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The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook

South Africa Volume 1

South Africa

Volume 1

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South African Cities Network Transport systems are key factors in reducing the costs of social and economic interactions and allowing goods and services to be exchanged efficiently. Ineffective systems operating on poor infrastructure platforms will mean that cities cannot offer a productive environment for firms or offer points of access to the urban poor where they might find income generating prospects. Existing transport infrastructure has not served the economy well, with the result that private sector operators and the informal, private taxi industry provided the only meaningful alternative. In response, the South African Cities Network is coordinating a sustainable public transport project to provide South African cities with information to guide city development strategies relating to public transport, to advance understanding of the operating complexities associated with public transport services, and to help cities understand the opportunities for restructuring inefficient human settlements through transit-oriented development planning and public space interventions. The South African Cities Network welcomes the launch of the Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook for South Africa. This collection of articles highlights the challenges and opportunities for sustainable transport and mobility initiatives that will make our cities and country a better place to live, work, and play. As a key stakeholder in the transport and mobility sector, the South African Cities Network supports all those that are playing a role in contributing towards a safer, more effective, efficient and sustainable environment.



Training in the Transport, Traffic and Licensing Environment Training and skills enhancement is essential to ensure that any sustainable transport plans and policies can be implemented efficiently and effectively. Not only will such training benefit individual learners and employees, but will contribute to the development of a service delivery ethos, underpinned by a commitment to sustainability and excellence in transport, traffic and licensing management and administration. Continuing Education at the University of Pretoria, in conjunction with TIDASA (Pty) Ltd, a registered FET college, presents three certificates in the Transport, Traffic and Licensing Environment: 1

Road Transport: Administration and Supervision, including traffic integrity (such as overload control and dangerous goods protocol), incident management, emergency protocol, traffic safety, and road courtesy


Working in the Traffic Law Enforcement Environment, including pocket book management, traffic management information systems, and statement writing


Licensing Practice, including financial procedures for both public and private institutions in the licensing environment and the National Traffic Information System (NaTIS)

Each course is offered on an introductory, intermediate, or advanced level, and has been customised to reflect different aspects of the transport, traffic and licensing environment. The different legislative frameworks behind each aspect of the environment are dealt with in depth. Areas of study in all three courses include: 4 Professionalism 4 Self and relationship management 4 Customer care and service excellence 4 Business communication and administration 4 Ethics, fraud, and corruption 4 Strategic management and leadership development 4 Human resources, financial, and quality management

For more information on these certificates, please email tle@tidasa, or contact Belinda Kock from TIDASA on 012 682 8500. Course information is also available at

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Environmental goods and services forum of south Africa –

An Initiative of the Department of Trade and Industry

Moving up in the world is an ambition not just for individuals, but nations and entire continents. People, food and commodities come from far and move into and between the planet’s many growing cities. Freight transport enables global trade, while mobility, including both the passenger transport and communication industries , enables humans to interconnect beyond their home villages. However, in an age of increasing scarcity, we have no choice but to change the way we move. Transport is more reliant on a single, geographically limited and increasingly finite resource – oil – than any other sector in the world. It is also the fastest-growing source of greenhouse gas emissions globally.

Peet du Plooy, Chairperson EGSF South Africa.

Rising prices amid the increasingly convincing specter of Peak Oil and Oil Wars, give most nations on Earth a compelling reason to move away from oil as the fuel on which their trade depends. For compelling environmental reasons, high lifecycle emissions and impact on water using oil shales, coal or first-generation biofuels based on industrial mono-cropping to make liquid fuels, are not viable alternatives either. The world needs to move more efficiently: by rail and mass transit and by swopping the wasteful internal combustion engine for high efficiency electric motors, batteries and fuel cells. We need to plug our wind turbines and solar panels into our cars and busses, making them part of a smarter grid. We already have thousands of electric vehicles: trains, forklifts, heavy-duty mining trucks, elevators and escalators. In the process we might reinvent the past to secure the future. In 1900, there were more electric vehicles than internal combustion engined cars around to secure the future. The Environmental Goods and Services Forum of South Africa regards the concept of sustainable transport and mobility to be fundamentally important for South Africa’s successful development and fully endorses this handbook.



Working from behind the Reinforced Earth速 facing enabled the indigenous trees of the Tstitsikamma forest to remain undamaged

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Council for for scientific and industrial research The built environment and infrastructure are significant drivers of socio-economic development. There are, however, significant challenges in terms of science, engineering and technology as well as human capital development that need to be met to optimise the impact from this investment. In addition, the built environment in South Africa is severely impacted by, among other factors, urbanisation, a housing shortage, the lack of public transport, and congestion on our roads. The Built Environment Unit of the CSIR addresses these challenges, in support of the mandate of the CSIR, through its growing SET base with specific emphasis on broad focus areas that include sustainable human settlements; cement and bitumen replacements; advanced road building materials; the use of marginal materials and advanced materials; advanced methods for the optimisation of infrastructure planning, design, construction, and operation (including infrastructure investment decision support); road, airport and port design; green logistics and supply chain management; public transport and traffic management; minimising energy use in transport; and intelligent systems including intelligent transport systems (ITS).

Hans Ittmann Executive Director: Built Environment CSIR

It is against this background that the CSIR Built Environment Unit is pleased to endorse this publication: eight of the ten Chapters are written by senior CSIR researchers enabling the CSIR to share its knowledge with the broader South African transport community and thereby contribute to developing and finding solutions for the transportation sector in South Africa. It is our hope that this Handbook will go some way in identifying and unpacking solutions for these challenges.



South Africa Volume 1 EDITOR Llewellyn van Wyk

HEAD OF SALES Annie Pieters

CONTRIBUTORS E A Beukes, Dr S Bierman, J Chakwizira, Dr. D.C.U. Conradie, Andrea Firth, H Ittmann, T Lane, M Makeka, P du Plooy, FC Rust, M.J.W.A. Vanderschuren, R Williams, Llewellyn van Wyk

ADVERTISING SALES Debra Wicks, Deon Arendse, Feroza Carelsen, Nola Seef, Tina Collins.

LAYOUT & DESIGN Rashied Rahbeeni

CHIEF EXECUTIVE Lloyd Macfarlane DIRECTORS Gordon Brown Andrew Fehrsen Lloyd Macfarlane







GENERAL MANAGER Suraya Manuel ACCOUNTS & ADMINISTRATION Wadoeda Brenner Ursula Thomas Rashieda Cornelius

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DISCLAIMER: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. IMAGES AND DIAGRAMS: Space limitations and source format have affected the size of certain published images and/or diagrams in this publication. For larger PDF versions of these images please contact the Publisher.

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By Llewellyn van Wyk, Senior Researcher, CSIR

There can be little doubt that our current conceptual understanding of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the built environment has to undergo significant recalibration if we are to meet the challenges of this century. Conceptualising new transport and mobility models is one of the key pillars of this recalibration. If the key concepts of sustainability are about meeting the needs of people, especially the poor, transformation, equity, limitations and accountability, then the transport and mobility have a significant impact on sustainability. Using the Brundtland definition as a basis, this Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook explores how transport and mobility can meet sustainability imperatives. The Handbook reviews at the South African Government’s allocation of significant resources to enhance transport and mobility in the country in response to current and anticipated trends; recognises that traffic flows impedes efficiency and safety and explores how modelling can be used to overcome these challenges; examines notions of land use and especially the separation of land uses and the role of land-use planning in achieving sustainable transport and mobility within the context of a compact city and its role in contributing to the implementation of sustainable transport and mobility; assesses the role of technology as identified in the Brundtland report as one of the limitations on achieving sustainability and how current and emerging technologies can contribute to sustainable transport and mobility; explores the use of resources , in addition to a number of other factors (social, economic, etc), and the requirement for the sustainable supply and use of construction materials including the use of marginal materials, waste materials, novel/innovative materials and reuse of existing materials as well as the provision of long-lasting or perpetual infrastructure; identifies current and future challenges and develops solutions to the challenges posed by sustainable transport and mobility through the development of a research agenda to support sustainability; and finally the development of alternative visions for transport and mobility as a useful tool in achieving sustainability. As always I am indebted to the inputs made by the various contributing authors: their considered and learned submissions are based on years of research in their field and have made the publication of this Handbook both a reality and a worthwhile endeavour. I am similarly indebted to the publishers for entrusting the important task of guest editing this publication to me and trust that their faith has not been misplaced. It is my hope and desire that this modest publication will contribute to the vital debate of how we shape our cities to become truly sustainable in the future. Llewellyn van Wyk Editor



Top international speakers Large exhibition of transport and mobility products and services Case study based workshops Networking functions Design and technology demonstrations •N  ational infrastructure stakeholders • P orts and harbour authorities • K ey government decision-makers • S hipping and marine commercial companies •A  irport authorities and related organisations •A  irfreight and logistics companies • R ail network operators and stakeholders •C  ity planners and designers •U  rban mobility planners •A  utomotive industry stakeholders • R esearch institutes • V ehicle technology companies •M  echanical engineers and engine designers •U  niversities • F uel, gas and bio-fuel tech companies • T raffic management • P ublic transport operating organisations

April 29th and 30th 2010

The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Conference and Exhibition is the event for South Africa’s leading transport sector stakeholders, policy-makers, designers and specifiers:

Book and find out more informaiton on

Contents Introduction 16 Chapter 1 Assessing Systems Against Economic, Social and Environmental Costs

Part One: The Foundations 22 Chapter 2 South African Transport and Mobility Trends 32 Chapter 3 Intermodal Transport and Mobility Infrastructure 42 Chapter 4 Sustainable Approach to Freight in South Africa 48 Chapter 5 Impacts of Transport and Mobility on Climate Change 58 Chapter 6 Spatial Analysis and Modeling Based on Activities

Part Two: Forces of Change 74 Chapter 7 The Role of Public Transport 84 Chapter 8 The Role of Transport Policy 94 Chapter 9 The Role of Urban Form in Achieving Sustainable Transport and Mobility



Contents Part Three: Towards Sustainable Transport and Mobility 104 Chapter 10 Drivers of South African Transport and Transport Infrastructure 116 Chapter 11 Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development 128 Chapter 12 The Use of Natural Resources for Sustainable Roads 140 Chapter 13 Towards a Relevant and Sustainable R&D Agenda for Transport and Transport Infrastructure in South Africa 150 Chapter 14 Visions of the Future

159 Index of Advertisers



chapter 1: Assessing systems against economic, social and environmental costs



chapter 1: Assessing systems against economic, social and environmental costs

Assessing systems against economic, social and environmental costs Llewellyn van Wyk Senior Researcher CSIR

Introduction Transport systems and networks evolved over time in response to the need for economic and social connectivity between settlements and communities, and these systems and routes then become embedded over time as communities exploited the economic and social opportunities created by the systems and routes. However, current usage patterns demonstrate that these transport systems and networks can be detrimental to both the natural and built environment: to the natural environment through the use of land for transport networks and by the emitting of harmful gases resulting in the destruction of ecosystems; and to the built environment by separating communities and through air pollution. Often it is the very poorest of society that benefits least from transport systems and networks. Often too, it is the very poorest of society that suffers most from the consequences of transport systems and networks. Thus the advantages created by transport systems and networks must therefore be assessed against the economic, social and environmental costs that these systems and networks generate. This assessment essentially constitutes the triple bottom line as articulated in notions of sustainable development. The notion of sustainable development arose out of the seminal study commissioned by the United Nations. This report, Our Common Future (WCED, 1987), also known as the Brundtland Report, coined the phrase “sustainable development” and its definition “those paths of social, economic and political progress that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio challenged humanity to reduce its impact on the earth. At this summit the assembled leaders signed A Statement of Principles (to guide the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forest); the Framework Convention on Climate Change (an agreement between countries for action to reduce the risks of global warming by limiting the emission of greenhouse gases); and A Convention on Biological Diversity (an agreement on how to protect the diversity of species and habitats in the world); endorsed the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (27 principles guiding action on environment and development); and adopted Agenda 21 (a comprehensive action programme to help achieve a more sustainable pattern of development). The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created in December 1992 to ensure follow-up and to monitor and report on implementation of the Earth Summit agreements at the local, national, regional and international levels. To mark the dawn of the new millennium, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration in September 2000. The Declaration included resolutions on peace security and disarmament; development and poverty eradication; protecting our common environment; human rights, SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 1: Assessing systems against economic, social and environmental costs

democracy and good governance; protecting the vulnerable; meeting the special needs of Africa; and strengthening the United Nations. The year 2002 marked the 10-year anniversary of the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, and to commemorate the milestone, a follow-up summit was held in Johannesburg, South Africa. This summit, known as Earth Summit II or the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), produced two key outputs: The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development (re-affirming the commitment of the world’s nations to sustainability); and A Plan of Implementation (building on the achievements made since the Earth Summit I and expediting the realisation of the remaining goals). The Summit adopted a number of commitments and targets including poverty eradication, water and sanitation, sustainable production and consumption, energy, chemicals, management of the natural resource base, corporate responsibility, health, sustainable development of small-island states, sustainable development for Africa, and institutional framework for sustainable development. The 1996 United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in Istanbul defined goals in which the construction industry could play a direct and substantial role: 1) Changing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption; 2) Avoiding environmental degradation; 3) Promoting social and economic inequality; 4) Managing inadequate resources; 5) Overcoming a lack of basic infrastructure and services; 6) Overcoming a lack of adequate planning; and 7) Mitigating against increased vulnerability to disasters. Thus, on the one hand, sustainable transport and mobility adds the interest of the environment to the transport systems and routes: on the other hand, sustainable transport and mobility seeks to ensure that all of society benefits from the economic and social opportunities created by these transport systems and networks. In this manner sustainable transport and mobility can make a positive contribution to the economic, social and environmental sustainability of communities they serve while protecting natural ecosystems. Transport systems and networks have significant environmental impacts, accounting for between 20%and 25% of world energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions (WEC, 2007). In addition, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) attributable to the transport sector are increasing at a faster rate than any other sector (IPCC, 2007). Road transport is also a major contributor to air pollution and smog (EPA, 2002).

Transport and economic sustainability The economic costs of transport systems and networks include vulnerability to fuel price increases at a national level and private level. Much of this vulnerability is located disproportionately on those social groups who are least likely to afford or own their own transport. Apart from facing higher transport costs, they also suffer from higher food and related costs. Consequently in a country like South Africa with its limited public transport network and service, and the location of suburban residential areas, particularly low-income areas, at the outskirts of cities, commuting costs can form a substantial portion of their daily living expenses. Transport networks, especially road networks, have also suffered degradation arising from increases in vehicle movements and poor maintenance programmes caused by decreasing maintenance budgets. 18


chapter 1: Assessing systems against economic, social and environmental costs

In South Africa the ageing rail systems and networks caused a shift from rail and coastal shipping to road freight and changing trends in freight logistics for just in time deliveries meant that road freight grew faster than general vehicle traffic, further exasperating traffic congestion, delays, and network degradation.

Transport and environmental sustainability As stated, transport systems are major emitters of greenhouse gases, responsible for 23% of world energy-related GHG emissions in 2004, with about 75% of that coming from road vehicles (IPCC2007). In addition, energy is embodied in the manufacture of the transport systems and in the establishment of the transport networks. Currently about 95% of energy used by transport systems and networks is sourced from petroleum, although there are trains and trams that use electricity and natural gas. Countries like Brazil make extensive use of biofuels – about 17% of its transport fuel came from biofuels in 2007 – but there is some concern that the future of biofuels globally is less viable as it has little or no impact on greenhouse emissions but at significantly higher cost than energy efficiency measures (OECD undated). Using electricity to run vehicles is a technology that has the potential to reduce transportrelated CO2 emissions, providing the source of the electricity is clean and the embodied energy of the vehicle is minimised. In South Africa electricity is almost totally generated by coal-burning power stations resulting in little benefit being realised from electricity-driven vehicles. There is a proviso to this: providing a successful means of carbon capture and storage (CCS) can be developed, it will be more effective and efficient to capture carbon from a limited number of coal-powered stations than from millions of independently-owned vehicles. In addition, vehicles distribute their emissions across the country, and more specifically in urban areas, resulting in higher rates of air pollution and smog where the majority of people now live. Cities and nations that have most heavily in car-based transport systems are now the least likely to be environmentally sustainable, as measured by per capita fossil fuel use (Kenworthy, 2008). Transport systems in general, and networks in particular, consume significant quantities of raw materials. Road networks especially rely on aggregates and other raw materials generally accessed from the extractive industries. The excavation, preparation, transport, and removal of excess material all have environmental impacts, some of which are permanent (quarries). The environmental impacts of transport systems and networks can be reduced by improving the walking and cycling environment in cities, by enhancing the role of public transport, especially electric rail, subject to the proviso above, by increasing urban density and by encouraging mixed-use developments.

Transport and social sustainability The social costs of transport include accidents, air pollution and physical inactivity. Cities with extensive road transport networks, especially those with large freeways and interchanges, have experienced unintended consequences including flight from congested city-centres, declining investment in city centres, higher rates of urban blight, and a reduction in social infrastructure including access to schools, clinics, churches and other social services. Freeways and railway lines have bisected communities creating false boundaries that inhibit social interaction and social cohesion. Residents who do not or cannot move from the city centre to the suburbs experience a much reduced quality of public life. On the other hand those who have moved demonstrate an increase in sedentary lifestyles arising out of their dependence on private vehicle use for mobility, causing and complicating a national epidemic of obesity and a concurrent increase in health care costs (WHO 2002; Ewing, 2003). In South Africa, SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 1: Assessing systems against economic, social and environmental costs

with its predominantly outlying low-income townships, commuting time can constitute a significant portion of the working day, impacting negatively on the family and their quality of life.


Thus, for transport and mobility to be sustainable, it must make a positive contribution to the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the communities it serves. A useful definition for sustainable transport and mobility comes from the European Union Council of Ministers of Transport, which describes a sustainable transportation system as one that: • Allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and society to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations; • Is affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transport mode, and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development; and • Limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes, while minimising the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise (Litman, 2009). References

EPA., 2002. National multipollutant emissions comparison by source sector in 2002, from the website of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, retrieved 28 October 2009. Ewing., 2003. “An interview with Dr Reid Ewing.” Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity. American Journal of Health Promotion 18[1]: 47-57. September-October 2003. Retrieved 29 October 2009. UNHSP., 1996. Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements, from the website of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Retrieved 6 January, 2009. IPCC., 2007. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Mitigation of Climate Change, Chapter 5, Transport and Infrastructure, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, from the website of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Retrieved 28 October 2009. Kenworthy, J., 2008. Energy Use and CO2 Production in the Urban Passenger Transport Systems of 84 International Cities: Findings and Policy Implications, Book Chapter in ‘Urban energy transition: from fossil fuels to renewable power’ (ed. Droege, P.) Murdoch University. Western Australia. Litman, T., 2009. Sustainable Transportation and TDM. Online TDM Encyclopaedia. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Retrieved 29 October 2009 OECD., 2008. Biofuel Support Policies: An Economic Assessment, from the website of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,33343,fr_2649_33717_41013916_1_1_1,00.html Retrieved 29 October 2009. WCED, 1987, Our common future, World Commission on Environment and Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford. WEC., 2007. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios, from the World Energy Council website. Retrieved 28 October 2009. WHO., 2002. Health effects of transport, from the website of the World Health Organisation, Europe. http://www.euro.whoint/trasnport/hia/20021009_2.html. Retrieved 29 October 2009.





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chapter 2: South African Transport and Mobility Trends



chapter 2: South African Transport and Mobility Trends

South African Transport and Mobility Trends Rory Williams Transport Planner Associate Arup


There are ongoing efforts to enhance the role of transportation in improving social and economic conditions. Updated guidelines on the preparation of documents such as Integrated Transport Plans are intended to strengthen the transformation process. Various guidelines and strategies developed by all spheres of government have continued to interpret policy and guide planning processes. South Africa’s changing context is driven mainly by political imperatives for transforming the built environment to improve social equity and economic inclusion, overcoming the separation of home and work with more effective transportation, reducing transport costs for users, and improving financial viability of public transport services. In addition to changes in the economy at-large and in the social environment, current and future trends in the global transport industry itself will have a significant impact on South Africa’s transport system, as the ability to affect them falls generally outside of the ambit of South African government or operators. The major trends include (DBSA development paper 174, 2003): • Liberalisation and Deregulation: especially in aviation, increasing numbers of countries are permitting open skies agreements with unrestricted entry (beyond safety regulations) with little or no protection for national flag carriers. In some cases, the liberalisation is also being applied to rail and road operators. Related to this trend, in some countries, is a reduced reliance on government operating subsidies. • Intense Competition in Maritime Transport: as global ship lines compete and search for greater economies of scale, they are integrating with other modal partners in key countries and moving towards bigger, “post-Panamax” ships that require bigger harbours and fewer ports of call. Intense competition in the industry is likely to lead to cost improvements by ship lines and lower prices to customers The White Paper process, which concluded in 1996, took the first steps towards the unwind agenda. Most importantly, it reoriented transport priorities to be consistent with the RDP and GEAR. In addition, it articulated new principles and objectives for transport – for instance, that no passenger should pay more than 10% of household income for transport. The (NDOT) National Department of Transport began a dramatic reconfiguration of its own organisational structure, paring down in size from 1400 to 250 employees, and institutionally restructuring several functions into fully or partially self-funding agencies, including maritime and aviation safety, national roads, and cross-border land transport regulation. The resulting new NDOT will focus on policy, strategy and regulation, rather than administration. Another substantial result emerging from the White Paper process is the National Land Transport Bill, which will shortly be tabled in Parliament. This legislation will have a far-reaching impact on the institutional structure for urban transport planning, among other things, creating transit authorities at local and metropolitan level with substantial jurisdiction over transport issues. A further trend in this decade is the diminishing national financial support for transport expenditures. As claims on the fiscus SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 2: South African Transport and Mobility Trends

to meet ambitious RDP goals have grown, the amount of national funding for transport subsidies and infrastructure construction and maintenance has dropped. In addition, the transport sector has seen other developments since 1994. Several state assets have been fully or partially privatised, including Sun Air and the Airports Company of South Africa. New developments have been considered or are in development, for example, the new port at Coega and the Maputo Development Corridor. All of these actions have contributed to moving the transport system forward and accomplishing the vision of the White Paper, but have not always occurred in the context of an integrated national transport strategy. The White Paper recognised this problem, and left room for a strategy process such as Moving South Africa to bring strategic coherence to future actions in the transport sector. Moving South Africa classifies urban public transport passenger segments as strider (prefer to walk or cycle), stranded (no affordable public transport available), survival (captive to cheapest public transport option), sensitive (captive to PT but select the “best” option) and stubborn (only use cars). Using this classification system, the data forecasts that between 1996 and 2020 the percent of “stubborn” travellers will increase, while the percent of other categories will decrease. While the percent of “stubborn” travellers may change only from 14% to 19% of the urban population, this represents an increase of some 2.6 million people travelling by car. (Van Ryneveld, 2008, page 12) In 2003, 74% of South Africans were captive to public and non motorised transport as they lacked access to a car. Of the nearly 10 million workers who commuted to work, 4 million workers used public transport and 2.5 million workers walked. Even in metropolitan areas 2.3 million workers (49% of workers) used public transport compared to the 1.85 million workers (39.5%) who used a car. There is, however, quite strong growth in car ownership… The growth of private vehicles is estimated at 2% per annum. The Gautrain development is an attempt to shift the “stubborn” commuters from cars to public transport, by providing a level of service that is better than average. There is some controversy over whether investing in Gautrain was the best use of public funds, but part of the rationale was that the entire public transport system would improve, to the benefit of low-end passenger markets by establishing a differentiated service that was thoroughly integrated with the system as a whole. Population and employment growth are the context within which trends and changes in travel demand and travel patterns should be analysed. In contrasting population growth with growth in the number of employed people (workers) in the period 1996 to 2003, one finds that the growth in employment has exceeded the population growth. For example, between 1996 and 2003, the SA population grew from 40.6 million to 46.4 million, an increase of 14.3%, while the number of workers increased from 9 million to 10.9 million in the same period, a 22.1% increase. The increases in train and minibus-taxi use are entirely consistent with the population and employment growth described. Differences between the main mode use in the six metropolitan areas are highlighted in Figure 1. The following trends are noteworthy: • Car use has increased quite significantly in Johannesburg and Cape Town while remaining constant in Ekurhuleni. In the other three cities, the car market share has decreased, particularly in Tshwane and Nelson Mandela where the drop has been quite pronounced. These changes are probably due to demographic and income changes in the cities in question. • Minibus-taxi use has increased in Johannesburg, Ethekwini, Cape Town and most notably in Tshwane, where the mode share has risen from about 18% in 1996 to 28% in 2003. In all these cities the gap between the minibus-taxi market share and those of the other public transport modes has widened except in Cape Town, where the gap between trains, the leading mode, and taxis has progressively narrowed. The mode share of minibus-taxis has remained fairly constant in Ekurhuleni and Nelson 24


chapter 2: South African Transport and Mobility Trends

Mandela. In the latter between 1996 and 1997, there was an upward adjustment in the minibus-taxi share, mirrored by a downward adjustment affecting bus services. Both have remained constant since 1997.

Figure 2.1 Metropolitan trends in mode share for work trips – 1996 to 2003 (DBSA, 2003)

In Cape Town, rail services carry more passengers than either taxis or buses; but for the country as a whole, 76% of households have no access to rail at all. (Department of Transport, 2005) The Integrated Rapid Transport (IRT) systems being rolled out in metropolitan areas help to extend the type of service provided by rail, at a lower capital cost. As with Gautrain and existing Metrorail services, however, IRT success depends on bus and taxi feeder services to extend its reach and improve flexibility of service. The following conclusions were drawn in regards to future trends of transport and mobility in South Africa from the study conducted by the development bank of south Africa in 2003: 1. Ongoing urbanisation is creating increased demand for daily travel between homes and urban activities. The brunt of the pressure of urban growth is being experienced in Gauteng. Lower but still significant urban growth occurred in the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. 2. Population densities in the SA cities are extremely low by world standards, impacting negatively on the viability of public transport, particularly on train and bus services. Travel distance is significantly higher than in more densely populated cities elsewhere in the world. 3. Between 1995 and 2003, the proportion of households earning less than R1 000 per month rose from 24 to 49%. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


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4. Car ownership is rising, most rapidly in the Western Cape, where between 1996 and 2003 an additional 190 000 households acquired ownership of cars. In Gauteng, the equivalent figure was 120 000 households and was lower because of income differences, despite the more rapid growth of population in Gauteng. Most new growth comprises poor new arrivals from smaller urban areas and in particular from rural South Africa. 5. Trips to work have increased substantially from about 8.6 million per day in 1996, to about 9.9 million in 2003. In the period 1996 to 2003 work trips increased by 22.1% compared with a population increase of 14.3 per cent. 6. Public transport market share for trips to work has dropped from 58 to 56% between 1996 and 2003. Minibus-taxi use has increased from 2 to 2.5 million, while bus use has dropped from 1 million to 850 000. Train users remained constant at around 500 000. 7. The most significant feature of public transport is the increase in the market share of minibus-taxis for work trips from 57 to 63% of public transport trips, mostly at the expense of bus services. In the metropolitan areas the minibus-taxi market share for work trips increased by 47% between 1996 and 2003. 8. There have been only relatively minor changes in the travel times for work trips by all modes of travel. Indications are that in some cases travel times have been reduced by decentralisation of employment activities. 9. There is evidence of an increasing intensity of car use in the morning peak period in the metropolitan areas, and a 1.5 percentage point shift towards starting trips earlier, that is, before 6h30. There is also evidence of a spreading of the peak on either side of the traditional peak hour of 6h30 to 7h30. Metropolitan areas have undoubtedly experienced the most significant changes in terms of population growth, increases in car ownership, modal adjustments and lengthening of travel times. The White Paper anticipated that outside of metropolitan areas, “provincial transport departments would be responsible for co-ordination in respect of services, district and local structures and, in particular, rural bodies which have little or no competence to administer the function”. (Department of Transport, 1996) Capacity in these areas remains a challenge, and in some cases the provincial departments themselves are hard-pressed to fulfill their roles in this regard. Provincial governments are faced with the dual challenge of providing capacity and guidance to other spheres while grappling with transformation of the planning process. Similar challenges are experienced in other sectors, making integrated planning all the more difficult. The positive and negative transport and mobility trends in South Africa that we currently experience can point to a few key responses needed to implement changes: • Shifts in the approach to settlement planning require a renewed effort at integrated planning processes, and a rethink of transport planning design assumptions. In some cases this requires consideration of “first principles” that underpin engineering standards. Improved sustainability performance depends on finding common ground, not only among transport objectives, but also between transport and other sectors. In many cases, standard methods will fail to identify “global optimums” as opposed to sector-specific optimums. The tools we use to determine the “best solution’” must show how a solution meets policy objectives across sectors. • Behavioural trends need to be carefully identified, so that strategies to shift current patterns are designed for effective outcomes. In strategies such as densifying public transport corridors, this requires cross-sector co-ordination. • Treatment of transport nodes, or interchange hubs and their surrounding precincts, is critical to success of the system as a whole. Safe, convenient access to the transport system depends on good urban design, and a more considered approach will serve multiple policy sectors, such as health, 26


chapter 2: South African Transport and Mobility Trends

education and labour. A key challenge is defining project briefs that are broad enough to allow for effective interventions. Without effective leadership and governance, we will continue to stumble along and fail to effect a transformation of the transport system in support of broader policy objectives. There are two key issues in a shortage of capacity and skills in the public sector, and inadequate clarity in allocation of responsibility across government spheres. But governance also relates to the informal sector, and participation with taxi associations and other stakeholders needs to be addressed with more care and in a way that will foster a two-way flow of information to improve design and stakeholder buy-in. Transportation is quite obviously important to economic and social development, and to environmental preservation, but the interactions are more diverse and subtle than is recognised in the way practitioners historically have approached their craft. New policies require new ways of thinking and analysing the challenges we face. Edited by Andrea Firth alive2green REFERENCES Development Bank of South Africa, 2003. Report on Trends in Passenger Transport in South Africa, Development paper 174, 2003 Department of Transport, 1996. ‘White Paper on National Transport Policy’, 20 August 1996. Department of Transport, 1999. ‘Moving South Africa: A Transport Strategy for 2020’, 1999. The Presidency, 2000. ‘National Land Transport Transition Act, No. 22 of 2000’, Government Gazette, 23 August 2000. Department of Transport, 2003. ‘Rural Transport Strategy for South Africa’, November 2003. Department of Transport, 2005. ‘Key Results of the National Household Travel Survey, The First South African National Household Travel Survey 2003’, August 2005. Andrew Marsay, 2007. ‘Capturing Growth Trends Through Investment in Public Transport Interchanges’, Paper for inclusion in the University of Johannesburg’s annual ‘Discourse’ series, November 2007. Philip van Ryneveld, 2008. ’15 Year Review of Public Transport in South Africa with emphasis on metropolitan areas’, 4 March 2008. Parliamentary Monitoring Group, 2009. ‘Meeting minutes, Departments of Human Settlements and of Transport: Strategic Plan and Budget 2009/10”, 26 June 2009.




CENTURION ENERGY SYSTEMS (PTY) LTD We are proud to announce that we have successfully co-developed a FUEL ENHANCER ready to market into the Southern African Markets. FUTURE FUEL cuts down on fuel cost, resulting in savings up to 30% THE PROBLEM • In every engine, fuel is sprayed into by the jets and the spark plug sets it alight to cause an explosion so that the piston can move down, so as to turn the axle, so that the wheels turn! • The problem is that not all the fuel, up to 30%, is NOT burnt resulting in un-burnt fuel passing through to the exhaust and into the air and polluting the air! This is due to the inherent characteristics of fuel not to vaporize immediately. • Also, the explosion takes longer resulting in the piston already moving up, thus working against itself! Engine temperatures goes up, the engine, jets and valves as well as the oil becomes very dirty and clogged up! THE SOLUTION • Our FUEL ENHANSER, FUTURE FUEL, is added to PETROL or DIESEL through the normal inlet. • This results that ± 90% of the PETROL or DIESEL is burnt during the explosion in the combustion chamber. • All the energy goes to the axle and wheels, the engine runs cooler and smoother and the valves are not burnt, the whole system is cleaned up AND air pollution is minimized. THE FINAL RESULTS • FUTURE FUEL does not contain any harmful or solid chemicals or substances to cause any negative side effects to the engine. • FUTURE FUEL is also completely soluble in diesel / bio diesel and petrol and has no negative effects on the characteristics of diesel / bio diesel / petrol. • FUTURE FUEL ensures complete vaporization in the combustion chamber as it neutralizes the surface tension and inherent cohesion of fuels. THE BENEFITS • Due to the fact that FUTURE FUEL enhances the vaporisation process of the fuel, we achieve the following benefits; • Better & complete combustion which results in much better fuel consumption and better performance. • Much lower temperatures in the engine which results in a cooler running engine. • Exhaust gasses are substantially reduced. • Engine oil remains much cleaner. • Engine life is much longer with fewer replacements. CERTIFICATION : SABS TESTS :100% Successful SANS 342:2006 RSA Fuel Standard Certification according to SABS Regulations, were conducted in Dec 2008. Contact details Albertus Van Niekerk, Tel: 086 727 2271 , Fax 086 696 0451, ,


Infraset Currently celebrating its 50th year, INFRASET is the market leader in a diverse range of precast concrete products. All contribute to a greener environment and all play a vital role in placing the nation on a sustainable footing.The company operates through three divisions: Railway Products; Infrastructure Products; and Building and Landscape Products. Infraset’s eleven factories are spread throughout the sub-continent, placing it in close proximity to its markets and thereby reducing its carbon footprint. The company’s plants deliver concrete pipes, culverts, manholes, barriers, railway sleepers, poles and masts, roof tiles, retaining wall and erosion control systems, as well as eco-friendly paving systems in compliance with SABS and world-class quality standards and ISO 9001 accreditation. RAILWAY PRODUCTS Infraset’s rail division is making a significant contribution to sustainable transport by producing concrete sleepers, poles and masts.

An Infraset concrete mast is installed next to a rusted steel mast on a ±30km rail link near Richards Bay.

Infraset concrete pipes, 1 200mm in diameter, are installed at a site in Pietermaritzburg.

