abstract water from the resource. D) MONITORING AND INFORMATION The IUCMA needs as much information as possible to ensure that the catchment is managed properly in support of sustainable economic and social development. It monitors social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) factors related to water resource management in the catchment. E) CO-OPERATIVE GOVERNANCE All sectors, organisations and individuals must work together towards the same goal of making sure that the catchment is used Sustainably, Equitably, and Efficiently. A dedicated unit of Institutions & Participation exists to make sure all stakeholders are mobilised to take part in decision making relating to water management in the water management area. For more information visit www.iucma.co.za


0027 087 701 1885 www.contiplus.co.za

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Sustainable

Water Resource Handbook

South Africa Volume 8

The Essential Guide

EDITOR Garth Barnes

SALES DIRECTOR David Itzkin

ASSISTANT EDITOR Shannon Manuel

PROJECT MANAGER Annie Pieters

CONTRIBUTORS Rivash Panday, Martin Ginster, Richard Meissner, Chule Qalase, Inga Jacobs-Mata, Benita de Wet, Ismail Banoo, Richard Meissner, Willem de Lange and Wilma Strydom, Samanta Stelli

ADVERTISING EXECUTIVES Glenda Kulp, Zaida Yon, Tanya Duthie, Louna Rae, Munyaradzi Jani

PEER REVIEWERS Bonani Madikizela, Matome Mahasha, Mark Dent, Nora Hanke, Garth Barnes, Martin Ginster LAYOUT & DESIGN Shanice Daniels DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Edward Macdonald

MANAGING DIRECTOR Robert Arendse FINANCIAL DIRECTOR Andrew Brading EDITORIAL ENQUIRIES garth_barnes@hotmail.com PUBLISHER

CLIENT LIASION OFFICER Natasha Keyster www.alive2green.com

The

The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Alive2green Cape Media House 28 Main Road Rondebosch Cape Town South Africa 7700 TEL: 021 447 4733 SALES: 021 987 7616/3722 FAX: 086 6947443 Company Registration Number: 2006/206388/23 Vat Number: 4130252432

Sustainability and Integrated REPORTING HANDBOOK South Africa 2014

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Mintek develops smart nanotechnology-based Poor access to clean freshwater and sanitation remain among the biggest problems faced by mankind throughout the world. The problem is further compounded by worldwide industrialisation and population growth. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), about 1.2 billion people have limited or no access to safe drinking water and every year millions of people die from diseases relating to contaminated water and poor sanitation. As part of the worldwide attempt to alleviate these challenges, the Water Nanotechnology Unit (WNU) of the DST/Mintek Nanotechnology Innovation Centre at Mintek developed several nano-based technologies and chemical approaches to the treatment of surface, groundwater and wastewater to alleviate water pollution challenges. The

WNU develops smart membranes for ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, which are produced in-house using a custommade Capillary Ultrafiltration (CUF) spinning machine. The membranes are low-fouling, have high surface porosity and have narrow pore size distribution, necessary for energy efficiency and high productivity without compromising selectivity. Demonstration of the membranes on wastewaters (e.g. carwash wastewater and acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent) has proven their efficiency for potential reuse of the water. Secondly, electrospun nanofibres are being fabricated for potential applications as water filters for the removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds, viruses and bacteria from drinking water. The materials are being adopted on the basis of their higher porosities and interconnected


solutions for treatment of wastewaters pore structures, hence, they offer improved permeability to water filtration compared to conventional materials currently in use. Lastly, mine-impacted water contains high concentrations of heavy metals that could endanger the environment and public health if discharged without proper treatment. The WNU develops adsorbent resins for the removal of such metals from the water. Pilot tests have shown that the resins show good promise for the development of a low cost, selective and reusable adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals in industrial effluent and mine impacted water. The team at Mintek is working on integrating these technologies in order to develop an optimised, easy-to-use modular water treatment system that can be customised to remove water contamination from many sources and

will work right out of the box. The anticipated all-in-one water treatment system (both household and industrial scale) will realise major economic and environmental benefits for South Africa.

About NPEP The Nanotechnology Public Engagement Programme is an initiative funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and is implemented by the South African Agency for Science and Technology Advancement, a business unit of the National Research Foundation. Launched in early 2008, the NPEP aims to promote credible, fact-based understanding of nanotechnology through awareness, dialogue and education to enable informed decision making on nanotechnology innovations to improve the quality of life.

For more information, please visit: www.npep.co.za • www.saasta.ac.za @npeptweet • Facebook account: @nanotechn



EDITOR’S NOTE

Integrated Resource Management (IWRM) consists of both supply side and demand side management regimes. However, it is generally the supply side of IWRM that is vaunted as a panacea by water resource management practitioners. Supply side management is becoming more expensive and new options more difficult to discover. And so as a result of these growing pressures on supply management and increased water scarcity in many areas, it may well be an opportune time to discover the necessity of practising water conservation and demand side management interventions that will go a long way in addressing local and national water challenges. I wish to extend an apology to Sustainable Water Handbook 7 contributor Nomvula Mofokeng who was incorrectly named Nomvuyo in the previous publication.

Regards Garth Barnes Editor

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H5000 Hybrid Woltmann Water Meter

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The first choice for municipalities For more information, please visit Elster Kent Metering (Pty) Ltd www.elstermetering.com or call +27 (0)11 470-4900 © 2016 Honeywell International. All rights reserved.


CONTENTS 1

Sasol partnerships deliver on water loss reduction in municipalities Rivash Panday and Martin Ginster

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2

Integrated water resource management with a focus on water demand Richard Meissner

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3

Does South Africa need a new Hydraulic Mission? Balancing demand and supply in a water contrained economy Anthony Turton

4 5 6 7

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Promotion of industrial water reuse and recycle Chule Qalase

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Understanding residential water-use behaviour in urban South Africa Inga Jacobs-Mata, Benita de Wet, Ismail Banoo, Richard Meissner, Willem de Lange and Wilma Strydom

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Manage water demand and consumption by implementing simple, efficient water wise principles Samanta Stelli Demand side management incentives for efficient residential water use towards water security

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102 126

TECHNOLOGY REVIEWS AND CASE STUDIES SECTION

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Understanding the impact of distribution systems on microbial water quality Access to clean, disease-free drinking water is a fundamental human right. While regular testing for harmful biological and chemical substances should be carried out by all water utilities in South Africa, this information may not be enough to safeguard the supply of safe drinking water. A need exists to better understand the bacterial ecosystem within the water distribution network. With the support of Rand Water and the Water Research Commission, a group of postgraduate students at the University of Pretoria have implemented a novel genomics approach to study the microbial ecology of water distribution and reticulation networks. This approach provides information on the diversity and function of all bacterial and fungal species present in these systems and how the microbial community changes in response to water treatment and disinfection, distribution and season. This work will assist the development of better management and control strategies to ensure that safe drinking water is delivered to the consumer. Contact information: Prof Fanus Venter Rand Water Chair in Water Microbiology Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology University of Pretoria fanus.venter@up.ac.za


CONTRIBUTORS

NICK TANDI

Nick Tandi heads the Secretariat of the Strategic Water Partners Network (SWPN), a public-private -civil society partnership, established to develop and scale innovations to improve water security in South Africa. The partnership is chaired by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), and currently co-chaired by South African Breweries (SAB) on behalf of business. Before joining the SWPN, Nick was Program Manager at the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) where he co-led its work on mobilizing finance for water infrastructure in Africa. At the United Nations Development Programme and a SADC program called WaterNet, he managed water management partnerships and their associated projects in various parts of the developing world. He has a multidisciplinary education in natural and social sciences and more recently in development finance.

RICHARD MEISSNER

Dr Richard Meissner is a Senior Researcher in the Natural Resources and Environment Unit at the CSIR. He holds a Doctoral Degree in International Politics from the University of Pretoria. Richard specialises in the analysis of transboundary river basins focusing on the complexities and interactions between and among non-state actors, international organisations, and state/government organs. Richard is currently the project manager of the CSIR’s water security project. For this project, the research team is investigating stakeholders’ understanding of the meaning of water security in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality and the Greater Sekhukhune District Municipality.

RIVASH PANDAY

Rivash Panday is a Sustainable Water specialist at Sasol Group Risk and SHE Function. Rivash has a Masters in Chemistry and Business Leadership. He has over 14 years’ experience in the Environmental Sector within Sasol and is currently driving Sasol’s Water Stewardship programme. His core responsibilities are interfacing between the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) and Sasol’s direct operations on issues relating to water supply. He is involved in fostering collective action on water conservation programmes to benefit the Vaal catchment. He is currently supporting Municipalities linked to Sasol’s operations implement water conservation/water demand management projects as part of Sasol’s Corporate Social Investments.

RON

Ron is a sustainability professional and senior manager in the public sector in provincial government. He has deep subject matter expertise in sustainable development, sustainability, green economy and resource efficiency. He has over a decade and half work experince in sustainability. He champions and mainstreams sustainability in provincial government’s work. Prior to joining the public sector, Ron managed sustainability, green economy and resource efficiency program design, strategic portfolio planning and implementation services in the private and not for profit sector. He has extensive experience consulting for business, government and international organisations, which has included multiple projects and consultancies prior to him joining the public sector.

SAMANTA STELLI

Samanta is a registered environmental scientist with an MSc in Environment, Ecology and Conservation from the University of the Witwatersrand. She is also completing her MSc in Aquatic Health. She currently holds an environmental research position within the Environmental Management Services department at Rand Water. Samanta’s role involves researching and developing new strategies for water and environmental conservation and includes managing and conducting both in-house and out-sourced and collaborative research.

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ANTON EARLE

A geographer with an academic background in environmental management, Anton Earle specialises in transboundary water management, facilitating the interaction between governments, basin organisations and other stakeholders in international river and lake basins. He is experienced in institutional capacity development and policy-formation for water resource management and water infrastructure finance and development at the inter-state level in the Southern and East African regions, the Middle-East and internationally. In 2010 he was the lead editor of the Earthscan book “Transboundary Water Management: Principles and Practise” – aimed at practitioners and advanced students in that field. Currently he is leading the implementation of the Africa-EU Water Partnership project.

CHULE QALASE

Chule Qalase is a resource efficiency and cleaner production project manager for the Council Scientific and Industrial Research (the CSIR)’s Implementation Unit which hosts the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa. He started working for the centre in 2014, where he is responsible for development, management and rolling out of the Industrial Water Efficiency, conducting of Resource Efficient Cleaner Production (RECP) assessments and facilitating of RECP courses. Chule Qalase has close to 10 years of industrial experience in both mining and chemical sectors, agro-processing and metal sectors. Chule Qalase is currently doing his MSc with Unisa having completed his undergraduate degrees in Environmental Science and Chemistry at Wits University and is registered a natural scientist with SACNASP and is qualified facilitator.

INGA JACOBS

Inga is the research group leader of the integrated water solutions group within the CSIR’s Water competence area. She is a political scientist and has a PhD in International Relations from St-Andrews University, Scotland that focused on regional cooperative water governance and water security in Southern and East Africa. She specialises in water governance with 12 years of research and management experience in transboundary water governance (particularly cooperative governance) in Africa. Inga was previously the Executive Manager: Business Development, Marketing and Communications at the Water Research Commission where she managed the WRC’s social science in water R&D research portfolio and initiated its water foresight programme, which entailed program design, research agenda setting, implementation, as well as monitoring and evaluation of the programme’s impact.

MARTIN GINSER

Martin Ginster holds the position of Head: Water, Waste, Land and Biodiversity within Sasol’s Corporate Risk and SHE Function. His role is to enable environmental management across Sasol’s operations and advises on strategic and operational environmental issues. Current focus areas include advancing corporate water stewardship, water security and resolving implementation challenges with respect to the National Environmental Management: Waste Act. He has served on the most recent Ministers National Water Advisory Committee (NWAC). Martin currently chairs the Skills and Transformation working group of the Strategic Water Partners Network (SWPN). Martin holds a position as a part time senior research associate with North-West University’s Research Niche for the Cultural Dynamics of Water (CuDyWat).

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CONTRIBUTORS

ANTHONY TURTON

Anthony Turton is the current recipient of the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) visiting scholarship to the Water Institute at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. He holds a professorship at the Centre for Environmental Management at the University of Free State, and is actively involved in various private sector initiatives to create the policy reform needed to attract capital and technology into the water sector, with the Cape Town crisis as the major catalyst. He serves on the editorial boards of various international journals, mostly associated with water policy.




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MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

Chapter 1 Sasol partnerships deliver on water loss reduction in municipalities

— Rivash Panday and Martin Ginster

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MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

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The Realities of Demand-side Water Management in South Africa

South Africa is a water stressed country facing one of its worst droughts in decades yet communities continue to experience high water losses through aging and poorly maintained infrastructure and improper asset management. The second edition of the National Water Resource Strategy (NWRS2), prepared by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) identified demand management as one of the broad strategies to reconcile supply and demand (DWA, 2013). Supply side management is proving to be a costlier investment due to the need for infrastructure like dams, water treatment facilities and pumping requirements. Therefore, the key to ensuring sustainable use of water is through the implementation of water conservation and water demand management (WC/WDM) measures (DWA, 2013). The DWS defines water demand management as: “the policies, strategies and practices by water institution or consumers that aim to influence the water requirement and usage of water in order to meet any of the following objectives: economic efficiency, social development, social equity, environmental protection, sustainability of water supply and services and political acceptability,” (DWS, 2017a). Water conservation is defined as: “the minimisation of loss or waste of water, the care and protection of water resources and the efficient and effective use of water” (DWS, 2017a). Total quantity of unaccounted for water, also referred to as non-revenue water (NRW) by municipalities in South Africa, ranges between 31% and 73% (DWS, 2017b). In 2012 municipalities were directed to implement WC/WDM strategies to reduce water losses by 15%. However, a recent DWS

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study indicated that these strategies have not been prioritised mainly due to financial constraints (DWS, 2017b). This challenge is, however, not unique to South Africa and seems to be a global challenge. The DWS has made an appeal to the private sector to support municipalities to achieve the WC/WDM targets. While the private sector would typically fund such beyond the fence-line initiatives through their corporate social investment budgets, this level of funding is inadequate given the scale of the municipal infrastructure challenge. It is, therefore, proposed that alternative mechanisms be developed to attract private sector investment into the public water sector. The inclusion of Water Offsetting as an emerging policy in the National Water Resource Strategy Second Edition (NWRS2) has been mooted as such a mechanism (DWA, 2013). The DWS has subsequently proposed a partnership approach to address this challenge and is developing a water stewardship policy as an alternative mechanism. Sasol’s Water Stewardship Approach: Focusing on Mitigating Water Risks Sasol’s coal mining, upstream oil and gas activities, chemicals and fuels production and supply chain logistics all have a direct link with water. Water is a critical feedstock for various Sasol processes including steam generation, process cooling and the production of hydrogen. A significant quantity of water is also generated by Sasol’s proprietary Fischer Tropsch (FT) process, which converts gas to liquids and coal to liquids. The FT process generates significant quantities of effluent which needs to be upgraded usually in a biological wastewater treatment facility and re-used elsewhere in the process. Upgrading and recycling these effluents is something Sasol has extensive expertise in which we continue to develop new and improved technologies.


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Water is also a significant consideration across much of Sasol’s value chain, which extends into urban settlements, agriculture and mining. The fact that many of our larger facilities, suppliers and surrounding communities are located in water-stressed areas heightens our responsibility to ensuring good water stewardship. Water stewardship can be defined as: “the use of water that is socially equitable, environmentally sustainable and economically beneficial, achieved through a stakeholder-inclusive process that involves site-and-catchment based actions” (AWS, 2014). The water supplied to our South African operations comes from the Integrated Vaal River System (IVRS). Sasol’s raw water supply falls into the category of that of a high assurance user for whom the planning process makes provision for the full allocation to be made available at a 99.5% assurance of supply (Sasol, 2017). A 99.5% assurance of supply implies that water should be secure – although never guaranteed – up to a 1 in 200 year extreme drought event. Sasol is allocated

MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

about 4% of the total yield of the IVRS (refer to Figure 1). It is evident from Figure 1 that 17% of water used from the IVRS is attributed to domestic losses. This presents a case for focused attention to support municipalities to reduce water losses. WC/WDM is therefore a key objective of the Vaal Reconciliation Strategy. It is also the first step that needs to be taken to bring the system into balance. Figure 2 shows the projected demand without WC/WDM (blue line) compared to the demand with WC/WDM implemented (green line). This is further compared against the projected water availability with the additional infrastructure planned (red line). In 2016, a 15% potable water restriction was imposed on Vaal users. These were met with mixed reactions. The restriction targets were partly achieved through restricting water supply, i.e. intermittently shutting off water supply for periods. Intermittent supply has negative impacts on a bulk distribution system since it is known to drastically increase water losses over time due to frequent emptying and filling of the system

Figure 1: Water use in the Integrated Vaal River System (IVRS)

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MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

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resulting in significant pipe breaks when the system is again pressurised. (Charalambous & Hamilton, 2013). An important next milestone for the Vaal River System is the implementation of a long term treatment solution for legacy Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Currently, AMD is being generated in the Witwatersrand basin and fresh water is used to dilute the release of salts into the Vaal River. The desalination of AMD is critical since it will reduce the need to use fresh water to dilute AMD discharged into the Vaal River. A further crucial intervention to bring the IVRS into balance is the Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 2 (LHWP2), now planned for completion by 2025. This is a joint venture between the governments of South Africa and Lesotho to bring much needed water to Gauteng.

A Policy Position to Support Private Sector WC/WDM Interventions

The DWS, through the NWRS2 and the Water Policy Review, make reference to

Figure 2: Long Term Water Supply from the IVRS

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THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

the development of a water offsetting framework as an emerging policy in South Africa (DWA, 2013). The NWRS2 defines water offsetting as follows: “the residual water footprint is offset by making a ‘reasonable investment’ in establishing or supporting projects that aim at the sustainable and equitable use of water,” (DWA, 2013). One of the main objectives of water offsetting is the promotion of partnerships through a formally recognised framework between the private and public sector to improve water quality and water access at a catchment level. The draft policy proposes the use of regulatory measures to attract and incentivise offset arrangements. These could include, but are not limited to: • improving water quality in a specific catchment; and • improving water access through optimising water use, reducing water loss, and promoting demand management. Current water partnership projects are generally supported through Corporate Social Investments by the private sector.


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Considering the scale of the water challenges faced by municipalities the private sector will require a business case to make such investments. Offsets therefore create an incentive for the private sector to invest in public infrastructure with the intent of mitigating a critical business risk of water security as well as advancing water quality improvements. Water offsets can also help companies to align to the targets of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6, namely: “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all,” (UNDP, 2015). Sasol has demonstrated that significant water savings can be realised through investing in water partnerships beyond the factory fence-line (Water Group, 2015). Project Boloka Metsi was an innovative collaboration between the Emfuleni Local Municipality, Sasol New Energy and the German Agency for International Collaboration (GIZ), with participation from ORASECOM (the OrangeSenqui River Commission). The 27- month contract ran from April 2012 to June 2014 and meaningfully reduced Emfuleni Local Municipality’s water demand from 82 million m3/annum to 75 million m3/annum. The Boloka Metsi project enabled Sasol to invest in a water loss reduction project in Emfuleni, and to set the parameters for applying the concept of water offsetting within a controlled project environment (Water Group, 2015). An offset mechanism would allow business to collaborate with other water users such as a municipality in responding to a shared water challenge of improving water use efficiency in the same catchment within which all the users operate. Sasol is therefore of the opinion that mechanisms can be structured whereby the private sector can support municipalities achieve their WC/ WDM targets. Through an offset mechanism Sasol can continue to support our host

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municipalities meet water reduction targets, viz. Govan Mbeki Municipality (GMM) and Metsimaholo Local Municipality (MLM).

Methodology to Reduce Municipal Losses

Achieving water saving targets is a challenge to specifically smaller municipalities that lack resources to implement water loss reduction projects. The Water Research Commission (WRC) drafted a guideline to assist municipalities on water loss reduction interventions (WRC, 2014). The guideline clearly states that water supply systems are unique and have their own individual challenges. All water supply systems require a systematic approach to achieving sustainable savings. A summary of the key water loss reduction interventions recommended are listed in Table 1 (WRC, 2014).

Water Loss Reduction within Metsimaholo Local Municipality – A Case Study

The Metsimaholo Local Municipality (MLM) is located in Sasolburg in Northern Free State. Meaning "big water" in Sesotho, the municipality has a total population of approximately 160,000 and close to 38,000 households (MLM, 2015). MLM supplies Sasol Sasolburg Operations with about 4.3 ML/day of potable water. In July 2015 Sasol entered into a water conservation/water demand management partnership project with MLM in collaboration with Rand Water (as implementing agent), The German Development agency (GIZ), and the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) (Sasol, 2017). The DWS contributed R4 million, Sasol R2.9 million and GIZ 60,000 Euros. The first phase of this project involved establishing a baseline for the municipality’s demand through the installation of bulk zonal meters and loggers (refer to Figure

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MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

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Water Loss Intervention

Descriptions

1. Understanding of the Water System Schematics

Understand the water supply systems using existing CAD drawings.

2. Leak location and repair

Identification and repair of visible leaks is the most basic and obvious step taken in reducing losses. However, the cause of the leaks should be investigated. At times the cause of these leaks maybe high water pressure. Municipalities need to create a team of leak locators to report unreported leaks and fix them.

3. Pressure management

Leakage is driven by pressure. Pressure management can be the most cost effective method of reducing losses. Pressure management can range from the basic fixed outlet pressure control to some form of more sophisticated hydraulic or electronic control referred to as advanced pressure control.

4. Sectorising

Is separating big areas into smaller more manageable areas. Sectorising can help identify problem areas through step-testing. Step-testing is the process of closing internal boundary valves in order to isolate or cut-off portions of the network and then monitor the night-flow to identify high leakage.

5. Logging and analysis of minimum night flows

Once sectorising of zones are established flows and pressures can be monitored to identify problem areas. Loggers can automatically transmit pressure and flow data and thus provide municipalities with real time information.

6. Bulk management meters

Bulk management helps water supply managers properly operate and manage their water supply system. They are part of the sectoring process that helps monitor the pressure and flow in the zone as well as identifying leaks.

7. Bulk consumer meters

These meters are generally installed at large industrial customers that require reliable supply. Bulk consumer meters are also installed at establishments like schools and hostels who are regarded as high consumers of water.

8. Domestic metering and billing

In most low income areas there is a lack of domestic meters hence households are not billed for water used. For any municipality to be sustainable it is necessary that all water users are metered and billed. It is advised that municipalities consider installation of smart meters which eliminates the need for meter readers and billing inaccuracies.

9. Baseline Establishment

This involves establishing the baseline based on flow logging against which savings can be measured. Losses are established by monitoring minimum night flows.

10. Community awareness and education

This is the most important intervention since the most efficient technical intervention can fail if the community doesn’t understand the reasons for the intervention or buy into it. Proper consultation of any intervention is needed before any technical intervention.

