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The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

South Africa Volume 7 The essential guide to resource efficiency in South Africa

SYLVAIN USHER, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE AFRICAN WATER ASSOCIATION:

ISBN 978-0-620-45067-6

9

780620 450676

07

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As part of our Farming for the Future programme, our produce, wine and flower farmers are saving water by only irrigating when necessary. We’re also committed to using less water in our own business.

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KEEPING OUR WATER CLEAN AND CLEAR Farming for the Future means reducing the amount of chemical fertilisers and other chemicals that go back into our water sources. We also partner with fabric and clothing suppliers who are committed to putting clean water back into the environment.

A PARTNERSHIP FOR PRESERVATION Water stewardship is all about Government, NGOs and the community working together to save and protect the precious water resources we all share. Together with the WWF, the Alliance for Water Stewardship and Marks & Spencer, we’re helping our Ceres fruit farmers to manage the water on their farms better. IN MOST OF OUR STORES, WE’RE MONITORING WATER USE, HARVESTING RAINWATER AND INCREASING EFFICIENCY. SINCE 2011, WE HAVE ALREADY REDUCED RELATIVE WATER USE BY 41%.

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CLEAN WATER AND CLEAN CLOTHES

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We’ve introduced phosphate-free laundry detergents that help preserve water quality without compromising on cleaning efficiency.

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Sustainable

Water Resource Handbook

South Africa Volume 7

The Essential Guide

EDITOR Garth Barnes

CLIENT LIASION OFFICER Natasha Keyster

CONTRIBUTORS Nomvuyo Mofokeng (CoJ), Lulama Ngobeni (Aurecon), Marba Visagie (NCPC), Nigel Kierby Smith (Eco Wash), Marcus Wishart (World Bank), Piet-Louis Grundlingh (Working for Wetlands), Nicholas Tandi (SIWI), Nicole Kranz, Zama Siqalaba, Mark Dent (Alliance for Water Stewardship), Richard Meissner (CSIR), Lorren Haywood (CSIR)

PROJECT MANAGER Annie Pieters

PEER REVIEWERS Jay Bhagwan, Eiman Karar (UNEP), Marc de Fontaine (RandWater), Richard Holden (TCTA), Anton Earle (SIWI), Richard Meissner, Nicholas Tandi, Marc de Fontaine, Richard Holden, Garth Barnes

ADVERTISING EXECUTIVES Glenda Kulp, Zaida Yon, Tanya Duthie, Louna Rae, Munyaradzi Jani PROOFREADER Monique Jacobs CHIEF EXECUTIVE Gordon Brown

PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Shannon Manuel

DIRECTORS Gordon Brown Andrew Fehrsen Lloyd Macfarlane

LAYOUT & DESIGN Shanice Daniels

EDITORIAL ENQUIRIES garth_barnes@hotmail.com

ONLINE MARKETING GSA Campbell

PUBLISHER

DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Edward Macdonald

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Sustainability and Integrated REPORTING HANDBOOK South Africa 2014

ISBN No: 978 0 620 45240 3. Volume 5 first Published February 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. IMAGES AND DIAGRAMS: Space limitations and source format have a affected the size of certain published images and/or diagrams in this publication. For larger PDF versions of these images please contact the Publisher.

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IWR WATER RESOURCES (PTY) LTD IWR Water Resources (Pty) Ltd consists of a small team of experienced and highly qualified hydrologists, water resources planners and hydraulic engineers. The main focus of the company lies in water resources planning and management, which includes water resources modelling and model development. The Company has extensive experience in the water resources models used within Southern Africa, including WRSM2000 and the Water Resources Yield Model, but have also developed their own water resources modelling tools so as to enable them to remain at the forefront of technology and respond rapidly to specific requirements from clients. Over the past five years IWR Water Resources has been providing technical leadership in developing operating rules for small municipal dams in the Western and Southern Cape. These rules strive for equitable and sustainable use of South Africa’s limited water resource. Through this project numerous water resources development options have also been investigated to improve the water supply to municipalities. The core expertise of the company is as follows:  Yield analysis of dams and large integrated systems  Water resources modeling in support of the determination of ecological water requirements of both rivers and estuaries  Ecological Reserve implementation  Hydrological analysis  Forest hydrology  Development of operating rules of dams  Agricultural water use and management  Catchment management studies  Flood-line determination  Analysis and management of open channel water supply systems IWR Water Resources has offices in Nelspruit, Pretoria and Pietermaritzburg and can be contacted at: Website: www.waterresources.co.za Tel: (013) 752 6857 e-mail: info@waterresources.co.za


PEER REVIEW

ALIVE2GREEN PEER REVIEW PROCESS

The

Sustainability and Integrated REPORTING HANDBOOK South Africa 2014


O

EDITOR’S NOTE

n September 25th 2015, countries adopted a set of 17 goals to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all as part of a new sustainable development agenda. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved over the next 15 years. SDG #6: Ensure access to water and sanitation for all, seeks to reduce the incidence of malnutrition, communicable diseases and inequities that are directly related to lack of access to improved sources of drinking water (affecting 663 million people worldwide) and sanitation (which 2.4 billion people still lack). This new goal implies a commitment by countries to monitor and report on their progress, similarly to what was done for the MDGs, but with much more detail. Garth Barnes The authors of the following articles attempt to describe how the Editor practical applications of the SDG #6 targets (which are listed below) contribute to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. The Agenda directs people to take bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path.

Each article correlates to one of the targets that sit behind SDG#6. These are the targets: • 6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all • 6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations • 6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally • 6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity • 6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate • 6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes • 6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies • 6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management

Regards Garth Barnes Editor

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SYLVAIN USHER, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE AFRICAN WATER ASSOCIATION: "MY DREAM FOR THE EMERGENCE OF A NEW CLASS OF WATER AND SANITATION UTILITY MANAGERS" After graduating with an Electrical Engineering Degree from the University of QuĂŠbec in the early eighties, Sylvain Usher had a career in the electricity sector in CĂ´te d'Ivoire, before joining the water industry in 1999. In 2005, he was appointed Head of the Executive Office of the African Water Association (AfWA). For more than 15 years, he has regularly attended the major international conferences to bring the voice of the African water and sanitation sector.

How is the African Water Association doing? Known as the Union of African Water Suppliers (UAWS) at the time, our association has undergone many changes since its inception in the 1980s when it consisted of only a dozen utilities anxious to share their experiences and improve their mutual per formance. Today, we are about 115 member utilities, from 45 African countries, which makes AfWA the only African platform that gathers such a potential. Our vision is to provide our Regular Members (African Utilities) with operational and technical expertise to improve their water and sanitation services to their clients.

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THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

Are consumption needs met by the utilities in this context of high urbanisation? This is indeed the current major challenge. Societies are evolving at a fairly rapid pace, supported by strong urbanisation and population growth. Facing these constraints, our utilities need real managers, talented men and more technicians than politicians, who are driven by a constant need


to improve the performance of their utilities and the spirit of their staff. You have been at the head of the African Water Association for a long time. What have been your greatest challenges? Our biggest challenge has been to find the necessary external financial resources for the implementation of our programmes/ projects. This was a major new milestone in the development of our association, which had, as major activities, the organisation of training sessions, seminars and scientific and technical workshops. Today, we have made a qualitative leap forward with the implementation of these programmes for our member utilities and the spin-offs, and the lessons learned are immense. What are your relationships with funding institutions? I can say that our Association does not suffer from bad press with donors. We have very good relationships with funding institutions such as USAID, the European Union and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which fund the programmes we run. It is a sign that our organisation inspires confidence. On this point, can you tell us about the programmes you are implementing at the African Water Association? Currently, we have four programmes being implemented. The first, financed by USAID, is known as AfriCap (AfWA Regional Institutional Capacity Building Programme) with the objective of building capacities, improving and expanding knowledge sharing in water and sanitation, and the water quality. The second major programme is RASOP, which is aimed at building the capacities of sanitation operators, especially faecal sludge management, through partnerships. It is funded by the

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The third programme is AfriAlliance; a program financed by the European Union as part of its H2020 initiative, which focusses on the issue of climate change resilience and adaptation for African water and sanitation sector stakeholders. The fourth programme we have successfully developed focuses on Non-Revenue Water (NRW) Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa. About 20 African water utilities from 15 countries took part in this programme, whose objective is to improve the management of NRW in order to reduce it to the acceptable minimum. Producing water at a certain cost and losing up to 30% to 45% of this water through leaks, thefts and bad commercial and meter management is no longer acceptable in Africa. Funded by USAID, the Association has developed this ambitious programme to meet the challenge of this major scourge of the African continent. We are also developing a programme for young professionals in the water and sanitation sector. Sixty grants will be awarded to Master and Doctorate students on the issues of the sector. The call for applications has been issued on our website www. afwa-hq.org. In addition, in connection with the WOP (Water Operators Partnerships), we have developed a programme to share experiences between the best performing utilities and those requiring capacity building. We also develop programmes specially dedicated to professional women in water and sanitation with the purpose of emphasising gender balance in the sector through the AfWA’s African Network of Professional Women in Water and Sanitation. What is the profile of the members of the African Water Association? AfWA has 3 types of members. The most representatives are Regular Members, 115 water and sanitation utilities from 45

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countries on the continent. According to the 2013 statistics, these Regular Members provide water and sanitation services to a population of 350 million people, including 285 million in urban areas and 65 million in rural areas. Our Affiliated Members, represent the category of equipment suppliers, consulting firms and training organisations. This category comprises of more than 78 members, mainly from Europe and the rest of the world. Affiliated Members regularly participate in our activities, given the tremendous business opportunities arising from these. Our events are business platforms for each of the two aforementioned parties. Finally, we have a new category of members. These are Individual Members, comprised of the elite of the scientific community, academics and researchers, seeking the right information from professionals in the sector in order to propose solutions adapted to the latter’s needs. What are your various activities? Since 1980, the African Water Association has been organising its congresses in one of the African countries. Every two years, a congress brings together thousands of participants from different categories of members. During these events, technical sessions and high-quality presentations on important topics are organised, as well as international exhibitions bringing together professionals and industrialists from the sector who come to present their state-ofthe-art equipment. Regular and Affiliated Members have the opportunity to do business or build strong partnerships. Every three months, the African Water Association organises its Scientific and Technical Council (STC) meeting in one of the capitals cities of the continent. The STC, divided into three sub-committees, brings together all of the executives and managers of the water and

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sanitation utilities in order to reflect on the problems of the sector and find solutions to improve the performance of these utilities. What is your assessment of the past year and what are your future prospects? 2016 was a memorable year. We implemented two major programmes for our organisation, not to mention the organisation of our congress in Kenya, chaired by the Head of State in person. For 2017, we plan to expand partnerships to provide more financial resources to our organisation, which will aim to develop more programmes to build the capacities of its members. In 2018, we will be hosting an important event—our Congress in Mali,Bamake, which we will prepare for throughout this year. According to several experts in the sector, our organisation is a real development factor for the continent. Reinforcing Capacity of African Sanitation Operators on non-sewer and FSM systems through peerto-peer learning partnerships (RASOP-Africa) Dr. Mbaye Mbéguéré, RASOP Programme Coordinator, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire Background In 2008, 3.3 billion people lived in cities, which is roughly 50% of the global population. According to the World Bank, by 2030, this figure should be around 5 billion or 60% of the world’s total population. This phenomenon will be particularly striking in Africa and Asia where the urban population will double between 2000 and 2030. In these cities, access to safe water and sanitation will continue to be a daily struggle for hundreds of thousands of city dwellers.


This is particularly true for Sub-Saharan Africa where nearly 565 million people lack access to adequate sanitation. To improve this worrying situation, several African countries, with the support of donors (BMGF, AWF, USAID, et cetera), have tried to reverse the trend by setting up, with varying degrees of success, a good number of development models of onsite sanitation for over 90% of the African population—that is the case, among other countries, of Senegal (ONAS), South Africa (eThekwini) and Côte d'Ivoire (ONAD). In Senegal, for example, with the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, various tools, through a scientific approach, were implemented for improved institutional and legal organisation of the faecal sludge sector, the mobilisation and improved involvement of the private sector, the use of ICTs for a better emptying service, as well as the building of infrastructures for collection, transportation, treatment and reuse of faecal sludge. To achieve a better sharing of these successful experiences, the African

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Water Association (AfWA) initiated a peer partnership project called Sanitation Operators Partnership (SOP), dedicated to the sanitation sector in general and to faecal sludge management in particular. RASOP objectives and methodology With the financial support of BMGF for a period of three years (2016-2018), the implementation of the project— Reinforcing African Sanitation Operators on non-Sewer and FSM through peer-to-peer learning Partnerships (RASOP-Africa)—has become effective since December 2015. Through the RASOP-Africa project, AfWA intends to promote the establishment of faecal sludge management strategies and the identification of on-site sanitation projects in five African cities, namely Bamako (Mali), Yamoussoukro (Côte d’Ivoire), Yaoundé (Cameroon), Kampala (Uganda) and Lusaka (Zambia). More specifically, the municipalities or sanitation utilities, of the five African cities will be supervised by similar


entities in other African countries whose experiences developed in the area of FSM, were proven successful and resulted in effective improvement of sanitary conditions for the relevant populations. These are the National Sanitation Office of Senegal selected as the mentor of three French-speaking beneficiaries, namely Yamoussoukro (Côte d’Ivoire), Yaoundé (Cameroon) and Bamako (Mali); and eThekwini in South Africa, that is responsible for supporting two English-speaking beneficiaries: Kampala (Uganda) and Lusaka (Zambia). The tools used in the process of improving on-site sanitation services for the benefit of poor people, and the main objective of the RASOP-Africa project, include: • Development of technical guidance for the promotion of non sewer and faecal sludge management, • Performance evaluation of urban sanitation with focus on non sewer sanitation services, • Development of training materials and implementation of training sessions, • O r g a n i s a t i o n o f a u d i t s a n d benchmarking missions for the benefit of the mentees, • Development of a three years Performance Improvement Plan (PIP), • Organisation of a Strategic Planning workshop on FSM, • A roundtable of donors. Implementation The implementation of the RASOP project will not only strengthen the capacities of municipalities and sanitation companies in the five beneficiary cities, but will also identify relevant projects for the improvement of sanitation conditions for more than

one million African urban dwellers. The ambition is to sustainably raise sanitation services in Africa through efficient sanitation companies equipped with a technical and human platform in line with this ambition. After a year of implementation, a situational analysis of non-sewer sanitation at the level of beneficiary cities is already completed. Audit and benchmarking visits were also finalised. The second year will lead to the finalisation of the Per for mance Improvement Plans, and as indicated in the methodology, towards a key step of the RASOP project, that is the organisation of the strategic planning workshop. The implementation of this project will ultimately provide an inclusive model for the improvement of faecal sludge management, applicable, in a very short time, to provide solutions able to improve the living conditions of the populations. AfriCap: The Capacity Building Programme of the African Water Association (AfWA), Gilles Djagoun, AfriCap Programme Coordinator AfriCap is a capacity building programme of the African Water Association (AfWA) funded by USAID. This programme promotes partnerships in the field of drinking water. The overall objective of the programme is to strengthen AfWA and to enable it to improve regional coordination and collaboration for water, sanitation and hygiene ( WASH) initiatives, harmonise WASH policies, build the capacities of WASH stakeholders and disseminate best practices and innovative knowledge products in order to enhance WASH services in West Africa. The specific objectives are:

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1.

2. 3.

Build AfWA’s capacities to enable it to formulate, coordinate, adapt and harmonise WASH policies in West Africa; Develop and implement a WASH knowledge sharing platform; Building of the capacities of laboratories on fresh water quality in West Africa.

The programme will last 4 years (from December 1, 2015) and the key implementing partners are the Council of African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW ), the Florida International University (FIU), the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Programme/West Africa (USAID WA-WASH), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Population Services International (PSI) and the beneficiary countries in West Africa. During the implementation, AfWA, USAID West Africa and the key targeted partners will strategically commit to encourage transformations in the regional coordination

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and communication for the WASH sector, the management of the water quality and the provision of efficient sanitation services as an effective means to support the WASH sector in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals in the countries of the region. The programme will benefit: i) In the short term: the Executive Office AfWA, the National institutions/organisations in charge of WASH and finally the Laboratories on Water Quality in West Africa. (Ii) In the long term, the entire African community of practitioners in the WASH sector, including decision makers, the entire African population, the civil society, the youth and women's organisations. African Non-Revenue Water (NRW) reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa Programme, Dr Simeon Kenfact, AfWA Programme Director The difference between water produced and the water that is paid for, is called non-revenue water. Like a business with


serious inventory and sales problems, many water utilities are crippled by water losses that they cannot account for or reverse. Some level of loss is normal and expected. A utility that keeps its losses at 25% or less is doing well. In the SubSaharan Africa region, most of water utilities are losing far more than that. Since 2012, through the Further Advancing the Blue Revolution Initiative (FABRI) programme, USAID and AfWA joined the effort to halt the constant creep of higher and higher water losses by the African water utilities. The programme was conducted in 21 water utilities from the West, Central, East and Southern Africa sub-regions. The sustainable methodology and structure put in place at AfWA to implement the programme is still operational. This constitutes an added value to AfWA, allowing the unique pan-African water sector organisation to raise its profile and credibility as the regional technical leader in the water and sanitation sector supporting utilities in capacity building in their various management and operational challenge. Indeed, the programme began in 2012, created by the a Task Force group on NRW of 15 members under the umbrella of AfWA. All the members of the TF were drawn from water utilities in 13 French and English speaking African countries. The profile was that they tend to be Directors of NRW or Operations; however some of them were Managing Directors of their utility. Two high-level training sessions were organised in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (for the French speaking countries beneficiaries) and in Nairobi, Kenya for the English speaking countries' counterparts. A total of 97 Water Utility Managers and senior staff, including members of AfWA NRW's task force, were

trained by the world's leading experts in the latest thinking about NRW.. After the trainings, audits on NRW were conducted in 19 water utilities and the results revealed that 50% of the utilities have a NRW unit, 50% carry out annual water audits, 50% calculate NRW based on measurements, 50% do active leakage control and 25% of utilities take only few hours (rather than days or weeks) to repair leaks/bursts. Finally, a performance Improvement Plan (PIP), focussing on NRW reduction, was designed and validated for each of the audited utilities and as a continuity of this programme at AfWA, the NRW Task Force has been embedded to the Technical Specialised Commission of the AfWA Scientific and Technical Council (STC) to give the opportunity to keep on doing the work for utilities not involved in the first wide-range programme on NRW Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa and EU alliance for Climate Change Resilience and adaptation, Dr Simeon Kenfact, AfWA Programme Director The AfriAlliance programme is an EU initiative funded under the Horizon 2020 Innovative Research Program. It is implemented by a consortium of 16 partners, 9 of which are African (AfWA), and 7 of which are European, for the five years of 2016-2020.

Aerator at Abeokuta main water scheme

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Indeed, access to water is essential for meeting basic human needs as well as for economic development. Yet the water sector, particularly in developing countries, is facing enormous challenges due to climate change, rapid population growth, rising demand for water, increasing pollution sources leading to ever more insecure water resources (ADB 2013; UNESCO 2012, 2014; Deloitte 2012). The failure to adapt to climate change is ranked 5th in terms of impact (and 7th in terms of likelihood). These risks are expected to increase even further over the coming 10 years (WEF 2015). Specifically with respect to water, Africa is going to be one of the regions most in need of innovative solutions for tackling water and climate changerelated challenges. The fruitful interaction among the relevant stakeholders in water management is of central importance when trying to generate, increase and exchange knowledge and innovation that address the demands for workable, effective solutions within the constraints of African developing nations. New mechanisms are therefore required to capitalise on the knowledge and innovation base and potential in Africa and in the EU to support effective means of knowledge sharing and technology transfer in order to increase preparedness to address the vulnerability of water and climate change-related challenges in Africa. The main objective of AfriAlliance is for African and European stakeholders to work together in the areas of water innovation, research, policy, and capacity development in order to increase the preparedness of Africa for future climate change vulnerabilities.

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The Specific Objectives of the AfriAlliance are: • To promote and implement enriched and strengthened coordination within Africa and between Africa and the EU • To identify vulnerabilities and raise awareness about the impacts of climate change on water resources • To facilitate knowledge sharing and technology transfer in online and offline environments and events for African and EU stakeholders in water and climate • To improve water resources monitoring and forecasting processes and tools in Africa Knowledge Sharing: The African Water Association Sets up a Digital Exchange Platform in the Field of Water and Sanitation, Olivier Konan, AfWA Knowledge Sharing Platform Manager Knowledge management within a company or organisation is the new way of thinking, taking into account the principle that intellectual capital, alongside financial capital, is the dominant direction in business development, henceforth the African Water Association is, from now, on turning to this dynamic. Indeed, the initiative to set up a "Knowledge Management and Sharing" platform was born from AfWA's desire to acquire an additional instrument to improve the performance of member utilities. This platform is the result of a multidisciplinary managerial approach aimed at achieving the following objectives: • Ensure coordinated action to acquire and improve knowledge in the areas of production, distribution and


management of water and sanitation services. • Promote the exchange of information on research, methods, processes and procedures for the distribution of water and sanitation services. • Create and promote collaboration and exchange in the areas of continuing education in water and sanitation services. All of these digital files will be available via the Internet on a free web platform to water utilities and any other user. These knowledge products represent the set of good practices in the water and sanitation sector referenced in the field by a panel of experts. They will, therefore be used as a procedural guide to better guide the policies and approaches of the users concerned on similar issues. The Young Water Professionals and Women: Two Themes at the Heart of the Activities of AfWA, Souleymane Ouattara, Communications Manager The first Network of Professional Women in Water and Sanitation in Africa was created in February 2016 during a forum held in prelude to the 18th Congress of the African Water Association in Nairobi. The network set-up comprises of women researchers, technicians, engineers, administrators and other professionals wishing to get involved in one way or another in general policy planning and in the management of projects relating to this sector of activities. The objective is to promote the presence of women in the decision-making bodies of water and sanitation utilities in Africa. Specifically, this will involve sensitising decision-makers on the issue of gender and motivating women to become more

involved in issues related to water and sanitation. The network is based on National Committees of Professional Women in Water and Sanitation created in each country. The other functional platform set up by the African Water Association is for African Young Water and Sanitation Professionals (AYWSPs). This programme involves young people under the age of 35 working in or interested in the water sector. The AYWSP programme engages young people in the water sector and prepares them to become the future leaders of the sector. The main objectives of the AYWSP programme include network ing opportunities for career development and sector support through: • The support and development of activities or initiatives that enable AYWSPs to contribute to sector programmes and provide leadership opportunities; • The establishment of a platform for knowledge development and sharing through AfWA events as well as collaboration with other organisations and programmes; and • The increased involvement of young people in the sector through the setting up of National and Regional Committees of Young Professionals

The network of professional African women in water and sanitation

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BEYOND THE FACTORY LANXESS

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LANXESS is a major global solution provider for liquid purification with almost 80 years of experience in water treatment and purification applications. With Lewatit® ion exchange resins, Bayoxide® iron oxide adsorbers, and Lewabrane® RO membrane elements, LANXESS holds a leading position in the development and production of three premium separation technologies for water purification, desalination, and process stream treatment. Our high-performance products are used in numerous industries to treat and purify water and other liquid media – industrial water treatment, food processing solution purification, and wastewater treatment being the best-known fields of application. Energy suppliers use our products for the production of boiler feed water and steam, for condensate polishing, and water treatment in cooling towers. In the mining industry or in metal waste recycling, Lewatit® ion exchange resins are used for the recovery of base metals, rare earths, and precious metals, as well as the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Lewabrane® RO membrane elements are available for all water types, such as seawater, brackish water, and low-salinity water, for use in industrial and potable water applications. LANXESS manufactures

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THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

its membrane elements in a modern production plant in Bitterfeld, Germany. Apart from unique polyamide membrane chemistry, which provides the user with stable salt rejection and flow performance at changing feed conditions, a novel feed spacer technology has been implemented. The alternating strands design (ASD) offers a feed channel with improved feed water distribution and lower fouling tendencies. All Lewabrane® products are compliant with NSF/ANSI Standard 61. The comprehensive design software LewaPlus® can calculate Lewabrane® RO and Lewatit® ion exchange (IX) arrays within the same software platform. It allows the designer to simultaneously optimize both the RO and IX configuration, which is unique in the industry. For more information: www.lpt.lanxess.com Contact: LANXESS (PTY) LTD Business Unit Liquid Purification Technologies Marthie Kotze Greenstone Hill Office Park Emerald Blvd, Modderfontein, 1609 South Africa Phone: +27-11-457-4014 E-mail: marthie.kotze@lanxess.com


NOMVUYO MOFOKENG (COJ)

With over sixteen years’ experience gained across the water sector encompassing potable (drinking) water and waste water. I am focussed on an integrated approach to strategic policy development and water services regulation, as well as their inextricable links with society. I hold a BSc (Hons) in Water Utilization and Master’s Degree in Environmental Management – thesis in grey-water management. I am a focused business-orientated professional who sees my work as part of an on-going assignment for transformative interventions. Through a wealth of knowledge and transferable skills, I have continuously succeeded in the effective delivery of strategic leadership through the inception, development and management of programmes advancing organisational achievement.

CONTRIBUTORS

GARTH BARNES

Coupled with 18 years’ experience in the advertising, marketing and environmental sector, Garth also holds a graduate diploma in marketing management, an undergraduate degree in environmental management, and has just recently completed his Master’s degree, which explored the relationship between water stewardship, values and social learning. He has recently resigned as National Conservation Director of the Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa and is currently exploring future opportunities within the private sector.

LULAMA NGOBENI (AURECON)

Lulama is a civil engineer based in Cape Town. She hold a master’s degree in information systems as well as a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from the University of Cape Town. She has a keen interest in Sustainable water and sanitation systems, creative arts and youth development. She is the founder of a youth development organization based in Nelspruit, Mpumalanga. Through her work and research, she hopes to influence the provision of sustainable engineering infrastructure through effective collaboration with communities

MARBA VISAGIE (NCPC)

Marba studied at the North West University, UNISA and Rhodes University. Her career commenced in accounting, progressed to education, industry greening and consulting and continues in life-long research and learning. The National Development Plan, transitioning South Africa to a green, low carbon economy, calls for a competent workforce. The rationale behind Marba’s dedication to environmental education is the quest for progression pathways from conventional competences to emerging green jobs. She advocates mainstreaming of existing environmental learning content and approaches in workplace related education, such as SETA endorsed curricula.

NIGEL KIERBY SMITH (ECO WASH)

Born and raised in Durban, KZN Natal, Nigel is a graduate of the University of KZN (BA LLB). He joined Eco Wash in 2010 after returning from a 3 years stint in New York, and is responsible for New Business Development at Eco Wash and heading up the International Roll out of Eco Wash

PIET-LOUIS GRUNDLINGH (WORKING FOR WETLANDS)

Piet-Louis Grundling is at present Deputy director: Programme Implementation, NRM, Department of Environmental Affairs. He was previously director of Ixhaphozi Enviro Services the Centre for Wetland Research and Training (WetResT). He has been involved in wetland research since 1987 and was appointed in 2002 the first National Coordinator of the Working for Wetlands Programme in South Africa. His dedication in wetland rehabilitation and capacity building earned him the South African Vley Lily award at the 2002 National Wetland Action Group Conference (now known as the National Wetland Indaba). He was nominated for the 2013 Stewardship National Wetland Award.

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NICOLE KRANZ

Dr. Nicole Kranz is an Associate at Ecologic Institute. As a Senior Fellow with Ecologic Institute, Nicole Kranz was involved in various research and consulting projects in the environmental policy arena, mostly related to international water governance, public participation in environmental policy processes, as well as the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. A native speaker of German, she is fluent in English and has a good working knowledge of French.Dr. Nicole Kranz currently serves as Country Coordinator for the International Water Stewardship Programme (link is external) (IWaSP) in South Africa.

CONTRIBUTORS

NICHOLAS TANDI

Nick’s experience has been within partnership environments at global, regional and national levels - and recently requiring relationship management and interest negotiation between corporates, government and civil society. He is a Programme Manager at SIWIs Africa Regional Centre where he co-leads its work on mobilising finance for water infrastructure, private sector engagement and partnerships with governments. He is the project manager of the Africa EU Water Partnership Project, where SIWI is providing technical assistance to Sida, the EU and the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW) for the Africa-EU Water Partnership Project (AEWPP).

ZAMA SIQALABA

Zama recently joined PWC as a Manager in the Capital Projects and Infrastructure Water Branch of the advisory practise with a focus on strategic institutional establishment to drive effective water resource management in South Africa. Zama was previously the programme manager of the Strategic Water Partners Network (SWPN); a non-profit organisation geared towards collaborative action between the private and public water sector role players aimed at closing the 17% water gap by 2030. She has a masters degree in Environmental Management and 12 years’ experience in the field of Water Conservation and Demand management.

MARK DENT (ALLIANCE FOR WATER STEWARDSHIP)

Mark Dent is the Regional Manager for Southern Africa. Prior to joining the AWS, Mark was well known, nationally and internationally, for his thought leadership on water stewardship, his academic expertise and technical proficiency related to water stewardship. Mark also served on our advisory group for the Southern Africa region. Mark holds a PhD in Agricultural Engineering, specialising in water resources research, teaching and civil society engagement. He also holds a Masters Degree in Business Leadership in which he specialised and later lectured in Organisational Change. He acted as Director of the Graduate School of Business, University of KwaZulu-Natal.

RICHARD MEISSNER (CSIR)

Dr Richard Meissner is a Senior Researcher in the Natural Resources and Environment Unit at the CSIR. He holds a Doctoral Degree in International Politics from the University of Pretoria. Richard specialises in the analysis of transboundary river basins focusing on the complexities and interactions between and among non-state actors, international organisations, and state/government organs. Richard is currently the project manager of the CSIR’s water security project. For this project, the research team is investigating stakeholders’ understanding of the meaning of water security in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality and the Greater Sekhukhune District Municipality.

LORREN HAYWOOD (CSIR)

Lorren is a natural scientist by training who entered into the environmental management arena shortly after obtaining her PhD from the University of the Witwatersrand. She has built specialist knowledge and experience in strategic environmental management, sustainability assessment and reporting, risk management, renewable energy, and the green economy, particularly regarding guidance, practices, policies and legislation; strategies, tools and initiatives, and indicator development. Lorren leads the Business Transitions Research Programme at the CSIR.

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Through the Industrial Symbiosis Project (ISP), participatng Industrial Energy Efficiency (IEE)

Visit www.npcp.co.za for more information

Through the IEE Project, 384 companies anticipated 2120 GWh of energy saved and R 1.7 billion in participating companies


7

BEYOND THE NCPC-SA FACTORY

National Cleaner Production Centre, South Africa (NCPC-SA) Equipping industrial and commerce sectors with relevant skills and technical support

T

he National Cleaner Production Centre South Africa is a government programme hosted by the CSIR on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti). The NCPC-SA’s mission is to drive Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) in the South African industrial and selected commercial sectors, providing tools to do business in a more efficient, sustainable and competitive manner to compliment South Africa’s shift towards a low carbon and green economy. The NCPC-SA was established in 2002 as one of the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development hosted in Johannesburg. The Centre was initially set up as a collaborative initiative between the governments of Austria, Switzerland and South Africa under the framework of the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation’s (UNIDO) Global Cleaner Production programme. This laid the foundation to a long term relationship with UNIDO and its fellow counterpart the United Nations Environment Programme which continues today. As part of formalising the Cleaner Production programme activities, 41 members signed a RECPnet declaration in 2011 formally giving rise to the RECP Network. The Network for Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECPnet) brings together over 60 providers of RECP services on a global level, in order to catalyse the effective and widespread application of

Kevin Cilliers, NCPC-SA Regional Manager and the leader of the Industrial Water Efficient Project RECP in developing and transition countries. It does so by providing specialised, qualityassured, technical and advisory services and by facilitating and synergising its members’ capacities The primary objective of RECPnet is to contribute to the effective and efficient development, application, adaptation, scaling up and mainstreaming of RECP concepts, methods, policies, practices and technologies in developing and transition economies. Additionally, RECPnet aims to facilitate North-South, South-South and South-North-South collaboration, including the transfer of RECP-relevant knowledge, experiences and technologies.