In 2004 it introduced the patented Universal Concrete Sleeper/ Infrabolt system, world-first technology which is being used extensively to replace imported hardwood sleepers on rail turnouts. This has a direct environmental benefit by conserving the world’s hardwood forests. And unlike timber, which is treated with chemicals injurious to fauna and flora, concrete sleepers require no post-installation treatment or maintenance. Moreover, the sleepers can be replaced in situ thanks to the innovative Infrabolt fastening system, a factor which minimises disruption to rail traffic. Concrete poles and masts are contributing to a greener environment by replacing rust-prone steel masts for overhead rail track lines. They are also replacing steel and timber poles in electricity reticulation and street lighting applications. They are inert, rust proof and highly durable, with lifespans well in excess of any competitive material. INFRASTRUCTURE PRODUCTS Pipes, culverts and manholes are indispensable to the preservation of the country’s road and rail network. Without proper drainage and flood prevention South Africa’s overland transport systems would soon fall prey to the ravages of erosion.

profile Infraset is currently supplying substantial quantities of pipes and culverts for the R11.9 billion Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project (GFIP). It is also supplying the project with traffic control barriers and façade panels, the latter being used for the protection and aesthetic enhancement of several embankments and cuttings. Infraset’s concrete pipes are also being used for outfall sewers and fresh water conveyance. Improvements to their performance and durability, for example through the introduction of CAC and HDPE linings, is ongoing. The company also manufactures jacking pipes and culverts, which obviate the need for disruptive and time-consuming trenching under existing road systems. BUILDING AND LANDSCAPE PRODUCTS Infraset Building and Landscape Products is the market leader in landscaping and erosion control retaining wall systems as well as in an internationally-proven permeable paving system. These systems are the forefront of this division’s substantial contribution to a sustainable environment. The Waterloffel sea A striking example of how the company’s products protect the eco-system occurred in 2007 when extraordinarily heavy seas wreaked havoc on the beaches of KwaZulu-Natal. However, those beaches protected by Infraset’s sea wall system, Waterloffel, were only slightly damaged. Waterloffel has subsequently been used to repair many of the damaged beaches and is also being used to protect other eco-sensitive areas such as estuaries and river banks.

wall in Umhlanga which withstood a pounding from the highest tides in living memory in 2007.

Infraset markets and produces one of the world’s leading permeable paving block systems, Uni-Ecolok. The system relieves the burden on storm water drainage systems by attenuating water run-off and protecting rivers, wetlands and the ecology against erosion and pollution. More recently the company introduced Ridgeblok, an eco-friendly and immediately successful retaining wall block system currently being used extensively on the Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project. In addition to retaining wall and paving systems, Infraset also manufactures concrete roof tiles, used on all types of housing from the most affordable to the most luxurious. The company is currently introducing a thermally efficient roofing underlay, Ecoshield which will create substantial savings on heating and air conditioning costs. CONCRETE’S SUSTAINABILITY Concrete is a recyclable product. For example, concrete rubble is being used with considerable success in the manufacture of concrete bricks. It is also inert, long-lived and dependable; qualities which will underpin its eco-friendly status and ensure its use as a sustainable material for many years to come. Contact details Tel: 011 876 5500 • Fax: 011 872 1713 • Email:

chapter 3: Intermodal Transport and Mobility Infrastructure



chapter 3: Intermodal Transport and Mobility Infrastructure

Intermodal Transport and Mobility Infrastructure

E A Beukes Centre for Transport Studies University of Cape Town

M.J.W.A. Vanderschuren Centre for Transport Studies University of Cape Town


Activities are what drive individuals and societies. We carry out activities to work, play, learn, gather resources, and so forth. These activities cannot all be conducted at the same location, and hence the need for transportation arises. So, in fact, all transportation is activity driven. Therefore, the nature of the activity has an influence on the nature of the trip, and consequently the nature of the infrastructure provided to support that trip. This presents planners with a fundamental problem. Different activities are conducted by different people in different locations using a range of modes of transport at various times during the day. The infrastructure provided cannot be tailored to meet the needs of every individual trip perfectly – and yet the infrastructure provided must ensure that all trips can be made as safely, quickly and affordably as possible. To this end, an entire scientific and engineering community has devoted itself, for well over a hundred years, to studying the provision of transportation infrastructure so that the movement of people, goods and services are optimised. From this collective effort, a host of guidelines, design manuals, best practice manuals and countless scholarly and academic publications have emerged covering all facets of the practice. In recent decades, the practices espoused in these manuals have come under review regarding their effect on the sustainable provision, operation and management of the transportation systems and networks (Newman and Kenworthy, 1989; Commission of the European Communities, 1990; Greene and Wegener, 1997). This chapter identifies the problems and pitfalls when planning sustainable transportation infrastructure, and looks at the approaches to solve problems. The reader is directed towards the correct methodologies in solving these problems in a sustainable way.

Integrated planning and current practices

A continued theme amongst the guiding literature for transportation planning in South Africa is the importance of encouraging a multimodal transportation environment that addresses the economic inequities in our towns and cities, that protects the environment from the effects of transportation, and that stimulates the development of a healthy social realm (CoCT, 2005; NDoT, 2003). Furthermore, the inseparable relationship between transportation and land use is emphasised and planners are encouraged to view land use and transportation as being almost two sides of the same coin (Vanderschuren, 2003). Land use and transportation are intrinsically linked, as changes in land use often initiate changes in SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 3: Intermodal Transport and Mobility Infrastructure

trip making patterns, and vice versa. In South Africa, the effects of poor integrated transport and land use planning are highly evident in the low population densities that are common in our cities, and the long distances that people are often forced to travel as a result. Urban sprawl has become a major spatial development characteristic of South African cities. The majority of the population has been forced to live in segregated, isolated and hostile townships, separated from each other by freeways and buffer zones. This has created a vastly inequitable and inefficient city in which the poor are marginalized from urban opportunities (Pistorious, 2002) (cited in Vanderschuren, 2003). The problems are further compounded by historically poor investment in public transport infrastructure, especially in poor neighbourhoods (CoCT, 2006; Behrens and Wilkinson, 2001). The net result is that it is often the poorest people in urban centres who spend the largest percentage of their disposable incomes on transport costs (NDoT, 2003). This situation is socially, environmentally and economically unsustainable. One of the major hurdles to improving circumstances is that planning and design practice has tended to be very automobile-centric, with all of the commonly used road design manuals focussing almost exclusively on the needs for sustaining motorised trips. Planning and design concerns generally relate to minimising congestion and maximising throughput, and avoiding accidents where possible. There is very little thought given to the needs of NMT or public transport road users. It is therefore not surprising that the overwhelming bulk of project funding is dedicated towards improving conditions for motorists, creating unsustainable settlements.

Planning for multiple modes

The majority of urban streets serve various roles, having to accommodate the needs of multiple modes of transport, and the needs related to mobility (through users) and access (locale users). In addition, urban streets may perform a variety of civic, ceremonial, political, cultural and social roles, as well as commercial and economic roles, in addition to their movement roles (Svensson A et al, 2004). This multiplicity of roles implies that the functions performed by the road, and the needs of those who use it must be thoroughly evaluated and understood before an appropriate planning recommendation can be made. Current planning practices in South Africa do not facilitate an assessment of this nature. Practice presently involves the classification of the route into one of five hierarchical categories, related to the expected volume of vehicular traffic on the road, and to its location in the road network. Each category is based on a set of norms related to operating and design speeds, cross sectional parameters and modal inclusivity (which modes are allowed to operate where). Access is defined as access to properties, and theoretically all roads are said to lie somewhere on a spectrum between mobility only routes and access only routes (FHWA, 2001). These norms are then expanded to derive design parameters, which are applied when developing design recommendations. Figure 3.1 illustrates the conceptual relationship between access and mobility.



chapter 3: Intermodal Transport and Mobility Infrastructure

Figure 3.1: The relationship between access and mobility Source: Committee of Urban Transport Authorities, 1989

This generalised approach to road planning has limited the influence of locale specific contextual factors. The practice has become artificially skewed towards maximising mobility for through users in order to improve overall network flow conditions and alleviate localised congestion. In addition, where intermodal safety is of concern, the default approach is to limit the freedom of movement of vulnerable road users irrespective of the contextual setting.

The role of context in road planning

Contextual factors play a significant role in determining how a street is used, and by whom. It is often the case that contextual realities dictate a facilities use, irrespective of the limitations imposed by the design. It is in these instances that dangerous situations may occur. City authorities in Cape Town found that of the top ten most dangerous roads for pedestrians, half are completely restricted to pedestrians, and the remainder are primarily vehicle mobility routes, with limited access allowed for pedestrians (CoCT, 2005). Context can be defined as including aspects related to the adjacent land uses, the socio-economic profile and the environmental (ecological and cultural) landscape along the route, and the traffic and transportation characteristics of the route. The relationships between how the street is used and these contextual aspects have been well documented over the years. It is also evident that these contextual aspects will vary spatially (along the length of the route) and temporally (time of day, day of the week, month to month). Land use encompasses issues related to the activities conducted at a particular location and the intensity of activity at that location. Commonly used parameters include zoning, density, diversity and land value (Cervero, 1994; Handy, 1996; Ewing and Cervero, 2001; Frank and Pivo, 1994; Zhang, 2004). In terms of road planning, these parameters provide information on the expected number of trips and the probable modal split at a location. The socio-economic profile along the route encompasses issues related to, amongst others, neighbourhood demographics such as age and gender, income levels and employment levels. This information is critical to the route context, since it details the types of users, their levels of ability and SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


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the probable modal split at a location (NDoT, 2003) In terms of the National Environmental management Act (DoEAT, 1998), infrastructure provision must give consideration to the physical, biological, social, economic and cultural aspects of the environment that may be affected by the proposed activity. Road infrastructure must therefore be planned so as to minimise the expected negative impacts it may have in this regard. Traditionally, demand in terms of volumes and capacity as well as travel speed are the primary parameters that dictate road design. However, traffic and transportation factors that inform context also includes modal split, accident statistics, the ratio of through versus locale traffic and existing and proposed planning for the route.

Assessing transport sustainability

No commonly accepted definition exists for sustainability, sustainable development or, more specifically, sustainable transport (Beatley, 1995). However, commentators are in broad agreement that sustainable transport implies finding a proper balance between current and future environmental, social and economic qualities (e.g., OECD, 1996; Ruckelhaus, 1989; Litman, 2003; WCED, 1987). The lack of an accepted definition is compounded by the lack of a commonly accepted suite of indicators. Indicators are required to assess the sustainability of a given circumstance or that of a proposed improvement. Economic indicators, generally, measure the possible effects on economic welfare, such as macroeconomic changes, GDP, economic efficiency, income distribution and unemployment rates. Social indicators reflect the effects on societal and individual quality of life, such as health and safety (e.g., OECD, 1976, 1982). Environmental indicators measure effects on environmental qualities, such as resource use, emissions and waste, and the quality of soil, water and air that may affect human (and non-human) life (e.g., OECD, 2002; Steg et al., 2003). Indicators should be assessed in a systematic, transparent and objective manner. This presents difficulties since indicators commonly comprise both quantitative and qualitative data sets. Traditional assessment methodologies, such as Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), rely heavily on an accurate estimation of costs and benefits. Furthermore, intangible or qualitative inputs must be monetised before the analysis can be completed, since the method allows for only monetary units to be analysed. Monetising intangibles is often complicated and may be impossible, in which case proxy data is usually substituted – which invariably involves the introduction of inaccuracies and uncertainties. The benefit of using a CBA technique is that much of the subjectivity is eliminated from the assessment, even if this limits the assessment to only those inputs that can be reliably quanitified. An alternative assessment method is Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). MCDA is specifically aimed at supporting decision makers faced with numerous and often conflicting evaluations. MCDA relies on transparent compromise to arrive at a solution, but introduces subjectivity to develop this compromise. Inputs can be qualitative or quantitative, tangible or intangible, and the analysis allows for attributes with differing dimensions to be measured. However, the introduction of a certain amount of subjectivity exposes the assessment to the morals and ethics of the assessor or the assessment team, and so cognisance must be taken of the need for total transparency. In both assessment methodologies (CBA and MCDA), there is a heavy reliance on the scope and accuracy of the inputs. Outcomes of sustainability assessments are often subject to criticism, because either the assessment relied on inaccurate data or the assessment excluded certain data. To compensate, assessors may include too many indicators. This runs the risk of skewing the assessment by including multiply correlated data. This also complicates any attempt at assessing the sensitivity of the analysis to one or more indicators. MCDA is highly sensitive to the selection of appropriate criteria. The Sustainable Livelihood approach has been found to be useful as an umbrella to categorise criteria and attributes, because it acknowledges that, particularly in poor communities, people gain 36


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their livelihoods through multiple activities rather than one formal job (Scoones, 1998). In contrast to the previous environment and development thinking aimed at sustainable development, Sustainable Livelihoods is a people-centred paradigm, which emphasizes people’s inherent capacities and knowledge and is focused on community level actions (Chambers, 1986; UNDP and Wanmali, 1999). A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, while not undermining the natural resource base. In South Africa the Sustainable Livelihood approach has been adapted to include time resources by Barbour and Kane (2003), and has been implemented in assessment tool in South African and Lesotho by Vanderschuren (Vanderschuren et al, 2006; Vanderschuren, 2009). The resources applied in Southern Africa are: • Natural resources, such as fuel consumption and land-use quality. • Human resources, such as access to basic services. • Social resources, such as neighbourhood communication and emergency transport. • Financial resources, which includes all the cost related to a project. • Economic resources, such as job creation and entrepreneurship. • Infrastructure and services. • Time, which includes free time available and independency of children to walk to school without adult supervision. Figure 3.2 outlines the resources that were identified for an assessment tool for use in Lesotho by Vanderschuren (Vanderschuren et al, 2006; Sah et al, 2008). It is important to note that the same resource mix may not apply to projects in South Africa, despite the similarities between Lesotho and South Africa. Natural Fuels Pollution Drinking water provision. Locally available materials Soil erosion


Road safety Sense of freedom Access to basic services Access to agriculture Transport related fear


Densities Emergency services Communication (local, district and long disance) Disaster management Social security


Project costs Maintenance costs Operational costs

Job security Job creation Entrepreneurship Tourist opportunities Economic Finanacial wellbeing

Non-motorised road-based Motorised road-based Free time available Rail Child indepency Air Time

Infrastructure and services

Figure 3.2: Sustainable Livelihood resources used in Lesotho Source: Vanderschuren et al, 2006 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


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To guarantee sustainable development in the South African context it is recommended to use more inclusive assessment methods, such as MCDA and SLA to assess transport planning and design projects.


Current South African project evaluation practice does not support sustainable transport project development as project performance is only assessed against a limited set of criteria. It is of the utmost importance to include all the relevant criteria when assessing transport planning and design projects because these projects impact so many facets of urban life. In the past few decades more inclusive assessment methods have been developed. Some of these have already been successfully tested in the Southern African context. Sustainable transport in South Africa implies the promotion of NMT and public transport as the primary mode of travel for personal intra-urban trips. These are the lowest impact modes across all sustainability criteria for the majority of personal trips. By implication, therefore, sustainable transport in the context of road infrastructure provision speaks to the equitable provision and management of road infrastructure. Equitable road space management in turn requires the holistic assessment of contextual factors that influences how a road should ideally be used, and consequently what infrastructure is appropriate and how this should be managed. The approach, therefore, becomes more proactive, influencing the demand side of the traffic equation, instead of reactively increasing supply. References Beatley, T., 1995, The many meanings of sustainability, Journal of Planning Literature 9 (4), 339–342. Behrens, R. and Wilkinson, P., 2001, South African urban passenger transport policy and planning practice, with specific reference to metropolitan Cape Town, Urban Transport Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town Chambers, R. and G. Conway, 1992, Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st century, IDS discussion paper 296. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex Chambers, R., 1986, Sustainable livelihood thinking – An approach to poverty, Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex City Of Cape Town (Coct) (2005). “Nmt Policy And Strategy, Volume 2: Policy Framework”.City Of Cape Town Directorate: Transport, Cape Town. Commission of the European Communities, 1990, Green Paper on the Urban Environment, Office of Official Publications of the EC, Luxembourg. Committee of Urban Transport Authorities, 1989,Draft UTG7: Geometric Design of Urban Local Residential Streets, ISBN 0 -7988-4756-5 Greene, D. L. and Wegener, M., 1997, Sustainable transport, Journal of Transport Geography Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 177-190 Litman, T., 2003, Sustainable transportation indicators, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, Available from National Department Of Transport (NDoT) (2003). “National Land Transport Strategic Framework: 2006-2011”. Director General, Department Of Transport, Pretoria. Newman, P. W. G. and Kenworthy, J. R., 1989, Cities and Automobile Dependence. Gower Technical, Aldershot. OECD, 1976, Measuring social well-being. A Progress Report on the Development of Social Indicators, OECD Publications, Paris. OECD, 1982, The OECD List of Social Indicators, OECD Publications, Paris. OECD, 1996, Towards Sustainable Transportation, OECD Publications, Paris. OECD, 2002, OECD Guidelines Towards Environmentally Sustainable Transport, OCED Publications, Paris. Pistorious P, 2000: Texture and Memory: The Urbanism of District Six. SUHDRU Cape Technikon, 2000 Ruckelhaus, W.D., 1989, Toward a sustainable world, Scientific American, September, 114–120. Sah, B.P., J. Choi, S. Sentihil, B.M. Babu and M. Vanderschuren (2008), Geographic Information Systems based Decision Support System for Transportation Planning in Maseru, Lesotho, Africa, 21st EAROPH World Congress and Mayors’ Caucus, Oct. 21-24, Japan 2008 Scoones, I., 1998, Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis. Brighton, U.K.: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex Steg, L., Vlek, C., Lindenberg, S., Groot, T., Moll, H., Schoot Uiterkamp, T., Van Witteloostuijn, A., 2003, Towards a comprehensive model of Sustainable Corporate Performance. Second interim report of the Dutch SCP project, University of Groningen, Department of Psychology, Groningen, The Netherlands. UNDP and S. Wanmali, 1999, Participatory assessment and planning for sustainable livelihoods, United Nations development programme – sustainable livelihoods documents Vanderschuren M., Sah B. P., Monoko M., 2009, Sustainable Transport Project Assessment in the Developing World - The case Lesotho, Transport Policy Journal (in press) Vanderschuren, M, L. Kane and C. Tyler, 2006, Sustainable Transport Assessment for South Africa (STASSA): Technical User Manual, Research report for the British High Commission, November 2006 Vanderschuren, M.J.W.A., 2003, Optimising Settlement Planning in Cape Town, Paper for the International Federation of Municipal Engineers Congress, Cape Town WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development), 1987, Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford. 38



Rail Road Association Sustainability, in a broad sense, is the capacity to endure. It encompasses the present and a process or destination. The United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development defines it as: “To meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs� The fact that in the transport arena volumes to be transported vary according to market requirements, makes proactive evaluation of needs and provision of adequate infrastructure vitally important. A sensible starting point in evaluating transport sustainability is to critically evaluate the utilisation of existing infrastructure and any constraints that surface from the study. The next step includes impacts such as land usage, demographics, future economic development initiatives, food security, urbanisation, required legislation and environmental considerations. The South African Department of Transport is finalising their National Transport Master Plan 2005 – 2050 (NATMAP) which addresses the matter in considerable detail. It is evident in South Africa that there has been an unsustainable shift in freight transport from rail to road in recent times and that this has been recognised for some years by Government. However the move from acknowledging the fact and the planning of ways to resolve the imbalance has not been matched by action to correct the situation with speed or vigour. Environmentally, rail is recognised as being at least three times less costly than road transport per tonne km or passenger km. The RailRoad Association of South Africa (RRA) acknowledges these and other factors which affect the price of goods in the shops and the competitiveness of our offerings in export markets. The RRA continues to lobby stakeholders in order to maximise use of existing infrastructure, reduce the cost of logistics in real terms and as a percentage of gross domestic product and catch up with our international trading partners and competitors. Contact details: PO Box 12484 Selcourt 1567, Cell +27 79 857 5374, Fax +27 86 685 5042 E-Mail : Website:

chapter 4: Sustainable Approach to Freight in South Africa



chapter 4: Sustainable Approach to Freight in South Africa

Sustainable Approach to Freight in South Africa Tanya Lane Centre for Transport Studies University of Cape Town


According to the Centre for Sustainable Transportation (2005) and the European Conference of Ministers of Transportation (2004), a sustainable transportation system is one that allows the basic access needs of individuals and societies to be met safely, in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health and with equity within and between generations. The system must be affordable, operate efficiently, offer choice of transport mode and support the economy. Furthermore, it should limit its emissions and waste to within the planet’s ability to absorb them, minimise consumption of non-renewable resources, limit consumption of renewable resources to the sustainable yield level, reuse and recycle its components and minimise the use of land and the production of noise. This chapter highlights South African freight transport’s standing in terms of achieving sustainability, based on this definition. Suggestions for improving sustainability are included.

Economic sustainability

Freight transport supports the South African economy, as it constituted more than 8% of South Africa’s gross domestic product in 2007 (CSIR, 2008). Compared to a world average of 39%, transport made up 53% of the country’s logistics costs (CSIR, 2008). This can generally be attributed to the large distances between typical origins and destinations and the cost of fuel. South Africa requires more transport per unit of commodity than most countries in the world (CSIR, 2008). Almost two thirds of road transport costs are attributable to fuel expenses and 29% of freight transport cost is exposed to external factors beyond the transport operator’s control (CSIR, 2008). Externalities affecting freight transport include congestion, accidents and weather. The affordability of freight transport is highly exposed and vulnerable to external factors, placing a question mark behind the freight system’s economic sustainability. Ownership of infrastructure plays a significant role in the success and growth of the industry. The fact that various infrastructure is privately owned, or owned by Transnet, prohibits cohesion – limiting the systemic operational improvements that can be achieved (DOT, 2005). A lack of proper intermodal facilities between ports, road and rail, is the main inhibiting factor for growth in containerised traffic (CSIR, 2007). For instance, Transnet’s responsibility for port planning and management deters private sector investment and has resulted in a situation where several ports are badly in need of further redevelopment, investment and modernisation, but are limited by the provision of capital under the control of central government (ASPO et al, 2008). Common transport development plans and policies – and adherence thereto – are required to avoid micromanagement inhibiting growth in the entire system. South Africa is below par when compared to international freight transport best practice. This is due to insufficient equipment, technology and facilities. Rail transport equipment (locomotives, wagons, signalling equipment and the rail tracks) in general are old and outdated, necessitating much of the nation’s rail rolling stock to need replacement soon (Situma, 2007). As a result of poor wagon fleet renewal practice, old rail wagons with reduced payloads exist in substantial numbers, limiting the railways’ ability to carry extra tonnage (ASPO et al, 2008). In addition, the rail lines are narrow gauge, which limits their efficient carrying capacity even further. An update and overhaul of all freight equipment, technology and facilities is needed to improve sustainability. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 4: Sustainable Approach to Freight in South Africa

Environmental sustainability

In terms of the consumption of non-renewable resources, South African freight transport is highly unsustainable. All road, water and air freight, as well as about 10% of rail transport, is powered by (nonrenewable) fossil fuels. This state of affairs heavily exposes the country to oil supply risks or disruptions, as road transport is by far the dominant mode in the country. Only pipeline transport and 90% of rail transport is electrified. Though electrified transport allows for the electricity to be generated from renewable resources (such as hydropower or wind), the dominant feedstock for electricity generation in South Africa is coal (which is another unsustainable, non-renewable resource). With regards to emissions, an oil- and coal-powered freight system is not ideal. It is, however, beneficial to use electricity as opposed to liquid fuels, because the associated emissions can be confined to remote locations and are not necessarily generated at the transport location. Uneven modal distribution in favour of road transportation has caused substantial damage to infrastructure in South Africa. The previous Minister of Transport, Jeff Radebe, announced in September 2007 that the country faced a R17-billion deficit for road maintenance over the following five years, relating to nearly 15% of the national road network (Fin24, 2007). There is talk of restricting the size and maximum loads of vehicles on rural roads in an attempt to stop this trend (Cokayne, 2009). Whilst this might solve the infrastructure problem temporarily, trucks are at their most efficient when fully loaded. Larger vehicle and load combinations have positive effects on fuel consumption and emissions, but these potential gains will not be attainable should the size restriction come into effect. Long-haul freight transportation is mostly confined to corridors, limiting the impact on land use, whilst in urban environments freight generally shares passenger infrastructure. Freight transport is commodity driven and the opportunity to use land use planning as a tool to improve system sustainability is much smaller than for passenger transport, as the location of minerals or natural harbours is not something that can easily be changed.

Social sustainability

Modal selection is normally based on the type of commodity and its associated transportation requirements. Not all commodities are suitable for transportation on all modes. Factors that could influence the number of potential modes include the mode’s delivery speed, availability, accessibility, inter-modal connections and flexibility, capacity, safety, reliability and cost. This limits the scope of mode selection. Poor historic monetary policy in South Africa has led to disputes between various transport modes regarding equity in the recovery of infrastructure provision, management, operation, and maintenance costs (DOT, 1996). “The […] situation frequently prejudices South African road transport operators in particular and land freight in general.” (DOT, 1996) Advantages of road freight over rail include: accessibility (many places are only accessible by motor vehicles), competition (resulting improved service, reliability, operations, equipment and competitive pricing) and no perceived need for crosssubsidisation. It is not surprising that land transportation (road and rail) accounts for more than 90% of total transport, with road enjoying a 66% market share (CSIR, 2008). Inter-modal interchange facilities (of which there are presently very few in South Africa) can facilitate the use of the most appropriate and environmentally friendly mode of transport for different parts of a journey, for example using rail for long distance and trucks for local travel. In terms of safety, 9.97% of the vehicles involved in fatal crashes in 2004 were trucks (RTMC, 2005). Trucks have the third highest number of vehicle crashes per 10 000 vehicles. This is mainly due to the large extent at which trucks are used annually (number of vehicle miles travelled). A major contributing factor to the cause of truck related accidents is the age and maintenance levels of trucks. The average age of a truck is 12 years (RTMC, 2005). Improved maintenance and regulation should make these old trucks less accident prone. Driver fatigue is another major cause of trucking accidents. Shifting some of the road transport to other modes of transport should, therefore, improve road safety in South Africa. South Africa is a country severely afflicted by HIV/Aids. The illness is especially prevalent under truck drivers (DOT, 2005) and the transfer of HIV/Aids and sexually transmitted infections is a growing concern in the transport industry. Truck stops can be an important part of the strategy to protect truck 44


chapter 4: Sustainable Approach to Freight in South Africa

drivers against these and other illnesses and provide information on the risks ( Human health is also affected by poor air quality associated with transport emissions. Air quality and emissions standards can combat these effects.


South African freight is generally not considered sustainable, at present. A move towards modal integration and a more equal modal distribution will go a long way to improve system sustainability. Environmentally speaking, stepping away from non-renewable resources and introducing fuel and vehicle emissions standards should be a priority. The impact of current monopolies on the freight system should be carefully monitored, provoking government action to mitigate negative effects where possible. As with most sustainability initiatives, government has to show strong leadership to elicit buy-in from all stakeholders in the industry. References Association for the Study of Peak Oil (ASPO SA), Vanderschuren M and Lane T, 2008. Energy and Transport Status Quo: Demand and Vulnerabilities, Section 2 of report submitted to the National Department of Transport. Centre for Sustainable Transportation (CST), 2005. Defining Sustainable Transportation. Available online at: Sustainable_2005.pdf. Cokayne R, 2009. Truck ban on SA’s roads coming, published 22/10/2009. Available online at: CSIR Built Environment, 2008. The fifth annual state of logistics survey for South Africa, Pretoria. CSIR Built Environment, 2007. The fourth annual state of logistics survey for South Africa, Pretoria. Department of Transport (DOT), 2005. National Freight Logistics Strategy, Pretoria. Department of Transport (DOT), 1996. Green paper on national transport policy: Policy options for land freight transport, Pretoria. European Conference of Ministers of Transportation (ECMT), 2004. Assessment and Decision Making for Sustainable Transport, Organization of Economic Coordination and Development ( Fin24, 2007. SA Road Repairs in Cash Crisis, published 03/09/2007. Available online at: Road Traffic Management Corporation (RTMC), 2005. Road traffic and fatal crash statistics 2003 – 2004, available online at: Situma, LN, 2007. Expectations of the National Transport Master Plan, Procedures of the 26th Southern African Transport Conference (SATC 2007), Pretoria.




South African Airways Cargo (SAAC) South African Airways Cargo (SAA Cargo) is the Cargo division of South African Airways (Pty) Ltd, which has seen itself catapulted into the first world freighting arena. SAA Cargo strives to provide all clients with a positive experience - on and off the ground. This means that tailor made and personally engineered freight services and facilities on par with world class air freight industry standards, are proudly put at the clients disposal. South African Airways (SAA) Cargo use the belly space of SAA’s passenger flights for cargo carriage and runs a fleet of four dedicated cargo aircraft namely; two Boeing 737-300Fs and two Boeing 737-200Fs. SAA Cargo has enhanced its capability beyond belly space available on scheduled SAA flights. The introduction of the two B737 300s which were converted from passenger aircraft to freighters by SAA Technical has provided a successful feeder into regional markets. They are equipped with Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) each provides coverage of a four-hour radius with the maximum payload of 18 tons. These new generation aircraft offer improved operational performance, ensure better payloads at high altitudes and include the latest on board technology and fuel efficiencies. SAA Cargo has also recently installed EGPWS on the B737 200Fs in order to enhance its safety capability. This combined with a vast global infrastructure and committed all-round service networks provide you with the very best and focused methods for effective exporting and transportation. Ensuring that whatever you wish to have delivered, to whichever market, reaches its destination safely, and most importantly, on time. Description of services SAA Cargo shipment types consist of general cargo, perishables, courier, express, starlight and mail from all over South Africa. SAA Cargo also moves livestock, human remains, dangerous goods, vulnerable, valuable cargo and charters. The market has changed from being based on perishables to one that is more balanced in terms of time sensitive shipments such as textiles, automotives, electronics, mobile phones and other value added products. SAA Cargo also provides a cargo handling service to foreign airlines.

profile Markets SAA Cargo markets include domestic and both intra- and intercontinental air freight. The domestic market comprises of Johannesburg, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban, East London, George, Bloemfontein and the surrounding areas. Partnership with feeder airlines and trucking companies allows SAA Cargo service to areas such as Richards Bay and Kimberley. In the intra-continental, SAA Cargo leverages on the passenger network in accessing markets such as Lagos, Accra, Lusaka, Entebbe, Kinshasa, Harare, Luanda, Maputo and Nairobi. Dedicated freighter service is also used to provide seamless connectivity for unitized consignments to areas in the regional markets. The inter-continental market includes Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Americas. SAA Cargo is represented in 12 countries in Asia Pacific with direct passenger flights to Mumbai, Hong Kong and Perth. The rest of the region is serviced through interline agreements with other carriers. In Europe, the markets include Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Ireland, Eastern Europe and Nordic countries while our North and South American markets include Brazil, Mexico and the United States. IT enhancements As the air cargo industry has developed into an electronically advanced business and with the advancements towards a paperless environment as advocated by IATA, SAA Cargo has implemented and initiated a number of technological advancements. This included an electronic air waybill system for the domestic market offering customers a fast lane for cargo check-in. SAA Cargo is also extending the reach of Cargo 2000’s program to improve the quality of air cargo in Africa. The Cargo 2000 programme is a quality management system and aims at improving the process for managing shipments. The airline is the second African business to join Cargo 2000 and the 29th carrier to make a commitment to its system. In addition, SAA Cargo is also introducing a new integrated web based system called i-cargo which will bring Cargo up to date with technological developments within the cargo environment. Implementation is planned for early 2010. Awards 2008 Air Cargo Award of Excellence (ACE) for the category “Air Carrier� Best African Cargo Airline for 2008 Best African Cargo Airline 2009. Contact details Key contact: Reservations Department- Tel: 0800 002 869 Website

chapter 5: Impacts of Transport and Mobility on Climate Change



chapter 5: Impacts of Transport and Mobility on Climate Change

Impacts of Transport and Mobility on Climate Change

Tanya Lane Centre for Transport Studies University of Cape Town

M.J.W.A. Vanderschuren Centre for Transport Studies University of Cape Town


The process where atmospheric gases (called greenhouse gases) trap solar energy to warm the earth, is known as the greenhouse effect. This process influences the global climate system and its stability is essential to facilitate life on earth. Human activities over the past 200 years, particularly the burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas) and the clearing of forests, have increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (SAWS, 2009). This is expected to increase the amount of solar energy being trapped, causing the earth’s surface to warm up. Though the earth’s climate has a natural cycle of change, it usually takes hundreds of years to complete one cycle, providing the biosphere with adequate time to adapt to the changes. Human intervention is speeding up the climate change process to the extent where the ecosystems will not be able to keep up. Climate change models predict that the mean air temperature in South Africa will increase with an estimated 2°C over the next century (SAWS, 2009). In 1988, several governments concerned with the implications of global climate change formed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This led to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was tabled in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (DEAT, 2004). The stated objective of the UNFCCC is to achieve stabilisation of the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The South African Government ratified the UNFCCC in August 1997 (DEAT, 2004). A realisation of the inadequacies of the commitments set out in the UNFCCC led to the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, after much international negotiation. The South African Government acceded to the Kyoto Protocol in July 2002. As a non-annex I country, South Africa is not required to meet any specific emission reduction or limitation targets in terms of its commitments under the UNFCCC or the Kyoto protocol (DEAT, 2004).