Table 1: Key water loss reduction interventions (WRC, 2014)

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3). This phase also includes undertaking an assessment of water loss in the greater Zamdela area. The excess demand in the township was found to be close to 27%. The project team identified a number of interventions to help MLM reduce losses by 15%, as per the Vaal Reconciliation targets. The second phase of the project, involved advanced pressure reduction, commenced in July 2016. It was at this point that Sasol appointed WRP Consulting Engineers to implement technical interventions identified in phase 1. The first step taken by WRP was to establish the baseline for water demand and losses in the greater Zamdela region. This was done by understanding the water supply system in the greater Zamdela area, which was sectorised into 7 supply zones. The zones were then logged and a typical result of flow logging using Harry Gwala zone is given in Figure 4 as an example. The Minimum Night Flow (MNF) and the average flow (Avg) were determined to be 122 m3/h and 148 m3/h, respectively. The MNF/Avg ratio was determined to be 82%

MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

which indicates very high leaks within this zone. The ratio should be less than 20% in a well-managed zone (WRP, 2016). The baseline results for all the zones are given in Table 2. With a limited budget the focus of attention for savings was in the Zamdela and Harry Gwala zones based on the high MNF/Avg ratio. The demand / household / month and litre / capita / day performance indicators for Zamdela Ext 13 and Amelia are below the national average for this type of Zone. This is due to operational problems experienced in these areas which when resolved, may increase the demand in these areas. Advanced pressure management was implemented in the zones of Zamdela and Harry Gwala by installing pressure reducing valves together (refer to Figure 5) with controllers at the main zones (refer to Figure 6). The pressure controllers were set to reduce pressure from the fixed pressure setting to a low pressure setting between 22:00 and 05:30 daily. Reduced pressure is known to contribute to a reduction in

Figure 4: Minimum Night flow vs Average Flow in the Harry Gwala Zone indicating high water losses

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1

MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

Area

No. Estimated Demand / Properties Population household / month (mÂł)

Litre / capita / day

MNF / Average

Zamdela

7 386

44 316

47.1

258

85%

Harry Gwala

3 265

16 325

33.1

218

82%

Zamdela X13

5 338

21 352

8.9

73

N/A

Amelia

3 150

12 600

10.7

88

N/A

Kragbron

389

1 556

15.1

124

50%

Holly Country

208

832

21.6

178

0% N/A

Wolvehoek

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Total

19 736

96 891

28.2

189

Figure 5: PRV Construction water losses. A 23% reduction in demand was achieved in the greater Zamdela area i.e. demand reduced from 15 006 m3/day to 11 577 m3/day (refer to Table 3). This equates to a R9.4 million/annum saving (refer to Table 4) based on the current Rand Water tariff (WRP; 2017). In order to ensure that the Municipality was capacitated to maintain and operate the installed pressure reducing valves a decision was taken to train MLM employees. A three

28

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THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

day control valve training was given to 6 MLM employees. Water use audits were also conducted on the MLM top consumers (mainly hostels and schools). Meters were then installed to 12 of the top consumers which will also help the municipality to correctly bill these consumers. These meters were then logged which showed that 8 of these top consumers had high water losses which equated close to 1000 m3/day. Education and awareness-raising within communities is the most critical step to water

Figure 6: Pressure controller installation


1

MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

Table 3: Water Savings in Zamdela and Harry Gwala (WRP; 2017) Area

Baseline Average Daily Demand (m3/day)

Current Average Daily Demand (m3/day)

Daily Savings (m3/ day)

Monthly Savings (m3/ month)

Yearly Savings (m3/ year)

Zamdela

11 448

8 424

3 024

91 980

1 103 760

Harry Gwala

3 558

3 153

405

12 319

147 825

Total

15 006

11 577

3 107

94 505

1 251 585

Table 4: Rand value of savings achieved (WRP; 2017) Area

Daily Savings (R/day)

Monthly Savings (R/month)

Yearly Savings (R/ year)

Zamdela

R 22 861

R 695 369

R 8 344 426

Harry Gwala

R 3 062

R 93 130

R 1 117 557

Total

R 25 923

R 788 499

R 9 461 983

conservation and demand management. The project team therefore has developed an education and awareness-raising programme that will soon be executed. The programme involves the following: • The development of an awareness programme, tools and materials to reduce the levels of non-payment;

• Promoting water conservation and responsible use; • Improve community participation and interaction to ensure sustainability of the programme; • Identification and integration of Water Conservation Warriors (WCW) and local plumbers into the programme; and

Figure 7: Classroom PRV training

Figure 8: Practical PRV training

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MUNICIPAL WATER LOSS REDUCTION

1

• Exploring supplementary funding options from private sector and/or NGOs. The Path to Achieving Interventions at Scale Water demand management is a ubiquitous global challenge. For a water scarce country like South Africa, focus on saving water needs to be prioritised. Innovative mechanisms and solutions are required to support municipalities with their water conservation/ water demand management initiatives. The success of the Metsimaholo

Local Municipality water loss reduction project demonstrates the case for private sector investment beyond the factory fence-line. Sasol is aligned to such a stakeholder inclusive approach in mitigating our water risks hence we support such water partnerships. The DWS is urged to formalise incentive mechanisms like Water Offsetting recognised in law in order to attract private sector investment in improving public water infrastructure. References

• AWS. (2014). The Alliance for Water Stewardship Standard, Version 1.0. Retrieved October 6, 2017 from https://c402277.ssl.cf1.rackcdn.com/publications/746/files/original/AWSStandard-v-1-Abbreviated-print_%281%29.pdf?1418140260 • Charalambous, B., & Hamilton, S (2013). Leak Detection Technology and implementation, UK: IWA Publishing. • Department of Water Affairs (DWA). (2013). National Water Resource Strategy (2nd ed.). • Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS). (2017a). National Norms and Standards for Domestic Water and Sanitation Services, Government Gazette Version 3 – Final. • Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS). (2017b) Status Report on water losses within the 8 large water supply system, Project WP 11047-PEP4. • Metsimaholo Local Municipality (MLM). (2015). Metsimaholo Local Municipality. Retrieved October 1, 2017 from http://www.metsimaholo.gov.za/ • Sasol Limited. (2017). Sustainability Reporting. Retrieved October 3, 2017 from http:// www.sasol.com/investor-centre/financial-reporting/sustainable-development-report/ latest • UNDP. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved October 3, 2017 from http:// www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html • Water Group. (2015) A Water Quantity Offset Case Study: Project Boloka Metsi. • Water Research Commission (WRC). (2014) Guidelines for Reducing Water Losses at South African Municipalities, Report TT595/14 • WRP Consulting Engineers (WRP). (2016) Metsimaholo Local Municipality Zone Assessment Report. • WRP Consulting Engineers (WRP). (2017) Zamdela and Harry Gwala Pressure Management Project Completion Report

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WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT

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Chapter 2 Integrated water resource management with a focus on water demand

— Richard Meissner

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THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK


2

Introduction

My intention with this chapter is to give water practitioners at every societal level food for thought and to start thinking about water practices differently. In the current context of one of South Africa’s most severe droughts, which started in 2015 and is likely to continue in 2017, water practitioners have raised significant questions (Meissner & Jacobs-Mata, 2016) around water use patterns (Figure 1). This reality brings to the fore the issue of water demand management. In this context, I follow Brooks and Wolfe (2007) who note that water demand management is not a process or a technological innovation but a governance practice to use available water as productively as possible. Linked this to the notion that water demand management is likely to become more salient as urbanisation increases (Arfanuzzaman & Rahman, 2017), and this particular governance practice becomes critically important in developing country contexts. As cities expand due to human migration and population growth, the infrastructure to cope with water purification and waste water treatment need augmentation. This is, according to predominant water supply management thinking. .South Africa has over the years put in place a number of coping strategies and policies to deal with frequent droughts.

WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT

Infrastructuraly, the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) manage the country’s bulk water system, which consists of numerous large dams, water pipelines, irrigation schemes, and inter-basin transfer schemes. Municipalities are responsible for water purification and distribution as well as sanitation services. Bulk water supply infrastructure and municipal water amenities are not the only coping strategies available. Implementing water demand management approaches, especially at local government level, are critically important if South Africa wants to overcome the effects of drought (Meissner & Jacobs-Mata, 2016) and deal with ballooning urbanisation. Water demand management, as a governance practice, would enable humans to innovate and adapt to a changing urbanised landscape and a frequently drought prone natural environment. Should we be able to incorporate the notion of the environment as an active participant with its own ‘agency’, and something that we cannot control, then we could be able to innovate and adapt as things change around us. Remembering that water is a natural resource, a mixture of water resources could be the way forward to give effect to water demand management practices in a dynamic natural environment. Here, practices like wastewater recycling, rainwater harvesting, urban storm water

Figure 1: Drought-stricken Limpopo Province north of Thabazimbi in September 2016

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2

storage, small-scale desalination, and better use of aquatic landscapes as eco-system services (e.g. Figure 2) hold promise to cope with increasing water demand.

Figure 2: This wetland at the Cradle of Humankind near Krugersdorp treats the UNESCO World Heritage Site’s wastewater. In light of such strategies, the worldviews and perspectives we hold of events, issues, occurrences, opportunity creation, and problem solving influence our actions and reactions to relations we hold with other people and the environment (Loftland & Loftland, 1996; Krauss, 2005; Funke, et al., 2014; Meissner, 2017). In short, research worldviews and perspectives hold the clues ‘…for a programme of action’ (Smuts, 1936: viii). Worldviews and perspectives are part of meanings that, furthermore, include culture, norms, understandings, social reality, situational definitions, typologies, ideologies, and beliefs. These are humanly constructed ideas that play a role in signalling aspects of reality (Loftland & Loftland, 1996 in Krauss, 2005; Vaisey & Lizardo, 2010). In this way, worldviews and perspectives are not only causal mechanisms; they also contain, through description, the causal mechanisms that could be enacted to produce a desired outcome. Causal mechanisms are entities and structures that are capable of generating observed associations between

WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT

phenomena (Waldner, 2007). This means that causal mechanisms are conditions, relations, or processes that constitute conditions or events (Rueschemeyer, 2009). There are four generic causal mechanism types; agency, ideas, material, and structures (Sil & Katzenstein, 2010). Agent mechanisms are the causes or processes that come about as a result as of actors’ actions or agency (Kurki, 2008). Ideas include perceptions, anticipation, and ideologies, while material mechanisms are tangible and intangible resources like money, infrastructure, and technology. Structural causal mechanisms are policies, laws, and strategies (Sil & Katzenstein, 2010; Meissner, 2017). Investigating integrated water resource management (IWRM) and water demand management, through the causal mechanisms they contain and promote, would give valuable insights for practicalities. In this chapter, I discuss the role of research worldviews and perspectives of IWRM and its implementation. Following this, I investigate the South Africa’s National Water Resource Management Strategy Second Edition’s (NWRS2) treatment of water demand management. After I outlined how worldviews and perspectives influence the concepts and their implementation, I will discuss the practical implications of the specific meanings researchers and practitioners attach to the two concepts. I end the chapter with a brief conclusion. The central focus throughout the chapter is to home in on the costs and benefits of IWRM and water demand management.

Integrated Water Resource Management Perspectives

Briefly defined, IWRM is a systems approach to water management. Because it is a systemic methodology, its main purpose is to integrate seemingly separate and distinct water systems. As such, IWRM attempts to

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WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT

2

incorporate relations between surface and groundwater, quantity and quality; water and land use; water and stakeholder interest; and water-related institutions (Mitchell, 1990 in Warner, 2005). In many instances where the concept appears in scientific water literature, the authors allude to the concept’s meaning in terms of holism, or the whole is more than the sum of its parts (Smuts, 1926) and functional interdependence. After all, IWRM is a systemic approach to water resource management. For instance, Ashton et al. (2006) describe IWRM in terms of ‘two technical approaches’ water resource managers follow. The first, concerns the management of an entire river basin or catchment (Ashton, et al., 2006) based on the idea that the river basin is one ‘united’ geographical area. Because of this assumption, water managers see the catchment as a basic unit that constitutes effective and efficient water resource management. The second management style views ground and surface water as ‘inextricably linked’ (Ashton, et al., 2006). For Van Koppen and Schreiner (2014), IWRM’s holistic and functional interdependence in the South African context, addresses both political and socio-economic goals. The management approach does so since it is enshrined in South Africa’s National Water Act (No. 36 of 1998) (South Africa, 1998). According to Van Koppen and Schreiner (2014), the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) overcame IWRM’s ‘widely documented flaws… by adopting developmental water management as its water resource management approach.’ The idea of developmental water management links with the overall perspective of South Africa as a developmental state (Van Koppen & Schreiner, 2014). This means that in some instances researchers define IWRM, as a management approach, to fit the ideological form and function of

40

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

aspirational pronouncements for redefining societal structures, and give credence to the perceived successes of rationally linking abstractions. Regarding, IWRM’s association to predefined abstractions, Claassen (2013) aptly notes that ‘IWRM operates within different ideologies… when describing thought.’ He, furthermore, writes that ‘These ideologies manifest in political dogmas and in the way that society organizes [water] governance…’ (Claassen, 2013: 323). He elaborates on the holistic and interdependent functionalism enshrined in IWRM as an approach that emphasises enabling policies and regulations as well as predefined institutional roles, responsibilities and management mechanisms (Claassen, 2013). However, researchers define IWRM, there is no guarantee that the management approach will bring about all the benefits alluded to. In fact, Claassen (2013) argues that although South Africa derived shortterm socio-economic benefits, it came at the price of compromised sustainable water resource management. No matter how well IWRM links with progressive legislation, or how holistic and interdependent it views natural resources within bounded geographical spaces, to implement these structural and ideational causal mechanisms requires skilled technical and administrative employers. It, furthermore, needs ‘strong’ organisational management instruments, a balance between the state and its institutional arrangements and functionally effective networks (Claassen, 2013). Since IWRM is a systemic approach, it seems logical that it could only bring about benefits. Claassen (2013) already reminded us of the cost to the sustainability of water resources because to implement IWRM also entails other causal mechanisms ranging from appropriate legislative structures and


2

a host of material resources. This raises questions about the downstream costs of implementing water resource management approaches like water demand management linked to IWRM. Regarding this, to implement IWRM often requires farreaching changes in the culture of water management (Warner, 2005; 1). Because of the approach’s integrative underpinnings, it functions as part of a ‘whole’ (Smuts, 1936) that encompass social and cultural structures as well as material tangibles such as land and water resources. Changes in water management cultures is the first hint of an intangible ‘cost’ associated with IWRM’s adoption and implementation. Warner (2005) furthermore argues that ‘…IWRM [is] notoriously difficult to model, [and] is not just the sum total of all the isolated facets of water management - it requires a very different, de-compartmentalised institutional set-up. Boundaries between use, functions, disciplines, experts and lay people need to be torn down, while administrative boundaries must give way to unified management at catchment (or wetland) level.’ Because of these variables, IWRM has had a measure of success by integrating surface and groundwater, quantity and quality, and water and land use (Warner, 2005) only. To take this argument further and as already indicated, IWRM has a technocratic and material-centred (e.g. natural resources) focus. This means that researchers and practitioners downplay or ignore social aspects completely when we think of IWRM’s meaning. This could have serious implications in that an ‘action-theoretic vacuum’ takes shape. Once this ‘vacuum’ exists, researchers and practitioners fill the void with a ‘rational-actor’ perspective. This theory treats water network membership and the relations between water stakeholders as fixed. This means that actors

WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT

in water management know exactly what their roles and functions are. The problem is deep-seated, in that the rational-actor perspective generalise one motivation for actions—instrumental gain—within different contexts and, at the same time, ‘… ignore the potential role of culture in shaping the character of social relations’ (Vaisey & Lizardo, 2010: 1598). It, therefore, is quite possible that this generalisation constitutes IWRM’s poor performance in varied contexts (e.g. Biswas, 2004; Ingram, 2013) wherein different cultures and ideaologies operate. South Africa is a case in point. In the next section, I discuss the NWRS2 lens of water demand management’s meaning and implementation.

The NWRS2 Lens of Water Demand Management

South Africa’s National Water Resource Management Strategy, second edition (NWRS2) is a strategic document developed by DWS. The NWRS2’s purpose ‘is to ensure that national water resources are managed towards achieving South Africa’s growth, development and socio-economic priorities in an equitable and sustainable manner over the next five to 10 years’ (DWA, 2013: 1). The Strategy is a ‘legal instrument’ to implement the National Water Act (DWA, 2013; South Africa, 1998; Meissner, 2016). The Strategy’s authors view and describe water demand management in a specific way. They note that options for new dams are no longer as attractive as they were some decades ago, when the Department augmented South Africa’s water supply through large dams, inter-basin transfer schemes, and geographically extensive irrigation projects (Turton et al., 2004) (Figure 3). This means that the custodian of South Africa’s water resources, adopted, at least on paper, water demand management as an alternative to large engineering works to increase

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WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT

2

water supplies. This does not mean that the processes underlying water demand management is different to supplying water through large water projects. At a fundamental level, water demand management, as outlined in the NWRS2, shares the same characteristics as water engineering works; a technocratic approach to augment water resources. We see this in the NWRS2 when the authors write, ‘Water conservation and water demand management – fixing leaks, retrofitting, plumbing’ (DWA, 2013) (Figure 4). What is different from large water supply works is that water demand management caters for water augmentation at a smaller geographic scale, especially in large metropolitan municipalities where ‘unaccounted for water’ results in water losses of up to 37%, exceeding the world average of 36.6% (Mckenzie, et al., 2013).

Figure 4: Replacing a faulty water meter in eThekwini as part of the municipality’s drive to reduce unaccounted for water lost in its reticulation system. ‘Unaccounted for water’ is water wastage constituted, in South Africa’s, by decades of maintenance neglect of water distribution systems, among other reasons. ‘Unaccounted for water’s’ official definition states that the concept ‘represents the

42

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

difference between “net production” (the volume of water delivered into a network) and “consumption” (the volume of water that can be accounted for by legitimate consumption, whether metered or not)’ (Sharma, 2008). The authors of the NWRS2 recognises that municipalities have begun to address the problem of water losses, but reiterates that efforts need to be intensified and that municipal water managers must set ‘specific targets to reduce water loss’ (DWA, 2013). In the NWRS2, the Department predicts that water demand management ‘will have multiple benefits in terms of the postponement of infrastructure augmentation, mitigation, against climate change, support to economic growth and ensuring that adequate water is available for equitable allocation’ (DWA, 2013). That is, if local governments follow a suite of water demand management practices, as mentioned in the introduction, as opposed to the technocratic types like fixing leaks, retrofitting, and plumbing. As already mentioned, water demand management is a specific governance approach to water resource management, and one that is not fundamentally different from water engineering works. What is more, by predicting the direct benefits of water demand management, the NWRS2, and by default DWS, view the essence of water resource management at national level as one wherein control through technical solutions will bring a variety of technocratic, climatic, socio-economic, and equity (ethical) benefits. The NWRS2’s authors base this prediction on a traditional scientific worldview that assumes we can distinguish between valid knowledge from personal opinion only when we can verify or confirm statements’ truth. To examine a statement’s validity we need to reformulate it into a cause and effect hypothesis or prediction



WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT

2

(Buchanan, 1998), like the one about water demand management’s benefits. What is problematic about this view is that water demand management does not only have a technocratic dimension. Humans are, after all, the main actors using and wasting water, either directly or indirectly. People and their actions are unpredictable and unique, making cause and effect predictions virtually impossible (Rolfe, 2006) in the broader structure of water management. Take neglected water infrastructure as an example. Infrastructure consisting of pipes, pumps, purification equipment, and so on, is largely predictable, because these are inanimate objects. People, on the other hand though, are not as predictable as inanimate objects are, because people have agency or the ability to make choices based on free will and to bring about an intended state of affairs (Buchanan, 1998; Rolfe, 2006; Meissner, 2015). What this implies, and linking back to our infrastructure example, people can choose not to maintain water infrastructure over an extended period, and rather decide to channel maintenance resources (e.g. money) into other priorities (Figure 5). To bring about the desired state of affairs envisioned by the NWRS2’s treatment of water demand management’s benefits, would require ‘appropriate institutional arrangements and effective governance’ (DWA, 2013). Again, people develop and implement such arrangements and activities based on cognitive approaches, and by stating the necessary condition in terms of a prediction, neglect important intellectual variables like innovative ideas, ideologies, and differing concepts of the meaning of governance. These hidden variables, not covered by the NRWS2 in its treatment of water demand management, hint at a reality we cannot fully understand because they are not visible; we, therefore,

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THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

have a shortage of absolutes (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Lincoln, et al., 2011). What this further implies is that it is quite difficult to know exactly what the benefits as outlined in the NWRS2 would be. This also means that it is somewhat problematic to calculate what the costs of demand management arrangements and governance would be. Furthermore and as already mentioned, the cost would not only be in the form of human, financial, and infrastructural forms. Governmental and societal actors also need to invest in dialogical collaboration that would serve both governmental, private sector, and public interests (Kent & Taylor, 2002; Meissner, 2015). Intuitively, such investments would not be in the form of panaceas or quick fixes, but would require much needed long-term energy and committment on the part of interested stakeholders. For instance, to stem the tide of water infrastructure neglect a society needs an active citizenry to hold local governments accountable for such inaction. In addition, dialogical interaction, which is not always harmonious, could also be a valuable resource for citizens and hold each other accountable to save water. Citizen-to-citizen accountability’s role would, in this case be, that of a socio-political water demand management practice as opposed to the command and control and technocratic water saving initiatives like water restrictions and water pressure management. Such an active citizenry could prove indispensable to foster a ‘no water is waste water’ attitude in communities.

Towards a Deeper Understanding

How then do we strive towards a water management system wherein water managers do not focus on panaceas but invest more time and energy in longterm ways to implement water demand management? From the above discussion,


2

and considering causal mechanisms we see that the research on IWRM tend to amplify ideas causal mechanisms more than the other three mechanisms. Agent and material mechanisms appears to follow, with structures not having a prominent place. This implies that IWRM fits the description of a worldview or perspective that guides water management in a specific way. The discussion on IWRM indicates that researchers and practitioners view it as a technocratic and material-centric approach to water management. This is also the case with the NWRS2’s treatment of water demand management. How, then, can researchers bring about a deeper understanding to move away from this technocratic perception towards a more humanistic way of implementing water demand management as part of IWRM? A first step would be to change our perspective of IWRM and water demand management. Seeing both in terms of systematic responses to systematic problems is not helping. Although, the ideas causal mechanism is dominant, the presence of other causal mechanisms indicates that IWRM and water demand management are holistic and complex, and not systemic. The dominance of ideas contained in the discussed research on IWRM and water demand management shows that these approaches are, at a broader societal level, socially constructed. This recognition helps us to understand that their systemic implementation might be missing the societal side of their remedial efforts to deal with water scarcities. Since humans use water, investigating the psychology of water use in urban, agricultural, and rural settings could be a first step towards a societal understanding of water demand management’s various nontangible causal mechanisms. We, therefore, need to see IWRM and water demand management not as systemic remedies to

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social problems, but as holistic, societal, and complex causal processes. Related to this consideration, enacting IWRM and water demand management through legislative structures, like the National Water Act and municipal by-laws, should not be seen as a panacea that bring about desirable consequences, like overcoming IWRM’s flaws. Legislative structures are just that, structures that are part of a holistic system of causal mechanisms. The reality of a shortage of skilled public administrators makes IWRM and water demand management’s outcomes as government initiatives hard to reach. Water managers should take cognisance of such realities, and attempt to see what the interdependent relationship between structural (the National Water Act) and material (e.g. human resources) causal mechanisms is. Water demand management initiatives, as part of IWRM, should take a people-centred character, especially at municipal level. This sphere of government is, after all, the one closest to the people (Zybrands, 2011). How people use water in large urban settings, where most of wastage (Figure 6) is likely to occur, are important considerations water managers need to take into account. It is also in this setting where water infrastructure, like reticulation systems, and water infrastructure-related elements, such as the correct billing of water usage, coincide with the social sphere. When people are experiencing problems with a faulty water account, they approach their municipalities, and not DWS. It is also along such communication points that water demand management manifests, and not just through the fixing of leaks, pipelines, and plumbing.

Conclusion

In this chapter, I outlined a number of perspectives of IWRM and how the NWRS2 treats water demand management. There is an inextricable link between IWRM

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and water demand management only along the lines of integrating surface and groundwater with these resources’ quantity. Even so, proponents of IWRM argue that it will have multiple benefits when implement properly and through systemic approaches. Propagators of IWRM are quite silent on its societal integrative aspects like a change in water management culture and downstream social costs linked to water’s compromised sustainability. If water resource managers want to make good on IWRM and water

demand management promises, they should reconsider how they view both approaches. I argue that by seeing both as technocratic only, detract society from the societal causal mechanisms that could influence these approaches positively or negatively. The psychology of water use is a case in point. How people use water in their homes and on their farms and factories has a psychological dimension that, if investigated properly, could hold profound illuminations to further water demand management actions.

References

• Arfanuzzaman, M. & Rahman, A. A. 2017. Sustainable water demand management in the face of rapid urbanization and ground water depletion for social–ecological resilience building. Global Ecology and Conservation, 10, pp. 9-22. • Ashton, P. J., Turton, A. R. & Roux, D. J., 2006. Exploring the Government, Society, and Science Interfaces in Integrated Water Resource Management in South Africa. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education, 135(12), pp. 28-35. • Biswas, A. K., 2004. Integrated water resources management: A reassessment. Water International, 29(2), pp. 248-256. • Brooks, D. B. & Wolfe, S. 2007. Water demand management as governance: Lessons from the Middle East and South Africa. In: H. Shuval & H. Dweik (eds.) Water resources in the Middle East: Israel-Palestinian Water Issues - From conflict to cooperation. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 311-323. • Buchanan, D. R. 1998. Beyond positivism: humanistic perspectives on theory and research in health education. Health Education Research, 13(3), pp. 439-450. • Claassen, M., 2013. Integrated water resource management in South Africa. International Journal of Water Governance, 1(1), pp. 323-338. • DWS. 2013. National Water Resource Strategy, Second Edition. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs. • Funke, N., Claassen, M., Meissner, R. & Nortje, K. 2014. Reflections on the state of research and technology in South Africa's marine and maritime sectors. Pretoria: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.