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BEYOND THE FACTORY NCPC-SA

7

The South African IEE project The IEE project was launched in 2010. Its primary goals were to respond to the current challenges South Africa was and is still experiencing with regards to secure supply of electricity to the country. An ageing energy generation and distribution network had found South Africa in a predicament where peak demand had matched and, in instances, exceeded the generation capacity; leading to the commencement of load shedding as early as 2008. The project was also embarked on as an attempt to support South Africa’s commitments to reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 30% by 2030 (considering more than 85% of electricity is generated from fossil fuels) and shift the country towards a low carbon economy. When considering the various options to address the energy challenges facing SA including additional generation capacity; energy efficiency was deemed to be the fastest and possibly cheapest response to address these issues until such time when appropriate additional capacity could be brought online.

2016 NCPC-SA IEE expert level graduation

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THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

NCPC-SA has been highly successful with this project. To date over the past six years the Centre has realised more than 2120 GWh reduction in energy translating to approximately R 1.7 billion energy savings to industry. In terms of capacity building more than 140 experts have been trained up in Energy Management Systems Implementation and Systems Optimisation methodologies. Capacity Building Whilst the NCPC-SA does not consider itself a training service provider per se, it does identify gaps where the current commercial market has not adequately addressed specific issues relating to RECP, and develops appropriate training material to address these. These courses or modules are then offered to the industry and the services sectors in an attempt to transfer these skills into the respective sectors and service provider market place. Once the commercial market forces take up these modules and start perpetuating them as offerings, the NCPC-SA can step back and move


7

on to the next skillset and capacity gap. Currently, the IEE project has facilitated the development of the Energy Management System (EnMS) and Energy System Optimisation (ESO) modules. The ESO modules currently target steam, compressed air, motors, pumps, fans and more recently heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. From a generic RECP approach, the NCPC-SA has developed a tailored module on the holistic approach to RECP. This module provides the learner with the basics of why RECP is necessary, its importance and how to go about undertaking an RECP assessment. Key concepts introduced to the learners include the development of basic energy, water and material balances, interrogation of opportunity areas and mechanisms for developing options and recommendations for implementation. Underpinning the training is the importance of developing a business case for the company in order to gain commitment to follow through with implementation. Each of the training modules is offered as a 2-day end-user module or for the more technically orientated, a 9-month Expert Level Module. The modules have also been recognised by the SA Institute of Mechanical Engineers and Engineering Council of SA (ECSA) as qualifying towards points for “Continued Professional Development”. Water Based on the success of the energy initiatives under the IEE Project, the Centre has also embarked on setting up an Industrial Water Efficiency Project. The idea is to use a similar model for the IWE Project to the IEE Project. With the current available budget the NCPC-SA has embarked on a process to undertake 5 – 10 water-focussed

BEYOND THE NCPC-SA FACTORY

assessments in 2016 to develop case studies that can be used to build an appropriate business case to secure additional funding through its various collaboration partners in 2017. As part of this initiative, activities will also be undertaken to identify the current skills needs relating to water n order to initiate the process of developing appropriate training modules to address these gaps. Industrial Symbiosis In the waste sector, NCPC-SA is involved with the Industrial Symbiosis Programme.

Industrial symbiosis talks to the symbiotic or mutual relationship that can exist between industries ideally although not exclusively in a specific geographic or industrial location. The concept explores the opportunity that may exist between neighboring industries to share or exchange waste or resources. Typically creating a scenario where: “One company’s waste or surplus resource could become another company’s input material”. From an NCPC-SA perspective the Centre is currently focussed on developing a database platform to capture companies that have or need resources that could qualify for a symbiotic exchange.

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BEYOND THE FACTORY NCPC-SA

It is currently leveraging the outputs from facilitated business opportunity workshops hosted by the Centre to bring such parties together to start creating potential synergies. At the same time the Centre is also underway with following up with the most promising synergies to facilitate the exchange. Graduate experience The NCPC-SA Internship Programme was designed to target recently graduated engineering or environmental science students from the country's universities. The Internship is a 12-month programme during which the interns undergo a 2 – 3 month induction and training in RECP, Project Management techniques, Presentation skills and basic industrial etiquette. On completion of the induction, the interns are placed in selected industrial companies to commence the practical component of their internship. Through the project, the SA industry saved R6million in resources, including 133 000 kℓ of water, after 16 manufacturing facilities nationwide each hosted a Department of Trade and Industry (the dti) funded intern to conduct onsite resource efficiency assessments. Water savings accounted for 48% of overall savings, with energy savings accounting for 43%. Women empowerment The NCPC-SA has used various initiatives and events to promote participation of women in RECP. Women’s day and Mother’s Day have been used as a mechanisms to give free training to women registering for NCPC-SA courses. This has had an overwhelming response. The NCPC-SA has also participated in leading forums for Women in Energy to recognise and share learning with such individuals active in the energy sector, for example, the South African Females in Energy Efficiency. NCPC-SA has

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seen the emergence of a lot more women taking on fields previously considered male dominated careers. This is especially evident in the engineering field. The involvement of women can help create a better balance with implementing new concepts and ideas into a very skeptical industry.

A year of achievements 2016 has proven to be a successful year for NCPC-SA, achieving a range of awards for its excellent work. Alf Hartzenburg, the NCPC-SA National IEE Manager was voted the Southern African Association for Energy Efficiency (SAEE) Awards Patron of the year award. This annual award recognises outstanding accomplishments of individuals and companies in the energy industry. Energy Patron of the Year is awarded to an individual who has made a significant contribution in the field of energy consumption by reducing the use of energy resources in the Southern African region. These prestigious Awards were presented at the Annual SAEE Banquet and Awards Ceremony on 9 November 2016 at Emperors Palace, Johannesburg. The NCPC-SA was announced as the winner of the 2016 Achiever Award Best Public Sector Training Programme at the recent Skills Summit in Pretoria. The award was made in recognition of the NCPC-SA’s work in providing solutions to support industry’s scarce and critical skills in support of the country’s transition to a greener economy.


CONTENTS

1

SDG6: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable water for all

2 3 4 5 6

“Not so VIP�-Using Public Participation and Community Engagement to Ensure the Provision of Sustainable VIP Latrines

7

Cooperation and capacity-building support for water management in developing countries: the private sector and the SDGs

8

Part 1: To participate or not to participate? Local community involvement in water and sanitation management Part 2: Strategic developments that will support and strengthen the participation of local communities

28

Nomvuyo Mofokeng

40

Lulama Ngobeni

56

Improve water quality - Increasing recycling and safe re-use

Marba Visagie Ecowash - Contributing to efficient water use in South Africa

70

Nigel Kierby Smith By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation

76

Marcus Wishart

86

By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems in an effort towards establishing resilient wetlands in a changing environment

Piet-Louis Grundlingh

96

Nicholas Tandi, Nicole Kranz, Zama Siqalaba

104

Richard Meissner, Mark Dent, Liz Taylor

9

The MDG to SDG transition: the new universal commitment to sustainable development 24 Lorren Haywood

TECHNOLOGY REVIEW SECTION CASE STUDY SECTION

124

134 138

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Chapter 1:

SDG6: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable water for all By Nomvuyo Mofokeng

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1

A

t the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit on 25 September 2015, world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030. South Africa was one of the countries that also committed to the SDGs. The expectation would be that these must then be cascaded down to the municipalities to ensure that these goals are realised and targets relating to respective goals are met. The focus of this paper relates to the target of SDG 6—clean water and sanitation. The SDG target is to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. This paper will reflect on the current status and progress thereof in South Africa with regard to access to safe and affordable drinking water and what has been achieved, some of the milestones achieved emanating from the Water Supply Policy set by the new government since the inception of democracy in 1994 and the implementation by the municipalities. Based on this, a review is done indicating if the 2030 target will be met.

SDG 6 Targets The goal of SDG 6 is to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. The targets of SDG 6 with regards to water are as follows: 1. By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all. 2. By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimising release of hazardous

EQUITABLE ACCESS

chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally. 3. By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity. 4. By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate. 5. By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, and reuse technologies. Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water management. Legislation - Water supply and Sanitation policy of 1994 This policy reported at the time that more than 12 million people do not have access to an adequate supply of potable water. These backlogs were much more severe in the poorer black rural areas than they were in the mainly white and more affluent urban areas. The goal of the government was, thus, to ensure that all South Africans have access to essential basic water supply services at a cost which is affordable both to the household and to the country as a whole. The lack of basic services is a key symptom of poverty and underdevelopment. The provision of such services must be part of a coherent development strategy if it is to be successful . This policy seeks to end the inequity in access to basic water supply services. The policy made mention of the water resource allocation. In many parts of our arid country,

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1

much of the available water has already been allocated for someone's use. In principle, water for domestic or "primary" consumption always receives priority. Yet, despite the fact that water for human consumption is but a small proportion of the total available, many communities have totally inadequate access to drinking water; meanwhile farmers use large volumes of water for irrigation and stock farming even in the more arid areas of the country. This is a contradiction, which is deeply felt and widely resented. When this policy was established, the less privileged communities were blacks who had 43.4% piped water distribution. Therefore 56.6% were residents of informal settlements who did not have access to basic services. Based on local and international experience, and on the premises of the Reconstruction and Development Programme, there were 8 principles that the policy adopted as the basis. These principles assume a context of universal human rights and the equality of all persons regardless of race, gender, creed or culture. Institutionally, in the long term, the goal of the policy is that the provision of services to consumers should be the function of a competent, democratic local government supported by provincial governments. Where necessary, appropriate second tier institutions (such as Water Boards) will provide bulk or regional water supplies or wastewater disposal services to local authorities under the supervision of the Department of Water and Sanitation. The policy provided an assurance that within seven years or less of its inception all South Africans can have access to basic water supply and sanitation services. The policy also recognised that people must be given at least 25l of water per person per day. The people

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must have water within a maximum distance of 200m from their dwelling. The Constitution • Section 27 (1) (b) states that everyone has the right to have access to sufficient water • Section 27(2) the right of access to sufficient water should be understood to mean that the State is not obliged to provide water freely, but is under an obligation to create mechanisms that enable people to have access to sufficient water. Sufficient water refers to the quality and quantity required to satisfy basic domestic needs. National Water Resource Strategy Chapter 6 of the National Water Resource Strategy 2 (NWRS2) is centred on the recognition of water as a basic human need and recognition of its critical role to ensure equitable and sustainable socioeconomic development. The principle of equity means that special attention must be given to the needs of those that were historically denied access to water or to the economic benefits of water. Equity implies a concept of fairness, which allows for different practices in the management of water in response to different social, economic and environmental needs. Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997) The Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997) translated the Constitutional right of "­­­access to sufficient water” into firm definitions in terms of quantity, quality and assurance of supply. In the same way, Section 3(1) provides that “everyone has a right of access to basic water supply. How far has South Africa moved since the inception of this policy and respective legislations? Has it reached milestones in


1

terms of its deliverables anticipated to be achieved by this policy. Were there any records of the important milestones set that enabled government to reach the goals and targets set for water supply? Basic services provision in south africa - A history of the first decade of Water Services delivery in South Africa 1994 to 2004 The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) was the policy foundation stone of the new government. ‘Meeting basic needs’ was one of the 4 pillars of the RDP and within this, access to basic water supply and sanitation services for all citizens was made a priority. During this time 13, 4-million people have been provided with a basic water supply, including over 10 million people served by the rural-focussed programmes of the then Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). Another major milestone was the Water Services Act in 1997 that provided the vision for local government to take responsibility for water services. In 2003, the Strategic Framework For Water Services was approved, which maps out a vision for how the water sector as a whole will work in providing water services. The Strategic Framework sets a number of specific quantitative targets, gives revised and clearer definitions of basic water services and provides a conceptual approach to the financing of viable and sustainable service delivery, including investments in infrastructure for both basic service levels and levels higher up the service ladder. Important delivery targets established in the Strategic Framework was an end to the water supply backlog by 2008, amongst other targets. From this ten year milestone outcome, DWAF made a commitment under the

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leadership of Minister Ronnie Kasrils, that in the next ten years (2014), water provision was to move up the ladder, from the communal tap to the convenience and dignity of having water in people’s own yards with each household having its own toilet and even, in time, hot and cold running water inside the house enjoyed by many more of our people. Progress post 2004 In September 2015, the government pronounced that the number of households that have received water since 2002 was at 80% . This achievement was associated with the increase of the country’s household’s population from 11 million to 15.6-million between 2002 and 2014. The target was not met by 20% although the government anticipated to meet the target by 2014. An assessment was made in terms of access to water in the municipalities by analysing the 2015 Water Services Municipal Benchmarking Initiative report. Th e M u n i c i p a l B e n c h m a r k i n g Initiative (MBI) is a voluntary programme initiated in 2011 by the South African Local Government Association (SALGA) in partnership with the Water Research Commission ( WRC), and in association with the Institution of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa (IMESA). The following table depicts the performance relating to access to water in the municipalities in 2013 -2014. The performance was stable for two years. No trend was depicted. However considering the latest performance of 80% announced by the government there is an indication of a declining trend of 8.5%. *NOTE: It was reported that Metros (Category A) have indicated that “Access to Water” data that they utilise is generally

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Research Commission (WRC), and in association with the Institution of Municipal following depicts the performance relating to access EngineeringThe of Southern Africatable (IMESA).

to water in the municipalities in 2013 -2014. The performance was stable for two years. No trend was depicted. However 1 there is an indication

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The following table depicts the relating to access to water in the municipalities considering, theperformance latest performance of 80% announced by Government in 2013 -2014. The performance was stable for two years. No trend was depicted. However of a declining trend of 8.5%. considering, the latest performance of 80% announced by Government there is an indication of a declining trend of 8.5%.

Number of municipalities to Access to Access 144 (95%) Water Water

Number of Year 2013 Year 2013 Year 2014 municipalities 14488.5% (95%) 88.5% 88.5%

Year 2014 88.5%

BEST MUNICIPALITIES IN THIS CATEGORY Benchmark A1 B1 B2 BEST MUNICIPALITIES B3 B4 IN THIS CATEGORY C2 100% Benchmark * Drakeinstein Swartland ThembisileB3 Amajuba A1 B1 Saldanah B2 B4 (WC) * (WC) (WC)Saldanah (MP) (KZN) 100% Drakeinstein Swartland Thembisile 98.6% 99.2% 99.1% 93.3% 87.7%

(WC)

(WC)

(WC)

(MP)

98.6% 99.2% *NOTE: It was reported that Metros (Category A) have indicated that “Access to Water”99.1% data that they utilise is 93.3% generally more accurate than data available via StatsSA. Metros have therefore been removed from the above analysis. Despite the limitations of the StatsSA data, many municipalities do not have a better “Access to Water” dataset, and therefore regularly StatsSAthat data for these purposes. *NOTE: It wasutilise reported Metros (Category A) have indicated that “Access to Water”

C2 Amajuba (KZN) 87.7% data that they utilise is

generally more accurate data availablevia via StatsSA. Metrosof have therefore been removed fromat theaabove • Lack more accurate than datathanavailable skills and mandate local According to SALGA 2015, the benchmark of 100% considers all households having at least analysis. Despite the limitations of the StatsSA data, many municipalities do not have a better “Access to Water” access to water via a community of distance lessbeen than 200m from dwelling/institution StatsSA. Metros havestand therefore level (municipalities) to implement dataset, and therefore regularly utilise StatsSA data for these purposes. or higher level of service (i.e. piped (tap) water). The national average is 88.5% (based on 144 datasets – 95%the of Water Service Authorities Despite (WSAs)). The Millennium Development removed from above analysis. projects Goals (MDGs) Country Report 2013 (October2013) that the MDG for access to water all households having at least According to SALGA 2015, the notes benchmark of 100% considers • Failure produce safedwelling/institution drinking water the(i.e.limitations the StatsSA data, halve, access by 2015, of the water proportion withoutmany sustainable access to safe drinking to viaofapeople community stand of distance lessto than 200m from water) has already been met. or higher of service (i.e. piped (tap) water). The national average is 88.5% (based on quality municipalities do level not have a better “Access delivery from 1994 2016 (WSAs)). The Millennium Development 144challenges datasetswith – water 95% services of Water Service Authorities • to Limited to Problems Water”and dataset, and therefore regularly water supply and lack of Goals (MDGs) Country Report 2013 (October2013) notes that the MDG for access to water The problems and challenges that were identified as a hindrance for the successes of the utilise StatsSA data for these purposes. delivery capacity (i.e. halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking provision of access to water were as follows:

water) has already been met.

Lack of access to adequate water

• Inadequate infrastructure and lack of maintenance to deliver sustainable water According to SALGA the benchmark Based on the above, Problems and2015, challenges with water services delivery from 1994 tothe 2016author verified • Lack of governance and budgeting in the implementation of projects of 100% considers all households having to implement the achievement that is reported post • Lack of skills and mandate at a local level (municipalities) projects The problems challenges • Failure to produce safe and drinking water quality that were identified as a hindrance for the successes of the at least access toofwater via a community -2004 in relation to the above problems • Limited water supply and lack to of delivery provision access water capacity were as follows: stand of distance less than 200m from by assessing various research articles • Lack of access to adequate water that talks to access to water in various dwelling/institution or higher level • Inadequate infrastructure and lack of maintenance to deliver sustainable water of service (i.e. piped (tap) water). The Nnadozie, 2006, conducted • Lack of governance and budgeting inprovinces. the implementation of projects national average is skills 88.5% (basedaton that attempted to projects evaluate the • Lack of and mandate a local research level (municipalities) to implement • Failure toof produce safeService drinking water quality of attaining universal access to 144 datasets—95% Water process • Limited water supply and lack of delivery capacity Authorities ( WSAs)). The Millennium adequate water in the post-1994 era. Development Goals (MDGs) Country The outcome of the study depicted Report 2013 (October2013) notes that the declining trend of water services the MDG for access to water (i.e. half, by delivery at Northern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal 2015, the proportion of people without (KZN) and North West, Eastern Cape, sustainable access to safe drinking water) Mpumalanga and Limpopo. Conversely, has already been met. Western Cape, Gauteng and Free State provinces show evidence of sustainability Problems and challenges with water of delivery levels and achieved an services delivery from 1994 to 2016 improvement on additional delivery. The problems and challenges that The challenges that attributed to the were identified as a hindrance for the declining trends were possible interplay successes of the provision of access to of water infrastructural problems, water water were as follows: resources, demographic factors and • Lack of access to adequate water delivery capacity (the ability to sustain • Inadequate infrastructure and lack of the delivery thrust). maintenance to deliver sustainable The report that was released by the Human Right Commissions in 2014 , water • Lack of governance and budgeting in indicated that the assessment of the the implementation of projects provision of water services, 23 municipalities

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1

(9% of the total) were in a crisis state, with an acute risk of disease outbreak; and a further 38% were at high risk, with the potential to deteriorate into a state of crisis. In addition, those areas which lack water mirror apartheid spatial geography. The report echoed with what was cited by Nnadozie, that Former homelands, townships and informal settlements are the areas in which communities and schools, who are black and poor, predominantly do not enjoy these rights and many others. In KZN, 14.1% of households have never had access to water. The report also highlights, systemic failures in governance and budgeting, particularly in the implementation of and spending on projects. These failures point to the need for the government to evaluate the current models of governance and funding. Another key issue with access to water is the poor quality of infrastructure. In some cases, the infrastructure that is provided was broken or dysfunctional. While water service delivery is the competency of local government, many municipalities, particularly in poor or rural areas, do not have the skills and capacity to implement their mandate. Again, Stats SA is in accord with the above. The report that was released in 2012, revealed that less than half of households gained access through their own dwelling, just 27% have access to piped water "on site", while 16% use communal taps and 3% use neighbours taps. Stats SA expressed its concern that 2.3% of households still had to resort to “sourcing drinking water from rivers, streams and dams.” Another study by Turton, 2014 reported that 90.8% of households had "access to piped water" in 2012 according to the General Household Survey. But that access ranged from 98.9% in the Western Cape to 79% in the Eastern Cape. Plus, a breakdown of the

EQUITABLE ACCESS

statistics shows that access isn’t equal for all. In addition, infrastructure in urban areas has been swamped by new inhabitants in the last 20 years, while maintenance has been left to fall behind in rural areas. Given the controversy of access to water the question arises of whether the water provided is of good quality? Water Quality If the water that is provided is of a poor quality, it will contribute to the creation of unhealthy and unsafe living environments. Municipalities must ensure that regular water quality monitoring is undertaken so that consumers trust in safe and high drinking water quality. Regularly monitoring of water quality is a crucial part of identifying any existing problems, or any issues that could emerge in the future. Water quality monitoring also ensures that there is water quality data used to characterise water, identify trends over time, identify emerging problems, and determine whether pollution control programs in place are working. To ensure that all the municipalities in South Africa comply with the drinking water requirements, DWA introduced the Blue Drop Certification programme in 2008 as the regulatory measure to monitor the municipalities in this regard. The 2015 annual report on Water Services benchmarking reported this performance as depicted in the table to follow: The national average of drinking water quality was 62% (based on 152 datasets – 100% of WSAs). It is important to remember that the results indicate the vulnerability of drinking water quality (and, therefore, Blue Drop status) and is not a direct reflection of performance. In some instances, municipalities might have Blue Drop status, but have a high vulnerability. This indicates

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

35


requirements. DWA introduced the Blue Drop Certification programme in 2008 as the regulatory measure to monitor the municipalities in this regard.

To ensure that all the municipalities in South Africa comply with the drinking water The 2015 annual report on Water Services bench marking reported this performance as depicted in the table below: requirements. EQUITABLE ACCESS DWA introduced the Blue Drop Certification programme in 2008 as the Number of Year Year 2014 regulatory measure to monitor the municipalities in this regard. municipalities 2013

1

Drinking water quality health

152 (all municipalities)

The 2015 annual report on Water Services bench marking reported this performance as check Drinking water 145 (95% of depicted in the table below: compliance municipalities

60%

62%

-

93%

(E.coli / Faecal coliforms

Again, comparative analysis was done relating to the research done pertaining Drinking water 62% quality health to water quality to verify the outcome of check Drinking water 145 (95% of 93% the benching report. In another study by compliance municipalities (E.coli / Faecal (Momba et al, 2005) it was shown that small coliforms rural municipalities in the Eastern Cape are The national average on drinking water quality was 62% (based on 152 datasets – 100% of that maintenance of Blue status still failing to water produce safe drinking water. WSAs). It is important to remember thatDrop the results indicatein the vulnerability of drinking quality (and therefore Blue Drop not status)sustainable and is not a direct the future is potentially as reflection of performance. In some instances, municipalities might have Blue Drop status, but have a high vulnerability. This indicates that maintenance Blue Drop status in the future is potentially not issues identified are not ofbeing addressed sustainable as issues identified are not being addressed (e.g. not tabled, insufficient budget). (e.g. notinstances, tabled,the insufficient budget).might In other In other vulnerability assessment indicate low vulnerability; whereas the Blue Drop results indicate “high risk”. instances, the vulnerability assessment These instances, municipalities may already have begun to implement corrective actions to might indicate low vulnerability; whereas resolve issues/shortcomings identified through the Blue Drop process, thus lowering their future vulnerability. The benchmark of “high 100% ensures the Blue Drop results indicate risk”. no key vulnerabilities related to drinking water quality exist, and if maintained will positively contribute to the attainment/maintenance of Bluemunicipalities Drop These instances, may already have begun to implement corrective The national average on drinking water compliance is 93% (based on 145 datasets – 95% of WSAs) with a Blue Drop standard of 99%. Usually indicated by reporting the count (number) actions resolve of indicatorto organisms presentissues/shortcomings in a given volume of water. SANS 241 requires a 97%. identified through the Blue Drop process, This is attributable to lack of skills and Drinking water compliance (% of Ecoli /Faecal coli forms) in all the categories thus lowering their future vulnerability. because they have small customer base, and BEST MUNICIPALITIES IN THIS CATEGORY The benchmark of 100% ensures no key therefore, Benchmark A1 B1 B2 B3 B4 often lack C2the revenues needed to 99% City Of Mbombela Breede Valley Beaufort West Bushbuckridg Alfred vulnerabilities to drinking water hire experienced managers and to maintain Johannesburg related (MP) (WC) (WC) e(MP) Nzo EC) 99.8% quality exist and, Steve if maintained, will positively and upgrade their Vhembe water supply facilities. Tswete Randfontein Bitou (WP) Moses (NW) in(LP) contribute to the(MP) attainment/maintenance This Kotane situation Eastern Cape was again 100% Karro Hoogland of Blue Drop echoed 100% by another study by In On Africa Tlokwe (NW) (NC) 99.7% The national average on drinking water (IOA) 100% Kgatelopele (NC) in 2013. The study showed that many rural areas of the Eastern Cape still have the compliance is 93% (based on 145 datasets Lesedi (GP) —95% of WSAs) with a Blue Drop standard majority of people lacking access to safe of 99%. Usually indicated by reporting the drinking water, whilst other inhabitants of count (number) of indicator organisms Hlankomo continue to draw water from the Nala (FS) present in a given volume of water. SANS river and fountain. As such, access to safe Siyancuma (NC) 241 requires a 97%. drinking water remains a dream for them. Thembelihle Research on public perception of drinking (WC) Drinking water compliance (% of Ecoli /Faecal water safety in South Africa 2002–2009 Tswelopele (FS) coli forms) in all the categories undertaken by Write et al (2009) suggests Ventersdorg that household perceptions of drinking water safety in(NW) South Africa follow similar patterns 100% Number of municipalities 152 (all municipalities)

Year 2013 60%

Year 2014

The national average on drinking water quality was 62% (based on 152 datasets – 100% of WSAs). It is important to remember that the results indicate the vulnerability of drinking water quality (and therefore Blue Drop status) and is not a direct reflection of performance. In some instances, municipalities might have Blue Drop status, but have a high vulnerability. This indicates that maintenance of Blue Drop status in the future is potentially not sustainable as issues identified are not being addressed (e.g. not tabled, insufficient budget). In other instances, the vulnerability assessment might indicate low vulnerability; whereas the Blue Drop results indicate “high risk”. These instances, municipalities may already have begun to implement corrective actions to resolve issues/shortcomings identified through the Blue Drop process, thus lowering their future vulnerability. The benchmark of 100% ensures no key vulnerabilities related to drinking water quality exist, and if maintained will positively contribute to the attainment/maintenance of Blue Drop

The national average on drinking water compliance is 93% (based on 145 datasets – 95% of WSAs) with a Blue Drop standard of 99%. Usually indicated by reporting the count (number) of indicator organisms present in a given volume of water. SANS 241 requires a 97%. Drinking water compliance (% of Ecoli /Faecal coli forms) in all the categories

Benchmark 99%

A1 City Of Johannesburg 99.8%

BEST MUNICIPALITIES IN THIS CATEGORY B1 B2 B3 Mbombela Breede Valley Beaufort West (MP) (WC) (WC)

B4 Bushbuckridg e(MP)

C2 Alfred Nzo EC)

Steve Tswete (MP)

Moses Kotane (NW)

Vhembe (LP)

100%

99.7%

Randfontein

Tlokwe (NW)

100%

100%

Bitou (WP)

Karro Hoogland (NC)

Kgatelopele (NC)

Lesedi (GP) Nala (FS)

Siyancuma (NC) Thembelihle (WC)

Tswelopele (FS)

Ventersdorg (NW) 100%

Drinking water quality health check in all the categories

Benchmark 100%

A1 Ekurhuleni (GP) 99.8%

BEST MUNICIPALITIES IN THIS CATEGORY B1 B2 B3 B4 Msunduzi Khara Hais Witzenberg (WC) Dr J S Moroka (KZN) (NC) (MP) 95% 95% Saldanah Bay 100% (WC) Westonaria (GP) 100%

C2 Amajuba (KZN) Ugu (KZN)

Umzinyathi (KZN) 85%

Again, comparative analysis was done relating to the research done pertaining to water quality to verify the outcome of the benching report. In another study by (Momba et al, 2005)viii it was shown that small rural municipalities in the Eastern Cape are still failing to produce safe drinking water. This is attributable to lack of skills and because they have small customer base and therefore often lack the revenues needed to hire experienced managers and to maintain and upgrade their water supply facilities.

This situation in Eastern Cape was again echoed by another study by In On Africa (IOA)ix in 2013. The study showed that many rural areas of the Eastern Cape still have the majority of people lacking access to safe drinking water. Whilst other inhabitants of Hlankomo continue to draw water from the river and fountain. As such, access to safe drinking water remains a dream for them.

Research on public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009 undertaken by Write et al (2009) suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. Although he argues that the stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place 2000 – 2002 which affected most parts of Kwa-Zulu Natal. Conversely, the study indicates an apparent increase in perceived drinking water safety was accounted for by greater improved supply coverage and associated improvements in water taste, odour and clarity.

quality health check in all the categories DrinkingDrinking water water quality health check in all the categories Benchmark 100%

A1 Ekurhuleni (GP) 99.8%

BEST MUNICIPALITIES IN THIS CATEGORY B1 B2 B3 B4 Msunduzi Khara Hais Witzenberg (WC) Dr J S Moroka (KZN) (NC) (MP) 95% 95% Saldanah Bay 100% (WC) Westonaria (GP) 100%

36

C2 Amajuba (KZN) Ugu (KZN) Umzinyathi (KZN) 85%

Again, comparative analysis was done relating to the research done pertaining to water quality to verify the outcome of the benching report. In another study by (Momba et al,

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE shown that small HANDBOOK rural municipalities in the Eastern Cape are still failing to 2005)viii it was

produce safe drinking water. This is attributable to lack of skills and because they have small


1

to those observed in studies in developed countries. Although he argues that the stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place 2000 – 2002, which affected most parts of KwaZulu Natal. Conversely, the study indicates an apparent increase in perceived drinking water safety was accounted for by greater improved supply coverage and associated improvements in water taste, odour and clarity. There is still evidence that in some other parts of the country, people are drinking water with compromised quality. An article by McKenzie, 2012, revealed that the residents of Carolina in Mpumalanga's water treatment plant was overwhelmed by pollution from nearby mines. This resulted in water quality far below acceptable standards. The un-potable tap water forced residents to walk miles to collect their daily water from storage tanks. Another story that was published by newspapers in June 2014, where three infants died in Bloemhof due to contaminated water also questions the safety of water. This also raises another dimension to say having “access” however, does not mean that everyone has piped water, and it does not mean that the water is safe to drink. StatsSA 2011 reported that 62% rated their water quality as good, which is a decline of 14% from the previous rating of 76%. The report also notes that people living in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga have "consistently been least satisfied" with the quality of their water. Almost a third of households in KZN felt their water smelled bad, compared to just 3% of Northern Cape households. Meanwhile, 16% of Eastern Cape households felt their water was unsafe to drink, being unclear and bad-tasting.