South African transport’s contribution to climate change

The transport sector is the most rapidly growing source of greenhouse gas emissions in South Africa and is the second most significant source of greenhouse gas emissions in most middle and high income countries. In 2000, the transport sector accounted for about 19% of South Africa’s greenhouse gas emissions (DEAT, 2004). The high energy intensity in this sector in South Africa can be attributed to the extensive use of synthetic fuels, and their production process. Figure 5.1 illustrates the relationships between energy carriers and energy consumption in South Africa. From this it is evident that transport is 98% reliant on petroleum liquids and 2% reliant on electricity as a source of energy. Most of South Africa’s electricity is generated from coal, which is also a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. While mandatory vehicle emission standards have been in place in many countries for a number of years, South Africa has introduced emission specifications only for new passenger car models approved for sale with effect from 2005, and for all new vehicle models (also including sports utility vehicles, light delivery vehicles and on-road trucks) with effect from 2006 (SAPIA, 2008). From 2008 onwards, SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 5: Impacts of Transport and Mobility on Climate Change

of enabling unleaded petrol, which has been marketed in South Africa since 1996 (SAPIA, 2008). Prior to the introduction of these standards, some of the vehicles sold were either imported from countries where standards were in place or were manufactured to conform to emissions standards, this being the only technical option for that model. The majority of vehicles sold, particularly entry level models, did, however, not conform (SAPIA, 2008). The current South African Vehicle Parc is, thus, dominated by high emitting vehicles. Furthermore, there is currently no specific requirement to maintain these vehicles to any emissions limit.

Figure 5.1 – Energy carriers and consumption in South Africa, 2006 Source: ASPO SA et al, 2008

Effects of climate change on South African transport

An increase in temperature of the earth’s atmosphere will bear significant ramifications for rainfall and water resources, human and animal health, agricultural production, forestry, sea levels and the stability of coastal zones, the fishing industry and overall biodiversity (SAWS, 2009). These effects will impact transport in terms of road safety and accidents, congestion, infrastructure maintenance and overall demand for transportation (Koetse & Rietveld, 2009). Climate change might, however, present South Africa with an opportunity to benefit from international mitigation schemes, whilst reducing its emissions contribution. Through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), South Africa can obtain funding for emissions reduction projects from developed countries in the form of carbon credits. It is important to realise that such funding must result in projects that are in line with South Africa’s domestic sustainable development needs. One example of a transport project that qualifies for carbon funding is the introduction of public transport systems, particularly Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems (UNFCCC, 2009). To date there are 7 registered and approved CDM methodologies for transport projects. The South African Minister of Finance announced a proposal to reduce the current ad valorem excise duty rate on the sale of new motor vehicles, while introducing an additional excise duty component to take into account CO2 emissions (SAICA, 2009). This implies that car owners will have to pay more for vehicles with higher emissions rates in the future, should the proposal be accepted. Furthermore, mention has been made about South Africa setting itself a voluntary emissions reduction target. Such a target could involve the government’s introduction of penalties for noncompliance, effectively forcing transport operators and users to start mitigation efforts. South Africa’s position regarding potential targets should become evident after the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP15) in December 2009. The agreement to be reached at COP15 needs to ensure that adequate funding will become available to help developing countries make their transport sector more sustainable and low carbon (SUTP, 2009). Future funding for sustainable, low carbon transport could be delivered as part of the financial mechanisms to be agreed upon in 50


chapter 5: Impacts of Transport and Mobility on Climate Change

Copenhagen as well as through a new dedicated Low Carbon Transport Facility to kick-start action on sustainable, low carbon transport in the developing countries.

Transport emissions mitigation measures and potential impacts

The enhanced greenhouse effect can generally be slowed down by one of two courses of action: increasing carbon sinks, which remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere (e.g. planting trees), or decreasing the sources of greenhouse gas emissions (SAWS, 2009). Transport is a source of emissions and, therefore, all mitigation efforts are aimed at reducing emissions generation. Road transport is the major mode of transport in South Africa, consuming 87% of total transport energy demand (DME, 2006). It is logical to start mitigation efforts with a focus on road transportation. Presently, all road transport is fuelled by either petrol or diesel in South Africa. A biofuels market penetration rate of 2% is targeted for 2012 (Vanderschuren et al, 2008). South Africa’s move towards cleaner fuels began in 1986, with the reduction of lead in petrol and the subsequent reduction of sulphur levels in both petrol and diesel. Unleaded Petrol (ULP) was first introduced locally in 1996 with lead finally being removed entirely from the marketplace in 2006 (SAPIA, 2009). These changes have had a significant impact on reducing harmful vehicle emissions. From an air quality perspective the main benefit was, however, achieved from the introduction of catalytic converters. These converters reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide by up to 90% and could now be fitted to all new lead free petrol driven vehicles (SAPIA, 2009). It needs to be mentioned that there is no formal scheme for retrofitting older vehicles with catalytic converters at present. Poorly maintained vehicles are significantly worse polluters than well maintained ones, and this is especially true for emissions controlled vehicles with exhaust after-treatment (SAPIA, 2008). Cleaner fuels initiatives need to be cognisant of the fact that the exhaust emissions of a badly maintained, older vehicle will not improve with use of highly advanced fuels. Cleaner fuels should be introduced only as part of a co-ordinated and systematic approach including new vehicle technology, enabling fuels and appropriate vehicle inspection and maintenance programmes, if the ultimate objective of an improvement in the ambient air quality in South Africa is to be achieved (SAPIA, 2009). Developing countries must play a lead role in making their transport systems sustainable and low carbon through a combination of transport policy instruments, institutional capacity development, appropriate pricing mechanisms and mobilisation of financial resources (SUTP, 2009). SAPIA (2009) indicates the importance of government driving initiatives to improve air quality whilst taking into account the particular circumstances that apply in South Africa. The need for government leadership is evident when considering that vehicle emission legislation was implemented only with effect from 2006 (on new models) and on all new vehicles with effect from the beginning of 2008, despite petrol being of a quality to enable these changes since 1996 (SAPIA, 2009). According to the output from the Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) meeting, which was held by international transport experts drawn from multilateral and bilateral development organisations, research institutes and civil society and was convened by the Asian Development Bank and the Clean Air Institute with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation, technological improvements alone will not be sufficient for the transport sector to make a significant contribution to mitigation of greenhouse gases (SUTP, 2009). They suggest a sector wide reorientation of transport, combining policies and measures to avoid the need for travel, shift to the more efficient modes, and improve efficiency of motorised modes of transport. The so called “Avoid-Shift-Improve” approach combines measures aimed at (SUTP, 2009): • Avoiding or reducing the need to travel through improved access to daily needs. A reduction of the need for long distances to be travelled can be best achieved by the integration of land use and transport. • Shifting travel to, or keeping the modal share of the most efficient mode, which in most cases will be either non-motorised or public transport, and by strengthening the attractiveness of these modes of travel. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 5: Impacts of Transport and Mobility on Climate Change

• Improving existing forms of motorised transport through technological improvements and innovations to make engines and fuels less carbon intensive and by managing transport network operations for peak efficiency through such strategies as smart traffic and public transport system management. According to the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (2004), the most significant passenger transport challenge in South Africa is to improve the currently inadequate public transport system significantly enough to retain most of the 86% of daily commuters it currently carries. Measures include provision of new vehicles, security on public transport and for non-motorised transport, integration of modes and their timetables or services, the introduction of clear information and customer service training, increased maintenance of vehicles, stops and stations, and formalisation of the minibus taxi sector. There is a variety of policies and measures that can support sustainable, low carbon transport, including (SUTP, 2009; UK DfT, 2009, DEAT, 2004): • Planning instruments that include measures on land use and infrastructure, encompassing public transport and non-motorised modes, as well as new low carbon technologies and fuels. • Regulatory instruments that include norms, rules or standards to limit the behaviour of individual actors and corporate entities, defining allowable levels of emissions, types of vehicle design and technologies, vehicle emissions standards, fuel standards and amount of travel activity. • Economic instruments that use cost-based incentives (taxes, fees, rebates and markets) to discourage high carbon transport and make low carbon options more attractive. • Instruments that provide information in easily accessible formats to educate the public and increase the awareness of alternative modes, leading to a modal shift to public transport, walking or cycling, improved driver behaviour and reduced fuel consumption. • Technological instruments that can reduce the impact on carbon emissions when travel by motorised transport is necessary, for example, through cleaner or alternative fuels and improving vehicle efficiency. • M  anagement instruments to achieve greater operational efficiency in transport (such as Intelligent Transport Systems). These instruments often merely require the training of human resources to unlock the potential benefits embedded in the system. • Travel replacement instruments (travel demand management) that negate the need for travel through technology or spatial planning.

Figure 5.2 identifies mitigation measures, their purpose and relationships. It should be noted that policies and standards can affect any of the three elements listed and, therefore, represent item 4 in figure 5.2.

Obstacles to mitigation efforts in South Africa

Developing countries face the challenge of providing increased mobility and access to goods and services to further economic and social development without compromising the environmental sustainability of this further development (SUTP, 2009). Implementing mitigation plans in South Africa is, thus, not as straightforward as it may seem. There are many obstacles that hinder the successful 52


chapter 5: Impacts of Transport and Mobility on Climate Change

implementation and adoption of measures. Some of the most noteworthy obstacles include: the unsustainable (98%) dependence on fossil-based fuels as energy source for transport, inequitable infrastructure cost recovery between modes, the present condition and lack of required infrastructure, capacity issues and bottle necks, old and insufficient equipment, technology and facilities, inadequate skills in the labour force, poor information and data on current operations limiting planning ability, the existence of monopolies and resulting ownership issues, the spatial orientation and distribution of production and attraction zones in the country and the transport system designs inherited from previous governments (Lane, 2009). AVOID






Land Use Planning

Infrastructure Development for New Propulsion Systems

Taxes and Charges

Fuel Quality Standards

Traffic Management

Vehicle Occupancy Management

Inter-modal Infrastructure Development


Vehicle Emissions Standards

Fleet Management

Vehicle Load Management

Infrastructure Provision Subsidies for New Energy Sources

Training of Transport Operators

Incentives for New Technology Adoption

Training of Human Resources for Traffic Management

Information Technology Substituting Travel

Logistics Management

Urban Infrastructure (Re)Design

Green Transport Marketing Campaigns

Equitable Infrastructure Infrastructure Development for All Maintenance Modes

Vehicle Maintenance

Provision of Integrated Public Transport Systems

Vehicle Design Improvements

Intelligent Transport Systems

Table 5.1 – Potential mitigation measures and their impacts

An assessment of these obstacles has lead to the conclusion that energy efficiency enhancement measures are the most viable alternatives for implementation in South Africa. Measures that can be implemented and make an impact over the short to medium term are favoured because they are associated with less uncertainty, lower risk, generally lower costs, greater ease of implementation and, therefore, a higher probability of success (Lane, 2009). It appears that the South African transport system is better suited towards measures that aim to remove excess in the system, than those requiring new investment, infrastructure or radical thinking. Policy and regulatory measures (such as driving bans, fuel rationing and tolling schemes) are deemed non-viable and the viability of alternative fuels and propulsion systems over the short to medium term is doubtful in general (Lane, 2009). Possible unintended repercussions, such as changes in land-use patterns due to high speed rail or those described by the Khazzoom-Brookes postulate, need to be kept in mind when implementing policies (Vanderschuren et al, 2009). It is important to solve a problem by not creating another problem. South Africa generally looks to developed countries to identify action plans for transport and environmental management. Given the limited proof of success of some European policies, combined with the South African budgetary constraints, South Africa needs to be cautious in the selection of policies to adopt (Vanderschuren et al, 2009). Strong political will and visionary leadership is required to drive change, because successful mitigation requires spending today in order to reap benefits SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 5: Impacts of Transport and Mobility on Climate Change

years from now. There needs to be a great sense of urgency when it comes to realising the vision of a low carbon sustainable transport system as the government and municipalities are in the process of planning investments in transport systems and infrastructure which will lock in transport emissions for the next 20-30 years (SUTP, 2009).


Transport is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Luckily, a host of mitigation alternatives are available. Implementation will need to be skilfully managed though – there are many hurdles to overcome. First and foremost is the requirement of strong government leadership, bringing legislation and mitigation efforts together in combined, climate friendly strategies. It is important not to disregard the operational and maintenance requirements of any implemented measure. Financial, human and other resources have to be made available to guarantee the long-term impact of implemented mitigation measures. Should South Africa refrain from managing emissions in its transport system, it runs the risk of expensive penalties and abrupt forced changes to the system imposed through international pressure. To ensure continued and smooth development of the South African economy, it is best to develop along a sustainable and low emissions pathway from the start. Short to medium term mitigation measures are preferred in the South African context. Examples of such measures include: increasing the maintenance levels of transport equipment and infrastructure, using Intelligent Transport Systems combined with human resource training and education, the implementation of fuel and vehicle standards and using economic incentives to promote clean transport. The most promising long term mitigation alternatives are to move the current transport system to more sustainable modes with higher load factors (freight) and occupancy rates (passenger transport) and to improve public and non-motorised transport infrastructure and services. Additionally, cleaner technology should be promoted and embraced. REFERENCES: Association for the Study of Peak Oil South Africa (ASPO SA), Vanderschuren M and Lane T, 2008. Energy and Transport Status Quo: Demand and Vulnerabilities, Research report submitted to the National Department of Transport, September 2008 (Final draft). Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), 2004. A national climate response strategy for South Africa, Pretoria. Department of Minerals and Energy (DME), 2006. Disaggregated energy balance 2006, Pretoria. Available online: Koetse MJ and Rietveld P, 2009. The impact of climate change and weather on transport: an overview of empirical findings, Transportation Research Part D, vol. 14, p. 205 – 221. Lane T, 2009. Assessing sustainability and energy efficiency improvement measures in freight transportation, 28th Annual Southern African Transport Conference, Pretoria. South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA), 2009. The oil industry and the move to cleaner fuels, Information Sheet 2. South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA), 2008. Petrol and diesel in South Africa and the impact on air quality. Available online: Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP), 2009. Common Policy Framework to support sustainable, low carbon transport in developing countries. Available online: UK Department for Transport (UK DfT), 2009. Low carbon transport: a greener future, Report presented to the UK Parliament, ISBN number: 9780101768221, July 2009. Vanderschuren MJWA, Lane T and Korver W, 2009. Managing energy demand through transport policy: what can South Africa learn from Europe?, Energy Policy, Article in press. Vanderschuren MJWA, Jobanputra R and Lane T, 2008. Potential transportation measures to reduce South Africa’s dependency on crude oil, Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, Vol. 19, No 3, p. 20 – 29. Websites: South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA), available online:, accessed 4 November 2009. South African Weather Services (SAWS), available online:, accessed 3 November 2009. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), available online:, accessed 4 November 2009.



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Protecting the Environment with BASF’s mobile solutions The world is becoming increasingly mobile: Around half of the world’s oil production is processed to power cars, planes and ships. BASF offers environmentally compatible solutions that save energy, ranging from catalysts, particulate filters and fuel additives, to light plastics and all the way to textiles and coatings. In this way, BASF helps to improve comfort, enhance performance, reduce fuel consumption, improve safety and lower emissions.

Images: BASF SE

Catalysts for clean air The number of cars worldwide is rising - the result: worse air pollution. For this reason, many big cities are focusing on public transport systems and clean exhaust gas technologies. With BASF’s help, Beijing fitted one thousand buses with SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalysts. SCR technology reduces harmful emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by more than 60%. Together with BASF’s reduction agent AdBlue®, the SCR catalyst converts NOx into water vapor and nitrogen, Catalyst testing facility in Union, New Jersey, USA Three-way-catalyst durability tested using long term stress testing. It is possible to simulate 120,000 mile natural constituents of the air iscatalyst activity in 50-100 hours using temperatures in excess of 1000 °C we breathe. SCR is one of BASF’s solutions for meeting the growing demand for emission reduction technologies – a result of the increasingly strict regulations for diesel-powered commercial vehicles worldwide. In this way, BASF is helping to implement current and future emission standards, not only in China but also in many other countries. In South Africa, BASF’s High-tech mobile emission catalysts plant in Port Elizabeth manufactures Three-way Catalysts, Diesel Oxidation Catalysts and Diesel Particulate Filters. Lighter planes and safer trains Saving fuel by using lighter seats: To reduce the weight of aircraft seats, manufacturers have been turning to lighter materials – for example BASF’s flame retardant Basotect® foam. Up to one kilogram in weight can be saved for each economy class seat, and up to four kilos for business and first-class seats. And, on the Airbus 380, Basotect® would represent a weight saving of 600 kilos compared with conventional materials. An aircraft manufacturer has calculated that the cost of refitting an aircraft with Basotect® would be recouped in just two months.


BASF foam passes tests of the EU fire classification standards for buildings and trains

Safe journeys by train: BASF’s foams improve safety: Basotect® UF already has the highest possible rating for organic insulating materials according to the EU’s new fire protection standards for trains. Basotect® does not melt or drip when exposed to a flame and is therefore ideally suited for the thermal insulation of train walls and ceilings, or the sound insulation of ventilation systems. Saving fuel with BASF As part of the “Germany and China – Moving Ahead Together” initiative in Nanjing, BASF sponsored 50 taxis owned by Zhongbei Taxi Company with its innovative and environmentally friendly Keropur® fuel additive. Keropur® protects the entire fuel intake system from deposits, ensuring an ideal fuel-air mixture for efficient combustion. This saves repair costs, and reduces fuel consumption and emissions, BASF’s Keropur® fuel additives keep the thus protecting the environment. To meet the requirements engine clean and reduce emissions and of the Chinese market, BASF established an engine test lab in fuel consumption Beijing in 2005, together with the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences. The goal of this cooperation is to improve the quality of Chinese gasoline significantly and to adapt it to the requirements of the latest engine technology. Contact Us: BASF Holdings South Africa (Pty) Ltd, 852 Sixteenth Road, Midrand P O Box 2801, Halfway House 1685, South Africa Switchboard: +27 11 203 2400 Fax: +27 11 203 2431 Corporate Communications Petra Bezuidenhout

chapter 6: Spatial Analysis and modelling based on activities



chapter 6: Spatial Analysis and modelling based on activities

Spatial Analysis and modelling based on activities Dr. D.C.U. Conradie Senior Researcher Building Science and Technology CSIR Built Environment


This chapter describes the development of an agent based Computational Building Simulation (CBS) tool, termed KRONOS that is being used to support advanced research questions such as traffic safety assessment and user behaviour in buildings. The intention is to provide better support for dynamic space-time related research as well as investigations into static built environment modelling and simulations such as people motion studies. The authors (CSIR researchers) view CBS as a technical specialisation of Building Product Models (BPM) also known as Building Information Models (BIM). The research findings, supported by a traffic safety case study and other precedent research, indicate that traffic safety assessment can not be predicted through vehicular traffic micro simulation models alone. It must be understood as a contextual product of both vehicles, drivers, pedestrians, animals and the environment. To study traffic safety requires simulators with both advanced static and dynamic capabilities. The research team created a modelling and simulation environment based on an experimental BPM. Within this environment agents and props were placed to dynamically simulate and predict emergent behaviour. Emergence is the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a large number of simple agent interactions. The data from this case study and other precedent case studies used in KRONOS indicated that the agent based micro modelling approach is feasible. South Africa has the highest number of people killed in road accidents per 100 000 people. South African cities have a road fatality rate that is significantly higher than cities in other parts of the world. Compared to European cities, the fatality rate is between five and eight times higher (Vanderschuren, 2008). The Moloto Road, north of Pretoria (Route 573) is notorious for the large number of serious road collisions and casualties that occur here frequently. An analysis of accident data (Department of Roads and Transport, 2008) for the period January to December 2007 for the most hazardous sections that include Zakheni, KwaMahlanga, Phola Park and Vezubuhle indicates that the two most common types of accidents are Pedestrian (32.47%) and Head/ Rear (28.57%). U-Turn, Side Swipe and Rolled combined contribute equally to 35.06% of accidents. 53.25% of accidents within said area fall within the serious category (Figure 6.1).

Figure 6.1: KRONOS modelling of Moloto Road



chapter 6: Spatial Analysis and modelling based on activities

The road serves as a commuter route for a large number of workers to Gauteng (especially Tshwane) from many widely spread low density residential communities living across the provincial border in Mpumalanga Province. It was decided to study the area marked in red (Figure 1) intensively for the purposes of the simulation case study and to build an agent based simulation. The section of approximately 8.5 km starts at 25° 24’ 12.25” S and 28° 42’ 04.54” E and ends at 25° 23’ 50.17” S and 28° 47’ 27.76” E.

Agent based simulation

In the late 1950s Allen Newell and Herbert Simon proved that computers could do more than calculate. Marvin Minsky, head of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Artificial Intelligence (AI) project at the time, announced with confidence that within a generation the problem of creating Artificial Intelligence would be substantially solved. Then suddenly the field of AI ran into unexpected difficulties. The trouble started with a failure of attempts to program an understanding of children’s stories. The program lacked the common understanding sense of a four year old and so no one knew how to give the program the background knowledge necessary for understanding even the simplest stories. An old rationalist dream was at the heart of the problem. At the time AI was based on the Cartesian idea that all understanding consists in forming and using appropriate symbolic representations. For Descartes, these representations were complex descriptions built up out of primitive ideas or elements. Bellman (1978:144) came to the conclusion that the human brain remains far superior to anything that can be mechanised. Against abovementioned background simulation programs could not produce reliable analysis until the beginning of the 1990’s. Even if the algorithms behind these programs were based on proven analytical methods, hardware capabilities were severely limiting the researchers. Post-Modern Artificial Intelligence (AI) brought new more realistic opportunities in the simulation field. According to Riesbeck (1996:374) AI is the search for answers to the eternal question: Why are computers so stupid? Riesbeck (1996:377) indicates that the problem of AI is to describe and build components that reduce the stupidity of the systems in which they function. The goal should be the improvement of how systems function through the development of intelligent components to those systems. One does not want a micro simulation system that attempts to equal the formidable capabilities of the human brain. One wants a simulation system that can, within the closed world of traffic simulation, support and reasonably predicts likely outcomes for a given scenario. In Post-Modern AI, AI becomes a more realistic and invisible part of the overall system. At the moment two fundamentally different types of approaches are used with regards microscopic traffic simulation, i.e. cellular automata and agent based approaches. A cellular automaton consists of a regular grid of cells, each in one of a finite number of states. The grid can have any finite number of dimensions. Time is also discrete and the state of a particular cell at time t is a function of the states of a finite number of cells (called its neighbourhood) at time t – 1. These neighbours are a selection of cells relative to the specified cell, and do not change (though the cell itself may be in its neighbourhood, it is not usually considered a neighbour). Every cell has the same rule for updating, based on the values in its neighbourhood. Each time the rules are applied to the whole grid a new generation is created. This approach makes it very difficult to simulate the real world realistically, e.g. where pedestrians and animals interact with vehicles within a particular environment. In contrast the KRONOS approach is agent based. Wooldridge (1997) defines an agent to be: • An autonomous system, making decisions based on its internal state, • Situated in an environment and being able to perceive it in order to react to the changes, • Able to take the initiative and exhibit goal-directed behaviour, • Able to interact with other agents and to cooperate. 60


chapter 6: Spatial Analysis and modelling based on activities

Russel et al. (2003) defines four types of agents. The simple reflex agent determines its actions solely through reactions based on condition action rules. If a particular condition becomes true, it becomes active. This type of agent is simple, but is inadequate for complex problems requiring more than one action and foreseeing forthcoming states of the environment. The model-based agent maintains a state of the world updated by its sensory inputs and by functions describing changes over time including the effects of own actions. This softens the requirements of fully observable environment required by the first type. The reasoning is based on the representation of the environment in the agent’s internal state. Goal-based agents comprise goals. As their goals can change or addressed in different ways, goal-based agents are more flexible when used in applications. The choice of action is determined by the environment, the agent’s internal state and by a set of goals. Planning and search is used if there are goals that cannot be achieved by a single action or procedure. Many successful agent architectures are based on the belief-desire-intention model (BDI) of agency that is essentially an extension of the goal-based agent. This architecture is based on a model of human-like traits and mental attitudes (Bratman, 1987). In this model, each agent carries beliefs; its internal representation of what is sensed (informational attitudes). The agent also has desires or plans to achieve its goals (motivational attitudes). Finally the agent outputs an intention, that what the agent strives to achieve in the environment (deliberative attitudes) (Pokahr, 2005). The BDI model does not cover emotional and other ‘higher’ human attitudes. KRONOS is a generic Computational Building Simulation (CBS) tool that was developed over the past three years to work on advanced architectural and built environment research questions such as user behaviour in buildings. The intention was to provide better support for dynamic space-time related research as well as investigations into static building modelling and simulations such as energy performance. Two precedent empirical case studies (Conradie et al., 2007) indicated that building performance can not be predicted through the development of building and environmental models alone. It must be understood as a product of both an environment and its users. To study or predict building environment performance requires both advanced static and dynamic capabilities. One of the innovations in KRONOS is the inclusion of a dynamics engine to facilitate more realistic accident simulation and the analysis of forces and vehicle performance during an accident. The particular dynamics engine used is Open Dynamics Engine (ODE). It is an open source, high performance software library for simulating rigid body dynamics. It is fully featured, stable, mature and platform independent with an easy to use C/C++ Application Program Interface (API). It has advanced joint types and integrated collision detection with friction. ODE is particularly useful for simulating vehicles, objects in virtual reality environments and virtual entities such as pedestrians. It is currently used in many computer games, 3D authoring tools and simulation tools. The latter is of particular interest to the research team and is directly applicable to the current project. It was realised that the particular requirements of traffic safety assessment on the Moloto Road (Route 573) could be met with the unique agent based approach of KRONOS if it is refined further. An agent is seen as any entity that can move, such as vehicles, pedestrians and animals. KRONOS also uses entities called props or pads. Props are normally static and are placed in the simulation environments. Props can be “observed” or “sensed” by the agents and include entities such as traffic lights, road furniture, trees and buildings. It is the opinion of the research team that agent based simulations will yield better results than for example cellular automata for a number of reasons. • Accuracy: Traffic flows consist of a large number of complex emergent behaviours. It is the result of the individual decisions of drivers, pedestrians, traffic controllers and other individuals. Agent technology helps building micro simulation models with detailed, rich behaviours for individual entities. The architecture for individual agents promote modularising internal behaviour and decision making capabilities of an agent and changing behaviour from its interactions with other agents. This is particularly important for driver and pedestrian behaviour that changes with locality as well as time. • Computational performance: Agent technology is inherently distributed. In future it would be possible to deploy KRONOS on a network of computers. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 6: Spatial Analysis and modelling based on activities

• S  tudy of scenarios: Scenarios can be configured in KRONOS. These scenarios are then run in almost real time. Due to the interaction of a large number of parameters or characteristics emergent behaviours develop such as traffic congestions and accidents. The parameters for individual agents and props can be adjusted to test hypotheses or to determine the benefits that might be derived with changed conditions. Agent based simulations require reliable datasets to facilitate the simulation and to provide context. In the Moloto Road project the first step was to acquire data in three main categories: • Agent related data: This is data that relate to the number and type of vehicles. It also includes the pedestrian behaviour as well as the presence of free roaming animals. • Prop related data: This category relates to the position of existing significant entities such as bus stops, road furniture, trees, bridges, retail areas and houses to make the simulation context realistic. • Environment related data: This type of data relate to characteristics of the environment such as visibility and the position of the sun. The last requirement is a detailed vector based map of the road section being studied that will act as a “virtual stage” on which the agents and props will be placed.

Research method

It is generally recognised that the reasons for the exceptionally high accident rate in the area under consideration, especially over weekends, is due to many complex and interacting factors. The simulation team assumed that some of the factors could never be quantified such as driver and pedestrian attitudes and perceptions. Similarly the roadworthiness of vehicles on this road is not known. For this reason it was decided to concentrate on the reasonably scientifically knowable. The simulation team specifically avoided jumping to conclusions without thorough investigation. In order to progress with the KRONOS simulations, the following five basic fundamental hypotheses were made and configured on the simulation platform: • Accidents are mainly caused by reckless and aggressive driving. • Accidents are mainly alcohol related, causing slow reaction times leading to accidents. • Accidents are mainly caused by cognitive/ sensory factors such as bad visibility in all its various manifestations such as direct sunlight, lack of street lighting and cognitive overload. • Accidents are caused by inconsistent road markings and signs or a generally badly designed road. • Accidents are mainly caused by unexpected driver behaviour such as taxis suddenly stopping without warning. It is recognised that the actual causes of accidents are probably a combination of the abovementioned factors. Two additional base line scenarios were configured, i.e. Real World and Ideal World scenarios. The base line scenarios helped to calibrate the relative contributions of the causes of accidents given in the other five hypotheses mentioned above.

Simulation case study

A preliminary visit was paid to Moloto Road on 4 December 2007 to get a sense of the state of road safety in the area. On 13 December 2007, the research team set out on a more extensive site inspection of the road. The trip was made onboard a vehicle equipped with video surveillance and GPS equipment. The electronic equipment enabled the research team to re-run the whole trip from the office and collect relevant data for the project. To configure the KRONOS simulation it was decided that the following data would be essential, although other data like conventional road safety audits were also obtained. 1) The availability of exact traffic volumes according to headways, vehicle categories and speeds. 2) Detailed CAD design drawings of the study area especially the complex Kwamahlanga four way stop intersection. This is essential for KRONOS because it essentially provides the simulation environment for the agent based simulations. 62


chapter 6: Spatial Analysis and modelling based on activities

3) Identification of hazardous road sections to narrow down the area for intensive study. From accident reports it was apparent that it was the area indicated in red on Figure 6.1. 4) Road accident data. This exercise proved very successful and the Accident Report (AR) forms for 2007 (except for October 2007) were retrieved from different police stations. These accident reports informed abovementioned statistics for the study area accurately. 5) A land-use survey was conducted on 10 April 2008 covering the study area. This is the most hazardous section of the Moloto road, about 8.5 km in length. Four aerial (satellite) photos, covering the entire area, of the Moloto road were obtained from the CSIR Satellite Applications Centre (SAC). The images are from the French SPOT IMAGE 5 satellite and the image used was recorded on 5 January 2007 at 11h32. The images are recorded in five electromagnetic spectrum bands, panchromatic, green, red, near-infra-red and short-wave infrared. The raw image has false colours and had to be adjusted to get natural colour and reduced in size to make it useable in the simulation environment. (Figure 6.2) 6) Vehicle specifications. To ensure accurate vehicular simulations detailed specifications were obtained for busses and minibus taxis. The road vehicle performance simulations in KRONOS are based on the algorithms as described by Mannering et al. (2005). The following factors were requested from vehicle manufacturers: • Total Vehicle mass in kg (Without Passengers) • Weight of vehicle on front axle in kg. (With and without passengers) • Weight of vehicle on rear axle in kg (With and without passengers) • Vehicle dimensions in mm (width, length and height) • Frontal area, i.e. total area of vehicle meeting the rush of air whilst travelling in m². This is a value required to determine the aerodynamic resitance of the vehicle. • Number of passengers (including driver) • Maximum torque in Nm • Maximum power in kW • Vehicle Name and model. • Is the vehicle front wheel or rear wheel drive. • Length of wheelbase in m. • Height of centre of gravity above road surface in m. • Distance from the front axle to the centre of gravity in m. • Distance from the rear axle to the center of gravity in m. The research team also wanted to know if the particular vehicle is fitted with devices such as ABS or other braking, traction or stability improvement devices. It is important because different formulas are used in these cases. From this data the team built an extensive simulation model containing a combination of vehicular and pedestrian agents. A portion of the model is illustrated in Figure 6.3. It contains a raster layer with colour coded land use reference points and a vector layer assembed from simplified CAD road design geometric drawings. A total of 393 simulations were run and the emergent behaviours of the combination of agents were observed and studied. In the simulations 1 137 agents were typically used, of which 194 were concurrent at any point in time. Each agent took approximately 100 decisions per second, which translated to 19 400 decisions per second during complex simulations. The most complex simulations were run continuously and automatically over a period of three days. In future it would be possible to study various interventions such as the placement of barriers to create order, subways and bridges. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 6: Spatial Analysis and modelling based on activities

Figure 6.2: Preparation of SPOT IMAGE 5 satellite image. (Raw left, processed right)

Figure 6.3: Section of 2D simulation drawing with a vector and raster layer


The simulations indicated the following potential problems in the study area: 3.1 Removal of factors leading to cognitive / sensory overload. The model showed that too many simultaneous decisions have to be taken by the Moloto road user, which increases their vulnerability. It became clear that the road network should be designed to ensure uniformity in operations and decision-making. This concept is supported by the Dutch practice of “Sustainable Safety” (SWOV website). The basic principles of this approach ensure: • Functionality of roads. • Homogeneity of mass, speed and direction. • Recognisability of the road design and predictability of the road course and road user behaviour. In sustainable safe road traffic, the entire traffic and transport system is adapted to human limitations. The aim is to prevent accidents and to limit the consequences of accidents. 64


chapter 6: Spatial Analysis and modelling based on activities

3.2 Removal of illegal road entrances. Too many and unexpected entrances hamper safe driving practices. 3.3 Removal of informal shops and commercial activity in the road reserve. These add to the cognitive/ sensory clutter that the driver has to process along the roadway. 3.4 Rationalisation of road signs/markings. Drivers should be informed well in advance of any hazard or change in road conditions so that they can make informed decisions while driving. 3.5 Rationalisation of pedestrian crossings. Pedestrian crossings should be provided and well signposted where large numbers of pedestrians regularly cross the roadway so that the driving task can be simplified. 3.6 Street lighting in high-density areas. Street lighting is essential in areas where activity can be expected in the road reserve especially during the hours of darkness. 3.7 Road function. Decide whether the road functions as a suburban or main road.