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• Guba, E. G. & Lincoln, Y. S. 1994. Competing paradigms in qualitative research. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, Volume 2, p. 105. • Ingram, H., 2013. Doing better and delivering worse: pathology of water experts. In: C. De Boer, J. Vinke-de Kruif, G. Özerol & H. Bressers (eds.), Water governance, policy and knowledge transfer. New York: Routledge, p. Foreword. • Kent, M. L. & Taylor, M., 2002. Toward a dialogic theory of public relations. Public Relations Review, 28(1), pp. 21-37. • Krauss, S. E. 2005. Research paradigms and meaning making: A primer. The Qualitative Report, 10, pp. 758-770. • Kurki, M., 2008. Causation in international relations: reclaiming causal analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Lincoln, Y. S., Lynham, S. A. & Guba, E. G., 2011. Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences, revisited. The Sage handbook of Qualitative Research, Volume 4, pp. 97-128. • Loftland, J. & Loftland, L. 1996. Analyzing social settings. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. • Mckenzie, R., Siqalaba, Z. & Wegelin, W., 2013. The state of non-revenue water in South Africa (2012). The Water Wheel, 12(1), pp. 15-18. • Mitchell, B. 1990. Integrated water management: international experiences and perspectives. London: Belhaven Press. • Meissner, R. and Jacobs-Mata, I. 2016. South Africa's drought preparedness in the water sector: Too little too late? SAIIA Policy Briefing, November, pp. 1-4. • Meissner, R. 2015. Interest Groups, Water Politics and Governance: The Case of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. • Meissner, R., 2016. Paradigms and theories in water governance: the case of South Africa’s National Water Resource Strategy. Water SA, 42(1), pp. 1-10. • Meissner, R. 2017. Paradigms and Theories Influencing Policies in the South African and International Water Sectors. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. • ROLFE, G. 1993. Closing the theory—practice gap: a model of nursing praxis. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 5(2), pp. 173-177. • Rueschemeyer, D. 2009. Usable theory: Analytic tools for social and political research. Princeton: Princeton University Press. • Sharma, S., 2008. Performance indicators of water losses in distribution system. Delft, The Netherlands: UNESCO-IHE. • Sil, R. & Katzenstein, P. J. 2010. Beyond paradigms: analytic eclecticism in the study of world politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. • Smuts, J. 1926. Holism and evolution. 1st ed. London: Macmillan. • Smuts, J. 1936. Holism and evolution. 3rd ed. London: Macmillan. • South Africa, R. 1998. National Water Act (Act No. 36 of 1998). Government Gazette. • Turton, A.R., Meissner, R., Mampane, P.M. and Seremo, O. 2004. A hydropolitical history of South Africa’s international river basins. Pretoria: Water Research Commission. WRC Report No. 1220/1. • Vaisey, S. and Lizardo, O. 2010. Can cultural worldviews influence network composition? Social Forces, 88(4), pp.1595-1618.

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• Van Koppen, B. & Schreiner, B., 2014. Moving beyond integrated water resource management: developmental water management in South Africa. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 30(3), pp. 543-558. • Waldner, D. 2007. Transforming inferences into explanations: Lessons from the study of mass extinctions. In Lebow, R.N. and Lichbach, M.I. (eds.), Theory and evidence in comparative politics and international relations. London: Palgrave Macmillan pp. 145-175. • Warner, J. 2005. Multi-stakeholder platforms: integrating society in water resource management? Ambiente & Sociedade, 8(2), pp. 1-20. • Zybrands, W., 2011. Local government. In Landsberg, C. and Venter, A. (eds.), Government and politics in South Africa. 4th ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, pp. 133-159.

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BALANCING DEMAND AND SUPPLY

Chapter 3 Does South Africa need a new Hydraulic Mission?

Balancing demand and supply in a water contrained economy

— Prof fessor Anthony Turton. Centre for Environmental Management, University of Free State

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S

outh Africa has a very sophisticated water sector, populated by highly qualified specialists, and defined by world class legislation. Yet, the country is in crisis, floundering and without direction, poisoned by the vitriol of blame and weakened by the evasive actions of responsibility deflection. The worst drought in living memory has relentlessly found the weaknesses and shown South Africans just how vulnerable we are. We need to collectively ask only one question. Is this healthy for our young democracy? I am emboldened enough to suggest that the answer to this is an emphatic no. South Africa needs a functioning democracy, in which the promise of liberation can be enjoyed by all citizens, where all can reach their full potential consistent with the noble ideals enshrined in our Constitution. The purpose of this essay is to arrange my own thoughts on the matter, as an honest contribution, shared with the reader in the sincere belief that the unfolding South African water narrative becomes a good news story. To reach out to the broader community of water sector professionals, hopefully with enough credibility to create the seed around which a new consensus can be reached. A consensus that unlocks

the potential for water to enable the economic growth needed to create dignified sustainable jobs as a vehicle of poverty eradication and social cohesion. My Integrated Water Resource Management Thesis To do this, all South Africans need to understand how integrated water resource management (IWRM) consists of balance between demand, supply and social stability. The thesis that I am presenting is thus predicated on three distinct legs - demand, supply and social stability. This model exists in my mind, informed by a life of experience, including those from the international water sector where I have spent a significant portion of my professional career. The Chinese have a symbol for a river, and a separate symbol for a dyke that controls the flow of a river. The river symbol resembles the core notion of hydraulic flow through a landscape, driven by natural forces. The dyke symbol captures the essence of human intervention, with hard structures designed to control that flow, particularly when the river floods. But the real wisdom of the Chinese is revealed when these two symbols come together, forming a new concept – political order (Priscolli, 2008).

Chinese symbol for a river (left top) and a dyke that controls flooding in a river (left bottom). When these two symbols are combined a new word emerges – political order (right) (Source: Priscoli, 2007).

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Chinese symbol for a river (left top) and a dyke that controls flooding in a river (left bottom). When these two symbols are combined a new word emerges – political order (right) (Source: Priscoli, 2007). This ancient wisdom is entirely relevant to contemporary South Africa, because it lies at the very heart of our inability to balance demand with supply in a sustainable way. Our problems are less about flooding, and more about economic growth in the face of endemic water scarcity, in a political milieu characterised by a culture of collective accountability in which no individual is held responsible. Stated differently, our water sector is structurally flawed, precisely because of the absence of individual accountability. It is this missing accountability that means institutional and legal adaptation cannot ever happen, which in turn means that evidence-based policy reform is unlikely to be triggered in the first place. This single ugly truth has been revealed by the last drought cycle, so we need to learn from this experience, if we are not doomed to repeat it. The South African Hydraulic Mission The concept of a hydraulic mission is a powerful one, first used to describe the Egyptian developmental aspirations, but also embraced by others to define the role played by water in the industrialization of the USA and in Spain. It is the process whereby a government harnesses all means at its disposal to create a desired economic and social outcome, from the development of a specific natural resource - water. For the purpose of my argument, I suggest that South Africa has had four clearly defined hydraulic missions, with a fifth emerging as a potential blueprint for our collective actions as a nation going forward. The First Hydraulic Mission is best described as being the transition from a

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pre-modern to an early settler society. This saw the first opening of a frontier between traditional African culture and expanding European economic interests in 1652. It is embodied in the harnessing of the waters in the Camissa system that flows from the base of Table Mountain from 36 springs recorded by the Dutch East India Company. It was the existence of this source of reliable water, first described by the Khoi people to visiting Portuguese explorers in the 1500’s, that triggered the decision to establish a replenishment post at the Cape of Storms, renamed the Cape of Good Hope in a public relations exercise designed to attract foreign direct investment into the project. The word Camissa is derived from the Khoi word for “sweet waters”, where they could nourish their cattle before any European settlers had seen that part of Africa. Today only 13 of these springs are on the database of the City of Cape Town, and some are being used to sustain economic activities to this very day. The Second Hydraulic Mission started with early exploration of the area outside of the immediate vicinity of the Dutch East India Company. In the 1870s the first scholarly texts were published on the prevailing aridity surrounding Cape Town . The proposed solution to this was the construction of dams in order to create water security in an otherwise hydrologically insecure landscape. This idea intrigued a young civil engineer employed by the Public Works Department named Thomas Bain. He was an intrepid explorer and botanist, describing new species in a systematic way as he mapped the area in what we now know as the Karoo. In 1886 Bain published a seminal work that became the foundation for government planning . The Second Pre-Industrial Hydraulic Mission is based on Bain’s ideas that form the foundation of the first

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development of the Van Wyks Vlei reservoir . More importantly however, it was private individuals and not the state that were the early pioneers. Bain writes about this as follows , “To show how feasible the diversion of the Orange River is, I have been credibly informed that two farmers who have leased some Crown land below Prieska, are now engaged in making an aqueduct from a place called ‘Wegdraai’ in the river, to irrigate their lands, and they are in a fair

way of success; while near ‘Upington’, an enterprising missionary, with the assistance of some Hottentots, has succeeded in diverting a small portion of the river to their institution. Their crops are spoken of as something fabulous; and I believe they nearly recouped themselves in the cost of the aqueduct, out of their first year’s harvest”. Diagram of a dam drawn by Thomas Bain in 1885 (Turton et al., 2004).

Map drawn by Thomas Bain in 1886 showing potential development in what we today call the Northern Cape (Source: Bain, 1886 in Turton et al., 2004) The Third Hydraulic Mission was all about mining triggered by the British victory in the second AngloBoer War. The war ended in 1902, but the formal Act of Union only took place in 1910. In the interim, the British, anxious to repatriate

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the wealth then flowing from the gold mines of the Witwatersrand, created Rand Water Board (RWB) in 1903. This makes RWB older than South Africa is as a legal and constitutional entity, similar to the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACoE) that also predates the creation of the United States of America out of the ashes of the American Civil War. The Third Hydraulic Mission was all about getting water into Johannesburg and growing the gold mining industry as fast as possible. The Fourth Hydraulic Mission was about broadening the industrial base of South Africa from 1961 onwards. Building on the earlier ideas of Thomas Bain, this aggressive phase of the hydraulic mission was centred on massive infrastructure spending to cascade water from one river basin to another. Known as inter-basin transfers (IBTs), this created the hydraulic infrastructure for a modern and diversifying economy, now being emulated elsewhere in Africa. The central driving force for this initiative was the Commission of Enquiry into Water Matters, launched in the 1960s. This created a highly sophisticated science, engineering and technology capacity within South Africa, housed in the CSIR and supported by the Water Research Commission (WRC). This strategy enabled the country to grow, and even thrive, in the face of increased isolation as a pariah state. This unfortunately politicized the magnificent engineering and scientific achievements. Criticism for the Fourth Hydraulic Mission is based on the fact that benefits were not distributed equitably across society. For this reason, it was abandoned when South Africa adopted the National Water Act in 1998. Sadly, it has never been replaced in a coherent manner, the National Water Resource Strategy merely being a different permutation on the same basic theme couched in the rhetoric of political

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correctness. In essence, it is still about supply-sided management by augmenting the resource base through dam building and IBTs. However, it fails to ask one critical question – what happens when South Africa becomes a fundamentally water constrained economy and our country is simply unable to create jobs and social cohesion merely by augmenting supply? This opens the door to what I believe we now need to consider as a nation - the Fifth Hydraulic Mission. The Fifth Hydraulic Mission The sole objective of the proposed Fifth Hydraulic Mission is to stimulate jobs, reinstate investor confidence and create an enabling environment for social cohesion in the face of a fundamentally water constrained economy. The foundation for this is the shocking truth revealed during the last national drought. South Africa has reached the limit of its readily available water, exactly as predicted by the fundamental data used for the first National Water Resource Strategy published in 2004. In that specific report, the national water deficit was projected to be 2,044 million cubic metres (mcm) per annum by 2025, with the known deficits in the Berg River Water Management Area ( WMA) ( Western Cape) to be 508 mcm; the Mvoti to Mzimkulu WMA (KZN) to be 788 mcm; and the upper Vaal WMA (Gauteng) to be 764 mcm. It is in these three areas that the last drought hit hardest, effectively showing that water security is no longer possible unless we do things differently. Just in these three WMAs alone, South Africa has a deficit of 2,060 mcm per annum by 2025. These are three epicentres of economic activity, and unless we get this right, also centres of social instability and loss of investor confidence.

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This introduces the second element of truth that the fifth hydraulic mission needs to deal with – investor confidence. The recent downgrade of South Africa to junk status by major ratings agencies has profound implications. Because the fiscus is no longer able to finance the R855 billion capital needed over the next decade, the bond market will be needed, but this cannot be accessed because of the downgrade. In effect then, South Africa is not going to be able to finance the infrastructure needed to restore water security back to KZN, the Western Cape and Gauteng under the business as usual approach. The wheel has gone full circle, because just as Thomas Bain reported in 1886 that private sector initiatives were leading infrastructure development in the Upington area, the same logic holds equally true today. Without private sector buy-in, the current government is simply unable to fund the infrastructure needed, so the steady decline into increased water insecurity is both inevitable and predictable. Which leads us to the third element of the Fifth Hydraulic Mission - blame seeking and avoidance. The last decade is characterised by the consolidation of power by Jacob Zuma and the emergence of what has been called state capture as a deliberate and methodical process of weakening institutions of government by creating a shadow state centred on rentseeking and patronage. Within the water sector, this is characterised by the delay of Phase II of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP), through attempts by Minister Nomvula Mokonyane to swing the tenders in favour of politically connected but technically incompetent entities. It is safe to say that the dynamics of engagement within South Africa at present are characterised by parties seeking to apportion blame on incompetent and corrupt officials on the one hand, while on the other hand those same parties are deflecting

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all efforts to hold them accountable. In this toxic environment, solution-seeking is not possible, and this is detrimental to us collectively a nation. This is why the Fifth Hydraulic Mission must not be contaminated in any way by blame-seeking behaviour. The proposed Fifth Hydraulic Mission thus has three key elements to it – the transition to a fundamentally water constrained national economy; growing loss of investor confidence and ratings agency downgrade to junk status; and the dynamics of blame-seeking or avoidance – focussed by the startling truth embedded in another fundamental fact. South Africa has about 48 bcm (billion cubic metres) of water per annum flowing in its collective rivers on average. Our country has a total combined storage capacity of 38 bcm, but we need about 63 bcm by 2030 if the country is to create full employment. The difference between what we need (63 bcm) and what we have at a high assurance of supply (38 bcm) is the magnitude of the supply deficit facing our national economy (±25 bcm). The single focussed core objective of the Fifth Hydraulic Mission is how to mobilize the 25 bcm needed to achieve sufficient economic growth to create enough employment to retain social cohesion. Failure will simply mean another revolution, a catastrophe to be avoided at all costs. Seen in this way, we actually have a good news story, because all we need to do is multiply what we already have (38 bcm) 1.7 times to create the approximately 63 bcm needed (38 bcm x 1.7 = 64.6 bcm). This is entirely possible by creating a recovery and recycling paradigm. Technology at global level has evolved to such a level of sophistication that sea water can be desalinated and sewage water recovered in safety and affordably. The former has allowed Israel to transition from a fundamentally water constrained economy, to a water secure economy. The latter has allowed Singapore to break its dependence on


3

the importation of water from neighbouring states, potentially hostile to its own national interest. The mooted Fifth National Hydraulic Mission will therefore need to be centred on policy reform by the state in which technology is applied and capital attracted to major water recovery programs. In KZN and the Western Cape, these will be centred on the desalination of seawater. In the hinterland (Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Free State) this will be centred on water and nutrient recovery from sewage. How far-fetched is this approach? • The Durban South sewage works has been recovering industrial water for use in a nearby paper mill and petrochemical processing facility since Ronnie Kasrils was Minister of Water and Forestry. • The Potsdam Waste Water Treatment Works generates safe water for the irrigation of gardens in the Cape Town financial precinct. • It is technically feasible to recover potable water from acid mine drainage (AMD) as evidenced by the experiences of the eMalahleni municipality in Mpumalanga. • Recent technological breakthroughs have shown it is possible to recover chemically pure phosphate from sewage, changing the business case for waste water management globally. • The only WMA in South Africa with a projected increase in flow over time is the Crocodile West and Marico, carrying the combined sewage effluent stream out of Gauteng.

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Conclusion What is needed is a deliberate attempt to excise the venom and vitriol unleashed by the State of Capture process currently playing out in South Africa. The recent drought has shown up weaknesses in the way we manage water. We therefore need to de-politicize water resource management by enabling policy reform to attract the necessary technology and capital needed to transition from the Fourth Hydraulic Mission (centred on supply sided solutions like inter-basin transfers of water), to the Fifth Hydraulic Mission (centred on economic growth driven by recovery and recycling). Central to this will be the deliberate avoidance of all blame-apportionment, knowing that this merely triggers a defensive barrier unconducive to solution-seeking behaviour. This means that we can potentially mobilize private sector capital to convert the 824 sewage works that discharge a staggering 4.2 trillion litres of untreated effluent daily into our rivers and dams, and convert these into phosphate recovery plant that produces safe water as a by-product. All of this is possible if we are collectively willing to change our behaviour and decide that we will not succumb to the slow decline into a failing state, driven by the loss of social cohesion, caused by our inability to create jobs and attract capital into the national economy. After all the Bill Clinton presidency was centred on one simple truth – it’s all about the economy (stupid)….

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References • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

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Priscoli, J. 2007. Five Challenges for Water Governance. In Turton, A.R., Hattingh, J., Maree, G., Roux, D.J., Claassen, M. & Strydom, W. (Eds.) Governance as a Trialogue: GovernmentSociety-Science in Transition. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Turton, A.R. 2016. South Africa and the Drought that Exposed a Young Democracy. In Water Policy (18); 210 – 227. http://wp.iwaponline.com/content/ppiwawaterpol/18/ S2/210.full.pdf Waterbury, J. 1979. Hydropolitics of the Nile Valley. New York: Syracuse University Press. Reisner, M. 1993. Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water. Revised Edition. New York: Penguin. https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/spains-hydraulicmission-conflict-power-and-the-mastering-of-water(c4674b72-1706-4ae3-bab468d2852df5ee).html Turton, A.R., Meissner, R., Mampane, P.M. & Seremo, O. 2004. A Hydropolitical History of South Africa’s International River Basins. Report No. 1220/1/04 to the Water Research Commission. Pretoria: Water Research Commission. Giliomee, H. 1981. Processes in Development of the Southern African Frontier, in Lamar, H. & Thompson, L. (Eds.) The Frontier in History: North America and Southern Africa Compared. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. Brown, J.C. 1875. Hydrology of South Africa; or Details of the Former Hydrographic Conditions of the Cape of Good Hope, and causes of its Present Aridity, with Suggestions of Appropriate Remedies for this Aridity. London: Kirkaldy. Brown, J.C. 1877. Water Supply of South Africa and the Facilitation for the Storage of It. Edinburgh: Oliver Boyd, Tweedale Court. Bain, T. 1886. Water-finding, Dam-making, River Utilization, Irrigation. Cape Town: Saul Solomon & Co. Turton, A.R., Meissner, R., Mampane, P.M. & Seremo, O. 2004. A Hydropolitical History of South Africa’s International River Basins. Report No. 1220/1/04 to the Water Research Commission. Pretoria: Water Research Commission. Page 14, Bain, T. 1886. Water-finding, Dam-making, River Utilization, Irrigation. Cape Town: Saul Solomon & Co. Turton, A.R., Schultz, C., Buckle, H, Kgomongoe, M., Malungani, T. & Drackner, M. 2006. Gold, Scorched Earth and Water: The Hydropolitics of Johannesburg. In Water Resources Development, Vol. 22., No. 2; 313-335. Tempelhoff, J.W.N. 2003. The Substance of Ubiquity: Rand Water 1903 – 2003. Vanderbijlpark: Kleio Publishers. UNECA. 2006. Report of the Regional Workshop on Developing Guidelines for Inter Basin Water Transfers for Policy Makers in Africa. Accra, Ghana: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). RSA. 1970. Report of the Commission of Enquiry into Water Matters. Document No. R.P. 34/1970. Pretoria: Government Printer. NWRS. 2004. National Water Resource Strategy. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). http://www.dwaf.gov.za/Documents/Policies/NWRS/Default.htm

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https://www.greencape.co.za/assets/Uploads/GreenCape-Water-MIR-2017-electronicFINAL-v1.pdf https://www.scribd.com/document/329757088/ State-of-Capture-Public-Protector-Report#from_embed http://pari.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Betrayal-of-the-Promise-25052017.pdf https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2016-08-05-amabhungane-nomvulamokonyanes-alleged-interference-in-lesotho-water-project-cited-as-causing-delays/#. WaLO4zWQzIU Pitman, W.V. 2011. Overview of Water Resource Assessment in South Africa: Current State and Future Challenges. In Water SA, Vol. 37; No. 5. Pages 659 – 664. Water Research Commission 40 Year Celebration Special Edition. http://www.durban.gov.za/City_Services/water_sanitation/Services/Pages/durbanrecyling.aspx http://resource.capetown.gov.za/documentcentre/Documents/Financial%20 documents/Annexure%20A_1617Budget_May16.pdf http://www.miningweek ly.com/ar ticle/contract-awarded-to-increase capacity-of-emalahleni-mine-water-treatment-plant-2012-05-04/ rep_id:3650 https://dakofa.com/fileadmin/user_upload/1000_Anders_Naettorp_Malmoe_v2.pdf NWRS. 2004. National Water Resource Strategy. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). http://www.dwaf.gov.za/Documents/Policies/NWRS/Default.htm http://www.iwa-network.org/desalination-past-present-future/ http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/wwap/ wwdr/2017-wastewater-the-untapped-resource/ Turton, A.R. 2016. Water Pollution and South Africa’s Poor. Johannesburg: South African Institute of Race Relations. http://irr.org.za/reports-and-publications/occasional-reports/ files/water-pollution-and-south-africas-poor https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/It%27s_the_economy,_stupid

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ADVERTORIAL

TOP OF ITS GAME - FREE STATE UNIVERSITY INTRODUCES NEW QUALIFICATION The Centre for Environmental Management at the University of the Free State recently introduced a new Postgraduate Diploma in Integrated Water Management (PGDip in IWM). This qualification was designed to prepare students to deal effectively with the complex problems that arise from managing water resources in a water constrained semi-arid environment. Water resources managers in southern Africa work in a high risk hydroclimatic environment. Not only is South Africa experiencing water balance deficits in many catchments, but the situation is expected to deteriorate further as the effects of increasing pollution, climate change and a growing water demand place further stress on the already scarce water resources. Water managers are therefore under pressure to provide water, with an acceptable degree of assurance, to communities, agriculture and industry in a climate that is expected to become warmer, drier and more variable in future. They need to be innovative in their thinking to manage our water resources in a way that support national goals such as poverty alleviation, job creation and resource protection. The water resources manager of today should have skills and knowledge relating to a variety of fields – from engineering, climate, hydrology, ecology, planning, and natural resource management, to environmental law, social development, and governance. They are expected to cross social, environmental, and technological boundaries to address a range

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of matters relating to sustainable resource management.

Course structure

The PGDIP in IWM was developed to accommodate part-time students employed in the water sector. This 120 credit qualification comprises three coursework modules to be completed over a one year period. For each module students have to attend a compulsory contact session at the Bloemfontein campus.

Target audience

Water professionals in southern Africa

Admission requirements

Applicants should have at least a relevant qualification on NQF level 7, be computer literate and proficient in English. Recognition of prior learning will be considered.

Application process

On-line applications close yearly on 30 September. Visit www.ufs.ac.za/cem for more information and to apply on-line.

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UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE


ADVERTORIAL

ABECO Tanks is no stranger to the water storage tank industry and a name that has stood its ground for over 30 years Established in 1983 by then founder and now CEO, Mannie Ramos identified a need for water supply to communities with limited resources and set about to satisfy this need without compromising hygiene, safety or quality. 30 years on and ABECO Tanks continues to deliver on this promise, having successfully installed over 20 00 tanks across 32 countries. They are also the only manufacturer of pressed steel tanks that is SABS approved and ISO registered. One of their many success stories includes the erection of the first 5 million litre modular tank in Africa as well as 5 x 500m3 water tanks on 25 meter stands erected on the north east coast of Central America and designed to withstand hurricanes. “We do not rest on our laurels and staying ahead of the pack has certainly not been easy” says Mannie “embracing modern technology, ongoing product evaluation and continued research and development has ensured that we have remained the leading innovators in our field”. ABECO Tanks has recently modernised its factory and invested in the latest equipment allowing them to adapt to the demand in the industry. ”We also only source our steel locally

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and buy direct from the mills. The quality of our steel is still one of the best in the world” added Mannie. ABECO offers a full design manufacture and installation services for ground level, elevated and circular galvanised water tanks and have a division that focuses purely on special custom tanks. They have also paid particular attention to the design of all its types of tanks to ensure they are easy to install and transport especially to remote locations where resources are limited. All components are also lightweight and easy to handle. ABECO has also been awarded the exclusive rights to represent Tank Connections and provide precision RTP (Rolled, tapered panel) tanks to the African market. Tank Connection is an industry leader of custom designed bulk storage tanks and integrated storage systems. Their storage products and services are recognised as the best offered in the industry. ATS – African Tank systems is now representing them and forms part of one of the divisions of Abeco Tanks. It comes as no surprise they have been the industry leader for over 30 years and if they continue to keep up with market needs, trends and technology, as they have - it shouldn’t come as a surprise that they will continue to hold this title for many years to come.

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Chapter 4 Promotion of industrial water reuse and recycle

— Chule Qalase

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Water Conservation and Water Demand Management in South Africa currently and future.