EQUITABLE ACCESS

Much has been said about water access and quality. It must be noted that these must be balanced with water quantity and availability. Water supply South Africa is one of the most water stressed countries in the world and it needs improved management of its limited water resources. South Africa has an average annual rainfall of 350 mm, while that of the world is approximately 850 mm. In addition, almost all municipalities have high Non Revenue Water (34% nationally in 2014) with average of Unaccounted for Water of 40%. The limited water resources of South Africa are a national asset which must be properly managed if they are to bring maximum benefit to the country as a whole. Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/ WDM) has been recognised as one of the most important principles that will ensure sustainable, efficient and effective service delivery. In addition to the above challenges, South Africa was confronted by the worst droughts to ever hit the region in 30 years and this added to a number of myriad challenges in the water sector. Since this drought is still in progress and will probably last longer, it can lead to a larger total loss in the volume of our water resources. The MBI report depicted that national average of 55% (based on 152 datasets – 100% of WSAs) indicates that many municipalities do not have the appropriate (WC/WDM) processes/systems in place, whilst others have not yet developed a Water Loss Management Plan and associated standard water balance, the first step in identifying and addressing water loss challenges. The current challenges at Vaal River System (VRS) attributed to limited supply of water are:

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

37


EQUITABLE ACCESS

1

• Quantity affected by illegal abstraction (farmers) and other users from the Vaal River System (VRS) • Quality of water threatened by pollution, illegal discharges and the destruction of river catchments In this context the provision of water supply cannot be separated from the effective management of water resources for other, economic purposes. This requires the creative management and use of water that will be vital to assure the continuous supply of water in an effective and sustainable manner. Are we currently managing our water resources in a sustainable manner to ensure that we have enough water supply by 2030? Water quality and quantity by 2030 Water scarcity is often more a case of poor management of water supply systems than the physical lack of water. In most instances, it is the poor who suffer most because a small change in their circumstances can have a far greater effect on their ability to survive than a similar change in the lives of more affluent citizens. For us to achieve the target, it warrants greater preparedness that would exist to alleviate the impact of water scarcity. When waters run dry, people can’t get enough to drink, wash, or water crops, and economic decline may occur. The solution to water scarcity requires a concerted effort whereby all stakeholders present a wide spectrum of best practices in terms of what has been done in their space and what can still be done. This knowledge and advice must be taken by all stakeholders to develop a sustainable solution by 2030 and beyond. The 2030 Water Resources Group (2030 WRG) custom-made the catalogue that talks to the above. This entails multiple

38

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

stakeholders from the government, private sector and civil society that have put together cases from existing good practice, which is shared worldwide. The analysis made by WRG suggests that the gap between safe freshwater demand and supply will be about 40% globally by 2030 if 'business as usual' water management approaches continue. With the limited water availability, the critical challenge is how we can manage water resources to safely deliver the water needed to fuel growth as well as for meeting the needs of humans and the environment need to learn from existing good practices. Although WRG perspective is that the best practice in reducing water may be complicated to define, as what may be best in one area may be different to another. However, individual examples of where measures have been introduced both inform and inspire, and are a valuable contribution to the challenge of addressing water scarcity. Research has also proven that a behavioural change initiative can be practised even to those that lack capital injection like small municipalities. The project has shown that it is possible to deal with a shortage of water in an urban domestic setting, using a cost efficient, quick, and ecological and contention free approach. Despite the implementation of projects that seek to conserve water, it is critical to continuously engage with consumers to instil a behaviour in water use for the future to ensure that sustainable water quality and quantity is realised. Meeting the sdgs The above SDG 6 target is embedded in the Water Supply and Sanitation policy of 1994. It is evident from this paper that there are still some challenges in ensuring that the SDG 6 targets are realised.


1

By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all. The review indicates challenges that relate to access of basic water to small municipalities and rural areas, which is coupled with water quality problems that are still eminent. It is clear that access to water does not mean that everyone has piped water and it does not mean that the water is safe to drink. This is despite the fact that the RDP and subsequent development programmes that were instituted by the postapartheid government in putting water schemes in place. However, the research suggests that even if programmes can be in place, the lack of skills, infrastructure and maintenance seems to be a major stumbling block. The lack of access and safe basic water services affect women and children, especially in rural areas where women spend most of their time collecting water. This will agitate the threat of waterborne disease which affect mostly children. Although government has made an attempt to realise the right of access to water, statistics indicate that the most vulnerable groups in society do not enjoy access to clean and adequate water. The results depicted in the Water Services bench marking report in relation to access to water is good but could probably show improvement in urban areas with the exception of small and rural areas. The water services bench marking report also indicated that the achievement of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target 7c: Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water has been realised. However, there is still a lot to be done in small and rural areas.

EQUITABLE ACCESS

By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimising release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally. Most of the water catchments /resources in South Africa are faced with water quality problems. This is one of the attributes to the limited water supply we have currently. Municipalities must ensure effective water resource management in order to attain sustainable water supply. The way things are done requires a change of mindset from the traditional way of doing things. The use of alternative water sources, like grey water use, rainwater harvesting, groundwater use and effluent reuse must be encouraged to offset the use of potable water and ensure the sustainable future yields of water. By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity. Drawing from the above SDG 6, it has been alluded to earlier that many municipalities do not have WC/DM programmes in place. The WRG perspective in this regard is that best practice in reducing water may be complicated to define, as what may be best in one area may not be in another. However, individual examples of where measures have been introduced both inform and inspire, and are a valuable contribution to the challenge of addressing water scarcity. Research has also proven that behavioural change initiatives can be practised, even by those who lack capital injection like small municipalities. The project has shown that it is possible to deal with a

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

39


EQUITABLE ACCESS

1

shortage of water in an urban domestic setting, using a cost-efficient, quick, and ecological and contention-free approach. Despite the implementation of projects that seek to conserve water, it is critical to continuously engage with consumers to instil a behaviour in water use for the future to ensure that sustainable water quality and quantity is realised. In light of the above, the question remains, if we are going to meet the SDG 6 target given this situation. In addition to the above, DWS and the provincial government need to ensure rigorous evaluation and monitoring to those areas where there is greatest need. To give support where necessary in terms

of human resources, skills required and financial aid. The lessons and best practice that have been put forward warrants us all to move forward with a positive thinking to say we can secure and sustain our water resource by 2030 to ensure the SD6 target is realised. Whilst the challenges remain in rural areas, there is still room to improve to ensure the progressive realisation of access to safe drinking water. In light of the achievement of 88% access to water and the initiatives that are in place, we may achieve the SD6 target: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.

References

• Source: Baseline Household Statistics - SALDRU / World Bank Poverty Study, 1994, based on a survey of Approximately 9 000 households throughout South Africa. • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (2004). National Water Resource Strategy number 2 • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (2004). A history of the first decade of Water Services delivery in South Africa 1994 to 2004 • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (2015). MEDIA STATEMENT. September 2015. • Nnadozie RC.Date not provided. Access to adequate water in post-apartheid South African provinces: an overview of numerical trends 2006. • South African Rights Human Commission 2014. Report on the Right to Access Sufficient Water and Decent Sanitation in South Africa: 2014 • Turton 2014. University of the Free State’s Centre for Environmental Management, • MNB Momba1*, Z Tyafa2, N Makala2, BM Brouckaert3 and CL Obi4, 2005. Safe drinking water still a dream in rural areas of South Africa. Case Study: The Eastern Cape Province In On Africa IOA, 2013. The right to access to safe drinking water is still denied in rural Eastern Cape is still denied, • McKenzie S 2012. Clean water in South Africa; human rights and constitutional protections • 2030 Water Resources Group. Managing Water Use in Scarce Environments. A Catalogue of Case Studies.

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THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK


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Chapter 2:

“Not so VIP”-Using Public Participation and Community Engagement to Ensure the Provision of Sustainable VIP Latrines By Lulama Ngobeni

42

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK


2

A

dequate sanitation is considered key to human development, poverty alleviation and overall health and wellbeing. Access to adequate sanitation is also regarded as one of the criterion for the realisation of several human rights such as the rights to food, an adequate standard of living, education and exercising personal socio-cultural behavioural patterns (SAHRC, 2014.) Adequate sanitation is defined as “the provision and ongoing operation and maintenance of a system of disposing waste water, household refuse, human excreta (toilet facilities and the associated tanks, pipes and treatment works etc.), which is acceptable and affordable to users” (DWAF, 1996:3). Worldwide, the provision of basic sanitation has proven to be a challenge that governments have failed to overcome (Lagardien et al., 2013) and as a result, about 2.6-billion people in the world do not have access to basic sanitation (WHO, 2011). South Africa is one of the many African countries experiencing sanitation backlogs. The legacy of apartheid resulted in an estimated 21 million people (52% of the population) lacking access to adequate sanitation in 1994, with the majority of these people residing in rural areas (Rall, 2001). Although the number of people without access to adequate sanitation has been reduced over the years, only 77.9% of South African households have access to adequate sanitation (StatsSA, 2014). South Africa’s sanitation problem is characterised by service delivery backlogs, upgrade needs and operation and maintenance (O/M) backlogs (DWAF, 2012). Aiming to address the sanitation backlog in South Africa, South Africans need to take the country’s water scarcity into consideration. The limited water resources in the country necessitates that the provision

ADEQUATE SANITATION

of waterborne sanitation to everyone is not a viable option. There is a need for the promotion of effective and efficient sanitation technologies to address the sanitation backlog (Mokonyane, 2015). Dry/ on-site sanitation systems must, therefore, be considered as options in addressing the sanitation backlog.

The VIP latrine is a relatively low-cost on-site sanitation technology, which requires no added water. The basic minimum acceptable level of sanitation in South Africa is the Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrine (Tissington, 2011). The latrine consists of a lined pit situated beneath a top structure. A ventilation pipe and a fly screen are used to ventilate the top structure. A pedestal and cover slab are located directly over the pit (DWAF, 2002). When constructed and maintained correctly, the VIP latrine meets the requirements of a basic minimum acceptable level of sanitation. The VIP latrine is ideal in water-scarce areas and has been found to be generally robust (DWAF, n.d). Although the VIP latrine can be an ideal sanitation technology, it has also acquired the stigma of being a “poor man’s solution to the sanitation problem”, (Austin and Van Vuuren 2001.) In addition to the stigma attached to the VIP latrine, issues including the perception of waterborne sewerage sanitation being

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

43


ADEQUATE SANITATION

2

the most robust sanitation system, on-site sanitation being unhealthy and the perception of the use of on-site sanitation being that of “second class” citizens; have contributed to the resistance towards on-site sanitation and, hence, VIP latrines (Fourie and van Ryneveld, 1993:1).Access to basic services such as water and sanitation is a right of all residents. According to the White Paper on Basic Household Sanitation, the provision of access to sanitation is the responsibility of the local government (DWAF, 2001). Due to the democratic nature of South African governance, local municipalities not only have to effectively provide basic services, they have to do so in a manner that will “encourage, and create conditions for, the local communities to participate in the affairs of the local municipality including the strategic decisions relating to the provision of municipal services” (DLG, 2000:15). Public participation is, therefore, a legislative requirement in South Africa (DLG, 2000). Public participation is expected to enhance development and service delivery (Eales, 2004). In the Draft National Policy framework on Public Participation (2005), public participation is defined as: “an open, accountable process or channel through which individuals and groups within selected communities can exchange views and influence decision-making. It is further defined as a democratic process of engaging people, deciding, planning, and playing an active part in the development and operation of services that affect their lives.” (DPLG, 2005:1). The tools used for public participation include public meetings, ward committees, surveys, Integrated Development Plans (IDPs), newsletters, posters, loudhailers, email notifications, and media advertisements (DPLG, 2007). According to Buccus et al. (2007), the tools and frameworks for public participation in South Africa are mostly for

44

THE SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE HANDBOOK

the consultation of communities rather than their empowerment. Public participation is usually a formal, political process that includes little or no involvement of the community throughout the project, and a limited understanding of the communities within which projects are implemented. Community engagement moves beyond the mere information and consultation of community members that is implied by the term public participation. The working definition for community engagement given by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is: “the process of working collaboratively with and through groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interest, or similar situations to address issues affecting the well-being of those people. It is a powerful vehicle for bringing about environmental and behavioural changes that will improve the health of the community and its members. It often involves partnerships and coalitions that help mobilise resources and influence systems, change relationships among partners, and serve as catalysts for changing policies, programmes and practices” (CDC, 1997 in CDC 2011:7). Community engagement includes collaboration of communities and various other stakeholders in decision-making and implementation of a project; and therefore, the overall empowerment of communities. Community engagement also enhances service delivery and development, therefore contributes to effective governance and the deepening of democracy (Buccus et al., 2007). Despite the benefits of community engagement and public participation, municipalities usually opt for the use of traditional civil engineering project implementation/the supply-driven approach as they are under pressure to rapidly deliver sanitation services to communities within their respective areas of jurisdiction (Rall, 2001). The supply-driven sanitation service


2

ADEQUATE SANITATION

2004). With the diminishing of natural resources such as water, and the pollution thereof, sanitation project sustainability is becoming a key aspect to be considered in such projects. The concept of sustainable sanitation, however, is a multi-dimensional and the pollution thereof, sanitation project sustainability one. Ensuringa the sustainability of sanitation is becoming key aspect to be considered in such projects is concept therefore not limited to the projects. The of sustainable sanitation, however, technical or environmental of the is a multi-dimensional one. Ensuring aspects the sustainability of sanitation system. Sustainable sanitation projects is therefore not limited tosanitation the technical or encompasses environmental aspects of the such sanitation system. also aspects as health Sustainable sanitation also encompasses aspects such as and hygiene, economy and finance; and health and hygiene, economy and finance; and sociosocio-cultural aspects. In order for a sanitation culturalto aspects (Bracken et al., 2005). for a system be sustainable, each of Intheorder aspects sanitation systemby to the be sustainable, of the aspects encompassed concepteach of sustainable encompassedneed by thetoconcept of sustainable(SuSanA, sanitation sanitation be addressed need toFor be addressed (SuSanA, 2007). For study, the purpose of 2007). the purpose of this only thissustainability study, only four sustainability aspectsassessed were assessed four aspects were (As the environmental aspect of sustainability could not the(Asenvironmental aspect of sustainability be measured due to time and resource constraints); could not be measured due to time and namely: economy and finance, socio-cultural aspects, resource constraints); namely: economy and technology and operation; and health and hygiene. The finance, socio-cultural aspects, technology selected sustainability aspects were assumed to be a and operation; and health and hygiene. The sufficient measure of the sustainability of the VIP selected sustainability aspects were assumed latrines (constructed in the study area) assessed. to be a sufficient measure of the sustainability of Table the VIP latrines the study 1 below is a(constructed summary of theinsustainability area) assessed. dimension that were assessed for the purpose of this

delivery approach is focussed on delivering and servicing infrastructure. Community members generally play a minor role in the planning of services; and there is little or no education on operation and maintenance, and health andis focused hygiene practices (DWAF, delivery approach on delivering and servicing 2002). Any involvement of thegenerally community infrastructure. Community members play a inminor the role project is usually in and thethere form in the planning of services; is littleof public This and canmaintenance, result in and the or no participation. education on operation long-term of the 2002). sanitation health and unsustainability hygiene practices (DWAF, Any involvement of the community in the project is usually in infrastructure. the form of public participation. This can result in the Close coordination between technical, long-term unsustainability of theis therefore sanitation health and social development infrastructure.in sanitation service delivery. necessary Various municipalities and NGOs have Close co-ordination between technical, health and social established sanitation service delivery development is therefore necessary in sanitation service practices/frameworks, which encourage delivery. Various municipalities and NGOs have community participation. These practices/ established sanitation service delivery frameworks are based on the demand-driven practices/frameworks, which encourage community approach. The demand-driven approach participation. These practices/frameworks are based on consists of community consultation, the demand-driven approach. The demand-driven capacity building, utilising local labour, and approach consists of community consultation, capacity health and hygiene education. Literature on building, utilizing local labour, and health and hygiene sanitation Africa andinvarious education. projects Literature in on South sanitation projects South other countries wherecountries community AfricaAfrican and various other African where engagement was fully community engagement wasencouraged fully encouragedindicates indicates that theprojects projects were sustainable that the were sustainable (Eales, 2004). (Eales,

study.

With the diminishing natural resources water, Table 1 below is aof summary ofsuch theassustainability dimension that were assessed

Dimension

Technology and Operation

Health and Hygiene

• Economy and Finance

Socio-cultural

• • • • • • • •

Eima

Com netw proje

Com expla in wh susta way

Indicator

• • •

Dele

Eima

Sustainable Sanitation Dimensions •

Lula

Ease with which the sanitation system can be constructed, operated and maintained by users, local municipality and/or technical teams Robustness and functionality of the system System vulnerability towards water shortages Risk of exposure to pathogens and hazardous substances in the latrine Risk of infection as a result of using the sanitation system Costs and benefits of the system User ability to pay for the construction, operation and maintenance of the sanitation system Local development User perceptions of the system User acceptance of the system Sanitation system appropriateness to the local context Impact of system on human dignity System compliance to legal framework

Table 1: Sustainable Sanitation Dimension [Adapted from Buccus et al., 2005 and SuSanA (2007)] Table 1: Sustainable Sanitation Dimension [Adapted from Buccus et al., 2005 and SuSanA (2007)]

Eima

STUDY OVERVIEW

Com acces

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Study Overview The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of the effectiveness of public participation and community engagement methods and mechanisms on the sustainability of VIP latrines. The study was conducted in the Bushbuckridge Local Municipality. The Bushbuckridge Local Municipality is situated in the North East side of the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Bushbuckridge Local Municipality forms part of the five Local Municipalities of the Enhlanzeni District Municipality in the Mpumalanga Province. According to the Statistics South Africa 2011 census, the population of the Bushbuckridge Local Municipality is 541 248 (BLM, 2013). The Municipality is known for its agricultural and tourism attractions (BLM, 2013). The challenges faced by the Bushbuckridge Local Municipality include crime, unemployment, service delivery backlogs, rural nature, high poverty levels and high illiteracy (BLM, 2013). The Enhlanzeni Municipality consists of 37 wards. Figure 1 below illustrates the locality of the Bushbuckridge Local Municipality. For the purpose of the study, two villages were selected. Both villages are located about 40km North of Bushbuckridge. In both villages, unemployment is higher than

Figure 1: Enhlanzeni District Municipality

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the South African unemployment rate, with many community members depending on the government child support grant and pensioner grant. VIP latrine sanitation projects were implemented in both villages. In Village A, a local NGO was appointed by the Department of Human Settlements to manage the implementation of the VIP latrine sanitation project. In Village B, local project management consultancy was appointed to manage the VIP latrine sanitation project. The project was funded from the Municipal Infrastructure Grant. The latrine superstructure used for both projects was the Amalooloo system designed by Bertram (Pty) Ltd. Figure 3 illustrates one of the VIP latrines constructed as part of both sanitation projects. Data was collected through household surveys conducted in each village, interviews with key stakeholders in each project, and Focus Group discussions with community development forum workers, village health workers, ward committee members, construction workers employed for the respective projects, and several community members who were project beneficiaries. Analysis of the collected data was two-fold, using a combination of two methodologies namely: the Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed by Werner Ulrich in 1983, and the model for integrated assessment of sustainable development, as described by Krajnc and Glavic (2005). The methodologies were used for the assessment of community involvement methods in each project, and the assessment of the sustainability of VIP latrines respectively. CSH comprises 12 boundary questions that can be answered in order to define the scope of a system of interest. The boundary questions are divided into 4 categories namely the Sources of Motivation, Sources


2

ADEQUATE SANITATION

of Power, Sources of Knowledge and Sources weights of all indicators was assumed to be of Legitimation. The stakeholder in each equal to 1. For the purpose of this study the category is the beneficiary, decision-maker, weighting of each sustainability dimension for both villages was as follows: Technology expert and the witness. D. Krajnc, Glaviˇc / Resources, Conservation 43 (2005) 189–208 0.15, Health and Hygiene= and Operation= The 196 questions areP.asked in the “whatand Recycling is” and “what ought to” mode; information 0.22, Economy and Finance= 0.2, and SocioTable 2 Comparison scale of analytic process (Hafeez et al., 2002) cultural aspects=0.43. The socio-cultural gathered during the hierarchy desktop analysis, Factor of preference, p Importance definition and interviews were used to answer the aspects dimension was given the highest 1 Equal importance 3 of one over another boundary questions in both the Moderate “whatimportance weighting as the socio-cultural dimension is 5 Strong or essential importance of one over another is” and 7“what ought to be” mode for the or demonstrated key forimportance the overall sustainability of the latrine. Very strong of one over another Extreme importance of one over another system 92,of identified as “a system People will generally look after a latrine and 4, 6,interest 8 Intermediate values Reciprocal, 1/p Reciprocal for inverse comparison to facilitate knowledge-transfer through ensure its long-term sustainability if they public participation and community value the latrine and take ownership over it. First, only the first column of the matrix A is provided, i.e., the relative importance of engagement in3, .a. .,VIP sanitation Once average weights had been indicators 2, n, withlatrine respect to indicator 1. Then the process of comparison is repeated for each column of theto matrix, making independent over each of indicators. project.” According Venable (2009), judgments allocated topair each sustainability dimension, At the end of the comparisons, the matrix A is filled with the relative weights. A quick way “CSH provides a philosophically and the sub-indices (Is) for each dimension were to find the normalized weight of each indicator is normalizing each column in matrix A (dividing an indicator relative weight by the sum weights inThe column), andisthen theoretically grounded framework andof relative calculated. ICSD then calculated as the the values across the rows; this average column is the normalized weight vector means averaging for critical consideration of the sum of the product of each sub-index and W containing weights (Wji ) of sustainability indicators selected. choices ofThestakeholders considered tothebeconsistency the respective sub-group AHP also provides a measure called ratio (Rc ) to check the con- weight. each judgment. Inconsistency is likely to occur when decision-maker makes relevantsistency to anyof system under consideration careless errors or exaggerated judgments during the process of pair-wise comparison. A Equation 1:consistency Composite (Venable 2009:1). framework is upper consistency ratioThe of 0.1 CSH is considered as the acceptable limit. If the ratio Sustainable is greater than 0.1for thenthe the decision-maker has of to re-evaluate his judgments Index in pair-wise Development therefore relevant assessment comparison matrix until the ratio is finally less than 0.1. Where: the extentThetocalculation which ofthe (and the Icommunity procedure of grouping various basic indiCSD is a step-by-step cators into the sustainability sub-index (IS,j ) for each group sustainability indicators j. thus other stakeholders) are involved Wj =ofweight of each sustainability sub-group Sub-indices can be derived as shown in Eq. (5). in the planning nand implementation of Is = Sustainability sub-index for each n   + − into sustainability sub-group, j; j= 1, 2, 3, 4 sanitation projects. Itjiprovides IS,jt = W (5) · IN,jit + insight Wji · IN,jit jit jit how communities should be involved, which are the sustainability dimensions, powers and responsibilities that should namely health and hygiene, technology n Wji = 1, Wjimembers, ≥0 be given to community and the and operation, economy and finance, and ji information and knowledge that should be socio-cultural aspects. where IS,jt is the sustainability sub-index for a group of indicators j (economic, j = 1, shared environmental, amongst stakeholders j = 2, social, j = 3) (including in time (year) t. Wji is the weight of indicator i for the group of sustainability indicators j and reflects the importance of this indicator in the community members) in sanitation projects sustainability assessment of the company. Using theFinally, model for integrated assessment the sustainability sub-indices are combined into the composite sustainable development index ICSD (Eq. (6)). a composite of sustainable development, ICSD,t =

n  jt

Wj · IS,jt

sustainable development index (ICSD). The stepwise procedure of computing the ICSD starts with the selection and grouping of indicators, which are the sustainability dimensions that will be assessed. The indicators then have to be weighted according to their importance with reference to the study. The sum total of the

(6)

Figure 3: VIP latrine with an Amalooloo superstructure (Source: Author's own)

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Results & Discuwssion For Village A, the composite sustainable development index was calculated as 0.93 and 0.55 for Village B. The VIP latrines in Village A are therefore more sustainable than those in Village B. Figures 4 and 5 illustrate the values of the Sub-indices and Composite Sustainable Developments Indices for Village A and Village B, respectively. The highest contributor to the difference in ICSD values of each village was the sociocultural dimension. The indicators in this dimension were: appropriateness to local cultural context, convenience (of the sanitation system) and user perception of the system. The latrine appropriateness to local cultural context was measured based on the ability of all householders to use the latrine regardless of the age or gender. The convenience indicator was measured according to how convenient the latrine was to use based on privacy, comfort and odour in the latrine. The user perception of the latrine was considered as the most important socio-cultural indicator and was measured based on user satisfaction with the latrine (measured as a percentage) and on whether or not the users considered the sanitation system as a permanent solution to their sanitation system. These indicators greatly depend on the users of the system and therefore are significantly affected by the knowledge-transfer and community involvement in the sanitation project. The community involvement methods used in Village A were representative of community engagement principles and practices. There was open and continuous communication, collaboration and share responsibility amongst all stakeholders, and the promotion of community governance. The main beneficiary of the community engagement process was the community.

CONSERVATION

The purpose of the process was to bring clarity to community members on the project details, involve community members in the decision-making and implementation processes of the project and, hence, create community ownership of the latrines, which is believed to ensure long-term sustainability thereof. The stakeholder considered as the beneficiary and the guiding purpose of the community engagement process, are key factors as they define the focus of the process. Throughout the project, there was continuous and open communication between stakeholders, and a fair representation of community members who are generally marginalised either as a result of age, gender or disability. The community involvement methods used in Village B were representative of public participation methods. The process of involving the community was formal as it made significant use of the ward councillor and ward committee. There was little communication between all stakeholders, limited community involvement in the decision-making and planning, and the presence of political influence in the project. The beneficiaries of the public participation process were both the implementing agent (Project Management Consultancy) and the community. The implementing agent benefited from a project process that is free from hindrances that could arise from the community; and the community benefited from the opportunity to be employed to work in the project and be informed about the project; although both employment and information sharing were limited.The public participation methods used throughout the project placed a strong emphasis on the use of the ward committee, ward

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2

councillor and CDF. Although this is not wrong, it left room for political influence that saw some community members dissatisfied with the project process and resulted in minimal representation of marginable groups. Also, the community had little opportunity to hold the implanting agent and Project Steering Committee accountable.

Figure 4: Composite Sustainable Development Index and Sub-indices for Village A

Figure 5: Composite Sustainable Development Index and Sub-indices for Village B Conclusion The consideration of the sustainability of latrines is essential, particularly in a water-scarce country like South Africa. However, the sustainability of latrines cannot be limited to environmental and technical sustainability as sanitation is a multi-dimensional issue. Health and hygiene improvement, latrine operation and maintenance, and sociocultural aspects have to be taken into consideration. Engagement with latrine

ADEQUATE SANITATION

users is therefore important in sanitation projects. People not only have to be informed about projects, they have to be involved as well. The sanitation project in Village A placed emphasis on creating a sense of ownership of the latrines, health and hygiene improvement, user education and the promotion of community governance throughout the project process. The community involvement processes used in village A resulted in sustainable VIP latrines. The sanitation project in Village B placed emphasis on creating a sense of ownership of the latrines, health and hygiene improvement, and employment creation in the community throughout the entire project process. Engagement of the community was limited to two community meetings held in the initial stages of the project. The sustainability of the latrines in village B was significantly lower than that of the latrines in Village A. Community involvement needs to move beyond public participation as required by legislation, to community engagement, where people are involved in the decisionmaking aspects of the project and are given an opportunity to hold project leaders accountable at all times. Powersharing in sanitation projects is also key, there is no one stakeholder who should have absolute power. The involvement of communities in sanitation projects should deepen democracy through encouraging community governance and ensure a transfer of project management, health and hygiene, latrine construction, and latrine operation and management knowledge/ skills to members in the community. Municipalities, NGOs and Project Managers should leave communities with the capacity to adequately coordinate community projects in the future.

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References • AUSTIN, L and VAN VUUREN, S. 2001. Sanitation, public health and the environment: looking beyond current technologies: technical paper. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering. 29-33. • BRACKEN, P, KVARNSTRÖM, E, YSUNZA, A, KÄRRMAN, E, FINNSON, A and SAYWELL, D. 2005. Making sustainable choices–the development and use of sustainability oriented criteria in sanitary decision making. Third International Conference on Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan): Proceedings. • (BLM) BUSHBUCKRIDGE LOCAL MUNICIPALITY. 2013. Bushbuckridge Local Municipality Final Integrated Development Plan 2013/2014. Available: http://www.bushbuckridge.gov. za/Publications (Accessed: 30 September 2013) • BUCCUS, I, HEMSON, D, HICKS, J and PIPER, L. 2007. Public Participation and Local Governance. Durban, South Africa: Centre for Public Participation. • (CDC) CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION. 2011. Principles of Community Engagement. 2nd ed. (Online) Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ communityengagement/pdf/PCD Report 508 FINAL(Accessed: 4 September 2014) • (DLG) DEPARTMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 2000. Municipal Systems Act 32 of 2000. Pretoria, South Africa: Government Printers. • (DPLG) DEPARTMENT OF PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 2005. Draft National Policy Framework for Public Participation. Pretoria, South Africa: Government Printers. • (DPLG) DEPARTMENT OF PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 2007. National Policy Framework for Public Participation. Pretoria, South Africa: Government Printers. • (DWAF) DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY. 1996. National Sanitation Policy. Republic of South Africa: DWAF. • (DWAF) DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY. 2001. The White Paper on Basic Household Sanitation. Republic of South Africa: DWAF. • (DWAF) DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY. 2002. Framework for a National Sanitation Strategy: Bringing Sanitation up to Speed. Republic of South Africa. Available: www.dwa.gov.za (Accessed: 7 August 2013) • (DWAF) DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY. 2012. Report on the Status of sanitation services in South Africa. Republic of South Africa. Available: https://www.info. gov.za (Accessed: 12 August 2013) • (DWAF) DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY. n.d. Sanitation Technology Options. Republic of South Africa: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. • EALES, K. 2004. Innovation Insights 2. Centre for Public Service Innovation. Pretoria, South Africa: Centre for Public Service Innovation. Available: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/ groups/public/document/C PSI/UNPAN019299.pdf (Accessed: 4 March 2014). • FOURIE, and VAN RYNEVELD. 1993. Environmental impact of on-site sanitation: A literature review with particular application to South Africa. Republic of South Africa: Water Research Commission. Available: www.wrc.co.za (Accessed: 9 March 2014) • KRAJNC, D and GLAVIČ, P. 2005. A model for integrated assessment of sustainable development. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 189-208.

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• LAGARDIEN, A, COUSINS, D, SABELA-RIKHOTSO, P and NGAYE, N. 2013. Applicability of Community-Led Total Sanitation in South Africa: A case-study experience of opportunities and challenges. Republic of South Africa: Water Research Commission. Available:www.wrc. org.za (Accessed: 21 February 2014) • MOKONYANE, N. 2015. Closing Remarks by Ms. Nomvula Mokonyane, Minister of Water and Sanitation at the Sanitation Indaba held at Enkosi Albert Luthuli in Durban, Kwa-Zulu Natal. Republic of South Africa: Department of Water and Sanitation. Available: https:// www.dwa.gov.za/Documents (Accessed: 2 July 2015) • RALL, M. 2001. Partnerships for Sustainability: The Mvula Trust Experience. Available: www. mvula.co.za (Accessed: 24 February 2014). • REYNOLDS, M. 2007. Evaluation Based on Critical Systems Heuristics. Point Reyes California, United States of America: EdgePress. 101-122. • (SAHRC) SOUTH AFRICAN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION. 2014. Report on the Right to Access Sufficient Water and Decent Sanitation in South Africa: 2014. Republic of South Africa: SAHRC. Available: www.sahrc.org.za (Accessed: 8 June 2014) • STATSSA. STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA. 2014. General Household Survey 2013. Available:www. statssa.gov.za/publications (Accessed: 18 July 2015). • (SuSanA) SUSTAINABLE SANITATION ALLIANCE. 2007. Towards more sustainable sanitation solutions.Available: www.susana.org (Accessed: 19 September 2013). • TISSINGTON, K. 2011. Socio-economic Rights Institute of South Africa: Basic Sanitation in South Africa: A Guide to Legislation, Policy and Practice. Available: http://www.escrnet. org/sites/default/files/SERI%20Guide%20on%20Basic%20Sanitation%20SA.pdf (Accessed: 8 June 2013) • VENABLE, JR. 2009. Identifying and addressing stakeholder interests in design science research: An analysis using critical systems heuristics. In: Information Systems-Creativity and Innovation In Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. 93-112 • (WHO) World Health Organization 2011. 10 Facts on Sanitation. Available: http://www. who.int/features/factfiles/sanitation/facts/en/ (Accessed: 30 May 2014).

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BEYOND THE FACTORY UNIDO

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CLEAN WATER, NATURALLY Yolandi Schoeman, a Klerksdorp innovator and owner of Baoberry Ecological Engineering Innovations, took top honours in the 2016 Global Cleantech Innovation Programme for SMEs in South Africa (GCIP-SA) with her water re-use and recycling solution called aWetbox.

For Schoeman, it is all about ecological engineering innovation, sustainability leadership and entrepreneurship. “The idea of aWetbox came about after I had spent quite some time in rural communities while doing studies on water security,” says Schoeman, a certified Environmental Impact Assessment Practitioner with the Environmental Assessment Practitioners of South Africa Association. “I saw how people carried water home from rivers over long distances. Others had to use water from boreholes that aren’t very clean; some had access to rainwater, but only during the rainy season.” “The current ways of water treatment in poor communities are very limited and people are often advised to boil water before they use it. This is not always effective and people are exposed to smoke at installations where the water is being boiled.” “Initially, I thought it would be ideal if I could create an artificial wetland that people could install outside their houses to clean water for domestic use. But artificial wetlands need a lot of space and that made me think of a solution that is mobile and not as spaceintensive. That is how the development of ‘a wetland in a box’ started.”

