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The Responsible and Sustainable

Tourism Handbook

OU T RISM Southern & East Africa Volume2 The Essential Guide

ISBN 978-0-620-55987-4

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780620 559874

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www.sustainabletourism.co.za


Forest Camp

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Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Daily tours ● Successful breeding programmes Management course for game farming ●

Mountain View

Accomodation for 28-plus peopl ● B&B, full catering Guided bird and wildlife bush walks, night drives ●

Ya Mati

5x luxurious chalets on the bank of the Blyde River. Self-catering or full catering ● Wedding facilities for up to 120 people ●

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For more info and bookings: Forest Camp & Rehabilitation Centre: Tel: +27 (0)15 795-5236 覺 Fax: +27 (0)15 795-5333 Mountain view: Cell: 082 907 5983 Ya Mati: Cell: 072 191 2024 / 084 511 3000 Fax: +27 (0)12 348 4926 E-mail: moholo@worldonline.co.za

www.moholoholo.co.za


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Responsible and Sustainable

Tourism Handbook

Southern Africa 2013/14

EDITOR Niki Glen

PROJECT LEADER Vania Reyneke

CONTRIBUTORS Niki Glen, Kevin Mearns, Alan Roxton Wiggil, Rhian Bering, Kathy Bergs, Louis Nel, Angela James, Garth Brook, Reana Rossouw, Johan Oliver, Les Carlisle, Steve Haze, Janet Landey

CHIEF EXECUTIVE Gordon Brown

LAYOUT & DESIGN Nicole Kenny

PRINCIPAL FOR AFRICA & MAURITIUS Gordon Brown

EDITORIAL & PRODUCTION Nicole Kenny

PRINCIPAL FOR UNITED STATES James Smith

ADMIN MANAGER Suraya Manuel

PUBLISHER

DIRECTORS Gordon Brown Andrew Fehrsen Lloyd Macfarlane

DIGITAL MARKETING MANAGER Marcus Matsi COVER PHOTO Alain Proust Photography

www.alive2green.com www.greenbuilding.co.za

The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Wynberg Mews Cloete House Brodie Road Wynberg Cape Town South Africa 7824 TEL: 021 447 4733 FAX: 086 6947443 Company Registration Number: 2006/206388/23 Vat Number: 4130252432

SBN No: 978 0 620 45240 3. Volume 4 rst Published February 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. IMAGES AND DIAGRAMS: Space limitations and source format have a ected the size of certain published images and/or diagrams in this publication. For larger PDF versions of these images please contact the Publisher. CHAPTER IMAGES www.encyclopedia-african-safari.blogspot.com, www.africanimpact.com, www.travelblog.org, www. luxlux.net, www.ugandahighcommission.org, www.southafrica.net, www. paradiseintheworld.com, www.vineyard.co.za

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PEER REVIEW Alive2green has introduced and is committed to peer reviewing a minimum number of published chapters in all Sustainability Series handbooks. The concept of Peer review is based on the objective of the publisher to provide professional, academic content. This process helps to maintain standards, improve performance, and provide credibility.

ALIVE2GREEN PEER REVIEW PROCESS The Publisher and the Editor allocate a reviewer to an article and then send it to the reviewer who is well acquainted with the topic. Reviewers return an evaluation of the work to the Editor, noting weaknesses or problems along with suggestions for improvement. The Editor notes the reviewer’s recommendations and will either publish the article without changes, request that the author amend the article in accordance with recommendations or reject the article but encourage revision and invite resubmission.

The Editor evaluates reviewer submissions and is under no obligation to accept recommendations. The Editor may also add his or her opinions and recommendations to those of the reviewer before passing these back to contributors. Peer reviewed articles may not necessarily have incorporated all recommendations made by the reviewer but are likely to have been amended from the original version.

Alive2green is proud to have embarked on the journey of peer review and now strives to achieve certain objectives in this process which include, but are not limited to: • Extremely high standards of published material • Acceptance of handbooks in academic institutions, including as prescribed text books • Increased publicity and exposure for handbooks in global academic circles • Increased exposure for contributors and editors within academic, industry and peer-review circles • Increased quality of learning texts for Alive2green online learning modules which are based on handbook content. • Relevant and extensive coverage for advertisers within the handbooks and online.

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CONTRIBUTERS ALAN ROXTON Alan has a deep love of all nature with a great passion for trying to save what’s left of our beautiful earth. Alan’s qualifications include a BSc majoring in Geology, Geophysics and Natural Earth Sciences, a 2 Year crop and livestock husbandry diploma a 2 year printing, paper making and marketing diploma and a its Business School marketing diploma. As a real lateral thinker he has found a passion for developing small businesses which in the past decade, has been focused on tourism.

ANGELA JAMES Angela James is the Founder and Senior Strategic Business Partner of both 7 Generations and Align-Ed. She is an expert at facilitating the development of transformative business strategy and in aligning brand, and internal organisation culture, and people through her powerful use of storytelling and narrative. Her expertise is developing communications, education, learning solutions as the mechanism and medium to facilitate sustainable living and development.

CAROLINE UNGERSBOCK Caroline Ungersbock is the co-founder of the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme. She currently is a member of the Tourism Grading Council of South Africa (TGCSA) Awards Committee. Caroline has helped the small tourism sector to move forward and to being recognised as a significant economic contributor with the potential of leading sustainability in tourism.

GARTH BROOK Garth has twenty-eight years in marketing and communication experience. He started with the launch and sales of semiconductor [microchip] products to the industry in South Africa. He moved on to publish a monthly magazine aimed at the tourism market. Today, he is developing new methods of communication in the conservation and tourism markets.

JANET LANDEY Having spent 33 years in the event industry and the last ten with over 1000 learnerships in local communities. She is a Pine & Gilmore CEEE – Certified Experience Economy Expert and the founding President of IFEA Africa – International Festivals and Events Association Africa; founding member of Skills Village 2030 Secondary Co-operative; Board Member of the Hospitality Industry Leaders Advisory Board (HILAB) for the HTIMi Hotel and Tourism Management Institute.

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CONTRIBUTERS JOHAN OLIVER Johan holds a degree in town planning and started his career at the City of Johannesburg in 1994. In February 2013 Johan, together with members of Akanya, established Ranyaka Community Investment Managers, a non-profit social business, focussing on regeneration strategies and implementation mechanisms for towns and communities.

KATHY BERGS Kathy Bergs is the General Manager at Fair Trade Tourism (FTT). Prior to joining FTT in 2011, Kathy spent 15 years in the South African game lodge industry, helping Motswari Private Game Reserve to obtain FTT-certification while working as the General Manager there. Kathy holds a Master’s Degree in International Management and a Bachelor’s Degree in International Affairs from the University of Colorado at Boulder. K

KEVIN MEARNS Kevin Mearns is a Professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of South Africa. Kevin’s specialist area of research involves the application of sustainable tourism indicators to tourism ventures across Southern Africa. Kevin received his academic training both locally at the University of Johannesburg and abroad in the United Sates and the United Kingdom in Environmental Design and Management as well as Geography.

LES CARLISLE With an endless string of accreditations to his name, as well as an impressive list of conservation firsts, the preservation of wildlife has been a lifelong focus for Les. His buffalo quarantine programme at Phinda led to new national protocol for buffalo on private land. He and &Beyond were the first to use sedation to socialise lions from different prides in acclimatisation pens prior to release, as well as the first to transport immobilised lions by air. The predator reintroduction programme he led at Phinda has been hailed as a shining example for all other efforts and his pioneering elephant reintroductions revolutionised international capture methodologies.

LOUIS NEL Adv Louis Nel is a co-founder of the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme. Hestudied at the universities of Stellenbosch, UCT, Wits, Tulane (New Orleans, USA) and London. He holds the degrees B. Comm, Ll.B and Ll.M, completed the Wits EDP and Executive Negotiator Courses, holds diplomas in Marketing and Industrial Relations and is an admitted attorney and advocate. He has furthermore presented papers at the International Federation for Travel Advocates’ conferences.

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CONTRIBUTERS MAUD MASIYIWA Maud is the Managing Director and sole founding member of Capstone Training and Development cc. She attained an Associate Diploma Travel Operations in Kenya in 1992; Standard and Advanced IATA /UFTAA Diploma in Retail Travel Operations in 1995; Women Entrepreneurship Development and Gender Equality (WEDGE) Programme Facilitator, Women Entrepreneurship Development and Advocacy Skills for Small Business with United Nations International Labour Organisation (UN ILO) in 2012; Certificate in Community Development from UNISA in 2011.

NIKI GLEN Niki Glen is the co-founder of the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme. She is a Civil and Structural Engineer cum MBA. After a stint with Transnet and Gibb Africa, she became a programme Manager for international companies, including Absa, Barclays, Standard Bank and Liberty Life, running mass scale programmes stretching over 11 African Countries. Niki is also studying to attain her Doctorate in Environmental Management and Responsible Tourism.

REANA ROUSSOUW Reana Rossouw is the owner of Next Generation Consultants, a leading boutique Management and Business Consulting Firm with a wealth of experience in the business development environment. Reana is a regular speaker at national and international conferences and have delivered various papers on her fields of expertise. In recognition of her ground-breaking work in this arena; Reana is regarded as a visionary and one of South Africa’s leading experts in the areas of business and sustainable development.

RHIAN BERING Rhian Berning is the founder and director of Eco Atlas ethical directory, a pioneering new concept which empowers both locals and tourists to make responsible choices on a daily basis. Rhian is a qualified environmental scientist and teacher She is also the founder of Nature Network. She has lectured at a post-grad level at the University of Cape Town on environmental education as well as lobbying, public speaking and project management in the field.

STEVE HAZE Steve Haze is the Executive Director and 1st Vice President – Yosemite/Sequoia Resource Conservation and Development Council. Steve is also the Programme Manager, Upper San Joaquin River Stewardship and Watershed Assessment Program – Sierra Resource Conservation District, Fresno County, CALFED Bay Delta Program / California, Department of Water Resources – and, Special Programs. He is also currently on the Board of Directors for Friends of Peace Parks in the United States.

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FOREWORD

T

he Editor’s Note of Volume 1 of the Sustainable and Responsible Tourism Handbook refers to communication from Thebetheni Tsheka and Phindile Sobhuza, from a remote village in South Africa see (www.sustainabletourism.co.za).

VILLAGE 1

A year later, I have had the privilege to visit that remote village and met up again with Thebethini and Phindile. This is not a coincidence, but you can make up your own mind. It was a few weeks ago that I found myself at a Travel show in Gauteng. I was wandering around the travel show and chatted to some of the stand holders. I chatted for quite a while to Philip, the Chairperson of a key tourism route – the shortest route between the Cape and KwaZulu Natal. Philip asked if I would come down to his village so that he could show me a place for development that would enhance the area, would provide for several permanent jobs and would give tourists the opportunity to have a cup of tea and drink up the beauty of the area. It would be a place that Tourists could have good, clean, comfortable accommodation or camping facilities and a base from which to explore the area. They could cycle in the mountains, hike in the Kloofs or just be at peace with the beauty of it all. Philip also sees the potential for the local artists and local craftsman to sell their wares in a store situated at this site. He mentioned to me that there was a couple in the area, in a village down the road from his, that organise tours to the largest Bushman paintings in Africa. They take Archaeologists, researchers and tourists to caves and the wetlands. He mentioned that they were very passionate about the area and very passionate about growing tourism and creating opportunities for others. They would be the best people to run the envisioned destination with its wonderful accommodation, coffee shop, camping site and visitors centre. I put two and two together and asked him if it was Thebetheni and Phindile. To my excitement it was, and so, the story of this remote village, and the potential that is held in the hearts of two amazing people is brought into limelight, once again.

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FOREWORD

VILLAGE 2 After meeting with Philip at the Travel Show, I received a call from an owner of a very successful Backpackers in a village, Village 2, not far from Village 1. David mentioned to me that there is a Hotel in this village, and that would be ideal as a working hotel where they could train people in area in Hospitality. David asked whether I could come by next time I am in the area to have a look at the opportunities he would like to create. I need to add that his backpackers is a Fair Trade Tourism Certified. In fact, there are also two other Backpackers in the area that are also Fair Trade Tourism Certified.

VILLAGE 3

In January of this year, I was invited to do a presentation by a Tourism Association in Village 3 in the Eastern Cape, where Village 1 and 2 are situated. I duly went and also held a workshop on Green Staff Training. It was great fun. I met with some wonderful passionate people, who showed me their community vegetable gardens and was invited to dinner on a farm just outside Village 3. Heaven. We discussed tourism development and niche tourism and we bandied some ideas around. A few days later I received an e-mail about a niche tourism concept that could be explored further. All three communications had large elements of rural/community tourism development written all over them. This was the opportunity to go and explore the Eastern Cape. March has a long weekend – Human Rights Day. I took out the map and started planning. To my delight, the villages were in very close proximity to each other. I drove down with my Husband, Robert. We first visited David in Village 2. His ideas are amazing and feasible. We then drove back to Village 3 and took an expensive “guided” tour to a prominent tourist attraction in the area. We overnighted in a delightful Guest House and over dinner continued the conversation of Niche Tourism opportunities. We will have to wait and see what happens with this project for now. The following morning we went and met up with Philip and at his Guesthouse close to Village 1. We boarded his land cruiser and off we went to see this “site”. On our way we collected Thebethini and Phindile from their remote village. What a surprise. We met Thebethini at his “workshop” which he rents from the “Arts and

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FOREWORD Crafts Centre”. The centre is a hive of activity. The church-goers were singing, the hairdressers where braiding, the taxidrivers were cleaning their vehicles. Thebethini and Phindile have an absolute gem of a “workshop/store”. There were pieces of art from artists around the villages. There was beautiful clothing. Phindile is a Dress designer and creates beautiful sheshwe materials which they sell to the people in the villages. There was also a photograph of Thebethini and Phindile together with the Hon Minister Marthinus van Schalkwyk. That photograph was taken at the same conference where we originally met Thebethini and Phindile in our first story. We collected Phindile from outside the church. She was dressed so beautifully. Armed with the two most passionate people in area, besides Philip, of course, we learned about the different types of tribes that live in the area, how one can identify the one from the other just by looking at the colour of the houses as well as the structure of their cattle Kraals. They explained to us the relationship with the chief and the people, the importance of the wetland, the importance of tourism and what it means to the local people. In no time we were at the “site” which is about 25 kms from Village 1. We alighted from the vehicle, took a very short walk. Words cannot describe the beauty of what we saw. The site is virtually halfway on the Cape/KZN route. It is close to wetlands, close to the mountains, close to a number of hiking trails. It is an ideal place for visitors to enjoy a cup of tea and soak in the breath taking countryside that Philip, Thebethini and Phindile are so passionate about. A facility needs to be established to give visitors the opportunity to explore the wonderful countryside, to give the community something that they can be proud of, to create jobs in the area, and most of all to re-establish local pride. Then, the links needs to be created between Village 1, Village 2 and Village 3, so that visitors will stay longer, learn more, enjoy more, leave more behind for the economy to be sustainable, to take home more stories, return more. We invite you, who-ever you are, to join us on this journey, to work with us and to make the dreams of so many passionate and proud people a reality for all of us to enjoy.

Caroline Ungersbock Chair – Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme

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ED’S NOTE

Niki GlenEditor

T

he Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Handbook Volume 1 was hugely successful and well received by the industry. We walked into every meeting, workshop and conference over the past year with a handful of copies and have received requests from far and wide to send more. In adhering to our own sustainability principle, we recommended that if you have not received your copy of Volume 1, you download it in electronic format at www. sustainabletourism.co.za. Volume 1 really was the introduction – presenting the Why’s and How’s of starting sustainable tourism implementation. In Volume 2, we move beyond looking internally and we build on the learnings from Volume 1. In Volume 2 there is a lot of emphasis on community and the human aspect of sustainable tourism. Who to involve, what to tell them and how to engage them. The underpinning principle of sustainability in my mind, is collaboration on a magnificent scale – private business, policy makers, regulators, local community, tourists, NGOs, associations, non-tourism sectors – everyone has to work together to create a sustainable tourism industry. I hope you enjoy the journey

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CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Introduction Kevin mearns and Niki Glen

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Small accommodation owner: How can you become stronger? Niki Glen and Kevin Mearns

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The N12 Treasure Route: Sustainable marketing requires sustainable business Alan Roxton Wiggill

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Make a start, get ahead and communicate your efforts Rhian Berg

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To certify or not to certify; Perspectives from fair Trade Tourism Kathy Berg

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The POPI: Comply to the Prtection of Information Act

52

Story telling for sustainable living

56

A story we can all believe: Kgnayapa

60

Louis Nel

Angela James Garth Brook

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CONTENTS 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Empowerment of women: “stories� from Africa

64

Maud Masiyiwa

Green gabions: Empowering a tourism community

70

Garth Brook

CSI: Strategic or Catalytic

78

Reana Rossouw and Niki Glen

The Magaliesburg Development Initiative

86

The story of communities in conservation and beyond

94

Johan Oliver

Les Carlisle

The national Geographic Society Geotourism programme

102

Sustainable events industry: Successes and failures

108

Greening Events Niki Glen

114

Steve Haze

Janet Landey

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PROFILE

Durban Green Corridor – ‘Creating Pathways …Beyond The Beach’ Durban is renowned for its beautiful and idyllic sandy beaches, however, there is so much more that can be experienced if you look a little further. Nestled within the inlying areas of KwaZulu Natal lies a whole host of opportunities to experience something unique, traditional and exhilarating amid breath-taking scenery and all the while being mindful that in doing so you are helping to give back to the communities that need your help the most.

Durban Green Corridor (DGC) is an initiative between the eThekwini Municipality and the Duzi-uMngeni Conservation Trust (DUCT) aiming to create jobs and local economic development opportunities in the uMngeni River Valley through adventure sports, cultural and eco-tourism and preservation of the natural environment A range of outdoor activities are on offer at the uMngeni River estuary at Blue Lagoon, around Inanda dam and at iSithumba, a Zulu village in the heart of the Valley of 1000 Hills. This includes mountain biking, trail running, hiking, paddling and bird-watching. The guided tours at Inanda and iSithumba offer authentic Zulu experiences among welcoming communities and amid stunning scenery. All tours are tailored to suit the visitor’s interests and available time and all sports tours are moderated to the desired level of challenge.

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PROFILE

The DGC team work in wild open spaces along the river valley to transform them, with the help and guidance of the local rural communities, into suitable locations for adventure and eco-tourism activities which are not only offering unique experiences for tourists, but also (and more importantly) offer the chance of employment, training, leisure and education for the local rural people who do not normally have access to such opportunities. New sites have already been identified in the valley for development and new exciting tourist offerings are being established including a 4x4 trail and rock climbing as well as dedicated campsites and other accommodation options for those on overnight tours. A network of multipurpose trails are being established all the way from Pietermaritzburg to the river estuary and it is anticipated that this will eventually go all the way to the Drakensburg. Critical to this developmental process is consulting with the local communities and settlements nearby. DGC deals directly with the community leaders and local people to gain their input into what would work and be most beneficial in the immediate area which ensures that the tourism DGC brings to the area is sensitive to their needs and traditions.

The Durban Green Corridor is an attraction not only for international and national tourists but also for local people seeking something new to do over the weekend. Why not think ‘beyond the beach’ and try a little paddling at Blue Lagoon, or hire a bike to ride along the promenade on a sunny Sunday? Or take a short drive up to Inanda to enjoy the spectacular natural beauty of this dam where you can take a nature walk or simply enjoy a picnic with your family in the peace and quiet? THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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PROFILE

Tourists from further afield may be more interested in the traditional Zulu experience of staying with a local family at iSithumba which is perched on a hillside with incredible views. DGC has identified local families who would welcome you into their home to enjoy some traditional Zulu cooking and a safe and comfortable stay in their home. This is one example of how DGC creates positive opportunities for the rural communities within which it operates. These families benefit greatly both financially and emotionally from hosting people and giving them guided tours of the village. Team Building Days for your company or a ‘day out’ for the business traveller attending a conference – Durban Green Corridor has something for everyone and can tailor a package just for you. However you get involved, you will be comforted by the knowledge that your guide and site staff have been given the opportunity of employment and skills development to be able to offer you the desired service, many of whom are people who, without DGC, would not have an income at all. It is also so wonderful to know that your guide knows their dedicated area as if it was their back garden…because quite simply, it is! Youth Development is a strong focus for DGC. At a number of sites the project has established ‘youth/sport gardens’ where regular sessions are led with the local children offering them something to do outside of their school hours. Food Gardens also feature at some of the sites, enabling communities to benefit from a sustainable food source. Education around the importance of the environment for young people is also a focus at a majority of the sites. DGC believes that by teaching children about the importance of maintaining a healthy river and considering the surrounding environment in terms of preventing littering and promoting hygienic waste disposal, will ultimately result in a more preserved and beautiful environment for the future. Sessions are led by trained guides on a regular basis with the rural communities as well as with school groups.