Africa is home to 15% of the world’s population, but has only 9% of global renewable water resources, unevenly distributed across the region ( Wang et al., 2014, World Water Assessment Programme of 2017 (WWAP, 2017). The gap between water availability and water demand is growing fast, especially in cities, where the urban population is expected to nearly quadruple by 2037 ( World Bank, 2012). The improvement of living standards and the change in consumption patterns are contributing to this growth in water demand. On the other hand, water availability is decreasing due to competing demands from agriculture, mining and industry, and deteriorating water quality. Large numbers of people are dependent on groundwater as their primary or alternate source of water, but pollution and over-extraction threaten groundwater resources ( World Bank, 2012). Out of over a billion (World Bank, 2016) people in Sub-Saharan Africa, there are still 319 million people without access to improved drinking water sources (WWAP, 2017). The sanitation picture is even gloomier: 695 million people do not have basic sanitation and not a single Sub-Saharan African country met the Million Development Goals (MDGs) target regarding sanitation (UNICEF/WHO, 2015). Sub-Saharan Africa can address the strong growth in water demand that is expected for 2030 and meet the Sustainable Development Goals (more especially SDG 6), provided it starts addressing its current water challenges now and embraces the opportunities that improved wastewater management can provide. This move will require better governance structures, effective institutions and policies, better

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infrastructure for wastewater collection and treatment, and better maintenance of this infrastructure (WWAP 2017). The main objectives of SDG 6 are to ensure that there are availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all people and entire environment in the planet. South Africa is a semi-arid country with high water stress (40–60%) due to the low volumes of rainfall (average of 500mm per annum) and high evaporation (average of 1700mm per annum) (Eberhard and Robinson, 2003, Adewumi et al, 2010). The highly variable and spatial distribution of rainfall across the country adds to the scarcity of fresh water. South Africa depends on surface water for most of its urban, industrial, and agricultural requirements with about 320 dams providing a total capacity of about 38 000 million cubic metres (m3) – that’s the same as about 15 million Olympicsized swimming pools ( Adewumi et al 2010, DWAF, 2004a). Groundwater plays an important role but mostly in rural water supply schemes, with only a few groundwater aquifers that can be utilised on a large scale due to groundwater salinity in especially the coastal areas of the country (Mukheirbir, 2005 and Adewumi et al 2010. In the South African context, industries have recently experienced, and are still experiencing very serious water security risks. Industries in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape as well as KwaZulu Natal have had to do with little water and some have faced loses of production due to planned water shedding. For industries, water security risk is comprised of several parameters which among other are e.g. physical quality and quantity risk, regulation and reputational risk. These risks call for

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industries to develop strategies to mitigate water risks. South Africa’s water resources are limited and, in global terms, scarce. Sustained growth in human population, economic development, and the urgent need to supply water services to millions of people without essential services in South Africa, has led to an increasing demand for water. Being largely an arid country as mentioned above, South Africa is fast approaching the limit of its available water supply, threatened in terms of both quantity and quality. It is generally assumed that South Africa’s fresh water resources will be fully utilised within the next twenty to thirty years if the current growth in water demand and use are not curbed or altered. Many factors such as climate, economic growth (i.e. irrigated agriculture and industrialization) and standards of living influence the requirements for water in South Africa. The major changes in national policies since 1994 have influenced migration into urban area and decline in population of rural areas (Adewumi et al 2010). According to the Department of Water and Sanitation’s National Water Conservation & Water Demand Management Strategy, industry, mining and power generation (IMP) sectors use close to 16% of the total water demand in South Africa. In the South African context, industries include the processing of agricultural and forestry products, construction and manufacturing (including steel and metal), commercial industries and tourism-related industries. All industries use water in either their main or secondary activities, including those that use characteristics of the domestic sector, such as in office buildings. It is generally accepted that the welfare of the IMP sector is imperative to the economic development and growth of South Africa. The need to ensure sustainable water supply is therefore a priority.

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Wastewater Reuse in the World and in South Africa

Water reuse is economically feasible and attractive when there is a potential for cost recovery by treating wastewater to a water quality standard acceptable to users. Wastewater in this article will be treated as water that is not suitable for a certain process but could be used for a different process as a critical component of the water cycle and needs to be managed across the entire water management cycle: from freshwater abstraction, treatment, distribution, use, collection and post-treatment to its reuse and ultimate return to the environment, where it replenishes the source for subsequent water abstractions (WWAP, 2017). Although wastewater is a critical component of the water management cycle, after it has been used, it is all too often seen as a burden to be disposed of or a nuisance to be ignored or discarded. The results of this neglect are now obvious as demand for water increases, and drought makes things worse. The immediate impacts, including the degradation of aquatic ecosystems and waterborne illness from contaminated freshwater supplies, have far-reaching implications on the well-being of communities and peoples’ livelihoods. Continued failure to address wastewater as a major social and environmental problem would compromise other efforts towards achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In the WWAP 2017 report generated by United Nations, it is argued that attention to the management of water after it has been used has often been an overlooked component of the water management cycle. Wastewater management generally receives little social and political attention in comparison to water supply challenges, especially in the context of water scarcity. Yet, the two are intrinsically related



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– neglecting wastewater can have highly detrimental impacts on the sustainability of water supplies, human health, the economy and the environment. According to the WWAP 2017 report wastewater reuse involves the collection and treatment of wastewater so that it may be used for certain applications. Wastewater reuse can form an important component of both wastewater management and water resource management. It can offer an environmentally sound option for managing wastewater that dramatically reduces environmental impacts associated with the discharge of wastewater to surface waters. In addition, reuse can provide an alternative water supply for many activities that do not require drinking water quality and as such permit the saved drinking water to be used elsewhere (Adewumi et al 2010). Lastly, reuse is attractive in many communities because the cost of producing treated wastewater has been found to be lower than the cost of producing drinking water (Adewumi, 2010). These reasons form the major drivers for wastewater reuse in many communities across the world. The most significant restraints to reuse include the potential risks to public health, and the potential for reduced sewer or stream flows. Industrial water resource use efficiency management philosophy entails a priority hierarchy approach. The 1st and highest priority in the hierarchy is avoidance of water use in the process, or substitution of water use in the industrial process. This is done as a means to rather use alternative input material in the processes, for example, substitute hot water steam for scalding in a pig or chicken abattoir and or as part of the process on heating/chilling requirements. Scalding is the first step in the process of feather/hair removal in an abattoir. In

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the scalding process, poultry or pigs are immersed into powerfully agitated hot water, which transfers heat to the feather/ hair follicles, allowing feathers/hair to be removed mechanically by the plucking machines in the next step in the process. In the scalding process optimum heat transfer and precise temperature control are two vital characteristics of a first-class scalding system. Optimum heat transfer ensures that scalding is done efficiently. Precise temperature control is important for any scalding process, whether poultries are to be soft, medium or hard scalded. This required heat to remove hair could be done through the use of hot steam instead of hot water. This goes to the core of new green industrial engineering, where the elimination of pollution of freshwater and wastewater is part of the equation from concept to design for operations and maintenance. The 2nd step in the hierarchy looks at minimising/reducing the uptake of fresh water in an industrial process. This is about looking at demand management and conservation at plant level. The main aim is to drive water efficiency improvements, change technology and look at behaviour. The figure below shows the approach a mining operation can use to adopt a water conservation and water demand management approach to drive efficiency. There are generally two categories of opportunities for reducing water usage: the first is reducing wastage and the second is increasing efficiency through new technologies and behavioural change. The opportunity for increasing efficiency exists because consumers generally use water for the goods and services they derive from it and not for the water itself. Through new technologies, and combined with changes in approach and use patterns, water usage can be reduced significantly without


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necessarily affecting the desired outcomes or one’s quality of life – and without resorting to costly infrastructure development. Water wastage can be defined as the use of water without deriving any direct benefit. The non-efficient use of water can

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be described as water used over and above the accepted benchmark for a specific purpose or water used were very little benefit is derived. All consumers in South Africa should prevent wasting water and should strive to use water efficiently.

Figure 1: showing a mine water conservation and demand management. Source DWS: Mine water conservation and water demand management

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The 3rd step in the hierarchy is to mitigate or reuse/recycle water. This is an interesting option as it looks at what quality requirements each process demands in terms of water parameters. This option looks at closed loop systems, and cleaning in place (CIP) practices. The availability of water resources is also intrinsically linked to water quality, as the pollution of water sources may prohibit different types of uses. In the face of ever-growing demand, wastewater is gaining momentum as a reliable alternative source of water, shifting the paradigm of wastewater management from ‘treatment and disposal’ to ‘reuse, recycle and resource recovery’. In this sense, wastewater is no longer seen as a problem in need of a solution, rather it is part of the solution to challenges that societies are facing today. Increased discharges of untreated sewage, combined with agricultural runoff and inadequately treated wastewater from industry, have resulted in the degradation of water quality around the world. If current trends persist, water quality will continue to degrade over the coming decades, particularly in resource-poor countries in dry areas, further endangering human health and ecosystems, contributing to water scarcity and constraining sustainable economic development. Wastewater reuse has formed an essential component of water demand management (WDM) in many countries like Jordan, Kuwait, Israel, Spain, Australia, Namibia, Germany, United Kingdom, and the United States of America (IWA, 2008). With the broad range of effective wastewater treatment technologies that exist and records of successful wastewater reuse implementation in many of these countries, it has become imperative to evaluate the potential of wastewater reuse as a viable alternative in the drive towards

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overcoming the challenges of current and future water shortages in South Africa.

Local and International examples of Waste Water Reuse/Recycling South Africa

KwaZulu Natal (KZN) In the KwaZulu-Natal Province, a PublicPrivate Partnership (PPP) exists between the eThekwini municipality Council and private investors in the production of treated wastewater for industrial applications. The WWTWs is designed to treat 47.5 Ml/d of domestic and industrial wastewater with about 74% of the treated wastewater supplied to MONDI Paper2. The treated wastewater produced meets or exceeds the South African drinking water standards (DWAF, 2004b) in 95% of the parameters measured. Significant benefits of this project have included: • Delayed capital investment for increased marine outfall pipeline; • Delayed capital investment for future bulk potable water supply infrastructure; • Creation of long-term revenue from a levy raised on the production of recycled water; • Reduced cost of water services to Durban's citizens; and • A 44% reduction in the 2001 water bill for MONDI Paper. Western Cape In the Western Cape Province, the City of Cape Town (CoCT) stands out as one of the very few local authorities in South Africa that has operated a wastewater reuse system for several decades. Reuse has therefore become a vital component of the city's integrated water management plan. Treated wastewater is supplied from participating WWTWs to several large scale irrigation and industrial users. Wastewater reuse in the CoCT is grouped as follows:


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• (i) Formal (direct) re-users of wastewater: this group of users are connected to a treated wastewater pipe network of 2527 km from seven WWTWs. The pipe network is funded and operated by the local authority; • (ii) Private (direct) users of wastewater: these are users who privately fund and operate the treated wastewater pipe networks from the participating WW T Ws (e.g. Century City and Steenberg golf estate from the Cape Flats WWTWs). These schemes withdraw approximately 14.5 Ml/d of treated wastewater. • (iii) Informal (indirect) users of wastewater: a significant number of these users are unregulated and withdraw treated wastewater from downstream points along a surface water source after discharge from the participating WWT Ws. These include some golf courses that draw from the Athlone treatment works and agricultural users that draw from Kraaifontein and Scottsdene.

INDUSTRIAL WATER

Mpumalanga In the Mpumalanga Province exists a first for South Africa: a pioneering PPP between eMalahleni Local Municipality and two leading coal mining companies (BHP Billiton and Anglo Coal). This PPP led to the establishment of a major mine water reclamation plant. Acidic, saline, underground water from four nearby coal mines is treated and purified to drinking water standards and supplied to the Municipality. This type of collaboration between two large mining corporations has few precedents in South Africa, and highlights the growing importance attached to responsible environmental management. This innovative partnership has averted a water supply crisis in eMalahleni. At the same time, a major water contamination problem and environmental hazard has been transformed into a valuable resource which meets the needs of a range of users, safely and reliably. The eMalahleni Municipality is the main user and now receives 16 megalitres of safe, treated drinking water each day from the

Figure 2. The Emalahleni Water Reclamation plant process

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reclamation plant to boost domestic water supplies. Since April 2009, this amount increased to 20 megalitres per day. The treatment process is designed to produce water quality, which meets South African National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (SANS 0241 Class 0 potable water) and uses the High Recovery Precipitating Reverse Osmosis (HiPRO) process from which low salinity product water is generated by the membrane process. This design’s chief characteristic is that it makes use of Reverse Osmosis to concentrate the water and produce supersaturated brine from which the salts can be released in a simple precipitation process. The schematic below shows the project. Northwest The second major highlighted wastewater reuse/recycling plant case study is recorded by Anglo American Platinum. This ground-breaking project entailed a partnership between Anglo and its host municipality of Rustenburg in North West Province. Anglo Platinum partnered with the local municipality in order to reduce the potable water demand from the municipality, and signed an offtake agreement with the Rustenburg Water Services Trust in 2006 to use 15 Ml/day of treated sewage effluent from its sewage treatment plant at a cost of R2.1million per month. However, inconsistent water quality and supply posed a challenge to Anglo and resulted in limited optimal use of this water. To address this challenge, in 2011 Anglo Platinum commissioned a R15 million water-treatment plant to improve the quality of the treated sewage water introduced into their water-reticulation system. In 2014 additional pipelines were installed to promote the use of a further 3 Ml/day of treated sewage water and simultaneously offset the use of an

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equivalent volume of potable water. The aim of this was to increase the supply of treated sewage water to 20 Ml by installing a device that will release 6 Ml to 8 Ml of potable water. Construction of the plant began in January 2015. Municipalities are required by law to treat their wastewater from sewage works to a level where it can be discharged safely to receiving water bodies. One point of interest in the case of Rustenburg local municipality is that, there are also major polluters who discharge their effluent to the municipality’s waste water works. It is interesting that Anglo is making use of this wastewater for its production needs and thus lowering both the municipality’s fresh water demand from Rand Water and for Anglo to lower its demand for fresh water to run its processes. Limpopo Anglo American reportedly engaged the same partnership in the Limpopo province where it entered into a partnership with Polokwane municipality and Mogalakwena municipality. This ensures that waste water from the municipalities is taken by the mine and is used in the blasting purposes. The mine invested money in the upgrade of the municipality’s wastewater treatment works and in return, gets the treated water that is not fit for human consumption and is used in the open cast operation of the mine. It is to be noted that even though these studies are mainly based in mining, one needs to be aware that mining is one of the heavier industrial users of water and it is highly impossible for a mine to run without water. Anglo saw access to water as one of its biggest risks and in mitigating this risk as a business, it was imperative for it to invest in these municipalities so that it can have secured water for its operations.


4 African Examples Namibia Moving further afield, the use of reclaimed wastewater was the only affordable option for the City of Windhoek to cope with the water shortage caused by population growth, increased demand and declining rainfall following the water crisis of 1957. This has led to the first full-scale application of Direct Portable Reuse (DPR) in the Wastewater Reclamation Plant in Windhoek, Namibia – the world’s oldest – in 1969. In this period of more than 40 years of operation, the safety of the water was verified by epidemiological studies and no health problems were reported. The advanced multi-barrier treatment process, used by the City of Windhoek, produces purified water of a quality that consistently meets all the required drinking water standards. The new plant, built in 2002, incorporates substantial technological upgrades. The plant’s continued success is attributable to several factors, including: the vision and great dedication of the potable reclamation pioneers; the excellent information policy and education campaigns supporting buy-in; the absence of water related health problems; a multiple-barrier approach; reliable operation and online processes and water quality control; and the near absence of practicable alternatives (Lahnsteiner et al., 2013). In North Africa, water reuse has been a priority in Tunisia since the early 1980s, when Tunisia launched a nation-wide water reuse programme to increase the country’s usable water resources. Most municipal wastewater receives secondary biological treatment through activated sludge, with some limited tertiary treatment also in place. Restrictions on treated wastewater use to protect public health have received considerable attention and are in line with WHO recommendations (WHO, 2006b). Tunisian regulations allow

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for the use of secondary treated effluent on all crops except vegetables, whether eaten raw or cooked. Regional agricultural departments supervise the use of safely treated wastewater and collect charges from the farmers. Tunisian farmers pay for irrigation water on the basis of the volume of water required and the area to be irrigated. While there is strong government support for treated wastewater use, farmers continue to prefer irrigation from groundwater due to social acceptance, regulations concerning crop choices, and other agronomic considerations. Farmers in the arid south have also expressed concerns about the long-term impacts of saline wastewater on their crop productivity and soils. In addition, farmers consider the health restrictions as an impediment to growing high-value crops such as vegetables. To address these challenges, Tunisian policy-makers have sought to improve the coordination and pursue demand-driven approaches to improve the planning of wastewater reclamation and irrigation projects with safely treated effluent (Qadir et al., 2010). Other international Examples The re-use of water is widely practiced in the world, both in developed and emerging economies. Many countries have developed water re-use policies and associated laws and regulations. Water re-use internationally contributes to reconcile the gap between water availability and water needs in such countries as the United States of America, Spain, Australia, Israel and China. If wastewater is accepted as a positive input, rather than an unwanted output, of industrial activity demanding disposal, there is a logical and preferred process from its elimination to pro-active use and recycling (WWAP, 2017). Water is not only an operational challenge and a cost item in industry; it is also an opportunity for

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growth as the incentives for minimizing water use (which includes wastewater use and recycling), reduce costs and water dependency. Industry needs to ‘produce more with less’, which in the case of water means running drier (UNIDO, 2010). This means that in a production process, to drive resource use efficiency, less input materials need to be used to produce maximum out-put of products, and where possible, internal re-use and recycling encouraged and re-working be as minimal as possible. This will result in reduction of intake of fresh input material, which in this case will be fresh water. As the reduction of freshwater intake is linked to a decrease in wastewater discharges, there is a major role to be played by cleaner production initiatives that focus on reducing overall water use, closing the water cycle, eliminating wastewater discharge (zero discharge), and reducing or eliminating solvents and toxic chemicals (UNEP, 2010). Cleaner production, through green industry, creates value by lowering operational costs through the elimination of inefficiencies by using the 3R strategy (reduce, recycle, reuse), which also helps limit environmental impacts (UNIDO, 2010). Last and 4th step in the hierarchy is wastewater regeneration through treatment. This is often a more resource intensive as legislation and enforcement normally demands that waste water that is discharged must meet certain parameters before it is discharged to receiving water bodies. Industrial activities impact severely on water quality through pollution. Pollution abatement techniques can be used in the sector by adopting modern technology. Economic tools such as incentives or penalties can be used to achieve the desired

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levels of pollution, but the sector might not yet be ready to make use of them. This is the focus of the proposed Waste Discharge Charge System. International experiences from Denmark, and other European countries has shown that, because of processes such as treatment, recycling and reuse, charging for waste discharge has a greater impact on the efficient use of water within an industry than the price of abstracted water.

Conclusion

For water re-use or recycling to be effectively implemented in the South African context, few considerations need to be addressed. The following affect choices related to water reuse as an option for water supply and augmentation: • Water quality and security of supply; • Water treatment technology; • Cost relative to other water supply alternatives; • Social and cultural perceptions; • Environmental considerations. Although these are likely to be inter-related in practice, it is useful to discuss each in turn. The biggest obstacle from industrial experience faced by industries is the extremely long return of investment in terms of water efficiency and technology investments in treating water for industrial purposes. The payback periods are often too high for investments purposes but industry needs to make a decision whether the risk of not having access to water outweighs the monitory value of putting new technologies in treating water for recycling and reuse purposes or not. From these case studies, water reuse and recycling is possible, but once again the issue of perception needs to be overcome through awareness raising etc


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References • Adewumi JR; Ilemobadea A.A., Van Zylb J.E. In: Treated wastewater reuse in South Africa: Overview, potential and challenges. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 55 (2010) 221–231 • Bhagwan, J 2012, ‘Turning acid mine drainage water into drinking water: the eMalahleni water recy-cling project’, Water Research Commission. • CoCT, 2006 CoCT, City of Cape Town. Water services development plan for City of Cape Town 2006/07; May 2006. • CoCT, 2007 CoCT, City of Cape Town. Treated effluent re-uses strategy and master planning within the City of Cape Town. BVi Consulting Engineers. BVi Report No. C1500/1.1; April 2007. • DWAF, 2004a DWAF, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. National water resource strategy, Pretoria; 2004a. • DEMOWARE (Innovation Demonstration for a Competitive and Innovative European Water Reuse Sector). 2016. Market Analysis of Key Water Reuse Technologies. Report D4.1. demoware.eu/en/ results/deliverables/deliverable-d4-1-market-analysis-of-keywater-reuse-technologies.pdf _____. n.d. Tarragona. DEMOWARE website. demoware. eu/en/demo-sites/tarragona • Domenech, T. and Davies, M. 2011. Structure and morphology of industrial symbiosis networks: The case of Kalundborg. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 10, pp. 79–89. • Eberhard R., Robinson P.: Guidelines for the development of national water policies and strategies to support IWRM. Draft SADC Water Sector Co-ordination Unit, Gaborone (2003) • IWA International Water Association. Water reuse. An international survey of current practice, issues and needs B. Jimenez (Ed.), Asano t Scientific, 1-84339-089-2, IWA Publishing (2008) Technical report No. 20 • Lahnsteiner, J., du Pisani, P. L., Menge, J. & Esterhuizen, J. More than 40 years of direct potable reuse experience in Windhoek, Namibia. In: Milestones inWater Reuse. The Best Success Stories (V. Lazarova, T. Asano, A. Bahri & J. Anderson, eds). IWA Publishing, London, UK, pp. 351–364. • Mukheirbir P. Local water resource management strategies for adaptation to climate induced impacts in South Africa. In: Proceedings, workshop on rural development and the role of food, water & biomass: opportunities for development and climate; 2005. • National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine. 2015. Using Graywater and Stormwater to enhance Local Water Supplies: An Assessment of Risks, Costs and Benefits. Washington, DC, National Academies Press. • O’Neill, M. 2015. Ecological Sanitation – A Logical Choice? The Development of the Sanitation Institution in a World Society. Tampere, Finland, Tampere University of Technology. • Qadir, M., Bahri, A., Sato, T. and Al-Karadsheh, E. 2010. Wastewater production, treatment, and irrigation in Middle East and North Africa. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 37–51. Doi: 0.1007/s10795-009-9081-y

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ADVERTORIAL

THE ROLE OF INDUSTRY COOPERATION IN ALLEVIATING WATER SHORTAGE IN SA

Increasingly South African companies are too dependent on rainfall and surface water becoming conscious of how they use water sources, we need to diversify”. due to the strain on water resources caused He highlighted that the National Water RDI by the current drought. At the recent 2017 Roadmap is a multi-partner programme that National Cleaner Production Centre, South needs multiple partners across the value chain Africa (NCPC-SA), biennial conference the for it to succeed. He noted that the roadmap Department of Science and Technology will work when all the community members (DST) called on industry to cooperate with cooperate together. government, to ensure the success of the Further responses mentioned to the current National Water Research, Development and water crisis is that the water efficiency cost of intervention has been identified as secondary Innovation (RDI) Roadmap. Responding to South Africa’s water crisis, after lose control. The NCPC-SA’s Industrial DST Director of Environmental Services and Water Efficiency (IWE) Project seeks to Technologies, Dr. Henry Roman emphasised change industry thinking as it relate to water securing water for the future and industry’s efficiency. The IWE Project targets South cooperative role as water RDI investors. African industry and manufacturing sectors, South Africa is classified as a water scarce especially those where production processes country. According to the Department of affect water quality. Water Affairs, South Africa is ranked as the 30th driest country globally – with mean annual rainfall of 450 mm/a. In comparison, this is below the world mean annual of 800 mm/a. Dr. Roman stated, “The current water crisis can only be broken with three to four years of good rain.” He continued saying, “The effects of the current drought Clarification pond last stage of effluent treatment before disposal are long-term and we are to drain or reuse

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NCPC


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Chapter 5 Understanding residential water-use behaviour in urban South Africa

— By Inga Jacobs-Mata, Benita de Wet, Ismail Banoo, Richard Meissner, Willem de Lange and Wilma Strydom

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Abstract

South Africa’s water supply is under great pressure as demand continues to rise. Demand mitigation strategies implemented by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), water boards and local authorities, and a few water awareness initiatives by private sector companies, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), and the media, have had some success, but domestic consumption remains high. In this chapter, we provide some background to current household water use behaviour from selected research conducted over the past 10 years and more particularly in the recent past as a result of the severe regional drought. We also provide a brief overview of some of the interventions which have been used by different metropolitan municipalities to curb water consumption. We then introduce a new study by the CSIR, in which we will delve deeper into residential water use and behaviour. This study will focus on the issue of attitudes of households to their water consumption in a search for ways in which domestic demand for water in South Africa’s urban areas may be measurably reduced. The paper aims to bring to the fore the complexity of the forces shaping demand and water use. In so doing, it further aims to inform public policy regarding strategies and actions to reduce consumption and/or provide alternative domestic supplies of potable water.