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The plants used in aWetbox can be harvested and used by downstream businesses as biofuel and oils. aWetbox also contributes to reducing the carbon footprint of such businesses. The system can be scaled from 1 000 litres to 50 000 litres or more, which makes it suitable for a range of applications. A lot of research went into the concept to ensure its efficiency, says Schoeman. aWetbox is a nature-based solution that mimics the workings of a natural wetland—but in a box or tank. Grey water is run through it, where it goes through a natural biological filter (consisting of a sand and gravel filter that also adjusts the pH) as a first phase in cleaning up the water, removing solids in suspension and other contaminants and solids.


UNIDO

In addition, the acidity of the water is adjusted, while bacteria are also grown during the first phase to remove more contaminants (metals and non-metals). During the next phase, the water is exposed to thousands of microscopic and other roots of “intelligent” plants with phytoremedial properties to remove the remaining contaminants. aWetbox is a patented and cost-effective solution that is available in an easy-toassemble kit form. The payback time, once installed, is under 12 months. It eliminates 99% of disease-causing microorganisms and improves the water quality for household use by up to 80%. “We are in the process of getting aWetbox ready for market and should be able to offer it to clients by the second quarter of 2017. aWetbox for a family of four is expected to cost between R8 000 and R10 000,” says Schoeman.

aWetbox in a nutshell aWetbox is a wetland in a box that treats water for reuse using a unique biological filter. It is a low-tech, low-maintenance and low-cost solution that can be integrated into rainwater and grey-water recycling systems. aWetbox can be installed in rural communities facing water security challenges, with or without the collaboration of the local government, as it also comes as a do-it-yourself package. It is also suitable for residential, holiday and corporate developments.

About the GCIP-SA The Global Cleantech Innovation Programme for SMEs in South Africa (GCIP-SA) is part of a global initiative that aims to promote clean technology innovation aimed at addressing critical energy, environmental and economic challenges facing the planet. It combines an annual competition and a business accelerator programme where SMEs and start-ups are trained and mentored on the development of more marketable and investor-attractive products and businesses. The programme is implemented by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) with funding by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). In South Africa, UNIDO is partnering with the Technology Innovation Agency (TIA) as the execution and hosting institution for the GCIP, while the USbased Cleantech Open serves as the main knowledge partner of the global programme.

Yolandi Schoeman schoeman.yolandy@gmail.com

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Chapter 3:

Sustainable Development Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation Target 3: Improve water quality By Marba Visagie

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3

W

ater’s role as the source of life is not negotiable. Since ancient times, villages, some of which grew to become megacities, were established close to water. There is no alternative for potable water. Short sighted water governance in the long run fails current and future generations, the economy and the ecology. Polluted water is harmful and poses an economic and health liability, therefore, this discussion seeks to inspire South Africa’s water related powers to change the direction of development towards sustainable water use for the environment, citizens and the economy. Water policies should be implemented in a harmonised and transparent way; and should leave no doubt that water is recognised as a precious and irreplaceable asset. International Context - The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development South Africa subscribes to The United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) have been set and Goal Six (SDG 6) is ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’ (United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform Homepage. 2015). Participating nations have set eight long-term targets for achieving Sustainable Development Goal Six (SDG) 6: ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’. Target 6.3 stipulates that by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimising release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally. Target 6.3 relates to the ‘water efficiency’ component of Target 6.4: that

RECYCLING AND SAFE RE-USE

by 2030, substantially increase wateruse efficiency across all sectors (United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, 2015). The counter side of the right to have access to water is the responsibility to use water efficiently in workplaces and living spaces (Visagie, 2015). Water as a Receptacle for Waste and Sanitation The degradation of watersheds, driven by growth managed in non-visionary ways, resulted in a 53% on average increase in global water treatment costs over the past century (Circle of Blue, 2016). Using water as receptacle for discharging effluent is in conflict with access to potable water as a basic human right. Many examples of successful sanitation systems exist across the world. Unfortunately, incidents of wastewater treatment failure also occur, accumulating toxins in freshwater and oceans. The risk to water quality of water as a waste receptacle has surpassed the convenience of this practice. It is time for the compulsory separation of clean water and wastewater, beneficiation of wastewater and reuse of greywater (Brookes, 2015; Petterson, 2016a, Naidoo, 2015).

Figure 1. Visible pollution in Rio's Guanabara Bay (CBS Interactive Inc, 2016).

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The Perfest Solution to Address Ever-Changing Wastewater Management Requirements • Sanitech supplies rapidly deployable, and re-deployable, wastewater treatment solutions

• Modular and readily scalable (50m³-1000m³/per day)

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Integrated Hygiene & Sanitation Solutions Visit: www.sanitech.co.za | Call: 086 110 8642 (for a branch nearest you) | Branches Nationwide


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Rio de Janeiro represents a recent example of inadequate water treatment. Despite hosting the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016, the city’s Environmental Department failed to remediate severe water pollution in Guanabara Bay, pleading financial constraints. Olympic sailing and rowing events took place in the bay where sewage pollution posed hazardous conditions (Schneider, 2016). Water is an Economic Asset and Represents a Basic Human Right Aspects of Water Governance in South Africa South Africa’s democratic government in 1994 inherited a range of water infrastructure facilities of varying age and states of maintenance. Over the past 23 years, the situation worsened, as population growth by far exceeds the rate of investment in water treatment infrastructure and the growth in numbers of competent water treatment staff. Since 1994, South Africa’s environmental policies shifted from fragmented conservation to comprehensive sustainable development. This shift reflects in the Constitution (RSA, 1996) and subsequent policies, outlining how the democratic government would take custodianship of natural resources and manage it sustainably. The National Environmental Management Act (RSA, 1998a) and The National Water Act (RSA, 1998b) established a national policy to protect the right of access to clean water and also prepared South Africa for the green economy transition that recognises water as a valuable economic asset. Adopted with buy-in from industry and labor, the government subscribed to green economy principles by co-signing the 2009 United Nations Green New Deal. National implementation policies include the New

RECYCLING AND SAFE RE-USE

Growth Path and the National Development Plan. The government’s commitment includes delivering on existing economic and environmental policies, and education towards green jobs in an environmentally -sustainable economy (RSA. The Presidency. 2010; 2011). Given the strategic importance of water, The Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), on behalf of the government, owns water resources and has overarching water regulation powers. The Department oversees South Africa’s world-class national water policies and agencies towards sustained access to water. It is a concern that DWS’ mandate appears to be focussed on access and allocation more than maintenance of water quality: • Facilitate access to water; • Keep a register of water users; • Determine water price; and • Equitably allocate water on a costrecovery basis (RSA. The Presidency, 2011; SAnews (South African Government News Agency), 2014; DWS. 2016b). Reporting to DWS, Nine Water Boards purchase water from DWS, purify it to comply with the South African National Standard for Drinking Water, SANS241, and sell it to municipalities and large commercial users (Rand Water, 2015). In recognition of the right of access to water, water pricing comprises a system of services-cost-recovery (Pocket Guide to South Africa 2014/15, 2014; DWS. 2016b; Rand Water, 2014). Agencies of DWS include the Water Research Commission that enhances knowledge and capacity building with respect to national water related needs and priorities. Strategic Water Partners Network, a public-private civil-society partnership develops water related innovation (DWS.

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2016b; Pocket Guide to South Africa 2014/15, 2014).

Figure 2. A Rand Water Purification Plant (Rand Water, 2015) Water Quality Challenges in South Africa South Africa mainly depends on groundwater that may either be extracted through boreholes or becomes available as springs that form open streams and eventually rivers. Rainfall augments groundwater, streams and the dams built to provide water to citizens and the economy. South Africa, as the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa, faces increased droughts attributed to climate change. It is of critical importance to the ecology, humankind and the economy, to minimise pollution of water, a scarce and precious commodity. In a presentation at a recent Industrial Efficiency Conference in Durban, Dr Valerie Naidoo of the Water Research Commission notes that municipalities, mines, manufacturing and agriculture count among the most intensive polluters in South Africa (Naidoo, 2015). Industry has a positive impact as driver of the economy and employment generator but may have an overall negative impact unless the vast quantities of water utilised in industrial production is minimised, treated effectively; reused and recycled. DWS put forward performance-based Blue Drop and Green Drop assessments

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for adjudication of municipal drinking water and water treatment systems respectively. Green Drop assessments show that that many South African sewage systems and treatment plants are dysfunctional. A general lack of competence of municipal water services staff has also been reported. (AfriForum, 2015; Metsimaholo, 201; Petterson, D. 2016(a); 2016(b)). Sewage needs of new human settlements springing up close to open water resources seem to exceed the treatment capacity of some local municipalities involved. In some instances the backlog has reached a point where DWS and the Department of Local Governance may need to intervene, with the aim of upscaling and maintaining dysfunctional wastewater treatment facilities to match population numbers. In addition to sewage infrastructure and treatment; and water infrastructure and supply, the Constitutional services assigned to local municipalities include removal and landfilling of waste (Constitution, 1996). The basic guideline for waste management in workplaces and living spaces stipulates that waste should, as far as possible, be eliminated by minimising (reducing) waste at source, re-using water, materials and items as many times as possible, recycling as much as possible and disposing of the remaining waste in a responsible way. Extracted waste may be landfilled or ‘mined’ for reuse. Conventional wastewater treatment comprises four progressive steps: coagulation and flocculation; sedimentation, stabilisation and disinfection (Cape Town Water, 2015; Aurecon, 2016; Pocket Guide to South Africa 2014/15, 2014.) Solid waste collected and landfilled by municipalities may compromise water


3

quality if leachate reaches groundwater. Municipalities need to conform to standardised rules for landfill design and best practise, for example leak free linings, collection and treatment of leachate and daily covering of incoming waste. Landfills are sealed and covered with a layer of soil when filled up, and are suitable to be used as low-impact recreational spaces.

RECYCLING AND SAFE RE-USE

sulphates, sodium, iron and manganese from mining and industry (Rand Water, 2015).

© Oupa Nkosi Figure 4. Residents of townships near the Vaal Dam pick their daily route through raw sewage (Kings and Wild, 2015).

© King County Government, Seattle, USA Figure 3. Cross section of an active Landfill (King County Government, 2016) Dams under Pressure The 2012 Free State Green Drop report reveals that 49 wastewater treatment plants in the province pose a critical risk to water and the environment, with 27 in the high-risk, 16 in moderate risk and only 3 plants in the low risk categories. (Metsimaholo, 2012). Rand Water, South Africa’s leading Water Board, supplies Gauteng municipalities (approximately 13 million people) with bulk water. Rand Water purification costs have escalated in proportion to increased pollution of the Vaal Dam. Water drawn from the dam contains biological (faecal) pollution from municipalities and chemicals including

The Vaal and Wilge rivers feed into the Vaal Dam, with Blesbokspruit joining the Wilge River further upstream. The Blesbokspruit Water Forum shared with Mail & Guardian journalists, Sipho Kings and Sarah Wild their test results showing pollution five times the World Health Organisation’s recommended maximum levels (Kings and Wild, 2015). The Free State Local Municipality Metsimaholo combines the Sasolburg, Deneysville and the Oranjeville Transitional Local Councils. Metsimaholo’s Refengkgotso Treatment Works situated near the Barrage are designed to treat two mega litres of wastewater per day. During 2015, the plant received daily wastewater streams of more than 5,5 mega litres per day, spilling inadequately treated wastewater into the Vaal Dam (Metsimaholo Municipality, 2015; Kings and Wild, 2015). According to Irene Main, chairperson of the nongovernmental organisation ‘Save the Vaal’, only a fraction of the

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sewage stream reaches the treatment plant—the rest leaks out of broken pipes and runs into residents’ premises, roads and farmland, ending up in groundwater or the Vaal Dam (Kings and Wild, 2015).

South Africa. Engineering News Contributing Editor Online, Engineering News reporter Anine Kilian, in a recent article notes delays in preparing the National Water Plan for South Africa, with new estimated date 2019. This setback delays implementation of the RMP with seven years or more (Prinsloo, 2008; Kilian, 2016).

Figure 5. The Vaal and Wilge Rivers flow into the Vaal Dam (Kings & Wild, 2015). A 2008 Engineering News report by online reporter Loni Prinsloo provides an update of the Department of Water Affairs (now DWS) project to develop a resource management plan (RMP) for Hartbeespoort Dam. The RMP was initiated by the Metsi a Me (my water) biological remediation programme in response to pollution reaching the Hartbeespoort Dam (Prinsloo, 2008). The draft Hartbeespoort RMP is based on three pillars: 1. Removing algae, hyacinths, undesired fish species, litter and debris; 2. Restoring natural filters (wetlands); and 3. Regulating water use and waste discharge in the larger catchment area. South Africa’s main nuclear research centre, Pelindaba, licensed to discharge treated wastewater in the Crocodile River, is also situated in the catchment area (Fanie, 2016). The first edition of the Hartbeespoort Resource Management Plan is dated 2010. Implementation was held back pending completion of a National Water Plan for

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Figure 6. First edition of the Hartbeespoort Resource Management Plan (Fanie, 2016) Drivers of Successful Water Quality Governance DWS’ Green and Blue Drop systems are useful in evaluating municipalities’ progress with respect to water supply and sanitation. Civil rights organisation AfriForum regularly conducts its own Blue and Green Drop assessments of 132 municipalities. This initiative has a positive outcome, as meaningful infrastructure and water quality improvements were recorded in 2015. In comparison to 11 non-compliant municipalities out of 132 in 2014, only five did not achieve Blue Drop status in 2015, due to the presence of E.coli in tap water. Non-compliant municipalities were put on notice. Follow-up samples were clean and compliant. Green Drop assessments score sewage treatment plants in terms of quality of treated water, facilities and operations. 26


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of the 58 plants scored were not compliant. Unfortunately, Afriforum was denied access to a substantial number of plants. (AfriForum, 2015). Notable among ground-breaking initiatives that reuse lower quality water is Anglo American’s Khumba Iron Ore Sishen mine in the Northern Cape, which uses treated municipal wastewater for processing while injecting safe and clean groundwater abstracted from mines, into the municipal resource (Petterson, 2016a). Cape Town’s twelve sewage treatment plants constantly run at maximum capacity and regularly comply with DWS Blue Drop and Green Drop assessments (Cape Town Water, 2015).

Figure 7. City of Cape Town’s Potsdam treatment plant is regularly awarded Green Drop status (Aurecon, 2016). The cities of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela Bay and Johannesburg are among exemplary leaders in sound water reuse, where treated greywater is safely re-utilised in industry, irrigation of parks, and power stations (Petterson, 2016a). Policy and Leadership Harmonisation In view of industry’s role as bulk consumer, producer, employer and investor, Hohnen (2012) sees industry greening as key to the green economy transition. In broad terms ‘industry’ covers manufacturing, mining,

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services and agriculture, the entities driving economic growth. Leaders in industry and government utilise waste reuse and recycling, pollution prevention, control and remediation, as opportunities to generate green jobs towards a low CO2 economy. Clear communication and harmonised action steps are required to restore and preserve water quality. The New Growth Path and National Development Plan (The Presidency, 2010; 2011) provides a platform where existing and new policies cooperate towards a sustainable, green economy. Policies must be scrutinised regularly to resolve any unintended consequences, potential conflict of interest and lack of coordination and leadership certainty. The examples cited below illustrate how a lack of coordination depletes South Africa’s water quality, elevating purification costs and impeding sustainable access to clean water for keeping communities healthy. • A large number of sewage treatment plants are releasing a mix of raw sewage and inadequately treated wastewater upstream of the Vaal and Hartbeespoort Dams. The situation is attributed to industrial non-compliance and local councils’ backlog in investing in sufficient treatment infrastructure to correspond with population growth. (Kings and Wild, 2015; Petterson, 2016b; DWS, 2016). • Decanting acid mine drainage in Gauteng’s Central, Western and Eastern water catchment basins has superseded DWS and Rand Water’s mitigation plans. Refurbishing existing water treatment plants and construction of new treatment plants are in the pipeline but mining acids and heavy metals are finding their way into the Olifants River via Brugspruit, reaching Kruger National

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Park. Decanting acid mine drainage is also spilling into the Vaal and Crocodile Rivers, which feed into the Vaal and Hartbeespoort dams respectively (Kings and Wild, 2015; Rand Water, 2015). Progression, Innovation and Capacity Building Internationally recognised guidelines and standards, for example ISO 14001 (required by most international markets) and Responsible Care (for the chemical industry), exist to guide organisations in sound environmental management. Industrial operations may also upgrade resource (including water) efficiency performance by running an internal Resource Efficient Cleaner Production (RECP) programme under the guidance of the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA). NCPC-SA assists with confidential assessments and company-specific resource efficiency and waste management plans. Like ISO 14001, and Responsible Care, RECP and waste management plans and reports meet legal requirements in terms of Integrated Reporting obligations (NCPC-SA. 2015; Visagie, 2015). An Integrated Monitoring Guide for SDG 6’ is freely available from the ‘United Nations Inter-Agency Mechanism on all Freshwater Related Issues, Including Sanitation’ (UNWATER). The guideline covers wastewater treatment, water quality, water use efficiency, water stress, integrated water resources management, transboundary cooperation and ecosystems (UNWATER, 2016(a). In response to recent Blue Drop and Green Drop reports, DWS in 2016 committed R300 million towards upgrading 26 dysfunctional wastewater treatment plants in parts of Mpumalanga, Gauteng and the Free State. Training programmes for

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plumbers and water treatment technicians were launched (DWS, 2016(a); DWS 2016(b); South African Government, 2016). Training may potentially improve maintenance of sewage infrastructure. Investment in additional sewage infrastructure is still a critical concern. Water prices based on service-costrecovery may need to be reconsidered if it constitutes a disincentive to using and treating water responsibly. Rand Water maintains that pollution challenges are being addressed with enforcement of pollution laws, for example, waste discharge charges and conditional water-use licensing. The question is whether sufficient and competent person-power is allocated to identification and prosecution of entities contributing to pollution entering sewage systems. Reducing pressure on wastewater treatment plants would substantially contribute to improved post treatment water quality. Between 30% and 40% of water demand is used for sanitation. In light of forecasts that the gap between water supply and demand will reach 17% in South Africa by 2030, flushing no longer makes sense. In the long run, safe and viable waterless sanitation technologies must be developed to an implementable level (Petterson, 2016a). Research by the Water Research Commission similarly recommends permanent separation of sewage and clean water streams. This visionary solution will require innovative planning of new urban developments in addition to a retrofitting programme for existing cities (Naidoo, 2015). Separation of clean water and wastewater streams has huge potential for generation of green jobs and produces invaluable economic resources, including clean water, industrial materials, fertiliser


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and energy. Sustainable technologies are known and available but inadequately utilised (McKinsey, 2009). South Africa has a shortage of green economy knowledge, skills and competences, including skillsets for responsible water-use, water management and wastewater treatment skills (ILO, 2010). The Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF) 2014 – 2019 suggests re-education of decision makers towards incorporating sustainable thinking into business and government practice (SAnews, 2014). Resource Efficient Cleaner Production (RECP), a concept comprising a set of methodologies is maintained by United Nations agencies UNEP and UNIDO. These methodologies for responsible resource use in industrial operations are being rolled out via National Cleaner Production Centres in many countries. Workplace related RECP education for example, encourages recycling, reuse, minimisation of waste and effluent and efficient water and energy consumption. RECP promotes the profitability and sustainable operation of economic activities. RECP guidelines help industrial operations to maintain quality while increasing profitability in three ways (1) Material savings by reducing, re-using, and recycling waste and effluent (2) Savings on utility bills by minimising usage and wastage and (3) Access to environmentally sensitive markets. Equipping workers economy-wide with RECP competences would improve water quality by minimising waste and pollution. RECP practical assistance and training can be obtained from NCPC-SA, with expert support from UNEP, UNIDO the Water Research Commission and other sustainable development agencies. Three new educational programmes are expected to commence in 2017: Water Footprinting,

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Life-Cycle Management and Industrial Water Efficiency (NCPC-SA, 2016). RECP and similar initiatives correspond with the notion that environmentally educated communities, households, municipalities and workplaces have the potential to reduce, reuse and recycle waste and waterborne effluent and use water efficiently in day-to-day activities. Environmental education is not a separate line of training. RECP principles and competences must be embedded into basic and higher education curricula, including curricula for trades and occupations, provided by TVET (Trades and Vocations Education and Training) institutions (Visagie, 2015). Conclusion Achieving SDG 6 targets has improved access to clean water, sustainability of economies and quality of life (UNWATER, 2016b). Improved water quality requires holistic thinking and respect for every citizen’s right to have access to clean water, which comes with the responsibility to understand and implement water-use efficiency measures such as recycling, safe reuse and minimisation of waste, pollution and effluent. Several experts are cited in this article. Their suggestions towards achieving SDG targets 6.3 and 6.4 include: • Balance the right to have access to water with the responsibility to implement water-use efficienc y measures in workplaces and living spaces (Visagie, 2015). • Step up waste and pollution law enforcement (Kings and Wild, 2015; Naidoo, 2015). • Invest in additional water treatment infrastructure to correspond with population numbers (Rand Water, 2015; Kings and Wild, 2015; Naidoo, 2015).

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• Constantly run waste-water treatment works effectively at full capacity. This implies diligent maintenance and competent staff (Rand Water, 2015; Kings and Wild, 2015; Naidoo, 2015). • Maintain the trend of improving water treatment performance by elevating media reporting on Green Drop and Blue Drop assessments (AfriForum, 2015). • D e ve l o p a n a c t i o n p l a n fo r incorporation of Resource Efficiency and Cleaner Production (RECP)

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pr inciples in rele vant H igher Education cur r icula, educating managers, engineers and technical staff, with a view to improved water quality as outlined in SDG Targets 6.3 and 6.4 (United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform Homepage. 2015; Brookes, 2015; Visagie, 2015). • Separate sanitation and clean water streams at the source and substitute water borne sanitation for waterless options (Brookes, 2015; Naidoo, 2015).

1 2016/11/28 3:48 PM

References • AfriForum. 2015. Afriforum Impressed by Improvements in Water Quality. Retrieved 2016-09-20 from http://www.polity.org.za/article/ afriforum-impressed-by-improvements-in-water-quality-2015-05-12 • Aurecon. 2016. Potsdam Wastewater Treatment Works. Retrieved 2016-08-30 from http:// www.aurecongroup.com/en/projects/water/potsdam-wastewater-treatment-works. aspx • Brookes, J D. 2015. Goal 6 - Rising to the Challenge: Enabling Access to Clean and Safe Water Globally. In: UN Chronicle Vol. LI No. 42014 of April 2015. Retrieved on 2016-08-19 from https://unchronicle.un.org/article/ goal-6-rising-challenge-enabling-access-clean-and-safe-water-globally • Cape Town Water. 2015. Water Treatment Works. Retrieved 2016-08-29 from http://www. capetown.gov.za/en/Water/Pages/Water-treatment-works.aspx • CBS Interactive Inc. 2016. Rio Olympics 2016 – Severe Water Pollution Clouds Games. Retrieved 2016-08-28 from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/ rio-olympics-2016-severe-water-pollution-clouds-games/

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• Circle of Blue. 2016. Degraded Watersheds Increase Water Treatment Costs. In: The Stream Science Daily. Retrieved 2016-08 29 from http://us1.campaign-archive2. com/?u=cb4d96410aa2ebf5c8d0b17a3&id=cf3e73ce53&e=f9438872fe • DWS. 2016(a). South Africa: Water and Sanitation on Waste Water Treatment Plants. Retrieved 2016-09-10 from http://allafrica.com/stories/201609140820.html • DWS. 2016(b). Vote 36. DWS Annual Report 2015-2016. Retrieved 2016-10-10 from http:// www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/DWA%20ANNUAL%20REPORT%202015-16a.pdf • Fanie. 2016. Latest - Phase 2 Metsi A Me and Foreshore Leases. In: The Dam/Die Dam. Retrieved 2016-09-11 from http://harties.net/articles/676/latest-phase-2-metsi-a-meand-foreshore-leases.php • Hohnen, P. 2012. Green Industry Platform - Sustainable innovation springboard. In: Ethical Corporation Webpage (http://www.ethicalcorp. com). Retrieved 2012-12-10 from http://www.ethicalcorp.com/environment/ green-industry-platform-sustainable-innovation-springboard • ILO. 2010. Skills for green jobs in South Africa. Unedited background country study. Retrieved 30-11-2010 from http://www.ilo.org/skills/what/projects/lang--en/ WCMS_115959/index.htm • Kilian, A. 2016. Dept to complete water, sanitation master plan in 2018/19. Retrieved 2016-09-26 from http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/ dept-to-complete-water-sanitation-master-plan-in-201819-2016-09-05 • King County Government. 2016.Cross Section of an Active Landfill. Retrieved 2016-10-19 from http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/documents/Landfill_cross-section. pdf • Kings, S andWild, S. 2015. Sewage in Gauteng’s DrinkingWater. In: M&G News Analysis. Retrieved 2016-08-19 from http://mg.co.za/article/2015-07-23-sewage-in-gautengs-drinking-water • McKinsey and Company. 2009. Pathways to a Low-Carbon Economy. Version 2 of the Global Green House Gas Abatement Cost Curve. Retrieved 2014-09-17 from www. mckinsey.com/globalGHGcostcurve • Metsimaholo Municipality Homepage. 2015. Retrieved 2016-09-18 from http://www. metsimaholo.gov.za/index.php/about-mlm • Metsimaholo. 2012. 2012 Free State Green Drop Report. Retrieved 2016-10-18 from http://metsimaholo.gov.za/images/downloads/Residents/Sanitation/2012-FS-GreenDrop-Report.pdf • Naidoo, V. 2015. Within the Factory Fence - Key Insights from Industrial Water Research. In: NCPC and the Dti Industrial Efficiency Conference Report. Pretoria. CSIR. • NCPC-SA. 2016. Annual Highlights Review 2015. Pretoria. CSIR. • Petterson, D. 2016(a). A Deeper Look Into SA’s Water & Sanitation. Retrieved 2016-09-13 from http://www.infrastructurene.ws/2016/05/31/a-deeper-look-into-sas-water-sanitation/ • Petterson, D. 2016(b). SA’s waste water treatment works are in bad shape. Retrieved 2016-09-14 from http://www.infrastructurene.ws/2016/05/10/ sas-waste-water-treatment-works-in-bad-shape/ • Pocket Guide to South Africa 2014/15 Homepage. 2014. Retrieved 2016-19-30 from http://www.gov.za/about-sa/water-affairs • Prinsloo, L. 2008. DWAF Continues to Develop Hartbeespoort Dam Resource Management Plan, In: Engineering News 2008-03-28. Retrieved 2016-09-13 from http://

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• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • •

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www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/dwaf-continues-to-develop-hartebeespoort-damresource-management-plan-2008-03-28 Rand Water. 2014. Water and Infrastructure Management. Retrieved 2016-10-18 from http://www.randwater.co.za/WaterAndInfastructureManagement/Pages/WaterQuality. aspx Rand Water. 2015. Integrated Annual Report 2014-15. Johannesburg. Rand Water. RSA. 1996. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. No. 108 of 1996.Government Printers: Pretoria. RSA. 1998(a). National Environmental Management Act, 1998. No. 107 of 1998. Retrieved 2012-05-31 from http://www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=70641 RSA. 1998(b). National Water Act, 1998. No. 36 of 1998. Retrieved 2012-06-01 from http:// www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=70693 RSA. The Presidency. 2009. Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF): A Framework to Guide Government’s Programme in the Electoral Mandate Period (2009 – 2014). Retrieved 2012-06-01 from http://www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=103901 RSA. The Presidency. 2010. The New Growth Path: The Framework. Retrieved 2012-06-20 from http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politicsweb/view/politicsweb/en/ page71656?oid=212554&sn=Detail&pid=71616 RSA. The Presidency. 2011. National Development Plan. Pretoria. Office of the Presidency. SAnews (South African Government News Agency). 2014. Medium-Term Strategic Framework 2014 – 2019. Retrieved 2016-09-15 from http://www.sanews.gov.za/ south-africa/medium-term-strategic-framework-2014-2019 Schneider, K. 2016. Foul Water Conditions Found all Over the World. In: Pollution. Retrieved 2016-10-20 from http://www.Pollution /by Keith Schneider South African Government. 2016. Department of Water and Sanitation to Spend R300 million on Wastewater Treatment Plants. Retrieved 2016-09-14 from http://www.gov.za/ speeches/department-water-and-sanitation-spend-r300-million-waste-water-treatmentplants-14-sep-2016 Steyn, A. J. 2010. What’s really wrong with Hartebeespoort Dam (Harties)? In: Farmersweekly. Retrieved 2016-09-09 from https://www.environment.co.za/nuclearenergy-debate/whats-wrong-hartebeespoort-dam-harties-pelindaba-necsa-pollution. html United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform Homepage. 2015. Retrieved 2016-09-15 from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg6 UNWATER. 2016a. Policy and Analytical Briefs. In: UNWATER Publications. The United Nations Inter-Agency Mechanism on All Water Related Issues, Including Sanitation. Retrieved 2016-08-21 from unwater_org_publications_publications_detail_en_c_42 UNWATER. 2016b. Water drives job creation and economic growth, says new World Water Development Report. In: UNWATER News. Retrieved 2016-08-20 from unwater_org_news_events_news_details_en_c_396204 Visagie, M.J. 2015. Review of two sustainability learning programmes for industrial settings in relation to emerging green learning aspects. Grahams Town. Rhodes University.

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Chapter 4:

Ecowash - Contributing to efficient water use in South Africa By Nigel Kierby Smith

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E

nterprise development can be used to enable water conservation and as a means to achieving target 6.4 under Sustainable Development Goal #6, which is: By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity. Conventional car washing consumes approximately 250 litres per car wash. Invariably, this is potable water that can be put to better use. The world is all too aware that we have to change the way we do things. Car washing is no exception. The scarcity of water is not going to go away and not only is it immoral to abuse our most precious resource, but it is going to become very expensive to consume such large quantities of water in such an unnecessary way when there are other options available. There are some 1,2-billion vehicles in the world. A survey conducted in South Africa by BP and reported in OnRoute Magazine (September 2014) revealed that, on average, 80 % of car owners wash their cars at least once per week. Lets assume, for the purposes hereof that this statistic applies throughout the World. We would require water for 3,84-billion car washes per month. At a consumption rate of 250 litres per wash, the world would consume 960 billion litres of water per month to wash vehicles. Most agree that this is not only unsustainable, but

WATER-USE EFFICIENCY

seems unethical in the face of tremendous water scarcity in many parts of the world. To begin to solve this conundrum, while also working to meet the need of the Sustainable Development Goal target 6.4, Eco Wash South Africa has designed, developed and now manufactures the Eco Wash Mobile Dispensing Unit (MDU). The MDU was designed and developed in conjunction with a major South African University. The third generation MK3 Model is the most advanced waterless car wash equipment available in the world today. It is currently being used in some 800 locations around the country and has been exported to six other African countries. Eco Wash South Africa is in discussion with many other international companies to establish exclusive distributorships for each region. The MDU is a self-contained car washing equipment that is able to wash and wax a vehicle, clean and shine the tyres and rims, clean and shine the windows while only consuming about 2 litres of water in the entire wash process! Most significantly, not a drop of water falls on the floor during the wash process. In other words, the wash bay can be taken to the car. Not only does this wash method save vast amounts of water but also all products used in the washing process are biodegradable (according to the highest European standard). Eco Wash supplies the equipment (MDU) as well as the products and consumables. These products and consumables include Wash and Wax, Mag Wheel Cleaner/Rim Cleaner, Heavy Duty

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Cleaner and Tyre Shine, Micro Fiber Cloths, Spray bottles, Sponges and Chamois Leather cloths for window cleaning. How the MDU works The MDU has fresh water storage tanks, a high-pressure vessel, a dirty water storage tank, pump and motor and a helli-coil hose to apply the product across the entire surface of the vehicle. The concentrate product is poured into a storage chamber, water is added for dilution and the MDU is connected to a conventional power source for 35 seconds. The pump and motor mix the product and water and transfer the wash and wax solution into the pressure vessel. The MDU is disconnected from the power source and is able to operate for 4 to 5 days, independent from any power source. This is achieved by transferring the product into a pressure vessel where it remains under pressure and so is able to spray sufficient product to wash about 40 to 50 vehicles. One of the attractions of the Eco Wash MDU is that it has a self-contained wash hand basin to wash the micro-fibre cloths during the wash process. Water is pumped using the foot pump from the fresh water chamber to the basin. An essential ingredient of effective and efficient car washing is to work with clean cloths. The Eco Wash MDU facilitates this. Most of the 2 lites of water used in the washing process is used to wash the cloths. Four different colour cloths are used in the wash process. A green cloth is for washing the vehicle, an orange cloth is used to polish it, a blue cloth is used for rims and a pink cloth is used to shine and buff the windows after they have been cleaned using the Chamois. The two most significant aspects to washing a car is to have clean cloths and to ensure that the washer is not using the same micro-fibre cloth to clean the rims and, for example, shine the windows.