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PROFILE

DGC clearing teams, consisting of many local rural people who have been trained by the DGC Environmental Manager, work daily to clear alien species and preserve indigenous plants at all sites and along the river & valley in general, ensuring it remains in its most beautiful natural state for everyone to enjoy. These teams gain new knowledge and skills whilst at the same time preserving their immediate surroundings.

The Durban Green Corridor makes a real difference to the communities within which it works and has big plans to expand its reach but it needs the support of tourists (national and international) as well as local KZN residents combined with the private and public sectors, to make this possible. If you are looking for a chance to do something adventurous or simply something a little different from the usual day at the beach and an opportunity to ‘Create Pathways’ for people that really need them, contact Durban Green Corridor on 031 3226026/7 or 0730889874. You can also email info@durbangreencorridor.co.za or visit the website for more information www.durbangreencorridor.co.za If you are interested in partnering with DGC to help develop the programme further please contact Anna da Graca, Marketing & Business Development Manager at anna@ durbangreencorridor.co.za

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RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP

1

RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP

...and our responsibility as citizens of planet earth 24

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RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP

Author Prof Kevin Mearns and Niki Glen

I

would like to share a few thoughts with you. At the start of a new century, (back in 2001) the World Bank (2001, p. 267) stated that poverty remains a global problem of huge proportions. Of the world’s 6 billion people, 2.8 billion live on less that $2 a day and 1.2 billion on less than $1 a day. Eight of every 100 infants do not live to see their fifth birthday. Nine of every 100 boys and 14 of every 100 girls who reach school age do not attend school. Poverty is also evident in poor people’s lack of political power and voice and in their extreme vulnerability to ill health, economic dislocation, personal violence and natural disasters. And the scourge of HIV/AIDS, the frequency and brutality of civil conflicts and rising disparities between rich countries and the developing world have increased the sense of deprivation and injustice for many. The sentiments suggest not only that development and inequality are global phenomenon but also that development interventions taken since World War II have failed to deliver broad-based development in many developing countries. Instead there has been a deepening inequality both between and within countries. The assumption that developing countries would inevitably become developed over time has been totally disproved.

Development implies growth and expansion it “implies progression toward some kind of desirable outcome”. During the industrial revolution development was strongly connected to increased speed, volume and size. However, the concept of growth in terms of development is being questioned and that there is a general realization that ‘more’ is not always better. The term ‘development’, therefore, may not always mean growth and expansion, but it will always imply change. Development should be seen as “releasing the community of the poor from the poverty trap so that they can take responsibility for their own destiny”. Since development should lead to an improvement in the economic and spiritual welfare of the individual or community involved, it should lead to the eradication of poverty.

For to be free is not merely to cast off one’s chains, but to be in a way that respects and enhances the lives of others

-Nelson Mandela. Since the 1990’s sustainable development has become increasingly prominent as a dominant development approach, leading to the demise of other development approaches.

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RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP

1

With the emergence of sustainable development the pursuit of economic growth is no longer the only core value of development strategies. Sustainable development originated from the modern-day environmental movement whose origins stem in part from 19th-century Europe where the traditional approach that humans have dominion over nature was replaced with a ‘preservation ethic’. Influential publications in the 1960s and 70s such as Carson’s (1962) Silent Spring, Hardin’s (1968) The Tragedy of Commons and Schumacher’s (1973) Small is Beautiful, made the world aware of the detrimental effects that human activities were having on the environment. Through the work of international organizations such as the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) humans started to be understood as part of nature and not separate from it. These organizations started to take steps to embrace social and environmental issues and to group them under one umbrella. This paved the way for the integration of social and environmental concerns that are critical for sustainable development. The failure of economic development theories and the associated environmental degradation, together with the growth in the environmental movement, laid the foundations for the emergence of sustainable development. In 1972 the United Nations (UN) conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. This was the first time global environmental issues were discussed in a systematic and comprehensive manner. At this meeting, representatives

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of developing nations made it clear that environmental issues would not be part of their agenda until active steps were taken to alleviate poverty and bring about greater equity in trade relations, effectively linking environmental degradation and poverty alleviation. Although the Stockholm Conference was of limited scope it started a new wave of environmentally conscious international conventions and treaties. The UN General Assembly adopted the recommendations of the Stockholm Conference and established the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP). Sustainable development was first popularized by the Brundtland Commission Report entitled ‘Our Common Future’ (WCED, 1987), in which the integration of economic and environmental issues was highlighted. Environment and development are not separate challenges, they are linked. Development cannot subsist upon a deteriorating environmental resource base”. The Brundtland Report defines sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Five years after the Brundtland Report, the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) took place in Rio de Janeiro and popularly became known as the ‘Rio Earth Summit’. This event may be seen as the high point of the environmental movement worldwide. In the 20 years between the Stockholm Conference and the Earth Summit, the world had changed significantly. The cold war had ended, the Soviet Union had broken apart, globalization was rapidly expanding, scientific advances


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had emerged at an accelerated rate, the Internet had emerged and many environmental disasters had taken place, spilling over national borders, proving that national borders have become meaningless with respect to environmental issues. The Earth Summit emphasized that environmental protection could no longer be seen as a luxury but as a necessity alongside economic and social issues. Despite the apparent success at Rio 5 years later that very little progress had been achieved and that things were still moving in the wrong direction. Three years later, in 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were signed by all 191 UN Member States. The MDGs listed eight goals that are to be achieved by 2015: • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; • Achieve universal primary education; • Promote gender equality and empower women; • Reduce child mortality; • Improve maternal health; • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; • Ensure environmental sustainability; • Develop a global partnership for development.

environmental protection, social development and economic wellbeing.

The emphasis of the MDGs on poverty and human development rather than on the environment illustrates a shift in focus from Stockholm and Rio. The World Summit of Sustainable Development (Rio+10) in Johannesburg in 2002 continued this trend, building on the Agenda 21 and the MDGs. The Rio+10 Conference achieved general agreement that three main pillars of sustainability exist, namely

Private sector reaction to the challenge? Triple bottom line reporting, environmental social and economic performance in line with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI).

No longer can we live in a world dominated by economics and finance, now each one of us also have to take environmental and social consequences of our actions into account.

South Africa’s reaction to this challenge in the bill of rights section 24 states that-Everyone has the right(a) to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being; and (b) to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures that• prevent pollution and ecological degradation; • promote conservation; and • secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.

Business

BUT what can we do? We can change. We all have to bring about this change. The only constant that we have will be change. We need to be the agents of change.

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RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP

1

There was a time when we could say that there was either a complete lack of knowledge, or at least room for doubt, about the consequences for our planet of our actions. That time has gone. We now know all too clearly what we are actually doing and that we need to do something about it urgently. (His Royal Highness, The Prince of Wales). We will have to account for our actions to our children and grandchildren, and if we don’t get this right, how will they ever forgive us. I would like to lay down a challenge everyone reading this that as Citizens of Planet Earth you need to get involved and to make a difference in that area, that community, that sphere of influence, where you live and work to bring about the change we need in order to live in greater harmony with our environment. This volume provides a series of thought provoking pieces through which we hope to create awareness of some of the challenges faced in tourism and the sustainable development thereof. In Volume 1 we related the story of a group of young people in a remote village in rural South Africa, trying to put their town, on the tourism map. The story continues, as Caroline Ungersbock relates the next chapter in the the foreword. They had been on a lone quest for a number of years, failing to make progress due to a lack of buy-in, collaboration and financing to support their initiative. We are hoping that Volume 2 will provide some tools which may be adopted and used by this remote village and other tourism destinations

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that face the same challenges. Together with Volume 1, this volume aims to assist each of its readers to make a start towards positive impacts by looking differently at their communities, towns and regions to create a more sustainable future for South Africa and the continent through tourism. In our introduction, we set the scene that creates the burning platform for taking action and embarking on the journey to a more sustainable tourism industry. Sustainability is no longer a choice, but is more and more driven through policy and regulation, as it is linked to basic human rights. In chapter 2, Niki Glen helps the smaller tourism business, more specifically the smaller accommodaiton establishment, to understand why it is so critical to participate pro-actively in the industry. This ensures that the smaller accommodation sector is appropriately respresented and taken seriously when policies and regulation are being drafted. Alan Roxton Wiggill relates the journey along the N12 Treasure Route (TR), where not only individual businesses, but entire communities and towns are invited to participate. The N12 TR, is creating linkages between the cultural, historical and environmental treasures, building a convinving tourism value proposition, which will catalyse local economic development of a mass scale along the route. Then Rhian Berning showcases innovative and necessary tools, that assist the early adopters and those committed to change to market themselves better and become more visible to other businesses and consumers (tourists). The solutions that Rhian’s ECO ATLAS provide are


1

long overdue in supporting businesses on their journeys to certification, which Kathy Bergs outlines in chapter 5. Fair Trade Tourism is most certainly a leader in the certification of businesses that are driving the “triple bottom line� revolution, which concedes that people, profit and planet are all similarly critical in business success. Adv Louis Nel then outlines how a business needs to ensure that whatever and however they communicate must be done in compliance to the Protection of Personal Information Act (the POPI), which will be promulgated in the very near futute. Compliance to POPI also assist businesses to comply with a whole lot of other regulatory requirements, in which case they may start telling their stories in a sustainable and responsible manner. Angela James provides compelling reasoning for why we as businesses, communities, towns and regions should re-start telling our stories to capture the imagination of our people again. Story telling is becoming more and more recognised for its educational impact, and a way in which to put us in touch with our heritage. Garth Brook tells just such a story in the next chapter, as a way of relating the charm of a beautiful place in the heart the mountains. The story is one we can all believe, just like we all believe the story if the Lochness Monster. In chapter 9, Maud Masiyiwa then relates to us how the lives of African Women may be positively impacted when we get more in touch with their stories. Women play an indisputably important role in the growth of Tourism in Africa. But women can only have meaningful impact if their rights are respected and their value realised. Garth Brook then once again provides a story

RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP

of how he has started rehabilitating tourism assets with the help of women. Soft or green gabions are a solution to the environmental degradation caused by overgrazing, amongst other factors. Building of green gabions are done by the hands of the women in the community surrounding the Beautiful Metsi Matsho. This an example where community upliftment and environmental protection work together to build long term solutions towards sustainable tourism industry. Reana Rossouw highlights the need for a relook at the real impact of Corporate Social Investment (CSI) initiatives. While in the past, CSI has become a strategic issue, linked to an organisation’s core business, efforts have been less strategic in the context of meaningful impact. The tourism industry can certainly take great learning from this chapter on how to approach future investments. The Magaliesburg Development Initiative (MDI), as outlined by Johan Olivier, presents an ideal opportunity to look at investment holistically. The MDI story takes the sustainable development ever further, illustrating the key dependencies of the numerous stakeholder disciplines in bringing about impactful change. The last part of the handbook is dedicated to further re-enforcement of the critical dependencies between place, people and planet. The chapters of Les Carlisle (&Beyond), Steve Haze and Janet Landey illustrate in practical terms how community and development are interrelated. Niki Glen ends with a few practical hints and tips on how to ensure that events, as a key tourist magnet, can be managed more responsibly and sustainably.

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Moholoholo Forest Camp & Rehabilitation Centre The Moholoholo Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre was established in 1991. A businessman from Pretoria in South Africa, Mr Strijdom, owns the farm on which the Centre is situated, and he in turn asked Brian Jones to establish and run the rehabilitation centre for him. Brian already had a Crowned Eagle in his possession and his reputation for the work he did with wild animals had spread rapidly. Brian Jones has been helping and caring for injured and orphaned animals from the age of four and thus he brought a great deal of knowledge and experience to the establishment of this rehabilitation centre Very soon a variety of animals were being brought to him that were either orphaned, injured or poisoned and in need of help. The plight of Africa’s animals and our natural system has always been the main concern at Moholoholo and the philosophy is that awareness must be spread if we are to save our wildlife. With Mr Strijdom’s dedicated support the Centre has expanded tremendously over the years and as a result Brian has, on numerous occasions, been invited to give talks all over the country and in various states in the USA to spread the message and inform people of the predicament our wildlife faces today. In 2003 Dr Ian Player nominated Brian Jones for the Terra Nova Award and Moholoholo’s work has been featured in many TV programmes and series, such as ‘Wild Orphans’, which have been screened far and wide including on the National Geographic Channel. At Moholoholo we are often faced with the difficult decision of what to do with an injured or poisoned animal which will not be able to be released back into the wild. As a result, we have a number of ‘permanent residents’ that reside at the centre at our own cost and are used as ‘ambassadors’ for their species. Members of the public are therefore able to get an ‘up close and personal’ experience of these incredible creatures, while we have the ability to practically demonstrate


to the public the problems that wildlife is facing as well as being able to share information about each animal here at the Centre. Moholoholo receives 1 000 school children and adults on average per month. They visit the Rehabilitation Centre where they attend a guided tour during which they hear about these problems and the challenges associated with conservation and habitat protection. We often receive calls which require Brian to go out and rescue animals such as baby rhinos that have been abandoned by their mothers, or leopards, cheetah and hyena that have been hit by cars, caught in snares or poisoned. The costs involved in caring for these animals are absorbed by Moholoholo in an attempt to convey the message that it is not necessary to shoot such animals, but that they can, in fact, recover after treatment and be relocated at no inconvenience to the inhabitants of the area. Moholoholo is also actively involved in ‘problem animal’ control on farms and in tribal areas. The animals are removed from the area where they are unwanted and relocated to an area where they are welcome. This too is done at Moholoholo’s expense and is primarily done to save them from an often painful and gruesome demise. We are involved in a research forum which investigates the movement of leopards. To date we have captured and collared a number of leopards for this research and the results have been astounding. We are often called to remove a ‘problem leopard’ and we use such opportunities to gain more information on the species. Where funds allow this, we can release them fitted with GPS collars. Our research also extends to a number of vulture species. We have tagged and released hundreds of vultures whose movements are subsequently monitored. Many vultures are brought to us due to poisoning and we have been able to fit tracking harnesses to a few before releasing them – we have been astounded by the range of some of their movements. Here at Moholoholo we run a successful Serval breeding programme. In the Eastern Cape, Nature Conservation officials claimed Servals had become extinct in the area about 80 years ago and were beyond redemption. However, we have released 69 Servals there over the past eight years – 19 in the Shamwari Nature Reserve alone. The main aim of our efforts is to raise awareness regarding our dying environment, not only in our own country but worldwide. Hopefully, when the world sees the Rehabilitation Centre on their TV screens, or when they visit our venues, they too might recognise that they have a problem in their own countries and that the wildlife of this world depends on humans to speak out on their behalf.


2

ACCOMMODATION

SMALL ACCOMMODATION OWNER How can you become stronger?

What can you do as a small tourism business to ensure that your interests are looked after and that you are being taken seriously? I trust that a bit of background will provide the answer.

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ACCOMMODATION

Author Niki Glen and Prof Kevin Mearns

I

n 2012, I had spent days and weeks on the road travelling South Africa with Caroline, the other founder of the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme. The aim of our long journeys was to create awareness about Sustainable and Responsible Tourism amongst Smaller Accommodation Establishments. It became clear very early on to us, however, that there was a fundamental challenge that needed to be addressed if Small Accommodation Establishment (SAE) were to be taken seriously as a significant economic driver for local economies. That is: there is no one single and formal definition for and SAE South Africa or worldwide. As a result, this sector often gets lumped in with their larger cousins, resulting in neglect to formulate policy, regulation, by-laws and quality assurance that is relevant and enabling. This may seem like a trivial matter, but then again, it may not. For instance, how do we: • Count how many jobs are created by the SAE sector if we don’t know what an SAE sector is? • Write a bylaw to an SAE (if at all) and understand the impact of that bylaw, if we don’t know how and SAE compares to a Large Accommodation Establishment? • Set benchmarks for performance of SAEs; • How many rooms are available to accommodate visitors, and should we be investing in more tourism infrastructure? • How to write BBBEE codes and allocate tax incentives if we don’t that does not penelise the small cousin because of the behaviours of the big cousin; • Motivate local government to spend money to fix roads and improve service delivery if we cannot illustrate the real impact if the visitors stop coming to our towns and cities.

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ACCOMMODATION

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Fundamentally flawed Statistics South Africa (Statssa) releases annual data on the accommodation industry (Statssa, 2012). They base their data on “tax registered private and public enterprises”, which includes hotels, caravan parks and camping sites, guest houses and guest farms and other accommodation. I could not find a reference as to how these establishments are actually defined. But if you look at the equivalent income distribution, hotels make up 62 % and the other 38 % comes from the other categories. This is a significant indicator, but needs to be read in context of an actual definition, and linked to the equivalent jobs created if we want to draw meaningful conclusions on the economic contribution. In addition, I would also like to know if anyone has ever done a scientific study to determine how many guesthouses, guest farms and other accommodation establishments really exist. We know from our own travels, research and surveys, that a significant number of these establishments are not actually registered as businesses and don’t pay tax as such, but they do create jobs and livelihoods for a large portion of our population.

What does the industry say?

According to Statssa, tourism businesses are divided into four size groups according to the value of their business register turnover. Tourism businesses are categorized as: • Large ≥ R26 000 000 • Medium R13 000 000 ≤ VAT turnover < R26 000 000 • Small R3 000 000 ≤ VAT turnover < R13 000 000

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• Micro < R3 000 000 Local bylaws often don’t make any distinction between smaller and larger accommodation establishments. FTTSA (2011) (now called Fair trade Tourism or FTT) tiers their certification costs according to the number of staff employed. The Heritage Environmental Management Company (Heritage) has created the GreenLine offering, which is aimed at Guesthouses and B&Bs of less than 20 rooms. The Tourism Grading Council of South Africa breaks accommodation down into:

“Formal Service Accommodation (Hotel/ Lodge)”

• A hotel provides formal accommodation with full or limited service to the traveling public. A hotel has a reception area and offers a dining facility. A hotel must have a minimum of 4 rooms. • A Lodge is a formal accommodation facility providing full or limited service, located in natural surroundings beyond that of an immediate garden area, without any Game.

Guest Accommodation (B&B, Country House, Guest House)

• Bed and Breakfast: More informal accommodation with limited service that is provided in a family (private) home with the owner/manager living in the house or on the property. • Guest House: Can be an existing home, a renovated home or a building that has been specifically designed as a residential dwelling to provide overnight accommodation, must have more than three rooms


2

• and public areas for the exclusive use of its guests. • Country House: Can be an existing home, a renovated home or a building that has been specifically designed as a residential dwelling to provide overnight accommodation, which has public areas for the exclusive use of its guests. Situated in natural, peaceful surroundings. Refer to http://www.tourismgrading. co.za/get-graded/whats-in-it-for-me/ grading-criteria-3/ for further detail on the TGCSA breakdown. Internationally, many definitions exist for SAE, e.g. in Greece, a Family Hotel is deemed to have less than 20 rooms, while a small and medium hotel have 21 -50 and 51 to 100 rooms respectively (Bastakis, Buhalis, & Butler, 2004). In research undertaken in St Andrews, Scotland to assess the entrepreneurial nature of Small Hotels (Glancey & Pettigrew, 1997), these were defined as establishments with less than 40 bed spaces. The same research also found suggestions in previous research in which a small hotel is defined as an establishment with less than 25 bed spaces and in other cases when it has less than 100 bed spaces. Law and Candy (2011), who did research on small hotels in Hong Kong, also found that many definitions for small hotels exist, varying from the number of staff employed, whether it is owner managed or the types of facilities and services it offers. In chapter 1 of the series, International Perspectives on Small Firms Thomas (2004) highlights the lack of a single definition for small tourism firms and the resulting discrepancies in definition that exist amongst the other

ACCOMMODATION

contributors in addressing the Smaller Tourism Business Models. Although his work does not focus specifically on SAEs, these are deemed a sub-sector of Smaller Tourism Businesses.