Introduction

Freshwater is increasingly being used beyond sustainable levels (Postel, 2000). In many parts of the world people have grappled with the water supply challenge and several dozen solutions have been implemented. There is no shortage of proposed technological ‘fixes’: by increasing supply at the macro-scale through major desalination plants, constructing more

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dams, tapping underground water supplies, recycling industrial wastewater, and at the micro or domestic scale by installing water tanks, recycling household ‘grey’ water, and other domestic adaptations. There is also a plethora of initiatives to reduce consumption by using water efficient fittings within the home and by encouraging changes in gardening practices (Randolph and Troy, 2008). However, these interventions do little to bring about widespread change in water use attitudes and behaviours. In terms of meeting basic household needs, a USA-based study by Gleick (1996) estimated that 13.2 gallons (or roughly 50 litres) of clean water are required per person per day for human needs (drinking, sanitation, hygiene, and food preparation). Of course, this is based on water consumption patterns in the United States of America (USA), a more water abundant country with more developed water infrastructure, and a very different socio-economic/political and biophysical context than South Africa. Even so, the USA situation does provide a global benchmark because of the country’s large urbanised human population. In South Africa, bar a few studies (particularly one on behavioural nudges conducted by the University of Cape Town) researchers have conducted little research on residential water use attitudes and household behaviour. The 1997 National Water Services Act (RSA, 1997) and the National Water Act of 1998 (RSA, 1998) outline the goals of water supply. These Acts aim to ensure the “right of access to basic water supply.” A “basic” supply means 25 litres per person per day, easily accessible within 200m of the household. In July 2001, free basic water became a national policy through a revised tariff structure that included at least 6 000 litres of free water per month (i.e. 40 litre/capita/ day for a family of five or 25 litre/capita/

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day for a family of eight). Government gradually implemented the policy within each designated metropolitan municipality’ jurisdiction. However, South Africans use much more than 6 kilolitres per month. Studies carried out in 2015 show that the average South African suburban family of 4 uses 300 litres per person per day. This equates to: =300 litres x 4 people =1200 litres per day x 30 days =36,000 litres per month x 12 months =432,000 litres per yeaR Thus, the average South African uses six times more water than what was estimated by Gleick in terms of actual consumption, and 12 times more than the guideline prescribed in our legislation. Despite South Africa’s severe drought with most metropolitan areas instituting water restrictions, many South Africans still consume more water than the global average. Nevertheless, research indicates that with climate change, water supply will become more variable due to groundwater salinisation and increased rainfall variability (Bates, Kundzewicz, Wu, & Palutikof, 2008; Kundzewicz et al. 2008).

Figure 1. Current water supply in a peri-urban area in South Africa (Source: Photo taken by Elliot Moyo, CSIR, 2016)

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Additionally, research also shows a direct relationship between increased access and amplified water wastage. A study conducted by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), confirmed that increasing access to water leads to increased water wastage (Strydom, 2009). Personal communication with municipal water managers for yet another CSIR project suggests similar trends. In certain areas up to 50% of purified water is wasted due to the non-maintenance of household infrastructure, particularly in indigent households i.e. if you do not pay for something you will not appreciate it. Researchers, therefore, have argued that rather than focusing on increasing freshwater supply alone, we also need to reduce water demand (Christian-Smith, Gleick, & Cooley, 2011). Demand-side policy responses to future freshwater variability will benefit from a deeper understanding of current household water use, perceptions of water use and the drivers of household water use behaviour. Such deeper understanding addresses key questions such as: do South Africans understand that the country is semi-arid with limited water resources, and that for example, most of the water used in the industrial hub of Gauteng is imported from Lesotho? Do people know how much water they use for various daily household activities? When asked to conserve water, would people know which behavioural changes are more effective than others? What motivates or drives people to use residential water in the way that they do and what will motive them to change the way in which they use water? Are households aware of their actual water use and do perceptions of water use correspond with actual water use? A study by Viljoen (2015) on Cape Town’s perceived residential water consumption trends found that laundry washing was the


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highest water use activity in the informal settlements category (hand washing) and low-income category (hand or washing machine), with 55.82% and 62.86% of respondents, respectively, reporting laundry washing as the highest water use activity. In the middle to high income category, the perceived highest water use activity shifted to showering with 46.51% of the respondents reporting showering as the highest water use activity on their properties (Viljoen, 2015). In contrast, the GreenCape Market Intelligence Reports for Water (2017), revealed a slightly different story. Actual water use data revealed that in lowincome households, the highest water use activity was for flushing of toilets followed by showering or bathing. Similarly, in highincome households, there was a near equal balance between water use for flushing of toilets and showering or bathing as the highest water use activities. Given that the Viljoen study was based on perceived water use, and the GreenCape data on actual water use, it is clear that a disconnect exists between actual and perceived water use.

Water Demand Strategies and Human Behaviour

Indeed, sustainable long-term water resource management requires an integrated mix of supply and demand-side management strategies in accordance with integrated water resources management (IWRM) principles. Yet, in South Africa the scope for supply-side management strategies is rapidly decreasing (De Lange, 2010b). The only remaining options for increasing water supply are becoming increasingly expensive and less and less feasible, such as further inter-basin transfers and desalination of seawater or treatment of acid mine drainage. The key to strategic water resource management, therefore lies in effective demand-side

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management approaches (De Lange, 2010b). Demand-side management refers to the use of instruments (economic, social, and regulatory) aimed at ensuring more efficient water use, and ultimately reducing water demand. Demand-side management strategies are particularly relevant for South Africa, where a number of municipalities have implemented water restrictions to curb water use. However, many of the strategies and instruments used for changing water use behaviour have had limited success, and where they have been effective, the changes in behaviour have been temporary. In order to design and implement instruments that effect permanent reductions in water use, we first need to understand the drivers of water use behaviour, and then design demand management instruments in response to these drivers. Worldwide, researchers have conducted several studies on the nature of household water use with a range of findings. Ungar (1994) argues that the environment is a domain in which attitudes do not predict behaviours very well. In a different vein, Sofoulis (2005) argues that socio-technical considerations influence consumption, and that these considerations do not change rapidly or evenly over time. For example, residents may not be able to change their behaviour very quickly because of the rigidities or path dependencies created by the water supply and waste disposal systems they have available to them e.g. standard waste disposal fee that provides no incentive to produce less waste or recycle (Sofoulis, 2005). These path dependencies are often reinforced by the institutional structures (and cultures established in them) created to provide the services (Randolph and Troy, 2008). Despite the existing body of research, the causal relationship between changes in water use and behavioural

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change is still relatively poorly understood, particularly in the South African context, hence the need for the up and coming CSIR study on residential water use and behaviour.

Current state of household water use research

Several current studies investigated the relationships between water use behaviour, attitudes towards water use and sociodemographic factors, focusing on variables such as income, education, political affiliation, household family size, type of dwelling, and home ownership (Hamilton, 1983; Berk et al., 1993, De Oliver, 1999). The results were contrasting and varied. Berk et al. (1993) reported positive relationships between income and water conservation, where De Oliver (1999) reported the opposite for income, alongside an inverse relationship between education levels and conservation. Hines et al. (1987) reported that, in general, conservation activities were normally associated with higher income groups. As Gilg and Barr (2006) point out, all these studies show that people that are liberal in their thinking conserve more water than others, mainly because they are more educated, have smaller families, smaller properties and own their homes. While these findings may be true, they are also context-specific. Higher-income earners may for instance consume more water than lower income groups with restricted water access (Gilg and Barr, 2006; Blignaut and De Wit, 2004; Blignaut 2008). In terms of attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions, a range of variables influence water use behaviour such as price and economic incentives (Berk et al., 1980 and Syme et al., 2000), environmental threats associated with over consumption (Baldassare and Katz, 1992; Gray and Moseley, 2005), social desirability linked to

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socially-acceptable water saving behaviour (Sadalla and Krull, 1995), perceived rights to unlimited water supply (Lam, 1999), and intrinsic motivations and satisfaction connected with personal enjoyment of certain environmental actions (De Young, 1996). Taken together, these socio-demographic and psychological components provide a good basis to examine water use behaviour in South Africa. These will help policy makers provide greater focus for their decisions on implementing campaigns to encourage water saving. The reason for a particular kind and extent of "behavioural entrenchment" is a function of the social context (history and culture) of the person. Changing deeply entrenched ways of doing things takes good incentives and of course, time. The level of acceptance of each demand management intervention will need to be investigated, and the reason for good/ poor acceptance will need to surveyed. By understanding what drives behaviour and what incentivises better water conservation practices, policy-makers can institute more appropriate and targeted demand management interventions. Currently, water managers have a number of water demand options available to them and some of these options are discussed below. Summary of key demand management interventions and their impact on residential water use behaviour and attitudes in some SA metropolitan municipalities

Upgrading of existing technologies

The dominant demand management interventions in South African metropolitan municipalities remain engineering/technical in nature and involve a combination of curtailment and efficiency measures. These include replacing old water meters with new ones. Old meters are likely not registered


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and replacing them provides more accurate water readings. Pressure management is yet another intervention, however, according to City of Tshwane officials it is not an effective behavioural change mechanism. This is because users do not control the pressure, it is determined for them. This intervention needs to be coupled with an awareness campaign intervention, particularly for large consumers. According to the City of Tshwane, the metro sells 80% of its water to 20% of consumers, hence the need to target this group. A pressure management intervention that extends the life cycle of a system combined with a communication intervention that makes consumers more aware of their water use would be more effective. Flow regulation to implement “water shedding” is regarded as a last resort in many metropolitan areas, and are used with caution given the resultant increase in maintenance costs and health risks. The conundrum for metros and other water service authorities, of course, is that their business is to sell water. If the demand for water drops, their revenue decreases, which negatively influences their requisite budgets.

water-efficient washing machines and dishwashers; and low flow toilets, taps and, showers (GreenCape, 2017). The uptake of these technologies at the residential level is greatly impacted by the market appetite for sale of such technologies. This is arguably influenced by water use behaviours and attitudes – do people see the need to buy these technologies, how readily available are they, are they considered necessary or luxury items, and has a critical mass of the population bought into the idea of having them? These questions are often neglected in technology foresight and/or uptake studies.

New technological solutions

Figure 2. Rainwater harvesting technology option for urban areas (Source: https://www. stormsaver.com/, 2017)

Beyond the meter, there are opportunities for water efficiency devices and tools in households and businesses. The GreenCape Intelligence Report (2017) identifies the greatest savings and technology opportunities to be in toilet flushing, greywater reuse, and non-potable garden irrigation. GreenCape also notes other technology applications such as water-wise gardens and landscaping along with water efficient irrigation systems; grey, rain and groundwater harvesting; trigger nozzles and automatic shut-offs for hosepipes; waterless car washers; swimming pool covers and backwash recycling systems;

Punitive measures: financial

Preliminary data collection in the City of Tshwane revealed that “one thing that works is when a guy feels it in his pocket” (pers. comm City of Tshwane official, 21 February 2017). As a result, in order to change behaviour (but not necessarily attitudes), punitive measures that result in, for example, penalty tariffs and the like, are considered to be the most effective demand management intervention to reduce residential water use. This may be

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linked to the prevalence of higher income groups in the city.

Punitive measures: water use restrictions

A popular intervention is to restrict water use across domestic and economic sectors in an effort to curb water usage. However, the implementation of the restrictions related to the recent drought episode of 2015/16 has not had an immediate and desired effect. The national Department of Water and Sanitation issued a notice in the Government Gazette of 12 August 2016 compelling municipalities who draw water from the Vaal Integrated Water system to reduce water consumption by 15%. While actual restrictions had started on 6 September water reduction had only reduced by 2.7% by the 3rd of October (Dhlamini, 2016). People were therefore not saving the expected volume of water despite the notice by government and a call from municipalities. The City of Tshwane instituted an intervention called Thiba Komelelo (Stop the Drought), which entailed a ‘stick’ approach involving technical measures to reduce supply as well as several community awareness campaigns (Meissner and Jacobs-Mata, 2016).

Conclusion

The CSIR has therefore embarked on new research into residential water use and behaviour, in which we will focus on the issue of attitudes of households to their water consumption in a search for ways in which domestic demand for water in South Africa’s urban areas may be measurably reduced. Evidence on attitudes of households in different kinds of housing and different neighbourhoods in six of the eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa will be obtained using existing actual water use data, previous studies conducted

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at the municipal level, and a random quota household survey supplemented by information derived from focus groups drawn from households in the same areas. The project aims to bring to the fore the complexity of the forces shaping demand and water use in the context of the sociodemographic composition of households in different kinds of dwellings, as well as the knowledge/awareness, cultural, behavioural and institutional aspects of consumption (i.e. the intricacies of the domestic water use profile). In so doing, it further aims to inform public policy regarding strategies and actions to reduce consumption and/ or provide alternative domestic supplies of potable water i.e. the actual incentives for behavioural change. This study therefore aims to advance our understanding of household water use and current water wise behaviour in the major South African metropolitan areas, by comparing actual household water use with perceived water use in different dwelling types (houses, flats, informal settlements) and for a variety of indoor and outdoor activities, focusing on urban households in six of the eight metropolitan municipalities. A key question is whether over- and underestimations exist for judgments of water use. The study also seeks to collate individual perceptions on the most effective water-wise behaviour, as well as the main drivers influencing behavioural change. Additionally, the three-year study aims to identify past or existing water-wise/ public awareness/save water/demand management interventions implemented by a range of institutions (e.g. DWS, water boards, municipalities and notable private sector, NGO and media interventions) and assess their ability to change water use behaviour, i.e. we would identify these interventions and will determine what our respondents think of them, and how likely


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they are to learn from them (e.g. revisions in municipal billing; a national TV broadcasting; awareness campaign on community radio; social media; youth awareness drives; targeted campaigns in printed media community newspapers; incentive-based interventions– competition, innovation challenge, peer-to-peer learning). Outputs of the project will include: • a comprehensive national database that for the first time, will link detailed data on household characteristics, the characteristics of the dwellings they

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occupy and their water consumption behaviour and attitudes; • an integrated social urban household water use model to illustrate household water use patterns at a national level; and • Policy advice on required actions and strategies of national and local government, and water boards. Should you be interested in hearing more about the development of this study and/or would like to collaborate, please contact: Dr Inga Jacobs-Mata (ijacobsmata@csir.co.za) References

• Attari SZ (2014) Perceptions of water use. PNAS. April 8, 2014(111):14, 5129–5134 • Baldassare M, and Katz C (1992) The personal threat of environmental problems as predictor of environmental practices. Environment and Behavior 24, 602– 616. • Bates B, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, and Palutikof J, (eds) (2008) Climate Change and Water, Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC Secretariat, Geneva), 210 pp. • Berk RA, Schulman D, McKeever M, and Freeman HE (1993) Measuring the impact of water conservation campaigns in California. Climatic Change 24, 233– 248. • Berk RA, Cooley TF, La Civita CJ, Parker S, Sredi K, and Brewer, M (1980) Reducing consumption in periods of acute scarcity: the case of water. Social Science Research 9, 99–120. • Blignaut J (2008) Economic development in South Africa: Facing the reality of resource constraints. Proceedings of Interfaces 2008 Conference held 3-7 August 2008 in Oudtshoorn, South Africa. • Blignaut J, and De Wit M (2004) Sustainable options: Economic development lessons from applied environmental resource economics in South Africa. UCT Press, Cape Town, South Africa. • Bloomberg LD, and Volpe M (2012) Completing your qualitative dissertation: A roadmap from beginning to end (2nd ed.). Sage Publications. • Chapman GB, and Johnson EJ (2002) Incorporating the irrelevant: Anchors in judgments of belief and value. Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment, (Eds) Gilovich T, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, New York), pp 120–138. • Christian-Smith J, Gleick PH, and Cooley H (2011) U.S. water policy reform. The World’s Water Volume 7: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources, (Ed) Gleick P. Washington: Island Press. • De Lange WJ (2015) Water for greening the South African economy. pp.244-263, In: Swilling, M.; Musango, J. and Wakeford, J. Greening the South African Economy, UCT PRESS, Cape Town. ISBN: 978-1-77582-069-7)

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• De Lange WJ, Nahman A, Reed L, Mahumani B, Nortje K, and M Audouin (2010a) Contributions from the social sciences to understanding and changing consumer behaviour: A literature review. GWDMS StelGen 8499. • De Lange WJ (2010b) “The water situation in South Africa: Some inconvenient truths” In A CSIR perspective on water in South Africa – 2010. CSIR Report No. CSIR/NRE/PW/IR/2011/0012/A ISBN: 978-0-7988-5595-2. • De Oliver M (1999) Attitudes and inaction: a case study of the manifest demographics of urban water conservation. Environment and Behavior 31, 372– 394. • De Wet B (2007) Influence of Wilderness Experience on the adoption of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour. MPhil Thesis. University of Stellenbosch. • De Young R (1996) Some psychological aspects of reduced consumption behavior: the role of intrinsic motivation and competence motivation. Environment and Behavior 28, 358– 409. • Dhlamini P. (2016) Tshwane to throttle water supply as residents ignore call to reduce usage. Herald Live, 10 October 2016. • Flack JE (1982) Urban water conservation: Increasing efficiency-in-use residential water demand. A report for the engineering foundation and endorsed by the water resources planning and management division of ASCE, ASCE, New York 1982:1-111. • Frederick SW, Meyer AB, and Mochon D (2011) Characterizing perceptions of energy consumption. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(8):E23, author reply E24. • Gilg A, and Barr S (2006) Behavioural attitudes towards water saving? Evidence from a study of environmental actions. Ecological Economics 57 (2006) 400– 414. • Gleick PH (2011) Data table 2: Freshwater withdrawal by country and sector. The World’s Water Volume 7: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Washington: Island Press. • Gleick PH (1996) Basic water requirements for human activities: Meeting basic needs. Water International 21(2):83–92. • Gray LC, and Moseley WG (2005) A geographical perspective on poverty-environment interactions. The Geographical Journal, 171, 9–23. • Guba EG, and Lincoln YS (2005) Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences. In Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. 3rd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. • Hamilton LC (1983) Saving water: a causal model of household conservation. Sociological Perspectives 26, 355– 374. • Heshusius L (1994) Freeing ourselves from objectivity: Managing subjectivity or turning toward a participatory mode of consciousness? Educational Research, 23(3): 15-22. • Hines JM, Hungerford HR, and Tomera AN (1987) Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: a meta analysis. Journal of Environmental Education 18, 1–8. • Hoekstra AY, and Chapagain AK (2007) Water footprints of nations: Water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water Resource Management 21(1):35–48. • Jacobs HE, Fair K, Geustyn LC, Daniels J, and Du Plessis JA (2007) Analysis of water savings: A case study during the 2004-2005 water restrictions in Cape Town. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineers 49(3):16-26. • Kundzewicz Z, et al. (2008) The implications of projected climate change for freshwater resources and their management. Hydrological Sciences Journal 53(1):3–10.

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• Kurki M (2008) Causation in international relations: Reclaiming causal analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Lam S (1999) Predicting intentions to conserve water from the Theory of Planned Behaviour, perceived moral obligation and perceived water right. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29, 1058– 1071. • Lebow RN (2008) A cultural theory of international relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Levin M, and Greenwood D (2011). Revitalizing universities by reinventing the social sciences. In Denzi, NK & Lincoln YS (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of qualitative research. London: Sage Publications. • Lincoln YS, Lynham SA, and Guba EG (2011) Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences, revisited. In Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. 4th Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. • Meissner R, and Jacobs-Mata I (2017) South Africa’s drought preparedness in the water sector: Too little too late? SAIIA Policy Briefing 155, November 2016. • Meissner R (2017) Paradigms and theories influencing water policies in the South African and international water sectors: PULSE3, a framework for policy analysis. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. • Postel SL (2000) Entering an era of water scarcity: The challenges ahead. Ecol Appl 10(4):941–948. • Poulton EC (1994) Behavioral Decision Theory: A New Approach. New York: Cambridge Univ Press. • Randolph B, and Troy P (2008) Attitudes to conservation and water consumption. Env Sci & Pol II (2008) 441 – 455. • Randolph B, and Troy P (2006) Water Consumption and the Built Environment: • A Social and Behavioural Analysis. City Futures Research Centre. Research Paper No. 5, June 2006. • Sadalla EK, and Krull JL (1995) Self-presentational barriers to resource conservation. Environment and Behavior 27, 328– 353. • Smith G, and Visser M (2014) Behavioural nudges as a water savings strategy. WRC Report. WRC Report No. 2091/1/13. ISBN 978-1-4312-0508-0 • Sofoulis Z (2005) Big water, everyday water: a socio-technical perspective. J. Media Cult. Stud. 9 (a), 407–424. • Stern PC (2000) New environmental theories: Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. J Soc Issues 56(3):407–424. • Strydom WF (2009) The impact of state-of-rivers reporting on people’s attitudes towards river conservation: a case study of the Buffalo and Hartenbos & Klein Brak catchments in South Africa. Master of Science Dissertation, University of Stellenbosch. • Syme GJM, Nancarrow BE, and Seligman C (2000) The evaluation of information campaigns to promote voluntary household water conservation. Evaluation Review 24, 539– 578. • Ungar S (1994) Apples and oranges: probing the attitude behaviour relationship for the environment. Can. Rev. Sociol. Anthropol. 31 (3), 288–304. • Viljoen N (2015) City of Cape Town Residential Water Consumption Trend Analysis 2014/2015. GreenCape Report.

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Chapter 6 Manage water demand and consumption by implementing simple, efficient water wise principles

— Samanta Stelli, Researcher, Water Wise

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6

Introduction

A quick Google search of the phrase “the world’s largest man-made forest” produces a list of sites that credit Johannesburg, South Africa, with this title. Images of the same phrase provide a showcase of dramatic landscapes and soaring views over the city’s northern suburbs. Lush, green vegetation carpets the view and the occasional building peeks through the sprawling purple canopies of the infamous jacaranda trees. While Johannesburg may be the world’s largest man-made urban forest, with over ten million trees, this is not the area’s natural state. The city was once a sprawling expanse of grasslands that formed part of the species-rich Highveld Grassland ecoregion. Ecoregions are grouped due to the relative similarity they show in their ecosystem components, namely biotic, abiotic, aquatic, and terrestrial.

WATER WISE PRINCIPLES

many grassland species that are becoming threatened with extinction. This ecoregion levels out across the country as an interior plateau that supports a variety of grassland habitats, and was originally a grassland ecosystem, namely the Highveld Grassland. The Highveld Grassland ecoregion is intersected by numerous rivers, streams, and wetlands, and plays host to grasses as the dominant vegetation. Herbs and geophytes are well featured in grasslands, while it is only the occasional Acacia or cabbage tree that represents woody plants in this ecosystem. The grasslands are maintained by relatively high summer rainfall, and shrubs and trees are usually supressed by frequent fires, frost, and heavy grazing.

Highveld grassland on Johannesburg’s west Rand (https://www.portfoliocollection.com/ img/uploads/blogs/cradle_of_humankind. jpg) Johannesburg, one of the world’s largest manmade forests (https://www.sa-venues.com/ attractionsga/johannesburg-metro.htm) The Highveld is a region that spans three provinces in South Africa, the Mpumalanga province, the Free State province, and Gauteng. The ecoregion itself is bordered by the Drakensberg, the arid Karoo, the Kalahari, and the Bushveld. It is classified as critically endangered and provides a home to

Grasslands cover almost one-third of the country’s land surface and the bulk of these landscapes fall into the Grassland biome. Biomes correspond broadly with climatic regions, and exhibit characteristic sets of plant and animal species. The Grassland biome is the second most biodiversity-rich ecosystem, second to the Fynbos Biome, and offers a home to 52 of South Africa’s Important Bird Areas (IBAs), as well as to 107 threatened butterfly species, 15 endemic

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A vegetation map showing the nine major biomes in South Africa (https://www.researchgate.net/ profile/Nicola_Diederichs_Mander/publication/313719204/figure/fig1/AS:461923494961155@1 487142551786/Figure-1-Map-of-the-nine-biomes-in-South-Africa-Mucina-Rutherford-2006.jpg) mammal species, and nearly 3 500 plant species. It contains 42 river ecosystems, and five of South Africa’s major river systems have their headwaters in grasslands, including the Vaal and Orange Rivers. Grasslands also receive the majority of the country’s rainfall and the Grassland Biome is home to five Ramsar wetland sites of international importance. Already more than 70% of the grasslands in South Africa have been transformed, and the remaining landscape is highly fragmented and poorly conserved. Less than 1% of the Highveld Grassland is conserved, and the region is set to face further threats from climate change.

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Unfortunately, the characteristics of this landscape that make it such a haven for animals, plants, and insects also make it an ideal environment for human use and development. The Grassland Biome is home to South Africa’s economic powerhouse and supports 60% of the country’s crops, more than 40% of its cattle, and over 30% of its sheep. The majority of commercial forestry occurs in this biome, as well as almost half of the country’s mining activities. Forty percent of South Africa’s population reside in this biome. The Highveld Grassland has already suffered extensive degradation and fragmentation. Although this region serves an essential role in water purification as a result of the presence of ancient peat beds


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and wetlands, the continued deterioration of the ecosystem poses a threat to this essential service. South Africa is a semi-arid region, and is one of the top 30 driest countries in the world. The country’s rainfall is irregularly distributed both spatially and temporally, which has created a great reliance on stored water. However, the amount of water available for use does not change, even with the building and construction of new dams and water transfer schemes. The exponential growth in the country’s population places great stress on its natural water resources as demand for water continues to outstrip supply in many regions. Urbanisation has converted a highly efficient and sensitive natural environment

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to one of the largest artificial woodlands in the world. An area that should thrive naturally on rainfall is now requiring additional watering to the amount of millions of litres of potable water a day, year-round. Gardens, sports grounds, golf courses, parks, and office landscapes use between 30% and 50% of the water treated and supplied for domestic and urban use. Water Wise, Rand Water’s environmental brand, was first developed in 1997 in reaction to the drought situation at the time and the stringent water restrictions that were implemented as a result. A campaign aimed at increasing people’s awareness of the need to value water and use it wisely, Water Wise uses education to assist people in changing their behaviour to be more

Infographic showing a comparison of the state of South Africa’s dam levels between 2016 and 2017 (http://www.grafika24.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Dam-levels--650x721.jpg)

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‘Water Wise’. Changing behaviour requires an ongoing effort to spread awareness and constantly reinforce the message, especially in our water-stressed country. Water Wise recognizes the importance of gardens and landscapes and has taken on the challenge to provide people with the knowledge and skill to cultivate low water use, biodiversityrich, indigenous gardens.