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In some parts of the world car washers are known to attempt to execute a waterless car wash using only a spray bottle type application. Problems associated with this practice are several: users have no means of cleaning cloths; a spray bottle cannot give a uniform spray of product across the vehicle; and the same (dirty) cloth is used to wash the car, clean the rims, polish the car and clean the windows. This is impossible to achieve, even if a 10-litre bucket of clean water was supplied. Every time the cloth is cleaned, the water would be contaminated and would have to be replaced. Access to clean water is essential to perfect the ultimate waterless car wash. Eco Wash uses a biodegradable cleansing formula (that contains a mix of ingredients including wetting, cleaning agents and wax) that is sprayed onto the vehicle in a light mist form. Dirt is lifted hydrostatically and encapsulated into the wax upon contact. The encapsulated dirt is then removed using a damp microfibre cloth. Stubborn marks are removed with a heavy duty cleaner. A thin wax layer remains, which is buffed with a secondary, dry microfibre cloth to shine the vehicle. The Eco Wash system effectively combines both a high-quality, wash and wax service-in-one, and, during the wash process, not a drop of water falls on the floor.

Frequently asked questions How can you wash a car without water? The process consists of using a safe, incredibly effective and natural cleaning agent with a Carnauba wax formula. The cleaning agents are, in fact, water-based instead of oil-or kerosene-based, making it safe for vehicles and the environment.


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Won’t the dirt scratch the paintwork? The wash-and-wax product is sprayed onto the vehicle in the form of a light mist. If viewed under a microscope, it can be observed that, upon contact with the vehicle, the mist product causes the dirt to be lifted hydrostatically and this dirt is then removed in a one-directional wipe with a damp microfibre cloth. Eco Wash claims to provide a high quality wash and wax. How? Once the dirt has been removed, a thin layer of wax remains, which is then buffed with a secondary, dry microfibre cloth, effectively combining both a wash-andwax service in one and leaving the vehicle with a beautiful shine. What about heavily soiled vehicles? Heavily soiled vehicles can easily be cleaned with the Eco Wash system. The limitation is when a vehicle with thick dry mud requires cleaning. A pressure washer is required to remove the dry mud. Is there a need to install drainage and special oil traps et cetera? No. When the Eco Wash MDU washes a vehicle there is no water or waste runoff and, hence, there is no requirement for the conventional car wash system requirements (i.e. drainage, oil traps, et cetera.) Do cars need to be moved around to be washed? No. The Eco Wash MDU is a self-contained, portable system that has everything necessary to carry out a high-quality hand wash regardless of where the vehicle is parked. As it does not leave any foam, water or dirt on the floor, it eliminates the requirements for vehicles to be moved to a dedicated wash bay environment.

STAKEHOLDER WATER-USE EFFICIENCY MAPPING

How are the tyres and windows cleaned? The MDU is equipped with rim cleaner, tyre shine and Chamois cloths (for the windows) as well as heavy duty cleaner (bug remover) to ensure that the vehicle is given a superior, high-quality overall car wash. Does the Eco Wash MDU require an electrical supply to operate? No, unless there is a requirement to operate a vacuum cleaner. The MDU is supplied with a built-in product replenishment bowser. Approximately once a week, the MDU is coupled to an electrical power point, which then pressurises the MDU with product. Thereafter, it can operate independently without the need to connect it to an electricity supply. Are the products used environmentally friendly? The products used have Biodegradable Certification according to the highest European Standards. The current users of Eco Wash in South Africa include Mercedes Benz, BMW, Ford, Hyundai, Kia, Jaguar, Land Rover, Lazarus Motor Company, Bidvest McCarthy, Anglo American, De Beers, Harmony, the Gauteng Provincial Government, golf courses, office parks, malls, Growthpoint Properities, Novartis, Norton Rose Attorneys, Engen, Caltex, Shell, Total and many others. The obvious benefits for these corporates are water savings, convenience of having a car washed whilst at work, no mess or water run-off and not having to move cars to conventional wash bays. In some instances, the equipment operates in conventional car parks, moving from one car to the next and, at other sites, a full wash bay is erected without the drains and separation tanks.

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Life-style changes Generally, commerce, industry and the “man in the street” understand that they have to undergo lifestyle changes. We cannot continue to do things as we have done in the past. Companies want to conserve water and people want the convenience of having their cars washed whilst they are at work or at play. Customers don’t always have the luxury of time to stop at a conventional car wash for an hour to have their cars washed. The conventional “bucket and cloth” car washer is being excluded from company, commercial and mall operations as it causes a mess and consumes water. Not least of all, it contravenes by-laws to wash a car using water without proper drainage and separation tanks. In fact, in Gauteng, washing cars with a hosepipe or pressure washer is banned as of 6th September 2016, due to water shortages. Enterprise development Apart from drastic water scarcity in many parts of the world, many governments are trying to find employment and enterprise development opportunities for the youth. Car washing is generally accepted as an industry that can employ youth. The barrier to entry for the youth is that they cannot afford the “state-ofthe-art” Eco Wash equipment without some form of assistance from corporates or governments. Unless they use the Eco Wash, equipment, most office parks, golf courses, service stations, and residential estates, will not allow the youth to wash using buckets with water and dirty cloths because it is both messy and unlawful. If a youth is given access to the Eco Wash equipment his/her earning opportunity could look like this (quoted in South African Rands and worked at prevailing prices in South Africa):

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• • • •

14 vehicles per day R 50.00 per vehicle 22 days per month Revenue to Entrepreneur per month: R15 400.00 • 36 month Revenue (excluding price increases R 554 400.00 • Cost of Eco Wash MK3 MDU for this period R 70,000.00 plus VAT • (Cost includes equipment, product,consumables, service, warranty and maintenance) In addition, the youth will attend an Enterprise Development workshop to undergo extensive training on the Eco Wash equipment. A number of South African corporates have sponsored youth with the Eco Wash equipment (as part of their Enterprise Development spend). The Gauteng Department of Economic Development are in the process of rolling out such a project and see an opportunity for 5 000 such Entreprenenurs over the next 3 years. Commerce and industry have been asked to participate by making their facilities available to the youth and the uptake has been heart-warming. Similar discussions are about to commence with the other provinces in South Africa and the governments of Kenya and Botswana are also currently giving consideration to a similar model of government sponsorship or financial assistance. Conserving water, creating employment and enterprise development opportunities are all significant “vehicles” that will go a long way in enabling the achievement of target 6.4. And the convenience to the ‘man in the street” of having his/her car washed while at work or play, may go a long way in encouraging a dramatic lifestyle change necessary for water conservation practice.


Chapter 5:

South Africa Volume 4: Sustainable Development Goal 6 for water Target 6.5: By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation By Marcus Wishart

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5

T

he integrated management and development of water resources is central to enhancing long-term economic growth prospects, sustaining development outcomes and increasing shared prosperity. The centrality of water to meeting the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is acknowledged in the expanded focus on water under the Sustainable Development Goals. This focus extends the recognition of the role of water beyond drinking water and sanitation to cover the entire water cycle and sets out a dedicated goal to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. Explicit in this definition is the management of water, wastewater and ecosystem resources. With water at the very core of sustainable development, SDG6 is recognised as not only having strong linkages to all of the other SDGs, but also providing a foundation for them. Achieving SDG 6 will significantly contribute towards realising the vision captured within the 2030 Agenda . An integrated framework for the sustainable development and management of water resources provides the foundations for a green economy. While there are a range of different interpretations and definitions, it is acknowledged that processes are needed to “promote the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems, taking into account hydrological and technical aspects, as well as socioeconomic, political and environmental dimensions ”. At the heart of these processes is the promotion of economic growth that is inclusive in its use of natural resources, promotes sustainability and minimises pollution along with environmental impacts,

IWRM – TRANSBOUNDARY

and increases resilience by accounting for natural hazards and the role of water resources management and natural capital in preventing physical disasters . Recognising the importance of these processes, the SDGs include specific reference to implementing integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate, by 2030 (SDG 6.5). Target 6.5 on integrated water resources management specifically builds on agreements such as Agenda 21 (1992) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002) by moving forward from plans to implementation . The second component on transboundary cooperation builds on the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Helsinki, 1992) and the Convention on the Law of the Nonnavigational Uses of International Watercourses (New York, 1997). The target is considered to be specific as it relates to the essential enabling conditions (such as institutions, laws, capacity, participation, finance et cetera), that facilitate implementation and sustainability. The target is measurable as it uses a survey method with quantitative and qualitative elements to address a complex environment in a simple way . The specific indicators include a measure of the degree to which integrated water resources management is being implemented and the percentage of transboundary basin area with operational arrangements for water cooperation. The balance between global demand and the finite supply of water resources determines the sustainability of development pathways adopted by nation states. Growth in demand among different sectoral users is increasing competition, requiring increasingly sophisticated governance mechanisms to ensure the quantity and quality of water is available

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to sustain growth models and avoid a severe global water deficit. However, the interpretation of this global crisis depends on perspective. The manifestation of the challenges associated with the integrated development and management of water resources depends very much on the national and region conditions. The different manifestations of the challenges around the development and management of water resources have wide -ranging economic implications. Many parts of the world already experience a physical scarcity with the availability of water a binding constraint on economic options.

These constraints on growth are likely to be accentuated due to the impacts associated with climate change. In regions where water is already in short supply, such as the Middle East and the Sahel in Africa, water-related losses in agriculture, health, income and property are estimated to result in potential reductions in growth by as much as 6% of GDP by 2050 . In large parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America the issues associated with water scarcity are largely caused by a lack of investment in water related infrastructure or insufficient human, financial and/or institutional capacity to satisfy the demand for water in areas where the population cannot afford to use an adequate source of water.

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Economic water scarcity can have significant impacts on growth prospects. Hydrological variability in the absence of adequate water-related infrastructure is estimated to have cost the Ethiopian economy 38% of its potential growth rate and causes a 25% increase in poverty rates. Well endowed with an abundance of water resources, countries like Zambia experience substantial losses due to a lack of infrastructure, institutional capacity and appropriate policies. Rainfall variability is estimated to lower agricultural growth by one percentage point each year, with the potential impacts of future rainfall variation on economic growth and pover ty estimated to cost US$4.3 billion to as much as US$7.1 billion in foregone GDP over the next ten years. In Mozambique, the lack of infrastructure undermines the ability to mitigate the impacts of floods and droughts, estimating to have reduced GDP growth on average by at least by 1.1% points annually. Other issues, such as pollution, can further accentuate water scarcity. In addition to posing serious threats to public health and causing major economic and environmental losses, the economic cost of water pollution and scarcity can be high. In China, it has been estimated that the water crisis is already costing about 2.3% of GDP, of which 1.3% is attributable to the scarcity of water, and 1% to the direct impacts of water pollution . This is equivalent to nearly one billion dollars and does not include the cost of impacts for which estimates are unavailable, such as the ecological impacts ,associated with eutrophication


5

and the drying up of lakes, wetlands and rivers, and the amenity loss from the extensive pollution in most of China’s water bodies. Thus, total costs are undoubtedly higher. Integrated water resources management is central to positioning the concept of the natural capital associated with water in the definition and vision of a green economy. It aims to promote changes in practices considered fundamental to improved water resource management and is founded on three basic principles. Together these three principles provide the overall framework for IWRM: (i) Social equity: ensuring equal access for all users (particularly marginalised and poorer user groups) to an adequate quantity and quality of water necessary to sustain human wellbeing; (ii) Economic efficiency: bringing the greatest benefit to the greatest number of users possible with the available financial and water resources; and (iii) Ecological sustainability: requiring that aquatic ecosystems are acknowledged as users and that adequate allocation is made to sustain their natural functioning. The challenge with IWRM is to translate the agreed principles into concrete action at the operational level. Inter-sectoral horizontal coordination and cooperation among different stakeholders within individual river basins are often complicated further by the challenges of vertical integration among different administrative levels of government and other non-state actors. The successful realisation of IWRM relies on changing behaviours and the status quo. It requires sustained political will and commitment, sufficient capacity and continuous development, adequate investment, financial stability and sustainable cost recovery, supported

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by an iterative process of monitoring and evaluation. As such, it is a long-term process with hard to measure tangible outcomes. Performance measures depend on the local context and the shifts along this multi-dimensional context driven by changing interests and boundary conditions. The development and management of water resources within an integrated framework is even more of a challenge within a transboundar y context. Transboundary waters not only include those that are situated within the borders of more than one Riparian State, but those that cross or constitute international borders along with intra-national (e.g. state or provincial) borders. This creates a complex nested hierarchy within which institutions and organisations need to interact to balance competing demands. The Water Convention is intended to address these challenges by fostering the implementation of integrated water resources management with a particular focus on a basin wide approach. Within this context, the Water Convention requires Parties to prevent, control and reduce transboundary impact, use transboundary waters in a reasonable and equitable way and ensure their sustainable management. The suggested indicator for SDG 6.5 is the proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation. Operational arrangements are defined as the proportion of surface area of transboundary basins that have an operational arrangement for transboundary water cooperation. For a cooperation framework to be considered as “operational”, it requires that there are regular meetings of the riparian countries to discuss the integrated management of the water resource and to exchange information.

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Significant efforts have been invested into establishing robust institutional mechanisms and organisations to promote the sustainable development and management of transboundary water resources. These are premised on the assumption that such mechanisms can enhance sustainable and efficient resource exploitation while also satisfying the equity concerns of the Riparian States. These efforts are derived from the principle of a community of co-riparian states that recognises the entire river basin as an ecological and economic unit where the rights of the entire river are vested in the collective body of the Riparian States. These rights can also be divided among the collective body of Riparian States, either by agreement or, according to proportionality, giving rise to the need for institutional and organisational arrangements to facilitate the division and attribution of individual rights and obligations. This principle essentially establishes the equality of all Riparian States and confirms the rights of each state over the shared river with the aim of fostering optimal, equitable and reasonable utilisation along with a corresponding duty to take all appropriate measures so that such use does not significantly harm other Riparian States. However, transboundary waters suffer the same dilemma as other common pool resources and establishing cooperative mechanisms that can realise the potential long-term gains assumes that the utility derived is transferrable and that side payments are possible, in addition to the challenges associated with transferability and side payments, addressing externalities and fostering altruistic behaviours to overcome non-myopic behaviours is particularly challenging within transboundary waters in view of competing and sometimes conflicting interests among the Riparian

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States. Other barriers that can accentuate the challenge of optimising opportunities around transboundary common pool waters resources include the asymmetric information available among the Riparian States, technical uncertainties, conflicting national versus collective interests, political and sovereign rationality, asymmetric country characteristics and upstream downstream interests . Cooperation around the development and management of transboundary waters can substantially increase long-term gains for all Riparian States and provide sustainable benefits. There is an extensive body of literature supporting the notion that integrated development of transboundary water resources can deliver substantial benefits and contribute significantly to the socio-economic development of the Riparian States sharing these rivers and lakes . These benefits can include increased financial and economic returns; accelerated economic development; improved human wellbeing; enhanced environmental sustainability; increased political stability and peace dividends; improving access to external markets; increasing economies of scale, as evidenced through the lower marginal cost of unit power production in the case of hydropower; improved management and coordinated operation of water infrastructure to accommodate multipurpose uses of water; the possibility of jointly facing common external threats, such as floods, droughts and other climate risks as well as waterborne diseases such as malaria and river blindness; and optimising the location of infrastructure to increase benefits and reduce costs. The benefits of transboundary cooperation are clearly demonstrated in a multi-sectoral investment analysis in the Zambezi River basin. One of the most diverse and valuable natural resources in


5

Africa, its waters are critical to sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction in the southern African region. In addition to meeting the basic needs of more than 30 million people and sustaining a rich and diverse natural environment, the river plays a central role in the regional economy. Reflecting the dual nature of the regional economy, new investments in large infrastructure co-exist alongside a parallel, subsistence economy that is reliant upon environmental services provided by the river. The analysis in the Zambezi River basin shows the substantive benefits that can be derived through cooperation. Coordinated operation of the existing hydropower facilities and those envisaged under the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) generation plan could increase firm energy by 23% over uncoordinated, standalone operations. While institutionally complex, smaller operational clusters could increase firm energy production by 7%, adding US$585 million over a 30year period with no major investments. Investments in agricultural potential within the basin could similarly contribute to regional food security, with an additional 343 000ha increasing the total irrigated areas to 775 000ha/yr and creating more than 500 000 jobs in the agricultural sector. More than 80% of this potential is situated in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The ZRB also represents one of the few options for securing water supplies for the dryland areas south of the river in Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe, as well as further afield across the region. Similar cooperation around strategic interventions relating to disaster management could increase resilience within the basin and reduce the exposure to floods and droughts. These interventions could increase economic resilience through avoiding estimated

IWRM – TRANSBOUNDARY

losses of as much as US$1 billion a year due to these ‘water shocks’. Operationalising the concept of equitable and reasonable utilisation and translating the gains from cooperative mechanisms within transboundary waters into shared benefits has proven challenging. Efforts at establishing cooperative mechanisms in the Zambezi River basin date back to the 1940s but it wasn’t until 2004 that an “Agreement on the Establishment of the Zambezi Watercourse Commission” (the ZAMCOM Agreement) was realised. The signing of the agreement came after two decades of sustained efforts but, even then, was only signed by Ministers responsible for water from seven of the eight Riparian States. It took another seven years for the agreement to come into force with six of the eight riparian countries completing their ratification processes. Sub-optimal development outcomes can result from non-cooperative and competitive behavior driven by individual rationality among Riparian States, leading to a tragedy of the commons. These result from the difficulty in excluding individual Riparian States from the resource (nonexcludability) and the degree to which one Riparian State's use of a common resource diminishes the ability of the other Riparian States to use the same resource (subtractability). When there are rival demands on the water resources, the aggregation of individual decisions can lead to potential overuse and degradation of open-access commons while the challenges associated with excluding potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from within the basin context can lead to problems of free-riding or insufficient maintenance of supplies. These issues around sub-tractability and non-excludability can contribute to increased tensions among Riparian States, giving rise to the debate around cooperation

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versus conflict. This is particularly true if unilateral developments proceed to place demands on the available water resources while ignoring the costs imposed on other Riparian States. Nowhere are these challenges more important than in Africa. The contemporary construct of Africa’s political boundaries at the end of the 19th Century and varying post-colonial legal regimes have increased the complexities associated with development opportunities around transboundary waters. Every country on the African continent intersects at least one of the 63 international river basins that cover 63% of mainland Africa, with 12 countries intersecting six or more international basins. The majority of these river basins are shared between two (50%) or three (24%) Riparian States, with five international basins having eight or more Riparian States. These five basins cover more than half (52%) of Sub-Saharan Africa and account for nearly 350 million people. Roughly half of all the economic activity in Africa and more than 500 million people across the continent are located within transboundary basins. Cooperation around internationally -shared, transboundary waters is, therefore, seen as central to creating opportunities for fostering regional economic and political integration in Africa. While the technical, environmental, political and financial considerations involved in cooperative action present complex challenges, they also provide opportunities to optimise regional benefits and mitigate shared risks, including those of climate variability and change, which often disproportionately impact poor and vulnerable communities. As competition for water resources grows and climate change intensifies hydrological variability and unpredictability, there is an increasing urgency to establish cooperative

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mechanisms and collective actions around internationally shared, common pool water resources in Africa. Conclusion The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development outlines an ambitious agenda to mobilise efforts to end all forms of poverty, fight inequalities and tackle climate change, while ensuring that no one is left behind. The SDGs recognise that ending poverty must go hand-inhand with strategies that build economic growth and addresses a range of social needs including education, health, social protection, and job opportunities, while tackling climate change, water resources and environmental sustainability. The 169 targets under the 17 SDGs all include global indicators to facilitate review and monitoring. For integrated water resources management, the definition is based on an assessment of the four components of policies, institutions, management tools and financing . It takes into account the various users and uses of water, with the aim of promoting positive social, economic and environmental impacts at all levels, including the transboundary level where appropriate. Acknowledging the basin as the logical scale for water resources management, transboundary cooperation is seen as a means to implement IWRM. The measure is to be based on the presence of an operational agreement or other arrangement for water cooperation, such as a bilateral or multilateral treaty, convention, agreement or other formal arrangement among Riparian States that provides a framework for cooperation on transboundary water management. Operational considerations are based on key aspects of substantive cooperation in water management, such as the existence of institutional mechanisms, regular


5

communication among Riparian countries, joint or coordinated management plans or objectives, as well as a regular exchange of data and information. The challenges of objectively assessing a wide range of criteria, some of which are non-qualitative, should not detract from the overall ideal of global measures to advocate for the sector, stimulate political commitment, inform decision making and trigger well-placed investment towards optimum health, environment and economic gains. The multi-sectoral challenges inherent in the implementation of IWRM are further complicated in the transboundary context by the competing demands and sovereign interests of the Riparian States. This introduces a political dynamic into the technical, environmental, economic and social considerations associated with water. Coupled further with the uncertainties associated with a changing climate and a robust framework is required to facilitate the consultative decision making processes needed for IWRM.

IWRM – TRANSBOUNDARY

Cooperative institutions often evolve along an institutional continuum that depends on the geo-political context and inter-state relations at any given time. Positions on this continuum are subject to changes in inter-state relations and can be directed toward establishing trust through a vehicle for communication, building on this foundation to facilitate the exchange of information, undertaking transboundary diagnostics, developing joint action plans and strategies, or advancing cooperative investments. M e a s u r i n g t h e o u tc o m e s o f transboundary cooperation is difficult to determine from specific outputs, such as the existence of treaties, conventions, or agreements. While institutional mechanisms to facilitate communication and the exchange of information, coordinated planning is an important first step. The measure of an inclusive green economy will be, in the longer-term, outcomes derived from joint action around shared benefits.

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The way

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What quality water is produced? The anticipated final effluent quality meets the requirements for the purification of Waste Water or Effluent as per the General Standards as per Government Gazette (Revision of general authorizations in terms of section 39 of the National Water Act, 1998 (Act. No. 36 of 1998). •pH – Value at 25°C 5.5-9.5 •Suspended Solids at 105°C * <25 •Nitrate as N * <15 •Chemical Oxygen Demand as O2 (Total) * <75 •Faecal Coliform Bacteria / 100 m_* <1000 •Free & Saline Ammonia as N * <6

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Head Office 20 Klipfontein, Cullinan, South Africa, 1001


Chapter 6:

South Africa Volume 4: Sustainable Development Goal 6 for water Target 6.6: By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems - including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes - in an effort towards establishing resilient wetlands in a changing environment By Piet-Louis Grundlingh

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ECOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Abstract

The role wetlands play in providing various ecosystem services is well-known. Wetlands. Not only are they the largest store of terrestrial carbon on the planet (33%) they are also well-known for their biodiversity value. Globally 4 - 6% of the landmass comprises of wetland and South Africa's wetlands are estimated to cover less than 3% of the land surface. More importantly, it has been reported that less than 50% of the country’s remaining wetlands are in a healthy state. South Africa is a semi-arid country where the average annual precipitation is much less than the global average. Given the fact that evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation by two times or more in most parts of the country, emphasise the importance of catchments providing surface inflow and maintaining hillslope and groundwater process to wetlands. However, land use change in catchments results in modified hydrological and geomorphological processes comprising wetland integrity. Wetland management should, therefore, not only focus on affecting resilience in the receiving environment through measures such as erosion control and rewetting but also in catchment management processes such as storm water and sediment control, alien invasive species clearing and pollution treatment. Wetland best management practice in South Africa should consider multi-departmental mandates and responsibilities within a developing economy impacting landuse on a landscape level. Keywords: Wetland; Catchment; Land use change; Resilience, Management.

W

etlands are one of the most important ecosystem types in the world, providing various goods and services to both humans and the environment (Ramsar Convention Secretariat, 2004). In South Africa wetland management falls within the ambit of various departments but noticeably, the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; the Department of Environmental Affairs as well as the Department of Water and Sanitation. However, it is not a matter of success in numbers, as wetland legislation and policy are split between various departments with no coherent united policy in enforcement, compliance and authorisation for development. Defining best management principles in a tangled legal and policy framework within a developing community dependant on a resource-based economy is, at best, complex. Doing so in an environment

where wetland type varies from ephemeral and seasonal to permanently wet in climate zones ranging from the arid west to the humid east and temperate mountainous areas, is near unmanageable. It is, therefore, perhaps important to understand the basics of wetlands in order to make sound management decisions. A wetland is typically a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic systems and is saturated long enough at or near the surface, to promote wetland or aquatic processes as shown by poorly drained soils and hydrophytic vegetation (National Wetlands Working Group, 1997). Peatlands are wetlands that have accumulated a minimum layer of 30 – 40 cm of peat (Joosten and Clark, 2002). These ecosystems comprise 50% of the world’s wetlands, contribute greatly to biodiversity by regulating hydrological functions and host a third of the earth’s terrestrial carbon (Joosten and Clarke, 2002). Globally 4 - 6% of the landmass comprise of wetlands (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000)

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and South African wetlands are estimated to cover less than 3% of the land surface (Driver et al., 2012). More importantly it has been reported that 48% of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s remaining wetlands are threatened (SANBI, 2011).Southern Africa is a semi-arid region with an average rainfall of 497 mm.yr-1, which is well below the world average of 860 mm.yr-1 (DEAT, 2005). Climate change and land cover change such as forest plantation activity and agricultural encroachment onto wetlands are significant stressors that threaten to alter the water available to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Wetlands are not isolated features in the landscape as they are part of catchmentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; contribution to the water (hydrologic) cycle. Inadequate knowledge of the processes and their linkages compromise our ability to make sound management decisions. Hydrologic Cycle The hydrologic cycle refers to the circulation of water between the oceans, atmosphere and landmasses (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Wetlands in drier landscapes depend largely on their catchments to provide water towards the wetland and the land phase of the hydrologic cycle is presented in Figure 1. This systems representation indicates different water fluxes including inflows (precipitation) and outflows (evapotranspiration and runoff ) (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Runoff is the total amount of liquid water outflows whilst precipitation consists mainly of rainfall, hailstones, snow or mist (Dingman, 2002). Evapotranspiration is a combination of evaporation from bare soil and open water bodies as well as transpiration by vegetation (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Internal system flows in Figure 1 includes overland flow, infiltration, interflow,

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percolation and base flow. Overland flow is water that does not infiltrate and moves on the surface towards water courses (e.g. wetlands) and infiltration is water movement from the surface into the soil (Dingman, 2002). Interflow is downslope flow in the unsaturated zone, percolation the downward flow in the unsaturated zone, and recharge takes place when the percolating water reaches the saturated zone (Dingman, 2002). Base flow is persistent outflow from groundwater that maintains streamflow and groundwater is water under positive pressure in the saturated zone (Dingman, 2002) whilst soil moisture storage (water stored in the soil and available for plants) occurs in the saturated zone above the water table (Chrisopherson, 1994). The water table is the upper limit of the groundwater between the upper unsaturated and the lower saturated zone where the pressure equals zero (Freeze and Cherry, 1979).

Figure 1: Land phase of the hydrologic cycle: Water flows are presented by ovals and storages by boxes (after Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Groundwater in the hydrologic cycle Regional groundwater is governed by topography, geology, storage and transmission properties of the geologic materials and soils (Dingman, 2002; Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Topography can contribute to complex patterns of


6

groundwater flow where a landscape with prominent or high relief will develop local flow systems compared to relatively simpler regional flow systems in a flatter landscape (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Uplands are usually recharge areas where the groundwater flow is directed away from the water table and lowlands are generally discharge areas where the groundwater flow is directed towards the water table (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Geologic controls on groundwater movement include the stratigraphy, structural geology and lithology of rocks and unconsolidated deposits A catchment (Figure 2) is a topographically defined area that contributes all the water that moves through a given cross section of a wetland (Dingman, 2002). Evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation by two times or more in most parts of the country (Mucina and Rutherford, 2006) and, therefore, emphasize the importance of catchments in providing surface inflow and maintaining hillslope interflow and groundwater process to wetlands. However, land use change in catchments results in modified hydrological and geomorphological processes thereby comprising wetland integrity (Ellery et al., 2009) as altered flow processes; e.g. concentrated storm inflow can result in erosion (Figure 3) or exercise sediment influx from a degraded catchment could smother wetland habitat and alter internal flow processes (Figure 4).

Figure 2: Schematic diagram of a catchment. Different components of the regional water

ECOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

balance are indicated: P = precipitation, ET = evapotranspiration, Q = stream outflow, Gin = groundwater inflow and Gout = groundwater outflow (from Dingman, 2002).

Figure 3: Erosion in a wetland due to uncontrolled storm water flow input into a wetland.

Figure 4: Sediment can smother wetland habitat and alter flow patterns in a wetland. Wetland type and the ability to perform various ecosystem services are dependent on the different sources of inflows feeding it. Not only are the rate and volumes of flow of importance but the mineral and nutrient composition of the water as derived from climate and the catchmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s geology, topography, land cover and land use all play a role in determining wetland function. Furthermore the nature of the water flow through the wetland (e.g. diffused across the surface or rapidly through a channel) determine the hydroperiod (period of

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inundation) and hydrodynamic (motion of water and the capacity of that water to do work) of the wetland (Brinson, 1993). Different wetland types perform different wetland ecosystem services and not all wetland types deliver all services or perform them equally well. A general rule of thumb is that larger wetlands are more effective in delivering hydrological related ecosystem services. This especially true if the wetlands comprise a relatively large portion of its catchment (typically 10% and more). Land hydrology and vegetation feedbacks are important drivers in climate processes on a large scale over land (NRC, 2003). Land use change impacts on wetlands by modifying the natural water flow, water quality and sedimentation processes into the wetland, thereby disrupting the balance in the wetland between hydrology, geomorphology and ecological processes. The result is often sediment build-up, or sediment starvation, erosion and desiccation (Ellery et al., 2009). Wetland function will, therefore, be impacted negatively with the wetland rendered incapable to deliver ecosystem services to its full potential. Land management, including wetland rehabilitation, should, therefore, aim to conserve and maintain ecosystems and related services to improve human wellbeing (Table 1) However, natural climatic patterns and longer term climatic change can also impact

negatively on wetlands and the ability to provide anticipated services (Winter, 2000). Dry periods in South Africa are followed by wetter periods, and, in these wet periods high intensity rainfall events often exacerbate degradation in the landscape (Grundling, 2014), by erosion amongst others, resulting in a loss of buffer capacity in the subsequent drier periods. Erosion (e.g. as a result of overgrazing in the landscape or neglected drains in wetlands) often results in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM), sheet erosion of fertile top soil and gullying of sediments in wetlands (Poesen et al., 2003). Wetlands and adjacent hillslopes (in catchments) form a continuum of water bearing strata and conduits in the landscape. When erosion disrupts high water yielding strata, such as fertile soils with high SOM and water bearing sediments in wetlands, then these shallow aquifers are drained and unable to sustain baseflow maintenance functions during drier or drought periods (Poesen et al., 2003). Consequently, sheet, rill and gully erosion have a severe impact on the water storage ability of soils and, therefore, the landscape (on a catchment level). Establishing resilient wetlands It is well-recognised that wetland rehabilitation projects targeting drained and eroding wetlands improve functioning of wetlands by arresting erosion and lifting

Table 1: Well managed wetlands and catchments could deliver ecosystem services which can improve human wellbeing (SANBI, 2014)

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up the wetland ground water table and thereby improving the water retention ability of the wetland resulting in the improved outcomes listed in a to c above. Furthermore, the improved water retention ability and enhanced base flow maintenance functioning of these systems not only improve their resilience in times of drought but allow them to support downstream ecosystems or to act as refugia during times of drought (e.g. the Mfabeni peat wetland system (Figure 5) on the Eastern Shores of Lake St Lucia, iSimanagliso Wetland Park).