The Role of Smaller Tourism Businesses in Tourism Industry

Despite varying definitions existing, it is recognised internationally that smaller tourism businesses play a critical role in the achievement of tourism industry sustainability, as they are perceived in many instances as a catalyst for local economic development and growth, especially in rural areas. According to Bastakis et al. (2004), “In every European country small, independent and flexible accommodation establishments dominate the market, and play a vital role not only in structural terms but also in terms of contribution to national and European GDP and to tourism employment. SMTEs [Small to Medium Toursim Enterprises] provide a very diverse range of tourism products and services, facilitate rapid infusion of tourism spending into local economies, while in leisure tourism they usually shoulder the distinctive function to offer a local character to the increasingly homogenised tourism packages…”. In their article on the factors that contribute to the business success services industry, Montoro-Sánchez et al. (2008) highlights that in the European context, small and medium-sized enterprises are critical contributors to the tourism industry as a result of 1) their contributions to employment, 2) distribution of wealth, 3) economic value as well as 4) being viewed as more .

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ACCOMMODATION

2

innovative than larger businesses. Is this the case with South African SAEs and is this the role that they need to play to contribute to sustainable growth and development of the tourism sector? Wood (2007) argues that there is great potential for sustainable development of tourism in developing countries (or Lesser Developed Countries – LDCs). Due to the nature of tourism, i.e. where the customer ‘buys’ directly from the place visited, tourism presents better opportunities for small businesses to participate through uniqueness of offerings. As part of their “One Billion Tourists: One Billion Opportunities” campaign, UNWTO (2012) highlighted a number of actions that tourists can take to help the tourism industry become more sustainable. These include respect for local culture and heritage as well as buying local goods when travelling. National Minimum Standard for responsible Tourism (SANS 1162:2011) highlights environmental, social, cultural, heritage and economic factors which by definition, are critically dependant on support from local SMMEs and SAEs, especially tourism businesses in rural South Africa. The South African Tourism Marketing Growth Strategy of 2008 - 2010 (2008), identifies 8 key areas of delivery which will contribute to sustainable growth across the industry, i.e. Transformation, Safety, Product & SMME, Marketing & Branding, Quality Assurance, Incentives & Investments, Transport and Skills & Service Levels. However, it has also come to light that the true contribution of small tourism businesses to the South African tourism economy is not well understood, and not enough emphasis has traditionally been placed on the development of the

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smaller tourism business sector as a standalone economic sector. Tourism industry stakeholders have in the past rather dismissively referred to Small Accommodation Establishments as the “moms & pops” of the industry.

So what is my role as a Smaller Tourism Business Owner/Manager?

While the research and data is a bit of a mumble jumble, the two key messages here are: 1. We need to find a common definition of a Smaller Accommodation Establishment In my PhD research to date, I posed a number of questions to industry experts about the definition of Smaller Accommodation Establishments. From the responses received, the importance to accurately quantify the size of the Small Accommodation sector in relation to the overall tourism industry was supported. It was also clear that there is a need for formal and clear categories for all accommodation “sub-sectors” in the market. Clearly defined sub-sectors will provide an opportunity to better analyse and understand the needs of each accommodation sector; and that clearly defined sub-sectors will provide an opportunity to set benchmarks for each sector for economic indicators and performance. It was also agreed that the number of rooms is the main indicator that should be used to segment the sector, but also that categories such as Backpackers, Bed & Breakfast, Country House, Country Lodge, Guest House, Guest Lodge, Game Lodge, Small Hotel, Boutique Hotel, Self Catering Establishment, Farm


2

Stay, Home Stay all fit into this segment and should each have a clear definition. 2. We need to make sure we are in the “system” To ensure that your interests are looked after and that your business is being taken seriously, you need to make sure that the policy makers, researchers and advisors know about you. Information is only useful if people have access to it. Here are some of the things that you can voluntarily do: Register your business as a business: If you for example register on the Nedbank SimplyBiz platform (www.simplybiz.co.za), then Nedbank can assist you with this process as well as other requirements to optimize your businesses financial service’s needs from start to being fully operational; Ensure that you belong to a local association that has strong national representation: Refer to www.tbcsa. travel for a list of recognised South African Associations. It you belong to a local tourism association, please ensure that your association has an affiliated membership with one of the larger associations. The larger associations represent their member’s needs at a national level, feeding directly into government. If 20, 30 or a 100 members have the same issue, then the issue will be taken seriously. Also, these associations keep their members up to date about new trends, legislation, regulation and other important factors that helps your business; Participate in industry surveys and data collection: e.g. those done by the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme and Fair Trade Tourism, so that we can help to get the right information to the right people. The data that you provide is invaluable, even

ACCOMMODATION

if you are telling us about what you are not complying with. Share information about what works and what does not work for you: If you are paying too much for utilities, and it is going to cause your business to close down, share this and ask for assistance. There are programmes that are able to help you reduce consumption, change your energy and water requirements or there may be information on new tax breaks that have not yet filtered through. Provide solutions: It is no use to highlighting issues and challenges, if you are unable to also provide solutions that will work for you and for other stakeholders. Change for the sake of change is not going to work if it is not done in a way that makes running your businesses easier; Become more compliant: This is often a difficult journey - but a journey none the less - for Smaller Accommodation Establishments, as compliance requirements may have been written with a certain definition of an accommodation establishment in mind or it may have been written 30 years ago and was never revised. There are two ways to become more compliant through programmes and organisations that can • 1) assist you to comply if the compliance requirement will be beneficial to you in the long run or • 2) assist you to highlight how complying is hampering your business and therefore help to effect change in the by-law. What is relevant to you and your businesses is relevant for other accommodation establishments, and by working together, local support and a local voice is created. THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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PROFILE

Eningu â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Lodge in the Kalahari Space and tranquillity; creativity, style and inspiration; archaeology and art; fine food and good companyâ&#x20AC;Ś Eningu Clayhouse Lodge, situated on Farm Peperkorrel, 70km from the Airport, offers nine private, individually styled guest rooms, a swimming pool with whirlpool, a rooftop sundeck, a lounge, indoor and outdoor dining areas, an archery range, a wine cellar, a souvenir shop and much more.

Eningu is a window on the Kalahari, a creative view from a place of wonderful style and beauty; a lodge imbued with warmth, handcraft and art, nestled in camel thorn savannah, where the last rocky outcrops of the central Namibian highlands dip their jagged backs into deep red sands, creating the gentle ripples that are the first dunes of the Kalahari.

Bookings: Phone: +264 64 464 144 / Fax: +264 64 464 155 info@eningulodge.com / www.eningulodge.com Lodge direct: Tel +264 62 581 880 PO Box 11558 / Windhoek / Namibia

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PROFILE

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SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS

I can’t think of anything that excites a greater sense of childlike wonder than to be in a country where you are ignorant of almost everything.

3

― Bill Bryson

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3

SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS

THE N12 TREASURE ROUTE

Sustainable marketing requires sustainable business Author Alan Roxton Wiggill on behalf of the N12 Treasure Route Association

T

he N12 Treasure Route tells travellers from near and far tales about its people, their culture and history and our beautiful land so that those who experience this unique and rich journey take home “treasured” memories to share with family and friends. To create this journey and tell our tales we have placed the ownership of the N12 Treasure Route in the hands of the people along the N12. They are the custodians of the travellers experience. These are the people who will tell the story. Through our simple community based branding and design programme, we incorporate the locals along the N12 in the building and development of our

brand and our destination at the start of “our journey”. We all know that through sustainable tourism development people create many opportunities for commercial activity and employment in rural areas and small towns. The trick is to make this happen in the unknown rural areas, where so much of the travel candy lies, to the benefit of the people who live and love their local heritage. To make our destination dream powerful, where our goals become reality, we have embarked on a course which is quite unique because it is centred on the N12 communities and nature which offers the traveller a “fresh new storey” about South Africa. Through storey telling and reinterpretation of the South African

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SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS

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story, we are building a new tourism destination which will become internationally acclaimed. Strewn with treasures. With such a cross section of natural features and so many different communities scattered along the 1300 km Treasure Route, our destination includes a large cross section of the South Africa story. The N12 runs from Victoria Bay, through George and Oudtshoorn, past Beaufort West and Kimberly, then on to Johannesburg and ends in Middleburg. A traveller can find so many long forgotten treasures in the small towns and surrounding natural areas which can be experienced through the eyes of locals who tell our story. Such a co-operation between communities and government over six provinces is a young concept but bound to yield some exceptional sustainable tourism fruits over the next ten years.

Brand New Storey

This simple logo lends itself to artistic interpretation and development. The local community crafters on route use our logo to develop their personalised handmade N12 TR branded merchandise, souvenirs and local and regional tourism signage. These products are sold along the route and our partners become the brand champions of the N12 Treasure Route. The N12 and its implementation partners; including government agencies and the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme (STPP); develop these projects with our local community partners to help ensure the projects are sustainable and ensure that they fit with the green environmental objectives within our programmes. Although the logo speaks for itself we needed to

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connect it to the route and its people. When traveling the N12 you canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t but be amazed at the number of windmills you see from one end of the route to the other. These conspicuous wells of life giving water connect community survival to the land they live in. They are the gems of the N12 Treasure Route so we have chosen the windmill as the link to our brand, our communities and our travellers. Harvesting and sharing the treasures Back in the day people flocked to South Africa from Africa and then Europe to take advantage of the incredible abundance of Southern Africa. People found gold, gems fantastic grazing, fertile lands to till, unimaginable natural beauty and abundant wildlife. The N12 holds much of this story captive in its development as the Kimberly Diamond fields, then the Witwatersrand Gold fields and finally the eMalahleni coal fields were uncovered. It links the south to the north and all its people have travelled it in search of all the treasures it has shown up. In the modern world the mineral wealth along the N12 route still contributes strongly to its economy but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not the force it used to be. The small towns along the route have suffered as the mining industry has declined gradually and it has been negatively affected by the N1 highway that draws the overwhelming majority of North South commercial and leisure travel, bypassing the N12 and all its small towns. By forming partnerships to lead economic development for the communities along the N12 (led by the N12 Treasure Route Association) we aim to create sustainable economically viable green tourism initiatives and


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SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS

related business developments in the small towns and rural areas along the route. A number of exciting projects have been identified and there are many more waiting to be uncovered and developed. Tourism is the â&#x20AC;&#x153;new economic driverâ&#x20AC;? that will help build more prosperous and sustainable communities along the N12 while preserving and restoring the natural environment to help attract travellers.

Bright future

The rolling stone gathers much moss but a stone needs a slope and a push to start rolling. Sustainable tourism is the slope required for the N12 economic ball to roll again. The people and good partnerships are the key to creating the momentum to start the ball rolling through selected sustainable community based tourism business initiatives. [Editorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s note: we really need all the tourists that visit the N12 Treasure Route to help us grow this innovative initiative driven by truly passionate people. I am very privileged to be part of this journey, as a tourist, as a South African and as a partner.]

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COMMUNICATE YOUR EFFORTS

4

MAKE A START, GET AHEAD AND COMMUNICATE YOUR EFFORTS

Author Rhian Berning

“We are often told we are materialistic. It seems to me, we are not materialistic enough. We have a disrespect for materials. We use it quickly and carelessly. If we were genuinely materialistic people, we would understand where materials come from and where they go to. But, at the moment, the entire global economy seems to be built on the model of digging things up from one hole in the ground on one side of the earth, transporting them around the world, using them for a few days, and sticking them in a hole in the ground on the other side of the world.” ― George Monbiot

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4

People talk a lot about carbon footprints. But our personal footprints are much bigger than that. And they are social as well as ecological. The trouble is that, in

our charmed world, we know little about what our footprints are. It all happens so far away. The people and the pollution which sustain us are invisible to us

I

magine if we could know the full story from cradle to grave for every product, service and experience we partake in. To truly know the resources, people and animals that are involved in the end product we enjoy and what really happens to the waste when we are done with it all. I have a very personal need to be a more informed consumer and it seems I am not alone: “Our survey shows that TripAdvisor travellers are interested in eco-friendly practices, but hungry for more information about which green plans and policies are actually in place.” (Rushmore, 2102) There is a great disconnect between people and the world which supports them. A good example of this is youth at risk in US city centres who have started growing their own food, but are refusing to eat the lettuce because it ‘grows in the dirt’. Eco Atlas was born from this need to reconnect both locals and tourists to the impacts of their daily choices. Eco Atlas empowers them to make informed decisions about where to eat, buy, play or stay in South Africa based on transparent and ethical information. We also reconnect the great disconnect and enable people to become cognisant again of the role we play in the closed and interconnected system we call life. Every choice we make has either a negative or positive impact and the ability to choose responsibly is in our hands.

COMMUNICATE YOUR EFFORTS

-Pearce, 2008

But is there a market out there of people wanting to make more responsible choices and choose sustainable places to stay and play in South Africa? Research seems to indicate that indeed there is. TripAdvisor, known to be the world’s largest travel site, provided these results from its eco-friendly 2012 travel survey of more than 700 U.S. travellers. “The green travel trend is gaining momentum amongst TripAdvisor members, as 71 percent said they plan to make more eco-friendly choices in the next 12 months compared to 65 percent that did so in the past 12 months.” So it seems that there is a growing trend of tourists certainly wanting to make better and more responsible choices [Editor’s Note: Research shows that there are definite markets that are starting to become more aware and responsible in their travel choices]. The next question would be whether they have the information available to them to do so. Findings from the TUI Travel Sustainability Survey (2010) show that “few are aware of sustainable holidays and the barriers to booking are perceived price and the difficulty of finding appropriate offers”. The abovementioned survey was conducted with 4000 online interviews with holidaymakers from their most important source markets. The survey also found that tourists would like to get the facts on the environmental impacts

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COMMUNICATE YOUR EFFORTS

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of their holidays. This illustrates what many of us have a sense for already, that there is a tourist market out there of people wanting to do the right thing. Locally, research shows that “consumers in SA are becoming increasingly aware of global ethical trade and environmental issues, driving businesses to put these concerns at the top of their agenda” (Sherry, 2013). The market is there and waiting, the information to guide them, however, this is not so easily available.

In the end it’s all about protecting our product. If the product- our destinations- aren’t protected in environmental and social terms then people won’t want to visit them, it is as simple as that. -Vial, 2013

The next piece in the puzzle is whether there are actually any tourism service providers that could meet this growing need for responsible tourism and conscious consumerism. In short, the answer is a resounding YES! There are many good news stories in South Africa of people, places and organisations walking the ethical talk and proactively affecting positive change. From township tours like Uthando SA feeding into upliftment projects on the Cape Flats to large hotels like Da Vinci in Sandton, committing to provide all their hot water with the solar panels on their roof. The stories are many and diverse and so very encouraging. Essentially businesses are taking these steps of their own accord whether on a small or large scale. While different organisations

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may have different motivations – whether it be internal operational cost or a genuine commitment to improve their sustainability credentials. Perhaps they have implemented a grey water system to recycle their waste water or entrenched the rights of their staff within the business. And yet most places receive no recognition for this good work and most of the time visitors don’t even know about all the positive steps that are being taken. And now for the missing piece of the puzzle. On the one hand we have the tourists and locals who would like to make responsible choices and on the other hand we have the service providers who can meet these needs. The missing link is our ability to connect the consumers with the service providers by providing them with an effective map of responsible tourism and consumerism. Eco Atlas would like to fill this gap by providing the information people need in order to make responsible choices on holiday and at home here in SA. The concept of Eco Atlas was one of those light bulb moments when I realised that this information, about resource use, food sources, animal rights, people’s rights and waste disposal should be freely and transparently available with regard to all businesses. Imagine if we could choose which places to support based on their ethical practices? And give tourism service providers the exposure, recognition and business they deserve for walking the ethical talk. Eco Atlas provides an ethical directory which utilises 20 iconic Eco Choices for people to see at a glance which animal friendly, people friendly and earth friendly practices an establishment


4

practices or provides. It’s an online search engine which allows consumers to find restaurants which serve free range, hotels which recycle, suppliers with fair trade worker’s rights, and shops with local products, etc. Broad based responsible tourism and consumerism covers all the impacts of our choices and highlights the interconnectedness of all life, how local economic upliftment and profit-share programmes are linked to resource use and how the way in which we treat animals is linked to the way in which we treat each other. Eco Atlas hopes to make these connections by providing a map, an atlas of transparent and ethical information for all to use here in our beautiful Mzansi. For locals to make conscious choices in their own home town or when they visit another one and for tourists to be provided with the information they seem to be asking for. Other guides to responsible tourism in SA are The Green Map and Fair Trade websites. Finally, now that we have established that there is a growing market for responsible tourism options perhaps it would be useful to provide some tips about how to make your business more eco-friendly and ethical in order to meet this need. There are many organisations which provide support, guidance and workshops to this end such as Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme and Fair Trade in Tourism. Look out for organisations and associations that will assist you on your path to becoming a more responsible venture. And in your own capacity you can very simply take stock of the sustainable management of the business by looking at your supply chain, your resource use, your staff

COMMUNICATE YOUR EFFORTS

policies and your waste impact. If you view your establishment as a living organism you can evaluate the incoming and outgoing and refine the inputs and minimise the outputs. But, I’m sure you already have many of these practices in place!

Supply chain

Know your supplier. Find out if there are any other options available which minimise the negative impact on the rights of workers, on animals as a food source and on soil and water pollution. Can they answer to being ethical? Are there any local or community suppliers that you could rather use to support local economic empowerment? Ask questions.

Resource use

Everybody needs water and energy. Look at ways of minimising your water and energy use from low-flow shower heads to LED lighting and solar heating, simple measures with longterm economic benefits. Link up with programmes such as Food & Trees for Africa or Greenpop, which will plant trees on your behalf to offset your carbon footprint.

Staff policies

Happy, secure and stimulated staff, creates a better work environment for all. Think about empowerment courses for your staff to better their skills, profit-share and commission based programmes and ensure that your staff know their rights. Link to the local communities where your staff live and to community upliftment projects so that the benefits of your tourism business has a wider reach.

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COMMUNICATE YOUR EFFORTS

4

10 000-hectare Game Reserve - Luxury Lodge 48

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Waste impact Recycling is an obvious response to waste and includes separating your waste, utilising your organic left overs for compost and educating your staff and guests. However, the best approach to waste is to Reduce and Re-use the amount of consumables in the first place, e.g. filtered water in

COMMUNICATE YOUR EFFORTS

re-usable glass bottles instead of using plastic bottled water. For examples of establishments putting all these and more into practice please visit www.ecoatlas.co.za and perhaps you too will get a review like the one below by playing your part in Responsible Tourism.

>>

Rhian has been running ECO ATLAS, â&#x20AC;&#x153;an ethical directory to accommodation, restaurants, activities, products and services in South Africa. It provides a one-stop green guide for conscious consumers and travellers empowering YOU to choose where to eat, play and stay based on sound environmental and ethical practices. ECO ATLAS provides consumers with both the socially and environmentally ethical achievements of places and services and highlights businesses that are making a difference. Any business can be listed as long as they meet at least one of the ECO CHOICE criteria. There are so many people and places creating positive change and walking the ethical talk and ECO ATLAS provides you with the way to be found The Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme has formed a partnership with Eco-Atlas, so that the two organisations can work hand-in-hand to encourage businesses to join the directory and communicate, in an ethical way, to their consumers and business clients how they are progressing on the sustainable tourism journey. This way they get recognised for good efforts, increase their visibility and encourage their neighbours and competitors to follow suit. ECO ATLAS is not a certification system, but it carves the way for smaller businesses to get rewarded for their efforts en-route to certification, which is where Fair Trade Tourism plays a critical role, as Kathy Bergs explains in the next chapter.

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CERTIFICATION

5

TO CERTIFY OR NOT TO CERTIFY

Perspectives from Fair Trade Tourism

Author Kathy Bergs

hile more and more businesses have begun W to understand the imperative for sustainable development – which provides for today’s needs without

compromising the ability to meet tomorrow’s – and have broadened their focus from the “bottom line” to the “triple bottom line” of people, profit and planet – the argument for certification is less well developed. Is it not simply enough to be running a business according to sustainable principles? What value does certification bring? Businesses are well aware of the costs of certification – namely the cost of compliance with rigorous standards as well as the cost of audit and label use fees - but what of the benefits?

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T

here are a plethora of certification options that a business can choose from – and it is important to ascertain the credibility of the scheme being considered in order to navigate the “label jungle” and guard against “greenwashing ”. The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) was therefore established in 2010 to harmonise and professionalise standard-setting and certification in sustainable tourism.