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Rand Water’s environmental brand, Water Wise, was developed in 1997 in response to imposed water restrictions and the need to reduce water use. It was recognized that the use of water in the landscape created one of the greatest demands on the supply of potable water in the country. Twenty years later, South Africa and the world, face a potential water crisis as over-consumption, pollution, and climate change threaten the world’s freshwater resources. In 2015, South Africans faced one of the country’s worst droughts in history. The Western Cape continues to struggle through a drought the likes of which has not been seen in over 100 years. Just recently, the area was declared a drought disaster area and this has forced the municipality to implement its most stringent water restrictions yet. Still, dam levels currently sit at below 25% capacity, with only 16% of that usable water, and insufficient rainfall is failing to provide relief to the city’s water crisis. Climate change models and forecasts predict that South Africa’s rainfall patterns will become more and more irregular and sporadic, citing ‘wetter wets and drier dries’. A scenario of long months of very little to no rain, followed by short bursts of excessive rainfall and resultant flood events, is set to become the norm. South African’s are encouraged to re-look at the way they use and consume water, in order to prevent a serious water crisis in the near future.

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A recent report commissioned by the Department of Science and Technology and developed by the Academy of Science of South Africa, The State of Climate Change (2017), offers a glimpse into what South Africa can expect in terms of the climate system in the near future. Climate models forecast a warming rate such that the number of dangerously hot weather days will double over half of the country. South Africa will be hotter in all places and drier in most, placing strain on the country’s already perilous freshwater resources, and impacting negatively on livestock agriculture, human health, and biodiversity. South Africa can also expect prolonged heat-waves, multi-year dry spells, and an increase in the frequency and severity of damage-causing storms. The impact of climate change on South Africa is expected to be felt primarily through effects on the country’s water resources. Rand Water is a water board, and is thus legally mandated by the Water Services Act 108 of 1997 to promote water demand management and water conservation, prevent the wasteful use of water, and provide public awareness campaigns to promote water conservation. The National Water Resource Strategy 2nd Edition references the need for the efficient use and conservation of water by all water-use sectors. The changing climate and limited water available will influence the way gardens and landscapes are, designed and maintained. There are a number of simple and effective Water Wise principles that can be implemented in existing landscapes to reduce the amount of water it requires. For example, the application of mulch reduces water evaporation from the soil by up to 70% and can add an attractive feature to the landscape. The use of different coloured pebbles and stones as mulch can create interesting landscape designs, and the use of bark chips and nutshells adds texture to the landscape, as well as provides organic matter to nourish

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the soil. Water Wise gardening principles are simple and efficient to implement, and can save up to 32% of current household water consumption. Key Water Wise landscaping principles include the following: 1. Garden design: Not many homeowners are lucky enough to start with an empty canvas; a landscape that can be designed from scratch. Nonetheless, landscape design is an important element of Water Wise gardening that can be implemented in even the most established landscape. Firstly, it is important to decide whether a landscape is meant to be functional or aesthetically pleasing. This will determine the layout and structure of the landscape. A vegetable garden, for example, is a functional landscape that requires a certain number of hours of sunlight, and regular access to water. A well-designed indigenous landscape consisting of locally endemic plants can survive on very little to no additional water, will grow well through all seasons, and will attract local insects, birds, and animals. When designing your landscape take note of certain characteristics of area such as the direction of North and South, which will affect the pattern of sunlight received in the landscape, as well as natural paths for water to flow. Rainfall can be directed to specific areas in the landscape, reducing the need for potable water. Be aware of areas that may receive frost, strong winds, or heavy traffic, and plant accordingly. 2. Re-using runoff rainwater: Rain water is freely available for use in the landscape – it’s just a case of directing it to where it’s needed most. Generally, 1 mm of rainfall is equivalent to one litre of water if it falls over 1 m3 of surface area. Many households are choosing to install rain water tanks, which are great for rain water collection and storage. The downpipe of the gutter is directed into the rain tank to ensure all the water that falls on the roof is passed into the tank. Rain water can also be channelled into select areas of the landscape with a little bit of extra design. Berms (raised

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areas) and swales (small depressions) can be created to direct the water into flower beds that require high volumes of water. Permeable paving, which is a hard surface that allows the infiltration of water, is a maintenance-free option that can benefit any landscape. These surfaces also act as natural filtration, removing pollutants from water before it seeps into the ground. Examples of permeable paving include grass blocks, pebbles, and pavers. 3. Mulching: Mulch is often referred to as ‘nature’s blanket’. This is because mulch provides a number of benefits to soil and plants by acting as a protective layer. There are a variety of organic materials that can be used as mulch, including dry lawn clippings, dry leaves, compost, bark chips, and pine needles. These types of mulch enrich the soil with nutrients as they decompose, and improve water holding capacity by making the soil more friable and preventing soil compaction. They also encourage wildlife to the landscape, such as earthworms, which aerate the soil and digest old plant material to make it available for use. Mulch can reduce water loss from the soil through evaporation by up to 70%. It can also suppress weed growth, and buffer the soil against temperature changes. The wide range of mulches available means that colour and texture can be added to the landscape with the use of mulch. Inorganic material, such as pebbles, gravel, and stones can also be used as mulch. Living ground covers, such as low-growing ornamental grasses and creeping perennials provide a similar effect to that of mulch. 4.Hydrozoning: Zoning the landscape is an important Water Wise principle, which ensures that the correct plants are placed in the correct water use zone, also known as hydrozones. The landscape is divided into high, medium, low and no water use areas, which guarantees that plants receive the correct amount of water they


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require and that they are not under- or over-watered. A water wise landscape will typically have a small high water use area, a slightly larger medium water use area and a large low water use area. Containers are an ideal way of creating colour and interesting features in the landscape, while keeping high water use plants in a designated zone. The high water use zone should make up approximately 10-30% of the space, and encompasses plants such as lawn, white arums, winter flowering bulbs, and any other water-loving plant. The medium water use zone should make up between 20% and 40% of the landscape and includes plants that require more water than is provided by rainfall in the area. Low water use plants thrive mainly on rainfall and should require little if any additional watering. This zone should be 30-60% of the demarcated area. Often, Water Wise landscapes also include a no water use zone that makes up the greatest area of a landscape and requires no watering at all. Established indigenous grasses, trees, succulents, and shrubs grow well in a no water use zone. 5.Minimised lawn area: Lawn is a high water use area, so in a Water Wise landscape it is best to keep lawn to a minimum. If lawns are not functional, they should be regarded as water wasters and their size should be reduced. Lawns can also be replaced with permeable paving, or decorative items such as pavers, sleepers, pebbles, or mulch in a variety of textures and colours. Water Wise plants such as indigenous creeping shrubs, perennials, and ground covers can also be used as lawn substitutes. If a landscape has lawn, the area should ideally be watered early in the morning or late in the afternoon to reduce evaporation. Preferably, harvested rain water should be channelled onto

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lawns so that no extra potable water is required for lawn irrigation. Lawn can also be ‘trained’ to grow well on less water. 6.Choosing plants that are locally endemic: Plants local to an area develop characteristics that allow them to flourish under specific climatic conditions. For example, plants indigenous to drier regions in South Africa have physical adaptations such as fleshy stems and roots to store water; reduced leaf size and fewer leaves to minimise water loss through transpiration; grey or blue-green foliage to reflect away the sun’s rays; hairy leaves to slow the movement of air across the leaf surface and reduce water loss; waxy leaves to reduce moisture loss; and leaves that close to reduce the leaf surface area exposed to the sun. Some indigenous plants originate from areas that receive a very high rainfall and should therefore only be utilized in or around a water feature or in the high water use zone. Planting indigenous flora in the landscape not only saves water but will also create habitats and havens for local wildlife, such as birds, insects and small mammals. 7. Greywater: Greywater is fast becoming a simple, go-to solution for households and business keen on recycling and re-using water. Greywater is wastewater or used water from hand basins, showers, baths, washing machines, and kitchen sinks. It excludes water from toilets, which is referred to as blackwater and is not suitable for reuse in or around the home unless it has undergone stringent treatment and purification before use. Wastewater from the bathroom (hand basin, shower, and bath) presents the most favourable source of greywater, especially for use in landscape irrigation, as it is considered the least contaminated form of wastewater. Greywater can be harvested directly from bathroom outlets and

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channelled into the landscape, or it can be moved through simple treatment systems that remove lint, hair, and other solid matter. While the use of greywater for landscape irrigation is simple and effective, some precautions need to be taken. Greywater should not be stored for longer than 24 hours before it is reused as long periods of storage may encourage the growth of bacteria and the production of odours. Greywater should not be sprayed onto plants but should be delivered with specifically suited drip irrigation systems. There are a number of plants that thrive on greywater, specifically olives, rosemary, bougainvillea, lavender, Italian cypress, bearded iris, and petunias. It should not be used to water acid-loving plants such as ferns, gardenias, or begonias as it usually has an alkaline pH and may cause damage to these plants. Plants watered with greywater will benefit from an occasional flushing of rain or tap water to remove any residue on plant leaves and soil surfaces.

Conclusion

In 2013, the World Wildlife Fund-South Africa warned that the availability of freshwater is one of the major limiting factors to South Africa’s development. South African water demand is already exceeding the amount available for supply by over 1 billion kilolitres of water per annum. In addition, more than 98% of the country’s freshwater resources have already been allocated, and almost 50% of the country’s annual rainfall is captured in reservoirs and impoundments. However, more than 37% of potable water channelled through the water distribution network is lost every year to leaks and other non-revenue activities. While droughts are already a main feature of South Africa’s climate landscape,

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and unevenly distributed rainfall pulls the country between periods of floods and droughts, these extreme weather events are set to increase in severity in the future. Climate change is projected to cause a 4ºC increase in temperature means across South Africa. Already, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has shown that the average global temperature in the first half of 2017 is higher than the record set in 2016, and higher than the average recorded in the 20th-century. With a decrease in the amount of available freshwater comes the prioritisation of available water resources. The environment and critical basic human needs are a priority when allocating freshwater resources. Water requirements for agriculture and industry are paramount for economic development, and require top priority too. However, activities that require water, such as garden and landscape irrigation can potentially be viewed as luxury needs. It is possible that, in the future, it will no longer be acceptable or allowed for water to be allocated to activities such as this that are not defined as basic human needs. The consumer will then be required to rely on rainwater for use in the garden and swimming pool. Water Wise provides educational and awareness campaigns aimed at increasing the awareness of South Africa’s water situation and the inherent value of our Earth’s most precious natural resource. The only way to address a water crisis is to change people’s attitude, perceptions, and behaviour towards water. The move to protect water resources in this waterscarce country needs to be urgent. Make a contribution to water conservation in South Africa by following these tips and becoming a Water Wise champion for your home and business.


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Demand side management incentives for efficient residential water use towards water security.


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Abstract

This paper answers the question whether we can change our systems, technologies and behaviour? As we observe our vital urban life support systems nearing critical thresholds, since innovation (or change) requires institutions, capability (skills), incentives and infrastructure. This has to be accompanied by leadership, values, and a culture that enables change while managing risk. It argues for water diversification as a strategic direction for Integrated Water Management; in particular for our towns where waste and storm water is disposed out at sea outfalls and not taken into account in return flows. This is particularly pertinent in South Africa which is predicted to be under sever water pressure and water stress by 2040. Using an ensemble of climate models and socioeconomic scenarios, one can say water will be scarce because it is mismanaged, mainly at the local governance level, i.e. municipalities. Additionally, climate change requires diversification of water sources and improved water use efficiency. However, the magnitude of the reduction in demand varies among incentive instruments which presents opportunities for decoupling economic growth from water use and triggering private investment towards a green economy. Water re-use systems (“purple pipe”) have been successfully implemented in many countries with appropriate controls and safeguards. This paper will be using a dynamic group of different models like the regional climate model [“COSMO model in Climate Mode” (CCLM)], hydrological model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool – SWAT), and the water resource model (Water Evaluation and Planning – WEAP). In addition, an econometric model of re-using the same litre seven times for residential demand will be taken into account. The model indicates that 65% of current potable water demand

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is substituted by fit-for-purpose water (the “purple pipe”) formulated and estimated, as per the Framework for Water Sensitive Settlements in South Africa “two histories, one future” (adapted from Brown et al., 2009). This econometric model incorporates alternative Demand Side Management (DSM) incentive instruments for residential (such as decentralised onsite water recycling and re-use, water allocations, use restrictions, and public education) and increasing block pricing schedules. The analysis relies on cross-sectional previous yearly time-series data for the past ten years for municipal agencies utilising water from the Western Cape Water Supply System (WCWSS), representing 71% of the systems water use [excluding agriculture’s 158 Mm3 (approximately 29%)]. As a notion of Water Sensitive Design and Green Infrastructure Investment towards water security, results suggest that decentralised purple pipe/re-use concept coupled with rain water harvesting tanks (ensuring sufficient onsite storage), price and alternative DSM incentives, are effective in reducing potable water demand, costing municipalities nothing. With climate variability, this would enable the current potable water volumes consumed in a single year to stretch over two years, i.e. two rainy seasons. This is currently not possible, but if utilised effectively would allow two rainfall seasons to replenish dammed supplies. Key words: Water Security, Water Scarcity, Water Restrictions, Fit for Purpose Water, Water Sensitive Design and Green Infrastructure Investment

Introduction

“THOUSANDS have lived without love; not one without water,” observed W.H. Auden. He omitted to add that, as with love, many people have a strong moral aversion to paying for the life-sustaining liquid. Some

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feel that water is a human right, and should therefore be free. Others lobby governments to subsidise its distribution to specific preferred groups. Water covers two-thirds of the Earth’s surface but most of it is not accessible for human consumption. It is not depleted when consumed, it just keeps circulating in various shapes and forms. So why do researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) News Office predict that by the middle of the century, more than half of humanity will live in waterstressed areas, where people are extracting unsustainable amounts from available freshwater sources (MIT, 2014) ? One reason is that as the world’s population grows larger and richer, it uses more water. Another is climate change (see map, Figure 3), which accelerates hydrologic cycles, making wet places wetter and dry places drier, according to most climate change models. The World Resources Institute (WRI), a think-tank, ranked 167 countries, and found that 33 will face extremely high water stress by

2040 (see map, Figure 1 and Figure 2). However, a lot of the problem stems from the mismanagement of water resources and infrastructure. This was also part of the Marrakech Climate Change Conference discussions in 2016. A crucial part of adapting to a warmer world is to work out how to allocate water more efficiently (see article) and restrict inefficient users. “As water becomes ever scanter the world needs to conserve it, use it more efficiently and establish clear rights over who owns the stuff” to avoid a “liquidity crisis” and water insecurity (The Economist, Nov 5th 2016). According to the WRI (2015) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2016), South Africa is predicted to be under sever water pressure and water stress by 2040 while, climate projections suggest by 2050. Demand for water is likely to surge in the next few decades as a rising middle class consumerism (e.g. swimming pools) and a stable population growth rate that is faster than dam storage growth will drive

Figure 1: Water, The dry facts Source: The Economist, 2016

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Figure 2: Water Stress by Country - 2040 Source: The WRI, 2015

Figure 3: Projected change in annual rainfall by 2050 from 2071–2100 relative to 1961–1990

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increased consumption by people, farms, and companies. More people will move to cities (urbanisation), further straining storage supplies. An emerging middle class could clamour for more water-intensive food production and electricity generation; yet, at the moment, it is not clear where the water will come from (Sinclair M et al, 2011) These climate projections suggest a decline on all water fronts. For example, in one scenario for the Western Cape region in South Africa, average annual rainfall, mean annual runoff and mean groundwater recharge across the Berg and Breede systems will all decline by 2050. If, as the models suggest, average annual rainfall drops by 20%, water flowing through the region systems could fall by 24% by 2050. This is a region where new dams are not the solution anymore as evaporation rates are set to rise in line with higher temperatures and less rainfall. Future-proofing to increase efficiency like harvesting more rainwater and reusing water to improve efficiency and do more with less.climate change is expected to make some areas drier and others wetter. As precipitation extremes increase in regions, affected communities face greater threats from droughts and floods. According to The Economist (2016), Karim (2016) and the WRI water is scarce because it is badly managed at the local level. South Africa needs to urgently tackle climate variability and uncertainty: Future-proofing water, agriculture, and food security using well managed water-restrictions.

Current Water Supply Situation

There is broad consensus for the need of more resilient water management systems and water security in the face of climate uncertainty, including drought. “Our water resources are the foundation of our water supplies and include catchments, rivers, wetlands and aquifers. If these resources

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are degraded, downstream investments are left high and dry. And yet, we still plan development without considering this essential ‘ecological infrastructure’. A water secure future requires that our water source areas, the 8% of our land that generates 50% of our river flows, is afforded special consideration, protection and cleared of thirsty alien vegetation” (The World Wide Fund-SA, 2016: pg.3). With this one thing is clear: we need a fundamental rethink of our water sector and water’s place in the economy. Our current drought is expected to be a taste of the future, so we need to learn quickly and adapt to this new normal (Goddard, 2006). Each person needs to drink only a few litres a day, but it takes hundreds of litres to grow food – and thousands to put beef or pork on the table. In South Africa farming accounts for 60% of water withdrawals of available water and industry accounts for most of the rest, followed by domestic consumption (Muller, 2016). But experts warn that, as urban and industrial water demand rises, water will be diverted from agriculture. As a result, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the policy forum of most advanced and a few emerging countries, expects water withdrawals for food production to fall by up to 15% by 2050. Countries which used to produce enough food to meet their needs may have to import more goods (virtual water) to remain food secure. South African farmers would have to use the water they have more efficiently. Today, the additional challenge for South African farming and agribusiness is that they must also address the country’s social and economic transformation. This is in line with the 2012 recommendations of the National Development Plan (NDP). The NDP states that agriculture has the potential to create close to one million new jobs by


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do not really require potable water. If the typical HH in South Africa uses about 250 litres of water a day, that amounts to 7,500 litres(ℓ)/month which is already more than the monthly free water allowance every HH receives from the municipality. In Cape Town alone, it is approximated the average home uses 660ℓ of water/day amounting to 19,800ℓ/month which is almost double the free 350ℓ/day free indigent water allocations received, amounting to 10,500ℓ/month whilst it can easily go up to a 1,000ℓ/day in some cases . Thus, the typical urban South African HH consisting of two children and a parent uses on average 37,500ℓ/month. One of the easiest ways to reduce a water bill without changing one’s lifestyle is to save on water used by toilet flushing, showering, and gardening. The average toilet cistern flushes on average 9ℓ with every use which are not required to clear the toilet bowl every time. This amounts to wastage of large amounts of potable water. Laundry and bath/shower water can safely be used to water gardens and flush toilets. By collecting 33% of both sources of HH water, it could be reused to irrigate the garden and toileting which brings in a tremendous saving. In an urban setting most of the potable water is being used only once and for the wrong functions/purposes before it finds its

2030 yet it’s already the largest employer in South Africa. To do this, it must expand irrigation to new farming plots. Due to limited water availability, this will have to be done primarily through more efficient use of existing water resources. It will have to be accompanied by the serious transformation of the agribusiness sector. Some countries pay for the operational costs of supplying water, but not the infrastructure that enabled it to flow from the tap. Many pay nothing to raid underground aquifers – India for example pumps twothirds of its irrigation-water this way. When something is too cheap, people squander it. The Chinese industry, for example, uses ten times more water per unit of production than the average in rich countries because water is virtually free. Farmers in parched places like California grow thirsty cash crops such as avocados, which could easily be imported from somewhere wetter (Tandjiria S et al, 2013). In South Africa, the agricultural sector has begun to address this with the Western Cape SmartAgri Plan . Urban consumers (the household - HH) still have a way to go in this regard, for example, the average middle income/middle class HH in South Africa uses 64% of its potable water supplied for toileting and gardening – two uses that

Figure 4: Typical household water consumption

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Figure 5: Water Use in Cape Town (2015/16) way in municipal wastewater sewer systems; in some instances, to be disposed into the sea via sea outfalls and not taken into account in return flows. Here lies an opportunity to explore decentralised onsite closed loop water recycling treatment systems/units that can be used to recycle and reuse this grey water ; at least 33% of it from HHs for toileting and gardening. Merely doing this, instantly reduces a HHs potable water demand from the municipal system by at least 30% and adding black water treatment into the mix will effectively reduce potable water demand by 63%. One can even take it further and learn from Australia’s drought in the late 2000s where the government “put incentives [in

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place] that supported the concept of Small Scavenging Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Plants and witnessed growth in the use of recycled water for urban use, including residential use (e.g., flushing toilets and outdoor use).…”. “Urban recycled water reuse appears to be more sustainable; i.e., the volumes continued to increase following the end of the Millennium Drought” (WIREs Water, 2015). In Australia, permanent grey water systems were installed in some residential units such as Inkerman Oasis (2,500,000ℓ/year in 2009/2010) and rebate programmes were implemented for permanent residential grey water systems (478 in 2008/2009, 378 in 2009/2010, and 95


7 in 2010/2011) (State Government of Victoria , 2014). However, grey water use at the HH level was typically untreated and used for watering gardens. With the technologies that are now available on the South African market, the step from untreated grey and black water to good quality treated recycled water which can be stored for longer without any issues, has been solved. It is also backed by bank finances for individuals and corporates interested in paying theirs off overtime, which helps solve the “infrastructure financing gap” further discussed below for a city like Cape Town that is struggling to hit its water restriction targets (Cape Argus 2017: pg.1–2). With about 92% of its potable water consumption being a combination of residential, retail, and offices (including government owned premises), a solutiondriven water restrictions approach like the Australian model would have been pivotal, in particular for the big City of Cape Town water users/consumers who are actually your middle to high income HHs (Green

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Times) . This is also in line with South Africa’s National Water Resource Strategy II (NWRS II) (2012). Figure 6 substantiates this argument as “a low-income HH has a dramatically different relationship with water” compared to its more affluent equivalent (Jacobs, Geustyn and Loubser, 2005). “We can make ourselves comfortable, isolate ourselves from what is going on outside and act as if we are independent of the weather, but OUR FOOD AND WATER, OUR MOST BASIC NEEDS, ARE WEATHERDEPENDENT” (authors elaboration). We have to be clear about our priorities and make significant investments in no-regret solutions for improving water storage and water access, and leapfrogging water insecurity. In some instances, municipal bylaws would have to be adapted to encourage but also better regulate such re-use of water. The Millennium Drought in Southeast Australia forced greater Melbourne, a city of 4.3 million people, to find innovative ways of increasing water supply and decreasing

Figure 6: Low income households are generally not the culprits

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water demand. As water managers in Melbourne reacted to the crisis, reduced water demand occurred primarily through residential and industrial water conservation programmes, restrictions, together with emergency reductions in the environmental release of water to streams. The city also experimented with using recycled water, in place of surface water, to support agriculture in the Werribee Irrigation District. Water pricing was not strengthened during the drought, and thus not regarded as a drought demand management tool, primarily because Melbourne water companies lacked independent price-setting powers. Today, five years after the end of the Millennium Drought, gains in water conservation appear to be holding steady. We contend that the Millennium Drought provided Melbourne with the opportunity to develop and implement a more integrated approach to water management. Many of the innovations it forged (e.g., distributed harvesting and use of storm water) will continue to enhance the city’s resilience to drought and reduce its vulnerability to climate variability for years to come. Nevertheless, a challenge going forward is how to sustain these achievements in light of anticipated population growth and continued climatic change. This challenge – coupled with Melbourne’s successes – hold important lessons for water-stressed cities around the world (South East Water, 2014). Source: Mitchell and Maxwell (2010) In Australia’s case, Climate Compatible Development (CCD) signified a new development story – a story characterised by changing patterns of innovation. Interventions that resulted in triple win scenarios, or win-win scenarios, paving the way for Climate-Resilience. Nine out of ten catastrophes globally are connected to water – too much water or too little. In recognising the threats and opportunities posed by climate change, CCD means fusing together

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strategies that have, to date, tended to work in isolation. The Water Infrastructure Financing Gap The Department of Water Affair’s 2012 Principles and Models for Infrastructure Finance Report (PMIFR) highlights that “the long-term resilience of the South African water economy and society depends upon functioning infrastructure, which requires rectification of this challenge” (pg. 9). When it comes to projected infrastructure development needs, Figure 7 also indicates that as of 2012, in excess of R60 billion was required for national and regional water resources infrastructure developments over the next 20 years. The lack in decision-making around infrastructure development in many parts of South Africa have imposed significant risk on the country over the next five to ten years. Innovative financial and institutional models are required to ensure that this situation is not repeated in future. These models will also need to take into account the fiscal constraints that the country is facing. A further important consequence of this is that Water Conservation/Water Demand Management (WC/WDM) measures are necessary to close the inefficient use and supply gap in the short to medium term, which implies that financing of WC/ WDM measures needs to be considered in financing water resources reconciliation, triggered through carefully managed imposed restrictions. When it comes to demand management investments, as has been mentioned above, the financing of WC/WDM is a critical element of sustainable water resources management in the country. While some WC/WDM initiatives are relatively low cost, others, such as the retrofit of water reuse, water recycling, refurbishment of municipal infrastructure and the lining of irrigation canals, require significant capital