Figure 5: A Google Earth image of the Mfabeni peatland with fresh water outflow (orange arrow) evident into the dry lake St Lucia General principles relating to wetland functioning and management Wetland formation and function result from several determining driving forces, including geomorphological setting, hydrology, physical processes (e.g. fire, sediment movement), biogeochemical processes (e.g. carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling), and biological processes (e.g. colonization, competition, decomposition) (Kotze et al. 2009). The above-mentioned processes forms the basis of the ecosystem services wetlands provide to society, e.g. flood attenuation, carbon sequestration filtration, et cetera. (Russi et al., 2013). The ability of wetlands to cope with change is not a given and rehabilitation should aim to create resilience by reinstating these driving

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forces to a level close to the original so as to improve the wetland's capacity to function properly and thereby providing services to society (Kotze et al. 2009). It should be noted that engineered solutions seldom fully attain full restoration of the original state; especially if the cause of the impact are catchment change related (Russell, 2009). Wetlands are dynamic ecosystems constantly changing on time scales of days, seasons, years, decades, millennia, and longer during time, they will ultimately decline as other wetlands develop elsewhere in the landscape (Figure 6) (Kotze et al., 2009). The objective of wetland rehabilitation from an ecological perspective should be to achieve a persistent resilient system that is largely self-maintaining and can respond to change with little human intervention (Kotze et al., 2009). However, wetlands are often rehabilitated to a desired state as certain eco-services are expected and continued maintenance of interventions might, therefore, be required

Figure 6: Wetlands are dynamic systems but often prone to human induced changes. It this image of a Molopo wetland erosion and sedimentation competes respectively in destroying and building a wetland. Wetlands form part of broader landscapes in which they are located and they are dependent on the natural and

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anthropogenic-related processes within catchments (Winter, 2001). Furthermore, all wetlands occur within some form of socio-economic context that may have a profound effect on land-use decisions affecting the functioning of a wetland and therefore, wetland rehabilitation must be integrated with the surrounding landscape in order to address the causes of wetland degradation and not just the symptoms (Kotze et al., 2009). If wetland rehabilitation projects are to be sustainable, they must consider the socioeconomic needs of local communities, especially direct dependents of the wetland who need to take ownership of rehabilitation initiatives (Kotze et al., 2009). Consequently, wetland rehabilitation projects should be well planned and implemented in priority catchments related to complimentary programmes such as alien clearing, dryland erosion control, and stormwater maintenance should be encouraged to ensure maximum results to improve the water retention ability in the catchment; enhanced base flow maintenance in the wetland and the ability to act as refugia during times of drought. The long-term aim should be to increase resilience of the ecosystems in the catchment as a continuum linked to the water cycle. Case study: Working for Wetlands Working for Wetlands ( WfWet) within the NRM: Wetland Programmes ( WetP) in Environmental Programmes, Departments of Environmental Affairs (DEA) is a joint initiative of DEA and the Departments of Water and Sanitation and Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries. The aim of WetP is to have improved wetland functioning and water resources management in the programmeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s priority wetland catchment (Figure 7), with a

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30% improvement in the regulation of seasonal flows, reduction of river siltation, and rehabilitation of wetland biodiversity by 2037 (Trebble, 2016). This will be achieved with a focus on wetland conser vation through compliance and extension support, and wetland restoration aiming at the rehabilitation, wise use and protection of wetlands in a manner that maximises employment creation, supports small business enterprises and transfers relevant and marketable skills to beneficiaries (Figure 8). The programmeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wetland rehabilitation targets the causes of wetland degradation and carries out the rehabilitation of wetlands in order to improve the regulation of water flows, improve water quality and increase biodiversity. This is achieved ecological and engineered infrastructure (Figure 9) in order to restore biodiversity, hydrological function that underpins water flow and quality regulation to secure and improve ecosystem resilience in a changing environment.

Figure 7: Priority catchments for wetland conservation initiatives. Water, ecological and biodiversity aspects amongst other were considered in modelling quarterly catchments for wetland conservation importance. Figure 8: The beneficiaries of the WfWet programme are skilled in constructing wetland rehabilitation interventions.


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A gabion weir constructed to arrest erosion, attain rewetting and revegetation. Rehydrated wetland sediments will facilitate base flow during future erratic rainfall and drier events. A concrete chute in a gully will allow this wetland to be erosion-resilient during future high intensity rainfall events. Figure 9: Ecologically minded engineered infrastructure are a key factor in the WfWet initiatives to ensure wetlands are properly

managed in order to ensure resilience in a changing landscape. Best practice for managing wetlands in the context of a developing South Africa Working for Wetlands are highly successful on an individual wetland scale but fall short of expectation when one considers that the programme had established rehabilitation measures in about 1200 wetlands in the past 16 years

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whilst South Africa is reported to have 300 000 wetlands of which 48% are degraded. It is clear that current EPWP funding model and the nature of NRM programmes do not allow for intensive countr ywide inter ventions. Given the extent of wetland degradation, the value of eco-system services and the erratic nature of our climate (the current drought is a case in point) an innovative best management approach is required to address sustainable wetland management on a wider scale. As eluded to in the introduction, the disjuncture between various departments and related laws and policies have resulted in wetland conservation/management inefficiency. Furthermore the uncertainty in roles and responsibilities between the tiers of the government is further exacerbating poor management of wetlands. Placing this situation in context of a developing economy where landscapes are being transformed (e.g. uncontrolled urban and peri-urban sprawl, mining, deforestation, agriculture and plantations) the complex nature of wetland management becomes evident. Therefore wetland best management practice in South Africa should consider the following: 1. C entralised government wetland coordination and policy 2. E ffect wetland management planning on a catchment scale including â&#x20AC;˘ Urban and regional planning aspects (e.g. development zones stormwater control, water treatment facilities et cetera.) â&#x20AC;˘ Environmental impact assessment studies â&#x20AC;˘ Water resource management 3. Expanding conservation footprints by upscaling

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• Training/awareness campaigns, • Extension services, and • Compliance actions 4.Enabling civil society to play a constructive role • Establish effective platforms: Friends groups, conservancies, eco-clubs • Create clear reporting channels for Civil Society to report compliance matters • Implement effective protocols in dealing with reported matters and provide feedback 5. Establish a sound research base on a tertiary education level supported by graduate and post-graduate courses. 6.Expand current land rehabilitation and intervention programmes (e.g. NRM, EPIP, LANDCARE etc.) by ensuring landowner/user ownership by • investment (financial/in-kind) from landowner • i n c e n t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s ( f r o m government/private sector/NGO’s) • compliance and enforcement Conclusion Wetland ecosystems are a key resource during times of drought as they contribute to base flow maintenance to downstream ecosystems (e.g. streams and estuaries); act as refugia supporting biodiversity, provide fodder to livestock and are source of water due to natural water retention abilities. Furthermore they can dampen the impact of severe weather patterns such as flooding, due to severe storms, and mitigate climate change impacts by capturing and storing carbon, within “peatlands”, in particular serving as effective 'carbon sinks'.

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Maintaining and rehabilitating wetlands would be a crucial element of South Africa’s climate change adaptation mechanisms especially during drier periods when the opportunity exists to make eroding ecosystems (ranging from wetlands to catchments) more resilient to cope with drought impacts and climate change by establishing erosion control measures (e.g. weirs, land cover improvement, reduction of stock numbers), which will restore hydrological features such as water retention, base flow maintenance, flood attenuation, filtration, carbon sequestration and biodiversity. Drought periods provide an ideal opportunity to make eroding ecosystems (ranging from wetlands to catchments) more resilient to cope with change by establishing erosion control measures (e.g. weirs, land cover improvement, reduction of stock numbers). Wetland management should, therefore, not only focus on affecting resilience in the receiving environment through measures such as erosion control and rewetting, but also in catchment management processes such as storm water and sediment control, alien invasive species clearing and pollution treatment on a landscape scale. We t l a n d best management practice in South Africa must deal with multi-departmental mandates and responsibilities (or lack thereof….) and the current disjuncture in sound wetland management due to a lack of cooperative governance. Various natural management programmes such as NRM and LANDCARE have laid a firm foundation, through implementation, monitoring and research. Conservation management initiatives can therefore be implemented successfully on a local and national scale: wetlands should follow accordingly.


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References • Brinson, M. M. (1993). A hydrogeomorphic classification for wetlands. Wetlands Research Program Technical Report WRP-DE-4. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterway Experiment Station. Vicksburg, MS: Bridgham and Richardson • Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT). (2005). South Africa: Country Study 2005. Situational assessment undertaken to inform South Africa’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) Report ISBN: 0-621-36369-3. • Christopherson, R.W. (1994) Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography. Macmillan, New York • Dingman, S. L. (2002). Physical Hydrology (2end Edition), Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA. • Driver, A., Sink, K. J., Nel, J. N., Holness, S., Van Niekerk, L., Daniels, F., ... & Maze, K. (2012). National Biodiversity Assessment 2011: An assessment of South Africa’s biodiversity and ecosystems. Synthesis Report. South African National Biodiversity Institute and Department of Environmental Affairs, Pretoria. • Ellery, W.N., Grenfell, M., Grenfell, S., Kotze, D, McCarthy, T., Tooth, S., Grundling, P., Beckendahl, H., le Maitre, D. and Ramsay, L. (2009) WET-Origins – Controls on the Distribution and Dynamics of Wetlands in South Africa WRC Report No: TT 335/08. Pretoria: Water Research Commission. • Freeze, R. A. and Cherry, J. A. (1979). Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 604 pp. • Grundling, P. (2014). Genesis and hydrological function of an African mire: understanding the role of peatlands in providing ecosystem services in semi-arid climates, PhD. Dissertation, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. • Joosten, H. and Clarke, D. (2002). Wise use of mires and peatlands: Background and principles including a framework for decision-making. International Mire Conservation Group & International Peat Society. • Kotze DC, Ellery WN, Rountree M, Grenfell MC, Marneweck G, Nxele IZ, Breen DC, Dini J, Batchelor AL, Sieben E. (2009) WET-RehabPlan: guidelines for planning wetland rehabilitation in South Africa. WRC Report No. TT 336/08. Pretoria: Water Research Commission. • Mitsch, W. J. and J. G. Gosselink. (2000). Wetlands, third edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, NY, USA. 722 pp • Mucina, L. and Rutherford, M.C. (eds) (2006). The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19. South Africa National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. • National Wetlands Working Group. (1997). The Canadian Wetland Classification System. Second Edition. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario. • NRC. (2003). Understanding Climate Change Feedbacks. Climate Research Committee, National Research Council. National Academies Press. 166pp. • Poesen, J., Nachtergaele, J., Verstraeten, G., & Valentin, C. (2003). Gully erosion and environmental change: importance and research needs. Catena, 50(2), 91-133. • Ramsar Convention Secretariat (Ramsar). (2004). The Ramsar Convention Manual: a Guide to the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971), 3rd ed. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland. • Russell W.B. (2009). WET-RehabMethods: national guidelines and methods for wetland rehabilitation. WRC Report No. 341/09. Pretoria: Water Research Commission. • Russi D., ten Brink P., Farmer A., BaduraT., Coates D., Förster J., Kumar R. and Davidson N. (2013). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands. IEEP, London and Brussels; Ramsar Secretariat, Gland. • Trebble, G (2016). Invasive Plant Control: Natural Resource Management Programmes. Sustainable Water Resource Handbook Volume 6. https://issuu.com/alive2green/docs/ water_v6_web • SANBI (2014). A Framework for investing in ecological infrastructure in South Africa. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria • Winter, T. C. (2000). The vulnerability of wetlands to climate change: A hydrologic landscape perspective. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 36(2), 305-311. • Winter, T.C. (2001). The concept of hydrologic landscapes. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 37.2: 335–349.

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Chapter 7:

Cooperation and capacity-building support for water management in developing countries: the private sector and the SDGs By Nicholas Tandi, Nicole Kranz & Zama Siqalaba

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Abstract

It is commonly accepted that the private sector has an important role to play in the achievement of water-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Some commitments have been made by corporates (especially large corporates) to advance water management goals outside of their operations and there are now a diversity of experiments of how best this can be done and how this contributes significantly to the SDG agenda. In this paper, project cases from South Africa are used to analyse the potential and actual outcomes of private sector cooperation with the public sector—especially beyond corporate social responsibility or disparate projects with a limited scale. While the SDGs are not always explicitly spelt out as overarching goals for public private cooperation, this paper lays an important foundation for making a direct connection between publicprivate collaboration and SDG implementation. The paper contributes to the emerging thinking on the role of the private sector in the SDGs specifically Goal 6a-“by 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies”. Could cooperation with the private sector be an important but not a well emphasised contributor to cooperation at different levels that accelerates SDG achievement through various means? Do contributions with regards to this SDG also facilitate the attainment of other water-related SDGs? The results from the cases studied (intermediary results) will be placed in the context of SDG implementation and assessed as to their usefulness in this regard. There are a range of corporates involved in water management—from those that are large water users (including indirectly through supply chains), to those whose mainstream business is water management and those that finance water management or finance clients with significant water risk. The analysis of this paper is limited to the collaborations that have emerged in the last decade between the public sector, civil society and corporates that are large water users.

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publication by the 2030 Water Resources Group called 'Charting our Water Future', shows that the water use and availability trend in South Africa point towards a gap between supply and demand of 2.7 billion m3 per year (17% of overall national demand). With an expected decline in rainfall of 3% due to climate change, this gap could be 3.8 billion m3 per year, representing 24% of the national demand. According to the study, this gap is likely to be driven by population and economic growth, the resulting increased water demand for food production and

industrial uses, and the increased water demand by a growing middle class (2030 Water Resources Group, 2009.) Of late, it is thought that urban and industrial growth would be the primary water demand growth areas because the government is limiting water use in agriculture through legislative instruments (see for example WWF and Pegasys. 2010): • Owing to urban growth, household requirements are projected to increase from 2.1 billion m3 per year in 2005 to 3.6 billion m3 per year in 2030; • Industrial requirements, which include mining, manufacturing, and power, are projected to increase from 1.5 billion m3 per year to 3.3 billion m3 per year;.

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• These increases will occur in an environment where irrigation water demand will remain very high at an estimated 7.9 billion m3 per year. In the domestic sector, recent service delivery protests across the country have signalled the urban and rural population’s impatience with the pace of local governments’ provision of drinking water and waterborne sanitation infrastructure; or the quality of service where such infrastructure is already provided. It should be pointed out that the challenge of services delivery to a population that previously did not have services at the start of democracy in 1994 was huge. At that time, 14 million people did not have access to adequate water supply services and 21 million did not have access to adequate sanitation services. At present there is universal access to adequate drinking water services in urban areas. In rural areas on the other hand, access still stands at about 80% (see for example the World Health Organisation and United Nations Children's Fund, 2015). Some examples of the impact of water scarcity on business are given below. Unlike individual urban households or rural communities, business has the capacity to organise and influence water management practice by both the private and public sector in much greater ways. The data in this sector borrows substantially from a report by the CDP (formerly the Carbon Disclosure Programme but now branded only CDP) in 2013 that assessed South African corporates perceptions of water risk. It is based on a questionnaire that was sent on behalf of 530 global institutional investors, representing US$57 trillion in assets, to 59 companies that are in the top 100 on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and have

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the greatest potential to impact upon, or be impacted by, water resources. The main findings of this report are as follows: • 86% of respondents reported exposure to substantive water-related risks with 72% of respondents having already experienced water-related impacts in the last five years. • In general, water stress or scarcity continues to be the most reported anticipated risk, followed by declining water quality, flooding and higher water prices. In 2013, flooding was the most commonly-reported impact, reported by 48% of companies. Illovo Sugar, for example, reported R3 million worth of damage due to floods in December 2012. Water stress was reported by 34% companies, with Mediclinic, for example, experiencing no water for over a week at three different sites. Poor water quality accounted for just 5% of reported impacts. • Almost half of respondents (48%) reported that almost all (over 90%) of their operations are situated in waterstressed areas. • Two-thirds of all the anticipated risks are seen to have the potential to impact the business’ direct operations or their supply chains within the next five years. The concern is that water resources and water services when not well managed, place limits on much needed economic growth. An adequate response to this challenge would require managing physical resource scarcity and also economic water scarcity (where human, institutional, and financial capital place limits on water management). An aggregation of the types of water risks faced by business that was done by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and German


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Development Bank KfW in 2011, classifies them into three types. Physical risk relates to water quantity (scarcity and flooding) and quality as they effect business operations and supply chains. Reputational risk relates how a company’s brand is affected by water management. The impact of the perception of a company being perceived as irresponsible extends beyond their relationship with local communities but also to investor confidence. Moody’s—a global credit rating agency—released a report in February 2013 stating that “water scarcity, could adversely affect the ratings of global mining companies if they fail to proactively manage the accompanying operational and political risks to their businesses”. The third type of risk, regulatory risk, relates to the imposition of restrictions on water use by the government, increasing water tariffs and other impacts of public policy in water management that may affect companies adversely. Corporates in South Africa regard these risks as real owing to water scarcity in the country. Corporate responses to water scarcity A report by Kranz (2013) distinguishes business responses to water scarcity as: (1) coping measures (short term responses): (2) substantial adjustments: and (3) transformation (long term measures). Below we will briefly discuss some examples of each of the responses. Coping measures The immediate response of firms to water scarcity has been to apply conventional water management measures or technological improvements targeted at improving the firms’ own water management within the operations they directly control. The CDP Water report for South Africa in 2013 illustrates this, showing that most companies (and increasingly so) have set

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targets (absolute and intensity targets) to either reduce water consumption, become more water efficient or improve quality of discharges. This will directly or indirectly contribute to SDG targets related to water use efficiency and water quality. For example, Nestlé reduced its water demand at its Mossel Bay dairy plant in the Eastern Cape by 54 % between October 2009 and May 2010 following a severe drought, which affected them and surrounding communities. Significant savings were attained from the recovery and re-use of condensate from evaporation processes coupled with other supporting measures. These kinds of responses to reduce water demand in production processes are viewed as pragmatic because they have results that can be assured and can be demonstrated in the short term. But their impact is limited because they are often implemented at a facility level. Substantial adjustments Beyond coping measures applied to firms own facilities there are some examples of engagement outside of factory fences towards better management of water systems within which production facilities are located. Activities supporting substantial adjustments also occur along the firm’s supply chain or its immediate operating environment. Examples would be SAB Miller’s engagement with hops farmers in their supply chain, located in the Herold and Waboomskraal catchments of the Western Cape. An area increasingly affected by climate change impacts, droughts would increasingly impact on hops yield, a crucial area of supply for the international brewer. Through a partnership approach, which brought on board the International Water Stewardship Programme, WWF and the Department of Environmental Affairs,

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progress could be made in terms of improving the water balance in the area, for hops farms as well as other water users and communities in the area, mainly through clearing the area of water intensive alien plants. Transformation Transformative approaches, which are targeted at more systemic and longterm changes, are emerging within the country. They include collective efforts by corporates and other water users, in some cases based on a basin-wide risk assessment. One example is a project where Sasol, GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) and Emfuleni municipality co-invested funds to reduce water losses in Emfuleni municipality where the project was implemented (see for example Gibson et al., 2014). A more profound example of transformation is the evolution of collective action partnerships at a national level (or sub national or basin level in some cases) with private sector co-leadership and financial investment; a prominent example of being the Strategic Water Partners Network (SWPN). The SWPN is a partnership between corporates and the government department and civil society that develops and implements water management projects that have the potential to significantly reduce water risks through public and private investment. Some project examples that are discussed below, from the Strategic Water Partners Network (SWPN), illustrate an attempt at achieving large-scale impact when the corporates work together and co-invest with the government and civil society organisations. The examples all focus on water use efficiency. The projects below were developed, financed and implemented collectively by SWPN partners.

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Project example 1:. The Water Administration System The agricultural sector accounts for about 60% of South Africa’s water demand. It is estimated that the river and canal conveyance system losses account for about 35% of this agricultural water demand. In response to this problem the Water Research Commission (WRC) developed an integrated water management tool for irrigation schemes called the Water Administration System (WAS). The WAS is an integrated irrigation water management tool used for water distribution management and calculation of canal and dam operation procedures for a given downstream demand. At the 13 irrigation schemes where WAS was implemented in 2009, water savings of 85,165,900 m3 were achieved (about 21.2% of total use and about R1.8 million worth of raw water). By 2013, the WAS system had been deployed to 21 irrigation schemes. A project implemented and funded by the SWPN, provided support measures—especially the implementation of a water release function of WAS in cases where this was not in place. The water release function is a key part of WAS for reducing water losses. From November 2014 to September 2015, the SWPN invested just over ZAR 500,000 (about USD 42,000 at the time) into the project for support to four irrigation systems (Sand-Vet; Hartbeespoort; Vaalharts; and Orange-Riet) to implement the water release function and other functions of WAS. Project reports showed that with this investment and support the irrigation schemes were collectively saving 927 891 m³/week by project end (projected savings of 48 million m³/ annum). Three of the 4 schemes supported also purchased equipment to sustain the project. Eleven scheme personnel had been trained as part of the exercise.


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By the end of the project, the Coca Cola foundation decided to fund a further Phase of the project for USD 30,000. Project example 2: No Drop programme Water loss in municipal systems in South Africa is estimated at about 32% while nonrevenue water is about 37% and worth over R7 billion annually. The Department of Water and Sanitation’s (DWS) Regulatory Performance Measurement System’ (RPMS) that monitors the performance of the local government in the provision of water services, indicates that water use efficiency is the poorest performing indicator compared to four others—asset management, financial performance, institutional effectiveness and customer services . The No Drop programme developed by the SWPN sought to reduce water loss to 18% by 2025; with water savings of over 600 million m3 /year with a value over R 2.5 billion/year. This would be done through the following ways: (1) use of the No Drop by DWS as a regulatory tool that incentivises change in behaviour towards efficient water use and water management; and (2) use of the No Drop results by SWPN partners to identify, catalyse and act on water loss reduction partnerships opportunities between municipalities and the private sector. There are two critical assumptions that inform the SWPN’s theory that No Drop will lead to change: • The first is that incentive-based regulation (acknowledging good performers and providing regulatory pressure on poor per formers accompanied by management support) enables improved performance of the local government in managing water services. The Department of Water and Sanitation had, in previous years, shown that this was an effective regulation

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strategy for improving drinking water quality as well as wastewater treatment. This was done through regulatory programmes called the Blue Drop (drinking water quality) and the Green Drop (wastewater treatment). This view is, however, not shared across the sector – with counter arguments that complex regulation instruments do little to improve the capacity of very constrained municipalities. In some cases it argued that these regulatory assessments consume already constrained capacities of municipalities that should rather be focussed on improving service delivery. A project implemented in Emfuleni Local Municipality with investment from a petrochemicals company, Sasol, and a development partner, GIZ, had provided proof of concept that public-private partnership can significantly improve municipal water use efficiency and improve municipal revenues. With an initial investment of ZAR 10 million (about USD 1 million at the time) the project resulted in a reduction in water use of 6.85 million m3 after its two year implementation period. Water demand was reduced by close to 17% from an anticipated 21 million m3 to an actual consumption of 17.5 million m3. The payback period for the initial investment was about a year. The cost of water purchases was reduced by ZAR 37 million during the lifetime of the project (Gibson et al., 2014). There is some debate, if indeed, this model of partnership is scalable without an upfront negotiation of incentives for a private partner to invest. At the time of writing this article, the No Drop Programme had completed its first round of assessments, producing the first set of audited results for NRW in municipalities in the country. These results showed that just over half of municipalities

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have comprehensive formal plans in place to reduce NRW. Of those that did have plans, most were not incorporated in Integrated Development Plans, thus reducing the possibility for full implementation. Water losses (physical losses and water theft) were averaged at about 28 % while Non Revenue Water (water losses plus water use that is not billed) was averaged at about 35%. These averages also apply for metropolitan municipalities that constitute close to half of urban water consumption. The work to follow which is just starting is to promote greater investment by municipalities and new investment by corporates into water efficiency measures. As such, the SWPN is in the process of identifying municipalities where it will provide project financial investment and capacity development support to reduce NRW. Replicability of the partnership model and projects implemented would be a key criterion for selecting municipalities. Conclusions Water-using corporates have illustrated that through water scarcity coping strategies and also through substantial adjustments (see section above) they are contributing to a range of SDG targets, especially those related to water use efficiency, access to clean water supply and community involvement in water management. The impact of these responses to water scarcity is, however, often limited to individual production facilities, individual community projects or catchment-wide approaches. While they can deliver substantial benefits, these remain insular and limited to those communities and ecosystems directly affected. Only if approaches involve capacity–building measures at a broader scale will it be possible to effect sustainable development.

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Transformative approaches, where corporates engage collectively with the government and civil society seem to hold promise for responses that lead to more long-term systemic change and on wide scale. The projects described above and the partnership models for their implementation suggest that a significant role that water using corporates could play in the achievement of SDG Goal 6a, i.e. the expansion of international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries) is related to; • The diffusion of new and innovative water management approaches, • The scaling-up of best practices with regards to key water management efforts, • And related capacity-building activities through engaging in robust partnership approaches with the government at various levels as well as civil society. • Through collaborating within the SWPN, knowledge inherent with the business community is effectively transferred to the public policy space while, at the same time, establishing effective models for implementation. Through this mechanism and the exposure to international best practice, an effective knowledge transfer can also be realised. Furthermore, through securing the buy-in of a significant number of significantly large businesses, it is possible to create initiative sand approaches at scale, reaching a high number of people with a large short-term as well as long-term impact. The project examples also illustrate that partnership models such as the SWPN lead to co-creation of knowledge. In both project examples given, a credible initial knowledge base (accepted by all or most partners to a project) in the area of water efficiency in the local government and also


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in irrigation was available (especially from the Water Research Commission). A multi stakeholder dialogue platform, the SWPN, brought together the potential partners from the public and private sector needed to develop and implement a model for translating this knowledge base into projects that are scalable or have policy impact. And finally—realising this through a partnership approach allows for effective transfer of skills and capacity among partners, increasing problem solving competence and preparedness to tackle SDGs. This is decisive as SDG 6 essentially aides in the attainment of other key SDG. The examples, above for example, especially relate to SDG 6.4 (By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable

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withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity). The models of partnership being explored with corporates also make an important contribution to SDG 17 (partnership for the goals) especially targets 17.9 (capacity building) and 17.16 (multi stakeholder partnerships). This article has focussed on the contributions of water-using corporates to water SDGs using available project examples from South Africa. It does not provide a comprehensive analysis of the role of corporates in SDGs attainment as this would require an expanded assessment of the contribution (current or potential) of water using, water financing and water management corporates.

References • This article makes extensive use of the following information sources especially in the introduction: • 2030 Water Resources Group. Charting our Water Future. Economic Frameworks to Inform Decision Making. Mckinsey and Company • CDP. 2013. Rising water risks – businesses facing a new reality. CDP South Africa Water Report 2013. CDP • Gibson, S, Kranz, N and Tandi, N. 2014. A model Performance Based Contract for Water Conservation and Water Demand Management. IMIESA. Conference paper • Kranz, N. 2013. Business Contributions to Climate Change Adaptation. From Coping to Transformation? Insights from South Africa and Germany. In: Business and Climate Change Governance: South Africa in Comparative Perspective. Edited by Tanja A. Börzel and Ralph Hamann • UNICEF and WHO. 2015. Progress on sanitation and drinking water – 2015 update and MDG assessment. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO). Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. • WWF and Pegasys. 2010. A Business Case for Collaboration to Manage Shared Risk and Build Water Economic Resilience in South Africa. Unpublished.

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Chapter 8:

Part 1: To participate or not to participate? There is no question that local communities need to be involved in water and sanitation management By Richard Meisner

Part 2: Strategic developments that will support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management in South Africa By Mark Dent & Liz Taylor

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Abstract

Sustainable development is not a concept with one meaning only; it can also be infused with ambiguity, which should not be bemoaned. Sustainable development’s indistinctness makes the concept pliable. This, in turn, allows a wide range of stakeholders to participate in a variety of programmes and plans to ensure that humanity meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Kates et al., 2005). Said differently, the concept’s meaning is wide enough for all societal segments, from the individual to the largest entities, to be involved in sustainable development efforts. That said, sustainable development is not an exclusive government or international organisation activity; individuals and communities can also realise sustainable development goals. It was with the collective involvement in mind, that in September 2015, world leaders adopted the 17 Sustainable Development Goals at the UN Headquarters in New York, building on the Millennium Development Goals’ success. The broad purpose of the Sustainable Development Goals is to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. These overarching goals form part of the new sustainable development agenda, with each goal, like that of the Millennium Development Goals, having specific targets to be achieved over the next 15 years (UN, 2016). This article will investigate Goal 6.8: support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management. To do this, I am structuring the article as follows: In the first part, I will look at the concepts ‘support’ and ‘strengthen’. To ‘support’ and ‘strengthen’, may seem to be familiar activities done by certain government-type actors, but there is more to it than meets the eye. I will then illustrate the various ways of supporting and strengthening with a number of examples I observed over the years. In other words, I will use examples from contexts I have experienced over the past two decades of researching water governance and politics. Throughout, I will link my observations of local community participation to Sustainable Development Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation. Lastly, I will end with a conclusion.

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hat does it mean to support and strengthen local community participation in water and sanitation management? To some observers, this might mean that local communities would want to get support from their respective governments, international organisations or donor agencies. This is not the wrong answer, but it paints a lob-sided picture of community participation and support. The view that governments and international aid agencies and organisations need to strengthen and support communities originates from topdown, regulatory initiatives drawn up by

policymakers within the government and other global international organisational structures. In other words, the view that the government and international organisations are necessary to support and strengthen community participation in the sustainable development goals originates from a perception that only the developers of the goals have the responsibility to strengthen and support. Nothing could be further from the truth, because communities can act as autonomous units in water governance and politics. As autonomous actors, communities support and strengthen other communities and themselves in realising the sustainable development goals of water and sanitation management. I will illustrate this argument in this chapter. To do this, I

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will define ‘community’ in its broadest sense to include local communities in rural areas, the knowledge community of scientists and researchers, the policy community consisting of policy developers and implementers in the private and public sectors as well as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that step in where governments are unable to supply basic water and sanitation services. Part of the conclusion will be to reflect on what it means to support and strengthen community participation. Community Participation in Water and Sanitation A quick look at SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation shows that it places a lot of attention on water resources and not so much on the interaction between humans and water resources. The Goal does state that ‘water scarcity affects more than 40 % of people around the world’, and that number is projected to go even higher as a result of climate change. If we continue the path we’re on, by 2050 at least one in four people is likely to be affected by recurring water shortages’ (UNDP, 2015). By painting this statistical picture attention is not placed on how people interact with water resources in various contexts across the world. The Goal outlines a new vision, though, which entails ‘more international cooperation, protecting wetlands and rivers, sharing water-treatment technologies and more’ (emphasis added) (UNDP, 2015). Yet, again there is little in this vision on people’s need for these biophysical elements to function properly. In this section, I will dwell on the ‘and more’ activities, which communities and practitioners could do to support and strengthen local communities in achieving SDG 6. Before continuing, I would like to say a few words on what I mean by governance, since this concept is very much in vogue

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when talking about the protection of the environment and water supply services. Governance is not an activity that we find in the government domain only. Individuals and communities, as well as scientists, can be part of governance initiatives and process, either voluntarily or by default (Meissner, 2015a). In this regard, water governance is the result of, often nonharmonious, interactive socio-economic and political forms of governing (Rhodes, 1996; Kooiman and Bavinck, 2013; Meissner and Jacobs, 2016) water resources in an effort to create opportunities and solve problems in water management. This definition of governance will manifest itself in the case study examples presented next. Interactive socio-economics South African municipalities often experience difficulty in supplying clean water and sanitation to residents. The reasons are legion including lack of financial resources and appropriately trained staff, large geographical expanses where service delivery is stretched to the limit and failure of infrastructure in remote rural areas. It should also be noted that often some of the variables affecting water supply and sanitation is outside the municipalities’ control. A case in point would the GaManoke community, near Burgersfort in South Africa’s Limpopo Province. We visited GaManoke in the winter of 2012 as part of a research project investigating the governance of wastewater treatment plants in the Greater Sekhukhune District Municipality. We arrived at the community and were promptly told that the community has been without water for the past three months. For basic household water use, community members used water directly from the Steelpoort River and bought water from other community members who own boreholes. Furthermore, the river’s water is


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often contaminated with partially treated effluent from wastewater treatment works (Ntombela, 2013). Members of the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water steering committee took us to the Steelpoort River and the purification plant that normally supplies water. Upon arrival, they indicated that the electric transformer driving the pumps and purification plant had been stolen. The community had, on numerous occasions, requested the electricity supplier, Eskom, and the local municipality to replace the transformer. Without the transformer, the purification plant is inoperable, resulting in water shortages. The result was that people bought water from water vendors that collected the water either from the river or boreholes selling 210 litres to residents for R50.00. People were also travelling to the river on foot to collect water and do their laundry. After we enquired with the local municipality about the situation, the local municipality instructed Eskom to replace the transformer and the community started receiving water. In February 2015, I visited the site of the water purification plant and found the transformer intact with the community receiving water (Meissner, 2015a). The example of GaManoke and the role of scientists doing field research reveal a number of dynamics that is likely to play out as the global community moves towards realising SDG 6. The first is that communities have the ability to govern their water resources or at least the infrastructure supplying their water, to a certain extent. This is evident from the fact that the community had a water steering committee in place and that the committee had been communicating with Eskom and the local municipality on a regular basis regarding the situation (committee members showed us the letters they wrote to the municipality). Secondly, the scientific community can play

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an active role in promoting community engagement with local authorities and other stakeholders, like Eskom, that play a pivotal role in water supply and sanitation. Scientists are not only supposed to do objective research and leave it at that. I strongly believe that the scientific community has a more active role to play in strengthening and supporting communities and the wider public in realising opportunities in the realm of water governance and management. Thirdly, because thieves had stolen the transformer indicates that the government is not always in control of water infrastructure networks. Theft and vandalism, together with poor maintenance, are probably one of the most pressing issues that could stand in the way of SDG 6. It is also not entirely impossible, when looking at the situation prevalent in GaManoke, that those who benefitted from the sale of water had stolen the transformer or at least colluded with criminal elements. This indicates governanceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s so-called dark side especially when considering that governance is an interactive activity that thieves can also engage in to create andopportunity for themselves while putting others at risk from contracting waterborne diseases. One of the ways communities can be strengthened to prevent such situations is to encourage community members to establish working relations with law enforcement structures in the area. One of our recommendations to the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water steering committee was to establish a community police forum as a means to manage vandalism against water infrastructure (Meissner, 2015a). In other words, interaction with the government authorities, taking socioeconomic circumstances into consideration (e.g. poverty-driven criminality), can pave the way to better management of water infrastructure enabling water supply and sanitation.