THE CRITERIA THAT THEY PUBLISHED WERE A HOLISTIC DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITY IN TOURISM AND BECAME THE BENCHMARK AGAINST WHICH OTHER STANDARDS COULD BE MEASURED. Of the over 150 sustainable tourism certification schemes in the world today, only 17 have been recognised by the GSTC as being aligned to this benchmark of global best practice. Fair Trade Tourism (FTT)’s standard was the first in Africa (and still the only in sub-Saharan Africa) to be recognised by the GSTC and it is thus that this highly credible scheme will be referred to in weighing the benefits of certification . The first benefit of certification is that the standard provides a tourism business with clear and concise guidelines in terms of what norms and regulations constitute “global best practice”. The FTT standard covers: • Sustainable company management and Human Resources (HR): • Community beneficiation; • Cultural heritage; and • Environmental practices

CERTIFICATION

Most owners/managers seek to operate their businesses professionally and sustainably, – yet often lack sufficient knowledge – particularly across the various dimensions. It is impossible to achieve success without clear, defined and measurable goals. Certification standards provide just that. Secondly, the certification process is developmental in nature. The audit report that is received following a certification assessment is an extremely valuable management tool. The report will clearly spell out where the business is in compliance with global best practice and where there is room for improvement. As certification is a voluntary initiative, it is the business’ prerogative to determine the timetable in addressing these non-compliances. There is a wealth of business development support tools available today to assist the business in their journey towards full compliance. Thirdly, the process of certification ensures that a sustainability management plan has been developed and implemented within the business, which addresses, amongst other things, legal & regulatory, labour, human resources, skills development and health & safety issues. It ensures that benefits to local communities, cultural heritage and the environment are maximised and negative impacts minimised. Operating a business according to a sustainability management plan results in numerous benefits, such as: • Enhanced staff morale; • Efficient resource consumption; and • A superior guest experience. Fourthly, the attainment of a certification label such as Fair Trade Tourism’s communicates the business’

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VIVA SAFARIS UGANDA

Gorrilla trekking Chimpanzee trekking Bird watching Mountain climbing Fishing tours Cultural tours White water rafting Filming groups

Tel: +256 312 100 065 . +256 755 465 020. Email: info@vivasafaris.net

www.vivasafaris.net

Sa f ar i s


5

sustainability credentials to staff, to suppliers, to industry peers, to tourists and to the tourism sector at large. In the South African context, attainment of the Fair Trade Tourism certification label indicates that the business has implemented the National Minimum Standard for Responsible Tourism (SANS 1162) in the workplace and has partnered in the national imperative to develop South Africa as a responsible tourism destination.

FINALLY THERE IS GROWING EVIDENCE THAT THE MARKET IS NOT ONLY SEEKING SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES, BUT NOW BEGINNING TO DEMAND THEM. International consumer demand for sustainable options has long been documented. Recent changes in the European regulatory environment are now prompting outbound tour operators to provide evidence of sustainability in their supply chains. Certification is one way of evidencing that sustainability. In 2013 Fair Trade Tourism entered into Mutual Recognition Agreements with TourCert and Travelife for Tour Operators and Travel Agents . These Agreements ensure that any Fair Trade Tourism-certified tourism business meets the supply chain requirements for sustainability and can automatically be included in the tour operator’s brochure.

CERTIFICATION

During 2012 – 2013 Fair Trade Tourism undertook market segmentation studies in a number of European source markets as well as in the South African domestic market. The population of travellers to South Africa was overlaid with the population of sustainable consumers (and consumers of Fairtrade products) to pinpoint the target audience for sustainable travel to South Africa. The studies yielded very interesting results – allowing Fair Trade Tourism to now target its messaging to this growing niche of “sustainability savvy” travellers. The size of these segments ranges from 5% of the South African population to 21% of the German, 28% of the Dutch, 35% of the Swedish and an astounding 40% of the Swiss population. For more information on the results of these studies go to www. fairtradetourism.org.za/traveltrade/ onlinetrainingcourses. What is the alternative to operating sustainably? Operating unsustainably? If a business logically decides to operate sustainably, why not develop according to clear guidelines of best practice? If operating according to these guidelines, why not seek professional assistance in assessing and benchmarking that performance? If evidence is obtained that confirms the business is operating according to global best practice, why not communicate that fact? When communicating that fact, why not use an internationally recognised label – that speaks to both consumers as well as to the travel trade?

The answers seem to speak for themselves. The bus is moving…hop on or get left behind! THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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THE POPI

6

THE POPI Comply to the Protection of Information Act Author Louis Nel

According to international IT security company Kaspersky (2013), who conducted in depth research in 2012, it was found that on a worldwide scale, 3,000 new threats of security invasion occurred every month!

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ver and above the above scary statistic, there at least three more reasons for business owners to sit up, take note of and digest or obtain good advice and guidance on the new Protection of Private Information Act, Act, act 4 of 2013 (POPI) i.e. • Penalties of up to R10 million and/or lengthy terms of jail sentences; • ‘Name & shame provisions’ e.g. if a business security system has been breached, the business must make this fact known via the daily press; • The POPI regulator does not have to wait for a complaint: it can institute an investigation of a business’ compliance of its own volition. Here, in very broad terms, is what businesses should be doing right now, despite the fact that the effective implementation date of the POPI may still be twelve months away:

Check your relevant industry code of conduct and/or draft your own

The POPI requires you to comply with either and it will be publishing guidelines which have to be complied with. At this point we don’t know what they will contain but it would be easier and more cost-effective for a business to be associated with or be a member of an industry body with an adequate code of conduct. Failing this, a professional should be consulted to draft such a code for the business;

Submit a Manual

In terms of the Promotion of Access to Information Act, Act 02/2000 (PAIA), it is a statutory requirement that all

THE POPI

businesses, regardless of its nature, size or turnover, have prepare and submit such a manual to the SA Human Rights Commission. You can go to their website (www.sahrc.org.za) which contains a sample form & all the required information. If you have already done so, you may have addressed many of the POPI requirements. If you have not done so, you are breaking the law and criminal sanctions may be imposed by the relevant government department! So please do so as soon as possible and kill two birds with one stone!

Information and Security Policy

The Regulation of Interception of Communications and Provision of Communications Related Information Act 122/2003 (RICA) requires that e.g. you can only intercept employee e-mails if you have their written consent. It must be included in or added as an addendum to their employment contract. If you have not done so, do it as soon as possible and have it ready as part of the policy required in terms of the POPI. Again, two birds with one stone! If you do not have such an agreement, either as part of a written employment contract or apart thereof, you simply cannot intercept e-mails and if you do it is likely to be deemed an unfair labour practice.

Appoint Information Protection Officer

The POPI requires you to appoint such a person. There are many other statutes that require you to have a ‘compliance officer’. Again two birds with one stone! If you own or manage a guesthouse

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6

THE POPI

or small tourism business, you, as the owner or manager may be that person, as long as you are familiar with the POPI requisites. It may be advisable to engage a professional.

these parties and check contracts, applicable laws and compliance, especially in cases of cross-border transacting;

You should institute a process for, and audit trail of

If social media is used make 100% sure of the POPI compliance requirements and check the terms and conditions of each platform.

• Refusal or consent regarding the collection of Personal Information (PI). This requires a written or electronic recording at the time of ‘processing’ the personal information, which includes gathering and disseminating information. The record should show that the process has been explained to the person providing the information (‘the socalled ‘data subject’) and that his/ her express and informed consent has been obtained; • Complaints handling: The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) also requires you to have a complaints handling process, so yet again two birds with one stone; • Requests for amendment and/or deletion of PI: The POPI requires you to have such a system in place and to train your staff on it; • Third parties to whom PI is disclosed: All contracts with such parties must be vetted for compliance;

Social Media

Check all contracts for reuse of the word ‘consent’

It appears 6 (six) times in the POPI and can therefore make your life much easier!

Check all terms and conditions

This applies to hard copy, even a mere reference thereto and websites.

Regularly check and/or review all of above

Do an annual audit, align above with corporate governance requirements and train clients and their staff on the requirements.

Audit current systems, documents and processes for compliance This is also a CPA requirements;

Operators

The POPI requires that operators must comply with either the POPI or their national legislation. So make a list of

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SUSTAINABLE LIVING

7

STORY TELLING FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVING

Author Niki Glen and Prof Kevin Mearns

“You may tell a tale that takes up residence in someone’s soul, becomes their blood and self and purpose. That tale will move them and drive them and who knows that they might do because of it, because of your words. That is your role, your gift.” - Erin Morgenstern

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ince the beginning of time, stories have captured the imagination of young and old alike. Regardless of where we are in a technological advanced first world country, or whether we find ourselves in rural farmlands, stories form the fabric of life that keep us connected. Oral traditions the world over transmitted the lessons, rituals, values and celebrations through stories. Prior to the advances of writing and the printing press the repetition and use of stories was the only manner in which cultures sustained their teachings. In the fast moving pace of the industrialised world, stories make their presence felt through books, television, movies and gaming. Yet, when we look upon the mainstream glut of media there is little to be said about the value that much of this content adds to sustainable living. In addition, many of the environments that have been created within the world of work, have been based upon the imbalance of driving the profit motive above sustainable living - of little consideration to leaving a lasting legacy of a healthy thriving planet for the next 7 Generations. Stories in this environment have corrupted the sanctity of life and have falsely stated, as Ghandi put it:

The earth has enough for man’s needs but not for man’s greed

A 100 years ago, African culture and learning thrived in right brain thinking. Transmission of teachings, communication and education occurred

SUSTAINABLE LIVING

through visioning, trance dancing and storytelling. Traditional cultures knew how to live in a sustainable manner taking only from the earth what they needed to survive. This philosophy now continues in some rural areas and is still a common tradition of the San Bushman of the region, as an example. There was and - for these people at least - still is an inherent respect for the wonders of lessons to be found in the manner in which they engage with the Earth and the creatures that cohabit within their space. Sustainable Development, as a philosophy, seeks to create a groundswell of responsible citizenry that has its eye on the future and the legacy that we are carving out for those that follow on after us. Within this context then, what is the relevance of the telling of stories? Stories crafted and told using the content of old and the technology of the modern day bring the presence of mind, the creation of awareness and the respect for people, planet and prosperity, the very cornerstones of sustainable living. Stories engage the imagination; invoke emotion and a real sense of connectedness and togetherness. The language of stories, alter and influence the way in which we think, act, speak and engage with our world and each other. They communicate beliefs, values – the legacy that we have to pass on to the world. Stories are told regardless of whether we craft them or not. By our very nature we are social beings. Our children are told stories at bed time; stories are told at social events and occasions – who can ever forget the fishermen’s stories of “the one that got away”; the story of

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deify that which sacred – life in all of its wondrous magnificence and bounty. The start of sustainable living is in the stories we tell ourselves and others. We invite you, as the authors of your own lives, that of future generations in the spirit of creation, growth and renewal to contemplate the story that you wish to craft; the legacy that you wish to leave behind you, the contribution that you wish to add in ensuring that the planet and her people are sustained for the next 7 Generations. The concept of 7 Generations comes from Native American Indian teachings.

In our every deliberation, we must consider the impact of our decisions on the next seven generations.

the miracle of the birth of a child; of the innocence of a child as he embellishes on the wonders that have filled his day? Our newspapers and magazines are also filled with stories of corruption, of use and abuse of people and resources and of exploitation. So, what would our world be like were we to revert back to the stories of old that contained ancient teachings, common threads in the fabric of diversity that is all the more richer because of difference? What difference would we make to people of our country and continent by bringing back into everyday living the rich colourful stories of our ancestors; of giving our children their heritage back? What impact would this make in a consumption driven world to the manner in which we treat ourselves; each other and our planet? When focusing on the people aspects of Sustainable Living and Sustainable Development, it is stories that will form the backdrop for our way of life. We are the authors of the stories that will be told in time to come of the manner in which we lived, loved and engaged with one another and the world. Will our era in history be renowned for the destruction of the planet? Or will we be the generation that contributed to a better life for all? All will be dependent on the stories that we tell in the manner in which each of us engage in and take responsibility for our own story. In the way of the elders and the ancestors, life is a rich kaleidoscope of offerings; of fragments that we craft together in colourful images using words to fire our imaginations of what is possible. We learn about the sanctity of life and living; celebrate the stories of those that have overcome diversity to triumph their circumstances; we

SUSTAINABLE LIVING

– From the Great Law of the Iroquois Confederacy

In every story we must consider the impact of our language, our speech and our legacy on the next 7 Generations. We invite you to be a part of creating a sustainable legacy for the future of our country; our people and our planet.

R O T I EDN OT E:

’S

All of us need to tell the story of our journey towards sustainability and responsibility to our children with pride and not with shame.

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8

KGNAYAPA

KGNAYAPA

A story we can all believe Author Garth Brook

“After nourishment, shelter and companionship, stories are the thing we need most in the world.” ― Philip Pullman


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eing a tourist is no longer just about making simple travel plans. Tourists want more for their money. This does not necessarily translate into reduced prices, however. What they are saying is that they want more value from you and your destination. How often do you hear the words, “Are there more places we can visit, what restaurants can you recommend, where can we go?” TOURISTS ARE INQUISITIVE PEOPLE; THEY TRAVEL TO PLACES OF INTEREST, AND ARE LOOKING FOR VARIETY WITHIN THAT PLACE OF INTEREST AT ALL. And critically, they share information about the places they visit via social media e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Trip Advisor. Anecdotally there is a “six to one ratio” in the way that news travels: bad news travels six times further and faster than good news. Ask a multitude of tourism business owners how the approach this tourist trend? Many will tell you that they clean up the garden, repaint the walls, add more flowers to reception and happily await the next arrival. However, the return bookings don’t happen. In the eyes of the tourist, the value of your destination was not worth the visit. We in South Africa have to be guarded on this matter. Return bookings, are bookings from the same folk, time and time again. They come back for the good food, humour, good service, good experiences and most of all good company. They bring friends with them to enjoy all that they talked

KGNAYAPA

about before booking your venue. They are exceptionally valuable in that they bring you more business than a once off visitor will do, and the tourist dollar starts multiplying within the community as more places are visited. So look after them and protect them well as there are not too many of them around. An email type newsletter is cheap and effective. All you need is a cellphone camera, MS word or similar and a distribution software similar to Group Mail Pro. This is a fun thing to have. People love pictures of themselves enjoying good fun moments. Circulate them in a newsletter and then on Facebook or on Twitter or and that will make your venue even more popular [Editor’s note: You can even send a handwritten note with a picture in it by traditional post – stamp and all!]. However, tourists will only come back to your establishment if they continue to receive consistently good service and are kept occupied with new and interesting experiences. This means that you need to look broader than your own establishment. Tourism businesses today need to add value outside that of their immediate area. Thinking along these lines it becomes clear to me that “Educational Tourism” or just Edu-Tourism comes into play. To keep your tourists occupied and to stimulate all their senses, you need to introduce them to interesting parts and places in your surrounds. This would require providing information and access to: • Natural places including information on plants, butterflies, aquatic insects, birds and the like. • History and historical sites; • Local Culture and cultural sites;


If you are not aware of any of these in your town or region, then you are you really into tourism? Finding out about and capturing all of this, however, is not necessarily a task you have to take upon yourself either. Rather find out what has been researched in your area and how to get hold of this information. Start working together with local likeminded people and create information and stories that all can share. Bring in local speakers to give talks on interesting local topics. Arrange for walks or photographic sessions. Make tourism interesting, and don’t settle for mediocre experiences

that have been flogged to death (e.g. dime a dozen craft markets and junk yards). Start collecting and telling stories. We had an interesting project that needed serious rehabilitation. We were left with a half-finished establishments in one of the most pristine settings in South Africa. We needed re-roofing, building, reworking windows, floors and doors. The work that had been done to date was, to say the least, shoddy. We were able to fix this up with a bit of effort. The establishment overlooks a magnificent and scenic view. Something truly inspirational. However, with everything fixed up beautifully and the magnificent view, something serious was lacking — a story.

Metsi Matsho

• Local industry; • Other niche tourism experiences relevant to your area.

Panoramic view of Metsi Matsho: Photograph Stuart Glen

W

e talked to the local people, whose ancestors have lived in the area for many centuries. We discovered a folktale of a monster. A great big monster, similar my mind’s eye to “The Loch Ness Monster.” In Sotho it’s called the Kgnayapa, [pronounced ga-nay-pa]. The Sotho people tell tales of this monster with such enthusiasm, that you and your visitors will be completely drawn in. Your establishment will be filled with

chatter from your guests, half of which believe every bit and the remaining, well let’s say — maybe. But all in all, it’s enough of a story to take home and enough to bring them back again. And it is enough to help them remember the place and the experience. So go find one good story, why not, the Scott’s have done it. Do you think that Nessie ever existed?

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WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

9

EMPOWERMENT

OF WOMEN “Stories” from Africa

Author Maud Masiyiwa

When we first embarked on the journey of unpacking responsible tourism practice in Southern Africa and its profound capability to “create better places to live in and better places to visit” derived from the Cape Town Declaration (2002), we had no idea of the depth of the challenges, positions or solutions required. Since then, various interested stakeholders and practitioners have encountered serious challenges, but have nevertheless commenced implementation through the provision of the right platforms for responsible tourism engagement. It was and is indeed a humbling journey.

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ourism development has traditionally been pursued for its impact on employment and economic growth (Goodwin, 2011). It is a major creator of employment and a fast entry vehicle into the workforce for low-skilled and semi-skilled workers with a bias towards women and the youth in both urban and rural areas. The continued growth of the sector in the Southern African region offers major employment opportunities for women and youth at all levels of the industry; so any clear effort on making sure that tourism remains both sustainable and is responsibly demonstrated is met with great admiration. In the same breath Goodwin (2011) goes on to elaborate that making Responsible Tourism movement a personal journey has helped him feel in control. The movement is rapidly gathering momentum in the Southern African Development Community as member states realise the need to actively engage local communities in the race to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 through tourism. Millennium Development Goal 3 is centred on the promotion of gender equality and empowering women as a key proponent towards the reduction of poverty; with the tourism industry playing a significant role in providing skilled and semi- skilled jobs to women and youth within Southern Africa. According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), women constitute around 46% of the global tourism workforce, though this can vary from 2% to over 80% in some economies. Global research shows that fewer women than men become executive managers over their careers; earning

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

less than their male counterparts in similar positions, or hold more junior positions, and exit the occupations at a faster rate than men (Thornton, 2011; Gayle et al., 2011). It was under this backdrop that the first dialogue on Responsible Tourism and Empowering Women was conceptualized and hosted by Capstone Training and Development and its supporting partners in Johannesburg South Africa from February 13th to February 14th 2014. There were approximately 40 active participants at the event; who shared their challenges, actions and plans in advocating for positive gender empowerment within the tourism and hospitality sectors on both the local and global playing field. The 3 main objectives of the dialogue were to: â&#x20AC;˘ Analyze the socio-economic role of women and youth in the tourism sector in Southern Africa(economic empowerment); â&#x20AC;˘ Share challenges and best practices on Responsible Tourism from the Region; â&#x20AC;˘ Provide country-wide data on empowerment and constraints on women and youth in the tourism sector (participation and leadership); Clearly all member states represented by various interest groups (not restricted to male participation), public sector officials, and private sector stakeholders agreed that gender inequality within the tourism and hospitality industry is exacerbated by the inaccessibility to information, skills, finance, and markets. Participants shared experiences of finding inconsistent of critical data at local or national level, and that this impacted on the ability to provide

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WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

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sustainable solution to challenges on the ground that may bring about gender equality. The statistical data provided is either outdated or inaccurate. This may be due to lack of will and adequate financing to collect data. It was therefore challenging for the presenters from the members states; to give accurate data on the number of women who are employed in the industry, are in executive positions and own registered tourism related businesses in their respective states. This makes it difficult to close the gaps that appear real but may be regarded as an assumption.

to low level, behind the scenes domestic work as laundrywomen or chambermaids, or to jobs whether their physical attributes are used to attract men or to gratify male sexual needs, as in front line hotel, commercial and restaurant posts and in entertainment establishments” (Chant 1997, p161 cited in Ferguson, 2011, p238).

Government legislation should be gender sensitive and government institutions that are mandated to improve the plight of women and children should be held accountable to ensure that the policies are implemented Data collection plays an and practically followed. important foundation part of women empowerment in the Skilled workforce is becoming tourism industry and participants essentially an important part of tourism committed to address this. development at both local grassroots Further, current public sector involvement is geared towards the provision of legislation and policy with suitable key indicators to follow; however it was interesting to note that across the region there was consensus that the rights of female workers in the industry were not protected as jobs are either informal or seasonal. One of the findings explored was that the role of women in the industry is stereotyped as the work is confined to certain types of gendered working roles as Chant (1997) pointed out “female recruitment in formal sector enterprises catering for international tourists tends to draw heavily on male – constructed and male biased gender stereotypes and to place women in occupations which in many respects crystallize and intensify their subordinate positions in society whether through their assignation

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level to top public and private sector executive level; and women’s needs in developing industry-relevant skills is part of the regions’ goals. A number of government education programmes today have included tourism as part of their curriculum in order to bring all citizens up to speed with the industry and responsible practice through the triple pillars.