The case study indicated that the agent based approach, although still experimental, shows much promise. However, it took a significant amount of effort to obtain relevant data and to process it in a form suitable for simulation. A sun calculator that has also been developed as part of the simulation platform has identified hazardous months of the year where visibility on the road near sunrise and sunset would be severely impaired, possibly contributing to accidents. One of the advantages of a visual based simulation is that non-technical role players can visualise problems and it enables them to work with professional, scientific and technical designers. The vector graphic part of the simulation environment can be conveniently built by means of standard CAD programs such as AutoCAD, AutoDesk Revit, 3D Studio Max or MicroGDS. Although the development of autonomous agent based micro simulation programs is far more complex than is the case with cellular automata, the research indicates that this approach has more potential to create realistic and predictive simulations. It is for example possible to mix pure Newtonian based vehicle performance agents with pedestrians following an AI based BDI approach within one environment. The project also indicated that the sophistication of current hardware and software technology is able to meet the challenging demands posed by autonomous agent based modelling exercises within the South African context. References Bellnan, R., 1978. An introduction to artificial intelligence: can computers think? Boyd & Fraser publishing Company, San Francisco, California. Bratman, M., 1987. Intention, Plans and practical Reason. Harvard University press, Cambridge. Conradie, D.C.U., Gibberd, J., Mentz, F. And Ras, H., 2007. Towards a Continuum of Computational Building Simulation Tools to Support the Design and Evaluation of Complex Built Environments. In proceedings of CIB World Building Congress, Construction for Development, Cape Town 14-17 May 2007. Mannering, F.L., Kilareski, W.P. and Washburn, S.S., 2005. Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis. Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, USA. Pokahr, A., Brauback, L. and lamersdorf, W, 2005. Jadex: A BDI agent System combining middleware and Reasoning. Birkhuser Book. Riesbeck, C.K., 1996. Case-based Reasoning edited by D.B. leake. AAAI Press, Menlo park, California. Russell, S.J. and Norvig, P., 2003. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2nd Edition). Prentice Hall. SWOV., 2009. The Five Sustainable Safety Principles. SWOV website: (Accessed October 2009). Vanderschuren, M., 2008. Safety improvements through Intelligent Transport systems: A South African case study based on microscopic simulation modelling. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40 (2008) 807-817. Wooldridge, M., 2002. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. John Wiley and Sons.




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Gibb Roads and Highways Engineering An adequate road network, as part of the overall transportation system, is essential to serve the transportation needs of a healthy and growing economy. GIBB’s highly capable team is involved in all stages of planning, design and contract supervision of the full spectrum of highway facilities, whether they are high capacity freeways or low volume roads. Our services include: New and Upgrading of existing Roads: Report stage planning to determine the most feasible route or upgrading alternative Preliminary design stage planning Detailed design including geometric, drainage and pavement design Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation: The timeous maintenance and/or rehabilitation of the existing pavements network are fundamental to cost effective and sustainable infrastructure provision. GIBB’s experience covers the full range of services necessary to derive optimum and cost effective design solutions. Bridges: GIBB draws on its vast experience in utilising approach alternatives in the design and rehabilitation of bridges which carry people, vehicles, railways and pipelines over geographical or infrastructural barriers to produce appropriate and cost effective solutions. Procurement and Construction Supervision: Tender documentation Pre-construction services, Contract supervision Post construction services. Public Private Partnership Projects: GIBB provides support and advice to concessionaires and their financiers in public private partnership projects such as toll roads. Research: GIBB’s pavement engineering, asphalt and friction course research and development expertise are frequently published and presented at international conferences. The planning and design process requires the integration of a wide variety of inputs from a range of specialists, including town planners, engineers, geometric design, flood hydrology and hydraulics, road lighting and survey and mapping and much more.


Gibb Roads and Highways Engineering An adequate road network, as part of the overall transportation system, is essential to serve the transportation needs of a healthy and growing economy. GIBB’s highly capable team is involved in all stages of planning, design and contract supervision of the full spectrum of highway facilities, whether they are high capacity freeways or low volume roads. Our services include: New and Upgrading of existing Roads: Report stage planning to determine the most feasible route or upgrading alternative Preliminary design stage planning Detailed design including geometric, drainage and pavement design Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation: The timeous maintenance and/or rehabilitation of the existing pavements network are fundamental to cost effective and sustainable infrastructure provision. GIBB’s experience covers the full range of services necessary to derive optimum and cost effective design solutions. Bridges: GIBB draws on its vast experience in utilising approach alternatives in the design and rehabilitation of bridges which carry people, vehicles, railways and pipelines over geographical or infrastructural barriers to produce appropriate and cost effective solutions. Procurement and Construction Supervision: Tender documentation Pre-construction services, Contract supervision Post construction services. Public Private Partnership Projects: GIBB provides support and advice to concessionaires and their financiers in public private partnership projects such as toll roads. Research: GIBB’s pavement engineering, asphalt and friction course research and development expertise are frequently published and presented at international conferences. The planning and design process requires the integration of a wide variety of inputs from a range of specialists, including town planners, engineers, geometric design, flood hydrology and hydraulics, road lighting and survey and mapping and much more.


Gibb Traffic and Transportation Services The increased mobility, economic growth, higher levels of private vehicle ownership and environmental deterioration in Southern Africa increasingly impose greater demands for the implementation of innovative transportation solutions. The management and development of an integrated transport system is therefore aimed at improving mobility, increasing efficiency, reducing cost, safety as well as the appropriate management of the environment. To this end, GIBB provides specialised engineering services in Transportation Engineering by a team of highly experienced personnel. Transportation Planning, Traffic Engineering and Transport Advisory Services This specialist service provides the basis for appraising the total transport system and evaluating individual improvement schemes. Studies focus on a single mode or multi-modal integration in local, metropolitan and regional jurisdictions. The team has vast experience in the development of transport plans at national, provincial, district and local authority level. Projects include status quo assessment, demand modelling and assessment, capacity analysis, feasibility studies and implementation. GIBB’s experience in Transportation Planning, Traffic Engineering and Transport Economics is reinforced by its diverse team of engineers, technicians and technologists. The team serves both the public and private sector across Southern Africa. Areas of expertise include: Business Process Re-engineering Capacity Analysis of the transportation system (including transport modelling) Corridor Feasibility Studies Fleet Management Freight Transport Planning Integrated Transport Plans (including Operating Licence Strategy, Subsidy Rationalisation and Public Transport) Non-Motorised Transport Planning, Design and Implementation Project Finance Project Management Public Transport Operations and Infrastructure Planning, Design and Construction, including inter-modal facilities Public Transport Priority Schemes Public Transport Restructuring Road Safety Audits and Implementation Rural Transport Planning, Design and Implementation Toll Feasibility Studies Traffic Signal Design and Implementation Transport Economics Transport Impact Studies Transport Policy Development.


GIBB Railways Engineering GIBB provides advice and consulting services on all aspects of railway infrastructure and rolling stock maintenance, including review, conceptual design and project management of maintenance facilities and systems. The formulation of a maintenance philosophy, strategy and associated facility design forms a key part of a total system approach to rail projects. A maintenance life cycle perspective to the project at an early stage should be an integral part of the design process. This is especially important with the trend towards projects involving operating and maintenance concessions where the minimisation of life cycle costs is vital. The GIBB Railways Division has extensive experience of the design and construction of Privately Owned Railway Systems in Southern Africa. The design and construction of Private Sidings have successfully been completed for various clients in the Private Sector. Railway System Management of Privately Owned Railway Systems include inter alia aspects such as Track Management, Risk Analysis, Operational Assessments, Life Expectancy Plans as well as Railway Business Consulting.

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chapter 7: The Role of Public Transport



chapter 7: The Role of Public Transport

The Role of Public Transport Mokena Makeka Principal MDL Architects


Public transport should be viewed as a support system for public space. Transport provides access to public space which allows commerce to flourish. Public spaces are the crucible of social engagement, discourse and identity. Without transport they would be stifled. Public transport by its very definition allows for the greatest access and movement in terms of quantity of users, and thus can act as an incredible boost for the functions of public space. Cities which have no integration between public space and public transport inevitably seem messy or disorganized. The cities which maintain the diversity of their public open space systems and recognize and celebrate the natural qualities of their environment will be the balanced city of the future. Transport enables the mobility of people, and goods and the opportunity for the magic of public space to become the backdrop for the fantastic and just society we all imagine. We need extraordinary places that make ordinary activities possible. The challenge of a nuanced approach to city management is in moving beyond broad-brush debates about density and nodes and corridors that tend to dominate public discourse on spatial planning. A great city requires leadership that is brave enough to respond to the characteristics of each particular situation, and not standardise to the lowest common denominator in order to simplify the planning process. Public transport serves to maximize consumer choice. When different modes of public transport are integrated they mobilise the particular characteristics of different modes to the greatest effect, thus providing the user with greater choice. Urban planning needs to incorporate a grid of continuous, direct public transportation channels across the metropolitan area. These channels should integrate different modes of public transportation, and should be reinforced by high density building. This is not only to the great benefits of the people who will occupy the housing, but also contributes to the viability of the transportation system. Create a compact, intensive and convenient city which operates as an integrated system, which works well at the level of the lowest common denominator (people on foot), which makes maximum use of limited resources and which is respectful of its beautiful natural setting. (Dewar and Uytenbogaardt, 1991) Many factors contribute to economic and social progress, but mobility is especially important because the ingredients of satisfactory life, from food and health to education and employment, are generally available only if there is adequate means of moving people, goods and ideas. (Owen, 1987) Travel is in short both a sustainable and sustaining activity which cities rely on say Thorne and FilmerSankey (2003).

Sustainable Public Transport:

In 1986, the World Bank report on public transport policy proposed public transport as the most efficient means of moving large numbers of people, especially in dense areas. Bus services, in particular, provide considerable flexibility in meeting demands for transport at various levels of quality and quantity.


A 2002 study by the Brookings Institution and the American Enterprise Institute found that public transportation in the U.S uses approximately half the fuel required by motor vehicles. In addition, the SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


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study noted that “private vehicles emit about twice as much carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide than public vehicles for every passenger mile traveled”. Studies show that the denser the population, the less energy is used for transportation. Public transport could play a key role in increasing urban population densities, and thus reduce travel distances and fossil fuel consumption.

Area Public transport infrastructure is considerably more dense than that of private transport, allowing cities to be built more compactly than if they were dependent on automobile transport. Public transport planning could force cities to be built more compactly to create efficient feeds into the stations of transport. This approach would significantly reduce sprawl.

Social An important social role played by public transport is to ensure that all members of society are able to travel, not just those with a driver’s licence and access to an automobile—which include groups such as the young, the old, the poor, those with medical conditions. Above that, public transportation opens to its users the possibility of meeting other people, as no concentration is diverted from interacting with fellow-travelers due to any steering activities. Public transport becomes a location of inter-social encounters across all boundaries.

Economic Public transport allows transport at an economy of scale not available through private transport. Through stimulating public transport it is possible to reduce the total transport cost for the public. Time costs can also be reduced as cars removed from the road through public transit options translate to less congestion and faster speeds for remaining motorists. Transit-oriented development can improve the usefulness and efficiency of the public transit system as well as result in increased business for commercial developers. New transport infrastructure for more efficient and effective public transportation needs to go through a long planning process. Improvements in the street environment can enhance efficiency and thus sustainability – e.g. reducing traffic speeds and giving priority to pedestrians; creating and maintaining attractive public realms; creating better pedestrian and cycle links; improving the image of public transport through well positioned stops and ensuring that new developments create a good mix of uses, Thorne and Filmer-Sankey explain (2003). In the long run the private vehicle cannot be relied upon to provide sustainable mass public transport. The effect on life in cities caused by traffic is already alarming. Thousands of children are killed in road accidents in the UK every year, and vehicle exhaust is estimated to affect 200 million people in urban areas. Pollution from traffic is also likely to have an effect on global warming. There are five approaches being applied in cities toady which make private vehicles more unsustainable than ever: • There is a serious and effective grass-roots opposition in most countries to more urban road- building on the basis that more roads mean more traffic. • Within residential areas there has been the development of traffic calming and town yards. • Controls on parking within city centers has effectively reduced has effectively reduced and controlled the amounts of traffic entering cities. • Planning laws are banning more out-of-town shopping centers or random car-orientated development. • Public transport has been maintained and improved, without which none of the other measures would be effective. (B.Richards, 2001) 76


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Problems facing Public Transport World-wide

The relationship between public space and transport has of late been an unhappy one, where the vast amounts of capital required, to execute infrastructural transport projects has often been abused as a blunt cudgel to undermine pedestrian oriented settlement making. Efficiency defined in terms of speed of vehicular movement, has lost the efficiency of human need and need for humane environments that locates transport as a service element of viable communities. Commerce and social exchange has often been stifled by poorly integrated transport strategies, and at worse has served to strangle communities and small scale economic integration straddled by transport infrastructure. Our public space is gradually being eroded. Barriers erected in the name of security not only make our remaining public spaces less secure, they shut down the sense of community that would help to strengthen public engagement. Public transport is vital to enable access and linkages between public spaces. Public transport has the ability to improve security and strengthen public engagement. Improved public transport services are often regarded as the most effective way of encouraging people to leave their cars for urban travel, but such an approach has, so far had little success. As the patterns of urban mobility in Britain show measures to encourage people to walk and cycle are far more efficient and cost-effective than those aimed at getting them to make greater use of public transport (Hillman and Cleary 1992). However the importance of door-to-door journeys should not be underestimated and personal transport is still the most frequently used mode of transport. Many people encounter difficulties when traveling by public transport due to factors such as their age, health or disability. Mobility is not just about making better connections between various modes of city transport; it is also about the quality of urban travel. In terms of mass transit systems, people should be able to sit if they want to and there should be sufficient space for bags, briefcases, shopping and prams. They say that the problem is that the means of transport-has come to dominate our lives at the expense of the journey. Current transport methods positively discourage human interaction, which is itself the bedrock of urban living argue Thorne and Filmer-Sankey (2003). Development is not simply concerned with those who in a direct way use the transport facilities provided – of great importance will be the wider consequences in the zone of influence and these are likely to show decay with distance away from the facility itself. The value of land is a function of the uses to which that land can be put and improved access and lower transport costs can have a profound effect. The extent of this change would certainly appear to be related to distance from the transport facility and also possibly the distance from main centers of population, commerce and external market links. With intensification of production, land rents and values will rise and in areas of communal land holding but personal usufruct, as in much of Africa, there will be growing competition for land which will increasingly enter into the commercial market often with litigation over issues of ownership. Changes in land use and land values consequent upon transport improvement are certainly not restricted to rural, agricultural areas although in many developing countries this is likely to be the most obvious impact. (D. Hilling, 1996)

The South African Situation – Public Transport for the few

A large percentage of commuters use private vehicles. In the large metropolitan cities, the modal split is generally 50% private to 50% public transport going into the CBD. Generally the private commuters are single occupancy vehicles which lead to increased congestion and inefficient fuel consumption with associated high levels of carbon emissions. The transport sector is responsible for 25% of carbon emissions in South African cities. Available public transport services differ across cities. In most cities there are bus and minibus taxi systems, with rail found in the main metropolitan cities, but not in the smaller cities. City bus and train systems provide the most efficient forms of transport in terms of energy per commuter kilometre; SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


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however, even though these are by and large the same price or cheaper than minibus taxis, they are underutilized. This is due to: • Inconvenience. Bus and train systems do not service many informal settlements and are often not well linked in to an efficient network of transport systems. • Unreliable reputation. • Perception that they are slower than taxis. • Safety concerns, particularly on trains. • There is a need for large scale infrastructure to improve the current public transport system in order for it to improve its current share of commuters. That infrastructure underpins the nature and performance of human settlements is commonly understood, however the depth of the interrelationship between transport, public space and optimal urban form which mitigates the impacts to the natural environment has yet to be truly plumbed. The apartheid city is exemplified by the invidious role of mobility and its historical manipulation as a device to segregate people and to reinforce conditions of spatially structured poverty. Mobility underscores economy in two primary aspects, the ability of ideas and knowledge to move freely and in turn the accessibility, and feasibility of people to pursue real choices in space and time. (Mokena) While much of the wealth in developing countries is concentrated in the urban areas the average income levels are far lower than in advanced economies and that income is most unevenly distributed so that there are large numbers of people who cannot afford any form of transport. The poor may be at one or another of five levels of mobility: • Those often newly arrived from rural areas, who cannot afford any form of transport and for whom there are no job opportunities within walking distance. Jobs rarely exist in the peripheral areas where these newcomers are forced to make their homes. • There is a situation in which jobs may be available but the cost of transport to get to them remains prohibitive. • An income level is reached at which a journey to work by cheap public transport becomes possible. • Income rises and expenditure on non-work journeys becomes feasible. • Income is such that cheaper forms of personal transport become possible – bicycle, moped – for work and other journeys.(David Hilling, 1996)

Public Transport – A South African Solution

Catalytic Projects

The goal of the “Catalytic Projects” is to initiate implementation of Integrated Rapid Public Transport Networks in targeted municipalities, simultaneously with, the current nationwide rollout of “Accelerated Modal Recovery” interventions. This involves the three to seven year modal transformation plans such as the Taxi Recapitalisation Plan, Passenger Rail Plan and the Commuter Bus Transformation Plan. The projects are intended to create the platform for a nationwide rollout of fully accessible Networks in cities and districts by 2010 onwards. The 2010 host cities are targeted for Catalytic Integrated Rapid Public Transport Network projects. Integrated rapid public transport service networks are the mobility of the future and are the best viable option that can ensure sustainable, equitable and uncongested mobility in cities. It provides mobility solution that is attractive to both current public transport users as well as current car users. The successful implementation of these networks in the targeted 12 cities and 6 rural district municipalities will see improvement in public transport service for potentially over half of the country’s population. In this regard, the aim for major cities is to upgrade both commuter rail services and bus and minibus services to a Rapid Rail and a Bus Rapid Transit level of quality respectively. Ultimately these services will be fully integrated to form a single system regardless of mode. 78


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Bus Rapid Transit System and the Soccer World Cup 2010

The 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup provides a much needed impetus to get things moving and to inject a sense of urgency and focus. The Department of Transport undertook a review of the public transport systems and this process would culminate in the development of a public transport strategy. The Minister of Finance indicated during his budget speech that investment in public transport, which are made in partnership with cities are already beginning to reshape the urban landscape and are modernizing public transport arrangements. He emphasised that these reforms should go well beyond the requirements for 2010, and should be central to the modernization and sustainability of our urban environment and for this purpose the public transport infrastructure systems grants includes R11 billion for these programmes over the next 3 years. This will help these cities to move with speed in implementing integrated rapid public transport networks and aligning to the Public Transport Strategy. A fast, comfortable and low cost urban transport system, called the “Bus Rapid Transit” (BRT) system, is being planned for the host cities of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The implementation of high quality public transport networks will bring about benefits to public transport users. Some of the key benefits of the planned “Bus Rapid Transit System [BRT] is: • Lower public transport costs. • Reduced travel times. • Extended hours of operation. • High frequencies along trunk corridors. • Full access for passenger with special needs. • Integrated fare structure through a common fare system on all modes on the network. REFERENCES DOT, 2007. Public Transport Strategy 2007-2020. South African Department of Transport, Pretoria. World Bank, 1986. Urban Transport, A World Bank Policy Study. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC, USA P.Nieuwenhuis, P.Vergragt and P.Wells., 2006. The Business of Sustainable Mobility – From Vision to Reality. Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield, UK R. Thomas., 2003. Sustainable Urban Design – an Environmental Approach. Spon Press, London, UK D.Dewar and R.S. Uytenbogaart., 1991. South African Cities – a manifesto for change. Mills Litho, Cape Town, South Africa R. Untermann., 1984. Accomodating the Pedestrian – Adapting Towns and Neighbourhoods for walking and bicycling. Van Norstrand Reinhold Company Inc. New York, New York B. Richards., 2001. Future Transport in Cities. Spon Press. London, UK D. Hilling., 1996. Transport and Developing Countries. Routledge, New York. USA South African Cities Network., 2006. State of the Cities Report.




NRV Management Solutions NRV management Solutions is a black owned and managed Investment Company established in 2006. Our investment activities are categorised under the following: Telecomms, Information Technology, Energy, Transportation (Automation) and Strategic Investments. As a black owned and managed company operating in a transforming South Africa, NRV is proud to be doing business and contributing to the transformation of the economy and society during a period of great and positive change on the African continent Mission To be a leading African investment company that creates value and makes a difference. We want to achieve this by: • Being innovative and exceeding stakeholder expectations • Embracing diversity • Focusing on sound robust investments • Understanding our stakeholders’ needs and delivering on them • Ensuring sustainability and good corporate citizenship The Group’s Operating Strategy is based on three fundamental principles: • Autonomy of individual subsidiaries under strong, entrepreneurial, experienced and decentralised operational management; • Leadership and support from a small team of corporate executives; and • Strong financial management and operating systems at subsidiary level, with a focus on corporate governance These principles are carried into effect throughout the Group, with individual subsidiary directors having full responsibility for the operational performance and strategic development of their respective businesses. Intervention from head office is assessed on a regular basis in terms of a balanced set of performance Our Solutions NRV as an investment group have recently embarked on providing the following innovative initiatives: • Initiative for Digital City, which seeks to provide locally focused online networks for voice data and video. • Initiative for Automated Meter Reading Electricity, which seeks to provide remote monitoring of household and commercial electricity meters. • Initiative for Automated Meter Reading Water, offers a combination of high quality accurate meters with information technology solutions and wireless communications in compliance with constitutional concerns. • Initiative for Energy Efficiency Consumption in industrial/ commercial lighting fields and specializing in front end technologies.


• Initiative for providing Wireless Telecommunications Systems that would enable mobile data management, multimedia and other m-commerce solutions. • Initiative for Simulators, which is a computer generated device that recreates an entire virtual driving reality. • Initiative for ICT solutions, where its major activities comprise the supply, integration and optimization of IT infrastructure, solutions and related services to corporate South Africa. • NRV ECM solutions bring together a number of collaboration, content and process technologies into integrated solutions that work harmoniously. Thereby managing the complete lifecycle of electronic documents, from their creation to archive and eventual deletion. • NRV ERP solutions for Local Government provide an opportunity for governments to realize their long pending need for flexible and powerful IT information management systems that would serve their citizens more efficiently and manage the government resources more effectively. Contact Us Looking for more information? If you would like to know more about NRV Management Solutions, please do not hesitate to contact us Johannesburg: Suite No.3, 5 Fricker Rd, Illovo, Johannesburg, 2196. Telephone: +27 11 268 6534, Fax: +27 11 268 6533, Durban: Office 2034 Commercial City Building, 40 Commercial Street, Durban, 4001 Telephone: +27 31 305 2100 Fax: +27 31 305 1271 Website:

Many practical implementation constraints exist for South Africa in the energy efficiency and renewable energy space and only some of these are linked with Government. The Energy Resource Handbook aims to identify the practical “coal face” constraints, both positive and negative, that make the implementation of sustainable energy cumbersome or challenging and seeks to provide recommendations for energy stakeholders in South Africa. Edited by Dr Elsa du Toit (SAHA), the Handbook will incorporate chapter contributions from the country’s experts and thought leaders and will include (but not be limited to): • The context in South Africa • The ideal sustainable energy vision • Existing electricity generation and possible new, more sustainable generation technologies and the environmental, economic and social impacts • Commercialisation of renewable energy and the environmental, economic and social impacts • Existing electricity transmission and possible new, more sustainable transmission technologies and the environmental, economic and social impacts • Implementation of sustainable energy by municipalities and the environmental, economic and social impacts • The perception of consumers regarding sustainable energy • Conclusions At least 8000 copies of the Energy Resource handbook will be distributed to key decision makers in and around the energy sector. Public and private sector managers, professionals, end-users, intermediaries, representative organisations, researchers and related SME companies will be targeted in the verified free circulation plan. Copies will also be available for purchase on the website www. For copy sales, distribution or advertising enquiries please contact


Energy Resource Handbook

South Africa Volume 1

The Essential Guide

chapter 8: Transport Policy in South Africa



chapter 8: Transport Policy in South Africa

Transport Policy in South Africa Andrea Firth Alive2green In Association with SA Cities Network


Transport is seldom an end in itself, but usually it is a means to an end. That end is the smooth and efficient interaction that allows society and the economy to assume their preferred form. Because of this derived nature of transport, policies in the transport sector must be outward looking, shaped by the needs of society in general, of passenger and goods customers in particular, and of the economy that transport has to satisfy. Transport legislation and strategies introduced immediately post-1994, was intentionally formulated to address the transition of transport planning and management from a strong apartheid-led policy to a system aligned with the values of the new Constitution. The 1996 White Paper on National Transport Policy reaffirmed and built on these principles, placing special emphasis on traffic quality and safety matters, and adding some additional policy objectives. These included: • Development of a comprehensive freight transport information system. • Provision of seamless intermodal services. • Current capacity of both rail and road was to be maintained and optimised. • The implementation of freight policy was to be prioritised in terms of sustainable economic and development needs within a practical and equitable distribution of all capital and costs. • A strong diverse and competitive industry was to be promoted within the limits of the sustainable transport infrastructure. • Protection of the environment, especially with regard to the transport of hazardous substances. • Human resource development and the promotion of entrepreneurial opportunities were also to receive attention. Road transport law enforcement in the interests of safety was singled out for special attention. The document also dealt with the policy objective concerning coordination of internal freight transport operations.

20-year strtegic framework

During 1997 and 1998 the Department of Transport developed a 20-year strategic framework that included some recommendations germane to this discussion: • Encourage inter-modal networks to achieve optimal economies of scale for a given volume and distance. • Promote corridor density rather than a diffused freight movement network. • Create innovative institutional and regulatory structures to coordinate the implementation of investment in an integrated fashion. For example, this would require a three-fold increase in the port-side capacity at Durban Harbour, and would have to be matched by corresponding landside improvements. • Recognise the role of SADC in freight generation. • Promote lower transit times and system costs to increase the competitiveness of customers. • Account for external cost factors such as pollution to the maximum possible degree. • Decrease the distorting effects of cross-subsidisation and increase the potential incentive to reinvest in the business. • Encourage a full cost recovery of infrastructure and externalities from users. • Stimulate integrated logistics. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


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During the initial phases of the transition, the country made some bold policy targets, such as the modal split between public and private transport and household expenditure on public transport. At the same time, a number of policy blunders, states the SA Cities Network, who believe that this has made the country unable to transcend the state of transition due to the following reasons: • Failure to anticipate the impact of increased energy costs on travel patterns. • Assumption of a surplus of skills in the country to address issues relating to transport service delivery. This has created enormous planning and implementation backlogs associated with the inability to spend allocated capital and operation budgets for improved public transport services. • The assumption that inter-sphere government coordination would work seamlessly. This has proven to be especially problematic in respect of public transport regulatory functions shared between the provinces and cities, as well as in the interface between housing provision and public transport services. • Failure to anticipate and plan for the growth of the middle class, and subsequent ability to shift completely too private transport use. • State ownership and operation of public transport infrastructure and services. • Land ownership reform. As a result of these failures, the generalised costs of transport, especially public transport, have been on the increase. The 2005/2006 income and expenditure survey (Statistics South Africa, 2008) found that transport is the one household expenditure item that increased substantially over recent years. 20% of households with the lowest income have had transport expenditure as a proportion of total household expenditure increased from 4% in 1995 to 10.6% in 2005/2006. South Africa’s present transport system reflects the goals, decisions, and investments of the past. These have fashioned the system as it now exists. The country’s priorities have changed, and the transport system needs to adapt accordingly. Most succinctly, the new priorities are summed up in the four elements of the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), namely meeting basic needs, growing the economy, developing human resources, and democratising the state and society. Accelerated economic growth and international competitiveness are now regarded as high priorities. Transport has a role to play in each of these areas. Against this background, the challenge for South African transport is to formulate a transport policy and strategy that will build an environment within which the transport industry can be as competitive as possible, and to develop a process which can integrate the different needs of passenger and freight customers, the transport industry, and national objectives.

Vision for Transport

The vision for South African transport is of a system that will: “Provide safe, reliable, effective, efficient, and fully integrated transport operations and infrastructure which will best meet the needs of freight and passenger customers at improving levels of service and cost in a fashion which supports government strategies for economic and social development whilst being environmentally and economically sustainable”. This transport vision integrates the needs of policymakers and the needs of transport customers, while meeting return on investment criteria.

National policy imperatives

South Africa’s transport strategy aims to positively impact on our economic and social development, by: • Supporting the goals of the RDP for sustainable economic growth, economic transformation, meeting basic needs, human resource development, and creating jobs. • Aiming to broaden economic participation in transport service provision, and improve competition within the sector. • Helping build southern Africa’s competitiveness by ensuring the region’s competitive advantages can be accessed and marketed. 86


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• P  articipating with other sectors in broader policy- making and decisions which affect the demand for transport. • Ensuring the safety of all transport participants. More specifically, transport planning aims to support appropriate strategies, such as development corridors, land-use densification and efficiency, and an integrated regional economy through, amongst others, establishing transport infrastructure and services linking industrial centers and current and future centers of socio-economic activity and growth. South Africa’s export focus will be supported by developing the seamless integration of goods transport into regional global transport patterns.

Customer imperatives

The goal is to move towards a situation where any customers requiring transport for people or goods should be able to access the transport system in ways which satisfy their choice criteria. The goal is to improve the competitiveness of South Africa’s transport infrastructure and operators to better meet the measured needs of these different customer groups, both locally and globally, by either decreasing transport costs for a given level of service, or increasing service for a given level of cost, or where possible, both increasing service and decreasing cost. A key driver of reducing costs of transport is capacity utilisation. As such, a goal of infrastructure and modal planning will be to maximise capacity utilisation in a development corridor in each mode, and to achieve a level of integration between modes. In line with the RDP, greater emphasis in passenger transport will be put on developing integrated mass transit passenger systems and non-motorised transport, rather than on travel by private cars which are already well served. A goal of the transport system is to create a fully integrated transport and information system which permits seamless, efficient, and transparent passenger and freight logistics in South Africa, regionally, and globally. The transport system aims to minimise the constraints to the mobility of passengers and goods, maximising speed and service, while allowing customers the choice of transport mode or combination of transport modes. This demands a flexible transport system and transport planning process which can respond to customer requirements, while providing on-line information to the user to allow choices to be made. It also requires infrastructure to be tailored to the needs of the transport operators and end customers.

Commuter led planning

Vibrant civil societies make governments more accountable. Some of the most revolutionary changes in cities around the world are as a result of communities claiming their right to ownership of their cities and challenged authorities in this regard. It is imperative that communities are involved in transport planning and management through proper consultation with, for example, organisations such as the South African Commuter Organisation (SACO). When preparing integrated transport plans, cities are required to consult with communities. However, the turnouts at such meetings are usually poor. A possible reason for this could be that city officials resort to technical jargon when engaging members of the public. Commuter led planning in local government is fundamentally supported by Section 152 of the Constitution. The Constitution identifies one of the objectives of local government as that of encouraging the involvement of communities and community organisations in matters of local government. This is further reflected in the 1996 White Paper on National Transport Policy which states that “The needs of the community and customers will be determined and provided for by a transparent, consultative, coordinated and accountable process, based on comprehensive information. Public participation in decision making on important transport issues, including the formulation of policy and the planning of major projects will be encouraged.” The National Land Transport Transition Act and the soon to be enacted National Land Transport Bill both state that planning authorities must “encourage, promote and facilitate public consultation, participation or involvement through hearings, seminars and workshops and any other means that are appropriate to ensure effective communication with customers, communities, organised labour and transport operators.” It is therefore imperative that cities find improved ways of ensuring that this legislative mandate is achieved. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


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Meeting investment criteria

Investment in infrastructure or transport modes should satisfy social, economic, or strategic investment criteria. Given the long-term nature of investments in transport infrastructure and systems, South Africa must build a strong financial base for the creation, maintenance and upgrading of transport infrastructure. Long-term investment decisions will be based on sound and explicit criteria aimed at maximising the use of scarce resources. These resources are not only financial, but also human and material resources. Investment decisions will be taken against a set of criteria which include lifetime cost, economic, social, and other returns to the country of the investment; returns to the transport system itself; and returns to the customer of the investment decision. Environmental sustainability will also be a key measure in investment decisions. Investments in infrastructure which will not build economic efficiency or where infrastructure is unsustainable will be discouraged. Investments in infrastructure which promote energy efficiency, the least consumption of resources, and the greatest benefit/cost return will be favoured.