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Non-harmonious water governance When talking about governance, there is a tendency within the discourse to talk about the activity as if it is only about collaborative efforts. There is, however, another side of the governance coin and that is the disharmonious mode of governance. Since governance relies a lot on the relationship individuals and organisations forge to create opportunities and solve problems, the likelihood exists that it will not always be cooperative. Relationships are a mix of conflict and cooperation. This should not be seen as a disabling factor for water governance. An example of non-harmonious water governance would the case of the OvaHimba in Namibia opposing the Epupa hydro-electric scheme. In the early 1990s, the newly independent Namibian government announced plans for the construction of a hydro-electric power plant across the Kunene River. This dam would have supplied Namibia with much-needed electricity as it was reliant on South Africa for electricity imports. The site of the dam was in Kaokoland, home of the minority indigenous OvaHimba people (Meissner and Jacobs, 2016; Meissner, 2016). During the pre-feasibility study, the OvaHimba learned of the government’s intention to construct the dam. A member of the feasibility team also informed a German interest group of the dam’s perceived negative effects on the environment and the OvaHimba, in particular. The OvaHimba rely on the Kunene River and its riverine vegetation to sustain their large herds of cattle. They also attach spiritual significance to the river; burying their dead near the river. After hearing about the government’s intentions, the OvaHimba started a campaign against the proposed Epupa Dam. This campaign culminated in a worldwide movement against the

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dam, with various international interest groups, like the US-based International Rivers, getting involved on the side of the OvaHimba. The OvaHimba’s main argument was that the land on which the dam would be constructed belongs to them. As the campaign against the dam intensified throughout the 1990s and into the new millennium, the Namibian government developed a number of counter arguments. One of these rebuttals, which resonate strongly with SDG 6.8, is that the OvaHimba has a right to socio-economic development including schools, commerce, paved roads and clean water and sanitation. With the dam, the Namibian government argued, the OvaHimba would also have received other forms of socio-economic development. The OvaHimba still lives a traditional lifestyle that they have been practising for hundreds of years (Meissner, 2016). The OvaHimba subsequently rejected the claims made by the government in terms of all the socioeconomic benefits the proposed Epupa Dam would bring to Kaokoland. What the case of the OvaHimba and their campaign against the hydro-electric scheme indicates, is that, although the well-intentioned plans of governments and donor agencies might look good in principle, not everyone, even those who are likely to benefit, will agree to such plans. What the example of the OvaHimba shows, is that strengthening and supporting local communities in improving water and sanitation management is not interpreted by all involved in the same way. This raises ethical issues as to who is improving water and sanitation management for whom, for what purpose and, sometimes, who will be negatively affected. Water governance and management are not straightforward cost-benefit activities, where the costs are small and the benefits large. This seemed to be the thinking behind the Namibian


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government’s intentions towards the proposed Epupa Dam. The completion of the dam would have provided muchneeded electricity for Namibia and have a positive impact on the lives of the general population, at the cost of disrupting fewer individuals’ and communities’ lives. What one should also consider when talking about support and strengthening, is that the support and strengthening can come from a source other than the government. In the case of the OvaHimba, they were supported and strengthened by a variety of interest groups from outside Namibia to campaign against the Epupa Dam and, in so doing, preserve their traditional way of life (Meissner, 2016) and rejecting potentially better water and sanitation services. Throughout their campaign against the proposed dam, there was a measure of ambiguity and contradiction at play. When developing water and sanitation management policies, the argument I often see put forward is that policymakers want clear-cut answers from the scientific community on how to solve problems. I would like to argue that policy development and practices around water and sanitation management are not always clear and unambiguous. A potential source of perceived unambiguity could be the expertise policy makers rely upon when they develop policies. The knowledge of experts is important, but by relying on a certain expertise, like cost-benefit analyses, can produce tunnel vision and an overconfidence in the power of objective observation (often the basis of cost-benefit analyses) that do not recognise change or the evolution of new dynamics (Meissner, 2015b). When strengthening and supporting local communities, government policymakers, donor agencies and

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international organisations should not be blind to evolving circumstances and rely too much on cost-benefit analyses. They should be more careful in assessing situations keeping in mind that situations can change leading to effects that would be the opposite of their well-intentioned plans. Conclusion Policymakers should realise that the Sustainable Development Goals are defined broadly and, as such, constitute a strategic intent on ending poverty, protecting the planet and ensuring prosperity for all. This strategy can be interpreted by a wide range of stakeholders in a very comprehensive manner. As such, ambiguity could result where stakeholders’ perceptions start to clash. This means that the ambiguity also constitutes the involvement of these stakeholders in all manner of programmes, plans and projects that governments are likely to develop and implement to realise the Sustainable Development Goals. The policy community should understand that ambiguity should not be shunned, but needs embracing since ambiguity is the stuff of policy development and implementation. Ambiguity is also the grease that lubricates democratic decision making, as one person or entity’s view cannot account for the entire truth around a policy issue and how to address it. Debate and the participation of various stakeholders define the process of policy development and implementation, and ambiguity is a central characteristic of this process. The element of ambiguity also brings to mind the way in which governments might perceive the implementation of policies, programmes and plans. In certain instances, a top-down approach is not likely to succeed, since communities, however, defined, can empower themselves and be empowered by other communities.

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To begin with a thorough understanding of bottom-up approaches, I propose that policymakers need to place less attention on water as a resource, and more attention on how people interact with the resource, even at the individual level. I believe that there is a predominantly skewed attention to water as a resource and how it sustains life and not a proper vision of how water gets mobilised by communities to create value for themselves and the rest of society. Said differently, a different view is necessary; one that focusses attention on the relationship between humans and water and not on water itself. In both case studies I presented above, we see that communities and individuals played an active role in addressing water delivery difficulties and the threat to their traditional way of life. In the case of GaManoke, thieves caused water shortages with local government having virtually no control over the theft of the transformer. In the case of the OvaHimba, the Namibian government’s plans to address the country’s electricity shortage and deliver some measure of socio-economic development to Kaokoland led to an international outcry over the construction of the Epupa Dam.

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What these examples indicate, is that governance is not a government activity only, individuals and communities are also capable of governing. Said differently, in GaManoke, the community realised SDG 6.8, to a certain extent, for themselves. In the case of the OvaHimba, it can be argued that SDG 6.8 goes wider than mere water and sanitation management, to prioritise the OvaHimba’s traditional way of life where the Kunene River is their main water source. This last thought implies that policymakers should not only view water and sanitation management in light of potable water, but also water in its natural state as it flows in rivers and streams and locked in aquifers. After all is said and done, realising SDG 6.8 entails more than government action; it also entails understanding how people interact with water and what their development priorities are. This means that the realisation of SDG 6.8 will not be a straightforward endeavour involving policymakers only; scientists, individuals, communities and a host of other entities will need to strengthen and support each other should the world want to make a success of the Sustainable Development Goals.


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Abstract

Guiding, mentoring and facilitating participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management, through self-organisation, has traditionally been the preserve of NGOs operating on foreign government donor funding and/or charitable funds. These financial support mechanisms are generally small and sporadic and, hence, problematic for up-scaling and sustainability. This paper presents a number of key strategic developments, which have the potential to transform both practice by the private sector, local government and civil society and also provide enhanced policy engagement pathways and new sustainable financial streams for water-and sanitation-related management, in poor urban communities. Additionally this paper seeks to inform and to influence policy and practice and create an understanding of the issues and hence advance the pace of best practice adoption, in this aspect of water and sanitation related management. Following the World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report 2015, which placed water as the No. 1 global risk in terms of impact, there has been a marked shift in the urgency of responses to systemic water-related risks. Whilst addressing participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management has not been a specifically declared focus of these responses, they collectively mark a massive positive shift, in the potential for game changing innovation, in this crucial realm of human endeavour. The paper begins by exploring, the relevant needs of local communities, who seek to contribute towards improving their water and sanitation management, through self-organisation. Thereafter evidence is presented on how global and national responses to water related risk, in the broad sphere of water security, are creating a context, which provides hope and direction in addressing this vital subject.

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he sprawling conurbations that form the world’s rapidly urbanising poor populations are in desperate need of strategic game changers, for the sake of human and environmental wellbeing.

To be sustainable the above needs must be met in the context of a sound business case that encompasses the means to:• collectively see the whole system in operation; • evaluate the system components and their interactions; • monitor actions and inter-actions; • reward, appropriately, the myriad of small, local actions which keep the systems healthy, and • keep transaction costs exceptionally low.

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A review of the Mpophomeni Enviro Champs, by Ward (2016) provides a core part of the framing of the community needs mentioned above. Ward’s study was chosen because, firstly, it is close, local and well-known to both authors. Secondly, it illustrates, well, the core requirements to support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management. Thirdly, Ward’s findings concur with much of the literature in this realm of capacity development. Finally, because the learnings and practices of the Mpophomeni Enviro Champs are now spreading to four other locations in different parts of South Africa, with the support of national and global organisations. Risk is a major driver of organisational behaviour, as the developments following


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the Global Risks Report 2015 (World Economic Forum, 2015) have shown. Woodhill (2010) a person with extensive experience in the Australian Landcare movement reflects on the themes of the “risk society” and writes: “After a decade of experience with such “localist” approaches, there is now a rapidly growing realisation that much wider forces are at play that hinder the resolution of many environment and development problems solely via the local level. Ultimately, if the often remarkable efforts of local communities are not supported by broader scale institutional change, such efforts end up being in vain. In response environment and development work can be seen as entering a new ‘institutional era’. The sociology of community action of the ‘localist era’ now needs to be complemented by political economic insights and theory of co-ordinated action at meso—and macroscales” Woodhill, 2010; p 59) This paper will explore some of, the organisational and cognition changes at the global level and also the national level in South Africa, which show potential to support the transformations and the business case required to sustainably support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management in South Africa . Local needs To frame the discussion, we draw on the findings of a review of the Mpophomeni Enviro Champs Project, by Ward (2016). A project that is increasingly being acknowledged as ground breaking. Our analysis is framed by what Ward (2016) found to be the key enabling factors to success in four main areas. Ward’s findings are summarised below:-

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Ability to work vertically with a diversity of role players. The enabling factors were:• Establishing a network of related organisations in which the key partners show a strong collaborative disposition. • Recognising and enabling distributed leadership and encouraging and supporting shared responsibility. • Enhancing the capacity and political will within the network, either by direct support to political structures or positive collaboration. • Building community support, through recognition of community contribution and positive engagement. (Ward 2016; p 8) The global and national transformations which have taken place in the past decade and particularly since the publication of the Global Risks Report 2015, strongly support a collaborative, leadership enabling, self-organising, networked, government, business and civil society context, which greatly encourages and supports the enabling factors found by Ward (2016) and listed above. Personal and Community capacity development: The enabling factors were:• Formal and non-formal training and education programmes with the relevant participatory, learning orientation becoming available. • Drama by the Mpophomeni Youth Productions, provided engagement of accessible, relevant drama that stimulated discussion. • Lo c a l e nv i ro n m e n t a l l e a r n i n g (Enviro clubs) provide relevant and par ticipator y outdoor lear ning

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oppor tunities and support for education initiatives.; • Awareness raising through Door-toDoor visits based on attitudes of mutual respect by supportive community members. (Ward 2016; p 9) Internationally, participatory agent-based social simulation modeling and the use of metaphor, most notably drama, to engage stakeholders, as they strive to understand the systemic connections, has been much more prevalent in the past decade. This trend is reflected by the writings of Reed et al. 2013, Valkering 2009, Haxeltine et al. 2008, Lotze-Campen 2008, Matthews et al. 2007, Tabara et al. 2007, Guyot & Honiden 2006, Ramanath & Gilbert, 2004, which constitute a growing body of literature on participatory agent-based social simulation modeling responses, to such challenges. Furthermore, this work provides the potential for quantitatively evaluating the contribution of micro-stewardship actions linked to local community management of water related issues. Accessing, generating and using Information The enabling factors were: • Accessible communication tools (cell phones) with the necessary functionality, affordability • Data management processes (spreadsheets) readily available, skilled co-ordinator, necessary functionality • Data generation processes (Citizen Science tools) which are accessible and affordable to support participation in scientific processes. • Getting close and local (river walks) when rivers are accessible and activities are engaging, with shared exploration. • Internet and other presentation techniques and data entry points are

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accessible and easy. Strong support for making information presentation interesting. (Ward 2016; p 11) The widespread use of smartphones with time, date and geo-positioning of photographs, particularly when coupled to Google Earth Outreach functionality and the rapidly growing software applications base for citizen science results in a stimulating context for capturing, storing and using information. Institutional endeavours such as “Making All Voices Count”, discussed below, also enrich the context within which new business paradigms are emerging to support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management and simultaneously enhancing the green economy.The Mpophomeni Enviro Champs have made good use of these developments with the assistance of local and visiting international university students. Ownership and Recognition The enabling factors were: • Enviro-Champs meetings provided opportunities to set up and control key aspects of the project implementation • Participation in field visits and workshops and by profiling of Enviro Champs work by connected partners have opened opportunities for participation • Engagement with political structures led to the recognition of Enviro Champs as a significant role player group and gave them confidence to present issues. • Success through ownership and recognition leads to commitment and enhanced influence. (Ward 2016; p 11) This last group of findings by Ward’s (2016), accord well with a strong body of literature on identity and learning in communities of practice in which Ettienne Wenger is a leading figure. Wenger (2009) explains


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that actors engage their identity in the enquiry, as they participate in social learning spaces. He goes on to reflect how actors transform their identity and their ability to participate in the world as they pursue their individual and collective learning in these social spaces. Such learning, says Wenger (2009), develops an accountability to their evolving identity that includes ways of talking, behaving and simply being. Such self-identities influence connections and power, legitimacy, values, ways of engaging and feelings of legitimacy and efficacy according to Wenger (2009). All these feelings and self-identity changes are crucial where youth unemployment rates are often around 50% and, therefore, constitute one of South Africa’s most pressing problems. The emergent behaviours, both individual and collective, revealed by Ward (2016), accord with Wheatley’s (2006) explanation that purpose and meaning are the strange attractors in complex human systems as they form the crucible or practice architecture, as termed by Kemmis and Mutton (2012). Purpose and meaning are metaphorically similar to a ‘strange attractor’, in atomic physics, which holds the chaos in a crucible until patterns and order start to form. Wheatley (2006) explains that these strange attractors of purpose and meaning are key to working with emergence to affect real social change on a large scale. Global responses Globally, a number of strategic responses have development to meet water related challenges and we argue that individually and collectively these will create a context ,which will support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.

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Before discussing the particulars of each response it is useful to note that the responses, are characterised by a number of factors: • recognition that the challenges in the realm of water require extensive collaboration and, to a large extent, permanent de facto institutions of continual collective action engagement; • from a prior position of almost obsessive short-term focus and non-systemic considerations, the actions of the financial services industry now indicate a sea change in thinking on systemic risk; • being recognised increasingly and within a hyper-connected set of global systems, nobody is able to avoid the effects of systemic risk and that non-transparency in itself represents a risk larger than the benefits of non-disclosure; • a recognition that water is everyone’s business as the place of water in each of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), attests; • new thinking encapsulated in the constructs of post normal science; wicked problems; socially robust knowledge; absorptive capacity; social learning and bounded rationality. • new financial and project evaluation instruments for the Green Economy; transaction cost of communication being lowered dramatically to spawn new businesses; cell phone banking; meeting and sharing in cyberspace and countless monitoring applications using Google Earth Outreach. All the above align well, with the enabling factors highlighted by Ward (2016). World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Risks Report 2015 The WEF Global Risk Report (2015) is a massive undertaking that involves over 2000 analysts each year. As water was

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climbing the rankings to the top of the WEF Global Risks, it influenced many of the developments outlined in this paper. However, since water reached No.1 it has given further substantial impetus to collective action developments and to the levels of attention to water, particularly by the financial services sector. Reporting, disclosure, management guidance and risk index developments The info-graphic below shows the rapid and burgeoning development of reporting, disclosure, risk indices along with relevant management guidance. When one considers the size and influence of the developers then this constitutes a most significant and positive enrichment of the context that will support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management

Reporting developments Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development (2016) United Nations Sustainable Development Goals The info-graphic below indicates that water is crucial to the attainment of all 17 UN SDGs. The significance of this for the context of

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local community participation over water cannot be overestimated.

Water in the UN SDGs Source: SABMiller (2016) 2030 Water Resources Group formation 2030 Water Resources Group is a unique public-private -civil society collaboration, which facilitates open, trust-based dialogue processes to drive action on water resources reform in water stressed countries in developing economies. Global partners include:• bilateral agencies • private companies • development banks • International NGOs and Inter Governmental Partnerships 2030 WRG launched in 2008, at the World Economic Forum. 100 Resilient Cities This is an international movement whose mission is helping cities around the world become more resilient to the physical, social, and economic challenges that are a growing part of the 21st century. It does this by promoting, reflectivity; resourcefulness; robustness; redundancy ; flexibility ; inclusiveness and integration. All of which create a nourishing context for local participation.


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Alliance for Water Stewardship International Standard Part of the Alliance’s core business is to promote the AWS Standard (AWS, 2014) through an internationally rigorous system. The AWS Standard is the result of an international, four-year, ISEAL compliant, multi-stakeholder process, which responded to the growing need for evidence of robust water risk and impact mitigation efforts. The application of the AWS Standard is helping to create an enabling context for local community engagement. Google Earth Outreach Google Earth Outreach gives non-profits and public benefit organisations the knowledge and resources they need to visualise their cause and tell their story in Google Earth and in maps to hundreds of millions of people. Google’s mantra is “You want to change the world. We want to help”. This ‘disruptive’ technology is a key element in an empowering context for local participation. Making All Voices Count Citizens throughout the globe enjoy rapidly increasing access to tools that enable them to monitor government performance and express their views on government performance in real time. Technology developments and innovation mean that the government and citizens can interact in ways which transcend many of the previous barriers. Making All Voices Count is about engaging this opportunity to empower citizens, fight corruption, promote transparency and utilise the power of new technologies to make governments more accountable and effective. It is funded by DFID; USAID; SIDA.

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Water/ Food /Energy/ Biodiversity NEXUS recognition and actions The increasingly central place of “nexus thinking” is helping to create a supportive context for local participation and the recognition of multiple benefits from local water stewardship. Citizen Science A large number of highly reputable organisations are funding Citizen Science projects worldwide. The range and applicability of Citizen Science technologies is increasing so rapidly that in the opinion of the authors this space represents a disruptive socio-technology, which is already proving to be a positive game changer, as it creates a most supportive context for local participation. The Gold Standard 3.0 Gold Standard 3.0 will allow the potential issuance of multiple products (e.g. carbon + water + health + education + food) within one project. By providing information, it that can be used to make claims and automate metrics for SDGs and, thereby, support the needs of corporates and investors and inform policymakers. The context for local participation has the potential to be greatly enriched as the Gold Standard 3.0 draws funding, for local actions, closer into the mainstream of Green Economy. National Responses in South Africa 1997 National Water Policy & 1998 National Water Act Collective action framed in the paradigms of water stewardship is deeply imbedded in the principles of the 1997 National Water Policy and the 1998 National Water Act. To date implementation has been slow and difficult. However, the issues discussed in this paper are collectively influencing faster

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implementation of the real core of the CMAs business, which is collective engagement by stakeholders. 2005 Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) The CMAs in South Africa are key engagement spaces for collective action and governance by stakeholders. Every sector of South African society is represented at the top level of this collective action process and the existing channels of communication are in place in each sector for effective, vertical communication. The leaders of each sector can mandate lateral interaction between their sector and others, at a local level. Under wise leadership, the CMAs have the potential to make a substantial difference to the context in which local participation plays out. 2011 Strategic Water Partners Network The first platform for collective action formed in 2011 by the 2030 WRG in Africa was the South African Water Stewardship Network (SWPN). Chaired by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) the SWPN now has 46 members and its mission is to create shared value through innovative partnerships. The work of the SWPN is well described by Madden (2015) who indicates how the SWPN membership has been swelled by financial services organisations following the WEF Global Risks Report 2015. M (2015 2013 The International Water Stewardship Programme (IWaSP) IWaSP is an international programme managed by GIZ, for water security that combines global best practices in water stewardship with local know-how. The six-year programme (2013-2018) is active in South Africa, Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania and Uganda. IWaSP supports

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partnerships between public authorities, private companies and civil society to address shared threats to water security while improving stakeholders’ use and management of water and building their capacity to jointly develop their own solutions. 2014 National Water Summit Ward (2016) found that vertical integration was an important strategic enabler and therefore it is important to recognise Principle 2, accepted by of the 2014 National Water Summit, it states “Our decisions shall be informed by both the best available science, research and technology, as well as real-life, local experience”. Source: The Water Wheel (Sept-Oct 2014). Water Research Commission 2015 Influx of Financial Services Organisations to the Strategic Water Partners Network which now includes: • Industrial Development Corporation. • National Planning Commission. • KPMG. • Sanlam. • National Treasury. • International Finance Corporation. • Development Bank of Southern Africa. • ABSA. These organisations bring a fundamental shift to the engagement since they are looking at systemic risk and not simply water for one party or another. They also have the powerful instruments of interest rates and insurance premiums linked to site risk profiles and auditable site based indicators of best practice in water stewardship as documented in the Alliance for Water Stewardship Standard. These organisations also hold a large part of the key to including micro-stewardship activities at a local community level into


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the mainstream of the Green Economy. The drastically lowered transaction costs of monitoring through smartphones; evaluating through Google Earth based composite pictures of progress and rewarding activities through cell phone banking or airtime if Vodacom, MTN or Cell C become engaged. 2016 Department of Water and Sanitation developing a water stewardship policy The 1997 National Water Policy and the 1998 National Water Act are both strongly supportive of stewardship approaches and it is now encouraging to note that the DWS is developing a policy on water stewardship. Such a policy would create further enablers in the contexts identified by Ward (2016). 2016 DWS Crowd Sourcing Ideas The Department of Water and Sanitation co-hosted South Africa’s first national Water and Sanitation HackAThon, Hack for Water & Sanitation event with the Open Government Partnership. Other partners include Code SA, The Innovation Hub, Microsoft and the Water Research Commission. This new method of engaging citizens involves: • making data available to citizens for scrutiny and interrogation; • creating diverse groups of collaborators from different sectors of the community; • requesting ordinary citizens to provide a perspective and suggestions on the data provided.

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If carried out all of these actions would fall under the positive enablers identified by Ward (2016). Conclusion There is substantial alignment between the micro, meso and macro strategic developments that will support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management in South Africa. These developments also map well onto the set of enablers that emerged from the study by Ward (2016). Coupled with this are some truly disruptive technologies and organisational forms, which have created drastically reduced transaction costs for developing collective systemic views of local water challenges and for monitoring, evaluation and rewarding of grass-roots micro-actions by local communities, to meet these challenges in a sustainable manner. The many positive responses in South Africa have also created high potential absorptive capacity (Zahra & George, 2002),for the technologies and sociotechnical processes, which are required for successfully supporting and strengthening the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management. Our strong recommendation is for these strategic strands to be recognised, studied, understood and supported. We are confident that the desired transformations will occur rapidly and sustainably and simultaneously address almost all the SDGs.

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References • Kates, R.W., Parris, T.M. and Leiserowitz, A.A. (2005). What is sustainable development? Environment, 47(3): 8-21. • Kooiman, J. and Bavinck, M. (2013). Theorizing governability—the interactive governance perspective. In M. Bavinck, R. Chuenpagdee, S. Jentoft, and J. Kooiman. (eds.), Governability of fisheries and aquaculture: Theory and applications. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer (pp. 9-30). • Meissner, R. (2015a). The governance of urban wastewater treatment infrastructure in the Greater Sekhukhune District Municipality and the application of analytic eclecticism. International Journal of Water Governance, 2: 79-110. • Meissner, R. (2015b). The relevance of social theory in the practice of environmental management. Science and Engineering Ethics, September 2015. DOI 10.1007/ s11948-015-9700-y. • Meissner, R. and Jacobs, I. (2016). Theorising complex water governance in Africa: the case of the proposed Epupa Dam on the Kunene River. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 16(1): 21-48. • Meissner, R. (2016). Hydropolitics, interest groups and governance: The case of the proposed Epupa Dam. Dordrecht: Springer. • Ntombela, C. (2013). Mechanisms for compliance with and enforcement of water pollution law in South Africa’s water services sector: Lessons and opportunities from practice (M.Phil Dissertation). University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. • Rhodes, R.A.W. (1996). The new governance: Governing without government. Political Studies, 44(4): 652-667. • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. New York: United Nations. • United Nations (UN). (2016). Sustainable Development Goals. New York: United Nations. URL: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/. • AWS, (2014) Alliance for Water Stewardship International Standard. http://www. allianceforwaterstewardship.org/aws-standard-system.html. Accessed August 2016. • Guyot, P. & Honiden, S., (2006). Agent based participatory simulations: Merging multiagent systems and role-playing games. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 9 (4) 8. http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/9/4/8.html. Accessed 15 December 2013. • Haxeltine, A., Whitmarsh, L., Bergman, N., Rotmans, J., Schilperoord, M., & Kohler, J., (2008). A Conceptual Framework for transition modelling. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 3 (1/2), 93-114. • Kemmis, S. & Mutton, R. (2012). Education for sustainability (EfS): practice and practice architectures. Environmental Education Research. 18:2, 187-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1 080/13504622.2011.596929. Accessed 16 January 2013. • Lotze-Campen, H., (2008). The role of modelling tools in Integrated Sustainability Assessment (ISA). International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 3 (1/2), 70-92. • Madden, K. (2015). Perspectives on Green Growth Partnerships:- Strategic Water Partners Network South Africa. 2030 Water Resources Group and Global Green Growth Forum (3GF).

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• Matthews, R., Gilbert, N., Roach, A., Polhill, G., & Gotts, N., (2007). Agent-based land-use models: a review of applications. Landscape Ecology, 22 (10), 1447–1459. • Ramanath, A. M. & Gilbert, N., (2004). The Design of Participatory Agent-Based Social Simulations. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 7 (4) 1. http://jasss.soc. surrey.ac.uk/7/4/1.html. Accessed 10 February 2014. • Reed, M. S., A. C. Evely, A.C. Cundill, G. Fazey,I Glass, J. Laing, A Newig, J. Parrish, B. Prell, C. Raymond, C. & Stringer, L.C. (2010). What is social learning? Ecology and Society 15(4): r1. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/resp1/. • SABMiller (2016). Water in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. http://www. sabmiller.com/beer-blog/article/water-and-the-sdgs-a-framework-for-collaboration. • Tabara, J. D., Wallman, P., Elmqvist, B., Ilhan, A., Madrid, C., & Olson, L., 2007. Participatory modelling for the integrated sustainability assessment of water: the world cellular model framework. The Matisse project. Working paper 9. http://www.matisse-project.net. Accessed 4 July 2009. • Valkering, P. (2009) Toddling along the River Meuse:- Integrated Assessment and participatory Agent-Based Modelling to support River Management. PhD Thesis. International Centre for Integrated assessment and Sustainable development (ICIS), Maastricht University. ISBN: 978-90-5278-897-5. • • Ward, M (2016). Review of the enviro champs project in Mpophomeni. Conducted on behalf of GroundTruth, World Wildlife Fund for Nature Nedbank Green Trust. • Wenger, E. (2009). Four essays on key components of the learning capability of social system, including "Social learning spaces," "Learning citizenship," "Social artists," and "Learning governance.". http://www.ewenger.com/pub/pubpapers.htm. • Wheatley, M.J. (2006). Leadership and the New Science:- Discovering Order in a Chaotic World. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. • World Business Council for Sustainable Development (2016) Presentation. WBCSD & NBI Water Week – Durban. 10 March 2016. • World Economic Forum (2015) Global Risks Report 2015. http://reports.weforum.org/ global-risks-2015/. Accessed June 2015. • Woodhill, J. (2010) Sustainability, Social Learning and the Democratic Imperative: Lessons from the Australian Landcare Movement, Chapter 4. In Blackmore, C (ed). (2010) Social Learning Systems and Communities of Practice. Springer. • WRC (2014) National Water Summit Principles. Water Wheel. Zahra, S.A. & George, G. (2002). Absorptive Capacity: A Review, Re-conceptualization and Extension., Academy of Management Review, Volume 27, Issue 2., Accessed at http://frontiers.sauder.ubc.ca/ Zahra_George_AMR_2002.pdf.

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SEBATA

THERE’S NO ROOM FOR COMPLACENCY WHEN IT COMES TO WATER MANAGEMENT Dylan Strydom, CEO, Sebata Municipal Solutions

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ater shortage isn’t just about a physical lack of water; in many cases, it’s also about unforeseen environmental factors, ageing infrastructure, technical losses, and of course, the human element of complacency. Despite South Africa’s technological advancement in smart water metering, utilities still face challenges with consumers’ late adoption of new technologies. This indicates that major water losses are just as much a human factor as it is a geographical one.