Some presenters cited career development in schools through to graduate and post graduate degree level as a way in which women can take on great decision- making roles in industry in their respective countries. Discussions around Community Tourism development played a big role in the empowerment of women with most participants taking a view that


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the traditional concept of community based tourism has evolved to the point where the community involvement should target programmes that help mobilize the community, change mindsets and bring a better understanding of the tourist and their value to the people.

The consensus was to bring various stakeholders into community based tourism investment through training, infrastructure development and business formulation and support. South Africa was the only country present that could boast a National Strategy on Responsible Tourism whilst the rest of the region obtained an insight of the strategy, gender equality and the challenges therein in implementing the guidelines at local and national level.

In deliberating empowerment of women, specific guidelines have to be encapsulated so that the benefits of tourism can be shared. This best practice model was well received and eagerly adopted by all present as an action plan to be driven in the short to medium term. Small business development has always been dominant by women whether in the formal or informal sectors of tourism; however the issues of a â&#x20AC;&#x153;hostileâ&#x20AC;? environment for women in tourism business were raised. Between tourism and the local economy there are a number of economic benefits that must be strengthened in order to extend the distribution of the employment, including gender distribution, and

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

access for local entrepreneurs from the formal and informal sectors to the tourism market.

Removing traditional lending methods, assisting women entrepreneurs source finance for start-up or growth, partnering to assist entrepreneurs in the drive to maintain standards for growing business, branding, networking, product development, quality and quantity still remain ongoing points for future dialogue as the SADC community continues to find sustainable solutions to responsible tourism. As the dialogue came to a close, we were reminded of the fact that everyone - both male and female - have a part to play collectively in closing the gap on irresponsible tourism practices and that progress towards achieving the Millennium Development goals has to start at a local basis in order to escalate showcased achievements to a national and global level. Action plans derived from this dialogue will be monitored and evaluated and a pre-2015 dialogue will be hosted to review and present to the SADC member states.

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GREEN GABIONS

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GREEN GABIONS Empowering a tourism community

Author Garth Brook

Earlier in this handbook, Garth told us how we should share our stories to ensure that people keep coming back for return business. When I met Garth, he went to show me Metsi Matsho, which then was approaching completion. I was fascinated by his Donga Rehabilitation, and I was inspired by his story of how the local women crafted the baskets referred to in this article. This is an example of how an entire community can work together to fix problems, create a sense of community and local pride and make their destination attractive. This is definitely a story that needs to be told here, and also in his guest communication.

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GREEN GABIONS

’ve used a very simple and effective method to stop erosion, which we see forming Dongas across our beautiful country. Known as “soft” or “green” gabions, these structures slow water speed down, limiting further erosion while dropping top soil and seeds. Within a year, the structure becomes a habitat for a number of our indigenous species while capturing rainwater. I found, after some research, that I could talk for hours on the subject and most visitors found it very valuable. We built a few at Metsi Mastho. They work very well and can be used in most areas suffering from over-grazing or over-burning. Visitors go away with ideas, they ask for brochures and who knows, maybe they’ll build a few themselves. While my focus was on “cleaning up” a degraded environment, I have been able to add value to a tourist’s life by something worthwhile and innovative, and they will likely come back again. At the same time, I have created a way to educate, train and employ people from local communities. They come part of the journey of creating a sustainable tourism destination.

land. Replacing the soil nutrients carried out to sea by our rivers each year, with fertilizer, is estimated at R1,000 million. For every tonne of maize, wheat, sugar or other agricultural crop produced, South Africa loses an average of 20 tonnes of soil. (1 ton of maize = 20 ton of soil). The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) a branch of United Nations estimates that the global loss of productive land through erosion is 5-7 million ha/year.

Soil Erosion

Plants provide protective cover on the land and prevent soil erosion for the following reasons:

Annual soil loss in South Africa is estimated at 300 - 400 million tonnes, nearly three tonnes for each hectare of

Causes of soil erosion

Wind and water are the main agents of soil erosion. The amount of soil they can carry away is influenced by two related factors: • Speed - the faster water moves, the more soil it can erode; • Plant cover - plants protect the soil and in their absence, wind and water can do much more damage. Strong rains, overgrazed areas will lose plant growth. The exposed area becomes a “Donga” and will continue to deepen and widen taking away your productive soils – leaving you with no possibility of generating wealth from the lands.

The importance of plants

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• Plants slow down water as it flows over the land (runoff ) and this allows much of the rain to soak into the ground; • Plant roots hold the soil in position and prevent it from being washed away; • Plants break the impact of a raindrop before it hits the soil, thus reducing its ability to erode • Plants in wetlands and on the banks of rivers are of particular importance as they slow down the flow of the water and their roots bind the soil, thus preventing erosion The loss of protective vegetation through deforestation, over-grazing, ploughing, and fire makes soil vulnerable to being swept away by wind and water. In addition, over-cultivation and compaction cause the soil to lose its structure and cohesion and it becomes more easily eroded. Erosion will remove the top-soil first. Once this nutrient-rich layer of soil is gone, few plants will grow in that soil again. Without soil and plants the land becomes desert-like and unable to support life - this process is called desertification. It is very difficult and often impossible to restore decertified land. Example of overgrazing and over burning (short leaves) make for shorter roots. Short root plants cannot hold on to soil and will wash away with strong rains. Evidence of this has been found at Metsi Matsho.

How does soil erosion start

This is usually because of over grazing, over burning or cattle tracks formed by the regular walking of cattle over the same path. Vehicles can cause the same damage as well as hiking trails.

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Preventing soil erosion Preventing soil erosion requires political, economic and technical changes. Political and economic changes need to address the distribution of land in South Africa as well as the possibility of incentives to encourage farmers to manage their land sustainably. Aspects of technical changes include: • The use of contour ploughing and wind breaks; • Leaving unploughed grass strips between ploughed land; • Making sure that there are always plants growing on the soil, and that the soil is rich in humus (decaying plant and animal remains). This organic matter is the “glue” that binds the soil particles together and plays an important part in preventing erosion; • Avoiding overgrazing and the overuse of crop lands; • Allowing indigenous plants to grow along the river banks instead of ploughing and planting crops right up to the water’s edge; • Encouraging biological diversity by planting several different types of plants together; • Conservation of wetlands.

What can you do – Build soft gabions or SOS save our soil. First Some History

Gabions (from Italian gabbione meaning “big cage”; from Italian gabbia and Latin cavea meaning “cage”) are cages, cylinders, or boxes filled with soil or sand that are used in civil engineering, road building, and military applications. For erosion control caged riprap is used. For dams or foundation construction,


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cylindrical metal structures are used. In a military context, earth or sand-filled gabions are used to protect artillery crews from enemy fire. Leonardo da Vinci designed a type of gabion called a Corbeille Leonard (â&#x20AC;&#x153;Leonard basketâ&#x20AC;?) for the foundations of the San Marco Castle in Milan.

Wire Gabion Baskets

Wire Gabion baskets have some advantages over loose riprap because of their modularity and ability to be stacked in various shapes; they are also resistant to being washed away by moving water. Gabions also have advantages over more rigid structures because they can conform to ground movement, dissipate energy from flowing water, and drain freely. Their strength and effectiveness may increase with time in some cases, as silt and vegetation fill the interstitial voids and reinforce the structure. They are sometimes used to keep stones which

GREEN GABIONS

may fall from a cutting or cliff from endangering traffic on a thoroughfare. In civil engineering a gabion wall is a retaining wall made of rectangular containers (baskets) fabricated of thick galvanized wire, which are filled with stone and stacked on one another, usually in tiers that step back with the slope rather than vertically. The most common civil engineering use of gabions is to stabilize shorelines or slopes against erosion. Other uses include retaining walls, temporary floodwalls, to filter silt from runoff, for small or temporary/permanent dams, river training, channel lining. They may be used to direct the force of a flow of flood water around a vulnerable structure. Gabions are also used as fish barriers on small streams. The construction of wire gabions have an approximated life expectancy, and relies on the lifespan of the wire and not on the contents of the basket as the structure will fail when the wire fails. In

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15 – 18

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one scenario PVC-coated galvanized gabions have been estimated to survive for 60 years. Some gabion manufacturers guarantee a structural consistency of 50 years. Although galvanized steel wire is most widely used, stainless steel wire gabions are also developed and used.

Green Gabion or Soft Gabion

However, the green or soft gabion approach makes use of hessian material sewn into baskets. The baskets are filled with soil and seeded with indigenous plants. The plants grow in the basket and break through the hessian as the hessian breaks-down. This will usually take 2-3 years over which time the plants will have rooted and formed a stronger base. This type of gabion is very flexible and pleasing to the eye. There is no wire or obstacle that will hamper wild life or damage to domestic animals. It will also form the

GREEN GABIONS

habitat for many indigenous species while reducing wind as well as reducing water speed thus limiting soil erosion. The concept is the same as wire gabions except that the dimensions and construction are very different. Hessian gabions cannot be purchased and have to be made on site. Soft gabions will move with the soil and emerge as a grass / plant structure that, if not abused by over-grazing and fire; will continue to slow down water speed, protect plant life and overall allow for stronger plants to grow.

Manufacturing

The most suited material for soft or green gabions is hessian. The reason being is that the hessian will over a 2-3 year period start to breakdown and dissolve into the earth. It is also a natural product with no chemicals.

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CSI

CSI:

STRATEGIC OR CATALYTIC?

Authors Reana Rossouw and Niki Glen

Businesses are investing large amounts of money into Corporate Social Investment (CSI) Projects. The total corporate contribution to CSI in South Africa is more than R50 billion per annum. They invest partially because of the potential tax breaks but also because of the requirements of the likes of King III and the SRI index introduced by the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and of course the BBBEE requirements.

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W

hile many communities and non-profit organisations have drawn benefit from these investments over the past decade, we believe that too little progress has been made while the problems such poverty, skills shortages, environmental degradation and climate change continue to grow. We believe that this is because too many companies focus their CSI efforts on short term poverty alleviation or strategic poverty reduction strategies whilst a real effort is required to eradicate poverty through catalytic CSI. An important facet of these investments to understand is its real impact and whether the money spent is spent in the most effective way, that the right people are benefiting and that all development and flow of moneys are transparent. Next Generation Consultants, has analysed the South African CSI investment over the past ten years within the global context, including the US, Europe, Far East and Africa (continental) and in the local context at a regional level. We have supported our analysis with 45 personal interviews with industry CSI practitioners as well as the results of our Impact Investment Index© that determines the impact and return on investment of CSI programs. Some of our findings are presented in this chapter.

From strategy to implementation

Our findings have shown that CSI has become more strategic over the past decade. For corporates, CSI programme success, which is dependent on the organisation’s ability to implement meaningful and sustainable change,

CSI

in order to meet the needs of its target beneficiaries and has measurable impact, must increasingly speak to the Corporate’s overall strategic objectives. Becoming more strategic does not necessarily mean you have increased impact. The poorest regions still get the least funding and national programmes does not mean national impact. Companies moving into Africa (30% of all corporates) – use the same strategy, focus areas, process, methodology as in South Africa. The implementation of strategies is often less effective due to an organisations internal change barriers, including. • Independence and control – not wanting to work with partnership with others • Insularity and inward focus – not understanding the complexity and interconnectedness of socio economic development • Caution and risk aversion – not wanting to try new innovative approaches that could bring about greater innovation and impact and more sustainable change • Time and inertia – not understanding that development takes time, requires many role players and many insights from different perspectives • Competition and credit – not acknowledging that socio economic development is socio economic development issues cannot be solved by a single person or company Our research further shows that beneficiary organizations (NGO’s and programme implementers) are being measured on HOW they spend money not the results they achieve. When deciding on which community or program to fund, corporates do not

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CSI

look at evidence, experience outcomes or results but limit their decision making to the financial statistics and legal structure of organisations only. Industry averages show that it costs on average R1 million to create a single job or start a new enterprise. And to make matters worse, corporates expect NGO’s to start, implement and manage for-profit companies. This, from an industry that is made up of volunteers who is now expected to create full time and sustainable jobs for others. The end result is a system with no natural mechanism for coordinating effort, for learning, for sharing knowledge about what does and does not work, or for adapting to shifting changes.

Success through collaboration

Isolated successes are seldom replicated. A new innovation replaces old ones before they had time to prove themselves. The unfortunate end result is that CSI funders and their beneficiaries are doomed to repeat the same mistakes again and again. On top of that, we are faced with a government in crises, with strains being placed on safety nets, collapsing service delivery, weakening social support structures and continued legislative reforms. These factors place a sharpened eye on non-profit performance and increases funder-NGO tensions and as a result, increase CSI expenditure. In the face of this, holding on to autonomy rather than looking for opportunities to coordinate and collaborate may be the not be the best approach. In the face of increased uncertainties, innovation and creativity can mitigate risks, responsiveness and responsibility, optimisation of resources, scalability

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and replicability are key success factors. While strategies have not become diversified, focus areas have. To optimize impact, CSI practitioners need to understand the context within which they are working. Strategic CSI needs to re-invent itself – it is not about MORE of the SAME. Nor is it about doing MORE with LESS. Attempts to improve the effectiveness of corporate CSI spend should therefore include better collaborative efforts and this should be a key driver.

EXAMPLE

The National Collaboration Trust on Education (NCTE) is an example of how industry collaboration at a large scale can be achieved. The NCTE was launched on 16 July 2013. “Today we launch the National Collaboration Education Trust (NCET) as the first practical embodiment of the National Development Plan. We are aware that grand plans are not going to change the lives of our people. It is implementation that matters the most,”Minister Motshekga 16 July 2013. http://www.education.gov.za/Home/ NECTLaunch/tabid/889/Default.aspx

Exclusivity vs. opportunity

As a result of the recession, many organisations have relooked at their CSI spend to find more effective and efficient strategies, i.e. less effort and money for more impact. On the other hand, the recession has made competition for beneficiary organisations so much harder. The outcome is that CSI departments have adopted a hands-off approach and have become more “impersonal exclusive clubs”. Our research has shown that many CSI funders provide access to


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potential beneficiary organisations through website submissions only, with no option for personal contact and appointments. Automated responses are prevalent, and more CSI brochures are being printed and distributed than ever before. Sustainability reports, on average, have 4 pages dedicated to CSI spend without a single name, number, or e-mail address. This “exclusivity” means that there are more programmes linked to single donor interventions. On average, these programs last for an average of 2 years and are closely linked to brands and are supported by multimedia (advertising campaigns). There is limited or no communication about impact, which creates the perception that many programmes are “fly-by-nights”. Many CSI funders have opted to run internal programmes rather than work with beneficiary organizations. Does this not create a risk of missing out on opportunities to create true greatness? Organisations are closing themselves up to the opportunity for the next great CSI innovation.

New governance and new reporting

Greater governance and compliance requirements and more due diligence on CSI funding amongst others now requires more paperwork and reporting, more evaluation and finding scientific evidence to prove impact for sustainability and integrated reports. However, more reporting does not necessarily mean better reporting. Practitioners will have to come to grips with the impact of increased governance and board oversight, legislation and specific industry standards and reporting requirements

CSI

such as required by international reporting frameworks AND have their work assured. They also have to come to grips with pressure from new everything. • New forums such as social and ethics committees for stakeholder engagements; • New analyses such as community perception surveys and human rights implications and social audits; • New reports which include terminology such as “Social Audits”, “Social Impact” and “Baseline Studies”; • New funding language e.g. assetbased funding , seed funding, for-profit funding, social enterprises and social entrepreneurs, marketbased solutions, impact investment, collective funding, cause related funding; • New reporting lines e.g. Corporate Affairs; Corporate Governance • New titles e.g. Community Relations Practitioners, Community Engagement Pr a c t i t i o n e r s, Community Liaison Officers • New responsibilities e.g. human rights audits in programs; BBBEE audits of programs • New strategies – linking to and integrating with the National Development Plan (NDP), Integrated Development Plans and Industry Specific BBBEE Charters (Deleted part of sentence) • New funding criteria and reporting requirements e.g. ethics policies, vendor registration processes, sustainability credentials for intermediaries (requiring organisations to report on water, energy, labour practices, ethics policies ethics policies and anticorruption) and most of all,

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• NEW ALPHABET SOUPS, e.g. BBBEE, LTO, GRI, IIRC, IPIECA, ICMM, ISO26000, KINGIII, UNGC, SLP, SED, PRI, IFC, OECD!

Example

There have been an increased number of South African companies who have become signatories to local and international guidelines (such as the UN Global Compact) and codes such as the global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues (IFC, ICMM and IPIECA) and global policies requiring local execution. This has a major impact for companies moving into Africa and wanting to extend their CSI strategies to cover these regions. As such they become multinational organisations that have to abide by international guidelines, frameworks and standards (for instance the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Organisations operating in emerging markets).

CSI is about who...?

Flagship programmes are prevalent with a lot of “My flagship is better/ bigger/more expensive than yours”. It seems that companies spend less on the actual programmes than marketing it. These programs last on average for only two years and companies don’t report on actual developmental impact and instead to only report on investment spend. This creates the impression that flagship programs are only focusing on the latest trendy cause, without understanding the complexity of social structures, and socio economic development imperatives. It is more about the corporate’s need to promote its brand than actual community requirements. Nor does it take into

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consideration the interconnectedness of development requiring many actors, development facets, contributions and disciplines. There has been a growth in volunteerism as people realise that everyone can make a difference. Employee engagement is the latest and coolest new tool in the box and “the journey starts with me or paying it forward” is the favourite tag line. One in three corporates now have some form of facilitated employee volunteer programme – and one in five have a dedicated practitioner to volunteerism. One in two corporates reward volunteerism!

Hindsight and the future

Hindsight is perfect sight. Over the past decade, we have seen some spectacular failures AND spectacular success. We have had glimpses of brilliance, bringing into practice the theory of change, utilising excellent processes and systems and integrated socio economic development models. Programmes that incorporate holistic development, cradle to grave lifecycle and life stage analysis and that solves real problems, were previously “low profile” programmes but has now become ‘unmissable’ solutions to social problems. However, some of the biggest success stories are still those programs that have a single focus area and defined and clear goals and objectives to ensure integrated and life changing impact that can be measured!

Example

The Outsurance – Points-men Project has been hugely successful. Where would we be without them? Just think


11

of the non-stop rain that Gauteng has experienced for two weeks in March 2014. On the other hand, and sadly, the Dial Direct – Pothole Brigade was less successful due to various controllable and non-controllable issues. The situation on Gauteng Roads during the same two weeks in March would have been hugely improved if this was a success. However, what has worked in the past is not necessarily the complete solution for the future. CSI funders have started placing greater emphasis on capacity building, leadership development, operating support, skills development, enterprise development and job creation. Many programmes have started approaching CSI more holistically, incorporating environmental programmes in order to mitigate negative impact from operations and the impact of climate change to develop a new generation of CSI programmes. These programmes incorporate e.g. risk management and impact issues, food security, water scarcity, income disparity, waste management and recycling, income generation into a single programme. Focus is starting to shift from addressing social issues to full-on economic, socio-economic and environmental development. Green is the new black and attention is given to both immediate and future issues that could affect all communities in the years to come.

Example

BHP Billiton has offset 60 tonnes of carbon through its international award-winning program in association with the Wildlands Trust Treepreneur project. The question is however - Is

CSI

carbon offsetting a social issue / an operational issue / or a risk mitigating issue? Other questions companies in complex industries like mining, oil and gas has to face is: Is building a clinic the result of negative environmental or health impact on communities due to its operations or a risk mitigating strategy or CSI spend?

Status Quo is not an option

What is good for one organisation is not necessarily good for another. Poverty has many dimensions and poverty alleviation, reduction or eradication is hard work, takes times, and is complex and costly. Development of an impactful programme is a systemic and systematic process. However, it is evident from current practice that most programmes only have short term and quantitative impact. Environmental programmes, and dealing with negative environmental impact from operations, the impacts of climate change, food security, water scarcity, and the income/job disparity are key long term issues that will have to feature and be considered by future CSI programmes. More importantly, it will require all actors to come together to find real solutions. In most cases – real sustainable development without support from government will render any CSI program completely unsustainable. It is no longer a case of “Give a man a fish and feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a life time”. We should perhaps consider: Give a man a fish and feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a life time, show him how to use Google and he can teach himself how to fish.