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outlay. The current demand driven WC/ WDM funding approach is not working well and the model for infrastructure funding should consider the financing models for treating WC/WDM as infrastructure-related augmentation. Mechanisms to ensure effective WDM with quick payback periods through private finance need to be found alongside securing water lost to invasive alien plants (Farrelly and Davis, 2009). Invasive alien plants can dramatically reduce available water resources, with significant impact on stream flows, and the associated increase in siltation and degrading water quality.DWA’s PMIFR of 2012 suggests that there are a number of risk areas that must be considered in the development of infrastructure financing models. These include financial and revenue risks, institutional uncertainty risks and longer-term system risks arising from changing climate-hydrological and development-economic conditions. An understanding of exchange rates and financial market risks is fundamental to the critical evaluation of the exposure that

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different models impose on the South African government. Instruments and incentives for infrastructure financing map out the investment options available to private investors which can nudge behavioural change as a motivation from harsh demandside policies (Xu H et al, 2010). The coverage of instruments can be comprehensive in nature, spanning all forms of debt and equity and risk mitigation tools deployed by banks and financiers, mostly to building systems to capture, treat, and use storm water runoff for potable water substitution. Yet, these can be leveraged by governments/municipalities as a means to address water insecurity. While the instruments are meant to capture all forms of private infrastructure finance techniques, a focus of this work can also be to identify new and innovative financing instruments and risk mitigation techniques used to finance private infrastructure assets without necessarily compromising municipal financial sustainability. Water restrictions can be kept in place whilst consumers are incentivised into diversifying


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their own water sources at their own costs through a programme in partnership with accredited service providers to guarantee water quality, regulate abstractions and proper installations, similar to the City of Cape Town's Solar Water Heater, to the benefit of the entire water system. It is also worth considering the conclusions of a paper written for the 2017 OECD review of water resources financing. These provide a useful reference point when thinking about raw water financing for South Africa; in particular, for non-potable water requirements for middle to income HHs who are the big urban water consumers. A good example is when “pro-poor water resources management requires investments by the state in local infrastructure to support rural development, which in reality will be largely focused on agriculture. Requiring the formal economy to pay the full financial costs of water infrastructure releases state resources to focus on those communities that cannot afford to pay for the full costs of this investment” (PMIFR, 2012: pg. 49). To sum up the problem, there is an urgent need to address the underinvestment and under recovery for South Africa’s water infrastructure – both in terms of rehabilitation (and upgrading), as well as new build. Traditional sources of finance are not sufficient to meet the capital and operating requirements. In the case of Cape Town, behavioural change incentives like continuous water restrictions for high domestic water users alongside their applicable corresponding water tariff price increases can unlock new innovative nontraditional sources of finance, sufficient to meet the capital and operating requirements of individual HHs. At the same time, it is necessary to understand the context within which the additional financing is required, with challenges ranging from institutional capacity to the changing nature of South

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Africa’s economy (Sandor, 2017). Some of these challenges and considerations are expanded upon below. For the purposes of this paper, the problem statement is narrowly defined as the financing gap that exists between what is required to finance capital investment in water infrastructure, as well as the subsequent operations and maintenance thereof, and the finance that is currently available. The purpose of some comments in this paper was to identify the financing mechanisms used by other institutions in South Africa and internationally, and to develop a set of principles that can guide the choice of appropriate financing mechanisms for South Africa’s water sector. Appendix B of 2012’s PMIFR provides a detailed analysis of financing mechanisms used in various countries – especially those where innovative continuous water restriction methods have been used, or where there are similar institutional arrangements to South Africa. The primary lessons appear to be that China has funded its water infrastructure development by moving away from direct fiscal support to placing increasing reliance on bank loans instead – both local and international, both commercial and concessionary (or at least developmental). It appears that the State’s role has changed during this transition: from direct funder to the provider of subsidies, guarantees, concessions, and partnerships. A benefit of this changing role is the ability to leverage a far greater infrastructure spend than what would be possible if financing everything internally. In China, direct fiscal support is declining. In recent years, central and local governments have tended to assign a larger role to debt instruments. Stateowned commercial banks and policy banks hold around 80% of total infrastructure loan portfolios and bank financing accounts


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for more than half of total infrastructure financing (OECD, 2013). In the case of the Philippine Water Revolving Fund (PWRF), reform was a gradual process and highlighted the importance of innovative financial mechanisms but more importantly the fact that in order for a reform to be successful, a strategic continuous water restriction and regulatory reform is necessary. These reforms have been successful in attracting the private sector by identifying and addressing the three risk areas of credit risk, operational risk and political risk (World Bank, 2016). In Mexico, at present, the lack of cost recovery through user fees is one major impediment to meeting investment needs in the sector. As a result, thirdparty financing is difficult to raise, and the sector therefore relies almost entirely on government subsidies to meet its investment needs (Comisión Nacional del Agua, 2010). Mexico has taken some steps to introduce commercial financing, but overall use of Private Sector Participation (PSP) has been concentrated in wastewater treatment plants and subnational financing is not generally accessed directly by water and sanitation providers. Mexico’s approach, through its PROMAGUA programme, is to introduce more private sector involvement in the management of water utilities showing the disparity between cities of the present and future (PMIFR, 2012).

Summary of existing models and innovative thinking

Current water institutions in South Africa rely heavily on government grants and guarantees, as can be read in the PMIFR of 2012. Globally, there is a general trend to involve the private sector in bridging the financing gap in the water sector (mainly through private HHs providing their own fit-for-purpose water) to meet imposed

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potable water demand side management that is carefully managed. In order to improve access to private finance, financing mechanisms need to be supported by parallel initiatives like sustained potable water restrictions over five to ten years to guarantee fit-for-purpose water demand that is backed by private sector investment. These initiatives predominately address shifting perceptions to reduce the perceived risk of the sector and transitioning Cities of the Present and Future which is what Australia managed to achieve through demand-side measures during the Millennium Drought as discussed below.

DEMAND-SIDE MEASURES

Per capita water uses for Melbourne during the Millennium Drought dropped approximately 50% between 1997 (at the start of the drought) and 2012 (after the drought). The demand reduction works out to an average of 107,000,000,000ℓ of potable water saved per year, roughly equal to 70% of the maximum annual output of the Wonthaggi Desalination Plant. Efforts to reduce demand included: (1) imposing water use restrictions; (2) implementing water conservation measures including a rebate programme for water-efficient appliances; (3) providing funding to increase rainwater and storm water harvesting; (4) reducing environmental flows to rivers; and (5) conducting television, radio, billboards, and print media advertising campaigns to promote water conservation. Without this water saving and environmental flow reductions, studies show that Melbourne’s reservoirs would have emptied by the end of 2009 (Office of Living Victoria, 2014).

Rainwater Harvesting Tanks

Rainwater harvesting tanks (RWHT) which capture and store rainwater flowing off

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Water-sensitive urban design reconfigures cityscapes with softer surfaces that slow flow and allow percolation. More water is reused and recycled, limiting demand

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roofs are another supply-side innovation that was accelerated during the Millennium Drought in response to imposed restrictions. Because rainfall is harvested directly from roofs, it does not require the same degree

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of treatment as storm water collected from streets or parking lots. Estimating the volume of potable substitution achieved by the purchase and installation of RWHTs is complicated by their decentralised nature and the variability of demand across users. The percentage of HHs in the State of Victoria with RWHTs increased from 16.7% in 2007 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007) to 29.6% in 2010 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2014) (Figure 10). RWHTs were popular because they allowed residents to maintain their ornamental plants and gardens in spite of water restrictions that curtailed the use of municipal water for irrigation. The adoption of RWHTs was also accelerated by the 5-Star Building Standard enacted in July 2005, which required all new homes in Victoria to have a RWHT for toilet flushing or a solar hot water heating system (reflecting the programme’s broad interest in sustainability). Melbourne’s Living Victoria Water Rebate Program also provided rebates for RWHT ranging from Australian $850 to Australian $1500, depending on their size and end uses. A 2013 survey found that RWHT use in Melbourne is divided primarily between residential users (68%) and industry, schools, and councils (32%). The same rebate program estimated that

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9.06Mℓ of rainwater were harvested in 2012/2013. Assuming that Melbourne and Victoria had similar uptakes of RWHT, that water savings were 15.8% per HH. c) Water Restrictions The Victoria Uniform Drought Water Restrictions Guidelines, which were finalised in September 2005, outlined a four-stage water restriction protocol. As specified in the Guidelines, the stages range from minor restrictions on outdoor water use (Stage 1) to a complete ban on outdoor water use (Stage 4). Not surprisingly, there is a close correspondence between the imposition of restrictions and the reduction in per capita water use. Five years after the drought ended, per capita water use is still at an historic low.

Water Saving Programmes

The Victorian government also funded water rebate and exchange programmes for small businesses and residential water users. For residential users, water retailers replaced showerheads (462,466 from start of programme in 2006/2007 to 2010/2011), toilets and washing machines (365,000 4-star machines installed from 2006/2007 to 2010/2011) with more water-efficient models. These exchange programmes reduced potable demand by 5.5,000,000,000ℓ, 0.44,000,000,000ℓ, and 867,000,000,000ℓ/year, respectively. The Victorian Government Water Smart Rebate Scheme, which started in January 2003, provided rebates for Figure 10: Portion of HHs with RWHT surveyed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Data source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.

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RWHTs, dual flush toilets, permanent grey water systems, hot water re-circulators, and efficient showerheads, at some point during the course of the programme. A total of 19,008 rebates were granted in 2010/2011, reducing potable demand by 35,000,000,000ℓ/year. The Evaporative Air Conditioners Program required only water-efficient evaporative coolers be sold on the market (with expected potable demand reductions of 8,000,000,000ℓ/year by 2015), and a gardening programme provided public education on water-efficient gardening. Businesses that used more than 10,000,000ℓ/year were required to complete a Water Management Action Plan (WaterMAP) that sets water conservation targets and reports progress annually. The

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goal of the WaterMAP programme is to reduce potable water demand by eight (8) Giga Litres per year by 2015. Other non-residential programmes include the Cooling Towers Program (17,000,000ℓ of potential savings), the Waterless Wok Program (estimated 4,600ℓ/d day savings for a two-ring stove), and the Water Saver Garden Centres Program to encourage reductions in landscape irrigation. Small businesses were also eligible for rebates up to Australian $2000 for installing water-saving technologies. The national Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards Act 2005 mandated registering and labelling the efficiency of shower heads, tap equipment, flow controllers, toilet equipment, urinal equipment, clothes washing machines, and dishwashers


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Education Programmes Targeting Schools and Homes

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to build infrastructure to resupply it into the network. Before water can be properly priced, however, it needs to be clear who owns it (or, more precisely, who has the right to extract how much from boreholes, rivers, aquifers and so on). Australia has led the way in creating such a system of tradable water. The aim is to ensure that water winds its way to those who can make the best use of it. Calculating how much is being used, and how much actually ought to be used by each user, is essential so as to ascertain how much rainfall we are getting, as Figure 11 demonstrates. In Australia, old rights (typically belonging to landowners) were replaced with restricted shares in perpetuity that grant holders a proportion of any annual allocations. This means that the only way one person can have more of the liquid is if another person has less. Two markets have emerged: one in which seasonal allocations of available water can be traded, and another in which shares can be. Getting water policy and practice through imposed restrictions right will not only encourage everyday conservation towards water security; it will also stimulate the development of technologies such as

In 2006, the Victoria Government launched the School Water Efficiency Program (SWEP) to identify leaks and evaluate water use in public schools and to promote water education. By 2009, 1,737 schools joined the programme. An estimated 269.1,000,000â„“ / year where saved from 2006 to 2009. The Learn It! Live It! Program was also established to promote water education and awareness in primary and secondary schools, which had 324 committed schools by 2011. The Water Smart Behaviour Change Program developed in 2007, and by 2009 Melbourne water retailers worked directly with 140,000 HHs to demonstrate water saving habits in the home. Assessing the impact on water savings has been a challenge; therefore, the impact of these programmes is not entirely clear (City West Water, 2010).

Current accounts

The key to managing water better is to price it properly and use fit-for-purpose water to supplement other demand that does not require potable water. In cases where the wastewater ends up in outfalls taking it out at sea, giving consumers a reason not to waste it and investors an incentive

Figure 11: Current season’s rainfall in Cape Town

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artificial meat (which uses far less water than the real stuff ) and cheaper, yet more efficient, decentralised water re-use. The alternative is to prove Mark Twain right when he said: “Whiskey is for drinking; water is for fighting over.” Water security has three key dimensions – social equity, environmental sustainability, and economic efficiency – also known as people, planet, and profit (the three Ps) (Cook and Bakker, 2016).

Water Security lessons learnt discussion: Putting the Concept into Practice

In its efforts to alleviate the impacts of the Millennium Drought, Melbourne avoided immediate dangers and also increased its resilience to future climate variability. By the end of the Millennium Drought, Melbourne had undertaken, or completed, large centralised infrastructure projects as well as decentralised, locally based demand-attenuation and supplyaugmentation projects. It had also conducted a number of information and public education campaigns. These projects and campaigns had various impacts on municipal water supply, cost, and reliability, as well as effects on ecosystem health and function. In addition, they were embraced by the public to varying degrees and were subject to changes in local, state and national polities. While these projects did not contribute to Melbourne’s water supply during the Millennium Drought, they are available at the present time and may be needed in the future. Melbourne’s experience with recycled water is more nuanced. The use of recycled water for local agriculture increased dramatically during the Millennium Drought, but for a variety of reasons the initial uptake did not last. By contrast, urban and residential use of recycled water appears to be on

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a long-term increasing trend. Rainwater harvesting was embraced by the public, with positive impacts on both Melbourne’s potable supply and possibly ecosystem health. The Millennium Drought also spurred interest in storm water harvesting, in part because of its potential to slack a large fraction of the city’s long-term water needs. Government programmes to restrict water use, improve water efficiency, and educate the public were both highly effective and relatively low cost. Indeed, the success of Melbourne’s water conservation programmes kept the city from running out of potable water during the Millennium Drought.

Conclusion

The need to use carefully managed water restrictions to leverage private investment is recognised as a critical success factor for enabling water efficiency and building water security. Other potential funding sources could include the privatisation of decentralised water infrastructure networks without tying up/locking in public funds which on-site water treatment and reuse easily allows. Thus, construction work and putting in of these decentralised systems could be financed and undertaken by the private sector (including private financing by individual home owners) which will assume the financial risk. From an equity point of view this will result in the spreading of risk amongst the different water users. Melbourne’s experience with the Millennium Drought offers many lessons, both positive and negative, to other cities of comparable size and drought susceptibility. For one, the severity of the Millennium Drought afforded Melbourne a window of opportunity for supply-side and demand-side measures that in normal times may have proven very difficult,


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if not impossible, to adopt. One lesson for other cities is that major droughts, if serious enough and long-lasting enough, create opportunities for policy-makers, as well as pose challenges. The ability to take advantage of this window of opportunity depends, however, on the willingness of decision-makers to engage the public, institutional conditions which encourage adopting innovations, and – ironically – the security provided by investment in some "hard path" alternatives which reinforce the public’s confidence that diverse and multi-faceted programmes and options are being pursued by public officials. These lessons regarding public engagement and institutional reform are especially salient for cities such as, Los Angeles, Cape Town, etc., that are struggling with protracted drought and

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facing challenges in convincing the public of the severity of its causes and consequences. Finally, in light of the fact that Melbourne considered, and adopted, a number of options for water supply (some of which, as outlined above, were implemented but never used). Its experience raises the following question: can cities develop an evaluation framework to optimise and prioritise their different water management options? For example, a wide range of water conservation initiatives were implemented that varied greatly in cost-effectiveness and amount of water saved, but a smaller number of well-chosen initiatives might have been more effective, less costly, and easier to implement as they were backed by imposed water restrictions. Melbourne’s

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investment in alternative water supply means that the city will be more resilient in the face of future droughts. Clearly, the Millennium Drought forced Melbourne to adopt a more integrated approach to water management (mainly through carefully well-managed water restrictions) and in the process, the city has become more resilient to drought and less vulnerable to climate variability in the long-term. The challenge going forward will be to vigilantly sustain the city’s many successes while planning for future challenges posed by continued urbanisation, population growth as more cities are likely to encounter similar issues as Melbourne due to climate change. The Western Cape, like the rest of South Africa, has a high-risk agrohydrological environment which is likely to be exacerbated under conditions of climate change. Climate change will have a profound impact on water resources that will have serious knock-on effects for agriculture and food security. Despite

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uncertainty about the precise impact of climate change, this paper argues that the development of local neighbourhood water re-use interventions’ (alongside urban storm water capture and rain water harvesting) and more resilient food production systems, based on smarter water use, is the most effective response to water resource efficiency and doing more with less. Every rain storm delivers millions of litres of water that can be "harvested" to help alleviate pressure on centralised water collection, reduce costs of water supply, or where centralised alternatives are not coping, become the main source of supply to HHs (Alternative Technology Association, 2005). South Africa’s wise water restriction inter ventions should consist investments that accounts for climate change, averting "tipping points", and harnessing the knowledge generated from existing science that will result in a win-win scenario for all involved at no cost to Government.


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References

• ACIL, 2014. Evaluation of the Victorian 5 Star Building Standard, 2014. Available at: http:// www. climatechange.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/ 73237/ACIL5Star.pdf. (Accessed September 1, 2017). • Alternative Technology Association (ATA), 2005. ATA Greywater Project Report, supported by the Smart Water Fund, November 2005. • Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007. Environmental issues: people’s views and practices, March 2007. Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Details Page/4602.0Mar%202007?OpenDocument. (Accessed September 1, 2014). • Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2014. Environmental issues: water use and conservation, March 2013. Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/ 4602.0.55.003Main+Features1Mar%202013?Open Document. (Accessed September 1, 2014). • Australian Government, 2014. Water efficiency. Available at: http://www.waterrating.gov. au/about-wels. (Accessed September 16, 2014). • Australian National Water Commission and Marsden Jacob Associates, 2007. The costeffectiveness of rainwater tanks in urban Australia, March 2007. • Cape Argus, 2017. Rains and snowfall to impact dams. 18 July 2017. • Cape Town solution, 2017. Typical household water consumption. Water and Environmental Management 9:477-488. • City West Water, South East Water, Yarra Valley Water, Melbourne Water. Melbourne joint water efficiency plan. Annual Report 2010/2011. • City West Water, South East Water, Yarra Valley Water, Melbourne Water. Melbourne joint water conservation plan. Annual Report 2008/2009. • City West Water, South East Water, Yarra Valley Water, Melbourne Water. Melbourne joint water conservation plan. Annual Report 2009/2010. • Comisión Nacional del Agua, 2010. Financing Water Resources Management in Mexico. https://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/attachment/file/110801/Financing_Water_ Resources_Management_in_Mexico.pdf • Cook and Bakker, 2016. Water security: Debating an emerging paradigm and human right to water. Global Environmental Change 94; UN-Water. • Department of Environment and Primary Industries, 2014. Water rebate program. Available at: http://www.depi.vic.gov.au/water/saving-water/water-rebate-program. (Accessed September 16, 2014). • Department of Water Affairs (DWA), Project to Revise the Pricing Strategy for Water Use Charges and Develop a Funding Model for Water Infrastructure Development and Use and a Model for the Establishment of an Economic Regulator: Review of Principles and Experience for Infrastructure Finance (16 November 2012) http://www. dwa.gov.za/Projects/PERR/documents%5CPrinciples%20and%20Models%20for%20 Infrastructure%20Finance%20Version%202%20(16%20Nov%202012).pdf

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• Engelbrecht, Adegoke, Bopape, Naidoo, Garland, Thatcher, McGregor, Katzfey, Werner, Ichoku and Gatebe, 2015. Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation. Environmental Research Letters. • Evans, 2017. News24: Cape Town housing expansion not linked to water crisis 2017-07-19 18:33. http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/ cape-town-housing-expansion-not-linked-to-water-crisis-20170719#cxrecs_s • Ewert J., 2014. Melbourne, Australia becoming water-sensitive to respond to a changing climate. Switch Melbourne Water. Available at: http://www.switchtraining.eu/ fileadmin/ template/projects/switch_training/files/Case_ studies/Case_study_Melbourne_preview. pdf. (Accessed September 23, 2014). • Farrelly M and Davis C, 2009. Demonstration Projects: Case Studies from Melbourne, Australia. National Urban Water Governance Program, Monash University, June 2009. • Goddard M, 2006. Urban greywater reuse at the D’LUX development. Desalination 2006, 188:135–140. • Jacobs H E, Geustyn L C and Loubser B F, 2005. The first reported correlation between end-use estimates of residential water demand and measured use in South Africa. Water SA 33(4): 549-558. • Karim R, 2016. Modelling blue and green water resources availability. Hydrol. Process Water Research. Vol 102: 1-640. • Leblanc M, Tweed S, Van Dijk A, Timbal B, 2012. A review of historic and future hydrological changes in the Murray-Darling Basin. Glob Planet Chang 2012, 80-81:226–246. • Lovering J, O’Shanassy K, Heeps D, Beaton R, Wilson G, Rhodes B, Santamaria D, Vinot K, Sheehan D, Chapman, T, Donald A, 2014. Water supply-demand strategy for Melbourne 2006–2055. Available at: https://www. yvw.com.au/yvw/groups/public/documents/ document/yvw001509.pdf. (Accessed September 23, 2014). • Low KG, ‎2015. Fighting drought with innovation: Melbourne’s response to the Millennium Drought in Southeast Australia. http://www.findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au/ individual/publicationS979589 • Maddaus L, Maddaus W, Maddaus M, 2014. Preparing Urban Water Use Efficiency Plans: A Best Practice Guide. London, UK: IWA Publishing. • Mitchell and Maxwell, 2010. Defining Climate Compatible Development, CDKN, London. • Muller, 2016. A New Approach for Detection of Surface Water Changes Based on Principal Component Analysis of Multitemporal Normalized Difference Water Index. Journal of Coastal Research. Vol. 32, Issue 2: 443 – 451. • Office of Living Victoria, 2014. State Government of Victoria. Melbourne’s Water Future. July 2013. Available at: http://www.livingvictoria.vic.gov.au/PDFs/Melbourne’s _Water_ Future_full.pdf. (Accessed September 1, 2014). • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2013. The role of banks, equity markets and institutional investors in long-term financing for growth and development. http://www.oecd.org/finance/private-pensions/ G20reportLTFinancingForGrowthRussianPresidency2013.pdf • Sandor, 2017. Innovative financing to fund development: progress and prospects. www. oecd.org/development/effectiveness/44087344.pdf

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• Sinclair M, O’Toole J, Malawaraarachchi M, Leder K, Barker F, Hamilton AJ, 2011. Greywater use in the backyard: what are the health risks? Milestone 5/Final Report, Smart Water Fund. • South East Water, 2014. Email communication on May 21 2014. • State Government of Victoria, 2014. Department of environmental and primary industries. Water Rebate Program. Available at: http://www.depi. vic.gov.au/water/saving-water/ water-rebate-program. (Accessed September 1, 2014). • State Government of Victoria, 2014. Schools water efficiency program. Available at: http:// www.myswep.com.au/. (Accessed September 1, 2014). • Tandjiria S, Gan K, Arora M, 2013. Estimating current volumetric rainwater use in Melbourne. Unpublished study. University of Melbourne, 2013. • The Economist, 2016. "Water. The dry facts. Water is scarce because it is badly managed", The Economist, London, 5 de noviembre, http://www.economist.com/news/ leaders/21709541-water-scarce-because-it-b... • Victorian Water Industry Association Inc, 2005. Victoria uniform drought water restrictions guidelines. • WCCCRS, 2014. The SmartAgri Plan builds on the Western Cape Climate Change Response Strategy (WCCCRS 2014) – first sectoral response framework. http://www.greenagri.org. za/smartagri-2/smartagri-plan/ • WIREs Water, 2015. Fighting drought with innovation: Melbourne’s response to the Millennium Drought in Southeast Australia. • World Bank, 2016. Philippine Infrastructure Public Expenditure Review. 2016. • World Resources Institute ( WRI), 2017. Ranking the World’s Most Water-Stressed Countries in 2040. http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/08/ ranking-world%E2%80%99s-most-water-stressed-countries-2040 • World Wildlife Fund - South Africa (WWF-SA), 2016. Water Facts & Futures: Rethinking South Africa’s Water Future. • Xu H, Rahilly M, Maheepala S, 2010. Predicting daily potable water savings by using rainwater tanks at urban scale. Hydrological cycle and water resources sustainability in changing environments. In: Proceedings of IWRM2010 5th International Symposium on Integrated Water Resources Management, Nanjing, China, 19–21 November, 2010. IAHS; 2011, 350, 254–260.