Development of Public Transport Policy

In order to provide and measure up to the standards of sustainable public transport, South African cities need to have a shared vision. Such a shared vision can be generated and developed through a strategic transport approach which entrenches long-term transport thinking. A city shared vision should clearly and fully embrace a sustainable public transport vision which strategically positions the city to deliver effectively and efficiently on its mandate. This may entail undertaking the following activities: • Assessing the state of the city transport system and its region: Each city needs to identify and analyse its own public transport opportunities and problems; the sustainable public transport values and preferences of its residents; sustainable public transport change drivers, and its assets and resources. • Develop a long-term vision for a city transport system: There needs to be a shared strategic understanding amongst all the stakeholders. Thinking citywide provides a mechanism for local stakeholders to assess the linkages between their respective priorities for health, security, jobs, housing, education, transport and the environment, and to develop a shared vision. • Engage networks of cities: Learning from peers through city-to-city public transport knowledge sharing networks has proven the most effective and sustainable way to transfer knowledge. The involvement of organised civil society bodies and other non-governmental bodies is crucial for the institutionalisation and replication of a sustainable transport development strategy. • Adoption of standards: Cities need to use a common language and the same metrics to communicate their vision. The main challenge for South African cities lies in how to tackle public transport challenges head on. The first step may involve realising and accepting that the sustainable public transport challenge is indeed a collective challenge for all cities. This also highlights the underlying issue of public transport governance – keeping abreast of community and stakeholders needs via dialogue and transparent processes, in order to enhance collective change, and reassure constituencies that their cities are indeed committed to improve public transport. Central to this debate is improving public transport commuter service delivery. The government’s response to improving commuter needs and governance issues should be clear. Questions such as how to move cities from a public transport governance quality of life perspective by encouraging a shift from private to public transport system will need to be clearly thought through and addressed. Similarly, how to restructure public transport and the public transport planning tapestry need very clear ways of tackling them. 88


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Key Thrusts in Policy Decisions

To provide direction in the context of vision and provide criteria against which to assess current and future recommendations, ten key thrusts have been identified and should be met when addressing strategic issues: • Focus on Customer Needs Key customer groups should be defined along with an assessment of their individual needs and how these will be met. This should include the degree to which the various needs will be met and reasoning behind the decisions. • Meeting Basic Needs In accordance with the objectives of the Reconstruction and Development Programme, policy proposals should identify which needs will be addressed and how. • Finance Sources & Return on Investment (ROI) Investment can be financial and non-financial (e.g. human resources). Financial, legislative, organisational and other investment criteria should be met. Specific measurements should be associated with each, as well as information on who will make the investment, what the expected time horizon is, and sources of finance. • Low Cost for a Given Level of Service Proposals should identify appropriate levels of service for defined customer groups and minimise the costs associated with meeting those requirements. • Safety, Security & Consumer Protection Proposals should identify appropriate safety and consumer protection levels demanded by key customers (in context) and how these levels will be met. Additionally, institutions should be identified that will be responsible for ensuring the levels of safety discussed. • Integration Assurance of modal, spatial, institutional and planning integration is critical to transportation policy. Each of these should be defined with identification of methods to achieve such integration. • Human Resource Development Needed skills and technologies should be identified, including defining current levels and methods for achieving those needed in the future, such as training and education through industry training boards. Fair and acceptable labour practices, workers’ rights, job creation and security, health and safety, and welfare benefits of employees in the industry should be promoted. • Ensuring Competition Current levels of competition, the platforms on which such competition occurs, the sufficiency or insufficiency of competition, the presence of any monopolies, and policies necessary to regulate monopolies or optimise competition without prejudice to the parties involved should be identified. • Broaden Participation in the Economy Proposals should identify how ownership and participation, including jobs, organization, and bidding processes, influence participation in the various transportation sectors and how these will be enhanced through the proposed policies. • Environmental Impact Potential environmental issues should be outlined and addressed. This should include definition and reasons behind attention or inattention to these concerns, as well as a discussion of the costs and benefits associated with these recommendations. These represent a set of higher level imperatives which form the basis of the transport policy, although not all are relevant to every sphere of transport policy. Wherever appropriate, the policy proposals in this Green Paper have been evaluated to ensure that they address these thrusts. The thrusts also provide common themes against which any new proposals should be tested. REFERENCES Mitchell, M., 2006. Confronting Land Freight Challenges in South Africa, South African Road Federation (SARF), March 2006 South African Department of Transport, Transport Policy,, October 2009 South African Cities Network SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK



Toyota South Africa: Sustainable Leader Sustainability has been at the heart of Toyota’s business model since its inception seventy years ago. Toyota is committed to pursuing sustainability in three main areas, namely technology, manufacturing and social & environmental contribution. The two pillars of continuous improvement and respect for people underpin the Toyota Way, and are applied across all Toyota’s activities and relationships. In 2005 the Prius, combining an electric motor and a petrol engine, was introduced to the South African market. The vehicle delivered world class performances in terms of fuel efficiency, low emissions, drivability and quietness. The new generation Prius has now been launched in South Africa and globally Prius sales have continued to grow, exceeding one million vehicles sold. Taking inspiration from Toyota Motorsport, Toyota recently introduced Toyota Optimal Drive which aims to boost engine efficiency and economy with no compromise in power performance or driving pleasure. This technology is geared towards a healthier planet too as it reduces carbon footprint by lowering emissions. On the manufacturing side, energy use and global warming, resource efficiency, use of substances of concerns, and atmospheric quality are the four highest risk environmental issues for Toyota SA. Within these four themes; water, waste, energy management, including carbon emissions and volatile organic compound management, are key to Toyota’s success. In managing these issues and related impacts, Toyota has implemented the precautionary principle through applying a risk filter at the earliest stage of concept, design, project implementation and other decisions. The Toyota Production System is also geared to eliminate waste and other inefficiencies, an example of which is the installation of solar panels at a cost of R3.5 million that will save R95 000 per month in electricity costs & saving 1350 tons of CO2 per annum, compared to electricity usage. Packaging efficiency has been improved and proper waste recycling systems are in place. Toyota is also complying with the European Union End-of-Life requirements and all operations are certified to conform


to the ISO 14001 standard. Toyota’s impact on the environment is monitored, evaluated and reported on by way of formal environmental management systems and operations are continuously challenged via environmental improvement programs. Toyota SA is actively involved in numerous social and environmental projects such as the Enviro Outreach Project where, in association with the South African Wildlife College, Wildlife and Environmental Society of South Africa and Klipbokkop 4x4 Academy focuses on national parks and environmental research and training. The company is also involved in annual river and beach clean-up projects, not only through supplying vehicles for this purpose but also providing funding for educational booklets.

Arbor Day 2009 was celebrated with Food and Trees for Africa (FTFA), a section twenty one organisation which focuses on best practices in sustainable environmental activities that empower poor communities while also playing an important role in reducing carbon emissions by planting trees. Founder of FTFA, Jeunesse Park is contributing to their organisation’s goals by driving a Prius hybrid vehicle that has been sponsored by Toyota South Africa.


New MTU Series 4000 Rail Engine: Cleaner and Even More Powerful • R  educed NOX-values for the new Series 4000 engines meet EU Stage IIIA emission regulations using purely internal technology. • 8, 12, 16 and 20-cylinder Series 4000 rail engines are even more powerful than their predecessors. MTU South Africa (PTY) Ltd is a supplier of engines, complete propulsion and power systems in southern Africa. The latest Series 4000 rail diesel engines are the result of more than eleven successful years of experience with the previous generation which has now clocked up several million hours of operation in rail applications. The new units meet the more stringent demands of EU Emissions Stage IIIA which, in particular, prescribes a significant reduction in nitrogen oxide from the current maximum of 9.5 g/kWh to a new limit of 6.0 g/ kWh from 2009. The MTU rail units more than satisfy the NOX specifications by employing purely internal engine technology that is by using the “Miller” process without any exhaust after treatment. With this technique, the inlet valves close earlier than is otherwise normal during the combustion process. This leads to lower combustion temperatures and reduced nitrogen oxide emissions from the engine. The new combustion balance on Series 4000 rail units also achieves a significant decrease in particulate emissions. 8, 12, 16 & 20-cylinder Series 4000 rail engines even more powerful than their predecessors The lower levels of pollutant emissions from MTU’s Series 4000 units are not achieved at the expense of increased fuel consumption nor reduced power. Quite the opposite: The engine still consumes less than 200 g/kWh whilst power has risen by around ten percent, as compared with the previous model, to reach 150 kW per cylinder. Depending on cylinder new Series 4000 rail diesel engines are available as 8, 12, 16 and 20-cylinder configuration (8 to 20 MTU’s units and produce between 1,000 and 3,000 kW. (Pictured: 16V 4000 R43 rail engine). cylinders), at 1800 rpm the new engines produce between 1,000 and 3,000 kW. Each of the four V-engines is available in a reduced-power version - individually adapted to the customer’s specific requirements and operating profile. The 12V and 16V models also come in EPA Tier 2-compliant designs which meet the emissions specifications of the US market.

profile Dispensing with exhaust aftertreatment and the additional sub-assemblies that go with it means that the new engine will fit the same footprint as its predecessor so that exchange presents no problems using the space already available in the current locomotive. In combination with their increased performance, the compact power of the new MTU engines means an even better power-to-weight ratio with the result that 4-axle locomotives can still be used with certain cylinder configurations where the weight of some competitors’ units demands 6-axle locomotives with all the attendant operational disadvantages. MTU has consistently extended their technological supremacy These outstanding performance figures have been made possible by the consistent, ongoing in-house development of the key technologies injection, turbocharging and electronics which has always been part of MTU’s approach. MTU Friedrichshafen was the first manufacturer of large diesel engines to use Common Rail injection technology. They are not resting on the laurels they have earned from eleven years of experience with Common Rail technology. Instead, they have used their technological lead for consistent further development of the injection system. The result is the Common Rail system of the next generation which utilises a high-pressure in-line pump and LEAD injectors with individual fuel accumulators to achieve a virtually constant pressure of 1,800 bar throughout the entire injection system. This sets new technological standards. MTU has also achieved technological progress on the turbocharging front: The new Series 4000 rail engines are fitted with two turbochargers developed and manufactured in-house by MTU. They produce even higher charge-air pressures and ensure consistent engine performance from sea-level to mountain altitudes. In addition, the new turbochargers facilitate higher exhaust back-pressures which, in turn, make it possible to fit smaller soot particle filters. The latest generation of MTU’s own electronic engine management system, ADEC (Advanced Diesel Engine Control), represents a further significant advance incorporated in the new rail engines. Among other features, the ADEC unit has triple injection electronics (pilot, main and after-injection), which provide optimum control of the fuel injection process to ensure low-pollution, high-efficiency combustion. Additionally, the ADEC system allows remote scanning and Internet read-out of engine data, such as the number of operating hours. For maintenance purposes, the data can also be copied to another engine governor. Finally, MTU has also modified the engine-cooling concept. In the two-stage charge-air cooling system, the charge-air is pre-cooled by the engine cooler and in a second stage; the actual charge-air cooler further reduces the temperature of the combustion air. This means that more heat is dissipated at an earlier stage thus allowing installation of a smaller cooling system in the locomotive itself and saving weight. For further product information please contact: Dave Nicol MTU South Africa (PTY) Ltd T: 011 570 4900 E:

chapter 10: The role of urban form in achieving sustainable transport and mobility



chapter 9: The role of urban form in achieving sustainable transport and mobility

The role of urban form in achieving sustainable transport and mobility Dr Sharon Bierman Research Project Manager Built Environment CSIR

The debate

A common assertion in local and international urban development literature and policy is that modern cities are characterised by sprawl, which results in costly infrastructure, high transportation costs and associated high environmental costs in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The popular solution advanced under the umbrella of catchy terms such as “New Urbanism”, “Smart Growth” and “Transit-Oriented Development”, is to manage urban growth by curtailing outward expansion of the city, increasing densities and promoting public transport (Bernick & Cervero, 1996; Dekel, 1997; Gordon & Richardson, 2000; O’Toole, 2001, Speir & Stephenson, 2002). In the international urban form debate, two camps clearly emerge: the anti-sprawl protagonist, promoting SmartGrowth ideals and the anti-SmartGrowth protagonists, or supporters of suburbanisation, or Dynamic City proponents, who feel that sprawl is not necessarily such a bad thing. The Dynamic City camp are certainly not saying that everything is well and good in sprawled cities, or in any form of city really, but they question the evidence which is presented by the SmartGrowth lobby in support of compaction, centrality, public transit and higher densities and are opposed to the control-oriented solutions proposed. The leading proponent in the SmartGrowth lobby is the Sierra Club and through the Smart Growth Network, with Portland, Oregon being touted as the role-model city (also central European central cities), whereas the Dynamic City proponents include the more market-oriented institutions and individuals of the Cato Institute, Mackinac Centre for Public Policy, Reason magazine and Fannie Mae Foundation. The SmartGrowth lobby presents less empirical evidence for their claims, is far more emotive in the denouncement of sprawl and all its ills, but by far dominates the mainstream thinking in city planning and urban form policy and practice (Biermann, 2000). In South Africa, national housing, transportation and urban development policies and legislation, developed in the decade subsequent to 1994, all promote densification and compaction of urban areas and discourage sprawl in the interest of efficient, sustainable and integrated development for example, the Development Facilitation Act (Republic of South Africa, 1995). More recently, there has been a shift in policy rhetoric to refer to the need for spatial restructuring, with a strong connotation of changing the trend of burgeoning peripheral low density low income housing development (for example, Republic of South Africa, Department of Housing, Breaking New Ground, A Comprehensive Plan for the Development of Sustainable Human Settlements, 2004). The argument against peripheral low income has remained consistent – that poor people remain marginalised in terms of access to jobs, urban amenities and social networks, and spend disproportionate amounts of time and income on motorised transportation, with its associated costs to the environment in terms of increased fuel usage and greenhouse gas emissions. Infrastructure costs to the local authority are also perceived to be higher due to the greater distances which need to be traversed with services. Despite strong policy incentives to the contrary, in practice, significant low density, single-stand, peripheral, low income subsidised housing provision has occurred at scale since 1994. Government has been criticised for having achieved numerical targets at the expense of achieving quality objectives such as accessibility and sustainability. In its defence, government has pointed to budget constraints and increasing backlogs, leaving little choice but to develop in peripheral locations, and dictated against costly multiple-storey housing units, with which to offset higher land costs (Republic of South Africa, Department of Housing, 2004). Also mitigating against the achievement of betterlocated low income housing are social factors relating to desire and intention to move away from existing peripheral housing developments. From a national survey of households in displaced urban SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 9: The role of urban form in achieving sustainable transport and mobility

area in 1997, the Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE) surfaced the issue that almost half of the household interviewed would prefer to remain in their present location due to, amongst others, local family networks. As far back as 1998, Tomlinson already warned that the preoccupation with compact cities was misdirected and would not work because urban policy is being contradicted by economic reality. As is the case internationally, these popular assumptions and perceptions have been explored only in an empirical way in the local literature to a limited extent. Evidence of transportation cost implications of land use patterns in general and, more specifically, of low income housing location, is the most common (Stylianidis & Gunning, 1990; Republic of South Africa, Department of Transport, 1991, 1998; South African Roads Board, 1992; Aucamp & Moodley, 2002). Multicriteria evaluation, integrated with GIS, has been used to undertake a more comprehensive land suitability assessment in a major metropolitan area to prioritise land for low income housing development (Biermann, 1997; Biermann, 1999). In terms of other services, Biermann (1998; 1999; 2002) and Biermann and Landré (2003), have developed an infrastructure potential cost model for determining infrastructure costs across a planning area and integrating these into the process of assessing the suitability of land for low income housing. The results have been applied to the compact city debate (Biermann, 2000). The introduction of a cost-benefit approach, with the inclusion of benefits in the form of sustainable livelihood capitals indices and instituting, albeit fairly qualitatively, the distinguishing between capital and recurrent cost and to whom the cost accrue, has more recently been incorporated to address the specific question of the impact of peripheral housing localities on energy efficiency and sustainable livelihoods, through mainly sample surveys of existing households (Venter, Biermann & Van Ryneveld, 2004; Biermann, 2006). A more recent development, introduced to address the issues of the long term affordability and policy implications of instituting a directional change in housing policy in Gauteng to support higher densities on well-located land rather than continued low density, peripheral development, has been the synchronisation of costs with affordability over various time periods, in terms of income of government and households (Biermann, 2005). The Social Housing Foundation (2009) has very recently completed a costs benefit analysis of social rental housing in comparison to conventional “RDP” housing.

Adding evidence to the debate

A closer look at some of the more recent local evidence which has emerged provide insight into the debate against the backdrop of a unique local context and yields pointers to urban form and spatial planning policy and practice responses.

Considering bulk infrastructure costs

From the perspective of the provision of bulk engineering services infrastructure, the policy call for more compact cities is in accordance with the generally accepted planning and engineering view that greater population densities, over a smaller land area, as opposed to lower densities over a greater land area, lowers the cost of providing public services, on the basis that smaller land areas need to be traversed and due to savings due to economies of scale. The application of a bulk infrastructure potential cost model in the Greater Pretoria Metropolitan Council area, yielded some significant observations concerning densities and the costs of providing services (Biermann & Landré, 2002). Potential costs were calculated on the basis of demand for services in terms of density scenarios, capacity in the existing system and includes additional cost factors such as geotechnical, land use and environmental conditions to further enhance cost accuracy. The output of the model, in the form of potential cost surfaces, facilitates the relative comparison of infrastructure costs across space, for different density scenarios. The results indicated that bulk infrastructure costs do not simply decrease with increasing density, due to the unique interrelationship between infrastructure thresholds, capacities, location and density over time and space. In all cases, total infrastructure costs increase as density increases due to the additional demand placed on the system as a whole. Per capita costs, however, decrease with increasing densities for some cost items but not for all. In the study area, electricity, receiving reservoir and waste water treatment works per capita costs, increase with increasing density. It was concluded, in terms of the provision of services, that densification or compaction is not necessarily the cost-effective alternative, in all situations and under all conditions (Biermann & Landré, 96


chapter 9: The role of urban form in achieving sustainable transport and mobility

2002). The implication for policy making is that such words as “compact” and “densify” should be avoided as imperatives. Rather, emphasis should be placed on reducing the negative aspects attributed to both “sprawl” and “densification” and promoting the positive aspects of both, whatever the resulting urban form. It is rather the upholding of sustainability concepts and practices in relation to the provision of engineering services, which is important: promoting development in relation to areas of existing spare capacity or cheaper infrastructure provision costs; the consideration of bulk infrastructure costs as part of a broader systems approach where it is recognised that many other cost consideration as well as “softer” issues play an important role and should be considered in the development decisions; the promotion of the payment of real costs for bulk infrastructure services to avoid the occurrence of development in costly areas unless there are commensurate affordability levels; and the encouraging of collaboration between disciplines and the use of common data sets, particularly in relation to GIS, so that costly duplication is avoided (Biermann & Landré, 2002).

Sustainable livelihood considerations

In empirically testing the hypothesis that low income housing in peripheral localities is more costly and less beneficial to society than the same housing provided in more central localities, it has been found that more central localities do not necessarily perform better overall than more peripheral localities on the scores as measured (Venter, Biermann & Van Ryneveld, 2004; Biermann, 2006). This is attributed to: the polycentric nature of our cities; and the relatively lesser importance of access for lower-income households to formal employment nodes than to informal job opportunities within or near the low income settlement itself and in middle to high income residential areas. For example, in many respects, Diepsloot, 35km from the Johannesburg city centre, is a better locality than Alexandra, situated only 11km from the CBD but adjacent to the Sandton CBD (Biermann, 2006). In addition, the needs of lowincome households were found to change over time, which suggests that no single type of location will optimally serve all low income households, while at the same time, being affordable to households and government. These findings are based on the application of a sustainable livelihood cost-benefit model in 8 subsidised housing locations in Johannesburg and eThekwini. Amongst others, measured variables were transportation costs, travel times, fuel consumption and accessibility to employment and other urban opportunities and amenities. This study has empirically shown that there are as many cost and benefits for locating low income housing in peripheral localities as for the same housing provided in more central localities. It has been found that conventional notions of what “central” and “peripheral” mean, in relation to a single, dominant, formal central business area, is flawed in the context of growing polycentrism, unemployment, domestic employment, informal employment and temporary employment (Biermann, 2006). As such it does, however, ask serious questions about the popular view that central locations are better for low-income households than peripheral ones. It is certainly not clear that more central localities alone will be significantly better for poor households than more peripheral development. What is also clear is that the relationships between cost, benefit and location are far more complex than commonly assumed. One area in which this is glaringly apparent is in “access to work”, with the significant share of intra-settlement travel and commuting to middle and high-income neighbourhoods clearly indicating that this is more complex than simply mapping access to the CBD and other major formal employment centres (Biermann, 2006).

Cost, benefits and affordability

A cost-benefit study was conducted to provide empirical evidence to support a “directional change” in the form and location of subsidised housing delivery in Gauteng Province from delivery at low densities on the urban periphery, reinforcing spatial distortions with associated consequences, towards more sustainable delivery on more well-located land, closer to urban opportunities, at higher densities (Gauteng Province, 2005). In addition, the costs and benefits of housing delivery on welllocated land in relation to financial resources enabled the critical sustainability factor of affordability to be measured, not only for the different spheres of government but also for households in both the shorter and longer term. The study showed that despite location, housing has a capital cost of at least R100 000 per household and a recurrent cost of R26 000 per household per annum (Biermann, 2005). Total once-off capital costs of housing delivery on well-located land are a third higher than the cost of low density peripheral SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 9: The role of urban form in achieving sustainable transport and mobility

development but the longer term annual recurrent costs expressed per household, are nearly a quarter lower. Differentiating between to whom the costs accrue introduces further complexity to the argument, indicating that while capital cost to the province decreases by nearly a quarter when housing delivery occurs on well-located land, the capital cost to municipal government increases slightly but massively in the case of households. Operating costs relating to delivery on well-located land, decline by a significant third for the province but increase marginally for municipalities and households. The most significant cost implications of a directional change to housing delivery on better located land for national/provincial government are that capital land costs decrease, with an associated significant decrease in environmental costs. Capital housing costs, however, increase more than the land cost saving. The overwhelming cost increase for housing delivery on better located land accrues to the household in the form of an increase in both capital and recurrent costs (Biermann, 2005). Considering cost in relation to funds available, clearly indicated that the directional change to better located housing delivery is affordable to provincial government over the longer term, on condition that environmental indirect cost are not included and downwardly-revised social services norms and standards, more applicable to Gauteng specifically, are implemented. Although there is an increase of capital and recurrent costs to local government, the directional change is affordable under conditions of reasonably attainable increases in funding. The directional change, however, has major cost implications for households. Already under existing lower cost housing delivery conditions, the very low income levels of households mean that after expenditure on basic private goods and consumables, there are insufficient funds left for capital and recurrent costs associated with housing, even with free basic services and low levels of rates and tax repayment. The directional change, with its more costly higher density housing forms further entrenches unaffordability for poor households. Even if the entire capital cost of housing is subsidised by provincial government in the form of a location subsidy, the recurrent housing expenditure requirements are not affordable by households under current conditions of low income levels and unemployment (Biermann, 2005). This study did not quantify increased economic activity that may occur as a result of better location and better urban form. Only certain precursors of growth in the form of cost savings (e.g. lowered transport costs) were measured. The assumption is that if disposable income is increased through cost savings due to better location and if better access and exposure to urban activities improve opportunities for income generation and improved livelihoods, then the directional change would contribute more to economic growth than the existing scenario of low density peripheral low income housing growth. Improved location is a necessary, but (in itself ) insufficient condition for growth. In order for growth to take place, improved location must be complemented by increased private investment and improved skills/entrepreneurial levels to ensure that at least household income improves enough to afford the recurrent cost of housing (Biermann, 2005). Based on the results of this empirical assessment of locality costs and benefits, it was argued that while well located land is certainly important in affording poor people an additional advantage in terms of improving their livelihoods, well located land is not simply related to the issue of peripheral versus central locations, there is not only one type of land which can be considered well located for the diversity of low income housing need and good location is a necessary but insufficient precondition for economic development and increased household income levels (Biermann, 2005).

What does this evidence mean for future urban form policy and practise?

It is currently popular practice in some of the major urban centres to employ urban edges to “manage” growth. It is submitted that urban edges and growth boundaries limiting outward expansion of the city is a very one-dimensional approach. The whole city is actually filled with many little overlapping urban edges –all due to different factors – little open space preservation edges, economic – some you can map in a hard edge fashion and others are more fuzzy – economic spheres of influence. Rather, the dynamic city comprises a matrix of cell-like/grid structure with each locality having its own unique set of costs and benefits – some related to distance from the city centre and others not. The advantages of using a mechanism such as a defined urban edge are evident – it is easy to implement but has the disadvantage of absolving officials from applying their minds to the actual merits of a specific development proposal. It is recommended that, using criteria and measures of a range of costs and benefits, some kind of assessment tool could be developed for decision-makers 98


chapter 9: The role of urban form in achieving sustainable transport and mobility

to use in the assessment of individual development applications but also in strategic spatial planning initiatives. It would be more along the lines of a location suitability assessment tool which would allow the comparative assessment of all grids in the urban matrix according to a set of cost-benefit criteria. As a primary instrument of policy, subsidy allocations are critical in achieving desired aims or otherwise. The way the current subsidy system has been designed and implemented has been criticised for entrenching apartheid spatial planning patterns rather than being used as an instrument to rectify spatial development distortions. An option which may improve the situation is to limit the housing subsidy to a basic housing subsidy which is widely applicable but still income based but with an additional location incentive subsidy which incorporates the transport and engineering infrastructure subsidies. This location incentive subsidy would be directly proportional to the degree to which preferred locations are chosen to develop. The location incentive criteria used to determine the contribution of the location subsidy would need to be very carefully selected and the implications thought through to ensure that trade-offs are adequately catered for and that adequate data exists to enable the measurement of these criteria. Implementing this kind of instrument is predicated on the fact that that cost savings would be incurred somewhere along the line if these “good” locations are developed so there is scope for increasing the subsidy in these locations to ensure that the higher costs of higher land values and higher building and internal infrastructure costs, associated with achieving more intense development in appropriate locations, are provided for. The conditions for cost saving, though, are problematic in that real costs for services at specific locations need to levied to the developer and not some uniform cost structure or else the benefit of the cost saving at specific locations will not be relevant. References Aukamp, C. A. & Moodley, G. Y., 2002 Making low-cost housing projects more accessible for public transport in eThekwini: What are the costs? Proceedings: 21st Annual South African Transport Conference, Pretoria. Bernick, M. & Cervero R., 1996 Transit Villages in the 21st Century. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies Biermann, S.M., 2000 Service trade-offs theme paper as input to Spatial Guidelines for Infrastructure Investment and Development. Republic of South Africa, The Presidency. National Spatial Development Perspective. Biermann, S. M. and Landré, M., 2002 The utilisation of engineering services bulk infrastructure components in integrated development planning, Development Southern Africa, Vol. 19, No. 2, 329-355. Biermann, S. M., 2005 A cost-benefit approach to the identification of well-located land in rapidly urbanising regions. Paper presentation at the 2005 World Sustainable Building Conference in Tokyo 27-29 September 2005 Biermann, S.M., 2006 A sustainable livelihood cost-benefit model to enhance the understanding of the dynamics between low income housing and location, Town and Regional Planning, Vol 50, 26-37, November. Centre for Development and Enterprise., 1997 Displaced urban settlement study. Johannesburg. Dekel, G., 1997 The Cost of Urban Sprawl: A Jurisdictional Context. [online]. Available from: Gauteng Province, Land Task Team., 2002 Benefit Cost Analysis - Housing Delivery on Well Located Land. Johannesburg. Gordon, P., & Richardson, H. W., 2000 Critiquing Sprawl’s Critics. Cato Policy Analysis, 365, p. 1-18, January. O’Toole, R., 2001 The Folly of “Smart Growth”. Cato Regulation, 24(3), p. 20-25, Fall. Republic of South Africa., 1995 Development Facilitation Act. Creda Press, Cape Town. Republic of South Africa, Department of Transport., 1991 Special report: Cost trade-offs between mobility and accessible land: Kwandebele vs Mamelodi. The Department, Pretoria. Republic of South Africa, Department of Transport., 1998 Moving South Africa, p. 138-140. Republic of South Africa. Department of Housing., 2004 ‘Breaking New Ground’. A Comprehensive Plan for the Development of Sustainable Human Settlements. The Department, Pretoria. Social Housing Foundation., 2009 Cost-benefit Analysis: Social Rental Housing. Johannesburg. South African Roads Board., 1992 Improvement of mobility as a result of land use planning. The Board, Pretoria. Speir, C. & Stephenson, K., 2002 Does Sprawl Cost Us All? Isolating the Effects of Housing Patterns on Public Water and Sewer Costs: Journal of the American Planning Association, 86(1), p. 56-70, Winter. Stylianidis, T. & Gunning, D., 1990 The application of a land use simulation model to transport planning in South Africa. Paper presented at the Tenth Annual Transportation Convention, Pretoria. Tomlinson, R., 1998 Urban sprawl problem a hard nut to crack. Civil Engineering, March, p.19-20. Venter, C., Biermann S. M. & Van Ryneveld, M., 2004 Low-cost housing location in South African cities: empirical findings on costs and benefits. Paper presented at South African Transportation Conference. 14 July 2004. Pretoria.




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GREENHOUSE-CARBON ABATEMENT PROCESS (G-CAP) Hatch’s greenhouse-carbon abatement process (G-CAP) has been developed to assist major industrial emitters to understand their GHG footprint and develop strategic carbon dioxide (CO2) abatement plans. G-CAP benefits emissions intense trade industries by: quantifying its CO2 risks by developing detailed audited inventory of sources; mitigating these risks through identifying the CO2 abatement opportunities; establishing CO2 strategies and specific targets; identifying the optimum GHG abatement versus permit purchase pathway and the influencing of policy to create a leading position with the community and government. G-CAP is a techno-economic methodology that creates CO2 abatement targets that are achievable and that generate meaningful Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC) based on abatement opportunities. The approach differs from traditional top-down economic modelling because it provides each business with a bottom-up structured pathway of engineered solutions to realise CO2 abatement opportunities. Globally, legislators are responding to climate change by limiting and placing a price upon CO2 emissions. Vulnerable sectors are those with close-coupling of production to CO2 emissions and exposure to significant global trade from regions without CO2 pricing. Hatch’s G-CAP cumulative savings to date include more than one MTPA CO2 abated profitably; more than US$17-million in energy savings and more than US$10-million profit from increased productivity. The value of sustainable development to Hatch is devising means whereby social development and environmental integrity are integrated into its core services. Hatch strongly believes that sustainable development practices in major industry are an essential component for profitability into the next century; therefore companies need to focus on the broader picture, rather than just their project. Hatch Building 14, Harrowdene Office Park Western Service Road, Woodmead, South Africa Tel: +27 11 239 5300 Fax: +27 11 239 5790

C o m pa n y O v e r v i e w PROFILE Belstow Technologies (Pty) Ltd is a South African company operating from Johannesburg, Gauteng, providing traffic law enforcement solutions comprising the full spectrum of equipment and software systems to enable traffic authorities to enforce speed and traffic signal obedience and other offences. The solutions include the supply of best of breed state of the art intelligent digital traffic cameras for recording violations, as well as a comprehensive back office software suite for the processing, management and administration of the entire traffic ticket process in South Africa. All systems are fully AARTO (Administrative Adjudication of Road Traffic Offences Act) compliant. Belstow provides both mobile and permanent cameras to monitor speed and red light violations. The cameras can be triggered by either piezzo cables, radar or laser beams and mobile cameras can track the speed of a vehicle from a distance of 1500 m while recording speeds of up to 300 km/h, with as many as 3 vehicles per second in peak traffic. The permanent cameras are intelligent and differentiate automatically between light passenger vehicles and heavy vehicles such as trucks and busses. They apply different speed limits in different traffic lanes adjacent to each other for the various categories of vehicles. All cameras can perform remote controlled wireless downloading and can be equipped with GPS satellite positioning. The Belstow solutions are sought after internationally and bulk camera orders have been supplied to countries such as India and Azerbaijan.






IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE There is no doubt that infrastructure in general and specifically transport infrastructure plays a major role in economic development (Weisbrod G 1997, Chapman P et al, 2002) as well as in social development (UNCDF, 2007). In addition, construction activities form a significant part of a country’s GDP in South Africa the construction industry contributes 3,6% to the GDP (STATS SA, 2008) and has been growing three times as fast as the total South African economy over the past five years. Currently there is a decline in the rate of growth, mainly in the residential building sector, due to the crisis related to declining asset values in the USA (the sub-prime problem), inflation and relatively high interest rates. Economists are, however, of the opinion that this is a short- to medium-term phenomenon that will correct 2010 (Rust et al., 2008). Ferreira and Khatami (1996) argue that investment in social and economic infrastructure will play an important role in increasing the productivity of labour and business. The importance of social development had been particularly highlighted in striving towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDG, 2007). The South African government recognised the importance of transport and transport infrastructure in policies such as the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP, 1994), the Growth Employment and Redistribution (GEAR, 1996) and the Accelerated Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa – Asgisa (Mlambo-Ngcuka 2006). GEAR specifically states a requirement for “an increase in infrastructural development and service delivery making intensive use of labour-based techniques.” The Asgisa strategy refines the objectives of GEAR by placing specific emphasis on “[aligning] economic growth with improvements to the well-being of the poor. In terms of political economy, this requires developmental strategies enabling the poor to participate in economic growth, as well as benefit from it. For example, giving the poor better access to economic opportunities (employment, assets and markets), as well as to basic public services (education, health, housing, water, sanitation, etc), would contribute significantly to growth.” (Yemek E, 2006). The relationship between economic growth and infrastructure investment in terms of Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) is internationally recognised, and depicted in Figure 10.1 in terms of a selection of developed and developing countries (Investec, 2005). Integral to the growth objective in AsgiSA is therefore the recognition that infrastructure investment in terms of GFCF should be lifted to 25% of GDP (with public and private sector contribution respectively at 9% and 16%) in order to achieve the targeted 6% economic growth rate. This recognition is also evident from the South African Government’s decision to make special budget allocations towards infrastructure development (EN, 2005). The striving towards improved infrastructure in South Africa is of course also currently being fuelled by the expectations of a world-class Football World Cup event in 2010. However, South Africa’s growth is currently being hampered by two key constraints: lack of skilled manpower and lack SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK



Figure 10.1: The relationship between GFC and economic growth (Investec, 2005)

SUSTAINABILITY AND TRANSPORT The balance between economic development, environmental sustainability and socially acceptable infrastructure is critical: “By promoting economic growth strategies based on expanded infrastructure which are environmentally responsible and socially acceptable we are bringing a sustainable future closer to today’s reality.” Katherine Sierra, Vice President for Sustainable Development, (World Bank, 2007) 25% of the country’s total energy usage is attributed to the transport sector (DSAS, 2005). The emerging middle class has also pushed internal consumption to unprecedented rates, particularly in motor vehicle sales. About 5 million South Africans claim to own, use or maintain a motor vehicle and drive approximately 5.6 billion kilometres per month. Sales of motor vehicles are heading towards 1 000 000 per year which will add significantly to current traffic volumes, road use and to the associated emissions (AMPS, 2006). This places special emphasis on sustainability aspects of transport, infrastructure provision and maintenance. The 4 major elements in the classic concept of sustainable development – its trifocal spheres, Economic, Social and Biophysical and the supporting “matrix” of good governance, (DME, 2009) are of significant importance to the transport and transport infrastructure sectors and form the basis of a number of their drivers. Sustainability in the transport sector can be translated to: • economic issues pertaining to both the impact of transport and transport infrastructure on the economy and the issue of sustainability through proper investment into the construction and maintenance of the infrastructure and other assets; • social issues pertaining to providing benefit for all from the transport sector with focus on addressing the spatial imbalances from the apartheid legacy, the poorest communities and rural communities; 106



• environmental issues, including reduction of emissions, reducing energy use, recycling of construction materials, use of environmentally friendly materials etc; • providing the governance framework that can sustain the industry into the future.

IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY IN TRANSPORT In general Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) have a broad impact on society, including the stimulation of economic growth (Bresnahan and Trajtenberg, 2003) and socio-economic impact (Goldman SL, 1989). The role of technology in the development of a country was also highlighted by Roux (2007) indicating the relationship between the UN Technology Achievement Index (TAI), GDP per capita as well as the Human Development Index (see Figure 10.2 below).