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1-100 In 10 seconds CSI has become a numbers game, where 1 to 100 in 10 seconds is what is expected because this is what is being measured. Companies report extensively on the number of jobs created, increases in pass rates, number of books distributed, number of classes taught, number of learners and teachers trained, as these are all impacts that can easily be measured. However, this does not speak to the actual qualitative evidence and outcomes of programs that changed people’s lives. But what if there are unintended positive or negative impacts relating to CSI investments? Currently sustainability reports only focus on positive impact and quantitative data – and no single report speaks about the real change i.e. qualitative impact that resulted as an impact of an implemented program. No single integrated report is able to show the link between community relations and value creation or the quality of community relations for the business. What is required is the urgency for short term results and stamina for long term impact.

Advice for the future

CSI Practitioners need to ensure the following for more effective CSI management: • What you report and how you report are crucial – when last did you read

CSI

your own company’s sustainability/ integrated reports? • Ensure that the public image of your company is aligned with your strategy and the real, long term impacts of your efforts; • Once you have figured out the business model and strategy for CSI, you need to: • think holistically about how you can take it forward; • ensure it remains relevant; • start collaborating rather than competing; • align CSI with your company values, strategic priorities, business model, and organizational culture, and • adapt to serve an everchanging set of community priorities, focusing on impact today and permanence as an enduring community resource. • Above all, consider the following to take CSI from a strategic business activity to a catalytic socio economic activity: • Engage widely • Research deeply • Compare extensively • Collaborate creatively • Communicate honestly • Innovate flexibly We believe that the work of the next ten years will have to build on existing efforts and increase emphasis on coordination and adaptation.

Reana’s chapter is so relevant for the tourism industry and for the work that many of the ’S NGOs are doing in this space. I really appreciate her work and research, as this provides us R ITO with an important body of knowledge to 1) look at how the larger corporates within tourism D South Africa can collaborate and 2) work hand-in-hand with an already strong NGO base EN that have formed meaningful partnership. We need this to drive more sustainable and OT E: impactful change through tourism and hospitality activities and CSI investment in chasing the National Tourism Sector Strategy, National development plan and Millennium Goals.

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MAGALIESBERG

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THE MAGALIESBURG DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE

Magaliesburg – the Journey to Sustainability part 1

Author Johan Olivier

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M

agaliesburg – the Journey to Sustainability part 1 Year after year, legislation, policies and strategic planning documents are drawn up with the view to transforming communities and improving the lives of our country’s people. Every town and city in South Africa faces the challenge of translating these legal requirements, policy decisions and strategies into a reality that is achievable – and sustainable. The town of Magaliesburg is no different. Magaliesburg is a small town of 10 300 people and is located approximately 57 km west of the Johannesburg city centre in the Magaliesburg Mountain range region. The town currently finds itself in the same position as numerous other small towns in South Africa – one of declining economic growth, poverty, changing markets and increasing neglect – and one not particularly conducive to attracting potential investors to the area. However, if developed correctly and in a sustainable manner, Magaliesburg offers a treasure trove of opportunity – one rich in natural beauty, culture and an established and diverse community loyal to this place they call home. Recognising the immense inherent potential and resources of the town, Ranyaka Community Investment Managers (a non-profit organisation established with small town regeneration in mind), together with the local community, launched the

MAGALIESBERG

Magaliesburg Development Initiative (MDI) in November 2012. Building on the existing tourism and agriculture resources, the vision is to transform Magaliesburg into a resilient and sustainable, high quality destination. Attracting not only visitors to enjoy its natural resources but also to allow people to experience first-hand what sustainability is all about. A place that looks after its environment, its history, its people and its economy. Since its launch, the MDI has seen the buy-in of the local municipality, businesses in the area, and residents representing all socio-economic groups in the town. The Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme (STPP) has also joined the MDI and together with Ranyaka is driving a number of so-called ‘driver’ and ‘enabler’ projects and initiatives. These projects will form the heart of the MDI sustainability foundations and aim to achieve the following: • Creating a living environment that offers improved quality of life for the people of Magalies; • Attracting external investment, encouraging local resource-sharing and boosting entrepreneurship to grow local business, create job opportunities and ultimately, develop an innovative business model for the town that will, in turn, translate into socio-economic transformation; • Developing and marketing the town as a destination that offers a quality experience for the business tourist,

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MAGALIESBERG

• day visitors seeking a country break away and international tourists; and • Creating an environment within which visitors to the area can interact with new and innovative green technologies (sustainable living mechanisms and systems). A five-step process, as developed by Ranyaka, is being followed to ensure implementation of the above and include: • Building collaboration amongst all stakeholders; • Developing a community investment plan; • Identifying and packaging projects and programmes; • Establishing project-specific business mechanisms; • Utilising a multi-sectorial funding model to attract the required investments to the area and • Implementing monitoring and verification mechanisms to ensure that inputs are translated into

Project

meaningful and measurable impacts which are appropriately tracked and reported. Key to the success of this process is the so-called ‘project backroom’, administered and managed currently by Ranyaka, to ensure effective communication and integration of the multi-faceted efforts required to enable the success of such an initiative. The backroom operations are based on the premise that the sustainable upliftment and empowerment of communities and the places in which they live and work, involves a combination and collaboration of all available resources in a consistent, coordinated and innovative manner. The backroom will also develop monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to ensure that relevant development and sustainability indicators are met. Some of the key projects and initiatives that are currently being initiated include:

Progress

Magaliesburg Station A conceptual plan has been completed and the Gauteng development Tourism Authority will compile a pre-feasibility study. First discussions with Transnet have been concluded. MDI Youth Programme

A number of meetings and capacity building sessions have been held. An international youth conference is planned for later in the year.

Youth BoxTM

The concept design and a business plan have been completed and discussed with the youth. Land has been identified and preliminary discussions with the local municipality have been completed.

Food production and A number of land parcels have been identified. First processing stakeholder identification has been completed.

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MAGALIESBERG

Magaliesburg Mountain Bike Club

The Mountain bike club has been established and a first route of 21 km have been identified and negotiated with property owners. Sponsorship discussions are currently being conducted. The project is part of an overall sport and recreation strategy.

Sustainable Tourism Implementation in tourism businesses

The programme will be managed by STPP and initiated in March 2014. The purpose of this programme is to assist tourism businessses and tourism stakeholders to implement sustainable principles in thier day to day operations, facilitate cross functional collaboration and drive local economc dvelopment using tourism as the vehicle.

Waste Management Programme for Magaliesburg

The programme will be managed by STPP and initiated in March 2014.

Partnership development

Apart from the development of strong relationships with relevant local, district and provincial government bodies, a number of other enabler partnerships are being consolidated. To date, these include the endorsement that the MDI has from the South African Planning Institute and the Institute for Performance Management, support that it receives from education institutions, including GIBS, as well as Nedbank.

Projects that have been identified but that still need to be initiated include: • Development of a heritage route • River clean-up as part of an overall environmental management strategy. • Tourism based enterprise development including arts and craft hub development, hotels, lodges and guesthouse local sourcing of e.g. soap, linen and vegetables. • Building efficiency and capacity of local tourism businesses in terms of e.g. energy efficiency, incorporation

of green technologies and staff development. • Development of a “Green” education cluster by involving existing environmental schools in the area, the local college and the planned provincial agriculture college. • Implementing a Place-Making program. Ensuring that the town is clean, attractive and safe. Some of the conceptual designs are indicated below.

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MAGALIESBERG

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Underpinning all of the above is a clear and deliberate collaboration strategy. The MDI collaboration process is designed to be locally inclusive so

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that all stakeholders can contribute optimally. Existing government/ community processes and interest groups initiatives are left intact as


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the MDI collaboration process is a background driven process that follows a shared space and platform approach guided by development and innovation principles and not the logistics of a typical process driven arrangement. The above approach is bias towards action and implementation and promotes e.g.: • Joint fundraising • Shared resources and services • Innovation and continuous research and development • Coordination of strategy and policy positions The approach also runs at different levels ranging from the vision and strategy level to the more operation and project level discussions.

MAGALIESBERG

The positive outcomes from the stewardship meetings, interest group discussions and site meetings include: • Hotels indicating that they will spearhead the waste management programme facilitated by the STPP; • Land made available by three owners; • Local members to initiate mountain bike enterprise – club has been established; • Regular articles in the local news paper; • References to other stakeholders – Village Power Community Project; • References by the local councillor; • MDI marketing material placed in hotel rooms;

An extract from the MDI Collaboration Flow Map is indicated below.

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The next crucial step in the process is to obtain the necessary financial and technical investment to commence implementation of the identified projects and programmes. Ultimately, however, the success of the MDI does not hinge on the funding and implementation of isolated projects, but rather on the ability for the local economic community to take ownership of the operationalization of the common vision created.

Interest group discussions

MAGALIESBERG

Ranyaka and the STPP are continuously exploring partnerships with institutions and individuals that grasp the bigger picture and understand that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sustainabilityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in the true sense of the word is a multi-faceted one. Making it happen requires more than a single investment. Or a single event. It requires a journey of true commitment, partnership and long-term vision.

Site Meetings

Stewardship Meetings

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&BEYOND

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THE STORY OF COMMUNITIES IN CONSERVATION & BEYOND

Author Les Carlisle

ABOUT &BEYOND

A luxury experiential travel company, &Beyond operates 33 lodges and creates personalised travel itineraries in Africa and South Asia. Based on a strong conservation model, the company has a positive influence on more than 9 million acres (36 433 km2) of protected wildlife areas.

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A pioneering model

&

Beyond’s pioneering model of low-impact, high-yield wildlife tourism is based on the company’s ethic of Care of the Land, Care of the Wildlife, Care of the People, which has underpinned each of its initiatives for over twenty years. &Beyond believes that the land, people and animals of Africa are inextricably intertwined. Just as wildlife conservation and ecotourism are vital for their future and the prosperity of their people, so the support of those people is critical to protecting its threatened ecosystems, endangered species and the precious biodiversity of its wildlife areas. Sustainability at &Beyond is all about creating a company that can show meaningful and lasting benefits for the natural environments and communities that surround our operations. Based on a solid foundation of business principles, &Beyond’s operational model aims to benefit each of its three focus areas. Among the very first companies to approach conservation in this way, to this day &Beyond’s conservation strategy

&BEYOND

is broadly based on the following objectives: • To minimise environmental impacts and maximise sensitivity towards wildlife and habitats; • To facilitate partnerships with its neighbours, whether local communities, government or the private sector; • To provide actions for reducing threats to wildlife and ecosystems; • To provide a world-class interpretative experience for its guests;

Africa Foundation

&Beyond’s community development partner, Africa Foundation is an independent, non-profit organisation. Working together with &Beyond and in consultation with the communities themselves, Africa Foundation facilitates the socio-economic development of rural communities living in or close to the continent’s conservation areas.

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The projects that the Africa Foundation supports are based on two simple principles - they are grounded in community participation and are driven by local leadership. Partnership with local stakeholders is critical for the success of the projects and the Foundation plays a pivotal role in facilitating the relationship between communities, local government and &Beyond. The Africa Foundation focuses on four key development areas: • Education; • Healthcare; • Enterprise development; • Environment and conservation; Led by local champions elected by the community, as well as community leaders, projects identified to address community needs are set in motion, with the community leading the way. The right training, skills and resources are provided by the Africa Foundation or through partner organisations to ensure projects are not only effectively implemented but remain selfsustainable long after initiation. To ensure the development of the community and the sustainability of the project, initiatives are handed over to the communities, who take responsibility for their success and growth. Leadership development and support are key areas of focus, as it is only through strong leadership that community initiatives can become sustainable. Local champions are equipped with the skills and knowledge to secure additional funding of their own, building on the solid foundation that has been set in place.

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The Africa Foundation believes that it is vital to ensure the growth of solid relationships between &Beyond lodges, the communities surrounding those lodges and various government entities and works very hard to facilitate these relationships. All of the Foundation’s field staff and some of their management are drawn from the local communities themselves, thus strengthening the bond between them and &Beyond.

History of the Africa Foundation

While it is now an independent, registered organisation, the Africa Foundation was initially set up by &Beyond in 1992 as the result of the firm belief that benefits from conservation needed to flow to the local communities. A development committee was set up in each community and the Foundation’s formula for success was established – tribal chiefs and community elders were invited to prioritise the projects required by each community. As the scope of the work increased, the Rural Investment Fund grew and evolved into what is now the Africa Foundation.

Africa Foundation Wins

Some of the Africa Foundation’s greatest community achievements include:

KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

• Nkomo Primary School: 10 classrooms and other facilities constructed for 60 schoolchildren • Mduku Clinic: A 24-hour healthcare facility serving 25 000 people


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• Mbedhula Craft Market: Empowers local artisans to showcase and sell their crafts • Nkomo Ark: A safe haven for over 500 children affected and / or orphaned by HIV/Aids • Khulani Special School: Only special needs school within a 300 km radius, catering to 167 children with disabilities ranging from paralysis to hearing and visual impairment • Ikusasalethu Sewing Club: 15 women sew school and church uniforms for the KwaJobe community, as well as making linen for nearby lodges • Water Reticulation: 21 schools connected to the municipal main water pipeline, providing 16 000 children with access to clean water • Dongwelethu Poultry: Eight community members rear chickens and sell eggs, chickens and chicken products to their community

Mpumalanga, South Africa

• Lillydale Home-based Care Centre: Volunteers visit and care for elderly and ill residents in their homes • Happy Homes Preschool: A makeshift corrugated iron classroom that housed 28 was transformed into four modern classrooms for 165 children • Bilton High School: A new high school in Hlabekisa with five classrooms, ten EnviroLoos, an administration block, fencing and a borehole that caters to 200 students

South Africa

• EnviroLoos: A safe, healthy and environmentally friendly alternative at community schools and institutions in areas where there is not enough water or suitable

&BEYOND

infrastructure for waterborne sanitation • Permaculture Gardens: Over 30 vegetable gardens established at schools and community institutions to enable food security • Community Business Linkage Programme: Innovative and creative solutions for employment generation • HSBC Water Project: Access to water for thousands of people by sinking and equipping boreholes

Botswana

• Motse wa Tsholofelo Preschool & OVC Centre: School for orphans and vulnerable children

South Africa and East Africa

• Community Leaders Education Fund (CLEF) bursary programme: Provides tertiary education bursaries to aspiring young learners • Hippo Water Rollers: Over 4 000 of these easily transportable drums have been supplied to rural communities, providing convenient access to clean water

Tanzania

• Ololosokwan Clinic (Tanzania): A ten-room medical centre providing healthcare to over 5 000 people • Ololosokwan Primary School: A school, kitchen and dining facility for over 750 children • Chaenda Secondary School: Construction of a kitchen and dining hall where meals can be prepared for 440 children • Lukungu OVC Centre: The first preschool in the community • Luk ungu Pr imar y School: Construction of a kitchen and dining facility that qualified the school

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• to receive a government subsidy towards meals for 600 children

Kenya

• Emututoto Dam: The excavation of a 25 000 cubic metre dam, construction of perimeter fencing, building of a cattle trough for 4 000 heads of livestock and a communal collection point is complete. The slow sand filter treatment plant, fifty cubic litre underground tank, a pump house, generator and diesel water pump, hundred cubic metre reservoir and piping to a school and four communities is now being constructed. Communities as partners - land returned to its ancestral owners In 2007, in a pioneering move for land distribution in South Africa, &Beyond and the leaders of the Makhasa and Mnqobokazi communities, which surround the reserve, signed a mutually beneficial deal resulting in the restoration of 9 085 hectares (22 460 acres) of wilderness land within Phinda to those communities, its ancestral owners. In terms of this deal, &Beyond secured a commitment from the community to keep the land under wildlife rather than return it to farming. In this way, both the communities and conservation benefit, demonstrating once again &Beyond’s commitment to the Care of the Land, Care of the Wildlife, Care of the People.

&BEYOND

company has once again reaped the rewards of this relationship through the rhino poaching crisis of the past years, as it has been able to establish a successful intelligence network in the communities that has resulted in a large number of arrests being carried out before potential poachers were able to strike. With local communities bound to have knowledge of any suspicious movements in the areas surrounding the game reserves, &Beyond believes that it is absolutely vital for those communities to have a close relationship with conservation. Real proof of how important &Beyond’s focus on community development has been, it is this support that the future of our wildlife depends on.

A relationship of trust

The investment that &Beyond has made into the communities surrounding its reserves over more than twenty years has resulted in a strong relationship based on mutual trust between the company and the people. The

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PROFILE

Times Square Executive Suites is conveniently located in Sandton and walking distance to the heart of the financial capital of Africa including the most prestigious shopping centre Sandton City, world famous Nelson Mandela Square and the Sandton Convention Centre. Time Square Executive Suites consist of One Bedroom Luxury Suites and One Bedroom Executive Suites, elegantly furnished with a fully kitted kitchen, washing machine and tumble dryer. The bedrooms are well-appointed with crisp white towels, en-suite bathrooms with a bath or a shower. Enjoy entertaining in your own private Suite complimented with the Hotel Package DSTV/Cable connected to an LCD television in the lounge, leading out to a balcony with lovely views. Time Square offers, secure basement parking and wireless internet access. Spaciously designed to accommodate, short or long term stays. The Executive Suites are complimented by a sparkling swimming pool with braai facilities and excellent 24Hour Security, CCTV cameras and armed response. Experience hospitality at its best, with our friendly and efficient staff, only at Times Square Executive Suites.

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LUXURY SERVICES AND AMENITIES:

• Daily housekeeping service • Complimentary personal laundry and ironing service • Sparkling swimming pool • Air-conditioning in all apartments • 24 Hour Security • Dry cleaning Services • Free Undercover Basement Parking • Flat screen LCD TV’s • Business Services Available • Hotel Package DSTV and DVD/CD Player) • Hairdryers, iron, iron board and safe • Wireless Internet ( Nominal Fee)

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GEOTOURISM

14

THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY

GEOTOURISM PROGRAMME

Author Steve Haze

Geotourism incorporates the concept of sustainable tourism—that destinations should remain unspoiled for future generations—while allowing for ways to protect a place’s character. Geotourism also takes a principle from its ecotourism cousin,—that tourism revenue should promote conservation—and extends it to culture and history as well, that is, all distinctive assets of a place. Geotourism is defined as tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place – its environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents

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T

his chapter summarises the opportunities and identifies the key elements for the successful implementation of NGS’s International Geotourism Programme as a framework for expanding sustainable and responsible tourism within South Africa and with its neighbours. At this time, and as a good starting point to reference, the concept and feasibility of Geotourism on a multinational basis is being investigated through the Peace Parks Foundation, South Africa; the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and National Geographic Society. Geographically, this encompasses what is known as the Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA) Trans-frontier Conservation Area (TFCA) between the countries of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Just as importantly, the establishment of Geotourism within South Africa provides great opportunity to meet the socio-economic and environmental challenges confronting many regions and communities, even though at first blush it may appear to be a rather daunting and overly ambitious undertaking at any scale or geographical location. Broad concepts and visions based upon strong socio-economic, cultural, and ecological principles require substantial commitments and investments of human, technical, financial and other resources. To date, there are over 22 National Geographic Society (NGS) officially designated Geotourism destinations worldwide, of which 14 are in the United States. At the same time there are a number of others that are currently under development. Geotourism is housed within NGS’s Centre for

GEOTOURISM

Sustainable Destinations in which there are programme elements available for those who are interested in knowing more about what Geotourism is, and what may be required to successfully create interest to initiate; and the plan the development, implementation and on-going management of a Geotourism programme. The ability to have a reputable and proven framework recognised internationally such as NGS’s Geotourism Programme provides a unique opportunity to create quality standards and implementation mechanisms, in which to develop pragmatic goals and objectives down to the community or grassroots level with meaningful and positive outcomes over time. NGS’s programme as a framework and roadmap provides the opportunity to determine the unique attributes, strengths and weakness of regions that are interested in the development and implementation of Geotourism with responsible and sustainable or resilient outcomes, and how to overcome challenges along the way. With NGS’s Geotourism programme additional assets and services are available including: • NGS Branding, Marketing and Communications • Destination Management and Operations through NGS affiliates • NGS Sponsored Marketing The following outlines the process for developing a Geotourism initiative, including: toolkits, templates, and which in addition can also include support services as desired. • Define the geographical area in which to establish the Geotourism framework

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• Determine the principal founding partners • Execute the Geotourism Charter • Establish the Geotourism Stewardship Council • Develop Programme and Utilisation of NGS Geotourism Organisational, Planning, Implementation and Ongoing Operations approach. 1. Conduct Geotourism Assessment (assets, attributes, strengths, weaknesses and gaps) 2. NGS Co-Branded Online Interactive Geotourism MapGuide and Content Development 3. NGS Geotourism Mobile MapGuide 4. NGS Co-Branded printed/tablet and digital Destination Guide 5. Sponsored Marketing All of the above elements, with their value, purpose and sequencing as outlined are available and achievable. With the establishment of the Stewardship Council, local communities and other organisations can begin the development of specific Geotourism destinations, with the Council providing standards, review, guidance and certification that the destination has been certified to be included as part of the mobile MapGuide. Any geographical area has the opportunity to “overlay” NGS’s Geotourism programme as an internationally respected “brand” and, as a proven framework for socioeconomic, cultural and political efforts currently underway within that targeted area. Within that geographical area then individual Geotourism destinations can be developed. This is where most of the investment is made and the

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development of good content is most crucial. In South Africa, The Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme (STPP) has developed an approach that fits well with the overall objectives of the NGS Geotourism programme. With their reach and current impact, the STPP has the ability to identify their talent pool; and within that pool, identify key resources such as technical, planning and financial; and then develop the necessary collaborative arrangements based upon the tourism destination defined. STPP can add value at the community or local level towards the planning, design and implementation of programmes and projects that contribute to community empowerment and betterment under the Geotourism destination arrangement agreed upon. As an example, this is reflected through their Magaliesburg Development Initiative (MDI), [discussed in Chapter 12 of this handbook] currently underway. The MDI is a collaborative initiative between Ranyaka Investment Management Company and the STPP. There are already many success stories out there that illustrate the opportunity to implement NGS’s Geotourism programme modestly to begin with; again possibly with the MDI as an initial foundation. This belief is premised on having worked and continuing to work in various capacities in the deployment of NGS’s Geotourism programme within a region of California that included Yosemite National Park a World Heritage Site; as well as the Kings and Sequoia National Parks Region of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the many underserved and economically challenged communities.