Sebata’s smart solutions to water metering Sebata—in collaboration with Utility Systems and Amanzi Meters—boasts proudly South African, highly specialised products and services, which help local authorities significantly increase their revenue collection, clamp down on losses and improve on current infrastructure. • Sebata Prepaid Water Metering System A water management solution with prepayment functionality, leak detection and real-time control, comprising a water management device (WMD), user interface unit (UIU) and bulk WMD. The system also ensures improved financial control and revenue collection. • Sebata Meterman™ (iRead) This is an integrated web-enabled system allowing real-time management of meter readings and submission of meter reading

files for billing purposes. Our iRead software creates seamless job cards with a full track record of all meters, including photographic evidence of old and new meters, as well as the GPS co-ordinates of assets. • Sebata iAudit This is an integrated web-enabled system allowing physical stand/erf audits with real-time reporting on meter numbers and readings per erf, as well as their status. Municipalities will be able to control the way water is utilised within the area they govern. By ensuring basic management controls such as prepaid metering, consumers will be more likely to address factors such as leakages at a faster rate, which will, in turn, manifest a heightened regard for water consumption and an improved concern for its usage. ABOUT SEBATA Sebata Municipal Solutions—a subsidiary of MICROmega Holdings—is one of South Africa’s largest providers of integrated technologies with a footprint throughout South Africa and Namibia. Together with our public sector partners—Amanzi Meters, Utility Systems, Mubesko Africa, R-Data and Freshmark Systems—Sebata has an unwavering commitment to equip municipalities with technologies that advance the communities they serve. T: 011 218 8080 | info@sebata.co.za | www.sebata.co.za

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Chapter 9:

The MDG to SDG transition: the new universal commitment to sustainable development By Dr Lorren Haywood

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n 2000 the world was introduced to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Their intention was to facilitate a global commitment towards poverty reduction and pro-poor growth in all countries. The goals, themselves, comprised eight measureable and time-bound objectives and targets concerned with poverty, hunger, disease, schooling, gender inequality, global partnerships and environmental degradation. Fifteen years on and the MDGs reached their maturity and, as of September 2015, were replaced by 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 new targets that need to be met by 2030. These new goals resulted from a global consultation process that included door-todoor surveys, 11 thematic consultations, 83 national consultations, and an online survey in which over 7 million people responded, all of which highlighted priority issues to be addressed by the goals succeeding the MDGs . This transparent, participatory, inclusive process has enabled the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, represented by the SDGs, to be a peoplecentred approach. The action plan captured in the agenda is designed to be integrated balancing economic, social and environmental issues for the benefit of people, plant and prosperity.

BACKGROUND TO SDGS

Associated with each goal are a number of targets, which are specific quantitative results needed to achieve the shared objective of each goal. The SDG targets are aspirational and global, with each country being responsible for setting their own national targets by taking into account their own national circumstances but guided by global levels of ambition. In this regard, each country has the responsibility to decide how the SDGs and associated targets should be incorporated into their national planning processes, policies and strategies. The Millennium Development Goals: Achievements and failures The MDGs provided the first global platform by which to address sustainable development related challenges, specifically in developing countries. The UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, called the MDGs the “most successful antipoverty movement in history”. By making people and their basic needs a priority, the MDGs managed to achieve the following successful outcomes, amongst others: lifting more than one billion people out of extreme poverty and thereby contributing towards reducing global hunger; countries generating new and innovative national and global partnerships leading to development cooperation and funding opportunities; raising awareness and Figure 1. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals defined by the United Nations in ‘Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’

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reshaping development decision-making in developed and developing countries; focussing the effects of governments on pressing issues in human development; enabling more girls than ever to attend school; and protective measures to reduce impact on natural resources. Despite these significant outcomes, progress across all the MDGs has been limited and uneven across countries . The world's poorest populations remain concentrated in certain parts of the world. Developmental progress tends to bypass women and those who are lowest on the economic ladder or are disadvantaged because of their age, disability, or ethnicity. Disparities between rural and urban areas remain pronounced. Literature, including that of country reports, scientific papers, and popular articles identifies a range of important factors contributing towards these including challenges relating to the impacts of climate change; the global economic crises leading to a global decline in employment opportunities; limitations to foreign aid; the Ebola outbreak in Africa; civil war; corrupt governments; population growth limitations in the MDG formulation process, content and implementation strategy; and a lack of interest and accountability of many countries, to name a few. MDGs and the South African perspective When the MDGs concluded in 2015, all countries compiled their final country progress report. Sub-Saharan Africa was well behind the rest of the world in terms of meeting its MDG targets. This is not surprising, considering 75% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poorest countries are located in SubSaharan Africa, including ten percent with the highest proportion of residents living in extreme poverty .

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South Africa, in turn, struggled to meet the MDGs. For Goal 1, the country attained only three of the nine indicators marking progress towards achieving reductions in poverty and hunger. Income inequality remains a challenge as South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high unemployment problem is the biggest threat to achieving poverty reduction. While education is a high priority for the country, acknowledged as a basic human right by our constitution, South Africa has not yet achieved the MDG target of 100% for Goal 2. The adjusted net enrolment rate at school has reached a target of 99% in 2009 and has been sustained to date. In terms of gender equality and empowerment of women, South Africa achieved five of the seven indicators for Goal 3. The key insights were that women in South Africa bear a disproportionate burden of unemployment, constitute the majority of casual or contract workers, generally occupy low-wage job positions, and are poorly represented in senior and top management. While South Africa was unable to achieve a two-thirds reduction in the mortality rate of children under five for Goal 4, the country did, however, increase coverage of all essential vaccines which has made progress in reducing child mortality. Similarly, while South Africa did not fully achieve Goal 5, the country has made progress in sustaining a decline in maternal mortality rate. In terms of combating HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases such as tuberculosis, the country was able to achieve a number of key indicators and, therefore, has significantly contributed towards achieving universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS and the elimination of malaria. The country is trailing behind on its environmental sustainability. While there has been much focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions the countries biodiversity continues to decline6.


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Noticeably, the country is reported to have achieved the target of halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. South Africa has yet to achieve Goal 8 of developing a global partnership for development. Due to a number of macroeconomic and socioeconomic related issues, the country has failed to reach the desired levels of growth and in turn have been unable to eliminate the fundamental constraints to inclusive economic development. While South Africa has made significant progress towards sustainable growth as per the MDGs the country still has a significant way to go towards achieving a society without poverty and inequality. What is clear, from the South African perspective, is that the high unemployment rate is impacting on people’s ability to reduce poverty and their ability to access medical intervention. This is mainly because accessibility to education is marginalised for certain groups of people, and poor health and education are informed by poor childhood development including access to primary healthcare such as vaccinations and supplements. This specifically highlights the poverty, unemployment and inequality nexus upon which South Africa is struggling to overcome. MDGs vs SDGs—the new global landscape The MDGs, in general, are criticised for failing to consider the root causes of poverty and regional disparity in wealth, gender equity, employment, infrastructure, food security and education. The SDGs significantly benefited from the valuable knowledge and lessons learnt from the MDGs over the past 15 years. The SDGs provide a type of action plan in which to carry forward the unfinished agenda and momentum

BACKGROUND TO SDGS

of the MDGs while addressing additional challenges of inclusiveness, equity, and further strengthening global partnerships with civil society and the private sector. There are a few significant differences between the MDGs and SDGs, including: • The SDGs aim to address a new set of challenges and issues that have become pertinent after the MDGs were formulated, such as those associated with the global financial crisis and climate change. • The SDG framework brings together all three aspects of sustainable development —the economic, social and environmental —in a much more integrated manner than the MDGs did. • The SDGs are more holistic incorporating a more expansive platform of goals and associated targets in which the concept of sustainability is woven into comprehensive agenda that extends well beyond the social sector. The 17 proposed SDGs incorporate issues of environmental quality (climate change, biodiversity loss, and deforestation) and sustained economic resilience (improving access to sustainable energy sources, building sustainable cities, and promotion of sustained economic growth). The SDGs, thereby, span five critical areas of importance for humanity and the planet (Figure 2) for which the MDGs did not. • The SDGs are more globally collaborative as they have been developed through detailed international consultation and negotiations involving developed and developing countries. • The SDGs acknowledge that if development is to be inclusive and just and leave no one behind then they must be rooted in human rights principles and standards and, as such, are more inclusive than the MDGs. • The SDGs are universal and equally applicable to all countries, regardless

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of whether they are developing or developed. All countries, developed or developing, are expected to work towards achieving SDGs. • The private sector has a greater role to play through initiatives and present opportunities and, as such, the SDGs have a vision of building vibrant and systematic partnerships with the private sector. • The MDGs had no concrete role for the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), the SDGs on the other hand encourage significant engagement of civil society actors.

Figure 2. Critical areas of importance for sustainable development addressed by the SDG’s Current Status of South Africa with regards to the SDGs South Africa firmly believes that the country is in a unique position to embrace the SDGs due to the close alignment between the scope and content of the country’s National Development Plan (NDP) with that of the 2030 Agenda. This implies that South Africa is in an advantageous position of not having to develop new policies and establish new structures for the domestic implementation of the SDGs. The National Business Initiative highlight that over 90% of the NDP’s 72 stated objectives can be mapped to the 169 SDG targets . The NDP

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and SDGs have a similar purpose and timeline, and implementation of the NDP will provide an important means for South Africa to implement, achieve and report on progress with respect to the SDGs. The Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO) represented South Africa during the negotiations of the SDGs. The Department of Environmental Affairs were instrumental in driving sustainable development and climate change within South Africa and as such provided much support to DIRCO during the negotiation period. The Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME) is responsible for the monitoring the implementation of the SDGs, similar to the role they play with the NDP. In order to ensure South Africa’s effective implementation and integration of the SDGs at the national level, an inter-departmental process is being coordinated by DPME, in synergy with existing national processes. Statistics South Africa (StatsSA) is responsible for the measurement and reporting on statistical matters to international bodies on behalf of South Africa. The National Statistics System cluster of Stats SA coordinated the reporting on the MDGs and will continue to do so for the SDGs. StatsSA is currently working on a core set of indictors that the country can use to track our progress towards attainment of the SDGs. StatsSA will be hosting the first UN World Data Forum in January 2017. Water and the SDGs An important lesson learnt from the MDGs is that natural resources, particularly that of water, is essential for the attainment of sustainable development objectives. For example water is essential for domestic


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BACKGROUND TO SDGS

Figure 3. The Water Cycle in the Sustainable Development Goals purposes, for agriculture, industrial and energy production, all of which are highly interlinked . Water is also central to climate change, linking the climate system to the environmental and socio-economic systems upon which society is dependent. Water is also a key factor in managing risks such as famine, epidemics, migration, inequalities and political instability. While aspects of water and sanitation were addressed in the MDGs under Goal 7, it was not holistic and inclusive enough to take all issues into account. SDG 6, on the other hand, expands the MDG focus on drinking water and sanitation to now cover all aspects of the water cycle (Figure 3). Reaching the 2030 Agenda objectives will require that we address universal access to water and sanitation along with issues of quality and supply, in tandem with improved water management to protect ecosystems and build resiliency. This will require that we invest in adequate infrastructure, provide sanitation facilities and encourage hygiene at every level. To

mitigate water scarcity, there needs to be more investment and focus on protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems such as forests, mountains, wetlands and rivers. More international cooperation is also needed to encourage water efficiency and support treatment technologies in developing countries . SDG 6 and associated targets SDG 6 contains eight targets: six of which are outcomes in regard to water and sanitation, and an additional two addressing the means of implementing the outcome targets (6A and 6B) . Based on an extensive consultation process the UN-Water proposed a set of core indicators for global monitoring of SDG 6. The suggested indicators have the ability not only to provide the most impact for the water-and sanitation-related targets, but can also support the monitoring of many of the other goals and targets in the proposed SDG framework due to their direct linkage with water.

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Table 1. SDG 6: the targets, indicators and linkages with the other goals Table 1. SDG 6: the targets, indicators and linkages with the other goals111213

Target 6.1. Safe Drinking water By 2030 achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all. Linked to: Goal 1: target 1.4; Goal 2: target 2.2; Goal 3: target 3.2, 3.3, 3.8; Goal 4: target 4.1, 4.5; Goal 5: target 5.4; Goal 10: target 10.3; Goal 11: target 11.1 Indicator: Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water service Target 6.2. Sanitation and hygiene By 2030 achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations. Linked to: Goal 1: target 1.4; Goal 2: target 2.2; Goal 3: target 3.2; 3.3; 3.8; Goal 4: target 4A, 4.1, 4.5; Goal 5: target 5.3; Goal 8: target 8.8; Goal 10: target 10.3; Goal 11: target 8.8 Indicator: Proportion of population using safely managed sanitation services, including a handwashing facility with soap and water. Target 6.3. Water quality By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally. Linked to: Goal 3: target 3.3, 3.9; Goal 9: target 9.4; Goal 11: target 11.6; Goal 12: target 12.4; Goal 14: target 14.1; Goal 15: target 15.1 Indicator: Proportion of wastewater safely treated; Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality Target 6.4. Water efficiency By 2030, increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity. Linked to: Goal 1:target 1.4, 1.5; Goal 2: target 2.4; Goal 4: target 4.7; Goal 7: target 7.1, 7.2; Goal 9: targets 9.4, 9A; Goal 12: target 12.2; Goal 15: target 15.1 Indicator: Change in water-use efficiency over time; Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resource Target 6.5. Water resources management By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate. Linked to: Goal 9: target 9.1, 9.4; Goal 11: target 11A, 11B, 11.5; Goal 12: target 12.2; Goal 16: target 16.1, 16B; Goal 17; target 17.6, 17.7, 17.8 Indicator: Degree of integrated water resources management implementation (0-100); Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation. Target 6.6. Water-related ecosystems 11 UN Water. Integrated Monitoring Guide for SDG 6: Targets and Global Indicators: By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, http://www.unwater.org/fileadmin/user_upload/unwater_new/docs/SDG%206%20targets%20and%20global wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes. %20indicators_2016-07-19.pdf Linked to: 12 UN Water. Water and Sanitation The Pathway to a Sustainable Future: Goal 9: target 9.4; Goal 11: target 11.5; Goal 12: target 12.2, 12.4, 12.8; Goal 13: http://www.unwater.org/fileadmin/user_upload/unwater_new/docs/SDG6-Interlinkages%201and2.pdf target 13.3; Goal 14: target 14.1; Goal 15: target 15.1, 15.3, 15.8, 15.9 13 UNstats. Goal 6 Ensure Availability and Sustainable Management of Water and Sanitation for all: Indicator: Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time http://unstats.un.org/sdgs/files/metadata-compilation/Metadata-Goal-6.pdf Target 6.A. International cooperation and capacity-building By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programs, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies. Indicator: Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan. Target 6.B. Stakeholder participation By 2030, support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management. Indicator: Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management.

Conclusion: Challenges towards achieving the SDG’s While the SDGs have the ambitious intention of a statistical ‘zero’ in relation to the five main global sustainability challenges, they are undoubtedly a tall Figure 3. The Water Cycle in the Sustainable Development Goals14 14

UN Water. Integrated Monitoring Guide for SDG 6 Targets and Global Indicators: http://www.unwater.org/fileadmin/user_upload/unwater_new/docs/SDG%206%20targets%20and%20global %20indicators_2016-07-19.pdf

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order for most developing countries. The financial resources required to implement and achieve the goals and targets remain one of the biggest obstacles. It is estimated that investments amounting to trillions of dollars will be required annually in which to address social security measures and improving infrastructure and technology. It was at the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, held in Addis Ababa in July 2015, that concern was raised that there would not be enough funding available to meet the aspirational nature of the SDGs. Investment into international aid continues to decrease with the result that the Addis Ababa Action Agenda calls for a new framework for financing sustainable development. This Action Agenda discusses how to align all financing flows and policies with economic, social and environmental priorities to facilitate financing that is stable and sustainable. The Action Agenda also serves as a guide for actions by governments, international organisations, the business sector and civil society. It marks a milestone towards enhancing global partnerships that have the potential to foster universal, inclusive economic prosperity towards growth and development while protecting the environment. Each country will be responsible for growing investment opportunities in line with the Action Agenda and being accountable towards their investments and actions towards implementing and achieving the SDGs.


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BEYOND THE KOBWA FACTORY

THE KOMATI BASIN WATER AUTHORITY (KOBWA) CELEBRATING 25 YEARS IN TRANSBOUNDARY WATER MANAGEMENT

KOBWA’s vision is, “To be recognised as a leading entity in sustainable integrated transboundary water resource development and management”. Mission statement: KOBWA will achieve the vision through ensuring efficient water harvesting and bulk distribution, management of the environment, engagements with key stakeholders, optimising their resources and empowering their employees. Culture: • Customer oriented • Lifetime learning • Participative culture • People driven • Excellence and quality driven • Creative and proactive • Results driven • Company values are lived Values • Teamwork and diversity • Community and customer focussed • Quality and safety • Performance delivery • Communication and transparency

KOBWA is a bi-national organisation formed through the Treaty on the Development and Utilisation of the Water Resources of the Komati River Basin. This agreement was signed in 1992 by the Governments of the Republic of South Africa and the Kingdom of Swaziland. The member states tasked KOBWA with designing and constructing the Driekoppies Dam (1993-1998) and the Maguga Dam (1998-2001) and operating and maintaining them. Currently, KOBWA is at the operational and maintenance phase. In the past year, KOBWA was affected by the serious drought as a result of the El Niño phenomenon. KOBWA faced the challenge of dwindling water levels at the two dams and a prolonged absence of rain. The bulk of the reservoir is used to irrigate commercial farms that are downstream and a smaller percentage is for domestic use. Irrespective of the receding water levels, the Driekoppies and Maguga Dams continued to supply water to beneficiaries downstream. It was only at the height of the drought that rationing was implemented for farmers and this was when the crops had passed the vulnerable phase.

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Maguga Dam’s water levels dropped drastically. The image shows the varying water levels over the period of a year.

February 2015

July 2016

July 2016 The Driekoppies Dam in February 2015 and seventeen months later, at the height of a drought. Despite these stringent conditions, irrigation water was released to Farmers.

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KOB WA’s resilience where water allocation is concerned is due to the following: • The Komati Joint Operations Forum—an i n fo r m a t i o n - s h a r i n g forum involving the South African Government, Swaziland Government, R iver Basin Organization based at the Komati River Basin and farmers who are beneficiaries of the Maguga and Driekoppies Dams. • KOB WA’s vigilant and diligent technical personnel, who continuously monitor the water levels of the dams, liaise with the water users and recommend the most efficient time to release water to beneficiaries who are downstream • A comprehensive Climate Change Study was undertaken to assess how the erratic weather patterns currently affect water management and also project weather patterns in the near future. The study also elucidates how KOBWA will position herself to cope with the projected extreme weather patterns.


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The dry conditions have resulted in the decline of water levels in the Driekoppies and Maguga Dams. Whilst La Niña (heavy rains) are projected for the near future, KOBWA prides herself on efficiently managing the system in such a way that farmers and domestic water suppliers still receive water from the two dams KOBWA continues to pursue excellence in sustainable, integrated water resource management in a bid to achieve her strategic key areas; water resource development and management, financial management and other sources of income, technical and business processes, stakeholder and customer management and socio-economic initiatives. Climate Change Adaptation for the Komati River Basin In line with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the water sector foresees temperature increases of 3oC this century. The IPCC report also indicates that, even at the increases of 1–2.5oC, there could be serious effects of crop reduction in tropical areas, as well as other effects on health, the environment et cetera. The second National Communications of South Africa and Swaziland suggest hydrological and hydrogeological impacts in the region of the Komati River Basin, as a result of the impacts of a change in rainfall. At these predicted trends, goals of sustainable development may be compromised and the Komati River Basin development is no exception. The formulation of a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Komati River Basin Water Authority (KOBWA) arises from the need for the Water Authority to become more proactive in how it responds and adapts to the impacts of climate change and management issues thereof. KOBWA began the process by conducting a Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment. The vulnerability

BEYOND THE KOBWA FACTORY

assessment assisted in preparing for the risks associated with climate change through informing appropriate adaptation strategies. Thereafter, KOBWA proceeded with the second part of the process, which is Formulation of a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. For the vulnerability assessment, modelling scenarios were carried out using the daily time-step Agricultural Catchments Research Unit (ACRU) hydrological model. Changes in hydrological outputs under baseline land cover conditions from multiple Global Climate Models (GCMs) were then compared for different climate scenarios. The climate change projections were made using an average of five GCMs and they predict an increase in mean annual temperature by up to 3.5oC. The models indicate the possibility of higher precipitation but the variability is predicted to be high in the medium- and long-term. The increased evaporation and variability may negate any benefits from the increased rainfall. The Climate Change Adaptation Strategy identifies seven strategic focus areas: • Awareness raising and water conser vation/water demand management • Intensify climate change research, data collection and information management • Build capacity on climate change management in the basin, focussing on the key water management institutions • Flood and drought management • Include climate change in transboundary policies, strategies and agreements • Enhance holistic management of water resources through the effective implementation of IWRM approaches • Leveraging climate finance The strategy must be implemented through cooperation with all relevant players in the basin.

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Technology Review Section The purpose of this directory section is to provide readers with a breakdown of some of the most interesting innovations to emerge recently. The information is provided by the innovative suppliers themselves or their agents and may be viewed as promotional in nature. We congratulate the submitters of these innovations and wish them all the very best in the future.

CONTENTS COMPANY

PAGE

Environsan 135 Maskam Water 136 LG Water Soloutions 137

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7

E

nvirosan Sanitation Solutions (Pty) Ltd has been involved in the sanitation industry throughout Africa for the past 10 years and manufactures various sanitation technologies from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs) to urine diversion dry toilets (UDDTs) to low-flush toilets and rain water harvesting solutions. We are proud to be the continent's leading designer and manufacturer of a broad range of quality, environmentally-friendly and affordable sanitation systems and solutions. Our single biggest challenge has been to convince ALL stakeholders who are involved in the Sanitation Industry (from Municipalities to Communities to Environmental Organisations to NGO’s to Consultants / Implementing Agents) to ask the correct question, not, “What is the cost of the proposed sanitation solution?” but rather, “What is the real cost of not having an effective sanitation solution?!?”

BEYOND ENVIROSAN THE FACTORY

Envirosan firmly believes that the people of Africa deserve better, and we are extremely proud of the fact that we have been instrumental in establishing a more dignified and sustainable benchmark for sanitation with our strategic partners in each and every single one of the countries we have worked in. We pride ourselves on our innovative approach to tackling problems that are not only unique from country to country, but also from region to region, culture to culture and household to household. Quality and reliability are of paramount importance and we continually strive to not only meet but also exceed the expectations placed upon us by our customers. If it’s a game changer you are looking for, look no further than Envirosan Sanitation Solutions!

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BEYOND THE MASKAM WATER FACTORY

7

THE FLOW OF FUSION

C

larus Environmental’s Fusion Series Treatment Systems are drop-in wastewater treatment units designed for use in decentralised applications where the effluent quality needs to meet or exceed DWS standards. The first Fusion was installed in Franschhoek in 2010 and, today more than 120 units have been installed in eight different countries on the African continent. The Fusion is designed for use in residential, commercial, and community applications and is available in a variety of treatment capacities, from 1,700 lpd to 15,000 lpd. The Fusion’s unique design enables it to be installed without a pretreatment tank, making it ideal for use on sites where space is limited. Effluent disposal options include conventional trenches, dams, irrigation or direct discharge.

What you need to know… • Fusion produces effluent that meets and exceeds DWS General limit. • Special limit is achievable by oversizing the system/extending the retention time • Highly adjustable to site conditions • Easy installation with only 4 pipe connections • Power consumption range from 60w (1,700 lpd) to 336w (15,000 lpd) • 25-year warranty on the media • Fusion is compact, efficient, and designed to be installed in a typical residential/commercial environment. • Retrofit for septic tanks, conservancy tanks, other systems. • 6 Monthly service required (1 hour). No check-ups needed between service intervals.

• Being installed completely underground, there is hardly any visual impact. • No metal in the bioreactor • No electricity in the bioreactor • No pumps in the bioreactor • Solar power optional The Fusion is designed to be used both in urban areas and remote locations. Successful installations in Africa includes: • Schools • Farms • Single households • Lodges and guest houses • Industrial effluent • Petrol stations • Shopping centres • Commercial buildings • Villages By using the Clarus Fusion to treat both black and grey water, every community in the country can have access to flush toilets, without using a single drop of potable water. Treated water from the Fusion can be used for toilet flushing. Where space is limited, the Fusion can be installed in walkways or public open spaces. Excess treated water can be used for irrigation purposes. Fusion is the only plant that can handle from one household to communities, from informal settlements to high income estates, from in-urban use to the most remote areas.

INNOVAT FOR YOU Sewage & Waste Water Treatment Re-use every drop of water.

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(Treated waste water can be used for irrigation, toilet flushing and other grey water applications)


7

LG WATER BEYOND SOLUTIONS THE FACTORY

INNOVATIVE REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES

LG Water Solutions designs, develops, manufactures and markets Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes that lower the cost of desalination.

L

G Chem acquired the NanoH2O thin-film Nanocomposite membrane technology in 2014. The Nanocomposite membrane technology is the first RO membrane innovation in 25 years and is 50-100% more permeable than existing polymer technology. Nanocomposite membranes are proven to lower energy consumption and/or increase system productivity.

Based on the breakthrough nanostructured materials and industry-proven polymer technology, LG Chem’s line of NanoH2O™ RO membranes dramatically improve desalination energy efficiency and productivity. Their Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) membranes have the highest Boron rejection in the market currently and their High Rejection sea water membranes, the LG GR, SR & R membranes, have one of highest salt rejections on the market at 99.85% stabilised NaCl rejection. These SWRO membrane elements are, amongst other applications, well suited for offshore systems, low temperature seawater or two-pass systems. They are also well suited for high quality permeate requirements or reducing the size of a second pass. Applications for the LG Water Solutions RO product range include seawater desalination, mining applications, municipal water and waste water treatment, microelectronics, industrial process water and residential point-of use water treatment.

These membranes are available in standard 8-inch (20 cm) diameter elements that fit easily into new and existing desalination plants, purifying water from a broad range of sources with improved productivity and water quality. The LG Water Solutions Reverse Osmosis membranes, Standard 61 certified by NSF International for the production of drinking water, deliver the highest flux and the highest salt rejection of any RO membrane on the market. New LG Water Solutions Brackish Water products to look out for by the end of 2016 include, Ultra Low Pressure (ULP) membranes, High Rejection & Energy-Saving Fouling Resistant membranes and Nanofiltration membranes. LG Water Solutions SW & BW RO membranes are distributed in Sub-Saharan Africa by Aqua Resources SA, +27 11 100 4822 / +27 82 428 0143.

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Case Study Section This section is dedicated to some of the leading ideas, projects, and new approaches introduced to enhance the sustainability within the water sector.

CONTENTS COMPANY

PAGE

SBS Tanks 139 NuWater 140-141

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7

BEYOND THE SBS FACTORY TANKS

THE IMPORTANCE OF BACKUP PROCESS WATER FOR BUSINESS

HOW TO PREPARE YOUR BUSINESS FOR A WATER EMERGENCY The first step is to ask the following questions: • How long could your business effectively operate with restricted water or a complete water shortage? • Do you currently have plans in place to reduce disruption to your business if your regular water supply was interrupted? • Is there an emergency shut-down process that applies to water supply emergencies and are employees trained to act accordingly? • Is there any crisis management team or process in place to deal with stakeholders and make critical decisions in the event of a water disaster? Whatever your industry, taking the time to invest in essential contingency steps such as a backup process water supply for business is the best way to attain full peace of mind. How Water Reservoirs Help South African Game Lodges Some of the ways include the following: • Emergency contingency plans. Droughts, fires, burst municipal pipes, dried up boreholes and many other disasters are not something that any resort owner likes to think about. A reservoir is often the simplest and most cost-effective way to protect a resort against such risks if water is interrupted for any reason.

• Reduced municipal water bills. A largescale reservoir can also help to keep costs reduced by minimising the need for a municipal water supply. Depending on the size of the resort, the amount of water typically required during any given month, the types of animals kept (and the number), whether or not there are any natural water sources and various other factors, one or more reservoirs can make a major impact. • Water access in arid, remote regions. Lodges and game reserves located far away from urban centres face even more of a challenge. In this instance, water conservation is vital for any type of farm, helping to keep wildlife alive and provide water for human consumption and use. • Tanks offers a wide range of water tanks for various applications. To learn more about water reservoirs for game farms and resorts, contact us today and let us know how we can assist.

A rain water harvesting project in Cato Ridge on the Kusel Saw Mill site. The displayed Tank Model is a ST17/03 with a gross storage capacity of 335 000 litres

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BEYOND THE FACTORY NUWATER

7

EVERYONE LOVES A GOOD STORY

There is something that resonates within us when we hear one. Great stories can inspire people and they often serve as a catalyst for change. And this is exactly what NuWater is doing within the water sector. The SA water sector is in desperate need of a good story. The current picture is bleak as the water sector faces immense challenges, both on the supply and demand side. The long-term supply challenges are enormous and with no improvement in the efficiency of agricultural, industrial and residential water use, water demand is projected to overshoot supply by 40% in the next 20 years.

Stories of poor service delivery and mismanagement at municipal level flood news platforms week after week, while we are increasingly made aware of the drought’s devastating effects that are crippling our

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food resources and eating away at our economy. If the water sector is to stand a chance against the growing challenges it faces, it needs to adopt both innovative technical and commercial solutions. It will be riskier to continue the 'business as usual' path than to innovate and implement new technology and forward-thinking business models. NuWater understands that to truly change the current story of water on our continent, they had to disrupt the “business as usual” path and think outside of the box to meet the changing needs of their customers. NuWater knows that innovation is not just about technology but, probably even more importantly, it is about the business model. Therefore, they have disrupted the accepted model of the other players in the industry with both their innovative technology and commercial business models. NuWater is at the forefront of innovation in the water sector. It is a technology-led company that designs, builds, finances and operates advanced plants for the treatment of water and wastewater, and the provision of high-quality drinking and industrial process water from sea, river, ground and wastewater sources. NuWater developed a "Modular & Mobile" water treatment technology, which allows for the rapid deployment and, where relevant, re-deployment of water treatment


7

plants that can be scaled to address a wide range of challenging applications. The "Modular & Mobile" nature of the plants allows NuWater to offer customers a very different commercial model. NuWater can lease treatment plants on short-term contracts and provide the required operational and maintenance services. This full-service model has proven to be very attractive to their customers as they can shape the offering to their customers’ circumstances. In the municipal sector, the innovative commercial model allows municipalities to finance the plant through operational budgets. The plant generates additional income to the municipality through having more product to sell to consumers. This, in turn, provides the income stream that can be used to pay for the facility. Also, the "Modular & Mobile" nature of the solution has meant that municipal water treatment works can be run at design capacity, while the NuWater plants deliver the balance of the total volumes required by the municipality, thereby ensuring volumes and quality standards are met. NuWater can thus tailor commercial offers to suit the cash-flow restrictions experienced by various clients, especially municipalities, and operate on the Build-Own-Operate, Build-Own-OperateTransfer or Rental business model. Just as important, NuWater invest in their people and empowers them to take

BEYOND NUWATER THE FACTORY

part in the innovation process to ensure that their solutions and services keep improving. “We believe we are playing an important role, not just in helping address South Africa’s water challenges but also as an exporter of products, services and expertise in this massive global sector.” Through NuWater’s narrative, there is no other company in SA that can match their track record of successful innovation in the water sector. With its innovative, rapidly deployable and re-deployable Modular & Mobile technology, coupled with a 'cando' attitude, NuWater is making a real and immediate contribution towards turning water challenges into success stories in SA and other parts of the world. With a passion for what they do and the benefits of each successful project they deliver, NuWater together with its customers, is improving people’s lives and the environment around us.

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INDEX OF ADVERTISERS PAGE 142

African Utility Week

8-17

African Water Association (AfWA/AAE)

39

Ape Pumps

46; 137

Aqua Resources SA Bio Sewage Systems

84-85

CSIR/ NCPC

22-26 54-55; 135

Envirosan

4

IWR Water Resources

131-133

Komati Basin Water Authority (KOBWA)

18

Lanxess South Africa

20; 136

Maskam Water Nedbank

OBC

NuWater

IFC; 140-141 58; 66

Sanitech (Successful Media Solutions)

75; 139

SBS Water Systens (Pty) Ltd

122-123

Sebata Group

6

Sika South Africa

48

The Water Show Africa 2017 UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) Vovani Water Products

52-53 IBC 2

Woolworths (Aegis Media Central)

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145


FRP PRESSURE VESSELS FRP PRESSURE VESSELS

Water && Process Water Process Technologies Technologies

ULTRAFILTRATION ULTRAFILTRATIONMEMBRANES MEMBRANES

FLEXIBLE PIPE COUPLINGS FLEXIBLE PIPE COUPLINGS


SKYHYDRANT SKYHYDRANT AND AND UF-PRO UF-PRO UNITS UNITS

HIGH HIGHPRESSURE PRESSUREMULTISTAGE MULTISTAGECENTRIFUGAL CENTRIFUGALPUMPS PUMPSAND ANDENERGY ENERGYRECOVERY RECOVERY DEVICES DEVICES

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PRODUCTS PRODUCTSFOR FOR THE THE WATER WATER INDUSTRY INDUSTRY


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The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook Volume 7  
The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook Volume 7  
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