Figure 10.2: The dependence of wealth and living standards on technology (United Nations reported in: Roux, 2007)

SET and innovation relating to disciplines in transport is therefore one of the major factors in ensuring that transport systems and infrastructure is of the desired quality and impacts optimally on both the economy and society whilst minimizing its impact on the environment. The National Research and Development Strategy of South Africa (DST, 2002) specifically states: “Innovation is the key process by which products, processes and services are created, and by which businesses generate jobs and wealth. In addition, in the social sphere, effective innovation has a direct impact on the reduction of poverty and the improvement of the quality of life of our people. It is critical, therefore, to increase the rate and quality of innovation in South Africa.” The SET base in the transport disciplines is diverse and there are specific gaps in knowledge especially pertaining to local issues such as local environmental conditions, local construction materials, the urban form relating to the apartheid legacy (which impacts on transport systems), rural development requirements etc.

THE STATE OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN SOUTH AFRICA There is concern about the ageing state of infrastructure all over the world. The Urban Land Institute in the USA states that: “The United States, in particular, and most of Europe stumble to repair and retool aging roads, plants, and levees that may no longer serve a changing paradigm for how people will live and work in the future.” (ULI, 2007) SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK



The ULI also refers to the estimation by the World Bank that the projected funding gap for infrastructure in the USA is ominously huge at $1.6 trillion over the next five years. Asia’s needs are estimated at $1 trillion over the next five year period. The South African Institute for Civil Engineers (SAICE) recently assessed the status of infrastructure in South Africa and developed an infrastructure report card (SAICE, 2006). SAICE reports that, although the South African government has embarked on a programme of increased infrastructure spending, there is still a failure to invest in the maintenance and renewal of infrastructure. According to SAICE infrastructure in South Africa fall into the following categories of grades (see Table 10.1). Thus according to SAICE most of the infrastructure in South Africa is in a fair, poor or very poor state. Some examples of the reasons for this status are quoted by SAICE as: • accommodation needs in the nation as a whole but, more importantly, population movements across the nation, together with new household formation is faster than population growth; • a long history of neglect of maintenance of infrastructure; • the hugely successful rollout of new infrastructure, but generally without concomitant growth in the resources (principally skills and budgets) allocated to looking after the infrastructure; • an overall skills shortage, especially of engineers and artisans, and a slow rate of new entry to the profession; • institutional changes (for example in local government); and • a number of unsustainable investments that have been made.



Very Good

No infrastructure


Heavy haul freight railway lines; airports owned by the Airports Company of South Africa


Water, sanitation and solid waste management in major urban areas; national roads; Transnet owned ports; general freight railway lines; national and local energy distribution networks; hospitals


Bulk national water infrastructure; non-urban solid waste management; non-national roads; passenger railway lines; non-urban electricity distribution networks

Very Poor

Non-urban sanitation; some uneconomical general freight railway lines.

Table 10.1: Summary of infrastructure status according to SAICE report card

Prior to 2005, public sector investment in South Africa as a percentage of GDP dropped to less than half of that of previous levels. Thus adequate maintenance levels were not maintained in many areas (particularly roads and railways) and new capacity additions were kept to a minimum with emphasis shifting to other social objectives (Bruggemans, 2006). This is exacerbated by the fact that the previous government did not acknowledge the infrastructure needs of the majority of South Africans. This resulted in eventual bottlenecks and unnecessary shortages (e.g. electricity, municipal infrastructure), congestion (e.g. ports, roads), overloading (roads), damage (roads, harbours), underutilisation and loss of relative importance (railways) and technology shortcomings (communication). In addition, the consequential erosion of construction capacity was extremely detrimental eventually halving the 108



industry’s size relative to GDP compared with the preceding decades. The loss of critical engineering skills was severe. The generally poor state of infrastructure in South Africa, particularly transport infrastructure, also leads to high costs in logistics. In South Africa the cost of logistics as a percentage of GDP is approximately 15% - significantly higher than that of its trade partners and some developing counties (CSIR, 2008). The National Freight Logistics Strategy, NFLS (DOT, 2005) considers the system to be “structurally incapable of appropriately allocating costs and raising efficiency”. Elements of the system perform well, but the overall system performance and especially the state of infrastructure constitutes the bulk of the problem. The view of the NFLS is that an integrated system-level approach is required, that shifts the system’s emphasis from a focus on supply towards the demand-driven delivery of freight logistics services. The concise summary of the problem statement that the NFLS responds to is: “The freight system in South Africa is fraught with inefficiencies at system and firm levels. There are infrastructure shortfalls and mismatches; the institutional structure of the freight system is inappropriate and there is a lack of integrated planning. Information gaps and asymmetries abound; the skills base is deficient and the regulatory frameworks are incapable of resolving problems in the industry.” The South African government is currently addressing this issue with the recent special investment of R600 billion into infrastructural development (Van der Merwe, 2008). However, it should be realised that sustainability issues are paramount, and that the future maintenance and environmental issues related to transport and transport infrastructure must be addressed.


Recent studies investigated the current drivers, trends and issues related to transport infrastructure provision in South Africa (Rust and Venter, 2004) as well as to the construction industry (Rust et al, 2008). These studies highlighted the following as important issues to be considered:

Institutional drivers

• Lack of institutional capacity that impacts seriously on service delivery • Integration of government planning of infrastructure across all levels of government remains problematic and is particularly related to capacity problems and systems incompatibility

Economic drivers

• Growth: Continued growth in of the SA economy remains a priority for the government. • The second economy: transport and transport infrastructure is a major driver in facilitating the stimulation of growth in the second economy (Yemek 2006) • Continued globalization of markets and production: the process of globalisation has drawn attention to the productive potential of cities (Rust et al 2008) and increasing global economic interdependence is reducing the ability of national governments to regulate or govern their own economies with a consequent greater vulnerability to global slowdowns. • Growing regional cooperation in Africa and SADC: initiatives such as the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) provide a platform for common markets and harmonized standards and procedures for infrastructure provision thus making it easier to integrate operations across borders. • Fluctuating funding: The fluctuation of funding for transport infrastructure causes significant problems for the industry in terms of positioning themselves during periods of high investment and scaling down in periods of low investment. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK



Human resource drivers

• S  kills shortage: Whereas Western Europe, North America, India and China have between 130 and 450 people per engineer, only one of every 3200 South Africans is an engineer, a ten to twenty-fold disadvantage (SAICE 2006). South Africa is also steadily loosing skilled manpower, especially civil engineers (Creamer 2007). The shortage of professionals in infrastructure-related disciplines can be associated with reduced knowledge-generation activity and R&D (DST 2002). Civil construction companies continue to struggle to procure sufficient skilled labour in order to cope with current work volumes. No less than 94% of respondents to the civil construction survey during the 2nd quarter of 2007 indicated that shortages of skilled labour were “hampering” their activities and “impairing” their ability to complete contracts on time (Bruggemans 2007).

Environmental drivers

• A  midst world-wide recognition of the “peak oil” crisis as well as the emphasis on climate change it is pertinent to consider the energy and resource consumption of the transport sector. • Cement production is, after the burning of fossil fuels, the biggest anthropogenic contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (Du Plessis 2002). The cement industry world wide emits more than 1.37 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year (Humphreys and Mahasenan, 2002). Although cement makes up only 12-14% of the final concrete mix, additional embodied energy comes from the transportation and extraction of aggregates and, in the case of reinforced concrete, the manufacturing of steel. • The Department of Mineral and Energy affairs reported that, in 2004 transport consumed 25.7 per cent of energy in South Africa (DME 2006). This is second only to the 36 per cent of energy consumed by industry.

Societal drivers

• C  ontinued population growth and urbanisation: Some 3.3 billion people – more than half of humanity – are now living in cities (UNPF, 2007). By 2030, cities will be home to almost 5 billion people with 81% located in developing countries. Many of the new urbanites will be poor, and probably unlikely to afford infrastructure service costs. However, unlike other cities where birth rates are driving urban population growth, migration from rural areas is largely driving urban population growth in South Africa (STATS SA, 2007).

Operational drivers

• L ogistics: Logistics is recognised as a very important driver in the South African industry. The ASGISA strategy recognises the importance of the removal of six constraints to economic growth. One of these constraints is “the cost, efficiency and capacity of the national logistics system, which was pushing up the price of moving goods and conveying services over long distances” (Mpahlwa 2006). • Traffic congestion: The current traffic congestion experienced in cities will increase as the economy grows and as demand for private transport increases. • Law enforcement: In a scenario of increased population growth and increased traffic growth, law enforcement becomes an increasingly important issue. • Safety and security: In South Africa security, especially personal security remains a major issue. This factor impacts on the design of the urban environment as well as transport systems.

SET drivers

• M  aterials technology: The main issues relating to traditional construction materials include the scarcity of natural materials for road building, the increasing cost of bitumen due to rising oil prices, the potential future scarcity of cement, the fact that cement manufacturing causes a significant 110



• • •

amount of greenhouse gasses and the need for innovative construction materials with enhanced performance. Information and communication technologies (ICTs): ICTs and related technologies will play a significant part in the future transport sector, particularly relating to intelligent systems for traffic control, intelligent construction processes and the monitoring and control of the performance of transport infrastructure assets. Energy optimisation: The current focus on the importance of energy use optimisation is of major importance to the design, construction and operation of the transport environment due to the fact that in South Africa this sector consumes a major portion of the available energy in the country. Environmentally-friendly solutions: As indicated above, environmental issues are becoming increasingly more important in the transport sector. In the future more emphasis will be placed on mitigating these impacts with specific solutions. Alternative fuels: The drive towards finding hydrogen-based and other alternative fuels for transport and energy creation will continue to impact on the design, construction and operation of the transport environment.



Transport and transport infrastructure are recognised as major factors that influence the socioeconomic development of any country. However, in the future several drivers will influence the nature of transport in South Africa with specific emphasis on those drivers that are related to sustainable development. The face of transport and transport infrastructure will have to change to deal with aspects such as environmentally friendly solutions, poverty alleviation, mobility and access to the poor and rural transport and accessibility. REFERENCES AMPS. 2006. South African Advertising Research Foundation, 2006. ASGISA. 2006. Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative of South Africa, Annual Report. Bresnahan T and Trajtenberg M. 2003. General Purpose Technologies: Engines of Growth? Journal of Econometrics, Vol 65, No 1, p83-108. Bruggemans, C., 2005. Limits to Growth, FNB-Economic Subscriptions, First National Bank, July 26, 2005. Bruggemans, C., 2006. Infrastructure Take-off, FNB-Economic Subscriptions, First National Bank, December 12, 2006. Bruggemans, C., 2007. Fixed Investment Shapes 2010 Outlook, FNB-Economic Subscriptions, First National Bank, March 12, 2007. Chapman P, Stephens J and Swanson J., 2002. The economic impact of transport projects: developing guidance in the UK. Paper presented at the conference on economic development and transport, University of Portland, Oregon. Creamer., 2007. Drainage of engineers from municipal water sector, Creamer Media’s Engineering News online, March 2007. Available from http://www. CSIR, 2008. Fifth Annual State of Logistics Survey for South Africa, CSIR, Pretoria. DME, 2006. Digest of South African Energy Statistics. Department of Minerals and Energy Affairs, South Africa. DME, 2009. A Strategic Framework for Implementing Sustainable Development in the South African Minerals Sector: Towards Developing Sustainable Development Policy & Meeting Reporting Commitments. Department of Minerals and Energy, South Africa. DOT, 2005. National Freight Logistics Strategy, Department of Transport, Pretoria, 2005. DSAS, 2005. Digest of South African Energy Statistics 2005. Department of Minerals and Energy, Pretoria. DST., 2002. South Africa’s National Research and Development Strategy. Department of Science and Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. Du Plessis C., 2002. Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing Countries: A discussion document. CSIR Report No Bou/E0204, CSIR, Pretoria. EN, 2005. R320 billion public-infrastructure spending plan. Engineering News Volume 25 No 46. Ferreira, D. & Khatami, K., 1996. Financing Private Infrastructure in Developing Countries. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 343. Washington DC. GEAR, 1996. Growth, Employment and redistribution – a macroeconomic strategy (GEAR). Government of South Africa. Goldman SL., 1989. Science, Technology, and Social Progress. Lehigh University Press. Humphreys K and Mahasenan M., 2002. Toward a Sustainable Cement Industry SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK



Substudy 8: Climate Change. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Investec, 2005. Prospects 2004-2009: Gross Domestic Fixed Investment Outlook, SA Economic Research 1st Quarter, 2005. MDG., 2007. Website for Millenium Development Goals,, accessed in July 2007. Mlambo-Ngcuka, P., 2006. A Catalyst for Accelerated and Shared Growth – South Africa (AsgiSA). Background Document, Media Briefing held on 6 February 2006. Available at: Mpahlwa, M., 2006. Parliamentary media briefing by Minister Mandisi Mpahlwa, Cape Town, February 2006. Mpahlwa, M., 2006. Parliamentary media briefing by Minister Mandisi Mpahlwa, Cape Town, February 2006. RDP, 1994. The Reconstruction and Development Plan. The African National Congress. Roux, A., 2007 “Business Futures 2007”. Institute for Futures Research, University of Stellenbosch. Rust, FC and Venter, C., 2004. Transportek Foresight Study : Final Report March 2004. Technical Report No TR-2004/16, CSIR, Pretoria. Rust, F.C., Botha, C., van Wyk, L., Steyn, W., du Plessis, C., Landman, K. and Coetzee, M., 2008. South African Construction Industry Technology Foresight Study: Summary report of desk top study. CSIR Technical Report: CSIR/BE/SRM/ER/2008/0063/B. SAICE, 2006. The SAICE Infrastructure Report Card for South Africa: 2006. The South African Institute for Civil Engineers, Midrand South Africa. STATS SA, 2007. Mid-year population estimates 2007, Statistics South Africa, Statistical release P0302, July 3, 2007. STATS SA, 2008. Statistics South Africa, Statistical release P0441, Second Quarter. ULI, 2007. Infrastructure 2007: A Global Perspective. The Urban Land Institute and Ernst & Young. Washington D.C. UNCDF., 2007. Localizing the Millennium Development Goals, available from United Nations Capital Development Fund website,, accessed in July 2007. UNPF., 2007. State of the World Population 2007: Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth, United Nations Population Fund. Van der Merwe, C, 2008. South Africa pushes ahead with R600bn infrastructure plan. Creamer Media’s Engineering News, October 2008. Weisbrod G and Weisbrod B., 1997. Assessing the Economic Impact of Transportation Projects: How to Choose the Appropriate Technique for Your Project. Transportation Research Circular No 477, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC. World Bank., 2007. Website of the World Bank, accessed in July 2007. Yemek E., 2006. Budgetary Perspectives on Shared Growth Policy Interventions in South Africa. Occational paper, IDASA – Africa Budget Unit.




In Partnership: CE at UP and TIDASA

Continuing Education at the University of Pretoria Trust (CE at UP Trust) and the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (Pty) Ltd (TIDASA) have formed a partnership to ensure the availability of quality further education for all role players in the transport, traffic and licensing environment. The 1 000 certificate courses in CE at UP’s portfolio range across a broad spectrum of academic disciplines, and are presented in association with recognised academics from the University of Pretoria. The fundamental importance of training and skills development in the field of sustainable transport, as well as CE at UP’s commitment to excellence in higher education, has led them to form a partnership with TIDASA. TIDASA, an FET college registered with the Department of Education, has established itself as a leader in providing customised training and quality services in the transport, traffic and licensing field. The college is the official training provider of both the Institute of Traffic and Municipal Police Officers of Southern Africa (ITMPOSA) and the Institute of Licence Officials of Southern Africa (ILO). The certificate courses offered by this partnership are aimed at providing employees in the transport, traffic and licensing environment with both opportunities for career development and access to a higher education institution, the University of Pretoria. The qualifications offered (see advert in this publication) are job-specific, and will promote service delivery excellence – a key concept in South Africa today – within the transport environment. For more information, please email, or contact Belinda Kock from TIDASA on 012 682 8500. Course information is also available at


GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF ROADS AND TRANSPORT Vision World-class roads and transport infrastructure networks and systems that facilitate seamless mobility of goods and people within Gauteng Mission To provide an environmentally sustainable road infrastructure and integrated transport systems and services that is reliable, accessible, safe and affordable which promotes socioeconomic development in Gauteng. Strategic Goals • Development of a modern integrated transport system that provides high quality, accessible, efficient, safe, affordable and environmentally sound transport services. • Contribution to the overall achievement of economic growth by investing in the development of road infrastructure systems, thereby improving Gauteng to be a competitive city region. • Building the technical capacity of the department to ensure good governance. • Provision of sustainable transport infrastructure that will improve the quality of life by minimizing environmental hazards.


Key Projects During the year 2009/10 the department will focus on delivering short term priorities which are a carry through from the previous term but will also reprioritise to implement immediate deliverables determined by the new mandate. The department will do the following: • Conversion of radius based permits to route base operating licenses; • Establishment of Transport Operating License Administration Bodies (TOLAB) ; • Taxi Recapitalisation Programme; • Compliance monitoring on public transport operators; • Construct K29 between Cosmo City and N14 to the access road to Lanseria Airport; • Continue to maintain the existing road networks through day to day operations such as road markings, repair of guard rails and potholes; • Prioritise accessibility and mobility from previously disadvantaged areas; • Develop and operationalise the intergrated ticketing strategy; and • Prioritise all transport infrastructure related FIFA 2010 Soccer World Cup and ensure a lasting legacy. The department is also committing, in this financial year, to introduce the following strategies and programmes, which will lead to the implementation of the new agenda: • Ensure a strategy in an effort to revive the segment of the Maize Triangle. This to be done in conjunction with Transnet. • Setting minimum labour content of transport infrastructure investment; • Government approach to tolling and public hearings; • Ensuring an enhanced, intelligent transport system ; • Develop a plan on intergrated, inter-modal and inter-nodal transport system; • Expansion of drivers licence testing stations and booking system; • Setting road safety targets; • Filling of vacant posts; and • Introducing drastic cost-cutting measures. Contact details: Kendridge Mathabathe Media Liaison Officer 083-376-8496 or 078-643-5805 Fax: 011-355-7509 E-mail:

MEC of Roads and Transport Mr. Bheki Nkosi

chapter 11: Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development



chapter 11: Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development

Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development James Chakwizira Acting Research Group Leader / Senior Researcher CSIR, Built Environment


Rural and urban transport systems and technology development evolve to meet mobility requirements of a society. Social dimensions are an important concern for sustainable rural and urban mobility (World Bank, 2008, Chakwizira et al, 2009). Lack of access and mobility prevents people from being able to break out of the cycle of social exclusion. Table 11.1 presents an overview of South African studies examining the links between transport infrastructure, mobility and local socio-economic development. It emerges that integrating the social dimensions in transport mobility is a growing challenge. Table 11.1: Sample Summary of South African studies examining links between transport infrastructure, mobility and local socioeconomic development


Geographic scale



Perkins, (2005)

National (RSA)

Economic Infrastructure Investment.

Inadequate investment in infrastructure can create bottlenecks and opportunities for promoting economic growth could be missed.

Dfid:UK (2005)

Republic of South Africa – Municipal and Province disabilities demonstration project.

Low cost technologies for accessible information on public transport

Access and livelihood opportunities for persons with disabilities can be improved through universal transport designs.

Chakwizira, Mashiri & Marrian (2008)

Southern Africa Regional Spatial Development Focus..

Spatial focus and impact of infrastructure and non-infrastructure investment interventions.

Infrastructure and non-infrastructure development and growth interventions are not uniformly spread (benefits and distribution) polarising spaces, people and regions.

Department of Transport, Republic of South Africa (undated)

National, regional and Local level.

A transport infrastructure and services synopsis on the concept of transport authorities in South Africa.

Transport Authorities could be one way of strengthening and encouraging better transport governance delivery and services.

Mpumalanga Department of Transport (2005 to current)

Province level but targeting former homelands and previously disadvantaged rural remote and deprived regions.

Siyatentela rural low volume gravel roads community based labour intensive maintenance projects.

Indigent poor rural households can gain skills and improve livelihood sustenance through targeted inclusive rural infrastructure and services maintenance programs. This can provide alternative pathways out of poverty for previously disadvantaged and marginalised community members.

Sources: Chakwizira et al, 2008; World Bank, 2008

Transport is a derived demand (Cervero, 2003, World Bank 2008). It is not normally an end in itself but a means to more end(s). The end that it supports is the provision of access to activities of all kinds. The concern is whether or not people can access key services at reasonable costs, in reasonable time and with reasonable ease. Table 11.2 presents a summary of South African transport legislation useful in understanding the linkages between transport, mobility and society. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 11: Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development

Table 11.2: Understanding linkages between transport mobility and society: A Sample of Legislation & policy documents

Transport Legislation & Policy document Classification White Paper on Local Government (1998)

Transport mobility and social dimensions aspects Introduces the concept of developmental local government as government committed to working with citizens and groups within the community to find sustainable ways to meet their social, economic and material needs, and improve the quality of their lives.

OECD transport social development concept

The concept of transport social development is closely linked to the theory of social transport capital which is defined as ‘‘networks, together with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate co-operation within and among (transport) groups’’ (Litman, 2008).

South African Constitution (1996)

Includes an innovative chapter on “co-operative government” which is conceived as ensuring good relations between South Africa’s three spheres of government and is a human rights approach to transport services provision.

Reconstruction & Development Programme (1994)

Makes provision for inclusive and responsive social transport and mobility through the promotion and supporting community-based development and locality based initiatives such as Expanded Public Works Programme.

Accelerated Shared Growth Initiative South Africa (2006)

The government’s objective of increasing economic growth rate to 6% over the medium term can be seen as a commitment towards taking South Africa to a higher developmental level.

National Land Transport Bill (2009)

Provides for land, air, water and underground transportation framework in South Africa including provisions for public participation and consultation in the transportation industry.

Development Facilitation Act (1995)

Provides for the physical planning, integration and migration of previous black townships to standard human habitable settlements including addressing transport mobility and society divide challenges.

Source: UNDP, 2003, Mashiri et al, 2008, Chakwizira et al, 2009

Concept Definition & Elaboration

Contemporary transport literature stretches the concept of transport sustainability and mobility beyond economic sustainability (World Bank, 1996, 2008, Litman, 2008). Poverty alleviation, distribution, equity and social services to the poor and marginalised strongly feature into the discussion covering sustainability. Figure 11.1 presents graphically the concept of sustainable social transport mobility.

Principles & Values of Sustainable Social Transport and Mobility

Sustainable transport and mobility is underpinned by three values and principles namely equity, accessibility and mobility. All these are aimed at improving the service levels of transport goods and services in a society.

Principles & Values girding Sustainable Social Transport & Mobility

Transport equity principle and value focuses on making sure that the socio-economic benefits emanating from transport interventions is inclusive in meeting the needs of all segments of the society with particular emphasis on those with special needs such as the elderly, youths, children, disabled, women, lower income residents, those with mobility impairment, those without cars available those living in deprived areas (Mashiri et al, 2007, World Bank, 2008). Accessibility principle and value is defined as the ease of reaching a place, destination, location or facility (Cervero, 2003) In most cases accessibility is considered from the point of view of the resident, and assessed for access to activities such as employment, shopping and leisure.

Accessibility versus Mobility

Accessibility should not be confused with mobility. Mobility refers to physical movement, but in general, increased mobility tends to increase accessibility. Cities and other major activity centres tend to have a relatively poor vehicle mobility (due to congestion), but are socio-economically vibrant due to excellent accessibility. This owes to activities that are clustered together and the existence of many travel options. In this regard accessibility is viewed as an over-arching and more comprehensive measure in the pursuit of socio-economic competitiveness (World Bank, 2008). 118


chapter 11: Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development

Generally three factors affect the socio-economic physical accessibility of locations, places,facilities and thus must be taken account of, namely: 1. Mobility, ie, physical movement. Mobility can be provided by means of walking, cycling, public transport, ridesharing, taxi, cars, lorries and other modes. A range of factors such as increased speed, service quality or affordability of a mode improves access of use of a particular mode by people. 2. Mobility Substitutes, ie, telecommunications and delivery services influence strongly the use and accessibility of facilities and places. This is because mobility substitutes usually can provide access to some types of goods and activities, particularly those involving information in situ and thereby cancelling the need for the actual physical journey by any preferred mode of travel. 3. Land Use, ie, the geographic distribution of activities and destinations shapes and directs flows and patterns of spatial physical movement and travel. The level of dispersion and clustering of common socio-economic services, facilities and destination increases the amount of mobility needed to access goods, services and activities, reducing accessibility.

Problems & Challenges

Transport is a derived demand. It is therefore important that people can access key socio-economic services at reasonable costs, in reasonable time and with reasonable ease.

Barriers to sustainable transport access and mobility:

Transport can be a source of social exclusion and reinforce structural socio-economic poverty in several respects: 1. Physical exclusion: This can be through the existence of physical barriers to accessing transport and other services. 2. Geographical exclusion: Simply stated the lack of transport provision and services in the geographical area in which the user resides can inhibit a person from participating in mainstream socio-economic livelihood opportunities available. 3. Exclusion from facilities: Lack of access to facilities because of lack of access to transport services may reinforce the cycle of poverty. This may be reflected through inappropriate transport design and technologies that do not incorporate universal design elements such as access of public transport vehicles and buildings to the disabled. 4. Economic exclusion: It is important to realise that someone can be unable to travel because they cannot afford the cost/fare or tariffs associated with utilising any existing transport mode system available. In addition the lack of access to transport can cause income poverty, preventing the user from accessing socio-economic employment or training. 5. Time-base exclusion: Indeed people can be excluded from both travel and other activities because of the time that it takes to travel, or because of the hour of day or night they want or need to travel. 6. Fear-based exclusion: There exists exclusion of transport, and, consequently, activities requiring travel because of fear of using transport. This can be because of taxi wars, labour action, poor public transport interior designs or gender targeted sexual harassment in specific transport modes etc. Figure 11.1 presents barriers to sustainable social transport in South Africa. These highlight the need for multi-level and sector interventions if these are to be reduced or minimised.

Transport Externalities

One of the biggest challenges facing South Africa’s transport authorities is traffic safety. The country has very high accident rates, with approximately 498 000 traffic accidents, 46 500 serious injuries, and 13 000 traffic fatalities annually, of which around 5 300 are pedestrians. The need to improve road safety is a top priority (RMTS, 2008). SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 11: Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development

Key issues here are; 1. The socio-economic costs are highest for the most vulnerable groups of society e.g. the poor, children, women and pedestrians 2. Safety is an issue that affects the poor more acutely. 3. Women and children, who are often pedestrians, are disproportionately the victims of road accidents. The Social Transport Dimension of Transport Infrastructure Provision & Services

Social dimensions of transport systems

Vulnerable groups lack mobility which also means reduced accessibility. Figure 11.2 presents the social dimensions of sustainable transport and mobility. If a transport system, technology and policy action meets most of these criteria, sustainable social transport mobility is achieved, if not the reverse will occur.

Spatial and human settlements configuration

Rapid travel time

Safe vehicle operation

Few transfers

Secure environment

Frequent service Short walk to station from home / office

Comfortable and clean system

Full network of destinations

Low fare cost

Friendly and helpful staff

Figure 3: The Social Transport Dimensions of Transport Infrastructure Provision & Services Figure 11.2:etThe Social Transport Dimensions of Sources: Chakwizira al, 2009  Transport Infrastructure Provision & Services Sources: Chakwizira et al, 2009

In South Africa spatial planning fragmentation challenges can be traced to the previous government’s spatial segregation policies. The outcome is today’s settlements challenges that exhibit far reaching social transport ramifications such as: 1. Low income settlements are located far way from areas of socio-economic opportunity such as industries and commercial centres. 2. Low income earners travel to work and socio-economic facilities takes approximately 65 minutes on average (DoT, 2003). 3. Low income earners spend well over 10% of personal income on transport which is above the stipulated percentage contained in the government white paper on transport (Mokonyama et al, 2007). 4. Low income residents have less family and bonding time with children. The bulk of their energy is consumed day walking or waiting for public transport.

Gender, Transport, Mobility & Social Development

Travel patterns and transport needs of men and women in the rural and urban social setting are different. In urban areas, for example women’s essential trips are more dispersed in time and location while in rural areas trips are short (mostly local), frequent and usually involve carrying heavy loads. Some of the transport constraints women faces include: • Greater distance between home and employment opportunities which reduces the compatibility between household and non-household activities. • Irregularity of services on off-peak and non-radial routes. • Most urban transport systems are not designed to respond to women’s needs to combine multiple trips, many at off-peak hours and off the main transport routes.

Sustainable approaches & solutions

Contemporary sustainable social transport challenges in South Africa may be tackled using only an integrated mix of policy measures and packages. These are briefly described in Table 11.3.



chapter 11: Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development

Table 11.3: Challenges & Solutions in the delivery of sustainable social transport & mobility

Social Transport & Mobility Challenge and or Issues

Social Transport & Mobility Solution

Contemporary struggles in implementing sustainable social transport development framework

Design, implement and retrofit existing rural areas and cities to comply with universal & inclusive transport and mobility requirements e.g. access, reliability, convenience, security, safety etc. Use transport users as an expert Group in social sustainable transport and mobility [user orientated design approach]. Implement mixed land use and zoning including densification and transit orientated development. Establishment and development of functional multi-modal transport facilities and interchanges Improve physical access to jobs and amenities and reduce time spent walking & travelling. Application of the Integrated Rural Access & Service Planning Concept (IRAP) in structuring and configuring rural spaces. Transport and mobility interventions (design, infrastructure & services) to be crafted and targeted at addressing special transport group users including the poor. Promotion and support of alternative mobility lifestyles such as walking, cycling etc

Integrated land use and transport planning

Transport mobility interventions should focus & target disadvantaged groups and segments of society much more There is a need for deepening the promotion & implementation of social sustainable transport investments since these can serve as powerful and transformational vehicles of socio-economic change.

A case for strengthening the social dimensions of appropriate and sustainable rural transport infrastructure & interventions exists. Many rural areas are typically serviced by community level infrastructure – tracks, trails, paths and footbridges – that connects them to the closest village or municipal districts more than the classified network does

Programme of action for rolling out of demonstration & pilot projects including their concomitant scaling up. Marketing and branding of social sustainable transport investments success stories. Enable greater use of intermediate means of transport by improving rights-of-way, interchange infrastructure, and attention to safety. Eliminate gender biases by integrating the transport needs of women into transport policy and planning processes. The social dimensions of rural transport investments can be strengthened through a mixture of options and strategies e.g. through application and engagement of participatory planning approaches incorporating community determined and set priorities in the generation of sustainable transport interventions etc.

Confronting & tackling large and diverse transport network issues

When dealing with large and diverse networks robust action is required e.g. through the provision of frequent and safe underpasses, footbridges and sidewalks for local traffic, pedestrians, bicycles and other non-motorised traffic etc.

Encouraging inclusive spaces, places and cultures

Mixing of various functions, land uses and people enhances vitality, vibrancy prosperity of spaces and places.

Institutional and policy will and commitment to sustainable social transport and mobility

Engage political champions and institutions much more in sustainable social transport and mobility with the aid of decision support tools etc.

Lack of a critical mass of sustainable social transport and mobility experts to champion activities

Skills development and transfer capacity building and training programmes in sustainable social transport and mobility.

Sources: (Crevero, 2003, World Bank, 2008).

Below presents a review of methods that are suggested to better include social concerns in transport planning. In utilising these guidelines care should be taken to customise them to the context-specific requirements of the problem being tackled.

Techniques & Methodologies for Social Dimension inclusion in Sustainable Transport & Mobility Interventions

Socio-economic surveys: Administered to collect baseline and gender-specific information on the target or beneficiary population to assess socio-economic benefits of roads and access services and to establish a set of indicators aimed at measuring the socio-economic impacts of road project. Semi-structured interviews: interview questionnaire to gauge households’ perceptions of their access to resources, services, opportunities, transport constraints and needs, priority problems; the importance they assign to improving their transport conditions, willingness to participate in the maintenance of rural road network (roads/paths/trails). The questionnaire should also reveal existing transport options and services available to user groups, frequency of usage, costs of such services and their impact on household income, and preferences for transport options. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 11: Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development

Focus group discussions: Key informants to obtain baseline data about the community and an overview of its travel patterns, transport constraints and problems. Willingness-to-pay surveys: Administered among a select and representative group of beneficiaries and user groups to determine the willingness to pay for and/or maintain rural road improvements and transport services. Survey questionnaires: Distributed to key service providers, transport operators and distributors to understand the nature of their constraints in service delivery and to establish an estimation of the level, frequency and quality of service resulting from road improvements. User surveys: Intended to obtain representative data at a household level e.g. data on transport use and satisfaction, trip lengths and times, transport costs, and priorities for improvements. Participant observation: Collecting qualitative data and developing in-depth understanding of people’s motivations, perceptions and attitudes. Participatory stakeholder workshops: Conducted with beneficiaries and key stakeholders to present findings of surveys, focus group discussions and interviews; to establish and agree on priorities in a transparent manner, and to achieve consensus around project objectives. Impact Matrix: Identification of the impact of transport interventions to different segments of society in relation to a groups of concern to decision makers (among both residents and businesses) and the objectives and indicators which are of particular concern to them. Accessibility Measures: By considering accessibility separately for those with and without cars available, or for journeys by car and by public transport, the shortcomings of the existing transport system can be readily identified. The concept of actor/user: The access is expressed by a person, and user of the transport system. The needs and willingness to wait of actor/user: qualities of opportunity, but also qualities of movement to reach this opportunity. Actor/user opportunity cost: To cancel the distance separating from opportunity, an individual is obliged to spend a certain quantity of four types of resources: time, money, the availability of discomfort and environmental care. The resources represent the factors of access enabling us to appreciate the characteristics of the access.

Towards a social transport sustainability framework of assessment indicators

Chakwizira (2009) argues for the need to entrench a transport social sustainability indicators assessment framework in South Africa. For comprehensive and balanced transport analysis in South Africa, it is recommended that transport social indicators sets should include indicators from each of the major categories of issues, such as those listed in Table 11.4. Table 11.4: Proposed Sustainable Social Transport & Mobility Assessment Indicator Framework for South Africa





Accessibility quality


Air pollution

Transport Monitoring Indicators Framework

Traffic congestion

Impacts on mobility disadvantaged

Climate change

Transport Governance & AntiCorruption Strategy

Infrastructure costs


Noise pollution

Transport Public Expenditure Reviews/Hearings

Consumer costs

Human health impacts

Water pollution

Mobility barriers

Community cohesion

Hydrologic impacts

Government wide anti-graft initiatives Project Specific Fiduciary Measures

Accident damages

Community liveability

Habitat and ecological degradation

Transport Governance & Accountability Action Plans

DNRR (Depletion of Non-renewable resources)



Transport Governance Integrity Systems

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS Source: World Bank, 2008, Litman, 2008; Chakwizira et al, 2009,



chapter 11: Social Dimensions and the impact of sustainable transport and mobility on social development

The changing Face of Transport & Mobility in South Africa

This is analysed in the context of the growth of urban development in South Africa.