PROFILE

HOTEL VERDE: AFRICA’S GREENEST HOTEL FROM THE GROUND UP “We have a responsibility as a company, as an employer and as a visitor on this planet to live as sustainably as possible. This is the only way we can survive long-term and hand over to our children in a responsible manner.” The team at Hotel Verde have gone to the greatest extent yet seen on the continent – sustainable practices are a priority and Hotel Verde’s goal is to reduce waste to zero. The hotel boasts some of the world’s most advanced environmentally conscious and technological installations in the world and guests are reminded of their responsibility to the earth from the minute the hotel is in sight. These features listed below assist in achieving a very ambitios goal of zero waste to landfill as well as eductating each guest or visitor that sustainable living is not so far-reaching.

Wind Turbines

The three 3kW wind turbines are imported from Germany, while the masts are locally manufactured. Together they stand 17m above the ground reaching the maximum height allowed in the airport precinct. The turbines have a vertical axis for quiet running, low maintenance and are easy to assemble. Due to the little or no radar disturbance, they have also been approved by Air Traffic Navigational Services. The wind turbines make use of a free renewable resource, often in the form of the Cape’s notorious South Easter, to contribute up to 9 kW towards equating to an estimated 7,700kWh each year.

Photovoltaic Panels

Photovoltaic panels along the north façade of the building as well as on the roof are able to produce 54kWh. This energy is fed firstly to charge our UPS battery, then to essential appliances and hardware and lastly the excess goes to wherever needed within the hotel to offset power from the grid. The panels are positioned to assist with shading the windows while being in optimum position to receive maximum sunlight.

Eco Pool

Surrounded by a beautiful wooden deck and situated in the rejuvenated Hotel Verde wetlands, the Eco Pool

Retention Pond

Hotel Verde has invested in a wetland adjacent to its property to offer its guests a scenic outside area for their enjoyment and relaxation. The features include a 240m jogging trail around a retention pond, an outside gym area and a pathway leading through a specially created garden of indigenous plants. Plants were carefully selected to encourage increased rehabilitation of the area such as birdlife and amphibians.

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PROFILE

Gardens

The flat concrete roof over the reception and lobby area is covered by a vegetated roof garden. Additionally to being aesthetically pleasing the vegetation creates a habitat for birdlife, encourages biodiversity and photosynthesis, and thermally cools the areas below through insulation and absorption. Hotel Verde has installed a vertical aquaponic system to minimise space use whilst maximising production of vegetables and herbs. The cyclical system of fish and plants involves the breaking down of the fish waste into nitrates, off which the plants will feed, and in turn the plants clean the water for the fish. The system is fed by a timed pump system to ensure that the plants get regular and sufficient water, without wasting unnecessary energy. Depending on season and demand, we grow small edible plants such celery, pansies, spinach, chives, watercress, basil, butter sage, lettuce, mint and parsley. The hotels bar and foyer is divided by a strikingly beautiful â&#x20AC;&#x153;living wallâ&#x20AC;?. This wall, which consists of indoor plants, also helps to clean the interior air.

Lighting

The hotel uses energy efficient LED light bulbs throughout. This is supported by a range of control types. The first being motion sensors. All public areas have motion-sensors that activate the lights. Upon no further motion, the lights will switch off after a timed period of 15 minutes. The second activator is a light level sensor. This measures the amount of light received (such as natural light form windows) and dims or brightens the output of the lights to ensure that only the required amount of light is given out at any given point

Green Conferencing

The hotel has 7 conferences and meeting rooms, accommodating up to 120 delegates, all with natural light and double-glazed windows with spectrally selective glass that filters out hot rays and noise. The use of LCD screens and electronic systems alleviates the need for using paper, and whilst notebooks are available (with recycled pencils), their use is not encouraged.

Pontos Grey Water Plant

The largest water saving initiative implemented in the design of the hotel is the grey water recycling plant. Water from the showers and bath tubs as well as condensate from the HVAC fan coil units is drained to a state of the art grey water recycling plant where it is filtered and sterilized. The processed grey water is then reticulated throughout the hotel and used for the flushing of all the toilets.

Water Tank

The next most significant measure introduced in the design to save water is the rainwater harvesting and subsoil water drainage use. The rainwater from approximately three quarters of the roof is captured and passed through a filter before being channelled to an impressive 40,000 litre stainless steel tank in the basement of the building. The basement extends below

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PROFILE the water table and so all water that would otherwise want to migrate into the basement is filtered and collected in sumps before it also is pumped into the 40,000 litre tank. The water from the tank is then used for outdoor uses such as irrigation, car washing and the cleaning of hardscapes.

Cobiax Void Formers

In order to dramatically reduce the amount of concrete required for Hotel Verde, Cobiax void formers – recycled plastic balls placed strategically within the concrete slabs were used They displace the concrete, saving approximately 535 m3 or 1284 ton while maintaining the structural integrity.

Geo-thermal Heating and Cooling System

The hotel boasts a sophisticated and innovative HVAC system unique to the country that uses geothermal ground loops and heat pumps to save large amounts of energy in the heating and cooling of both conditioned air and domestic hot water by using the earth as a thermal battery. The geothermal field was made by drilling 100 holes, about 65 meters deep, into the ground. A complex network of piping, 13 kilometers in length, and equipment, specifically designed for Hotel Verde uses the earth as a heat source in winter and “heat sink” in summer, boosting efficiency and dramatically reducing operational costs.

Gym

The fully equipped hotel gym is the first in Africa to have power-generating equipment. These machines feed power back into the hotel as you work out.

Rooms

Hotel Verde has an emphasis on providing a comfortable space for both leisure and business travelers. Of the 145 luxurious, contemporary-styled rooms, there are four room types available: standard, studio, executive, and an executive suite. There is also an option for inter-leading rooms for families – all elegantly furnished and decorated in the hotel colours, which include grey with purple and orange and green. Natural, fresh, optimum temperature airflow is fed into every room and will reduce the need to use the air conditioner. Guests are encouraged to embrace our greening philosophy and will be offered rewards called VERDINO’s for sustainable practices during their stay. Despite the fact that this is the first of its kind, the Hotel Verde team doesn’t want it to be a secret; they want to share their convictions with anyone who’ll listen. “We might have the slogan ‘Africa’s Greenest Hotel’ right now, but we hope it won’t be for long,”

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SUSTAINABLE EVENTS

15

SUSTAINABLE EVENTS INDUSTRY: Successes & failures

Author Janet Landey

Event tourism is a growing global phenomenon. All events have impacts on the economy, environment and society - playing an important role in communities. Events add to the quality of life for local residents and driving tourists to an area. Events provide an opportunity to showcase positive community brands and image to the media, business community and visitors and further create economic impact that translates into jobs, tax revenues and enhanced infrastructure improvements. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Community Capitalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (as it is referred to by IFEA Africa, International Festivals and Events Association Africa) is built as a direct outcome of events, e.g. through exposure of artists, local community programmes and experiences.

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E

vents include, but is not limited to, business meetings, exhibitions, festivals, enter tainment, government interventions and sports events. The event management process of planning, preparing and production creates opportunities for rich localised work integrated learning experience and job creation. The 2000 National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS1) provided the platform for a visionary skills development initiative. In 2002 the first learnership in Event Support was funded by The Business Trust working with THETA – the Tourism, Hospitality, & Sport Education and Training Authority. A sustainable curriculum was developed to upgrade service levels, build capacity and promote job creation in this field to generate increased economic revenues from events and event tourism. The skills based competencies were linked directly to internationally validated performance outcomes with wider opportunities for employment and career success (Silvers 2000). A group of 200 learners from across the Gauteng province participated in the year long programme that would took us into communities where we were privileged to participate in real community experiences. The possibilities for events based on local assets created wonderful opportunities, as well, traditional event and event tourism. There is often criticism on the ‘waste of money on events’ – and our response is – which part of the event

SUSTAINABLE EVENTS

value chain? The agro-ecology – from the Urban Farm in Bertrams, in the Inner City of Johannesburg to the large scale farmers, from the local community markets to the 2010 FIFA World Cup the growers, the pickers, the transport, the small and large food and beverage suppliers for events, the venues, the decorators, the event organisers, the event security, the event marketing, the recyclers...where is the waste? The South African events industry has the potential to create 876,785 jobs by simply planning, preparing and producing small events, based on local assets in local communities. There are 4,277 wards in South Africa. In each of these wards, a group of 205 youth – entry level and graduates could embark on a skills development journey, mentored, coached and support by local businesses and event industry experts. Our challenge would be to create and sustain a physical and virtual placemaking portfolio of harmonized places, flowing one from another, yielding cross-demand through the portfolio, generating new forms of revenue, driving sales of authentic commodities, goods services and experiences (Pine & Gilmore, 2007) that could maximise the multiplier effect and contribute towards poverty eradication. Policies like the amended BBBEE Act, the National Minimum Standard for Responsible Tourism, government commitment to procurement on 10 products from SME’s and Co-operatives,

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including Events all are in place to support enterprise development in the event value chain. However, the challenge remains this:

With the best will in the world, you can’t buy local and support small enterprises and co-operatives unless the competencies, capabilities and capacity to deliver are developed and quality standards maintained. This requires a commitment to sustainable skills development initiatives supported by industry and government. A number of event industry initiatives are under way with associations working with government departments on transformation, tourism, sustainability, health and safety and the professionalization of the event industry, including the formation of the Council of Event Professionals currently in process at South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA). The journey, over the last fourteen years has included over 1,000 learnerships in urban, ‘rurban’ and rural South Africa, with events touching the lives of many new entrants into the event industry. Evidence indicates that significant community development takes place only when local community people are committed to investing themselves and their resources in the effort. Each community boasts a unique combination of assets upon which to build its future”. (McKnight & Kretzmann, 1993) It is these natural and built assets - commodities extracted from the earth, goods made, services delivered

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- that come together in the planning, preparation and production of small, low profile events. Local communities create an “Experience Economy in which Work is Theatre and Every Business is a Stage” (Pine & Gillmore, 1999). One of the greatest benefits of events is social inclusion – and how the industry could turn eventing know-how into a collective vehicle for sustainable social and economic development solutions. This led to the start of Skills Village 2030 as a space where government, business and community could work together using events as the catalyst for change. Skills Village is a bridge builder between the traditional and new realities – the industry having pioneered and protected the South African event knowledge systems and solutions – understanding the diversity and complexity of the South African, and Africa client’s needs. This created an understanding of how cultural products could be developed by training and empowering practitioners for the benefit of our society. The Skills Village pilot has proved that a realistic business and community space can be created and provided the best opportunity for enterprise, the development of human capital and nation building. Events through this process can grow a dynamic cross-sector that can strategically enhance the economic benefits of the industry, advancing extended industries exponentially through a co-operative linkage system. The Skills Village model and framework are scalable and replicable – there are many individuals who have participated in in the one year training programmes who are successfully employed, or in their own enterprises


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Powerful events delivering powerful livelihoods

EXSA– the Exhibition Association of Southern Africa www.exsa.co.za IFEA Africa – International Festivals and Events Association Africa www.ifeaafrica.co.za SAACI– the Southern African Association for the Conference Industry www.saaci.co.za TPSA– Technical Production Services Association www.tpsa.co.za

From Australia “It is important to recognize, however, that the important tourism benefits of business events are only one type of outcome in addition to the key business events aim to produce. These broader based benefits are more enduring, substantial and significant than the tourism benefits. These broader based benefits align much more closely with the core motives for staging business events but are often more difficult to quantify than the tourism benefits.” (Jago & Deery, 2010)

Volunteer programme ICC Cricket World Cup

The volunteer programme for the ICC Cricket World Cup in 2003 made a valuable contribution not only to the successful delivery of this International Event, but also in showcasing the role that events play in creating a sense of belonging and equality. CEO’s and unemployed youth, dressed and working as equals, bonded and became firm friends. The printing and manufacturing of the backpack for each volunteer was done through community partnerships – putting government policy into practice.

able to sustain decent livelihoods. The visionary National Skills Development Strategy lll recognises the critical need for all stakeholders to work together: Academic Institutions, FET Colleges, the proposed Community Colleges, the Workplace Integrated Learning Experiences and Industry Certifications. The biggest challenge has been the lack of support for progression – if we really want to successfully unlock the potential of event tourism that benefits local communities, we need a four year plan, supported by Skills Development, that will take individuals through the different skill levels - Support, Coordinate, Manage, Direct. This should apply to the event organiser, the destination manager, the cleaner or the caterer, hiring décor or hiring transport, the Concierge in a five star hotel or the Community Concierge. The collective event industry can turn its eventing expertise into catalytic value for clients, for partners, for communities – delivering the best experiences, getting the job done right and making a different to the event practitioner’s lives that it empowers in the process.

SUSTAINABLE EVENTS

Every person in South Africa should volunteer on a programme like this – it changed my life. - feedback from a Volunteer -

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In the heart of Big 5 malaria-free Madikwe Game Reserve on the northern border of South Africa, lies Tau Game Lodge, an oasis of tranquillity and hospitality, where you can relax, revitalise and rejuvenate your body, mind and soul in uniquely African surroundings. Overlooking a natural waterhole, the thirty luxury chalets offer excellent views of animals approaching from the opposite bank all day long. Add to that the luxurious Tau Spa Oasis and a fully equipped Convention Centre, as well as the Tau Cubz Club, and you have the ideal corporate or family destination in the serenity of the untouched bush and wildlife. Madikwe Game Reserve has the distinction of being one of the few game reserves in the world to be proclaimed purely on the grounds of being the most appropriate and sustainable land use for an area, run as a joint venture between the state, the private sector and local communities, thus involving the local communities directly in the benefits of wildlife tourism and the protection of the natural environment. Madikwe boasts year-round game viewing and is one of the few reserves where one can view a wide variety of fauna from the Big 5 to Spotted and Brown Hyena, the endangered Wild Dog, not to mention a bird population of over 250 different species.

In addition university sponsorships are granted to students who show academic potential. After the great success of the Tau Tree Fund, started to allow visitors our guests an opportunity to plant protected tree species and to learn a little about the trees that they are planting, thereby playing an active role in conservation through the re-establishment of trees into the lodge area, where they were originally cleared out many years ago to build the lodge, we have begun greening the local village of Supingstad one tree at a time. Through actively recycling glass, cans and plastic, Tau is also able to support the Mmasebudule Recycling Company, and as an extension of the Mmasebedule community project the task of supplying trees to lodges in the Madikwe Reserve was initiated, to teach the community to collect seeds and germinate indigenous trees for resale both within and outside of the game reserve. This project has already gained significant success, which has obtained valuable funds to be used within the greater scheme of the waste management solution, not to mention the benefit of planting over 300 trees in otherwise barren areas of the game reserve.

At the current rate of poaching, fuelled mainly by a magnanimous demand from the Asian traditional medicine trade, the Rhinoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s situation is deemed to be dire. Over the past 6 years rhino poaching statistics have worsened dramatically, to the point of a current crisis situation. In October 2012 Tau was one of the 1st companies to support the Rhinose Foundation by making the Rhinose available in our curio shop and by fitting each of our game drive vehicles with its own Rhinose. In 2013 Tau has chosen to express how committed we are to continued support of this worthy cause by becoming a formal sponsor of the Rhinose project. In line with the philosophy behind the creation of the Madikwe Reserve, The Tau Foundation was set up with an eye to funding community development. This social responsibility programme is delivering tangible results, including the fencing and safe keeping of the school properties and upgrading of the school sports fields and play grounds, as well as the renovation of school buildings and facilities, setting up of vegetable gardens, computer rooms, creating a borehole and installing guttering and water tanks and toilets with running water at the high school.

For any additional information, please feel free to contact us on +27 11 466 8715 or taugame@mweb.co.za Alternatively, please view our website: www.taugamelodge.co.za THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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EVENT GREENING

Author NIiki Glen

As Reana Rossouw discusses in chapter 11, each industry presents its own minefield of regulation and it is hard to make sense of the acronyms its alphabet soup. The events industry is no different. This chapter aims to move away from the regulation and the rules to just highlight a few good reasons why we need to start greening our events and how we could go about this.

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I

n line with the Definition of Responsible Tourism in SANS 1162:2011,i.e. that it is a “tourism management strategy in which the tourism sector and tourists take responsibility to protect and conserve the natural environment, respect and conserve local cultures and ways of life, and contribute to stronger local economies and a better quality of life for local people”, ‘Sustainable Events’ imply that responsible practices, which reduce social and environmental impacts, are incorporated into the planning and execution of all phases of events. Businesses, individuals, governments and interest groups use events to celebrate, communicate, share information, strategize and plan (Bowdin, et al.2011. ) An event is the gathering of people who share common interests. Events are short term in nature and made up of number of activities which would not occur during a normal day and can take the shape of: • A ceremony, for example, a presidential inauguration or a wedding; • A work shop; • A conference; • An EXPO; • An art exhibition; • A festival, for example, a sustainable living festival; • A media event or a product launch that requires the attendance of media crews; • A year end function at the office; • A sporting event.

GREENING EVENTS

The planet is in distress and all of the attention is on Paris Hilton.

- Al Gore

Generally, an event results in the requirements for vast quantities of resources e.g. water, energy, printed media, marketing materials, food and beverages as well as producing high volumes of waste. In addition, an event which requires attendees to travel long distances to attend also result in the production of greenhouse gasses. Today, the inclusion of a sustainability policy is standard practice to bid for events. The London Olympics of 2012 is an example where large scale investment was made to ascertain minimized environmental and social impact of the event. For the smaller accommodation and SMME sector, events can create opportunities to implement and show case sustainable best practice at a large scale. In South Africa, we missed a great opportunity to do so during the 2010 FIFA World Cup, as there were little if any guidelines provided in relation to sustainability requirements for events and tourism suppliers.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF EVENTS

Events can have devastating and often long-lasting effects on the environment, eco-systems, natural resources and people. There are many factors which can influence the impact of an event (Raj & Musgrave, 2009). Here are some examples:

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• The type of event (e.g. wedding vs a large sporting event); • Location of the event and whether it takes place at a single location a number of locations simultaneously; • The event duration; • Seasonality of the event; • Travel requirements to and from the event; • Catering requirements of the event; • The types of goods and services provided for / at the event Environmental and social impacts as a result of event may occur before the event, during the event and after the event. By changing the way we run events, we not only reduce negative impacts, but we also save on costs and help us to market ourselves better to our clients – whether the conscious consumer or the business with a sustainability policy of its own (DEFRA, 2007). Key focus areas of green event planning include: • Water: Consider requirements for drinking, washing, watering lawns, showering and event related activities and how we can reduce wasting water or polluting water resources; • Waste Water: Ensure the correct disposal and management of grey water and black water to eliminate negative health impacts and negative environmental impacts; • Waste and resource use: How much waste (volumes or numbers of items) and what types produced as a result of the event, and how can we reduce, re-use or recycle? • Energy: How much energy are we going to consume, and could we

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look at alternative forms of energy use or significantly reducing energy requirements? • Key Purchases: What types of goods and services are required during the event and where they are produced / purchased from; • Transport: Modes of transport to and from the event that will be used and alternative forms of transport for large groups; • Employment: Who do us employ during the event and what happens to these people after the event? • Permanent and temporar y structures: Permanent or temporary buildings which need to be constructed, upgraded or retrofitted can have negative impacts on the environment, especially if things are rushed along; It is critical to identify impacts which are within the control of the event manager and impacts which are outside the control of the event manager. Where impacts are outside of the control of the events manager, possible areas of influence through relationship building with suppliers and other stakeholders must be found.