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Technology Reviews and Case Studies COMPANY

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SAASTA 133 Sebata Group Holdings 128-129 Inkomati-Usuthu Catchment Agency 139 SEW Eurodrive 134 Conti 135 KSB 136 Malutsa 137 City of Ekurhuleni 130-131 Tean Distribution 138 Siemens 132 Monash South Africa 127

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MONASH SOUTH AFRICA EQUIPS GRADUATES TO TACKLE SOUTH AFRICA’S LOOMING WATER CRISIS As South Africans look on with mounting distress at the impending water crisis which is overtaking areas of the country, particularly the Western Cape, Monash South Africa (MSA) is determined to be a part of the solution by equipping graduates with the knowledge and tools to start addressing the crisis. The Western Cape government has said that the province could run out of fresh water in dams by 2019 if water resources are not managed properly. Besides a lack of rain, which has partly been attributed to climate change, Cape Town like much of the country, has had to contend with surging water demand, due to increasing population and expanding urban, industrial and agricultural sectors. MSA offers two programmes focused on innovative socio-technical solutions to water management; the Postgraduate Diploma in Water Management, and the Master of Philosophy in Integrated Water Management. The Postgraduate Diploma in Water Management is a one year qualification designed to deepen professionals’ interdisciplinary skills and knowledge in water management. This qualification nurtures students to become effective managers,

equipped to understand complex water challenges and to develop interdisciplinary, practical solutions to water and sanitation problems. The qualification is targeted at water professionals in South Africa who are already working in the water sector as well as those who are working in related technical fields. The MSA Master of Philosophy in Integrated Water Management is one of very few local (or international) degrees that takes an integrated approach to teaching and learning about water management. The degree encourages students to explore the relationship between societal development, human well-being and hydrological systems, and reinforces the need for scientists to produce new knowledge and communicate new understanding to the public and policy makers for a sustainable future. To find out more about MSA’s programmes and apply, visit www.msa.ac.za

ABOUT MONASH SOUTH AFRICA The impressive, state of the art Monash South Africa (MSA) campus in Johannesburg is dedicated to support South Africa and the continent to meet its diverse economic and educational needs by producing highly employable graduates that are global citizens. Founded by Monash University, MSA became the first institution in Sub-Saharan Africa to join the Laureate International Universities network in 2013 with more than one million students enrolled across more than 70 institutions in 25 countries and online.

THE WORLD CLASS

CONTACT US 011 950 4009 www.msa.ac.za

Monash South Africa Limited incorporated in Australia External Profit Company is registered as a private higher education institution under the Higher Education Act of 1997. Registration number: 2000/HE10/002


CASE STUDY

POURING LIFE INTO THE EASTERN CAPE

Reflecting on Cedarville and Matatiele Cedarville and Matatiele—neighbouring towns in the Eastern Cape Province—is a beautiful, mountainous region. Mainly cultivated for farming, the region was deeply affected by severe water scarcity mostly as the result of the nationwide drought that had preceded the year before. Located in the Alfred Nzo District Municipality (ANDM), the towns’ difficulties were not only environmental. Factors such as the unrestrained use of limited water reserves and dated infrastructure invariably meant water down the drain. Social hindrances also came into play. The lack of water, by extension, affected tourism, agriculture, opportunities for employment, and even made the most basic of necessities, like taking a shower, very difficult. The responsibility rested heavily on Alfred Nzo

District Municipality to reduce the influences that negatively affected the region’s living standards – and they rose to the challenge.

Reversing water losses and generating revenue

The municipality’s limited ability to enforce credit control meant that they were unable to adequately recover costs associated with water usage. To remedy the situation, ANDM appointed Sebata Municipal Solutions to install pre-paid and conventional water meters in both towns. The project comprised four phases: • Stand/erf audit. In the first phase, each stand in both towns were audited to establish its status in terms of connection and environmental damage.


CASE STUDY

• Installation of pre-paid water meters. Once the audit was complete, Sebata began installing water meters at low-lying areas of the towns, working up toward the elevated areas of the towns. As meters were installed, water levels steadily rose improving water pressure. • Billing management and pre-paid vending. On the onset, it was apparent that consumers allowed water leakages and running toilets on their properties to go unattended; however, this soon abated once they were liable for purchasing their own water supply, resulting in the municipality experiencing a surge in consumer registrations for pre-paid water meters. • Maintenance. The last phase entailed the continuous maintenance of the pre-paid meter solution and the managing of water losses. Sebata trained the ANDM technical staff; and once training was complete, Sebata passed on the responsibility to them to continue the management and maintenance of the meters.

Key highlights and successes

• Generating revenue - The benefits derived from the project were abundant. Besides all households now enjoying an equal distribution of water, the municipality has reduced its water losses and increased its revenue exponentially. Prior to the project, the municipality recovered only a small portion of revenue from the towns’ use of water. However, Sebata exceeded that amount fourfold in just its second month of installation. • Upskilling and employing - The project extended further to include a skills development programme as a means of investing in the Eastern Cape. Sebata partnered with a local BBEEE sub-contractor to facilitate water meter installations, which included placements, repairs and maintenance. Over forty local labourers with basic skills were appointed and trained to carry on with this work.

• New venture creation - At the same time, an entrepreneurial learnership programme (SETA NQF Level 2) was introduced catering to 150 learners. The 12-month programme, facilitated by Sebata, was followed by a business incubator done through the Department of Small Business Development. • Promoting the responsible usage of a precious commodity - Consumers developed a responsible and healthy respect for the use of water. Leaking toilets and broken pipes, for instance, were addressed with a sense of urgency. At this point, it was evident that residents were willing to pay for the water they consumed, because it meant that they were in control of their own water consumption. Upon reflecting on Cedarville and Matatiele, it becomes apparent that without water readily available in adequate quantity, man’s progress is tremendously hindered. And while it is difficult to gauge the extent to which the lack of running water had on the region’s economic growth, the installation of a water management system had a direct impact on the towns’ upliftment.

About sebata

Sebata Group Holdings is one of South Africa’s largest providers of integrated technologies with a footprint throughout South Africa extending into Africa. Together with its partners – R-Data, IPES-Utility Management Services, Amanzi Meters, Utility Systems, Mubesko Africa and Freshmark Systems – Sebata has an enduring commitment to equipping municipalities with technologies that advance the communities they serve.

www.sebata.co.za | T: (011) 218 8080 info@sebata.co.za THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

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CASE STUDY

WATER BALANCE, NON-REVENUE WATER AND WATER LOSSES FOR 2016/2017 FINANCIAL YEAR The City of Ekurhuleni's Non-Revenue Water (NRW) at the end of the 2012/13 financial year (June 2013) was 40.3%, a figure considered poor performance in terms of the International Water Association benchmarking practice. In response, the City developed and adopted a Business Plan for Water Demand Management in 2014. The implementation of the plan commenced in the 2012/13 financial year. The City further developed a Long-Term Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy in 2015. The strategy saw the Water and Sanitation Department embarking on a wide range of Water Conservation / Water Demand Management ( WC/WDM) projects to reduce the high percentage of NRW and water losses to acceptable levels. The Business Plan for Water Demand Management identified the following programmes to be implemented in order to reduce non-revenue and water losses: • Pipeline and Valve Assessment and Replacement • Replacement of Mid-Block Pipelines • Pro-Active Leak Detection and Repairs

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• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

Cathodic Protection of Steel Pipelines Sectorisation of Distribution Areas Telemetry System Indigent Properties Leak Fixing Leak Fixing & Meter Installation Project in Tsakane / Langaville / Geluksdal Metering of all Informal Settlements Pressure Management Metering of all Unmetered Areas Replacement of all aged Domestic Water Meters Consolidation & Replacement of all Large Water Consumer Meters Integration of IMQS, EMIS, Asset Management & Venus Systems Develop and Implement a Communication, Awareness and Education Programme Water Tariffs as an instrument to reduce Non-Revenue Water Training Document and Information Management System Risk Register: Monitoring and Mitigation Plan “War on Leaks” Rapid Response teams Maintenance of Water Meters


CASE STUDY

The implementation of the water conservation and water demand management projects as identified by the Business Plan for Water Demand Management has had a notable impact on the municipality’s water balance. The business plan for water demand management initially had a five-year timeline, which was later relaxed to the 10-year time line due to financial and human resource constraints. The implementation of the programme has resulted in the city meeting its NRW reduction targets for the first three years despite the programme not being adequately funded. The success is primarily due to attending to the “lowhanging fruits�. The underfunding of the programme has caught up and has resulted in the in the NRW for the 2016/17 financial year stabilising relative to the last financial year. Future water demand growth scenarios were formulated. A low demand growth scenario, without radical implementation of the programme, projected a water demand growth of 1.88% per annum. A high water demand growth scenario that takes into consideration the 2.46% population growth and growth in the industrial sector projected a water demand growth of 2.88% per annum.

These scenarios were plotted against the National Development Plan mandated Vaal Reconciliation Strategy targets for Ekurhuleni as well as the targets that the City set itself if the Water Demand Management business plan projects are implemented as planned. The actual growth in water demand was tracking the high water demand growth scenario until the last financial year where water demand growth was arrested. This resulted in the actual water demand coinciding with the low water demand growth scenario. This year, the City has managed to reduce the water demand to below the Vaal Reconciliation Strategy target. The Water and Sanitation Department has achieved significant progress in the reduction of non-revenue water and water losses since the adoption and implementation of the Business Plan for Water Demand Management in 2013/14, resulting in a 5.6% reduction in non-revenue water by the end of the 2016/17 financial year. The implementation of the programme is resulting in the reduction of the growth in water demand. The Department has met the Vaal Reconciliation Strategy Targets but the current momentum and traction has to be maintained.

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TECHNICAL REVIEW

SIEMENS DRIVES THE DIGITAL ENTERPRISE FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES FROM DATA TO VALUE As utilities begin to embrace the digital future, they will look to raise their awareness of the diverse set of savings that can be achieved through the optimisation and efficiency of assets and operations that these type of solutions provide. The main tasks of water management – sourcing, process water and drinking water treatment, distribution, drainage, wastewater collection and treatment – remain the same. Each step, however, can benefit from better information and more responsiveness to that information. Furthermore, these benefits can be achieved most effectively if conceived as part of complete digital system managing water from intake to outfall: the inter-linkages between different stages of the water cycle mean that the whole is worth more than the sum of the parts. The idea of the digital follows on from this smart level. This digital concept is focused on the integration, management and analysis of all this available data through better, more

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sophisticated data management and analysis software that enables the water end-user or plant operator to derive valuable, actionable information. A proactive focus of both utilities and industrial plants alike, whereby they can not only detect and react to an event or issue when it occurs, but also actually predict and prevent such issues from occurring, is helping to drive this digital transformation. Such approaches involve the use of much information. To save time and money, processes need to be simplified and run efficiently in parallel. Integrated engineering with COMOS and SIMATIC PCS 7 and the Industry Library from Siemens offer outstanding solutions. Siemens has proven its capabilities in numerous projects all over the world. We know all about the increased responsibility that comes from making a commitment to the water and wastewater industry – and we readily face that challenge: to be a trusted technology partner, offering services that help our customers achieve their goals, today and in the future.

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NANOTECHNOLOGY AND WATER SOME FACTS What is nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology can be described as the manipulation of materials at a very tiny scale. We’re talking at the atomic and molecular levels, where atoms and particles can only be observed with specialised equipment. Here at the nanoscale, scientists measure and calculate in units such as nanometres, where one nanometre equals one-billionth of a metre. (Just to help you get a sense of those dimensions, a sheet of paper is about 100 000 nanometres thick, a human hair around 80 000-100 000 nanometres wide) At this scale, materials display some unique properties, meaning they behave in odd new ways. This opens countless new opportunities for what you can do with materials, including applying them to the treatment of water.

So how is nanotechnology applied to water treatment?

Thanks to nanotechnology, scientists can tweak and refine current techniques and tools for the treatment of domestic, industrial and mining wastewater. For example, nanotechnology scientists lets target specific contaminants in the water. This makes it perfect for water purification as water contains different forms of contaminants at different locations, For more information, please visit: www.npep.co.za www.saasta.ac.za @npeptweet • Facebook account: @nanotechn

including heavy metals (think mercury and arsenic) and biological toxins such as waterborne, disease-causing pathogens (like those that cause cholera and typhoid). It also means that scientists can target contaminants that were previously difficult to treat. In addition, the number of treatment steps, the quantity of materials and the cost and energy required to purify water can be reduced. This can potentially make nanotechnologies easier to implement in remote rural communities.

Where to next for nanotechnology and water?

Speak to nanoscientists and they will tell you that they still have some ground to cover in perfecting their technologies. With the right investment and due consideration of any harmful effects that nanomaterials may hold, this could soon be a reality for water treatment. They are also confident about the promise it holds. Once such nanotechnologies are incorporated, maintenance costs will be considerably lower over the long term, water quality will be improved and the technologies will easily be employed in rural communities. If these scientists are right - and there’s no reason to think they’re not - South Africa is on the verge of a nanotechnological revolution that could have a lasting impact on our water problems.


TECHNICAL REVIEW

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT GETS SEW-EURODRIVE UPGRADE A major upgrade to a wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape is taking advantage of the energy-saving and cost-efficiency features of the latest IE3-compliant DRN motors from SEW-EURODRIVE. The order is due to be supplied later this year. An important feature of these motors for wastewater treatment applications is their IP 65 rating, SEW-EURODRIVE South Africa National Sales Manager Norman Maleka comments. A total of six units are being supplied, with two gearboxes fitted with 75 kW DRN motors, two with 45 kW DRN motors, and the remaining two with 37 kW DRN motors. These specific units will be used for aerator applications. “With aerator and mixing applications, our projects and engineering teams have to double check all of the loads and bending moments. The client, based on their designs, supplies these loads to us. We then have to ensure that the gearboxes that have been selected are suited to the application at hand,” Maleka explains. SEW-EURODRIVE employs a special program designed specifically to determine if the gearbox selection is adequate, based on the loads and bending moments. This is particularly important when it comes to aerators and mixers. SEW-EURODRIVE therefore selects the optimal gearbox for the application at hand. “We supplied similar gearboxes and motors to the same client for a wastewater treatment plant in the Vaal Triangle. The client has displayed confidence in both our technical support and our technology,

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which is how we nurture such long-standing relationships,” Maleka comments. “These two major projects in quick succession represent a foothold for us in this burgeoning industry, which is definitely picking up in terms of business.” Connect with SEW-EURODRIVE on Facebook to receive the company’s latest news: www. facebook.com/SEWEurodriveSA

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CASE STUDY

Innovative technology, superior materials and elegant design make CONTI+ products the appliance of choice in both commercial and public sanitation areas.The range includes a wide selection of sanitation products such as shower units, taps wash basins, urinals/ WC's, accessories, thermostatic mixer taps, emergency showers and eyewash stations. Operators of commercial and public restroom appreciate the benefits of technologically innovative products. The CONTI+ range provides everything you would expect to find in a contemporary restroom: Ecologically sound water saving products. Up to 70%. Touch free functions ensuring the highest level of hygiene. Security and protection against vandalism. Lifespan at 150 wash cycles per day. - AC Battery up to 4 years. - Solar up to 6 years. - Turbine up to 10 years. Unique service concepts make electronic taps as reliable to use as mechanical single lever mixers. Programmable sanitary flushing and thermal disinfection, safeguarding hygiene of potable water quality. COMBUS -CNX monitors up to 150 taps from a central point to adjust settings, activate specific devices and record data wireless. Conti + in South Africa have also combined enhanced water saving solutions from NEOPERL to suit our landscape and add real value to design with sustainability in mind. Perfectly harmonized in form and function tailored to the requirements of the sanitary sector. Visit the Conti+ website to view the updated full range of products, downloadable catalogues and brochures : www.conti.plus

0027 087 701 1885 www.contiplus.co.za

info@conti.co.za www.conti.plus


TECHNICAL REVIEW

VARIABLE SPEED WASTE WATER PUMPS KSB Pumps and Valves recently introduced the PumpDrive variable speed system for effective and controlled pumping of waste water. The variable speed system has been especially designed to overcome problems experienced when pumping waste water. Three innovative functions have been seamlessly incorporated into the system to allow the most effective operation of pumps in the field. These include establishing a complete water column almost immediately during start-up. This is done through a system which allows the pump to be taken to maximum speed within four seconds and maintained for three minutes so that an appropriate flow passes through all piping elements before the system starts its controlled, demand-driven operation. This ensures that the discharge line and pump casing are completely primed with the fluid to be handled. Another unique feature of the variable speed system is the so-called flushing function. This can be activated either automatically or manually by operators using a control panel. The PID controller increases the speed up to a maximum value, which triggers the required flushing effect. The current control task is temporarily put on hold for this process. After the defined flushing period, the flushing function stops, and the system returns to its previous, controlled operation. Â Flow velocity monitoring is another new feature that is designed to improve operating reliability of pumps in the field. It ensures that the minimum flow velocities specified at the time of selection are met in order to keep the

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Effective pumping of waste water is possible with PumpDrive variable speed systems pipes free from deposits. If the flow velocity falls below the programmed minimum, PumpDrive can either transmit a fault message to the control station or start the flushing function to remove any deposits from the piping. The flow velocity is computed by the variable speed system based on measured electric values of the drive. No external sensors are required. Up to six PumpDrives can be combined into a controlling unit via plug-in bus lines, which allows the user to operate six pumps in parallel. This unit starts and stops the pump sets in line with demand while ensuring that the operating load is distributed evenly. It compensates the failure of individual components without interrupting the operation. All PumpDrives are designed for motors with ratings of up to 55Â kW with a harmonised design.

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Innovative hydrotechnology for a dry landscape

MALUTSA

South African towns and cities are buckling under the specter of the ever-worsening drought, crippling water inadequacy and the ever-increasing demand for alternative water sources. The Malutsa response to the detection, exploitation, purification, packaging, storage and reticulation of this increasingly valuable and sparse resource has resulted in an array of systems designed to exacting standards and able to respond to immediate, short or long-term needs of a varied client base, is detailed as follows:

SMALL PUMPING SYSTEMS Containerised and all-inclusive small pump systems allow the transfer of surface and groundwaters with diesel-driven self-priming centrifugal pumps, enabling the use of the downstream storage and purification systems. These transfer systems are equipped with pumping capacity able to deliver surface or seawater at a rate in excess of 20 000 l/h @ 20m head, and at max NPSH of 2.8m . LARGE PUMPING SYSTEMS Similarly containerised but vastly higher duty diesel-driven pumps are able to transfer 40 000l/h at a head of 80m. 100mm discharge hoses and 150mm rigid suction hoses are all compactly contained in the stackable and easily transportable holders. UF-RO MEMBRANE PURIFIER SYSTEMS Ultra-modern mobile and static membrane systems, compactly designed and offering hybrid molecular weight cut-offs enable Malutsa to further purify any problematic feedstock, be it organically contaminated bore hole or surface waters, seawater, rivers or dams. The fully automated systems complement the abstraction

and pumping systems, providing pragmatic solutions to a myriad of water – related problems. ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION Fast-acting UV light triggers an almost instantaneous disinfection without the creation of harmful by-products, rendering it an environmentally responsible complementing technology to any water-stressed client base. System and infrastructure design is professionally engineered to meet client needs up to major metropolitan levels. BOTTLING Modular, mobile and static water packaging systems, comprising bottling and sachet production, form part of the product base enabling the offering of a complete and comprehensive water solution. Designed to logistically simplify the achievement of potable bottled water to a varied market, the high quality PET bottles are produced, sterilised, filled, capped and labeled within a hermetically sealed production facility. STORAGE Self-supporting and bladder tanks in a variety of denominations further allow the pumping, storage and

treatment of any water source at any location to be undertaken. Tanks are equipped with fastenable covers, ground sheets and suitable porting for any application. PROCESS ENHANCEMENT In order to optimise and allow pragmatic solutions for any conceivable water treatment scenario, processes such as DAF, multi media filtration, flocculation, coagulation, chlorination, IX, demin, remin, GAC, PAC, Greensand, grey water and rain harvesting are all available for system enhancement. ABSTRACTION SYSTEMS By jet-flushing well-points into waterbearing sand, manifold extraction of bore hole and sub-surface water up to about 5m depth is achieved with the Malutsa water abstraction system. This system negates the risk of well-point collapsing in emergency scenarios. This diesel engine driven system incorporating a self-priming centrifugal pump and discharge hoses, allows immediate availability of water for storage, purifying or immediate use. Standard containerised packaging systems enable logistics of movement and deployment to be streamlined.


TECHNICAL REVIEW

TEAN DISTRIBUTION Quality worldwide

Tean Distribution specialises in the distribution of PPR Pipe and Heat Pumps in Southern Africa. We have sole import rights from our suppliers on our products for Southern Africa.

Our Heat Pumps are verified by ISO 9001. They can provide space heating, space cooling, swimming pool heating and also sanitary hot water for homes, restaurants, hospitals, hotels, factories, hostels, student accommodation etc.

Quality supplier

Quality sustainability

Our suppliers are well known worldwide. They have a long track record on production as well as good quality. Strict quality control, years of experience, constant research of new technology, and high quality products, which is certified by numerous institutions all over the world, is our biggest criteria when choosing a supplier. Our PPR supplier is one of the biggest manufacturers of PPR pipe in the world. No job is too big or too small for us. Their products can be found in over 40 countries worldwide. They started producing in 2000 and with good quality products and control as well as good management they became one of the biggest manufacturers of Polymer piping products in the world

Quality products

Our PPR pipe is one of the first to be approved and certified by Aenor for the South African market. We also hold numerous international certificates like KIWA and SKZ. Our PPR pipe is suitable for hot as well as cold water installations. It meets and exceeds the German and European health standards. The manufacturing facility carries ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 18001 Certification. With International ISO/SANS 15874: 2004 Parts 2,3 and 5, which makes it compliant to South African National Building Requirements.

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The Pipe System is manufactured from PPRandom Co-Polymer raw material. The Polypropylene (PPR) Pipe System has a small Carbon footprint and is fully recyclable, with pipes and fittings from 16mm to 160mm and in pressure classes from 10 to 25 bars. The pipe system has been specifically designed to enable the flow of clean hot and cold potable water. Completely replacing the use of galvanized and copper pipe, as poor or aggressive water conditions are on the increase. Unlike multi-layered pipes, this mono-layered system is the most environmentally friendly product on the market. With a minimum service life of 50 years it is one of the most costeffective systems on the market, and carries the full SABS approval. There is much evidence to show that Plastic Pipe systems are far more environmentally friendly than their traditional metal counterparts. This product is a byproduct of oil and it uses a fraction of the energy needed to mine copper, as well as the manufacturing process of copper tubing and fittings and leaves a significant smaller carbon footprint. For more information visit our website at www. tean.co.za

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Providing access to clean water a priority The Inkomati-Usuthu CMA has to ensure proper management of the resource at the local level involving stakeholders. We do not provide water services, but work with water services, making sure the resource that they use and give to people is protected, clean and safe. We investigate and advise as well as empower stakeholders on water use, and do verification and validation to see whether people have the right to use water. We must monitor water allocation, which is a challenge as the Kwena Dam that supplies an area from Nelspruit to Mozambique isn’t big enough to release water for all the people. The impact of drought on our planning activities in the past year has been bad for us. We have international obligations to honour, with an agreement to supply a certain volume of water to the other side of the Crocodile and Komati rivers across the Mozambique border. We don’t have enough water storage for the region, as we also share water with Swaziland and Mozambique.

Dr Thomas Gyedu-Ababio CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER: Inkomati-Usuthu CMA

As the first CMA in the country, we are proud of what we have achieved so far. The compilation of the CMS; Reducing pollution in the water management area; Empowering stakeholders, especially the Historically Disadvantaged Individuals to understand issues of water resources management and legislation; Verification and Validation of water uses; Water Use Authorisations and bringing stakeholders together. We have also assisted schools by providing water as part of our Corporate Social Investment.

Biography: After studying science, Thomas worked as a science teacher for eight years before pursuing his Masters and Doctorate in water quality and water resources management. Thereafter, he worked for Rand Water, managing the Vaal Dam Catchment, followed by 10 years as the Water Resources Manager for the Kruger National Park. He was appointed to the position of CEO of Inkomati-Usuthu Catchment Management Agency in 2016, after serving almost 3 years as COO.


INDEX OF ADVERTISERS COMPANY Abeco Tanks All Connections Allmech Burgess and Partners City of Ekurhuleni Conti Geberit Southern Africa Honeywell Inkomati-Usuthu Catchment Management Agency KSB Malutsa Monash South Africa Maxitech Industries NCPC Netafim Planet Earth Water SAASTA Sebata Group Holdings Set Point Laboratories SEW Eurodrive Siemens Sika SM Enviro Tean Distribution Terrapin University of Free State University of Pretoria

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We offer a wide range of chemical and microbiological analysis for: • Drinking Water • Environmental, Mine and Surface Water • Waste Water • Industrial Effluent Tests include • Physical and Aesthetic Properties of Water Nutrient Analysis • Macro and Micro Chemical Deter minants • General Microbiological Analysis

Contact us on 011 923-7100 - labsinfo@sethold.com – www.setpointlabs.co.za


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Tank Cleaning Energy Solutions Black Water Systems Borehole Water Systems Water Monitoring Solutions Water Education & Training Water Saving Devices & Products