South Africa Transport Industry Prior to1994 • Exclusive Transport development and social development agenda. • Fragmented human settlement development where townships for blacks were essentially located as far as feasible from socio-economic opportunity areas and suburbs through even the creation of buffer zones (i.e. spatial differentiation, segregation and demarcation). • Massive focus on infrastructure investment in roads (such as highways and freeways ), railway lines and infrastructure development, airports, seaports etc. • Scant attention paid to the externalities of the transport industry such as noise, emission levels etc. • Concerned with economic return, benefit and financial viability of transport infrastructure investment. • Promotion of car and road based mobility for example. South Africa Transport Industry Post 1994 • Inclusive transport socio-economic transformation development agenda. • Integrated human settlement development through the densification and mixed zone development (i.e. compact cities and integrated rural spaces). • Increased emphasis on the development of multi-modal infrastructure facilities and interchanges. • Strong movement towards sustainable transport mobility. • Focus towards people and users in the transport industry i.e. gender, disabled, marginalised, cocreation and cooperative governance in transport industry investment and sustainability. • Stretching of the concept of sustainability beyond economic return, benefit and financial viability to include social impact assessment, environment impact assessment and user/beneficiary needs. • Promotion of people based and alternative public transport mobility. Sources (The South African Constitution, 1996, ASGISA, 2006, DBSA, 2005, Mashiri et al 2008)


The pursuit of sustainable social transport and mobility presents a challenge. Actions are needed to limit the environmental and other costs of traffic movements. Yet these must be reconciled with aspirations for economic growth and social demands for access to services and leisure activities. Indeed social transport dimension to transport mobility is an essential social development dimension. Integrating the needs of the captive users of transport facilities, pedestrians and bicyclists on the highways as well as urban areas is recognising the social dimension of transport planning. The understanding of differential needs of the urban and rural poor, transport strategies and programs can be designed to provide the poor with better physical access to employment, education, and health services. Therefore a balance must be struck. The solution is widely perceived to lie in an integrated approach, combining economic instruments, regulations, new technologies, infrastructure investment and other policy actions. References Cervero, 2003 Road Expansion, urban growth and induced growth, Journal of the American Planning Association Chakwizira J, 2007 The Question of Traffic Congestion and Decongestion in the Greater Johannesburg Region, SATC, Pretoria ISBN 1-920-0702-X Chakwizira J, Mokonyama M, Mashiri M, Marrian B (2008) Sustainable Public Transport in South Africa, SACN, Braamfontein, Johannesburg Department of Transport, 2003 National Household Travel Survey, Pretoria Litman, 2008 Sustainable Transportation Indicators: A Recommended Research Program for Developing Sustainable Transportation Indicators & Data, Transportation Research Board, America Mashiri, M. Madzikigwa B. Chakwizira, J. Nyoni, P And Makgalemane M, 2008 “Integrated Rural Mobility And Access: Mainstreaming Environmental Issues In Community Transport Project Planning And Construction”, SATC, 2008, Pretoria South Africa Mashiri, Chakwizira & Nhemachena, 2008 “Rejecting the inevitability of Poverty” Empowering women for sustainable rural livelihoods through community-based employment intensive rural infrastructure maintenance projects” 2nd Biennial CSIR Conference, 17-19 November, 2008, Pretoria ISBN 9780798855730 Mokonyama & Kirsten, 2007 Road (Surface) Transport Research in South Africa: Opportunities and Challenges for Europe and South African Relationship, Transport Research Arena, ljubljana, Slovenia, 21-24 April, 2008 South African Government, 1996 The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996 Republic of South Africa, 1996 Growth, Employment and Redistribution- A Macro- Economic Strategy. Republic of South Africa, Ministry of Provincial Affairs and Constitutional Development, 1998 White Paper on Local Government. Road Traffic Management Corporation, 2008 Interim Road Traffic and Fatal Crash Report, RTA United Nations, 1999 Human Development Report UNDP, 2000 Human Development Report: Poverty UNDP, 2003 Human Development Report: Millennium Development Goals World Bank., 1996. Sustainable Transport: Priorities for Policy Reform World Bank, 2008 World Development Report SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK



Ingérop South Africa – Background: Ingérop South Africa was originally established in South Africa in 1957 and is committed to sustainable development in growing economies. With over 50 years experience and today having over 150 qualified personnel spread throughout 6 countries, the company is ideally placed to provide, in partnership with its clients, innovative and world-class solutions in engineering and the environment. Ingérop South Africa is a multidisciplinary consulting engineering firm, with its main sectors of activity being: • Transport • Built Environment • Water and Energy • Environment and Socio-Economic Studies The firm is a subsidiary of Ingérop Africa, which is a member of the Ingérop Group, a long established private and independent French consulting engineering firm. Established in 1919, under the name of Inter-G, Ingérop is today an international practice with a total consolidated turnover (fees) in excess of US$200 million and a total staff complement of 1500 employees of which 150 are based in Southern Africa. Ingérop - International Transportation Experience Ingérop has developed vast experience in transport engineering and is involved in significant public transport projects using various mass transit technology options (including Light Rail Transport - LRT and Bus Rapid Transit – BRT). The division performs numerous consulting and engineering assignments, in France and overseas, for public authorities, operators and transportation network managers, contractors or entities involved in the field of transportation systems and their integration into the environment.

Tramway in Grenoble – France

Parla Tramway – Spain

Bus station for the T5 BRT for Rio de Janeiro – Brazil

Ingérop South Africa - Transportation Engineering Expertise Ingérop South Africa’s multidisciplinary professional team provides the following services: Transport Planning Studies – socioeconomic surveys; ridership and traffic studies, Origin/Destination studies, mobility and transportation plans, technical and economic feasibility studies, transport systems alternative analysis, environmental impact assessments, fare analysis

profile Systems and Infrastructure Design – Basic design, detailed design, detailed technical specifications, construction drawings, tender documents Engineering for Construction – Project management, construction supervision, procurement, technical and manufacturing interfaces, construction supervision, equipment manufacturing control, as-built drawings, testing and commissioning, quality management Operation and Maintenance – Organisation and planning, operational methods and procedures, equipment specification signage, fare collection systems, vehicle configuration Consultancy and Services – Quality assurance, risk analysis, investment and financing plans, assistance to Build Operate Transfer (BOT) projects Ingérop South Africa and its associates thus have all the expertise required to devise and implement appropriate and sustainable solutions for mass transit systems. Ingérop South Africa is able to plan and design systems, tailored to meet South Africa’s unique needs. Examples of such transportation projects currently being undertaken by Ingérop South Africa are: The South African National Transport Master Plan, 2005 to 2050 The National Transport Master Plan (NATMAP) 2005-2050 project goal is to develop a dynamic, long term, and sustainable land use/multi-modal transportation systems framework for the development of networks infrastructure facilities, interchange terminal facilities and service delivery that shall be:- demand responsive to national/provincial/district and socio-economic growth strategies, and sectoral integrated spatial development plans, plus a coordinated implementation schedules and action agendas for the whole country, with specific national and provincial spatial development corridors and regions up to 2050. In other words, this Project is to prepare a physical development (action) plan, sometimes referred to as a Master Plan, as the framework within which our future state-of-the-art multi-modal transportation systems planning, implementation, maintenance, operations, investments, and monitoring decisions are to be made. Ingérop South Africa has been awarded two of South Africa’s nine provinces for this Master Plan: the densely urbanised province of Gauteng experiencing high population growth and the more ‘rural’ province of Limpopo. Detailed Design and Management of the Implementation of the Ethekwini (Durban) Central Business District (CBD) Public Transport Distribution System (PTDS) The aim of the Ethekwini CBD PTDS project is to have a road-based bus transport system operating on priority lanes within the wider Durban CBD precinct connecting all the major destinations, including the 2010 Soccer World Cup stadium to be located on the northern outskirts of Durban. The final deliverable is an operational CBD distribution system, including monitoring and administration of the contract up to December 2010. Key components to the success of the project are the design of the most appropriate routes within the CBD, a traffic impact assessment and negotiations/consultations with the existing public transport providers, businesses and residents likely to be affected by the distribution system. This article was commissioned by Ingérop South Africa. For more information, please contact 011 808 3000 or e-mail us, or alternatively visit


Khuthele Projects (Pty) Ltd Khuthele Projects (Pty) Ltd was established in 1998, as a truly New South Africa, autonomous company providing for representivity, economic empowerment and co-ownership. “Khuthele” is an indigenous word which means “hard working” or “being diligent”. The firm focuses on transportation, business and development services. These services are provided by an integrated multi-disciplinary team, including experienced Railway and Transport Engineers, Project Management Professionals, Operational Planners, Public Transport Specialists, Transport Economists, Town and Regional Planners, Legal and Policy specialists as well as institutional reform specialists. Khuthele believes that its most valuable asset is its well qualified and experienced staff, applying best practices and rendering professional services. Khuthele proudly subscribes to the principles and practice of employment equity and BBBEE. Khuthele is therefore pro-actively engaged in capacity building, empowerment programmes and skills transfer towards achieving sustainability. Core competencies: Transport • Transportation engineering and planning • Public transport infrastructure and services planning and design • Policy and strategy development and legislation • Transport economics • Freight transport and logistics • Railway engineering • Traffic management and road safety Business • Institutional development • Organisational and Business analyses and restructuring Development • Project management • Integrated development planning • Urban and regional planning • Community development and participation • Lecturing and capacity building (skills transfer) Selected Key Projects Transport Bus Rapid Transport - Infrastructure • Gautrain Rapid Rail Link • SARCC National Rail Plan • Mamelodi rail line doubling, stations upgrade and development • 2010 FIFA World Cup: – National Transport Operational Plan – National Taxi Operational Plan

profile • • • • • • • • • •

– Transport planning, NMBMM Coega IDZ Transport Plan Development of national planning guidelines and standards for DoT City of Johannesburg Integrated Transport Plan update Drafting of the National Land Transportation Act Design of bus contracts for subsidised services Addis Ababa Bus Study Beira to Tete Road Safety Project Planning, design of bus infrastructure and permanent way (BRT), NMBMM City of Cape Town Non-Motorised Transport Plan Taxi Route verification on the Johannesburg Rea Vaya BRT

Business • Business analyses and organisational structuring of the RTMC • Gauteng Provincial Construction and Maintenance Department: Organisational development • Institutional development for the National Rail Economic Regulator • Development of Transit Administrative Agency, NMBMM • Development of Uganda Road Fund Development • Re-Kgabisa Tshwane Programme: options analysis advisory services • Gauteng Integrated spatial and transport framework • Planning, design and development of the Lenasia taxi rank • Multiple land use applications for private sector developers • Klip-and Kruisfontein Cemetery, planning design and development Khuthele broad client base includes the following major clients: • National Department of Transport • National Department of Public Works • Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa • Department of Public Transport, Roads and Works: – Gauteng – Mpumalanga – Limpopo • Western Cape Provincial Administration • Metropolitan Municipalities – City of Johannesburg – City of Tshwane – City of Cape Town – Ekurhuleni – Nelson Mandela Bay • Coega Development Corporation • Road Traffic Management Corporation • Airports Company of South Africa Contact Dede Bukasa MD: Khuthele Project (Pty) Ltd tel 012-430-3223 fax 012-342-3922 P O Box 1237,Pretoria 0001

Gautrain Rapid Rail Link – Rolling Stack

chapter 12: The use of natural resources for sustainable roads



chapter 12: The use of natural resources for sustainable roads

The use of natural resources for sustainable roads Dr Phil Paige-Green, Pr. Sc. Nat Chief Researcher and Fellow Infrastructure Engineering CSIR Built Environment


The concept of sustainable roads has, until recently, had the connotation of assessing whether the road can be effectively operated and maintained over its design life. Sustainability in this context is thus related to the economics of ensuring that the road remains a cost-effective, operational and valuable asset. In terms of “sustainability science”, sustainable roads introduce a new concept related to the minimisation of the use of natural resources during the construction, operation,maintenance and rehabilitation of the road network. Road construction is, by its nature, a highly resource intensive and material dependent industry that utilises large quantities of construction materials, water and energy. Careful consideration of the sustainability issues should become essential components of every road design project. This chapter reviews the relevant sustainability background and identifies areas that should be considered in relation to conserving non-renewable natural resources and techniques that can contribute to reducing their use are introduced.


The inclusion of environmental impacts in road project evaluations first started in the 1970s but became an essential component of most projects worldwide during the late 1980s and in South Africa in the early 1990s (Paige-Green et al, 1991) following the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission) in 1987 and the declaration at the “Rio de Janiero Earth Summit” (UN Agenda 21) in 1992 with implementation of Agenda 21 being reaffirmed at the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. The early Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process was primarily related to negating pollution (of soil and groundwater), aesthetic disfiguration and ecological impacts. Modern EIAs are integral parts of any project and cover a considerably wider range of impacts such as ecological and aesthetic degradation, social and cultural impacts and pollution, although little attention is paid to the consumption of natural resources. Sustainable development was defined by the Brundtland Commission as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Specific reference was made to the over-exploitation of non-renewable resources (particularly fossil fuels and minerals) stating that “the resource should not run out before acceptable substitutes are available”. This is specifically applicable to fuels and industrial minerals and does not really highlight construction materials or water, which are unlikely to ever be replaced by a substitute. In the context of this paper, United Nations Agenda 21 makes wider reference to natural resources, including “soils, minerals (geological) and water”, although there has been little reported in this direction locally. The move to increasing the “greenness” of roads has recently led to various techniques for assessing the sustainability of projects. The Green Roads rating system (Soderlund et al, 2008), based loosely on the LEED system (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, 2009), was developed for road design and construction. It is, however, considerably simpler to use. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 12: The use of natural resources for sustainable roads

Originally consisting of credits in 6 categories within which up to 54 credits could be obtained, Green Roads has since been updated (Muench et al, 2009) and now consists of 7 categories in which 62 possible credits can be obtained. It includes a category for “Materials and Resources� where maximum of 12 credits may be awarded directly for aspects such as the minimisation of construction waste, recycling of existing materials and minimisation of transportation impacts. As this was developed in the rather moist state of Washington, USA, little consideration was directed towards minimising the use of construction water.


The most important non-renewable resources discussed in this chapter include rock and its weathered derivatives (gravel and soil) and water, although energy use in construction is briefly highlighted.

Rock and soil

An inspection of any geological map of South Africa will indicate that the land area consists of many hundreds of different geological formations. Each of these has a characteristic upper portion depending on the climate and topography, with the geological formations being overlain by various thicknesses of residual weathering products or transported materials, from almost non-existent to tens of metres thick. It is thus difficult to conceive that materials for road construction are finite. However, not all materials are suitable for road construction purposes and, in fact, the majority of surface materials are considered unsuitable. Materials for road construction purposes are required to conform to a range of physical and chemical properties that severely limit the availability of gravel materials (primarily weathered and transported rock). Materials for stronger pavement layers, surfacing and concrete are generally derived from the crushing of rock and, although expensive and environmentally unsatisfactory, many rock types can be used as sources. Sustainability issues related to construction materials mostly revolve around minimising the use of soil and rock resources that are either limited locally or could be more beneficially used for other construction purposes at a later stage (Paige-Green, 2009). Unlike the mining of commercial minerals that are generally of limited extent and are mined to fulfil specific human needs, soils and rock are considered to be ubiquitous. Experience has shown, however, that the injudicious use of certain selected construction materials (particularly pedocretes) has led to their depletion and materials of a lesser quality now need to be utilised in their place. In the case of unsealed roads, this has led to poorer performance and higher road user costs as well as aspects such as increased dustiness, erosion and gravel replacement. The use of natural gravels as wearing courses for unsealed roads are a particular case in point. An 8m wide unsealed road typically requires about 1200m3 of selected wearing course gravel (compacted in a 150mm thick layer) with specific properties. The gravel surface on such a road carrying about 200 vehicles per day would normally last about 6 or 7 years before it is lost by abrasion, whip-off, erosion (water and/or wind) and requires replacement. The material that is lost ends up as dust on vehicles, vegetation and in rivers, as eroded material in water courses and as non-reusable segregated material along the edge of the road. A more sustainable option would thus be to provide a bituminous seal which would preserve the same quantity of material for a period of at least 20 years after which time it can normally be reused as a new structural layer in the rehabilitated road. Even for paved roads, a number of sustainability alternatives exist. The prize option would be to use existing waste materials such as mine wastes that are present locally. These are often widely available and although they may have specific problems (e.g. high sulphide or salt contents), these can usually be overcome using appropriate construction techniques. 130


chapter 12: The use of natural resources for sustainable roads

The use of thinner pavement layers constructed of higher quality materials instead of thick lower quality layers can also have sustainability benefits. The identification of locally available marginal quality materials that can be treated with cementitious or bituminous stabilisers should also be considered. For lightly trafficked roads, the use of bituminous sand seals constructed using suitable sands extracted from large, mostly intermittent, rivers is always a more sustainable option than using seals that require crushed stone. Such sands are replenished each year during flooding of the river (they are thus arguably considered as renewable resources) and can often be successfully used instead of conventional aggregates that require mining, crushing and sieving. A common problem observed is the construction of excessively wide road pavements. Where materials are scarce, a possible reduction in the road width should be considered – a 7m wide road would reduce the material requirements by more than 20%, over a more conventional 9m wide road. In areas with limited high quality road construction gravels, consideration should be given to designing highways such that they can be effectively maintained without requiring significant additional materials over a 40-50 year period (perpetual pavements (Steyn and Paige-Green, 2009)) instead of the current practice of designing the road to “fail” and be either reconstructed or require significant rehabilitation every 15 or 20 years. Harder and more durable materials that are more likely to be successfully recycled in future (e.g. quartzitic gravels) should be proposed for use rather than those materials that are likely to be subjected to decomposition (e.g. basic crystalline rocks) or disintegration (e.g. sandstones and gneisses) in service.


Most of South Africa can be considered to be water deficient, with 85% of the country having a water demand (loss by evapotranspiration) exceeding the water supply (by precipitation). This is illustrated by the work of Thornthwaite (1948) and a subsequent revision of his map (Leyland and Paige-Green, 2009) where Thornthwaite’s Moisture Index values of less than zero are indicative of water deficient areas with deep water tables. Ongoing extraction of groundwater in arid areas, thus results in an overall depression of the groundwater table. Research and experience have shown that alternative methodologies can be used to reduce the impact of road construction on water resources. Although many of these techniques still require research and refinement it is important that they be considered as alternatives to conventional practice. Details concerning these are discussed by Leyland and Paige-Green (2009).

Reducing compaction water

Traditional material compaction processes used in the construction of roads, railways and pipelines require that the moisture content of the material is raised to the “optimum moisture content” (OMC) of that material at which point the shear strength created by soil suction at low moisture contents is minimised and the rearrangement of soil particles during the essential process of compaction requires less energy to achieve. In broad terms, this typically requires the use of about 200l of water per cubic metre of material (or between 150 and 200 thousand litres of water per pavement layer per kilometre of conventional road pavement). The amount of water required to reach OMC is increased in arid areas where the natural moisture content of the soil is low and high temperatures result in a significant loss of water by evaporation during the construction process. Thus in arid areas the cost of supplying water for construction projects has been known to comprise up to 25% of the total construction cost. Research into the compaction of material without the addition of water is not a new development with research by Ellis (1980) and O’Connell (1997) showing the potential feasibility of low moisture content compaction. The results are, however, very material and equipment dependent and tests should be conducted to determine the feasibility of this for different materials. Dry compaction SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 12: The use of natural resources for sustainable roads

should always be considered in dry areas. Construction during the rainy season can also benefit from the moisture content of local materials being raised by the rainfall, which will result in less water being required to be added during construction. Low moisture content compaction is thus a viable option but the effects of moisture changes in the road layers after construction still require further research, especially for finer grained soils. The fact that the methods may be restricted to fill, subgrade and selected layers is acceptable as these materials make up the largest volume of construction materials and therefore will result in the largest savings in water (and costs). Laboratory compaction methods have been shown to not accurately and consistently predict field density as the compaction methods used are generally designed for a specific soil state (O’Connell, 1997) and the compaction efforts used do not necessarily represent those applied by modern construction equipment. It is essential that realistic relationships between density, moisture content and compaction effort are derived for each new material before dry compaction is attempted on a major project and that the laboratory results are confirmed during full-scale field trial sections. The use of commercial surfactants as compaction aids assists with lubrication of the soil particles in certain materials during compaction and can reduce the moisture content required for compaction by 2-3%. This can be a cost-effective technique for saving water on large projects in arid areas. Success with dry compaction has also been achieved with the use of High Energy Impact Compaction (HEIC) in Botswana and elsewhere (Pinard and Ookeditse, 1988). This technique makes use of heavy non-circular “rollers” (square or triangular) that impart energy to the layer being compacted by the “rollers” falling from their corners or apices. The impact energy results in the ability to achieve high densities in many materials at the natural moisture content of the soils. Recent trials during the construction of unsealed road experiments in the Mpumalanga Lowveld during summer have clearly shown the benefits of using recycling machines. Conventional construction using motor graders for mixing the water into the material could not keep up with the evaporation resulting in the ongoing addition of water to the material during mixing and compaction. A second set of trial sections using a modern in situ recycling machine for the addition of water and mixing allowed the exact amount of water to be added to the material (adjusted as necessary on site) and compaction immediately behind the machine. No additional water was required during the process and significantly less water was utilised.

Other construction water requirements

Apart from compaction, water is also required for various other activities from washing construction equipment to curing chemically stabilised layers and concrete. The curing of stabilised layers is particularly wasteful of water and alternative techniques should be carefully assessed to minimise water usage. In order for the cementation reactions in materials treated with lime or cement to progress fully, water is necessary. The reactions are essentially hydration of aluminium and calcium silicates to produce the standard cementation products, hydrated alumina and calcium silicates. The standard specifications (COLTO, 1998) state that stabilised layers shall be kept continuously moist for 24 hours, after which one of 4 different techniques should be employed for at least 7 days. In the interest of simplicity and reducing costs, it is commonly found that stabilised layers are sprayed with water twice a day to assist curing. In most cases, this is insufficient to prevent the stabilised layer drying out between water sprays with detrimental effects on the stabilised layer. It is thus essential to ensure that the most effective curing technique is selected such that the use of water is minimised. This is usually best achieved by covering the stabilised layer with the next (or a sacrificial) layer of material. Water is often used in agricultural, mining and even residential areas to suppress dust from gravel roads. This requires the spraying of a large quantity of water a number of times a day (and even at night in arid areas). This technique is a blatant waste of valuable water and a number of chemicals 132


chapter 12: The use of natural resources for sustainable roads

(e.g. hygroscopic salts and ligno-sulphonates) have been shown to be very effective dust palliatives. Their use, instead of continual water spraying, should always be considered. Many of the techniques discussed above have been noted informally and not quantified adequately for full cost-benefit analysis purposes. Additional research in many of these areas is still necessary, although much of this could be carried out on ongoing projects without significant cost or interruption of the projects.

Low quality waters (high salt contents)

Water used in construction generally needs to be of near potable quality to avoid possible soluble salt and other problems and is therefore usually extracted from suitable groundwater resources in drier areas. It is difficult to justify the use of such large quantities of water in relatively arid areas, considering local communities often struggle to obtain sufficient basic water. When water containing high levels of very soluble salts is available, its use can be considered if appropriate measures are taken to control possible damage caused by salt crystallisation (Netterberg 1979, Roads Department, 2001). The typical problems related to saline waters in South Africa are related to evaporation of the compaction moisture at the surface of recently compacted materials with the accompanying precipitation of the highly soluble salts. This results in loosening and weakening of the upper layers of the compacted material affecting the adhesion of bituminous surfacings to the loose material and the associated structural problems in the road pavement. The problem can be overcome by applying a bituminous surfacing (or a temporary seal) as soon as possible after compaction. In addition, to ensure the long-term avoidance of salt damage, it is essential that the seal is impermeable to water vapour and is not susceptible to cracking. The permeation of any water vapour through the seal will result in the deposition of soluble salts moved through the road beneath the surfacing and the formation of blisters, loosening of the upper layer and loss of the seal. Even when the seal is perfectly impermeable, water will usually escape from beneath the surfacing at the edge of the road resulting in deposition of salts in this area and disintegration (edge break) of the bituminous surfacing along the edge of the road. If carried out timeously, this damage can be repaired and controlled.


The energy utilised for construction purposes generally releases large quantities of “greenhouse gases”, considered to be highly unsustainable in the short to medium term. Construction operations that use less energy thus have significant sustainability benefits. By using materials with high “embodied energies” such as industrial waste materials, mine wastes, building demolition rubble, which are essentially already pre-processed and therefore require less energy than similar quantity and quality material production from virgin rock, has significant energy savings. Heating and maintaining high temperatures of bitumen results in high energy consumptions. The use of warm asphalts and bitumen emulsions to improve locally available materials that can substitute for thick layers of asphalt can have significant energy saving and emission benefits and this possibility should always be assessed. The location of materials for construction must also be considered. Materials requiring minimal transportation to the site should be identified and always recommended for use. The energy cost of providing (abstracting, transporting and mixing) potable water in rural areas and local specific alternatives must be considered. The embodied energy of the final product should thus guide the decision regarding optimal construction methods.


Road construction uses large volumes of non-renewable materials and water. This is not sustainable in the long term and some mechanisms for reducing this have been identified and discussed. It is SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 12: The use of natural resources for sustainable roads

important, however, to identify these issues early in new projects and to ensure that all investigations and designs take the optimum solutions into consideration. Many of these may increase the construction cost, but this should be considered in relation to the sustainability benefits that will ultimately accrue. Our current water crisis, if correctly managed, will become a crucible of new innovation, taking us to new heights of economic prosperity. The choice is ours to make. REFERENCES

COLTO, 1998. Standard specification for roads and bridges for state road authorities. SAICE, Midrand. Ellis, C.I., Soil compaction at low moisture content-field trials in Sudan., 1980. 7th Regional Conference for Africa on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Accra, Ghana, 1- 7 June 1980. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). 2009. U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). Accessed 20 July 2009. Leyland, R and Paige-Green, P., 2009. Minimising groundwater extraction for infrastructure construction. Proceedings Groundwater Conference, Stellenbosch, November 2009. Muench, S.T., Anderson, J. & Soderlund, M., 2009. An introduction to Greenroads: A sustainability rating system for roadways. Proc 88th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 2009. O’Connell, MJ., 1997. A new approach to compaction for road construction in arid areas. MPh Thesis, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Netterberg, F., 1979. Salt damage to roads - an interim guide to its diagnosis, prevention and repair. J Inst Municipal Engineers of South Africa (IMIESA), 4(9), 13-17. Paige-Green, P., 2009. Sustainability issues related to the engineering geology of long linear developments. Proc Int Symposium on Geological Engineering Problems in Major Construction Projects, Chengdu, China, September 2009, 1, 172-177. Paige-Green, P, Jones, D, & Emery, S.J., 1991. Roads and the environment - Compromise or conflict? Proc SA Intnl Conference on Environmental Management, Cape Town, 1991. Pinard, M.I. and Ookeditse, S., 1988. Evaluation of High Energy Impact Compaction Techniques for Minimising Construction Water Requirements in Semi-Arid Regions. 14th ARRB Conference, Canberra, August, 1988. Roads Department., 2001. The prevention and repair of salt damage to roads and runways. Guideline No 6, Ministry of Works, Transport and Communications, Gaborone, Botswana. Soderlund, M., Muench, S.T., Willoughby, K., Uhlmeyer, J. & Weston, J., 2008. Green Roads: A sustainability rating system for roadways. Proc 87th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 2008. Steyn, WJ von M and Paige-Green, P. 2009. Evaluation of issues around road materials for sustainable transport. Proc SATC, Pretoria, July 2009. Thornthwaite, CW., 1948. An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographical Review, 38(1), pp 55-94.




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EAST LONDON IDZ DEVELOPS INNOVATIVE MODEL FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR The East London Industrial Development Zone (IDZ) recently launched an innovative multi-Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) model which will attract export-oriented investment into South Africa. Officially launched at the South African Automotive Week Conference in Port Elizabeth in October, the multi-OEM model uses a shared facility to assemble various parts for different OEMs. “For the automotive industry to survive the current conditions and to be sustainable in the new economic landscape, we must revise conventional models of production to achieve leaner operations, greater efficiencies and cost savings. “The model represents an opportunity not only for the South African automotive industry and the economy, but for the wider global automotive industry,” says East London IDZ Executive Manager for Business Development, Tembela Zweni. Zweni explains that outdated practices, increased competition and the global economic recession have placed enormous pressure on OEMs across the globe. Where the costs

profile of production continue to increase, it is difficult to justify the massive structures that have become the norm in the industry. Zweni adds that the capital injections needed to build these facilities remain substantial. In an environment that is both under constant pressure and change, this investment falls into the high risk category. “The model, which takes after the success of many of the established European, American and Japanese brands where a common facility was used, requires key partners such as the OEMs which would bring with the investment and technical resources required in the specification of the assembly requirements. “Another key partner that is required to make this model work is an outsource assembly company to provide the umbrella structure necessary for the overall management of the solution. The assembly company will function as the model operator, running the facility on behalf of the OEMs and coordinating the efforts of both the production and logistics service providers and suppliers,� Zweni says. He says the model will provide a platform for the development and improvement of the automotive industry in the country. It will also contribute to the competitive positioning of the South African automotive industry. Zweni says the Easy London IDZ which boasts a 16 hectare Automotive Supplier Park is wellpositioned to be the ideal location for this facility.


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FC RUST Pr Eng, PhD Strategic Research Manager, CSIR Built Environment Unit


Transport and transport infrastructure plays a significant role in both economic and social development. In the future transport officials and engineers will need to take cognisance of the environmental impact and sustainability of transport provision. This chapter analyses the drivers identified in Chapter 9 and relates that to research, development and innovation activities world wide as well as identifies the gaps in knowledge and potential focus areas for a relevant R&D agenda in transport and transport infrastructure in South Africa. Recent investigations into the state of South Africa’s infrastructure and related policy and technology questions (SAICE 2006, Milford et al 2001) have indicated that, similarly to other countries, infrastructure in South Africa is not in good condition. In addition to the demand for environmentally friendly and sustainable solutions for transport problems, this also places emphasis on the need for key solutions to address the upgrading and maintenance of transport infrastructure. This chapter discusses the link between the drivers that will influence the future of transport in South Africa and the potential focus areas for developing new knowledge and technological solutions summarised in main Research and Development (R&D) themes and sub-themes.


A recent technology foresight study for the construction industry in South Africa (Rust et al ,2008) listed a number of trends in the industry. Many of which are also important to the transport and transport infrastructure sectors in South Africa. These trends were evaluated and rated by a group of 50 middle managers in the construction industry, ranked in order of their longer term importance: • Emphasis on environmental issues. • Increased demand on quality. • Improvement of health and safety issues. • Increase of government investment into infrastructure. • Energy shortage. • Advanced materials for infrastructure. • Water scarcity. • Demand for social infrastructure • Increased demand for transport. • Networked systems that include sensors and systems that allow people and infrastructure to be connected. • Use of renewable resources. • Carbon taxes. • Changes in transport patterns and transport demand. • Security and crime levels. • Increasing cost of logistics. • Lack of governance and institutional capability. • Smart infrastructure including “intelligent” products and intelligent transport systems. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK



• • • • • • •

Lack of service delivery in South Africa. Supply chain integration. Prefabrication, off-site fabrication for the construction of buildings. Increased corporate liability in the construction industry. Intelligent urban design. Use of Information and Communication Technology in construction. Continued Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment.

The most important of these trends for the transport sector are: • Emphasis on environmental issues, particularly the curtailing of emissions and the use of environmentally friendly materials for transport infrastructure. • Improvement of health and safety issues, with particular emphasis on road safety. • Increase of government investment into infrastructure – significant investment is going into roads, airports and ports. • Energy shortage, with emphasis on energy efficient transport and using transport systems to generate energy. • Advanced materials for transport infrastructure, with emphasis on cement and bitumen replacements and materials that last longer. • Increased demand for transport linked to increased congestion on roads. • Networked systems that include sensors and systems that allow people and infrastructure to be connected to provide for example transport information on demand. • Use of renewable resources, particularly in the construction of transport infrastructure as well as the use of bio-fuels. • Carbon taxes that are imminent in South Africa. • Changes in transport patterns and transport demand due to changes in demographics, urbanisation etc. • Security and crime levels particularly on public transport systems such as the Gautrain. • Increasing cost of logistics – South African cost of logistics is approximately 15% of GDP, significantly higher than that of its trading partners. • Smart infrastructure including “intelligent” products and intelligent transport systems with embedded sensors. • Supply chain integration to reduce cost of logistics and operational costs. These longer-term trends should be considered in conjunction with the transport drivers to develop a balanced portfolio of R&D focus areas for the sector in South Africa.


The Nature of R&D in the Transport and Transport Infrastructure Sectors

R&D and new knowledge generation in the transport sector are multidisciplinary in nature, covering fields such as transport policy and planning, traffic engineering, materials science, road structural design, intelligent transport systems etc. The outputs and outcomes of R&D activities are mainly new engineering methodology, decision-support systems, prediction models and some new hard products. The innovation process is not linear, progressing from idea generation, R&D, to engineering, product manufacturing and marketing (as is mostly the case in new consumer product development), but rather an iterative, systemic process of knowledge generation and learning (Rust, 2009). The development of engineering know-how and methodology is a complex, systems-related process and the management of such activity should therefore take cognisance of complexity. Cilliers (1998) states: “There is no denying that the world we live in is complex, and that we have to confront this complexity if we are to survive, and, perhaps, even prosper”. The traditional way of dealing with complex issues is to engage them from what is perceived to be a scientifically determined, secure (and usually fixed) point of reference. Not only does Cilliers call this approach an avoidance of complexity, but solutions that are based on this premise will also, by necessity be linear and therefore 142



not responsive to changes in needs and constraints. Such solutions are thus unlikely to be useful when phenomena such as human capital development and management processes need to be addressed. This is one of the reasons why the traditional linear research management models are insufficient for the management of research, knowledge and technology development in the transport sector. R&D in the transportation field requires a more holistic and systemic approach (Rust, 2009). A number of the challenges faced by the transport sector are external. Changes in the nature of the demand for mobility, rising conflict and security issues, continued population growth and urbanisation are some of the challenges to be addressed. Linked with this are the growing challenges on how to ensure that environmental, economic and social sustainability can be achieved. Technological challenges relating to aspects such as the development of alternative energy sources, improved vehicle emissions technology, improved transport infrastructure technology and intelligent transport information and communication technologies needs to be addressed.