Thinking like ethical people, dressing like ethical people, decorating our homes like ethical people makes not a damn of difference unless we also behave like ethical people.

GREENING EVENTS

-George Monbiot


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BENEFITS OF A GREEN EVENT Environmental Impact By reducing the amount of electricity we use during events, we are directly reducing water and air pollution. By reducing the amount of paper and other waste materials we use, we reduce energy consumption, water consumption, carbon footprint and the need for deforestation.

Consumer Choices

People are starting to realize that the events they attend come with an ecological impact. Consumers are deciding whether or not they use a company based on their environmental standpoint, which is often reflected in their brand, behaviour and events.

It Makes Good Business Sense

By saving on event resources (paper, gifts, electricity, water, etc) we can reduce our overheads and reduce our costs. By reducing the amount of waste that comes into events, we reduce the amount that goes out. This has a direct cost saving impact. In addition, events that adopt environmental and sustainability practices and policies will be aligning themselves for increased business opportunities and attract better sponsorships.

Green Procurement

Consumers, business owners and establishment owners are starting to be more aware of the environmental and social impact of their purchasing

GREENING EVENTS

choices. Why should this be different for an event? By being particular about the types of goods and services we procure for an event, we create opportunities to educate our markets and add value to their own lives, which in turn will make the events / venues more popular.

Re-Evaluate and Re-Invent Event Practices

Through integrating sustainable practices into your event you have an opportunity to innovate in order to find new ways of doing things. Event greening gives you a chance to evaluate the way things have always been done, and re-think your practices, re-evaluate your policies, re-design your marketing efforts and re-fresh your offering.

Comply with Government Regulations

Event Greening helps you to be compliant with laws and regulations e.g. environmental laws (Waste, Water, Pollution); the new Companies Act, King III and the CPA which call for ethical and responsible business practices and accountability. This does not only apply to day-to-day operations, but also to events which businesses sponsor, support and arrange. Sponsors are not always aware of the environmental impact of events. It is up to the Events Management team to convince the client / sponsor of the positive impacts of event greening. It is recommended that sponsorship for event is first sought from businesses that have strong environmental policies and who are transparent in their sustainability practices.

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GREENING EVENTS

The global environment crisis is, • Use lightweight stands and equipment which will reduce the as we say in Tennessee, real as rain, and I cannot stand the thought emissions from transport. of leaving my children with a • Electronic media is preferable to degraded earth and a diminished physical media, e.g. billboards, future. posters and banners. -Al Gore

GREEN EVENT IDEAS

The following section provides some ideas of how to green your event.

Dress Codes

Dress codes must be appropriate for the venue’s climatic conditions inside or outside. Communicate this to your delegates. This will reduce the need to consume energy through the use of air-conditioners or heaters. This information should be communicated in the pre-event marketing and invitations. • For warm venues, suggest to attendees / delegates that they dress down (e.g. avoid suits and ties and allow short sleeve shirts). This will reduce the need to cool the venue down and conserve energy. • In cooler climates, it is suggested that attendees / delegates wear warmer clothes, which will reduce the need for e.g. gas heating or air-conditioning.

Exhibitions

• Provide green guidelines to exhibitors, which include energy and water conservation, waste management, green tips, procurement policies etc. Make it a requirement for exhibitors to display their own environmental initiatives.

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• Billboards, posters and banners should be re-usable and made from recycled / biodegradable fabrics and organic inks. • Instead of having marketing materials printed, consider getting a local artist / stenographer to hand make materials – especially those that are re-usable. • Ensure that waste stations with collection bins, colour-coded and / or labelled is provided at points which are easily accessible for attendees / delegates. Waste stations should include provision for recycling of paper, tin, glass and plastic, wet waste and other waste. • Communicate information about waste stations as part of the marketing materials and information packs. • Bring only what is needed to the event and take away what they do not give out. Find institutions that will be able to use left-over materials, e.g. schools. Alternatively, design materials to be generic and re-usable at future events. Collect what is not used and hand out at the next event. • Gifts, hand-outs and information brochures should be kept to a minimum. Source from empowerment projects, use recycled paper and materials which will biodegrade quickly.


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• Request that the display booths be created using recycled, reusable material.

Communications, Marketing and Registration • • Request compliance to your standards from all parties involved: management, suppliers, participants, presenters, and exhibitors. • Use the electronic media, the internet and e-mail to promote your event. • Use electronic registration and publish the conference agenda online. Request that it is only printed if absolutely essential. • When hard copy material is necessary, print on both sides and use organic / non-chemical inks and recycled, eco-friendly paper. • Ask presenters to minimize paper hand-outs. • Distribute speaker’s notes and presentations electronically after the event.

Event Location and Venue

Where possible, and where the Event Planner has input, select a destination which has already started implementing sustainable principles. This will facilitate a smoother event greening process including mind shift changes as well as resource planning. • Does the venue / location have a sustainability policy and are they adhering to it? • Is the venue / location willing to comply to your event greening requirements? • Has the venue / location adopted energy and water conversation, waste management, corporate social investment programmers and

• •

GREENING EVENTS

do they have a green supplier data base? Has the venue / location achieved any environmental or sustainable certifications? Is the venue /location in close proximity to public transport systems and do they have relationships with mass transport companies? Do they have schedules available and have they used these during previous events? Are attractions in close proximity to the event accessible by foot? In the case of international events, or event which require inter-city transport, is the venue situated in close proximity to Major Airline Routes which will require fewer flights for attendees? For international events, can parts of the event be performed via Webinar?

Event Accommodations

There are many sustainable accommodation certifications across the world, and ideally, a green event should provide green accommodation to their attendees. If an accommodation establishment in close proximity to the event has no green credentials, consider accommodation further away, weighing up the impact of transport requirements which this will create. Some aspects to look out for when choosing accommodation suppliers include: • Is the accommodation establishment within walking distance from the venue? • Request the accommodation establishment’s internal sustainability credentials – as a minimum, this should include energy and

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• water conservation measures, waste management and green procurement. It may also include aspects such as corporate social investment programmes which they support, local employment, paper reduction policies and other innovative measures.

Food, Beverages and Catering

• Ensure that all catering supplies such as sweeteners, condiments, beverages, and other food items are provided in bulk instead of individually packaged. • Water should be available in jugs (e.g. in cases of board-room style conferences) or in Water Dispensers. Cups provided at dispensers should be made of eco-friendly biodegradable or recyclable materials. • Packaging materials for food and beverages should be eco-friendly, reusable, made of recyclable materials, or avoided entirely (e.g. a re-usable coffee mug or water bottle will go a long way if appropriate for the event). • Design menus so that locally produced and seasonal ingredients may be used as far as possible. Ask your supplier to buy local produce in season to avoid costly transportation of goods. Adhere to recommendations such as provided by the Fair Trade Foods, Slow Food, Organic certifiers and offer organic coffees and teas, organic juices, and other food items. Request organic produce and free range chicken, eggs and meats and ensure that fish

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served meet WWF SASSI Green Fish Guidelines. Find catering companies that use alternative and low energy cooking methods for food preparation, e.g. gas, solar cooking, wonder bags etc. Prioritize raw uncooked food or cold foods over warm foods. Also look at foods which require less refrigeration or cooking time. It is prudent to let delegates select meals from menus before their arrival, so that catering can be done accordingly and wastage can be minimized / eliminated. Allow delegates to pre-book of meal tickets prior to arrival to the event. This will allow for better meal planning and reduce food waste and your costs. Have untouched food donated to a local food bank or soup kitchen. Ask that leftover food be composted or shipped to a local farm as livestock feed. Use reusable cutlery, dishware, and linens or alternatively use recyclable materials / items made from recycled materials. Re-assess table and venue décor…. less is more. The theme needs to reflect your environmental policies: décor from recycled material, is re-usable or produced through empowerment programmes are preferable.

MCs, Speakers and VIPs

• If your event is a green event, MCs, Speakers and VIP must be green ambassadors and green celebrities who are transparent in their green practices.


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Technical , Entertainment and Activities As many activities and Entertainment utilises energy, it is important to find supplier who have environmental policies and who have implemented energy saving Find suppliers who use energy efficient equipment e.g. • LED lighting for spotlights and other lighting requirements • Live music vs electronic music, drumming and traditional music vs recorded music • Energy efficient equipment such as amplifiers, projectors, generators (are there options to use solar power or other renewable energy sources in cases where energy needs to be provided for the event)

GREENING EVENTS

• Give preference to transportation companies that have implemented emissions reduction measures in their vehicles, use electric and hybrid powered vehicles or can provide bicycles. Vehicles using natural gas, propane, methane gas, and ethanol are good options. • Establish a carbon-neutral initiative to counteract the CO2 emissions from your event.

Transportation

• Choose a destination with minimal travel requirements for participants. • Have those who cannot travel attend virtually by using new technology. • Arrangements should be made with green transport providers and preferential rates negotiated for event goers. • One of the most significant environmental impacts of your meeting will result from how you move people around and how far they travel. • Communicate to the attendees the environmentally preferable transportation choices for getting to their destination. Commuter trains and other mass transit systems are preferable to car and air travel. • Make it easy for guests to get to the airport from the meeting venue. Provide information about the local public transit system or arrange for carpooling shuttles.

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East African’s premier Travel Market organized by the Tanzania Association of Tour Operators (TATO) attracts buyers from all over the world. It is the ideal platform showcasing diverse local and regional tourism products. Participants exchange ideas, build alliances, network locally, regionally and internationally. It attracts hundreds of exhibitors, delegates and thousands of visitors. The event is well covered by local, regional and international media. 2014 Event - Bigger & Better KARIBU Travel Market Tanzania 2014 has a superb, secure, new and more convenient venue in beautiful settings with ideally designed, new exhibition tents. Exhibitors include regional in-bound tour operators, tourist boards, camping and safari companies, wildlife lodges and hotels, local and regional airlines as well as equipment manufactures & services, supporting the travel and tourism trade. It represents a major business platform and contracting opportunity for long established businesses in Tanzania and across East Africa - reflecting ongoing growth in the industry on the global and domestic scene. Delegates enjoy the benefit of exclusive access on the ‘Trade Only Day,’ which also includes a private, corporate cocktail party on the commencing date - Friday, 6th June 2014. Visitors are welcome for the remaining two days (7th-8th June), which are open to the general public. Famous for its social atmosphere attracting both the tourism community as well as the general public whose spending power and word of mouth play an important part in the growth of tourism. Registration is online with simple instructions provided on our official website’s booking form. Early registration assures many benefits. Please check our official websites for details.

Contacts: KARIBU Travel Market Tanzania Tel: +255 27 254 5633 G Fax: +255 27 254 5633 Email: marketing@kaributravelmarkettanzania.com -OR- marketing@karibufair.com Website: www.kaributravelmarkettanzania.com / www.karibufair.com THE TOURISM HANDBOOK 125


PROFILE fastjet fastjet is Africa’s newest low-cost airline based in Tanzania. In just 14 months fastjet have established flights to Mwanza, Mbeya, Kilimanjaro, Zanzibar, Johannesburg and Lusaka, flying over 500,000 passengers and achieving an average on time performance of 95%. With strong Tanzanian based offline and online marketing campaigns fastjet is ranked 2rd most recognized airline brand in Tanzania and is Africa’s most liked airline on the web. fastjet’s vision is to become a pan-African airline delivering the same services that exist in the European aviation industry to Africa. Fastjet was established initially through the acquisition of Fly540, an airline already operating in East Africa. The inaugural flights as fastjet took place 29th November 2012 and has gone on to grow steadily across domestic and international routes. fastjet attributes its successes so far to its excellent reliability, punctuality and safety record, which is far superior to its nearest competitors and above the industry average. Its success is also due to its ability to drive efficient operational processes that enables the company to drive down costs and offer the lowest fares in the market. This has helped stimulate demand through affordability of airfares. 38% of fastjet passengers had never flown before fastjet entered the market. Customers describe fastjet as a modern, progressive, fun, young company that’s great value for money, affordable, excellent level of customer service, flexible, reliable and accessible. 9 out of 10 fastjet passengers would recommend to a friend and fly fastjet again. Over 90% of fastjet customers are extremely satisfied with the service offered and the remaining 10% are either very satisfied or satisfied with the service offered.

We have now safely and swiftly flown half a million passengers across South and East Africa! Recently we surprised our 500,000th passenger with a dinner for two at Hyatt Regency, Kilimanjaro Hotel. Isaya Phillip, a frequent fastjet flyer who was flying yesterday afternoon from Mbeya to Dar es Salaam, was our lucky winning passenger. Congratulations to him and we hope he enjoys his prize.

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PROFILE

BOOK ONLINE TODAY ON WWW.FASTJET.COM AND IT WON’T BE LONG UNTIL WE HIT OUR NEXT MILESTONE!

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Bastakis, C., Buhalis, D., & Butler, R. (2004). The perception of small and medium sized tourism accommodation providers on the impacts of the tour operators’ power in Eastern Mediterranean. Tourism Management. Bowdin, G., Allen, J., Harris, R., & et. al. (2011). Events Managment 3rd Edition. Great Brittian: Elsevier. Convention Industry Council. (n.d.). The Economic Significance of Meetings to the U.S. Economy. Retrieved from http://www.conventionindustry. org/researchinfo/economicsignificancestudy/ESSExecSummary.aspx DEFRA. (2007). Sustainable Events Guide. London: Department of Environmental and Rural Affairs. (n.d.). Delivering Innovation, Knowledge and Performance. The Role of Business Events. Retrieved from http://www.aacb.org.au/files/ The_Role_of_Business_Events_BECA.pdf FTTSA. (2011). Certification Strategy Document. Pretoria: Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa. Retrieved from http://www.fairtourismsa.org.za/ Glancey, K., & Pettigrew, M. (1997). Entrepreneurship in the small hotel sector. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 9 (1), 21 - 24. Goodwin, H. (2011). Taking Responsibility for Tourism. Oxford [U.K.] : Goodfellow Publishers. Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2010). Delivering Innovation, Knowledge and Performance : The Role of Business Events. Business Events Coucil of Australia. Retrieved from Business Events Council Australia. Kaspersky. (2013, April 17). Business Day. Kelliher, F., Foley, A., & Frampton, A.-M. (2009). Facilitating Small Firm Learning Networks in the Irish Tourism Sector. Tourism and Hospitality Research. Law, R., & Ng, C. (2011, January). Marketing Strategies for Small Hotels: The Case of Cheung Chau in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 16(1), 21 - 38. Law, R., Candy, & NG. (2011, January). Marketing Strategies for Small Hotels: The Case of Cheung Chau in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 16(1), 21 - 38. McKnight, J. L., & Kretzmann, J. P. (1993). Building Communities from the Inside Out : A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community’s Assets. International Institute for Policy Research. Montoro-Sa´ncheza, M. A., Mas-Verdu, F., & Soriano, D. R. (2008, January 1). Different ways of measuring performance in the service industries: application in Spanish small and medium-sized hotels. The Service Industries Journal, 27–36. Oxford Economics. (n.d.). Economic Impact of the UK Exhibitions Industry study (EIS). Retrieved from Face Time: http://www.facetime.org.uk/ files/economic_impact_study_preview.pdf Pearce, F. (2008). Confessions of an Eco Sinner. UK. Pine, J. B., & Gillmore, J. H. (1999). The Experience Economy : Work is Theatre & Every Business A Stage. Pine, J. B., & Gilmore, J. H. (2007). Authenticity: What Consumers Really Want. Harvard Business School Press. Raj, R., & Musgrave, J. (2009). Events Management and Sustainability. Wallingford: CAB International. Rushmore, J. (2102). TripAdvisor Travel survey. . Retrieved from www.tripadvisor.com Scotland The Perfect Stage. A strategy for the events industry in Scotland 2009 to 2020. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.eventscotland. org/assets/show/3465 Sherry, S. (2013). Most of Africa ‘not positive’ about growing genetically modified crops. Business Day. Statssa. (2012). Statistical Release P6411 on Accommodation Industry. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. Thomas, R. (2004). International Perspectives on Small Firms. In P. S. Page, Advances in Tourism Research. University of Stirling, UK. Tourism, S. A. (2008). The Marketing Tourism Growth Strategy for South Africa 2008 to 2010. Sandton: South African Tourism. Retrieved from http://www.southafrica.net/uploads/legacy/1/287886/The%20Marketing%20TGS%202008%20to%202010_v2_30042008..pdf TUI Travel Sustainability Survey. (2010). Retrieved from TUI Travel: www.tuitravelplc.com UNWTO. (2012, December 12). International tourism hits one billion. Madrid: UNWTO. Retrieved December 26 , 2012, from http://media.unwto. org/en/press-release/2012-12-12/international-tourism-hits-one-billion Vial, J. D. (2013, January 18). The Meadows Center for Water and the Environment Facebook Page. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/ MeadowsCenterforWaterandtheEnvironment/posts/115539111955745 Wood, M. E. (2007). The role of sustainable tourism in international development: prospects for economic growth, alleviation of poverty and environmental conservation. In J. Higham, Critical Issues in Ecotourism: Understanding a complex tourism phenomenon (pp. 158 - 184). Oxford: Elsevier.


INDEX OF ADVERTISERS C O M PA N Y BASF Dream Safari

PA G E 68-69 98

Durban Green Corridor

18-21

Eningu Clayhouse Lodge

36-37

FastJet Future Light Hiuane Abacar Hostex

124-125 58 8; IBC 75

Hotel Verde

84; 105-107

Inverdoorn

46

Karibu Travel Trade Fair Kenneth Kuanda District Municipality Kleen Health Mbalageti Safari Camp Moholoholo

122-123 14-15 92 76-77 IFC; 28-29

Nedbank

2

Sani Valley

54

Tau Game Lodge The Capston Times Square Viva Safaris Zan Air

112-113 62 100-101 50 4 THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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ISLANDS AND BEACHES

A PERFECT BLEND OF ISLAND GEMS

AND SLEEPY LAGOONS M

ozambique’s dazzling and seemingly endless 2,600 km coastline is just waiting to be discovered; a coastline of powder-white beaches, sleepy lagoons, exquisite islands and near-deserted archipelagos. It all adds up to a heavenly melange – one of Africa’s truly awesome destinations.

or two, the shores are uncrowded, the sand and shells untouched and the turquoise water warm and inviting. Populated here and there by small, stylish resorts seemingly at one with their surroundings, the Mozambique coast attracts those travellers eager to try some outstanding fishing and world-class diving; those

Still largely undiscovered, Mozambique attracts the discerning few rather than the many. This is a destination where, save for a fisherman

and dunes, kite surfing and snorkelling; and those who just want to relax and unwind. Here, the food, the sunshine, the landscape and the genuine culture treat guests to a state of pure bliss for their entire stay. rious top-end properties are located on its delightful archipelagos. The best known and most visited of these archipelagos are the Bazaruto and the Quirimbas, also proclaimed national marine reserves.

GATEWAY The Bazaruto lies opposite the gateway resort town of Vilanculos for visitors arriving from within Mozambique and S

It

comprises four main islands: Bazaruto, Benguerra, Magaruque and Santa Carolina. Further north, right at the tip, you’ll find the Quirimbas, a cluster of 30 or so islands with Pemba city as its gateway for visitors arriving

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THE TOURISM HANDBOOK


from within Mozambique itself and also from South Africa, Tanzania and K are becoming famous for their unique culture as well as their untouched and unexplored marine treasures.

RETREAT For those who love Mozambique – and there are many – and who want a more permanent relationship with the country, there are opportunities to invest in building a hotel or buying a beach-front villa, or part of a villa, even on a private island. Vilanculos, with its good air links to Johannesburg and Maputo, is especially popular with those seeking to buy such an away-from-it-all retreat.

INTERESTING FACT:

Mozambique has some of the world’s largest reserves of rubies and emeralds.

THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

The Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Handbook Vol 2 - Alive2green  

www.alive2green.com

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