Main Themes, Sub-Themes and Focus Areas for R&D

The proposed research agendas from a number of local and international sources were analysed including: • Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing Countries (Du Plessis, 2002). • South African Department of Transport innovation and technology research strategy (DOT, 2005). • Transportek foresight study (Rust and Venter, 2004). • A review of the South African Construction Industry (CSIR, 2005). • The state of logistics survey 2008 (CSIR, 2008). • Construction 2020 – a Vision for Australia’s Construction and Property Industry (Hampson and Brandon, 2004). • Strategic Research Agenda for the European Construction Sector - Implementation Action Plan (ECTP, 2007). • Infrastructure 2007 - A global perspective (ULI, 2007). • The Strategic Highway Research Programme in the USA (TRB, 2007). From these reports as well as a number of technical discussions with industry thought leaders and researchers (Rust et al, 2008), the main R&D themes relating to transport infrastructure were distilled. These topics are at a fairly high strategic level and therefore they do not contain project-level detail. It is also important to emphasise that the active pursuit of new knowledge generation in the areas will lead to significant human resource development which will assist in the imperative to create built environment professionals that can satisfy the current need for high quality technical skills in South Africa.

Sustainability of Infrastructure Provision and Operation

• E nvironmentally responsive transport infrastructure: recycling of road building materials, waste and construction materials. • Sustainable neighbourhoods: Community access roads, improved services such as public transport. • Infrastructure investment decision: Integrated infrastructure planning, geo-spatial planning and technology selection to unlock social impact.

Climate Change Mitigation

• R  esource efficient infrastructure: energy efficient construction, materials and road building materials (e.g. cool asphalt). • Resource efficient transport: Alternative fuels and energy sources, traffic management systems.

Advanced Construction Practice

• Improved construction methods: advanced methods of construction, labour-intensive construction methods, rapid construction methods. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK



Advanced Construction Materials

• A  dvanced materials for roads: bitumen replacements, cement replacements, aggregate replacements, advanced road surfacings (e.g. thin concrete road pavements), optimisation of road materials design, nano-phosphor materials.

Advanced Infrastructure Design

• P  avement design (roads, airports, terminals): advanced analysis methods including finite element analysis, accelerated pavement testing, dynamic road pavement performance evaluation and design methods, long-life road pavement design. • Port design: advanced modelling, analysis and design of ports.

Advanced Infrastructure Operations

• L ogistics: small business logistics, humanitarian logistics, logistics modelling, solutions for improved supply chain efficiency. • Intelligent transport systems: sensorweb systems, advanced traffic control systems. • Asset management systems: road asset management, road pavement overload control. • Traffic safety: road accident prevention, pedestrian safety.

Poverty Alleviation through Rural Transport Infrastructure Provision

• R  ural service provision: Rural mobility and access roads for communities, rural development strategies, use of ICT and mobile technologies in rural logistics brokering.

CREATING AN ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR R&D Historic Transport Related R&D Programmes

Six historic transport R&D programmes in South Africa were analysed Rust et al (2008) from 1984-2007: • South African Department of Transport (DOT) research programme prior to 1988 (the Steering Committee era) • DOT research programme 1988-1993 (the Research and Development Advisory Committee or RDAC era). • DOT research programme 1993-1997 (the Centres of Development or CoD era). • Gauteng Department of Public Transport, Roads and Works (Gautrans) research programme 1995-2005. • Southern African Bitumen Association (Sabita) research programme 1988-1997. • South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) parliamentary grant research programme relating to transport 1988-2007. One of the main findings of this study was that in some instances government introduced lowestcost tendering as the procurement process for projects in the programme. This led to fragmentation of those programmes into a plethora of small projects that achieved very little output and impact (Rust et al, 2008) and had other negative effects such as the loss of focus by researchers; little mentoring of junior researchers; less effective peer review of results, technical communication, development of human resources and consequently, less effective innovation and loss of research staff. Figure 1 shows the fragmentation in the DOT RDAC programme in terms of average project size in 2008 Rand. The graph shows that, in most programmes in the mid 1990s, there were 3 projects per researcher thus not allowing for any mentoring of younger researchers (Rust et al, 2008b). This is one of the major reasons why the national transport research programme in South Africa collapsed in the late 1990’s. Subsequently, the national Department of Transport has not funded R&D to any level of significance. The graph also shows that in the CSIR PG research programme the trend was reversed since 1998. This was due to the implementation of a systems-based R&D management model designed for the development of engineering methodology and knowledge-based products rather than consumer products. 144



Figure 13.1: The trend in average project size of six transport R&D programmes

The Current Status of Transport R&D Funding

Transport infrastructure provision and operation is important to a number of government departments in South Africa including: • The Department of Transport (DoT). • The Department of Provincial and Local Government (DPLG) – recently split into two separate departments (Rural Development and Cooperative Governance & Traditional Affairs). • The Department of Public Works (DPW). • From an SET point of view, the Department of Science and Technology (DST). In order to understand the national situation regarding research into transport infrastructure-related topics, the medium term economic framework (MTEF 2007) budgets of these departments as well as that invested by the DST in the form of a grant to the CSIR was analysed. The result is shown in Table 13.1. Table 13.1: Medium term economic framework budgets for R&D activity (R x 1000)





DoT R&D budget

3 000

4 000

4 000

DoT total budget

15 857 923

19 576 364

21 454 558




DPLG R&D budget

30 649

32 181

36 096

DPLG total budget

28 844 175

32 477 946

39 262 113




DPW R&D budget




DPW total budget

3 693 120

4 122 101

4 708 448




11 000

11 000

11 000

CSIR transport R&D


44 649

47 181

51 096

48 395 218

56 176 411

65 425 119







In the MTEF budgets, the figures are usually listed under Policy, Planning and Research, indicating that the full amount listed is not available for research. In the case of the Department of Transport, only about 10% of the budgeted R30 million is currently available for actual research projects. Total amounts invested into R&D are extremely low. The South African National Research and Development Strategy (DST, 2002) provides a target of 1% of GDP for R&D funding and in some circles a figure of 2% is touted as the required figure to ensure continued development of knowledge and human resources required for the future. It is clear that, on average, the relevant government departments are not investing nearly enough funds into R&D. A second problem currently experienced in R&D is the means of procurement of R&D services by government. Most departments follow the route of a strict tender process to procure services, leading to a number of problems: • A strict tendering process leads to over-emphasis of the lowest price, which in-turn can lead to ever decreasing project sizes with a resultant fragmentation of the research effort and associated underdelivery (Rust, 2009). • The dilemma that if a solution to a particular problem is so clear that it can be specified in a strict tendering process then the process is probably not R&D-intensive, but rather of a nature of routine service provision. • In a call for proposals as part of an open tendering process, the R&D organisation has to put a significant amount of prior work and thinking into the development of such a proposal. Sometimes government departments then take these proposals and ask alternative organisations to provide a “quote” for doing the work. This leads to major issues relating to the intellectual property associated with the prior thinking conducted by the original organisation. • The above often hampers the research organisation in terms of conducting proper innovative R&D that will have significant impact. A third problem is that, in spite of the importance of infrastructure and infrastructure-related technology, the National R&D Strategy (DST, 2002) of South Africa does not address this issue clearly. The strategy does not highlight transport or transport infrastructure as an important research theme nor does it place any focus on the related professional disciplines such as civil engineering and planning. This implies that grant funding form the DST is not specifically aimed at solving problems in the transport or transport infrastructure sector. According to the National R&D Strategy of South Africa, government line departments are mainly responsible for R&D that pertains to the solving of problems in their respective sectors – so called Type 2 research. The DST is responsible for more basic research (Type 1) and facilitates Type 2 research at line departments. However, the above problems as a combination put a significant hold on R&D directed at solving problems in the transport and transport infrastructure sector. This scenario leaves the sector in a position where funds for specific infrastructure-related R&D are diminishing with the consequent loss in local knowledge, expertise and skills that the country cannot afford.

Alternative Approaches

There are many international and some local examples of alternative approaches to the procurement of R&D services by government. These usually involve dedicated medium to long-term funding for centralised R&D organisations such as the Australian Road Research Board, the Belgian Road Research Institute, the Transport Research Laboratory in the UK etc. In the interest of brevity, this chapter will not cover the operation of these organisations in detail. However, in order to address the above scenario, the following points are offered for consideration: • Transport and transport infrastructure as a theme – in view of the discussion in this paper it is concluded that R&D into infrastructure-related science and technologies in South Africa should receive a high priority in the national research agenda including those of relevant line departments such as transport as well as public works. • Transport foresight studies – there is a dire need for a comprehensive transport technology foresight study that will assist in finalising the national research agenda. • A comprehensive national transport R&D strategy and agenda should be developed, prioritised and funded. 146



• A  national forum for transport R&D co-ordination could assist in ensuring synergy between government departments and between government and private sector in terms of developing and managing the R&D portfolio for South Africa. • Partnerships with private sector are extremely important to ensure that the full innovation chain from invention to commercial application is addressed, particularly in the current scenario where the infrastructure sector is growing rapidly. • Improved processes for R&D procurement need to be put in place to ensure that there is a holistic non-fragmented effort to address R&D in the infrastructure sector. • A centre of excellence in transport and transport infrastructure research should be considered to ensure that critical mass in the diverse fields discussed above can be developed.


It is clear that transport and transport infrastructure is an important driver for socio-economic development and plays an essential role in poverty alleviation. At the same time, science, engineering and technology (SET) plays an essential role in the sustainable provision of transport and transport infrastructure and is indeed an important driver for the cost effective design, construction, operation and maintenance of the transport system. The fact that transport-related R&D does not feature significantly in the national R&D agenda and that funding from government departments for transport-related R&D is less than 0.1% of total budget compared with the target of 1% in the National R&D Strategy is of concern. The current system of transport-related R&D management needs to be reviewed to allow for proper co-ordination between stakeholders (government and private sector), for ease of administration and to ensure that a comprehensive R&D agenda is developed. The transport sector, both government and private sector, should seriously consider strategic interventions to change the current situation. Such interventions are critical for providing a sustainable transport infrastructure system and transport infrastructure that are going to be under serious pressure from the strongly growing economy and the increasing role that South Africa is playing on the continent. In addition, if South Africa wants to be a successful host of events like the FIFA World Cup, the situation can no longer be ignored. REFERENCES Cilliers, P., 1998 “Complexity and Postmodernism”. Routledge Publishers: London. CSIR, 2005. 2020 Technology foresight: The built environment and the construction industry in South Africa. CSIR Division for Building Technology, CSIR, Pretoria. CSIR, 2008. Fifth Annual State of Logistics Survey for South Africa, CSIR, Pretoria. DOT, 2005. Transport Innovation and Technology Research Strategy. South African Department of Transport, Pretoria. DST., 2002. South Africa’s National Research and Development Strategy. Department of Science and Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. Du Plessis C. 2002. Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing Countries: A discussion document. CSIR Report No Bou/E0204, CSIR, Pretoria. ECTP, 2007. Strategic Research Agenda for the European Construction Sector - Implementation Action Plan. European Construction Technology Platform (ECTP) Version 1, July 2007. Hampson K and P Brandon, (2004). “Construction 2020: A vision for Australia’s property and construction industry”, published by Cooperative Research Centre for Construction Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Milford, RV, Rust FC and Qhobela, M., 2001 “South African Public Policy Instruments Affecting Innovation in Construction”, Chapter 16 in : Innovation in Construction: An International Review of Public Policies Edited by André Manseau & George Seadon, Spon Press. MTEF., 2007. Medium term economic framework, South African National Treasury, 2007. Rust, FC and Venter, C., 2004. Transportek Foresight Study : Final Report March 2004. Technical Report No TR-2004/16, CSIR, Pretoria. Rust, F.C., Botha, C., van Wyk, L., Steyn, W., du Plessis, C., Landman, K. and Coetzee, M., 2008. South African Construction Industry Technology Foresight Study: Summary report of desk top study. CSIR Technical Report: CSIR/BE/SRM/ER/2008/0063/B. Rust FC, L van Wyk, H Ittmann and K Kistan., 2008 “The role of R&D in transport infrastructure in South Africa.” Proceedings of the Annual Southern African Transport Conference. Rust FC, 2009. “A systems approach to managing R&D in the road infrastructure sector in South Africa”. PhD Thesis, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, SAICE, 2006. The SAICE Infrastructure Report Card for South Africa: 2006. The South African Institute for Civil Engineers, Midrand South Africa. TRB, 2007. Website of the Transportation Research Board in the USA. ULI, 2007. Infrastructure 2007: A Global Perspective. The Urban Land Institute and Ernst & Young. Washington D.C. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


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chapter 14: Visions of the Future



chapter 14: Visions of the Future

Visions of the Future Llewellyn van Wyk Senior Researcher CSIR


Developing alternative visions for transport and mobility is a useful tool in achieving sustainability: this chapter develops some alternative visions that would contribute towards the goals of sustainability. Transportation planning is the field involved with the locating of transportation facilities (generally streets, freeways, sidewalks, bike lanes and public transport lines). Transportation planning historically has followed the rational planning method of defining goals and objectives, identifying problems, generating alternatives, evaluating alternatives, and developing the plan. However, contemporary planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of economic viability, social well being and environmental stewardship. The role of the transport planner is thus shifting from technical analysis to promoting sustainability through integrated transport policies (Southern, 2006). If the real purpose of transport systems and networks is to get people to where they want to go, then the appropriate place to start is place-making (PPS, 2009). Transportation systems and networks are everywhere, and its impacts are a major issue for virtually every community. If decision-making can be influenced by the dimensions and designs of transportation systems and networks so that they are perceived as public places and improve the quality of the human and natural environments, rather than simply moving goods and people from place to place, then the door to visionary community planning and design can be opened. It could be argued that “great places” are places that allow one to do many things at once, often accomplishing many spontaneous and unplanned experiences in the process. However, current design patterns demonstrate that these transport systems and networks do not only impede such opportunities, but are also detrimental to the natural environment. Fortunately, in many parts of the globe the old design paradigm is becoming a challenge of the past. Progressive transportation planning is in the midst of a boom: cities across the world are beginning to experiment with design innovations that safely and comfortably accommodate various modes of travel as transportation agencies are finally paying attention to issues such as the importance of diverse modes of transport, the fair allocation of road space and public spending, and the opportunity to create more contextually sensitive transportation facilities. Proponents of this type of thinking are arguing for a shift from transport planning that merely focuses simply on mobility, throughput and traffic, to a transportation paradigm that is predicated on what kind of cities, communities and streets is most desirable. This emerging paradigm works towards ensuring that housing and transportation goals are met while simultaneously protecting the environment, promoting equitable development, and helping to address the challenges of climate change. Transportation planning provides a unique opportunity to create – both directly and indirectly – spaces that encourage all kinds of exchanges between people. Environmental designers need to develop a vision of how transportation projects can transform streets into community destinations. Furthermore, transportation projects must also be seen as catalysts for creating great places – well designed streets and transit facilities that encourage economic activity, non-vehicular travel and human-scale development. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 14: Visions of the Future

Background and History Man has been fascinated with transport modes ever since the invention of the wheel: many of the art pieces of antiquity feature vehicles as a significant indicator of the dynamism of times or of the wealth of the person depicted. However, it was not until 1807 that the first public passenger tram began operation followed by the first public passenger rail service in 1825. By 1850 the experimental stage of railway station building was over in both Europe and the United States as passenger amenities increased and the larger stations provided shelter all the way from the street to the train (ed. Guedes 1979:68). New stations were built on a larger scale, partly to leave room for expansion and partly because they began to incorporate hotels and office buildings. Trains especially seem to capture the imagination of the time and the 1860s gave birth to a period of great train stations. Railway companies set out to be impressive, and concourses inside the buildings became monumental best illustrated perhaps by Central Station in New York (1903-13). Rail and rail stations offered engineers and architects an opportunity to break with the building styles of the past, largely because the building represented a new building typology and the programmatic demands required large clear spans. One of the architects who embraced this new building type and what it potentially represented was Antonio Sant’Elia. As described in the manifesto Futurist Architecture (1914), his vision was for a highly industrialised and mechanised city of the future, which he saw not as a mass of individual buildings but a vast, multi-level, interconnected and integrated urban conurbation designed around the “life” of the city (Figure 1). His extremely influential designs featured vast monolithic skyscraper buildings with terraces, bridges and aerial walkways that embodied the sheer excitement of modern architecture and technology.

Figure 14.1: Antonio Sant’Elia: Perspective drawing from La Citta Nuovo, 1914. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Airports offered a similar opportunity, even though they came much later than railway stations. Like railway stations, airports are no more than a transportation interchange, the interface between different modes of travel. The tram and the train remained the dominant personal transport choices available for most people up until 1939: the post-War years brought advanced technologies and the growth in private wealth 152


chapter 14: Visions of the Future

following the war enabled access to private transport modes for more and more people. With the proliferation of the motor car and the vision of vast freeways allowing travel to wherever one liked, new visions of city life emerged. The Ville Contemporaine or Contemporary City was such a vision: an unrealised project to house 3-million inhabitants designed by the French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier in 1922. The centerpiece of this plan was the group of enormous 60 story cruciform skyscrapers built on steel frames and encased in huge curtain walls of glass. They housed both offices and flats for the most wealthy inhabitants. These skyscrapers were set within large, rectangular park-like green spaces. At the very centre was a huge transportation centre that, on different levels, included depots for buses and trains, as well as highway intersections and at the top, an airport. Le Corbusier segregated the pedestrian circulation paths from the roadways, and glorified the use of the automobile as a means of transportation. This design philosophy was adopted as the vision of the modern city around the world with most affluent countries and cities investing heavily in extensive roads and freeways which were considered essential to underpin growth and prosperity (Figure 14.2). This planning philosophy has come in for harsh criticism, most notably in the seminal book The Death of Cities by Jane Jacobs. One of the negative impacts of this transport model, for example, is on public health: public health impacts are not generally given a lot of consideration in transport planning decisions such as choosing between freeway and public transit improvements, or whether to rise fuel taxes and parking fees, but recent research suggests that creating a more diverse and efficient transport system may be among the most cost-effective ways to improve public health, and improving public health is one of the largest benefits of improving alternative modes (walking, cycling and public transit), encouraging more efficient travel patterns, and creating more accessible, multi-modal communities (Litman, 2009). Automobile dependency contributes significantly to sedentary living, obesity and associated health problems such as heart disease, stroke, hypertension and diabetes. A recent study titled Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia (Basset et al, 2008) shows a strong positive correlation between automobile mode split and obesity (or put more positively, a strong correlation between transportation system diversity and healthy body mass). A significant amount of recent research shows that people who live in more walkable and transitoriented communities are significantly more likely to achieve physical activity targets and avoid obesity than residents of automobile-dependent communities. Alternative visions of transportation and mobility thus pose a solution to some of the most difficult and costly health problems facing affluent countries in general.

Figure 14.2: Freeway in Tokyo



chapter 14: Visions of the Future

A study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, (Special Report 298), Driving and the Built Environment: The Effects of Compact development on Motorised Travel, Energy Use, and CO2 Emissions, found that more compact development patterns are likely to reduce vehicle miles travelled (VMT). In addition the study found that the effects of compact, mixed-use development on VMT can be enhanced when it is combined with other policy measures that make alternatives to driving relatively more convenient and affordable. Examples include a street network that provides good connectivity between locations and accommodates non-vehicular travel, well located transit stops, and good neighbourhood design (NRC, 2009). The study notes estimates by other reliable studies that doubling residential densities across a metropolitan area might lower household VMT by 5% to 12%, and perhaps by as much as 25 %, if coupled with higher employment concentrations, significant public transit improvements, and other supportive demand management measures. In addition, more compact, mixed-use development can produce reductions in energy consumption and CO2 emissions both directly and indirectly.

Developing Alternative Visions Contemporary transit-orientated planning has a vision that places densities of residents and jobs near high-volume transportation as planned for the new city of Masdar in the United Arab Emirates (Figure 14.3). These are important goals for the development of new transportation network design guidelines that need to be developed throughout South Africa. As we are faced with ever rising fuel prices and mounting evidence that the manner in which we have planned and shaped our communities over the past 50 years is a major contributing factor in the degradation of our natural and human environments, environmental designers need to recognise that this is a key moment to make wise transportation decisions that will influence our quality of life for years to come. This is imperative because South Africa faces a public health crisis; uncertain energy supplies; global climate change; loss of our natural environment; ever increasing social inequity; and declining civic and community engagement. Planning transportation systems and networks for community outcomes, rather than merely moving vehicles, will help protect our nation’s irreplaceable cultural and historic resources and serve as an economic catalyst for towns and cities.

Figure 14.3: Masdar City, United Arab Emirates, by Norman Foster and Partners.



chapter 14: Visions of the Future

According to Sheila Moorcroft, a Research Director at the Future’s think-tank Shaping Tomorrow, a combination of trends is coming together which could change the face of city mobility forever. In addition to increasing levels of inbuilt intelligence and automation in cars and our surroundings, trends such as generational differences in attitudes to car ownership are reducing the numbers of young drivers, or car owners, in some countries; concern about the scale and speed of climate change impacts and the need to reduce emissions are driving the development of electric and other nonpetrol cars; potential resource shortages, despite the current fall in prices, are adding to the mix and the pressures for change. Add to that, real time, mobile phone based access to information about local services, transport as well as mobile payment systems, and the scene is set for change. The combination of the recession, financial crisis and a shift in attitudes to climate change are creating a rush of new approaches to transport, city living and design. They present an opportunity for fundamental change. Levels of automation and inbuilt intelligence are already increasing rapidly. Systems for speed control, parking assistance and accident prevention are already coming to market. Insurance companies may adapt premiums or pay outs according to the availability and use of such systems. The need to reduce congestion and maximise the effective use of vehicles moving through the road network, while also reducing pollution and overall green house gas emissions may further encourage high levels of automation, but also the use of alternative fuels. Not only will the type of cars being produced change, but demand patterns may change significantly if we move to a system where new models of ownership emerge, such as the one being proposed by Better Place based on the mobile phone contract format. How different city based mobility will be depends on the choices we make, but in 20 years time: • Car ownership could go into decline, replaced by alternative forms of “usership” • Intelligent journeys could create seamless, real time, interchange between modes of transport. • Petrol vehicles may be becoming as unacceptable on the streets as smoking has become in pubs. • New forms of localism could create very different city solutions, such as skyscraper farms, changing the pattern of deliveries. • Leisure travel could be more virtual than physical. While the car per se may still exist, as a vehicle which we use to move from A to B, driving may increasingly be done by the car rather than the person (Moorcroft, 2009). Two planning areas will change significantly as we work toward the future: the first is to transform the design and construction of public streets into places that improve the quality of human life and the environment rather than simply move vehicles from place to place; and the second is to influence the planning and design of transit centres (minibus, bus, railway stations, airports and harbours) to become catalysts for increased economic vitality and environmental sustainability as well as improving health, civic engagement, and servicing people’s transit needs.

Conclusion Cities in the future will need be very clever: as Sheila Moorcroft states “the built environment – buildings, bus stops, bill boards, cars, phones, even our clothes – will have varying levels of inbuilt intelligence, sensing, tracking and communications capabilities. This level of connectivity and interaction will fundamentally change how we manage our lives and living spaces – at home, work and play – and all points in between. It will also change city based mobility.” (2009) A new framework for transportation policy is emerging: rather than focusing almost exclusively on mobility, the new framework emphasises seamless transportation accessibility and choice. Instead of SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


chapter 14: Visions of the Future

designing transportation and mobility systems primarily to move cars and goods, the new approach calls for systems designed to serve the community efficiently, affordably, and safely. This approach prioritises firstly investments in public transportation, walking and bicycling – transportation modes that also promote health, opportunity, environmental quality, and mobility for people who do not have access to cars; and secondly communities with the greatest need for affordable, safe, reliable transportation links to jobs, and essential goods and services. The goal is to improve transportation for everyone while delivering the other essential payoffs, including better respiratory and cardiovascular health; improved physical fitness; less emotional stress; cleaner air; quieter streets; fewer traffic injuries and deaths; and greater access to jobs, nutritious foods, pharmacies, clinics; and other essentials for healthy, productive living. This new vision is at the core of a burgeoning movement to shape transportation policy to support work in a number of critical areas, such as climate change, sustainable agriculture, the prevention of chronic diseases, workforce development, and community revitalisation. Transportation planners may find in climate change the force that may once and for all bring about the merger of land use planning and transportation planning; the places and the routes to them can no longer be separated now that sprawl and segregated land uses are considered one the greatest threats to our continued survival. References David Bassett, John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, Dixie L. Thompson, and Scott E. Crouter (2008), “Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Vol. 5 Guedes, P. ed., 1979. The MacMillan Encyclopaedia of Architecture and Technological Change, The MacMillan Press Ltd., London. Litman, T., 2009. ‘Healthy, Wealthy and Wise Transportation Policy’, from the website retrieved November 3, 2009. Moorcroft, S., 2009. From the werbsite of Shaping Tomorrow, Retrieved Thursday, 16 July 2009 NRC., 2009. Driving and the Built Environment: The Effects of Compact Development on Motorised Travel, Energy Use, and CO2 Emissions, National Research Council, Transportation Research Board, Washington. Southern, A., 2006. Modern-day transport planners need to be both technically proficient and politically astute, Local Transport Today, no. 448, 27 July 2006. PPS., 2009. From Place to Place, from the website of Project for Public Spaces, Retrieved Tuesday, 27 October 2009.




Pandrol SA Since 1937 Pandrol has been at the forefront of railway infrastructure development, providing resilient rail fastenings for all types of railways. These railway lines range from those used for commuter transport to heavy haul to underground mining applications. The unique Pandrol rail clip is a simple yet effective rail fastening which suits all applications. The range of Pandrol fastenings caters for applications on concrete, timber, steel and slabtrack. Pandrol is not just a manufacturer, but a provider of engineered solutions to track problems, focusing on constantly improving their products. Pandrol works closely with major stakeholders in the railway industry, to ensure that new products are developed to suit their ever-changing needs. Pandrol endeavours to supply a simple, reliable and cost effective system suitable for every type of track and traffic condition. Pandrol South Africa provides a wide variety of SPECIALISED RAIL TRACK PRODUCTS for both surface and underground applications which includes aluminothermic rail welding, rail monitoring systems and fastenings. Rail fastening solutions: • Clips – 12-20mm series • Pads – HDPE for general freight track – HYTREL with crastin shim for heavy haul track • Gauge plate insulators - for different applications • Base plates – cast iron, weld-on or bolt-on base plates • Shoulders – hook-in, weld-on and pressed steel shoulders • Coach screws • High tensile bolts and nuts • Rigid fastenings for steel sleepers • Railbolts • Fishplates Pandrol supplies the entire range of products necessary for a complete track fastening assembly suited to the rail size and sleeper. The products can either be supplied as a complete set or as individual parts.



ALUMINOTHERMIC WELDING In conjunction with Railtech International, part of the Delachaux Group, a wide range of rail welding products is marketed locally and internationally. These products have passed RIGOROUS TESTING by the Transnet Laboratory. Welding products for various rail grades, sizes and applications are supplied according to client specifications. Pandrol SA`s ISO 9001 certification has recently been extended to include Railtech welding products. RAILTECH PRODUCTS Railtech offers two welding gap sizes: • The 25mm (F) SMALL GAP WELD is used for joining rails and repairing cracks and small defects • The 68mm WIDE GAP WELD (WGW) is used for replacing defective F welds and repairing large defects and rail breaks. The Railtech ONE SHOT system is technologically advanced and is internationally approved. The welds are stronger, cleaner, faster and cost-effective when used correctly and according to the supplied specifications. • The One Shot Crucible with Eco Filter is environmentally friendly and can be used in enclosed areas for example: tunnels, train stations, underground mines and highly populated areas. The Eco Filter crucible reduces the emission of smoke into the environment. RAIL MONITORING SYSTEMS The Pandrol SA product range includes rail monitoring systems designed to assist in PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE PLANNING, identify FATIGUE and monitor TRAFFIC. Products include in-motion weight monitoring, the SFT PRO (stress free temperature monitoring and acoustic bearing monitoring systems. Vortok International, a member of the Delachaux Group, manufactures a range of products that enable clients to perform COST-EFFECTIVE and LESS LABOUR INTENSIVE rail track maintenance. All products are ISO 9001 approved to South African specifications. Pandrol SA (Pty) Limited Cnr. Diesel & Furnace Rds. Isando 1600 South Africa Telephone: + 27 (011) 392-5061 Telefax: + 27 (011) 392-5179 E-mail:

Index of Advertisers Company Page Arcus Gibb BASF Holdings South Africa (Pty) Ltd Belstow Technologies British High Commission Centurion Energy Systems (Pty) Ltd East London IDZ Energy Resource Handbook Freeworld Automotive Coatings Gauteng Dept of Roads and Transport The Green Building Conference & Expo 2010 Geotab Glenrand M.I.B Green Edge Hatch Hiab (Pty) Ltd Infraset Ingerop South Africa Khuthele Projects MTU South Africa (Pty) Ltd Nissan Diesel SA NRV Management Solutions Pandrol SA Plasser SA (Pty) Ltd Rail Road Association of SA Reinforced Earth (Pty) Ltd Richter Scale (Pty) Ltd SAA Cargo Sarens South Africa (Pty) Ltd Seporo Railway Consultants (Pty) Ltd Sustainable Transport & Mobility Conference 2010 TIDASA Toyota SA Motors (Pty) Ltd WSP Group Africa

28 & 70 56 102 160 29 136 83 2 114 69 80 & 138 Inside Front Cover 68 4 & 100 66 30 124 126 92 40 81 157 55 39 8 14 46 148 135 12 6 & 113 90 21




Transforming transport a UK government case study Transport contributes 23% towards the UK’s total domestic emissions. It must therefore be part of the solution for the UK to meet its binding emissions reductions targets. On 15 July the UK launched its Carbon Reduction Strategy, which set out how the country will reduce transport emissions by up to 14% over the next decade. It will achieve this by: Improving fuel efficiency through: • Cutting average carbon dioxide emissions from new cars across the EU to 95g/km by 2020, a 40% reduction from 2007 levels. • Ensuring that the Government leads by example by setting targets for government departments and their agencies to procure new cars for administrative purposes that meet the EU standard for 2015 in 2011, four years early. • Investing up to £30 million over the next two years to deliver several hundred low carbon buses. Starting the move away from petrol and diesel through: • Demonstrating 340 new electric and lower carbon cars on the UK’s roads. • Providing £2,000 to £5,000 per vehicle towards reducing the price of ultra-low carbon cars, from 2011, and up to £30 million to support the installation of electric vehicle charging infrastructure in six or so cities across the UK. • Committing to source 10% of UK transport energy from sustainable renewable sources by 2020. Making low carbon travel choices through: • Launching a competition for the country’s first Sustainable Travel City, building on projects in towns which saw reported car trips fall by 9%, walking increase by 14% and cycling increase by 12%. • Investing £140 million in promoting cycling in England in 2008-11, and a new £5 million investment in improving cycle storage at rail stations. Addressing emissions from aviation and shipping through: • Putting a cap on emissions from all flights arriving at or leaving from European airports by including them in the EU Emissions Trading System from 2012. • Introducing a target to limit UK aviation emissions to below 2005 levels by 2050, despite forecast growth in passenger demand. • While pushing for an international agreement to curb emissions from aviation and shipping. For more information:


The Urban Tran:Sit Programme

In order to achieve this a ‘working from the inside’ approach was adopted. This was done by placing a dedicated Sustainable Transport Professional, whose function was to focus exclusively on sustainable transport in the City. This approach proved that a far more effective change could be achieved than through traditional consulting methods. Integrating sustainable transport into planning and policy was a key focus area of the programme. Through meetings, focussed workshops, technical and advisory support and the work of the Sustainable Transport Professional, the Tran:SIT programme was instrumental in ensuring that sustainable transport planning approaches were accepted and integrated in the City transport planning document, the Integrated Transport Plan. As the Tran:SIT Programme was the first of its kind in South Africa, there have been several lessons learnt as the programme has unfolded: • There is a need for passionate champions for sustainable transport in a City, including highlevel political will and drive from the Mayor and Executive Councillors and enthusiastic buy-in from the senior City officials. • Capacity building is a key element at the infancy stage of moving towards a Sustainable Transport agenda. Capacity building and awareness raising in a number of different forms including training and support for the Sustainable Transport Professional, workshops, information dissemination and technical support is fundamental to getting a City to think differently about transport planning and implementation. • The programme has facilitated better relationships with other City departments as the Sustainable Transport Professional has been involved in several inter-departmental workshops, meetings and forums. Awareness has been raised around the City’s new focus on sustainable transport. At the end of the programme, it can be said that most of its objectives have been met. The Sustainable Transport post, which was an ongoing contract, has been recognised as strategically critical for the City and has been converted into a permanent post. Sustainable transport has been integrated into the heart of the City’s transport planning and policy with sustainable indicators to measure progress. Implementation projects have been undertaken to promote sustainable transport approaches. For more information on the Tran:SIT programme and sustainable transport, visit

Image courtesy of City of Cape Town

The Urban Tran:SIT Programme was a three year partnership between the City of Cape Town and Sustainable Energy Africa through funding received from the British High Commission from 2006 – 2009. The purpose of the programme was to build capacity in the City of Cape Town and to integrate sustainable transport approaches into planning, policy and implementation projects.


Profile for Green Economy Media

The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook volume 1  

The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook volume 1

The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook volume 1  

The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook volume 1